Science.gov

Sample records for a-train satellite observations

  1. Small Earth Observing Satellites Flying with Large Satellites in the A-Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Loverro, Adam; Case, Warren F.; Queruel, Nadege; Marechal, Chistophe; Barroso, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This paper/poster presents a real-life example of the benefits of flying small satellites with other satellites, large or small, and vice versa. Typically, most small satellites fly payloads consisting of one or two instruments and fly in orbits that are independent from that of other satellites. The science data from these satellites are either used in isolation or correlated with instrument data from other satellites. Data correlation with other satellites is greatly improved when the measurements of the same point or air mass are taken at approximately the same time. Scientists worldwide are beginning to take advantage of the opportunities for improved data correlation, or coincidental science, offered by the international Earth Observing Constellation known as the A-Train (sometimes referred to as the Afternoon Constellation). Most of the A-Train satellites are small - the A-Train is anchored by two large NASA satellites (EOS-Aqua and EOS-Aura), but consists also of 5 small satellites (CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, OCO and Glory these last two will join in 2009). By flying in a constellation, each mission benefits from coincidental observations from instruments on the other satellites in the constellation. Essentially, from a data point of view, the A-Train can be envisioned as a single, virtual science platform with multiple instruments. Satellites in the A-Train fly at 705 km in sun-synchronous orbits. Their mean local times at the equator are within seconds to a few minutes of each other. This paper describes the challenges of operating an international constellation of independent satellites from the U.S. and Europe to maximize the coincidental science opportunities while at the same time minimizing the level of operational interactions required between team members. The A-Train mission teams have been able to demonstrate that flying as members of an international constellation does not take away the flexibility to accommodate new requirements. Specific

  2. Small Earth Observing Satellites Flying with Large Satellites in the A-Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Loverro, Adam; Case, Warren F.; Queruel, Nadege; Marechal, Chistophe; Barroso, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This paper/poster presents a real-life example of the benefits of flying small satellites with other satellites, large or small, and vice versa. Typically, most small satellites fly payloads consisting of one or two instruments and fly in orbits that are independent from that of other satellites. The science data from these satellites are either used in isolation or correlated with instrument data from other satellites. Data correlation with other satellites is greatly improved when the measurements of the same point or air mass are taken at approximately the same time. Scientists worldwide are beginning to take advantage of the opportunities for improved data correlation, or coincidental science, offered by the international Earth Observing Constellation known as the A-Train (sometimes referred to as the Afternoon Constellation). Most of the A-Train satellites are small - the A-Train is anchored by two large NASA satellites (EOS-Aqua and EOS-Aura), but consists also of 5 small satellites (CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, OCO and Glory these last two will join in 2009). By flying in a constellation, each mission benefits from coincidental observations from instruments on the other satellites in the constellation. Essentially, from a data point of view, the A-Train can be envisioned as a single, virtual science platform with multiple instruments. Satellites in the A-Train fly at 705 km in sun-synchronous orbits. Their mean local times at the equator are within seconds to a few minutes of each other. This paper describes the challenges of operating an international constellation of independent satellites from the U.S. and Europe to maximize the coincidental science opportunities while at the same time minimizing the level of operational interactions required between team members. The A-Train mission teams have been able to demonstrate that flying as members of an international constellation does not take away the flexibility to accommodate new requirements. Specific

  3. A-Train Satellite Observations of Recent Explosive Eruptions in Iceland and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Yang, K.; Prata, A. J.

    2012-04-01

    The past few years have seen remarkable levels of explosive volcanic activity in Iceland and Chile, with four significant eruptions at Chaitén (May 2008), Eyjafjallajökull (April 2010), Grimsvötn (May 2011) and Cordón Caulle (June 2011 - ongoing). The tremendous disruption and economic impact of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption is well known, but each of these events had a significant impact on aviation, sometimes at great distances from the volcano. As of late 2011, volcanic ash from Cordón Caulle was still affecting airports in southern South America, highlighting the potential for extended disruption during long-lived eruptions. Serendipitously, this period of elevated volcanic activity has coincided with an era of unprecedented availability of satellite remote sensing data pertinent to volcanic cloud studies. In particular, NASA's A-Train satellite constellation (including the Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, and Aura satellites) has been flying in formation since 2006, providing synergistic, multi- and hyper-spectral, passive and active observations. Measurements made by A-Train sensors include total column sulfur dioxide (SO2) by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, upper tropospheric and stratospheric (UTLS) SO2 column by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura, ash mass loading from AIRS and the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua, UTLS HCl columns and ice water content (IWC) from MLS, aerosol vertical profiles from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument aboard CALIPSO, and hydrometeor profiles from the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) on CloudSat. The active vertical profiling capability of CALIPSO, CloudSat and MLS sychronized with synoptic passive sensing of trace gases and aerosols by OMI, AIRS and MODIS provides a unique perspective on the structure and composition of volcanic clouds. A-Train observations during the first hours of atmospheric

  4. Evaluation of radiative heating rate profiles in eight GCMs using A-train satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesana, Gregory; Waliser, D. E.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Jiang, X.; Li, J.-L.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we take advantage of two modeling experiments and A-train satellite observations to characterize the impact of cloud biases in the vertical distribution of radiative heating rates in eight general circulation models General Circulation Models (GCMs). We compare the modeled vertical distribution of clouds against the GCM-Oriented Cloud-Aerosols Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations Cloud Product (CALIPSO-GOCCP) using a simulator approach. Although the overall pattern of modeled zonal cloud frequency profiles is relatively good (r=0.92 for the multi-model mean), we show two main systematic biases in the cloud frequency profiles: a positive bias above 7km (up to 10%), particularly in the tropics; and a negative bias below 3km (up to -10%), which reaches a maximum over the stratocumulus cloud regions. Using radiative heating rate profiles calculated with constraints from CloudSat, CALIPSO and other satellite observations, we show that the excess of clouds in the upper troposphere (>7km) results in excess infrared and solar heating in the vicinity of the clouds as well as more infrared heating for the entire column below the cloud. On the other hand, the lack of clouds in the lower troposphere reduces the infrared cooling near the missing cloud levels and increases the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor below. The global radiative heating rate between 50°S and 50°N is too warm in the models (-0.81K/day vs. -1.01K/day). The representation of clouds in GCMs remains challenging, but reducing the cloud biases would lead to an improvement of the heating rate profiles, which in turn would help in improving other aspects of models' simulations such as the dynamics, cloud feedbacks and surface-atmosphere interactions.

  5. Rapid Transpacific Transport in Autumn Observed by the A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li. Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Liang, Qing; Yang, Kai; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    Transpacific transport of dust and pollutants is well documented for spring, but less so for other seasons. Here we investigate rapid transpacific transport in autumn utilizing the A-train satellites. In three episodes studied as examples, SO2 plumes over East Asia were detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the Aura satellite, and found to reach North America in 5-6 days. They were likely derived from anthropogenic sources, given that identical transport patterns of CO, a tracer for incomplete combustion, were simultaneously observed by the Aqua satellite. Trajectory analysis and meteorological data were employed to explore the meteorological circumstances surrounding these events: like many of their counterparts in spring, all three plumes were lifted to the free troposphere in warm conveyor belt associated with mid-latitude wave cyclones, and their migration to downwind region was regulated by the meteorology over the East Pacific. These cases provide further evidence that a fraction of S02 could escape wet scavenging, and be transported at much greater efficiency than NOx (NO + N02). An analysis of the S02 and CO data from September to November during 2005-2008 found 16 S02 long-range transport episodes, out of 62 Asian outflow events. While the counts are sensitive to the choice of criteria, they suggest that the long-range transport of Asian sulfur species occurs quite frequently, and could exert strong impacts on large downstream areas. This study also highlights the importance of transpacific transport in autumn, which has thus far been rarely studied and deserves more attention from the community.

  6. Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ecuyer, Tristan L.; Zhang, Kai; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Easter, Richard C.; Marchand, Roger; Chand, Duli; Qian, Yun; Penner, Joyce E.

    2012-08-15

    Aerosol indirect effects have remained the largest uncertainty in estimates of the radiative forcing of past and future climate change. Observational constraints on cloud lifetime effects are particularly challenging since it is difficult to separate aerosol effects from meteorological influences. Here we use three global climate models, including a multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF, to show that the dependence of the probability of precipitation on aerosol loading, termed the precipitation frequency susceptibility (S{sub pop}), is a good measure of the liquid water path response to aerosol perturbation ({lambda}), as both Spop and {lambda} strongly depend on the magnitude of autoconversion, a model representation of precipitation formation via collisions among cloud droplets. This provides a method to use satellite observations to constrain cloud lifetime effects in global climate models. S{sub pop} in marine clouds estimated from CloudSat, MODIS and AMSR-E observations is substantially lower than that from global climate models and suggests a liquid water path increase of less than 5% from doubled cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. This implies a substantially smaller impact on shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCF) over ocean due to aerosol indirect effects than simulated by current global climate models (a reduction by one-third for one of the conventional aerosol-climate models). Further work is needed to quantify the uncertainties in satellite-derived estimates of S{sub pop} and to examine S{sub pop} in high-resolution models.

  7. Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven; Liu, Xiaohong; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Zhang, Kai; Morrison, Hugh; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Easter, Richard; Marchand, Roger; Chand, Duli; Qian, Yun; Penner, Joyce E.

    2012-08-01

    Aerosol indirect effects have remained the largest uncertainty in estimates of the radiative forcing of past and future climate change. Observational constraints on cloud lifetime effects are particularly challenging since it is difficult to separate aerosol effects from meteorological influences. Here we use three global climate models, including a multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF, to show that the dependence of the probability of precipitation on aerosol loading, termed the precipitation frequency susceptibility (Spop), is a good measure of the liquid water path response to aerosol perturbation (λ), as both Spop and λ strongly depend on the magnitude of autoconversion, a model representation of precipitation formation via collisions among cloud droplets. This provides a method to use satellite observations to constrain cloud lifetime effects in global climate models. Spop in marine clouds estimated from CloudSat, MODIS and AMSR-E observations is substantially lower than that from global climate models and suggests a liquid water path increase of less than 5% from doubled cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. This implies a substantially smaller impact on shortwave cloud radiative forcing over ocean due to aerosol indirect effects than simulated by current global climate models (a reduction by one-third for one of the conventional aerosol-climate models). Further work is needed to quantify the uncertainties in satellite-derived estimates of Spop and to examine Spop in high-resolution models.

  8. Marine boundary layer structure as observed by A-train satellites

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Zhang, Damao; ...

    2016-05-13

    The marine boundary layer (MBL) structure is important to the marine low cloud processes, and the exchange of heat, momentum, and moisture between oceans and the low atmosphere. This study examines the MBL structure over the eastern Pacific region and further explores the controlling factors of MBL structure over the global oceans with a new 4-year satellite-based data set. The MBL top (boundary layer height, BLH) and the mixing layer height (MLH) were identified using the MBL aerosol lidar backscattering from the CALIPSO (Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations). Results showed that the MBL is generally decoupled with MLH ∕ BLHmore » ratio ranging from  ∼  0.5 to  ∼  0.8 over the eastern Pacific Ocean region. The MBL decoupling magnitude is mainly controlled by estimated inversion strength (EIS), which in turn controls the cloud top entrainment process. The systematic differences between drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus tops also show dependence on EIS. This may be related to the meso-scale circulations or gravity wave in the MBL. Further analysis indicates that the MBL shows a similar decoupled structure for clear-sky and cumulus-cloud-topped conditions, but is better mixed under stratiform cloud breakup and overcast conditions.« less

  9. Marine boundary layer structure as observed by A-train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Zhang, Damao; Chen, Bing

    2016-05-01

    The marine boundary layer (MBL) structure is important to the marine low cloud processes, and the exchange of heat, momentum, and moisture between oceans and the low atmosphere. This study examines the MBL structure over the eastern Pacific region and further explores the controlling factors of MBL structure over the global oceans with a new 4-year satellite-based data set. The MBL top (boundary layer height, BLH) and the mixing layer height (MLH) were identified using the MBL aerosol lidar backscattering from the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations). Results showed that the MBL is generally decoupled with MLH / BLH ratio ranging from ˜ 0.5 to ˜ 0.8 over the eastern Pacific Ocean region. The MBL decoupling magnitude is mainly controlled by estimated inversion strength (EIS), which in turn controls the cloud top entrainment process. The systematic differences between drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus tops also show dependence on EIS. This may be related to the meso-scale circulations or gravity wave in the MBL. Further analysis indicates that the MBL shows a similar decoupled structure for clear-sky and cumulus-cloud-topped conditions, but is better mixed under stratiform cloud breakup and overcast conditions.

  10. Climatology of cloud water content associated with different cloud types observed by A-Train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wang, Zhien; Su, Hui; Deng, Min; Massie, Steven

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the climatology of vertical distributions of cloud liquid water content, ice water content, and cloud fraction (CFR) associated with eight different cloud types, by utilizing the combined CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar measurements. The geographical and seasonal variations of these cloud properties for each cloud type are also analyzed. The cloud water content (CWC) of each cloud type is sorted by three parameters obtained from colocated satellite observations to investigate the relationships between large-scale conditions and the vertical structure of clouds. Results show that different cloud types have different altitudes of CWC and CFR peaks, and the altitude of CFR peak does not always overlap with that of CWC peak. Each type of cloud shows a clear asymmetric pattern of spatial distribution between Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH). Stratocumulus and stratus clouds make the greatest contribution to the liquid water path, while the ice water path is mostly contributed by deep convective cloud over the tropics and nimbostratus over the middle and high latitudes. Over both middle and high latitudes, clouds have larger seasonal variation in the NH than in the SH. Over ocean, large CWCs of deep convective cloud, cirrus, and altostratus are above 7 km, and are associated with high convective available potential energy (>2000 J/kg), warm sea surface temperature (>303 K), and relatively high precipitation (>1 mm/h). Over land, most of the middle and high clouds have similar CWC distributions compared to those over ocean, but altocumulus and low clouds are quite different from those over ocean.

  11. Our World: A-Train Satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The A-Train consists of five satellites orbiting Earth that use the latest NASA technology to study the Earth's system. This segment introduces Aqua, one of the satellites that studies water on Earth.

  12. Error analysis of upper tropospheric water vapor in CMIP5 models using "A-Train" satellite observations and reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hanii; Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan H.

    2016-05-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) plays a critical role in amplifying global warming caused by increasing greenhouse gases, yet it is one of the most poorly simulated quantities in climate models. It is not clear what physical processes play a central role in controlling the model errors in UTWV. We diagnose the UTWV simulation errors from AMIP models submitted to the CMIP5 project by using "A-Train" satellite observation and reanalysis data. We identify the relative contributions of errors in relative humidity (RH), temperature, and large-scale circulation (represented by vertical pressure velocity at 500 hPa, ω500) to the modeled UTWV errors over the tropics (30°N-30°S). It is found that models generally have positive biases in UTWV, except over the continental convective regions where negative biases predominate. The errors in the patterns and amplitudes of climatological UTWV are highly correlated with those in RH and ω500. The fractional UTWV errors show large positive errors over the large-scale descending regimes (0 < ω500 < 40 hPa/day) where large model spreads also exist. The seasonal cycle of hemispherically averaged UTWV closely resembles that of ω500. The errors for UTWV interannual anomalies are abundant over the climatologically deep convective regions (SST > 300 K or ω500 < -30 hPa/day) and these errors are positive (negative) where anomalous descent (ascent) occurs during El Niño. We find that the water vapor errors are dominated by the errors in RH rather than in temperature throughout the troposphere, while temperature errors play an important role for water vapor errors near the tropopause.

  13. Global aerosol typing from a combination of A-Train satellite observations in clear-sky and above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Russell, P. B.; Vaughan, M.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Livingston, J. M.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    According to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the model estimates of Radiative Forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions (RFari) for individual aerosol types are less certain than the total RFari [Boucher et al., 2013]. For example, the RFari specific to Black Carbon (BC) is uncertain due to an underestimation of its mass concentration near source regions [Koch et al., 2009]. Several recent studies have evaluated chemical transport model (CTM) predictions using observations of aerosol optical properties such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) or Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) from satellite or ground-based instruments (e.g., Huneeus et al., [2010]). However, most passive remote sensing instruments fail to provide a comprehensive assessment of the particle type without further analysis and combination of measurements. To improve the predictions of aerosol composition in CTMs, we have developed an aerosol classification algorithm (called Specified Clustering and Mahalanobis Classification, SCMC) that assigns an aerosol type to multi-parameter retrievals by spaceborne, airborne or ground based passive remote sensing instruments [Russell et al., 2014]. The aerosol types identified by our scheme are pure dust, polluted dust, urban-industrial/developed economy, urban-industrial/developing economy, dark biomass smoke, light biomass smoke and pure marine. First, we apply the SCMC method to five years of clear-sky space-borne POLDER observations over Greece. We then use the aerosol extinction and SSA spectra retrieved from a combination of MODIS, OMI and CALIOP clear-sky observations to infer the aerosol type over the globe in 2007. Finally, we will extend the spaceborne aerosol classification from clear-sky to above low opaque water clouds using a combination of CALIOP AOD and backscatter observations and OMI absorption AOD values from near-by clear-sky pixels.

  14. Overview of A-Train Satellite Cloud Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maring, H.

    2007-12-01

    NASA satellites make a wide variety of cloud measurements for climate and meteorological research and prediction. The A-Train is a constellation of satellites in coordinated low earth orbits with an extensive array of sensors making a wide variety of complementary observations of the earth system. The satellite constellation provides synergistic measurements enabling data from several different satellites/sensors to be used together to obtain comprehensive information about various key components and processes of the earth system. The A-Train consists of the following satellites and sensors currently in operation: Aqua, launched 4 May 2002 carries: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder-high spectral resolution (2378 channels) grating spectrometer. Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-15 channel microwave radiometer. Humidity Sounder for Brazil is a 4 channel microwave radiometer, which provided data until February 2003. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS-12 channel, 6 frequency microwave radiometer. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-36 band visible and infrared imaging spectroradiometer. Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System-3 channel scanning visible and infrared radiometers. Aura, launched 15 July 2004 carries: High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder-multi channel infrared radiometer. Microwave Limb Sounder-multi channel microwave radiometer. Ozone Monitoring Instrument-visible and ultra violet hyperspectral imaging spectrometers. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer-high-resolution, infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. Polarization & Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar-launched 18 December 2004 by the French space agency Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and carries a polarimeter. CloudSat and CALIPSO launched together 28 April 2005. CloudSat-US/Canadian cooperative project carries a 94 GHz nadir cloud profiling radar. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite

  15. Top-of-the-Atmosphere Shortwave Flux Estimation from Satellite Observations: An Empirical Neural Network Approach Applied with Data from the A-Train Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pawan; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux are essential for the understanding of Earth's energy budget and climate system. Clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and ozone (O3) are among the most important atmospheric agents impacting the Earth's shortwave (SW) radiation budget. There are several sensors in orbit that provide independent information related to these parameters. Having coincident information from these sensors is important for understanding their potential contributions. The A-train constellation of satellites provides a unique opportunity to analyze data from several of these sensors. In this paper, retrievals of cloud/aerosol parameters and total column ozone (TCO) from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been collocated with the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) estimates of total reflected TOA outgoing SW flux (SWF). We use these data to develop a variety of neural networks that estimate TOA SWF globally over ocean and land using only OMI data and other ancillary information as inputs and CERES TOA SWF as the output for training purposes. OMI-estimated TOA SWF from the trained neural networks reproduces independent CERES data with high fidelity. The global mean daily TOA SWF calculated from OMI is consistently within 1% of CERES throughout the year 2007. Application of our neural network method to other sensors that provide similar retrieved parameters, both past and future, can produce similar estimates TOA SWF. For example, the well-calibrated Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) series could provide estimates of TOA SWF dating back to late 1978.

  16. Top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave flux estimation from satellite observations: an empirical neural network approach applied with data from the A-train constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pawan; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2016-07-01

    Estimates of top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux are essential for the understanding of Earth's energy budget and climate system. Clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and ozone (O3) are among the most important atmospheric agents impacting the Earth's shortwave (SW) radiation budget. There are several sensors in orbit that provide independent information related to these parameters. Having coincident information from these sensors is important for understanding their potential contributions. The A-train constellation of satellites provides a unique opportunity to analyze data from several of these sensors. In this paper, retrievals of cloud/aerosol parameters and total column ozone (TCO) from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been collocated with the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) estimates of total reflected TOA outgoing SW flux (SWF). We use these data to develop a variety of neural networks that estimate TOA SWF globally over ocean and land using only OMI data and other ancillary information as inputs and CERES TOA SWF as the output for training purposes. OMI-estimated TOA SWF from the trained neural networks reproduces independent CERES data with high fidelity. The global mean daily TOA SWF calculated from OMI is consistently within ±1 % of CERES throughout the year 2007. Application of our neural network method to other sensors that provide similar retrieved parameters, both past and future, can produce similar estimates TOA SWF. For example, the well-calibrated Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) series could provide estimates of TOA SWF dating back to late 1978.

  17. A-Train Observations of Deep Convective Storm Tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setvak, Martin; Bedka, Kristopher; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Sokol, Alois; Charvat, Zdenek; Stastka, Jindrich; Wang, Pao K.

    2013-01-01

    The paper highlights simultaneous observations of tops of deep convective clouds from several space-borne instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of the Aqua satellite, Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) of the CloudSat satellite, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flown on the CALIPSO satellite. These satellites share very close orbits, thus together with several other satellites they are referred to as the "A-Train" constellation. Though the primary responsibility of these satellites and their instrumentation is much broader than observations of fine-scale processes atop convective storms, in this study we document how data from the A-Train can contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of various storm-top features, such as overshooting tops, cold-U/V and cold ring features with their coupled embedded warm areas, above anvil ice plumes and jumping cirrus. The relationships between MODIS multi-spectral brightness temperature difference (BTD) fields and cloud top signatures observed by the CPR and CALIOP are also examined in detail to highlight the variability in BTD signals across convective storm events.

  18. A-Train Observations of Deep Convective Storm Tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setvak, Martin; Bedka, Kristopher; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Sokol, Alois; Charvat, Zdenek; Stastka, Jindrich; Wang, Pao K.

    2013-01-01

    The paper highlights simultaneous observations of tops of deep convective clouds from several space-borne instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of the Aqua satellite, Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) of the CloudSat satellite, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flown on the CALIPSO satellite. These satellites share very close orbits, thus together with several other satellites they are referred to as the "A-Train" constellation. Though the primary responsibility of these satellites and their instrumentation is much broader than observations of fine-scale processes atop convective storms, in this study we document how data from the A-Train can contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of various storm-top features, such as overshooting tops, cold-U/V and cold ring features with their coupled embedded warm areas, above anvil ice plumes and jumping cirrus. The relationships between MODIS multi-spectral brightness temperature difference (BTD) fields and cloud top signatures observed by the CPR and CALIOP are also examined in detail to highlight the variability in BTD signals across convective storm events.

  19. A Training Program in Improving Observational Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, B. Allan, Ed.; Hughes, Wayne D., Ed.

    This document contains six modules designed for use in a training program for the improvement of teachers' classroom observation skills. Module One, "Introduction to Module on Improving Observation Skills," consists of line drawings used by the workshop leader to illustrate his explication of the intervention process. Module Two, "Improving Basic…

  20. Satellite observations of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, W.; Payne, V.; Kulawik, S. S.; Bowman, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a trace gas commonly associated with boreal fire plumes and the petrochemical industry. It has a short lifetime (~1-2 days) in the troposphere due to its reaction with OH. Chemical destruction of ethylene in the atmosphere leads to the production of ozone precursors such as carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer aboard the Aura satellite that measures thermal infrared radiances with high spectral resolution. Trace gas products retrieved routinely from TES spectra include O3, CO, H2O, HDO, CH4, NH3, HCOOH, CH3OH, with OCS and PAN to be included in the next data release. The TES spectra also includes a wealth of untapped information about other trace gasses including ethylene. Ethylene was first observed in TES spectra by Alvarado et al. (2011), though it has yet to be developed into an operational product. Our study focuses on the detection and initial quantitative estimates of ethylene in TES special observations taken in support of the 2008 ARCTAS mission. Initial observations of HCN in the spectra may provide a way to distinguish between fire plume and petrochemical derived ethylene. Results indicate a correlation between ethylene and CO in fresh fire plumes but not in older plumes, consistent with the gas's short lifetime. The approach adopted here to detect ethylene in the TES 2008 ARCTAS special observations can easily be expanded to larger datasets, including those from other thermal infrared sounders as well as to other trace gases.

  1. Parachute satellites for earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-07-01

    The "parachute" concept presented here is a generic definition for earth observation systems essentially made of a reflector under which a detector associated with a telemetry antenna is suspended [D. Massonnet, (Applicant), Satellite, method and a fleet of satellites for observing a celestial body, Patent 0509-1112, 2006. [1]; D. Massonnet, (Déposant), Satellite, procédé et flotte de satellites d'observation d'un corps céleste, Priorité 04-04327, 2004. [2

  2. Satellite Tracking and Observability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Turailic Code 62xC DO FORM 1473,84 MAR B3APRed,tonmaybeuseduntIeshausted SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete...kepler and Newton. These laws of motion apply to artificial satellites as well as planets and moons. The physical geometries and forces are the same...and are evenly spaced from each other . These are called meridians and they intersect with the equator at right angles. Meridians 3oin at both poles

  3. Satellite signatures in SLR observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the detection of satellite-dependent signatures in the laser range observations obtained by the UK single-photon Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) System models of the expected observation distributions from Ajisai and Lageos are developed from the published satellite spread functions and from the characteristics of the SLR System and compared with the observations. The effects of varying return strengths are discussed using the models and by experimental observations of Ajisai, during which a range of return levels from single to multiple photons is achieved. The implications of these results for system-dependent center for mass corrections are discussed.

  4. Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

    The capability of making stereoscopic observations of clouds from meteorological satellites is a new basic analysis tool with a broad spectrum of applications. Stereoscopic observations from satellites were first made using the early vidicon tube weather satellites (e.g., Ondrejka and Conover [1]). However, the only high quality meteorological stereoscopy from low orbit has been done from Apollo and Skylab, (e.g., Shenk et al. [2] and Black [3], [4]). Stereoscopy from geosynchronous satellites was proposed by Shenk [5] and Bristor and Pichel [6] in 1974 which allowed Minzner et al. [7] to demonstrate the first quantitative cloud height analysis. In 1978 Bryson [8] and desJardins [9] independently developed digital processing techniques to remap stereo images which made possible precision height measurement and spectacular display of stereograms (Hasler et al. [10], and Hasler [11]). In 1980 the Japanese Geosynchronous Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. GOES-West satellite were synchronized to obtain stereo over the central Pacific as described by Fujita and Dodge [12] and in this paper. Recently the authors have remapped images from a Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) to the coordinate system of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbiter (GEO) and obtained stereoscopic cloud height measurements which promise to have quality comparable to previous all GEO stereo. It has also been determined that the north-south imaging scan rate of some GEOs can be slowed or reversed. Therefore the feasibility of obtaining stereoscopic observations world wide from combinations of operational GEO and LEO satellites has been demonstrated. Stereoscopy from satellites has many advantages over infrared techniques for the observation of cloud structure because it depends only on basic geometric relationships. Digital remapping of GEO and LEO satellite images is imperative for precision stereo height measurement and high quality displays because of the curvature of the earth and the large angular separation of the

  5. Deep convective cross-tropopause transport in the tropics and evidence by A-Train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Su, S.,; Charvat, Z.; Setvak, M.; Cheng, K.

    2012-04-01

    Cross-tropopause transport by deep convective clouds can be an (and perhaps the most) important source of water vapor in the stratosphere. Our previous studies have verified that deep convective cross-tropopause transport does occur rather regularly in midlatitudes. This transport is demonstrated by the presence of cloud top features of above anvil cirrus plumes and jumping cirrus phenomenon that have been observed by aircraft, satellite and ground-based observations. The present paper will demonstrate that the same mechanism occurs in the tropics. Because the tropics typically have weaker wind shear at the tropopause level, previous observation did not show clear evidence of the presence of such cross-tropopause features. But the recent NSAS A-Train satellites, especially CloudSat, CALIPSO and MODIS, provide both horizontal cloud top and vertical cross-sectional views of the cloud structure and making the identification of such features much less unambiguous. In this study, we will first use cloud resolving model simulations of tropical deep connective storms to show that the gravity wave breaking mechanism and instability will cause moisture (condensed water and vapor) to be transported through the tropopause even in this weaker wind shear environment. Model animations will be shown in the conference. We will then show that the modeled storm top features match well with many recent observations by A-Train satellites. The model results and satellite observations agree not only in morphological similarity but also in the spatial extent and structure in both horizontal and vertical structure. Thus, both the model results and satellite observations demonstrate unambiguously that cross-tropopause transport of water vapor by deep convective clouds in the tropics does occur, and it should be assessed carefully for its global climatic impact.

  6. Characterization of properties and spatiotemporal fields of mineral aerosol and its radiative impact using calipso data in conjunction with A-train satellite and ground-based observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyung Jin

    Atmospheric mineral aerosol (or dust) plays an important role in the Earth.s system. However, quantification of dust impacts has long been associated with large uncertainties because of the complex nature of mineral aerosol. A better understanding of the properties and spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric dust on the regional and global scales is needed to improve predictions of the impact that dust radiative forcing and heating/cooling rates have on the weather and climate. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission provides unique measurements of vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds and their properties during day and nighttime over all types of surfaces. This information has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the properties and effects of aerosol and clouds. This dissertation presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of CALIPSO lidar (version 2 and version 3.01) data in conjunction with A-Train satellite and ground-based observations aimed at characterizing mineral aerosol in East Asia and other major dust sources. The specific objectives were to characterize the spatial distribution and properties of atmospheric dust in the dust source regions using new CALIOP (version 3.01) data in conjunction with satellite MODIS, OMI, and CloudSat data and ground-based meteorological and lidar data; investigate changes in the vertical distribution and properties of dust during mid- and long-range transport; perform a modeling of the optical properties of nonspherical dust particles, and assess the radiative forcing and heating/cooling rates of atmospheric dust by performing radiative transfer modeling constrained by satellite data in major dust source regions. Our research revealed significant biases in CALIPSO version 2 data, especially in the presence of dense dust plumes and dust-cloud mixed scenes. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from CALIOP backscatter profiles was

  7. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  8. Assimilation of Satellite Ozone Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, I.; Winslow, N.; Wargan, K.; Hayashi, H.; Pawson, S.; Rood, R.

    2003-01-01

    This talk will discuss assimilation of ozone data from satellite-borne instruments. Satellite observations of ozone total columns and profiles have been measured by a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments, and more recently by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment. Additional profile data are provided by instruments on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and by occultation instruments on other platforms. Instruments on Envisat' and future EOS Aura satellite will supply even more comprehensive data about the ozone distribution. Satellite data contain a wealth of information, but they do not provide synoptic global maps of ozone fields. These maps can be obtained through assimilation of satellite data into global chemistry and transport models. In the ozone system at NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) any combination of TOMS, SBUV, and Microwave Limb sounder (MLS) data can be assimilated. We found that the addition of MLS to SBUV and TOMS data in the system helps to constrain the ozone distribution, especially in the polar night region and in the tropics. The assimilated ozone distribution in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is sensitive also to finer changes in the SBUV and TOMS data selection and to changes in error covariance models. All results are established by comparisons of assimilated ozone with independent profiles from ozone sondes and occultation instruments.

  9. Multicolor Observations of Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H.; Vrba, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of B, V, R and I band observations of a sample of geostationary communications satellites with the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station 40-inch Ritchey telescope. The observations were done in July 2015, and covered 68% of the targets observable from Flagstaff. The targets were observed with an azimuthal solar phase angle smaller than 5 degrees, in an attempt to sample the satellite properties during the period where they are likely to be at peak brightness. We present the distribution of magnitudes and colors, and interpret these results. We also discuss the application of the results presented in this contribution to the design of future optical interferometers capable of imaging these targets.

  10. Satellite observed thermodynamics during FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    During the First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment (FGGE), determinations of temperature and moisture were made from TIROS-N and NOAA-6 satellite infrared and microwave sounding radiance measurements. The data were processed by two methods differing principally in their horizontal resolution. At the National Earth Satellite Service (NESS) in Washington, D.C., the data were produced operationally with a horizontal resolution of 250 km for inclusion in the FGGE Level IIb data sets for application to large-scale numerical analysis and prediction models. High horizontal resolution (75 km) sounding data sets were produced using man-machine interactive methods for the special observing periods of FGGE at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and archived as supplementary Level IIb. The procedures used for sounding retrieval and the characteristics and quality of these thermodynamic observations are given.

  11. CloudSat Anomaly and Return to the A-Train: Lessons Learned for Satellite Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In April 2011, CloudSat suffered a severe battery anomaly, leaving the space-craft in emergency mode without the ability to command or maneuver the spacecraft. Before the team was able to recover spacecraft operability, CloudSat passed close to the Aqua satellite in the A-Train and then exited the A-Train. A new mode of operations, termed Daylight Only Operations (DO-Op) mode was developed to enable CloudSat to resume science operations in an orbit under the A-Train by November 2011, and in July 2012 CloudSat re-entered the A-Train. This paper describes challenges and lessons-learned during the anomaly, the exit from the A-Train and the return to the A-Train. These lessons-learned may ap-ply to other current and future satellite constellations in Earth orbit.

  12. Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Rinsland, C. P.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Beer, R.; Pinder, R. W.; Henze, D.; Payne, V. H.; Clough, S.; Rodgers, C. D.; Osterman, G. B.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    Global high-spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1) nadir measurements from TES-Aura enable the simultaneous retrieval of a number of tropospheric pollutants and trace gases in addition to the TES standard operationally retrieved products (e.g. carbon monoxide, ozone). Ammonia (NH3) is one of the additional species that can be retrieved in conjunction with the TES standard products, and is important for local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry studies. Ammonia emissions contribute significantly to several well-known environmental problems, yet the magnitude and seasonal/spatial variability of the emissions are poorly constrained. In the atmosphere, an important fraction of fine particulate matter is composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. These particles are statistically associated with health impacts. When deposited to ecosystems in excess, nitrogen, including ammonia can cause nutrient imbalances, change in ecosystem species composition, eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Ammonia is also challenging to measure in-situ. Observations of surface concentrations are rare and are particularly sparse in North America. Satellite observations of ammonia are therefore highly desirable. We recently demonstrated that tropospheric ammonia is detectable in the TES spectra and presented some corresponding preliminary retrievals over a very limited range of conditions (Beer et al., 2008). Presented here are results that expand upon these initial TES ammonia retrievals in order to evaluate/validate the retrieval results utilizing in-situ surface observations (e.g. LADCO, CASTNet, EPA /NC State) and chemical models (e.g. GEOS-Chem and CMAQ). We also present retrievals over regions of interest that have the potential to help further understand air quality and the active nitrogen cycle. Beer, R., M. W. Shephard, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Clough, A. Eldering, K. W. Bowman, S. P. Sander, B. M. Fisher, V. H. Payne, M. Luo, G. B. Osterman, and J. R. Worden, First

  13. JEMRMS Small Satellite Deployment Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009458 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment.

  14. JEMRMS Small Satellite Deployment Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009334 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment.

  15. JEMRMS Small Satellite Deployment Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009315 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment. A blue and white part of Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  16. Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The troposphere is an essential component of the earth's life support system as well as the gateway for the exchange of chemicals between different geochemical reservoirs of the earth. The chemistry of the troposphere is sensitive to perturbation from a wide range of natural phenomena and human activities. The societal concern has been greatly enhanced in recent decades due to ever increasing pressures of population growth and industrialization. Chemical changes within the troposphere control a vast array of processes that impact human health, the biosphere, and climate. A main goal of tropospheric chemistry research is to measure and understand the response of atmospheric composition to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, and to develop the capability to predict future change. Atmospheric chemistry measurements are extremely challenging due to the low concentrations of critical species and the vast scales over which the observations must be made. Available tropospheric data are mainly from surface sites and aircraft missions. Because of the limited temporal extent of aircraft observations, we have very limited information on tropospheric composition above the surface. This situation can be contrasted to the stratosphere, where satellites have provided critical and detailed chemical data on the global distribution of key trace gases.

  17. Satellite observation of effusive volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.; Friedman, J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Infrared emission from an active effusive volcanic eruption on Surtsey, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland, was recorded by airborne and satellite infrared systems at irregular intervals between 19 August and 3 October 1966. Ground and lava temperature measurements and volumetric lava outflow data permitted a comparison to be made between total thermal-energy yield and radiant emission recorded by the satellite system. The Nimbus HRIR recorded radiant emission at a level of about 3% of the estimated total thermal yield.

  18. Landsat—Earth observation satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-11-25

    Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education. Landsat is a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA develops remote sensing instruments and the spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and data distribution. The result of this program is an unprecedented continuing record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  19. Severe storms observing satellite (STORMSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The primary payload for this satellite is the Advanced Atmospheric Sounding and Imaging Radiometer which will perform precise infrared temperature sounding and visible/infrared imaging from geostationary orbit. A secondary payload instrument which may be utilized on STORMSAT is the Microwave Atmospheric Sounding Radiometer which provides an independent set of temperature and humidity sounding in cloudy, meteorologically active regions. The study provides satellite designs and identifies mission-unique subsystems using the Multimission Modular Spacecraft using a Shuttle/Interim Upper Stage launch vehicle.

  20. Quantifying Above-Cloud Aerosols through Integrating Multi-Sensor Measurements from A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying above-cloud aerosols can help improve the assessment of aerosol intercontinental transport and climate impacts. Large-scale measurements of aerosol above low-level clouds had been generally unexplored until very recently when CALIPSO lidar started to acquire aerosol and cloud profiles in June 2006. Despite CALIPSO s unique capability of measuring above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD), such observations are substantially limited in spatial coverage because of the lidar s near-zero swath. We developed an approach that integrates measurements from A-Train satellite sensors (including CALIPSO lidar, OMI, and MODIS) to extend CALIPSO above-cloud AOD observations to substantially larger areas. We first examine relationships between collocated CALIPSO above-cloud AOD and OMI absorbing aerosol index (AI, a qualitative measure of AOD for elevated dust and smoke aerosol) as a function of MODIS cloud optical depth (COD) by using 8-month data in the Saharan dust outflow and southwest African smoke outflow regions. The analysis shows that for a given cloud albedo, above-cloud AOD correlates positively with AI in a linear manner. We then apply the derived relationships with MODIS COD and OMI AI measurements to derive above-cloud AOD over the whole outflow regions. In this talk, we will present spatial and day-to-day variations of the above-cloud AOD and the estimated direct radiative forcing by the above-cloud aerosols.

  1. West Antarctic Ice Sheet cloud cover and surface radiation budget from NASA A-Train satellites

    DOE PAGES

    Scott, Ryan C.; Lubin, Dan; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; ...

    2017-04-26

    Clouds are an essential parameter of the surface energy budget influencing the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) response to atmospheric warming and net contribution to global sea-level rise. A four-year record of NASA A-Train cloud observations is combined with surface radiation measurements to quantify the WAIS radiation budget and constrain the three-dimensional occurrence frequency, thermodynamic phase partitioning, and surface radiative effect of clouds over West Antarctica (WA). The skill of satellite-modeled radiative fluxes is confirmed through evaluation against measurements at four Antarctic sites (WAIS Divide Ice Camp, Neumayer, Syowa, and Concordia Stations). And due to perennial high-albedo snow and icemore » cover, cloud infrared emission dominates over cloud solar reflection/absorption leading to a positive net all-wave cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface, with all monthly means and 99.15% of instantaneous CRE values exceeding zero. The annual-mean CRE at theWAIS surface is 34 W m-2, representing a significant cloud-induced warming of the ice sheet. Low-level liquid-containing clouds, including thin liquid water clouds implicated in radiative contributions to surface melting, are widespread and most frequent in WA during the austral summer. Clouds warm the WAIS by 26 W m-2, in summer, on average, despite maximum offsetting shortwave CRE. Glaciated cloud systems are strongly linked to orographic forcing, with maximum incidence on the WAIS continuing downstream along the Transantarctic Mountains.« less

  2. Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2013-06-11

    Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

  3. NPP: Why Another Earth-Observing Satellite?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NPP will soon be NASA's newest Earth-observing satellite. To showcase how NPP will be used for both understanding the health of our planet now -- as well as how things might change in the future --...

  4. Satellite Observations of Ionospheric Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimal'Skij, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. N.; Lizunov, G. V.

    The authors review satellite observations of seismogenic phenomena in the ionosphere. Based on literature data, hypothetical patterns of seismogenic phenomena were reconstructed. The authors discuss the reasons which allow the ionospheric "anomalies" to be correlated with eartquake precursors.

  5. AMOS Galaxy 15 Satellite Observations and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D.

    2011-09-01

    In early April 2010, the Galaxy 15 geosynchronous satellite experienced an on-orbit anomaly. Even though the satellite's transmitters and articulating solar panel were still functioning, ground controllers lost the ability to command and maneuver the satellite. With its orbital position no longer maintained, Galaxy 15 began to drift eastward. This forced several other satellites to make collision avoidance maneuvers during the following months. Soon after the initial anomaly, Galaxy 15's operators predicted that the satellite’s reaction wheels would eventually become saturated, causing a loss of both spacecraft attitude and proper sunward orientation of the solar panels. This "off-pointing" event finally occurred in late December, ultimately leading to a depletion of Galaxy 15's batteries. This near-death experience had a fortunate side effect, however, in that it forced the satellite’s command unit to reboot and once again be able to both receive and execute ground commands. The satellite operators have since recovered control of the satellite. AMOS conducted non-resolved photometric observations of Galaxy 15 before, during and after these events. Similar observations were conducted of Galaxy 12, the nearly-identical replacement satellite. This presentation presents and discusses these temporal brightness signatures in detail, comparing the changing patterns in the observations to the known sequence of events.

  6. Observing storm surges from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqi

    2016-07-01

    Storm surges can cause catastrophic damage to properties and loss of life in coastal communities. Thus it is important to enhance our capabilities of observing and forecasting storm surges for mitigating damage and loss. In this presentation we show examples of observing storm surges around the world using nadir satellite altimetry, during Hurricane Sandy, Igor, and Isaac, as well as other cyclone events. The satellite observations are evaluated against tide-gauge observations and discussed for dynamic mechanisms. We also show the potential of a new wide-swath altimetry mission, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), for observing storm surges.

  7. Magnetopause structure from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. O.

    1979-01-01

    Observations on magnetopause structure are reported. Major topics covered include: classical reconnection, transport mechanisms, magnetospheric boundary layers, tearing modes, and Jupiter's magnetopause.

  8. Terrestrial Observations from NOAA Operational Satellites.

    PubMed

    Yates, H; Strong, A; McGinnis, D; Tarpley, D

    1986-01-31

    Important applications to oceanography, hydrology, and agriculture have been developed from operational satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and are currently expanding rapidly. Areas of interest involving the oceans include sea surface temperature, ocean currents, and ocean color. Satellites can monitor various hydrological phenomena, including regional and global snow cover, river and sea ice extent, and areas of global inundation. Agriculturally important quantities derived from operational satellite observations include precipitation, daily temperature extremes, canopy temperatures, insolation, and snow cover. This overview describes the current status of each area.

  9. Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor); Peterson, R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history of remote sensing of snow cover is reviewed and the following topics are covered: various techniques for interpreting LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data; the status of future systems for continuing snow hydrology applications; the use of snow cover observations in streamflow forecasts by Applications Systems Verification and Transfer participants and selected foreign investigators; and the benefits of using satellite snow cover data in runoff prediction.

  10. Global Variability of Mesoscale Convective System Anvil Structure from A-Train Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Jian; Houze, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the tropics produce extensive anvil clouds, which significantly affect the transfer of radiation. This study develops an objective method to identify MCSs and their anvils by combining data from three A-train satellite instruments: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for cloud-top size and coldness, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for rain area size and intensity, and CloudSat for horizontal and vertical dimensions of anvils. The authors distinguish three types of MCSs: small and large separated MCSs and connected MCSs. The latter are MCSs sharing a contiguous rain area. Mapping of the objectively identified MCSs shows patterns of MCSs that are consistent with previous studies of tropical convection, with separated MCSs dominant over Africa and the Amazon regions and connected MCSs favored over the warm pool of the Indian and west Pacific Oceans. By separating the anvil from the raining regions of MCSs, this study leads to quantitative global maps of anvil coverage. These maps are consistent with the MCS analysis, and they lay the foundation for estimating the global radiative effects of anvil clouds. CloudSat radar data show that the modal thickness of MCS anvils is about 4-5 km. Anvils are mostly confined to within 1.5-2 times the equivalent radii of the primary rain areas of the MCSs. Over the warm pool, they may extend out to about 5 times the rain area radii. The warm ocean MCSs tend to have thicker non-raining and lightly raining anvils near the edges

  11. Global Variability of Mesoscale Convective System Anvil Structure from A-Train Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Jian; Houze, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the tropics produce extensive anvil clouds, which significantly affect the transfer of radiation. This study develops an objective method to identify MCSs and their anvils by combining data from three A-train satellite instruments: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for cloud-top size and coldness, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for rain area size and intensity, and CloudSat for horizontal and vertical dimensions of anvils. The authors distinguish three types of MCSs: small and large separated MCSs and connected MCSs. The latter are MCSs sharing a contiguous rain area. Mapping of the objectively identified MCSs shows patterns of MCSs that are consistent with previous studies of tropical convection, with separated MCSs dominant over Africa and the Amazon regions and connected MCSs favored over the warm pool of the Indian and west Pacific Oceans. By separating the anvil from the raining regions of MCSs, this study leads to quantitative global maps of anvil coverage. These maps are consistent with the MCS analysis, and they lay the foundation for estimating the global radiative effects of anvil clouds. CloudSat radar data show that the modal thickness of MCS anvils is about 4-5 km. Anvils are mostly confined to within 1.5-2 times the equivalent radii of the primary rain areas of the MCSs. Over the warm pool, they may extend out to about 5 times the rain area radii. The warm ocean MCSs tend to have thicker non-raining and lightly raining anvils near the edges

  12. Future Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Rottman, G.; Woods, T.; Lawrence, G.; Harder, J.; McClintock, W.; Kopp, G.

    2003-01-01

    Required solar irradiance measurements for climate studies include those now being made by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) onboard the SORCE satellite, part of the Earth Observing System fleet of NASA satellites. Equivalent or better measures of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI, 200 to 2000 nm) are planned for the post-2010 satellites of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System ("OESS). The design life of SORCE is 5 years, so a "Solar Irradiance Gap Filler" EOS mission is being planned for launch in the 2007 time frame, to include the same TSI and SSI measurements. Besides avoiding any gap, overlap of the data sources is also necessary for determination of possible multi-decadal trends in solar irradiance. We discuss these requirements and the impacts of data gaps, and data overlaps, that may occur in the monitoring of the critical solar radiative forcing.

  13. Observations of Jupiter's satellites, 1662-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search has yielded nearly 26,000 observations of the satellites of Jupiter, made from 1662 through 1972. The type (photographic; micrometer; eclipse, occultation, transit) and number of observations are tabulated in 5-year increments, and a complete bibliography is cited.

  14. Observations of Saturn's satellites 1789-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A data-collection and literature search has yielded over 22,000 observations of the known satellites of Saturn, made from 1789 through 1972. The type (photographic, micrometer, etc.) and number of observations are tabulated in ten-year increments, and a complete bibliography is referenced.

  15. First optical observations of artificial Earth's satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykhlova, L. V.

    2008-08-01

    A review of the first optical observations of the artificial satellites in the USSR as well as in former communist countries (DDR, Romania,Poland) is given. The role by Alla G. Masevich, I.D. Zhongolovich and Yu.V. Batrakov is underlined in the organization of observations.

  16. Observations of Saturn's satellites 1789-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A data-collection and literature search has yielded over 22,000 observations of the known satellites of Saturn, made from 1789 through 1972. The type (photographic, micrometer, etc.) and number of observations are tabulated in ten-year increments, and a complete bibliography is referenced.

  17. Observations of Jupiter's satellites, 1662-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search has yielded nearly 26,000 observations of the satellites of Jupiter, made from 1662 through 1972. The type (photographic; micrometer; eclipse, occultation, transit) and number of observations are tabulated in 5-year increments, and a complete bibliography is cited.

  18. Satellite observations of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Zwally, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of Antarctic and Arctic sea ice studies using data from the Nimbus-5 ESMR and the Nimbus-7 SMMR passive microwave radiometers. Four years (1973-1976) of ESMR data for the Antarctic Ocean define the characteristics of the seasonal cycle including regional contrasts and interannual variations. Major advances include the discovery of the Weddell polynya and the presence of substantial areas of open water in the Antarctic winter pack ice. Regional differences in sea ice extent on time-scales of about a month are shown to be associated with variations in surface-wind fields. In the Arctic, the computation of sea ice concentration is complicated by the presence of multiyear ice, but the amount of multiyear ice becomes an important measurable quantity with dual-polarized, multifrequency passive microwave sensors. Analysis of SMMR data demonstrates its advantage for studying the spatial and temporal variability of the Arctic ice cover. Large observed interannual variations in the distribution of the multiyear pack ice and the presence of significant divergent areas in the central Arctic during winter contrast markedly with the classical view of the Arctic pack ice.

  19. The A-Train Observes Tropical Storm Debby

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The A-Train is a group of spacecraft flying in close formation allowing data taken by each instrument to be correlated to the other instruments: Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, Parasol, and Aura. This vid...

  20. Monitoring volcanic systems through cross-correlation of coincident A-Train satellite data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, V. J. B.; Carn, S. A.; Wright, R.

    2014-12-01

    The remote location and inaccessibility of many active volcanic systems around the world hinders detailed investigation of their eruptive dynamics. One methodology for monitoring such locations is through the utilisation of multiple satellite datasets to elucidate underlying eruption dynamics and aid volcanic hazard mitigation. Whilst satellite datasets are often analysed individually, here we exploit the multi-platform NASA A-Train satellite constellation, including the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua. OMI measures volcanic emissions (e.g. sulphur dioxide, ash) whilst MODIS enables monitoring of thermal anomalies (e.g. lava flows, lava lakes, pyroclastic deposits), allowing analysis of a more diverse range of volcanic unrest than is possible using a single measurement technique alone, and permitting cross-correlation between datasets for specific locations to assess cyclic activity. A Multi-taper (MTM) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis was implemented at an initial sample site (Soufriere Hills volcano [SHV], Montserrat) facilitating cycle identification and subsequent comparison with existing ground-based data. Corresponding cycles at intervals of 8, 12 and ~50 days were identified in both the satellite-based SO2 and thermal infrared signals and ground-based SO2 measurements (Nicholson et al. 2013), validating the methodology. Our analysis confirms the potential for identification of cyclical volcanic activity through synergistic analysis of satellite data, which would be of particular value at poorly monitored volcanic systems. Following our initial test at SHV, further sample sites have been selected in locations with varied eruption dynamics and monitoring capabilities including Ambrym (Vanuatu), Kilauea (Hawaii), Nyiragongo (DR Congo) and Etna (Italy) with the intention of identifying not only cyclic signals that can be attributed to volcanic systems but also those which are

  1. Neptunian Satellites observed with Keck AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Urata, R.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S.; Hammel, H. B.; Berthier, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Neptunian system was observed on 9 different nights between July 2002 and October 2003 with the 10-m Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and its facility instrument NIRC2 coupled with the Adaptive Optics system. Data were recorded in J (1.2μ m), and H (2.2μ m) bands. The angular resolution achieved on a one-minute integration time image is 0.50 arcsec, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 1100 km. The images display small structures such as the rings (de Pater et al. 2004), clouds in the atmosphere (Gibbard et al. 2003), and inner satellites, mainly Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, Despina, and Thalassa. On the 40 images, the positions and intensities of the satellites detected were accurately measured fitting the signal with a gaussian profile. The center of Neptune was obtained by fitting the disk position with an ellipse. After correcting for the detector distortion, we compared the satellite positions with the predicted ones delivered by several ephemerides. We used the JPL (NEP016 + NEP022 + DE405) and two IMCCE ephemerides, an old version (VSOP87+Owen et al., 1991) and a more recent one (DE405+Le Guyader et al., 1993). All cases, we confirmed the presence of an apparent shift between the predicted and the observed positions. Table 1 (see http://astron.berkeley.edu/ fmarchis/Science/Neptune/Satellites/) summarizes the mean distance of the shift for satellites most frequently observed and the various ephemerides. In this presentation, we will report the positions of the satellites, and present their color and possible photometric variations derived from the observations. This work has been partially supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST - 9876783.

  2. Global canopy interception from satellite observations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the daily productof the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at global sc...

  3. IBSS Chemical Release Observation (CRO) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical Release Observation (CRO) satellite part of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), a STS-39 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, payload, undergoes processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-390C-7879.01.

  4. Comparison of filter predictions with satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-10-01

    Satellite observations of meteor entry are used to calibrate a filter model of fragmentation. Predicted sizes and masses compare favorably with data and analytic interpretations for objects of all sizes. However, objects that fragment into many large objects should be treated by the decomposition of the radiation signal into the contributions from the different fragments.

  5. A Decade of Volcanic Observations from Aura and the A-Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carn, Simon A.; Krotkov, Nickolay Anatoly; Yang, Kai; Krueger, Arlin J.; Hughes, Eric J.; Wang, Jun; Flower, Verity; Telling, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Aura observations have made many seminal contributions to volcanology. Prior to the Aura launch, satellite observations of volcanic degassing (e.g., from TOMS) were mostly restricted to large eruptions. However, the vast majority of volcanic gases are released during quiescent 'passive' degassing between eruptions. The improved sensitivity of Aura OMI permitted the first daily, space-borne measurements of passive volcanic SO2 degassing, providing improved constraints on the source locations and magnitude of global SO2 emissions for input to atmospheric chemistry and climate models. As a result of this unique sensitivity to volcanic activity, OMI data were also the first satellite SO2 measurements to be routinely used for volcano monitoring at several volcano observatories worldwide. Furthermore, the Aura OMI SO2 data also offer unprecedented sensitivity to volcanic clouds in the UTLS, elucidating the transport, fate and lifetime of volcanic SO2 and providing critical input to aviation hazard mitigation efforts. Another major advance has been the improved vertical resolution of volcanic clouds made possible by synergy between Aura and other A-Train instruments (e.g., AIRS, CALIPSO, CloudSat), advanced UV SO2 altitude retrievals, and inverse trajectory modeling of detailed SO2 cloud maps. This altitude information is crucial for climate models and aviation hazards. We will review some of the highlights of a decade of Aura observations of volcanic activity and look ahead to the future of volcanic observations from space.

  6. Interferometric observations of an artificial satellite.

    PubMed

    Preston, R A; Ergas, R; Hinteregger, H F; Knight, C A; Robertson, D S; Shapiro, I I; Whitney, A R; Rogers, A E; Clark, T A

    1972-10-27

    Very-long-baseline interferometric observations of radio signals from the TACSAT synchronous satellite, even though extending over only 7 hours, have enabled an excellent orbit to be deduced. Precision in differenced delay and delay-rate measurements reached 0.15 nanosecond ( approximately 5 centimeters in equivalent differenced distance) and 0.05 picosecond per second ( approximately 0.002 centimeter per second in equivalent differenced velocity), respectively. The results from this initial three-station experiment demonstrate the feasibility of using the method for accurate satellite tracking and for geodesy. Comparisons are made with other techniques.

  7. Simultaneous Earth observations from 2 satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous co-located observations from two different orbits lead to several advantages (i.e., cross calibration of sensors and a wider range of solar-zenith and sensor look angles). The question was asked how many times per year (on the average) do the sub-satellite points of two satellites simultaneously come within D kilometers of each other?. For the Space Station (altitude: 500 km, inclination: 28 deg) and a Sun synchronous satellite (altitude 705 km, inclination 98.21 deg) the answers are 16, 41 and 82 times per year for encounter distances D of 20, 50, and 100 km espectively. The relationship between encounters per year and distance D is linear. The answers were obtained in two ways: (1) a closed form statistical approach which led to a simple algebraic expression, and (2) a Monte Carlo type computer solution. The largest difference between the two solutions was less than 12%.

  8. Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

  9. Seasonal streamflow estimation employing satellite snowcover observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Low resolution meteorological satellite and high resolution earth resources satellite data have been used to map snow covered area over the upper Indus River and the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, respectively. For the Indus River early spring snow covered area was extracted and related to April through June stream flow from 1967-1971 using a regression equation. Prediction of the April-June 1972 stream flow from the satellite data was within three percent of the actual total. Composited results from two years of data over seven Wind River Mountain watersheds indicated that LANDSAT-1 snow cover observations, separated on the basis of watershed elevation, could also be related to runoff in significant regression equations.

  10. Advances in Satellite Observations of Earth's Radiation Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.

    2013-05-01

    The first observation of Earth's radiation budget from satellite dates back to the beginning of the satellite era in late 1950s, when the first satellite images of the planet were recorded. With each passing decade since then, the science community has made advances in instrument technology that has led to a wealth of new information about the sunlight reaching Earth, Earth's albedo, and the emission of thermal radiation to space. Until recently, however, most of the observational breakthroughs were limited to Earth's top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget. The recent arrival of instruments flown under the Earth Observing System (EOS) and the A-Train constellation of satellites has dramatically changed this situation, providing new opportunities to synergistically combine an array of diverse passive and active satellite instruments to more accurately determine Earth's surface radiation budget. The new data have led to renewed discussions about our basic understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles. The goal of this presentation is to discuss how the new satellite instrument capabilities are being used by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy (CERES) science team to provide improved observations of the TOA, surface and within-atmosphere radiation budgets and the role clouds play in modulating the energy flows. We focus on the CERES TOA and surface Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) product, which combines information from CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO, Cloudsat, AIRS, and geostationary observations all integrated in a consistent manner, and demonstrate how synergistic use of these datasets leads to improved radiative fluxes when compared with surface radiation measurements from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), NOAA SURFRAD, and ARM. We find that EBAF-SFC reduces the bias in surface SW downward flux by a factor of 2 compared to other satellite-based surface radiation budget datasets, show marked reductions in surface downward longwave radiation biases

  11. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  12. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown onboard sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study, we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help of the onboard warm-blackbody temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically-weighted global-mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 K/decade during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite-deduced result.

  13. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  14. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  15. Current Status of Satellite PMC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deland, M. T.

    2006-05-01

    Satellite observations of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) are extremely valuable because they typically have daily coverage to characterize seasonal variations, sufficient detections for each season to give good statistics, quantitative information for physical analysis, and coverage of both hemispheres to evaluate global behavior. The first measurements of PMCs from space were made in 1969, and regular measurements have been made since 1978. Since current satellite instruments are not designed to measure PMCs, a variety of observing techniques have been used, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. Satellite data provide a comprehensive picture of PMC characteristics and variability over a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres, and on time scales ranging from daily to decadal. At least 10 different satellite instruments have observed PMCs in the last five years alone, and six instruments are currently operating. These measurements have produced many interesting results, including the following topics: altitude, occurrence frequency, brightness, particle size and shape, planetary waves, rocket exhaust effects, diurnal variations, latitudinal variations, hemispheric differences, interannual variations, and long-term variations. An important goal for future PMC work is the ability to understand the relative importance of major forcing mechanisms in the mesosphere, such as water vapor, temperature, and dynamics. The NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission, scheduled to launch in September 2006, will provide satellite PMC data with unprecedented spatial resolution as well as simultaneous measurements of some of these key parameters. Our challenge will be to understand the information in these data, so that we can better interpret the extensive PMC database that will continue into the future.

  16. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  17. Weather and climate. [review of satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.

    1981-01-01

    Highlights of recent progress and the directions of future advances in the application of space observations to weather and climate are reviewed. In mesometeorology and severe storms, satellite stereography of cloud topography and temperature profiling from GOES-VAS promise dramatic developments in both nowcasting and prediction. In global weather, the initial results from the year long Global Weather Experiment conclusively demonstrate the enhanced forecast skill emanating from the use of satellite data, especially cloud track winds and temperature profiles. In climate, empirical studies and numerical experiments point to the feasibility of useful climate predictions on monthly and seasonal time scales. They also indicate the kinds of surface boundary conditions to which climate is sensitive and which need to be observed from space.

  18. Investigating cirrus cloud behavior using A-Train and geostationary satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Elizabeth

    Knowledge of how the large-scale dynamics are coupled with microphysical properties is necessary for parameterizing cirrus in climate models. In this study, the synergy of the CloudSat and CALIPSO instruments is exploited for identifying cirrus. Mesoscale-size cirrus events are defined using a combined CloudSat-CALIPSO cloud mask and temperature data for one year in the Atlantic basin. In order to characterize the tendencies of cirrus, the instantaneous view of A-Train satellites is augmented with the temporal view from a geostationary satellite. Cirrus events are tracked using an algorithm, which follows patterns of 6.2μm brightness temperature in consecutive water vapor images. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data is used to determine the environments in which the cirrus events exist. The cirrus events are sorted based on pressure- radar reflectivity patterns using a k-means cluster algorithm. The six clusters that are identified include Single-Layer Cirrus, Thick Cirrus and Low Cloud, High Cirrus, Deep Cirrus, Mixed Cloud and Thin Cirrus, and Low Cloud. A cluster algorithm is also applied to the large-scale dynamics to determine the basic synoptic states for cirrus. This analysis results in six dynamic clusters including Deep Wave Cirrus, Developing Tropical Cirrus, Subtropical Jet Cirrus, Zonal Jet/Stationary Front Cirrus, Dissipating Tropical Cirrus, and Ridge Crest Cirrus. We find that large-scale dynamic types do not necessarily predetermine the cirrus cloud properties.

  19. Infrared observations of outer planet satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.

    1988-01-01

    This task supports IR observations of the outer planet satellites. These data provide vital information about the thermophysical properties of satellite surfaces, including internal heat sources for Io. Observations include both broad and narrow band measurementsin the 2 to 20 micrometer spectral range. The program in the last year has aimed at obtaining lonitude coverage on Io to establish stability of hot spot patterns previously reported. Several runs produced the most complete data set for an apparition since the start of the program. Unfortunately, bad weather limited coverage of key longitude ranges containing the largest known hot spot Loki. Among the preliminary results is the observation of an outburst in Io's thermal flux that was measured at 4.8, 8.7 and 20 micrometer. Analysis of the data has given the best evidence to date of silicate volcanism on Io; this is one of the most significant pieces of the puzzle as to the relative roles of silicate and sulfur volcanism on Io. Researchers are collaborating with J. Goguen (NRC RRA to finish reduction of mutual event data, which have already improved ephermeris information for the satellites. The data appear to place significant limits on the characteristics of any leading side hot spots.

  20. Earth observing satellite plans in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Y. S.; Behera, G.; Gupta, A. K.; Manikiam, B.

    One of the major objectives of the Indian Space Programme is to develop, launch and operate earth observing satellites to cater to the data needs of the remote sensing user community. Towards this, development of suitable multispectral sensors through satellites and aircraft have played a crucial role. The Rohini and Bhaskara satellites launched during early 1980's provided the base for further development. Presently the first of a series of Remote Sensing satellites, IRS-1A is in orbit and is providing data. The necessary expertise to utilise the remotely sensed data was developed through a set of application projects under Indian Remote Sensing Satellite - Utilisation Programme (IRS-UP) and Remote Sensing Application Mission (RSAM) being carried out with active collaboration of several Central/State user departments/agencies. The application projects cover several themes such as agriculture, water resources, forestry, soil, marine resources etc. in addition to natural calamities such as flood and drought. The IRS-UP projects initiated in 1983, has helped in developing several methodology packages for operational utilisation of remote sensing for natural resources monitoring. Nationwide projects such as Wasteland Mapping, Drinking Water Technology Mission etc. have remote sensing as a major input. Towards ensuring requisite infrastructure and facility, 5 Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres are being operationalised with VAX-11/780 computer based image processing system, in addition to setting up of remote sensing centres in each State/Union Territory. The training of adequate manpower has been another area of attention. The country is poised to reap the advantages of remote sensing technology towards its development.

  1. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  2. Satellite observations of transionospheric pulse pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, D. N.; Munson, C. P.; Devenport, J. C.

    1995-04-01

    The BLACKBEARD payload aboard the ALEXIS satellite has been making broadband observations in the VHF band of the radio spectrum. Since November of 1993 several hundred unusual signals have been recorded. The peculiar nature of these bursts of radio noise is that they have a duration of approximately 10 microseconds, are typically 20 to 40 dB brighter than the average background, and occur in pairs separated by approximately 50 microseconds. We have dubbed these emissions TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs, or TIPP events. We do not know what the source of these emissions is, but the dispersion of these signals is consistent with an origin at or near the earth's surface. The satellite field of view and time of day when TIPP events are generally detected are consistent with regions of thunderstorm activity such as south-central Africa or Indonesia.

  3. Satellite observations of transionospheric pulse pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, D.N.; Munson, C.P.; Devenport, J.C.

    1995-04-15

    The BLACKBEARD payload aboard the ALEXIS satellite has been making broadband observations in the VHF band of the radio spectrum. Since November of 1993 several hundred unusual signals have been recorded. The peculiar nature of these bursts of radio noise is that they have a duration of approximately 10 {mu}sec, are typically 20 to 40 dB brighter than the average background, and occur in pairs separated by approximately 50 {mu}sec. The authors have dubbed these emissions TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs, or TIPP events. They do not know what the source of these emissions is, but the dispersion of these signals is consistent with an origin at or near the earth`s surface. The satellite field of view and time of day when TIPP events are generally detected are consistent with regions of thunderstorm activity such as south-central Africa or Indonesia. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Frequent Rain Observation From Geostationary Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, B.; Gomas Science Team

    The target 3-h observing cycle of GPM will meet requirements from Global NWP and, to a large extent, Regional NWP; and be supportive of VIS/IR-derived rain estimates from geostationary satellites for the purpose of Nowcasting. MW rain observation from geostationary orbit at, say, 15 min intervals, would fully meet Regional NWP requirements and have greatest impact on Nowcasting: but this implies either unprac- tically large antennas or unacceptably coarse resolution. Concepts to overcome this problem have been developed in the US within the study called GEM (Geostationary Microwave Observatory), and now there is in Europe a proposal for a demonstration satellite submitted to ESA as GOMAS (Geostationary Observatory for Microwave Atmospheric Sounding). To overcome the problem of resolution, use of Sub-mm fre- quencies is envisaged: e.g., at 425 GHz, a 10-km resolution at nadir would require a 3-m antenna. The observing principle is based on the use of absorption bands of oxygen (54, 118 and 425 GHz) and of water vapour (183 and 380 GHz). Narrow- bandwidths channels are implemented (for a total of about 40 in the five bands) so as to observe the full profile of temperature and water vapour. Profiles from different bands are differently affected by liquid and ice water of different drop size, and fi- nally by precipitation. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature/humidity profiles, cloud liquid/ice water (total-columns and gross profile) and precipitation rate is in principle possible, and partially demonstrated by several airborne MW/Sub-mm instruments. To transfer this demonstrations in the geostationary orbit, the problem of radiometric sensitivity (additional to that one of the antenna size) has to be solved. With current technology, it is feasible to get sufficient accuracy if scan is limited to about 1/12 of the Earth disk, which is sufficient to abundantly cover Europe, the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic. The imaged area can be moved everywhere within the disk

  5. Study on the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange with A-Train Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonige, D. W.; McMillan, W.; Sparling, L.; Avery, M.; Diskin, G.; Sachse, G.; Browell, E.; Hair, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    An understanding of isentropic transport of trace atmospheric constituents near the jet stream and frontal boundaries provides insight to the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system. Observations from NASA's A- Train satellites can assist in the determination of the global frequency, distribution and spatial extent of irreversible mixing of chemical species due to stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). The Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) onboard the Aura satellite yield high vertical resolution profiles of ozone, water vapor, and other trace species that capture the vertical structure of STE along upper tropospheric fronts associated with the jet stream as well as cut-off low- pressure systems. The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard the Aqua satellite supplies wider horizontal coverage of the same atmospheric tracers near STE. Together, these A-Train instruments provide a more complete three-dimensional view of STE than previously possible. We explore the temporal and spatial evolution of STE events over the Pacific Ocean originating off the eastern coast of China and traveling along the storm track to the North American west coast, during NASA's Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - Phase B (INTEX-B) in April and May of 2006. To study the variability of the STE events, we use chemical and dynamical analyses, including tracer-tracer correlations from A-Train observations and potential vorticity gradients from the NCEP's NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis) data in the vicinity of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. We also compare our observations with in-situ and aircraft remote sensing measurements of similar trace gases evaluating the satellite instruments' sensitivity in the troposphere and stratosphere.

  6. Operational evapotranspiration based on Earth observation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Barrios, Jose-Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Geostationary satellites have the potential to follow fast evolving atmospheric and Earth surface phenomena such those related to cloud cover evolution and diurnal cycle. Since about 15 years, EUMETSAT has set up a network named 'Satellite Application Facility' (SAF, http://www.eumetsat.int/website/home/Satellites/GroundSegment/Safs/index.html) to complement its ground segment. The Land Surface Analysis (LSA) SAF (http://landsaf.meteo.pt/) is devoted to the development of operational products derived from the European meteorological satellites. In particular, an evapotranspiration (ET) product has been developed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. Instantaneous and daily integrated results are produced in near real time and are freely available respectively since the end of 2009 and 2010. The products cover Europe, Africa and the Eastern part of South America with the spatial resolution of the SEVIRI sensor on-board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites. The ET product algorithm (Ghilain et al., 2011) is based on a simplified Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere transfer (SVAT) scheme, forced with MSG derived radiative products (LSA SAF short and longwave surface fluxes, albedo). It has been extensively validated against in-situ validation data, mainly FLUXNET observations, demonstrating its good performances except in some arid or semi-arid areas. Research has then been pursued to develop an improved version for those areas. Solutions have been found in reviewing some of the model parameterizations and in assimilating additional satellite products (mainly vegetation indices and land surface temperature) into the model. The ET products will be complemented with related latent and sensible heat fluxes, to allow the monitoring of land surface energy partitioning. The new algorithm version should be tested in the LSA-SAF operational computer system in 2016 and results should become accessible to beta-users/regular users by the end of 2016/early 2017. In

  7. New Insight into Polar Stratospheric Cloud Processes from A-Train Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.

    2016-12-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play essential roles in the chemical depletion of stratospheric ozone at high latitudes. Heterogeneous reactions occurring on PSC particles, primarily supercooled ternary (H2SO4-H2O-HNO3) solution (STS) droplets, convert stable chlorine reservoir species to highly reactive ozone-destructive forms. Also, sedimentation and evaporation of large nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles irreversibly redistributes odd nitrogen and prolongs ozone depletion by slowing the reformation of stable chlorine reservoirs. Even after three decades of research, significant gaps in our understanding of PSC processes still exist, particularly concerning NAT nucleation and the extent to which chlorine is activated on cold background aerosol prior to PSC formation. These uncertainties limit our ability to represent PSCs accurately in global models and call into question predictions of ozone recovery in a changing climate. PSC observations from the A-Train satellite constellation have stimulated a number of new research activities that have both extended and challenged our knowledge of PSC processes and modeling capabilities. Specifically, the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar on the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite is providing information on PSC morphology and composition in unprecedented detail, while the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite is providing nearly coincident measurements of gas-phase HNO3 and H2O, the major constituents of all PSC particles. The combined analyses of these datasets enable better PSC composition discrimination and provide valuable new insight into processes such as PSC-catalyzed chlorine activation and PSC particle growth kinetics. The more than ten years of CALIOP and MLS measurements have uniquely captured the primary aspects of the seasonal and multi-year variability of PSCs in the Arctic and Antarctic and are enabling the

  8. Evaluation of cloud resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-Train observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlbauer, A. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates cloud resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-train satellites. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in GCMs and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating the microphysical, macrophysical and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable

  9. Development and characterization of Carbon Observing Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Lin, Chao; Zheng, Yuquan; Wang, Wenquan; Tian, Longfei; Liu, Dongbin; Li, Shuai

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Observing Satellite (Tan-Sat) is the first satellite of China designed to monitor column-averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide (X) by detecting gas absorption spectra of the solar shortwave infrared radiation reflected from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Two instruments are accommodated on Tan-Sat: the high resolution hyperspectral sensor for carbon observation grating spectrometer (HRHS-GS) and the cloud and aerosol polarimetric imager (CAPI). HRHS-GS will provide the space-based measurements of CO2 on a scale and with the accuracy and precision to quantify terrestrial sources and sinks of CO2. CAPI is used to identify the contamination by optically thick clouds and to minimize the impact of scattering by aerosol. These two instruments work together to collect global column CO2 concentrations with correction for cloud and aerosol contamination. The instrument design of HRHS-GS is presented. Ocean reflectivity and the incident radiation of the instrument for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations in glint mode are discussed. The changes to glint mode operation are described. The spectral characteristics of HRHS-GS were determined through the laser-based spectral calibration. The onboard spectral calibration method based on spectrum matching is introduced. The availability was verified, satisfying the onboard spectral calibration accuracy requirement of better than Δλ/10 (Δλ is spectral resolution).

  10. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2σ significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  11. Commercial observation satellites: broadening the sources of geospatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John C.; O'Connell, Kevin M.; Venzor, Jose A.

    2002-09-01

    Commercial observation satellites promise to broaden substantially the sources of imagery data available to potential users of geospatial data and related information products. We examine the new trend toward private firms acquiring and operating high-resolution imagery satellites. These commercial observation satellites build on the substantial experience in Earth observation operations provided by government-owned imaging satellites for civilian and military purposes. However, commercial satellites will require governments and companies to reconcile public and private interests in allowing broad public access to high-resolution satellite imagery data without creating national security risks or placing the private firms at a disadvantage compared with other providers of geospatial data.

  12. NASA Now: Orbital Mechanics: Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This NASA Now program is all about satellites and their orbits. Dr. James Gleason, project scientist for NPP, explains what it takes for a satellite to stay in orbit, why there are different types ...

  13. Cloudsat and MTSAT Satellites Observer Atsani

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This Aug. 19 image combines cloud imagery from Japan's MTSAT satellite and NASA's CloudSat satellite. Areas of pink and red designate larger amounts of liquid and ice. Light blue indicate smaller c...

  14. Estimating Soil Moisture from Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; VandeGriend, A. A.; deJeu, R.; deVries, J.; Seyhan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative research in microwave remote sensing between the Hydrological Sciences Branch of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Earth Sciences Faculty of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam began with the Botswana Water and Energy Balance Experiment and has continued through a series of highly successful International Research Programs. The collaboration between these two research institutions has resulted in significant scientific achievements, most notably in the area of satellite-based microwave remote sensing of soil moisture. The Botswana Program was the first joint research initiative between these two institutions, and provided a unique data base which included historical data sets of Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SN4NM) data, climate information, and extensive soil moisture measurements over several large experimental sites in southeast Botswana. These data were the basis for the development of new approaches in physically-based inverse modelling of soil moisture from satellite microwave observations. Among the results from this study were quantitative estimates of vegetation transmission properties at microwave frequencies. A single polarization modelling approach which used horizontally polarized microwave observations combined with monthly composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was developed, and yielded good results. After more precise field experimentation with a ground-based radiometer system, a dual-polarization approach was subsequently developed. This new approach realized significant improvements in soil moisture estimation by satellite. Results from the Botswana study were subsequently applied to a desertification monitoring study for the country of Spain within the framework of the European Community science research programs EFEDA and RESMEDES. A dual frequency approach with only microwave data was used for this application. The Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) was calculated from 37 GHz data

  15. Estimating Soil Moisture from Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; VandeGriend, A. A.; deJeu, R.; deVries, J.; Seyhan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative research in microwave remote sensing between the Hydrological Sciences Branch of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Earth Sciences Faculty of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam began with the Botswana Water and Energy Balance Experiment and has continued through a series of highly successful International Research Programs. The collaboration between these two research institutions has resulted in significant scientific achievements, most notably in the area of satellite-based microwave remote sensing of soil moisture. The Botswana Program was the first joint research initiative between these two institutions, and provided a unique data base which included historical data sets of Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SN4NM) data, climate information, and extensive soil moisture measurements over several large experimental sites in southeast Botswana. These data were the basis for the development of new approaches in physically-based inverse modelling of soil moisture from satellite microwave observations. Among the results from this study were quantitative estimates of vegetation transmission properties at microwave frequencies. A single polarization modelling approach which used horizontally polarized microwave observations combined with monthly composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was developed, and yielded good results. After more precise field experimentation with a ground-based radiometer system, a dual-polarization approach was subsequently developed. This new approach realized significant improvements in soil moisture estimation by satellite. Results from the Botswana study were subsequently applied to a desertification monitoring study for the country of Spain within the framework of the European Community science research programs EFEDA and RESMEDES. A dual frequency approach with only microwave data was used for this application. The Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) was calculated from 37 GHz data

  16. NASA A-Train and Terra Observations of the 2010 Russian Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; DaSilva, A.; Torres, O.; Levy, R.; Duncan, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires raged throughout western Russia and parts of Eastern Europe during a persistent heat wave in the summer of 2010. Anomalously high surface temperatures (35 - 41 C) and low relative humidity (9 - 25 %) from mid- June to mid-August 2010 shown by analysis of radiosonde data from multiple sites in western Russia were ideal conditions for the wildfires to thrive. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over western Russian indicate persistent subsidence during the heat wave. Daily three-day back-trajectories initiated over Moscow reveal a persistent anticyclonic circulation for 18 days in August, coincident with the most intense period of fire activity observed by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This unfortunate meteorological coincidence allowed transport of polluted air from the region of intense fires to Moscow and the surrounding area. We demonstrate that the 2010 Russian wildfires are unique in the record of observations obtained by remote-sensing instruments on-board NASA satellites: Aura and Aqua (part of the A-Train Constellation) and Terra. Analysis of the distribution of MODIS fire products and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), UV aerosol index (AI) and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and total column carbon monoxide (CO) from Aqua s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) show that the region in the center of western Russia surrounding Moscow (52-58 deg N, 33 -43 deg E) is most severely impacted by wildfire emissions. Over this area, AIRS CO, OMI AI, and MODIS AOT are significantly enhanced relative to the historical satellite record during the first 18 days in August when the anti-cyclonic circulation persisted. By mid-August, the anti-cyclonic circulation was replaced with westerly transport over Moscow and vicinity. The heat wave

  17. Investigations of earth dynamics from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The consequences of the earth's elasticity are examined for close-earth satellites. The ideas of polar motion and earth tides are developed in a form applicable to satellite studies, since the polar motion, the body tide, and the ocean tide are all suitable for study by use of satellites. Analysis of available polar-motion data is performed.

  18. Ionospheric TEC observations from TOPEX satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimer, J.A.; Ewell, V.R.; Lee, M.C.; Doherty, P.H.; Decker, D.T.; Anderson, D.N.; Klobuchar, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Variability of Total Electron Content (TEC) in the equatorial anomaly region of the ionosphere can be studied extensively using the results of measurements taken by the NASA/CNES satellite, TOPEX/Poseidon. The NASA radar altimeter (NRA) is the first space-borne dual-frequency altimeter capable of accurately measuring vertical ionospheric TEC below 1,340 km. TOPEX TEC observations have already been used to support results from an ionospheric measurement campaign that was conducted in equatorial anomaly regions of South America by Phillips Laboratory in Spring, 1994. The best agreement in TEC values is seen during intervals of longitudinal proximity of the satellites` paths. The TOPEX over-ocean data can be used as a supplement to land based measurements in applications to ionospheric research at low and middle latitudes. This study focuses on comparisons between TOPEX vertical TEC data and GPS equivalent vertical TEC measurements taken near the East and West coastal regions of South America. Also the Phillips Laboratory Global Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) is utilized in an effort to estimate slant to vertical conversion errors.

  19. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  20. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  1. Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attié, J.-L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2013-06-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite datasets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background model-based field is replaced by a satellite dataset, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these datasets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS/TES and AIRS/MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only retrievals, and improved coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  2. Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attié, J.-L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background model-based field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  3. Satellite Observations of the Epic California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Thomas, B. F.; Reager, J. T., II; Castle, S. L.; David, C. H.; Thomas, A. C.; Andreadis, K.; Argus, D. F.; Behrangi, A.; Farr, T.; Fisher, J. B.; Landerer, F. W.; Lo, M. H.; Molotch, N. P.; Painter, T. H.; Rodell, M.; Schimel, D.; Swenson, S. C.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As California enters its third year of drought, questions of future water sustainability are inevitable. Snowpack, soil moisture, streamflow, reservoir and groundwater levels are at record lows. Mandatory water restrictions are being implemented, statewide fines for wasting water have been authorized, and billions of dollars and tens of thousands of jobs have been lost. Enhanced monitoring and modeling of the state's dwindling water supplies can help manage what remains while looking forward to a post-drought, sustainable water future. Here we demonstrate the role of satellite observations in comprehensive drought characterization and monitoring. In particular we highlight changing water supply, declining groundwater and reservoir levels, agricultural and urban stress. Potential contributions to water management will be discussed.

  4. Industrial use of land observation satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. B., III

    1984-01-01

    The principal industrial users of land observation satellite systems are the geological industries; oil/gas, mining, and engineering/environmental companies. The primary system used is LANDSAT/MSS. Currently, use is also being made of the limited amounts of SKYLAB photography, SEASAT and SIR-A radar, and the new LANDSAT/TM data available. Although considered experimental, LANDSAT data is now used operationally by several hundred exploration and engineering companies worldwide as a vastly improved geological mapping tool to help direct more expensive geophysical and drilling phases, leading to more efficient decision-making and results. Future needs include global LANDSAT/TM; higher spatial resolution; stereo and radar; improved data handling, processing distribution and archiving systems, and integrated geographical information systems (GIS). For a promising future, governments must provide overall continuity (government and/or private sector) of such systems, insure continued government R and D, and commit to operating internationally under the civil Open Skies policy.

  5. Satellite observation of atmospheric nuclear gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letaw, John R.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Silberberg, R.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite observations of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the earth's atmosphere in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV were obtained with a gamma-ray spectrometer during 1980-1983. A total of 20 atmospheric line features are superimposed on a continuum background which is modeled using a power law with an index of -1.16. The line energies and intensities are consistent with production by secondary neutrons interacting with atmospheric N-14 and O-16. The intensity and spectrum of photons at energies below the 511-keV line, in excess of a power law continuum, are explained by Compton scattering of the annihilation line photons in traversing an average of 21 g/sq cm of atmosphere.

  6. Arctic Warming Signals from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2005-01-01

    Global warming signals are expected to be amplified in the Arctic primarily because of ice-albedo feedback associated with the high reflectivity of ice and snow that blankets much of the region. The Arctic had been a poorly explored territory basically because of its general inaccessibility on account of extremely harsh weather conditions and the dominant presence of thick perennial ice in the region. The advent of satellite remote sensing systems since the 1960s, however, enabled the acquisition of synoptic data that depict in good spatial detail the temporal changes of many Arctic surface parameters. Among the surface parameters that have been studied using space based systems are surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, surface albedo and phytoplankton concentration. Associated atmospheric parameters, such as cloud cover, temperature profile, ozone concentration, and aerosol have also been derived. Recent observational and phenomenological studies have indeed revealed progressively changing conditions in the Arctic during the last few decades (e g , Walsh et al. 1996; Serreze et al 2000; Comiso and Parkinson 2004). The changes included declines in the extent and area of surfaces covered by sea ice and snow, increases in melt area over the Greenland ice sheets, thawing of the permafrost, warming in the troposphere, and retreat of the glaciers. These observations are consistent with the observed global warming that has been associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Karl and Trenberth 2003) and confirmed by modeling studies (Holland and Bitz, 2003). The Arctic system, however, is still not well understood complicated by a largely fluctuating wind circulation and atmospheric conditions (Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997) and controlled by what is now known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) which provides a measure of the strength of atmospheric activities in the region (Thompson and Wallace 1998). Meanwhile, the

  7. Evidence for Convective Invigoration from A-Train Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Sourdeval, Odran; Quaas, Johannes; Delanoë, Julien

    2016-04-01

    The 'convective invigoration' hypothesis posits that aerosol affects precipitating clouds by delaying the onset of precipitation until the cloud has grown above the freezing level, making more efficient ice-phase precipitation processes available and leading to more intense precipitation than would have been produced by the same cloud in a less polluted atmosphere. In the IPCC AR5, evidence for a systematic aerosol effect on precipitation intensity (i.e., not limited to individual storms) is described as 'limited and ambiguous'. We use a combined dataset of spaceborne radar (CloudSat) and lidar (CALIPSO) retrievals of precipitation and cloud thermodynamic phase to derive a climatology of rain occurrence from liquid-phase cloud ('warm rain') and ice-phase cloud ('cold rain'). The cloud-top phase of precipitating cloud serves as a proxy for rain intensity, with warm clouds preferentially producing drizzle and cold clouds preferentially producing more intense rain. This proxy is useful over land, where CloudSat does not retrieve precipitation intensity. In conjunction with aerosol data, the cloud-top phase can be used to test convective invigoration; according to the hypothesis, increasing aerosols should lead to an increase in the cold-rain fraction. We find that warm rain is extremely rare over the extratropical continents (1.5% of rain occurrences). Warm rain is rarer in the most polluted tercile of observations (measured by reanalysis dry AOD) over wide areas of land and ocean outside the tropics, consistent with expectations under the convective invigoration hypothesis. (In the tropics, the effect is reversed, presumably due to wet scavenging.) Extrapolating the observed relationship between warm-rain fraction and reanalysis dry AOD to preindustrial conditions shows a large anthropogenic aerosol influence on precipitation over the extratropical continents. We propose this as evidence supporting the convective invigoration hypothesis.

  8. Evidence for Convective Invigoration from A-Train Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mülmenstädt, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Sourdeval, O.; Quaas, J.; Delanoë, J.

    2015-12-01

    The 'convective invigoration' hypothesis posits that aerosol affects precipitating clouds by delaying the onset of precipitation until the cloud has grown above the freezing level, making more efficient ice-phase precipitation processes available and leading to more intense precipitation than would have been produced by the same cloud in a less polluted atmosphere. In the IPCC AR5, evidence for a systematic aerosol effect on precipitation intensity (i.e., not limited to individual storms) is described as 'limited and ambiguous'. We use a combined dataset of spaceborne radar (CloudSat) and lidar (CALIPSO) retrievals of precipitation and cloud thermodynamic phase to derive a climatology of rain occurrence from liquid-phase cloud ('warm rain') and ice-phase cloud ('cold rain'). The cloud-top phase of precipitating cloud serves as a proxy for rain intensity, with warm clouds preferentially producing drizzle and cold clouds preferentially producing more intense rain. This proxy is useful over land, where CloudSat does not retrieve precipitation intensity. In conjunction with aerosol data, the cloud-top phase can also be used to test convective invigoration; according to the hypothesis, increasing aerosols should lead to an increase in the cold-rain fraction. We find that warm rain is extremely rare over the extratropical continents (1.5% of rain occurrences). Warm rain is rarer in the most polluted tercile of observations (measured by reanalysis dry AOD) over wide areas of land and ocean outside the tropics, consistent with expectations under the convective invigoration hypothesis. (In the tropics, the effect is reversed, presumably due to wet scavenging.) Extrapolating the observed relationship between warm-rain fraction and reanalysis dry AOD to preindustrial conditions shows a large anthropogenic aerosol influence on precipitation over the extratropical continents. We propose this as evidence supporting the convective invigoration hypothesis.

  9. Monitoring vegetation using DOAS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigemeier, E.; Beirle, S.; Marbach, T.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2009-04-01

    Vegetation-cycles are of general interest for many applications. Be it for harvest-predictions, global monitoring of climate-change or as input to atmospheric models. From novel spectrally resolving UV/vis satellite instruments (like GOME of SCIAMACHY) the spectral signatures of different types of vegetation can be identified and analysed. Although the spatial resolution of GOME and SCIAMACHY observations is much coarser than those of conventional satellite instruments for vegetation monitoring, our data sets on different vegetation types add new and useful information, not obtainable from other sources. Common Vegetation Indices use the fact that the difference between Red and Near Infrared reflection is higher than in any other material on Earth's surface. This gives a very high degree of confidence for vegetation-detection. The spectrally resolving data from GOME and SCIAMACHY provide the chance to concentrate on finer spectral features throughout the Red and Near Infrared spectrum. We look at these using a technique known as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Although originally developed to retrieve information on trace gases, it can also be used to gain information on vegetation. Another advantage is that this method automatically corrects for changes in the atmosphere. This renders the vegetation-information easily comparable over long time-spans. In addition, high-frequency-structures from vegetation also effect the retrieval of tropospheric trace-gases and aerosols. To optimize vegetation monitoring with DOAS we produce spectrally resolved reference spectra from different vegetation types. We investigate how well we will be able to distinguish vegetation types from space. This will also be valuable for monitoring global vegetation-cycles over long time spans. Preliminary results will be presented here.

  10. Monitoring vegetation using DOAS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigemeier, E.; Beirle, S.; Marbach, T.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation-cycles are of general interest for many applications. Be it for harvest-predictions, global monitoring of climate-change or as input to atmospheric models. From novel spectrally resolving UV/vis satellite instruments (like GOME or SCIAMACHY) the spectral signatures of different types of vegetation can be identified and analysed. Although the spatial resolution of GOME and SCIAMACHY observations is much coarser than those of conventional satellite instruments for vegetation monitoring, our data sets on different vegetation types add new and useful information, not obtainable from other sources. Common vegetation indices are based on the fact that the difference between Red and Near Infrared reflection is higher than in any other material on Earth’s surface. This gives a very high degree of confidence for vegetation-detection. The spectrally resolving data from GOME and SCIAMACHY provide the chance to concentrate on finer spectral features throughout the red and near infrared spectrum. We look at these features using a technique known as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Although originally developed to retrieve information on trace gases, it can also be used to gain information on vegetation. Another advantage is that this method automatically corrects for atmospheric effects. This renders the vegetation-information easily comparable over long time-spans. In addition, high-frequency-structures from vegetation also effect the retrieval of tropospheric trace-gases and aerosols. To optimize vegetation monitoring with DOAS we produce spectrally resolved reference spectra from different vegetation types using our own instrumentation. We analyze the effect of different Pigments on high-frequency-structures of the DOAS Retrieval. Applying these results we investigate how well we can distinguish vegetation types from space.

  11. Monitoring vegetation using DOAS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigemeier, Ellen; Beirle, Steffen; Marbach, Thierry; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation-cycles are of general interest for many applications. Be it for harvest-predictions, global monitoring of climate-change or as input to atmospheric models. From novel spectrally resolving UV/vis satellite instruments (like GOME or SCIAMACHY) the spectral signatures of different types of vegetation can be identified and analysed. Although the spatial resolution of GOME and SCIAMACHY observations is much coarser than those of conventional satellite instruments for vegetation monitoring, our data sets on different vegetation types add new and useful information, not obtainable from other sources. Common vegetation indices are based on the fact that the difference between Red and Near Infrared reflection is higher than in any other material on Earth's surface. This gives a very high degree of confidence for vegetation-detection. The spectrally resolving data from GOME and SCIAMACHY provide the chance to concentrate on finer spectral features throughout the red and near infrared spectrum. We look at these features using a technique known as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Although originally developed to retrieve information on trace gases, it can also be used to gain information on vegetation. Another advantage is that this method automatically corrects for atmospheric effects. This renders the vegetation-information easily comparable over long time-spans. In addition, high-frequency-structures from vegetation also effect the retrieval of tropospheric trace-gases and aerosols. To optimize vegetation monitoring with DOAS we produce spectrally resolved reference spectra from different vegetation types using our own instrumentation. We analyze the effect of different Pigments on high-frequency-structures of the DOAS Retrieval. Applying these results we investigate how well we can distinguish vegetation types from space.

  12. Satellite observation of atmospheric nuclear gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Letaw, J R; Share, G H; Kinzer, R L; Silberberg, R; Chupp, E L; Forrest, D J; Rieger, E

    1989-02-01

    We present a satellite observation of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV. The data were accumulated by the gamma ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission over 3 1/2 years, from 1980 to 1983. The excellent statistical accuracy of the data allows 20 atmospheric line features to be identified. The features are superimposed on a continuum background which is modeled using a power law with index -1.16. Many of these features contain a blend of more than one nuclear line. All of these lines (with the exception of the 511-keV annihilation line) are Doppler broadened. Line energies and intensities are consistent with production by secondary neutrons interacting with atmospheric 14N and 16O. Although we find no evidence for other production mechanisms, we cannot rule out significant contributions from direct excitation or spallation by primary cosmic ray protons. The relative intensities of the observed line features are in fair agreement with theoretical models; however, existing models are limited by the availability of neutron cross sections, especially at high energies. The intensity and spectrum of photons at energies below the 511-keV line, in excess of a power law continuum, can be explained by Compton scattering of the annihilation line photons in traversing an average of approximately 21 g cm-2 of atmosphere.

  13. Satellite observations of temporal terrestrial features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabchevsky, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of satellite data to earth resources and environmental studies and the effects of resolution of the photographs and imagery are discussed. The nature of the data acquired by manned space flight and unmanned satellites is described. Specific applications of remotely sensed data for oceanography, hydrology, geography, and geology are examined.

  14. Satellite observations of ground water changes in New Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2002 NASA launched the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE consists of two satellites with a separation of about 200 km.  By accurately measuring the separation between the twin satellites, the differences in the gravity field can be determined. Monthly observ...

  15. Solar energy microclimate as determined from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for determining solar insolation at the earth's surface using satellite broadband visible radiance and cloud imagery data, along with conventional in situ measurements. Conventional measurements are used to both tune satellite measurements and to develop empirical relationships between satellite observations and surface solar insolation. Cloudiness is the primary modulator of sunshine. The satellite measurements as applied in this method consider cloudiness both explicitly and implicitly in determining surface solar insolation at space scales smaller than the conventional pyranometer network.

  16. Improved Ozone Profile Retrievals Using Multispectral Measurements from NASA 'A Train' Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Worden, J.; Livesey, N. J.; Irion, F. W.; Schwartz, M. J.; Bowman, K. W.; Pawson, S.; Wargan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ozone, a radiatively and chemically important trace gas, plays various roles in different altitude ranges in the atmosphere. In the stratosphere, it absorbs the solar UV radiation from the Sun and protects us from sunburn and skin cancers. In the upper troposphere, ozone acts as greenhouse gas. Ozone in the middle troposphere reacts with many anthropogenic pollutants and cleans up the atmosphere. Near surface ozone is harmful to human health and plant life. Accurate monitoring of ozone vertical distributions is crucial for a better understanding of air quality and climate change. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are both in orbit on the Earth Observing System Aura satellite and are providing ozone concentration profile measurements. MLS observes limb signals from 118 GHz to 2.5 THz, and measures upper tropospheric and stratospheric ozone concentration (among many other species) with a vertical resolution of about 3 km. OMI is a nadir-viewing pushbroom ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) imaging spectrograph that measures backscattered radiances covering the 270-500 nm wavelength range. AIRS is a grating spectrometer, on EOS Aqua satellite, that measures the thermal infrared (TIR) radiances emitted by Earth's surface and by gases and particles in the spectral range 650 - 2665 cm-1. We present an approach to combine simultaneously measured UV and TIR radiances together with the retrieved MLS ozone fields, to improve the ozone sounding. This approach has the potential to provide a decadal record of ozone profiles with an improved spatial coverage and vertical resolution from space missions. For evaluating the quality of retrieved profiles, we selected a set of AIRS and OMI measurements, whose ground pixels were collocated with ozonesonde launch sites. The results from combination of these measurements are presented and discussed. The improvements on vertical resolution of tropospheric ozone profiles from the MLS/AIRS/OMI joint

  17. Satellite observations of a monsoon depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, C.

    1984-01-01

    The exploration of a monsoon depression over Burma and the Bay of Bengal is discussed. Aircraft and satellite data were examined, with an emphasis on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) aboard TIROS-N and the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) aboard Nimbus-7. The structure of the monsoon depression was found to be dominated by cumulus convection. The only systematic large scale behavior discerned was a propagation of the depression westward, and diurnal migration of contours of brightness temperature. These contours in the middle troposphere showed a gradient toward the north with the patterns migrating northward at night. From SMMR and dropwindsonde data, water vapor contents were found to be near 65 mm, increasing to more than 70 mm in the northeast Bay of Bengal. Cloud water contents reached about three mm. Rainfall rates exceeding 5.7 mm/h occurred over a small part of the storm area, while mean rainfall rates in areas of order 20,000 sq km reached approximately 0.5 mm/h. Measured MSU brightness temperatures were reconciled very well with dropwindsonde data and with airborne in situ observations of clouds (by photography) and hydrometeors (by radar). Diffuse scattering was determined to be important in computing brightness temperature.

  18. Earth Observing Satellite Orbit Design Via Particle Swarm Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Earth Observing Satellite Orbit Design Via Particle Swarm Optimization Sharon Vtipil ∗ and John G. Warner ∗ US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...DC, 20375, United States Designing the orbit of an Earth observing satellite is generally tedious work. Typically, a large number of numerical...orbit parameters. This methodology only pertains to a single satellite in a circular orbit. I. Introduction Designing the orbit of an Earth observing

  19. Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Davis, Curtiss O.

    1999-10-01

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have initiated the Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technology (HRST) program to demonstrate the utility of a hyperspectral earth-imaging system to support Naval needs for characterization of the littoral regions of the world. One key component of the HRST program is the development of the Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) satellite system to provide a large hyperspectral data base. NEMO will carry the Coastal Ocean Imaging Spectrometer (COIS) which will provide images of littoral regions with 210 spectral channels over a bandpass of 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer. Since ocean environments have reflectances typically less than 5%, this system requires a very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). COIS will sample over a 30 km swath width with a 60 m Ground Sample Distance (GSD) with the ability to go to a 30 m GSD by utilizing the systems attitude control system to 'nod' (i.e., use ground motion compensation to slow down the ground track of the field of view). Also included in the payload is a co-registered 5 m Panchromatic Imager (PIC) to provide simultaneous high spatial resolution imagery. A sun-synchronous, 97.81 degree inclination, circular orbit of 605 km allows continuous repeat coverage of the whole earth. One unique aspect of NEMO is an on-board processing system, a feature extraction and data compression software package developed by NRL called the Optical Real-Time Spectral Identification System (ORASIS). ORASIS employs a parallel, adaptive hyperspectral method for real time scene characterization, data reduction, background suppression, and target recognition. The use of ORASIS is essential for management of the massive amounts of data expected from the NEMO HSI system, and for developing Naval products under HRST. The combined HSI and panchromatic images will provide critical phenomenology to aid in the operation of Naval systems in the littoral environment. The imagery can also satisfy a number of

  20. Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT and NOAA satellites data were used to study snow depth. These snow measurements were used to help forecast runoff and flooding. Many areas of California, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming were emphasized.

  1. Small Aperture Telescope Observations of Co-located Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Wallace, B.

    As geostationary orbit (GEO) continues to be populated, satellite operators are increasing usage of co-location techniques to maximize usage of fewer GEO longitude slots. Co-location is an orbital formation strategy where two or more geostationary satellites reside within one GEO stationkeeping box. The separation strategy used to prevent collision between the co-located satellites generally uses eccentricity (radial separation) and inclination (latitude separation) vector offsets. This causes the satellites to move in relative motion ellipses about each other as the relative longitude drift between the satellites is near zero. Typical separations between the satellites varies from 1 to 100 kilometers. When co-located satellites are observed by optical ground based space surveillance sensors the participants appear to be separated by a few minutes of arc or less in angular extent. Under certain viewing geometries, these satellites appear to visually conjunct even though the satellites are, in fact, well separated spatially. In situations where one of the co-located satellites is more optically reflective than the other, the reflected sunglint from the more reflective satellite can overwhelm the other. This less frequently encountered issue causes the less reflective satellite to be glint masked in the glare of the other. This paper focuses on space surveillance observations on co-located Canadian satellites using a small optical telescope operated by Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa. The two above mentioned problems (cross tagging and glint masking) are investigated and we quantify the results for Canadian operated geostationary satellites. The performance of two line element sets when making in-frame CCD image correlation between the co-located satellites is also examined. Relative visual magnitudes between the co-located members are also inspected and quantified to determine the susceptibility of automated telescopes to glint masking of co-located satellite members.

  2. On preparing UKIRT to observe satellites and orbital debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Richard L.; Bold, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    In 2013 the process of developing an Orbital Debris and Satellite observation capability for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope was initiated. This process involved the modification of various operational aspects of the observatory. After a year of implementing the modifications the observatory was capable of providing deep space observations of orbital debris and satellites in a queue based format. The telescope has been operating with this capability for the past 2.5 years and has generated terabytes of observational data on orbital debris and satellites that are in the GEO satellite belt distributed across the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Imaging artificial satellites: An observational challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Hill, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, as of the beginning of 2016 there are 1381 active satellites orbiting the Earth, and the United States' Space Surveillance Network tracks about 8000 manmade orbiting objects of baseball-size and larger. NASA estimates debris larger than 1 cm to number more than half a million. The largest ones can be seen by eye—unresolved dots of light that move across the sky in minutes. For most astrophotographers, satellites are annoying streaks that can ruin hours of work. However, capturing a resolved image of an artificial satellite can pose an interesting challenge for a student, and such a project can provide connections between objects in the sky and commercial and political activities here on Earth.

  4. Retrievals of Effective Aerosol Layer Height and Single Scattering Albedo for Biomass-Burning Smoke and Mineral Dust Aerosols from A-Train Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M.; Hsu, C.

    2010-12-01

    Launches of state-of-the-art satellite sensors dedicated to aerosol remote sensing in recent years marked the beginning of a new era in aerosol-related studies by virtue of the well-coordinated observing system consisting of an array of satellites flown in formation, so called A-Train (Afternoon satellites constellation). The capabilities of the individual sensors aboard the A-Train satellites are complementary and overlapping in terms of retrievable aerosol parameters, sensitivity, spatial resolution and coverage. Thus, there is a great potential to gain value-added information about aerosols by merging observations from the A-Train sensors. In this study, we introduce a new algorithm, which can be utilized to derive aerosol layer height (ALH) and single scattering albedo (SSA) for biomass-burning smoke and airborne mineral dust aerosols by synthesizing observations from three A-Train satellite sensors: CALIOP, MODIS, and OMI. By using this algorithm, it is presented that ALH and SSA of biomass-burning smoke aerosols over North America, Southeast Asia, and Europe can be derived successfully. We show the retrieved values of SSA bear reasonable agreements with those from AERONET. The results of this study also reveal that the algorithm has a basic skill to estimate ALH by combining only MODIS and OMI observations, allowing us to separate smoke aerosols residing within the boundary layer from those elevated in the free troposphere. Currently, another version of the algorithm to be applicable for mineral dust aerosols is under development, and earlier results will be presented. Results from this study are expected to provide a better understanding of transport and radiative effects of biomass-burning smoke and mineral dust aerosols.

  5. Optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.; Loecherbach, E.

    1991-10-01

    The current development status of optical communication engineering in comparison to the conventional microwave systems and the different configurations of the optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems are described. An outlook to future optical communication satellite systems is given. During the last decade Earth observation became more and more important for the extension of the knowledge about our planet and the human influence on nature. Today pictures taken by satellites are used, for example, to discover mineral resources or to predict harvest, crops, climate, and environment variations and their influence on the population. A new and up to date application for Earth observation satellites can be the verification of disarmament arrangements and the control of crises areas. To solve these tasks a system of Earth observing satellites with sensors tailored to the envisaged mission is necessary. Besides these low Earth orbiting satellites, a global Earth observation system consists of at least two data relay satellites. The communication between the satellites will be established via Inter-Satellite Links (ISL) and Inter-Orbit Links (IOL). On these links, bitrates up to 1 Gbit/s must be taken into account. Due to the increasing scarcity of suitable frequencies, higher carrier frequencies must probably be considered, and possible interference with terrestrial radio relay systems are two main problems for a realization in microwave technique. One important step to tackle these problems is the use of optical frequencies for IOL's and ISL's.

  6. Revisiting the iris effect of tropical cirrus clouds with TRMM and A-Train satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong-Sang; Kim, WonMoo; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Masunaga, Hirohiko; Kwon, Min-Jae; Jo, Hyun-Su; Huang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Just as the iris of human eye controls the light influx (iris effect), tropical anvil cirrus clouds may regulate the Earth's surface warming by controlling outgoing longwave radiation. This study examines this possible effect with monthly satellite observations such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cirrus fraction, and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes averaged over different tropical domains from March 2000 to October 2014. To confirm that high-level cirrus is relevant to this study, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization high cloud observations were also analyzed from June 2006 to December 2015. Our analysis revealed that the increase in sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific tends to concentrate convective cloud systems. This concentration effect very likely induces the significant reduction of both stratiform rain rate and cirrus fraction, without appreciable change in the convective rain rate. This reduction of stratiform rain rate and cirrus fraction cannot be found over its subregion or the tropical eastern Pacific, where the concentration effect of anvil cirrus is weak. Consistently, over the tropical western Pacific, the higher ratio of convective rain rate to total rain rate (i.e., precipitation efficiency) significantly correlates with warmer sea surface temperature and lower cirrus fraction. The reduced cirrus eventually increased outgoing longwave radiation to a greater degree than absorbed solar radiation. Finally, the negative relationship between precipitation efficiency and cirrus fraction tends to correspond to a low global equilibrium climate sensitivity in the models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This suggests that tropical anvil cirrus clouds exert a negative climate feedback in strong association with precipitation efficiency.

  7. Satellite Observations of the Earth's Radiation Budget.

    PubMed

    Haar, T H; Suomi, V E

    1969-02-14

    Meteorological satellites have provided the first complete data on energy exchange between earth and space. The planetary albedo is 29 percent for the mean annual case, and the entire earth-atmosphere system is in near radiative equilibrium. More energy is absorbed in tropical regions than previously believed, and major energy source and sink regions exist within latitude belts.

  8. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System report outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite Measurements, and models to integrate the observations into a 4-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space a...

  9. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System report outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite Measurements, and models to integrate the observations into a 4-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space a...

  10. The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Carolynne

    1990-01-01

    The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

  11. The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers

    SciTech Connect

    White, C. )

    1990-11-01

    The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

  12. The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Carolynne

    1990-01-01

    The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

  13. Satellite Observed Changes in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Parkinson, Claire L.

    2004-01-01

    The Arctic is currently considered an area in transformation. Glaciers have been retreating, permafrost has been diminishing, snow covered areas have been decreasing, and sea ice and ice sheets have been thinning. This paper provides an overview of the unique role that satellite sensors have contributed in the detection of changes in the Arctic and demonstrates that many of the changes are not just local but a pan-Arctic phenomenon. Changes from the upper atmosphere to the surface are discussed and it is apparent that the magnitude of the trends tends to vary from region to region and from season to season. Previous reports of a warming Arctic and a retreating perennial ice cover have also been updated, and results show that changes are ongoing. Feedback effects that can lead to amplification of the signals and the role of satellite data in enhancing global circulation models are also discussed.

  14. Satellite Observations of Arctic and Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, A.; Santee, M. L.; Wu, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    We present an overview of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and atmospheric composition during the 2008-2012 Arctic and Antarctic seasons using A-Train measurements of lidar backscatter and gas phase concentrations of HNO3, H2O, HCl and ClO. The processes of denitrification, dehydration and chlorine activation are investigated. PSC types are classified using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite which measures vertical profiles of aerosol and cloud backscatter at 532 nm (total and perpendicular polarization) and 1064 nm. Ambient temperature/pressure profiles and constituent gases are obtained from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Since April 2008 these two instruments have flown in close formation in the A-Train, maintaining colocation across track to less than 10 km and with temporal sampling differences less than 30 seconds.

  15. Remote Observation of Volcanos by Small Satellite Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Klaus; Zakšek, Klemen

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic eruptions, severe storms, or desert dust can seriously jeopardize the safety of the air traffic. To prevent encounters of airplanes with such clouds it is necessary to accurately monitor the cloud top heights, which is impossible using currently operational satellites. The most commonly used method for satellite cloud height estimation compares brightness temperature of the cloud with the atmospheric temperature profile. Because of its many uncertainties we propose to exploit the formation of four satellites providing images for photogrammetric analysis. Simultaneous observations from multiple satellites is necessary, because clouds can move with velocities over several m/s. With the proposed mission, we propose a formation of nano-satellites that simultaneously observe the clouds from different positions and orientations. The proposed formation of four satellites will fly in the same orbit with a distance between each satellite of 100 km on the height of 600 km. There are autonomous reaction capabilities realized to focus all satellites on the same surface point for joint observations, enabling by postprocessing 3D surface images. Each satellite will carry a camera operating in visible spectrum providing data with 35 m spatial resolution. Such data will make possible to monitor multilayer clouds with a vertical accuracy of 200 m.

  16. Astrographic observations of the major Uranian satellites from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    This article provides the reduced astrographic observations of the major Uranian satellites derived from star-satellite imaging data acquired by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The data set contains 445 sets of spacecraft-centered right ascension and declination observations and includes all of the observations used in Voyager encounter operations. The conversion process from imaging to astrographic observations was identical to that used for the Neptunian satellites (Jacobson 1991). The effect of using the astrographic rather than imaging form in ephemeris improvement is evaluated.

  17. Astrographic observations of the major Uranian satellites from Voyager 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1992-12-01

    This article provides the reduced astrographic observations of the major Uranian satellites derived from star-satellite imaging data acquired by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The data set contains 445 sets of spacecraft-centered right ascension and declination observations and includes all of the observations used in Voyager encounter operations. The conversion process from imaging to astrographic observations was identical to that used for the Neptunian satellites (Jacobson 1991). The effect of using the astrographic rather than imaging form in ephemeris improvement is evaluated.

  18. On the development of earth observation satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Subsequent to the launching of the first LANDSAT by NASA, Japan has recognized the importance of data from earth observation satellites, has conducted studies, and is preparing to develop an independent system. The first ocean observation satellite will be launched in 1983, the second in 1985. The first land observation satellite is scheduled to be launched in 1987 and by 1990 Japan intends to have both land and ocean observation systems in regular operation. The association reception and data processing systems are being developed.

  19. Improved Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Profile Retrievals Using Multispectral Measurements from NASA "A Train", NPP, and TROPOMI Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Bowman, K. W.; Kulawik, S. S.; Miyazaki, K.; Worden, J. R.; Worden, H. M.; Livesey, N. J.; Payne, V.; Luo, M.; Natraj, V.; Veefkind, P.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.; Flynn, L. E.; Han, Y.; Liu, X.; Strow, L. L.; Kuai, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is at the juncture of air quality and climate. Ozone directly impacts human and plant health, and directly forces the climate system through absorption of thermal radiation. Carbon monoxide is a chemical precursor of greenhouse gases CO2 and tropospheric O3, and is also an ideal tracer of transport processes due to its medium life time (weeks to months). The Aqua-AIRS and Aura-OMI instruments in the NASA "A-Train", CrIS and OMPS instruments on the NOAA Suomi-NPP, IASI and GOME-2 on METOP and TROPOMI aboard the Sentinel 5 precursor (S5p) have the potential to provide the synoptic chemical and dynamical context for ozone necessary to quantify long-range transport at global scales and to provide an anchor to the near-term constellation of geostationary sounders: NASA TEMPO, ESA Sentinel 4, and the Korean GEMS. We introduce the JPL MUlti-SpEctral, MUlti-SpEcies, MUlti-SatEllite (MUSES) retrieval algorithm, which ingests panspectral observations across multiple platforms in a non-linear optimal estimation framework. MUSES incorporates advances in remote sensing science developed during the EOS-Aura era including rigorous error analysis diagnostics and observation operators needed for trend analysis, climate model evaluation, and data assimilation. Its performance has been demonstrated through prototype studies for multi-satellite missions (AIRS, CrIS, TROPOMI, TES, OMI, and OMPS). We present joint tropospheric ozone retrievals from AIRS/OMI and CrIS/OMPS over global scales, and demonstrate the potential of joint carbon monoxide profiles from TROPOMI/CrIS. These results indicate that ozone can be retrieved with ~2 degrees of freedom for signal (dofs) in the troposphere, which is similar to TES. Joint CO profiles have dofs similar to the MOPITT multispectral retrieval but with higher spatial resolution and coverage. Consequently, multispectral retrievals show promise in providing continuity with NASA EOS observations and pave the way towards a new

  20. Cloud observations with Nimbus-7 satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, L. L.; Hwang, P. H.; Bhartia, P. K.; Eck, T. F.

    1983-01-01

    A Nimbus-7 Cloud Data Processing Team was established in 1982 in order to implement cloud-related studies for as long as the spacecraft's Temperature Humidity IR radiometer and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer continue to operate. It will soon be possible to correlate the Nimbus-7 cloud cover information with International Satellite Cloud Climatology results. The production of validated Nimbus-7 cloud products was scheduled to begin in November, 1983; each year of Nimbus-7 cloud data should take about four months to produce.

  1. Activities and future plan of earth observation by satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakura, Yukio

    1980-09-01

    The Earth Observation Center of NASDA has been receiving MSS (multispectral scanner) and RBV (return beam vidicon) data from NASAs Landsat satellites since January 1979. The data are widely used for research and applications by government institutions, universities, industries, etc. The first of Japanese Earth observation satellite series, MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) which carries MESSR (visible and near-IR radiometer of push-broom scanning type), VTIR (visible and thermal IR radiometer), and MSR (microwave scanning radiometer), is under development with target date of its launch in 1984 FY.

  2. Satellite observations of suprathermal electron bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnstone, A. D.; Winningham, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Data from the ISIS 2 satellite are used to study the spatial distribution of the suprathermal electron bursts discovered by high-altitude sounding rockets. It is found that the bursts form an integral part of the boundary plasma sheet and are linked with the formation of discrete auroral arcs. The maximum energy of the bursts is always below the peak energy in neighboring discrete forms, and it appears that if the bursts fail to reach the minimum energy found to be necessary to sustain a discrete arc they collapse within a few seconds. It is suggested that in a pass across the auroral oval the overall envelope of the maximum energy in bursts and the peak energy in discrete auroral forms reflect the variation of the available acceleration (perhaps a parallel electric potential) across the auroral oval while the energy structure in individual forms is a function of the nonlinear processes which sustain them. This explanation appears to resolve the apparent discrepancy in scale thickness between rocket and satellite inverted V's.

  3. Observation of space debris and GEO satellites in Derenivka, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepishev, Vitaly; Molotov, Igor; Kouprianov, Vladimir; Perig, Vasyl; Nojbauer, Ivan; Motrunich, Ivan

    Laboratory of space researches observe artificial satellites from its creation time. Geostationary satellites are main line of interest. Also we observe low orbit satellites, get photometric curves of LEO objects. Photometry of satellites in emergency situations is another main line of interest in laboratory research. We obtain such photometry curves for satellites like “Phobos-Gunt”, “Egypt-Sat”, “Sich-2”. Analyzing such photometric curves we obtain information about satellite position in space, it's shape and orientation, and if there is enough information we can tell what happened with satellite. From year 2010 Laboratory start collaboration with ISON project. In Derenivka point (that is situated in 15 km from Uzhgorod city) was mounted 25 cm telescope Takahashi BRC-250M with CCD camera Apogee Alta U9 (2049 x 3079). Telescope was mounted on WS-180 equatorial mount. Installation works was finished in November 2010 and we start to observe GSO with a modern equipment. From that time we usually observe 30 - 35 thousand of measurements in year. In this year we plan to install another telescope 40 cm diameter for observation of faint objects of space debris.

  4. Multi-Satellite Observations of Oceanic Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeck, W. L.; Jacobson, A. R.; Christian, H. J.; Goodman, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present several case studies of active oceanic lightning storms. Measurements by instruments on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) platforms demonstrate that the two sets of sensors reinforce and complement one another. There is spatial and temporal coincidence between the optical data sets from Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on TRMM and the photo-diode detector on FORTE. The LIS flash analysis provides a framework to interpret the stroke level data from FORTE. For these cases, the VHF receiver on FORTE is slaved to the optical system to provide stroke level radio frequency (RF) diagnostics. The occasions when TRMM and FORTE simultaneously have a lightning storm in their overlapping fields of view are extremely rare. One case study in the Gulf of Mexico is within range of land based sensor networks. These networks confirm the interpretation of satellite data and well as provide context for the storm conditions.

  5. Thirty Years of Natural Satellites Mutual Events Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlot, Jean-eudes; Events Observers, Mutual

    2009-09-01

    Phenomena in the Solar System have been observed for years: solar and lunar eclipses, occultations of stars by the Moon and the asteroids, eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter. Since 1973, mutual occultations and eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus were observed extensively during each opportunity i.e. the equinox on the planet: why? The study of the systems of natural satellites needs to explore the dynamics of these objects: each small dynamical effect is the signature of some physical property. In order to validate the theoretical models, very accurate observations are needed. Most of the direct astrometric observations have their accuracy limited by the diffraction of the light in the telescope and by the star catalogues used for calibration. Phenomena have not this limitation: the accuracy is not in angle but in kilometres in space. Since, the observed satellites have no atmosphere, these photometric events are easy to analyse providing relative positions accurate to a few kilometres corresponding to a few mas in geocentric angle. More, during an occultation, the surface of the satellites may be studied: volcanoes of Io (positions and fluxes) were observed that way. Mutual events observations together with the best observations made since several decades allowed improving dynamical models of the satellites systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Concerning Io, the dissipation of energy in its internal structure by the Jovian tides has been made into evidence thanks to fitting the models on accurate observations including mutual events. Eight observational campaigns were organized for the Jovian satellites, three for the Saturnians and one for the Uranians providing more than 1400 light curves (see the data base at http://www.imcce.fr/fr/ephemerides/generateur/saimirror/obsindhe.htm ). The author acknowledges the numerous observers worldwide who provide the observations, the observatories permitting observations and the French CNRS who

  6. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Richard; Chipperfield, Martyn; Savage, Nick

    2014-05-01

    In this work the applicability of satellite observations to evaluate the operational UK Met Office Air Quality in the Unified Model (AQUM) have been investigated. The main focus involved the AQUM validation against satellite observations, investigation of satellite retrieval error types and of synoptic meteorological-atmospheric chemistry relationships simulated/seen by the AQUM/satellite. The AQUM is a short range forecast model of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols up to 5 days. It has been designed to predict potentially hazardous air pollution events, e.g. high concentrations of surface ozone. The AQUM has only been validated against UK atmospheric chemistry recording surface stations. Therefore, satellite observations of atmospheric chemistry have been used to further validate the model, taking advantage of better satellite spatial coverage. Observations of summer and winter 2006 tropospheric column NO2 from both OMI and SCIAMACHY show that the AQUM generally compares well with the observations. However, in northern England positive biases (AQUM - satellite) suggest that the AQUM overestimates column NO2; we present results of sensitivity experiments on UK emissions datasets suspected to be the cause. In winter, the AQUM over predicts background column NO2 when compared to both satellite instruments. We hypothesise that the cause is the AQUM winter night-time chemistry, where the NO2 sinks are not substantially defined. Satellite data are prone to errors/uncertainty such as random, systematic and smoothing errors. We have investigated these error types and developed an algorithm to calculate and reduce the random error component of DOAS NO2 retrievals, giving more robust seasonal satellite composites. The Lamb Weather Types (LWT), an objective method of classifying the daily synoptic weather over the UK, were used to create composite satellite maps of column NO2 under different synoptic conditions. Under cyclonic conditions, satellite observed UK column NO2 is

  7. Forecasting ultrafine particle concentrations from satellite and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, P.; Castruccio, S.; Pryor, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    Recent innovations in remote sensing technologies and retrievals offer the potential for predicting ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations from space. However, the use of satellite observations to provide predictions of near-surface UFP concentrations is limited by the high frequency of incomplete predictor values (due to missing observations), the lack of models that account for the temporal dependence of UFP concentrations, and the large uncertainty in satellite retrievals. Herein we present a novel statistical approach designed to address the first two limitations. We estimate UFP concentrations by using lagged estimates of UFP and concurrent satellite-based observations of aerosol optical properties, ultraviolet solar radiation flux, and trace gas concentrations, wherein an expectation maximization algorithm is used to impute missing values in the satellite observations. The resulting model of UFP (derived by using an autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs) explains 51 and 28% of the day-to-day variability in concentrations at two sites in eastern North America.

  8. Observing Climate with Satellites - Are We on Thin Ice?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton

    2012-01-01

    The Earth s climate is determined by irradiance from the Sun and properties of the atmosphere, oceans, and land that determine the reflection, absorption, and emission of energy within our atmosphere and at the Earth s surface. Since the 1970s, Earth-viewing satellites have complimented non-satellite geophysical observations with consistent, quantitative, and spatially-continuous measurements that have led to an unprecedented understanding of the Earth s climate system. I will describe the Earth s climate system as elaborated by satellite and in situ observations, review arguments against global warming, and show the convergence of evidence for human-caused warming of our planet.

  9. The use of satellite observations in ice cover simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preller, Ruth H.; Walsh, John E.; Maslanik, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Satellites can furnish observational data on ice cover over greater areas and for longer periods than field observations; a combination of visible or IR fine-resolution satellite imagery and radar altimetry, in conjunction with coarse-resolution data from passive microwave sources, have been used to verify and validate many numerical models of ice cover. Satellite passive microwave data are especially useful in the case of large-scale models used in studies of sea ice interannual variability. A number of remotely-sensed data sources are used by the NOAA's Joint Ice Center to create a qualitative weekly analysis of ice concentrations.

  10. Investigation of mesoscale meteorological phenomena as observed by geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite imagery plus conventional synoptic observations were used to examine three mesoscale systems recently observed by the GOES-EAST satellite. The three systems are an arc cloud complex (ACC), mountain lee wave clouds and cloud streets parallel to the wind shear. Possible gravity-wave activity is apparent in all three cases. Of particular interest is the ACC because of its ability to interact with other mesoscale phenomena to produce or enhance convection.

  11. Intermediate GRBs observed by various satellite experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    Firstly GRB duration distribution was analyzed on data of BATSE experiment onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) operated from April 1991 until to June 2000. Usually two GRBs groups separated in duration distribution: short and long. These types of events are classified due to analysis of duration of interval where integrated counts from the GRB raising from 5% to 95% (t90). The value t90 ∼ 2s is used as boundary between short and long events. However, in 1999 third burst subgroup (intermediate GRBs) was found due to GRBs duration and duration-hardness distributions analysis of 4B current BATSE catalogue (recently available as 5B one) in time interval of 0.8 s ≤ t90≤ 50 s. Since CGRO operation has finished, two satellite experiments GRBs catalogues BAT/Swift and GBM/Fermi contain the amount of bursts comparable with 4B current BATSE catalogue and it is sufficient for duration distribution precision investigation. The results of these distributions analysis are discussed. It allows concluding the appearance of intermediate GRB subgroup on data of three experiments: BATSE/CGRO, BAT/Swift and GBM/Fermi.

  12. ECC Ozonesonde Calibration and Observations: Satellite Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde depends on the care exercised in preparing the instrument for use. Although the ECC can be quickly prepared and flown, generally within less then one day if necessary, it is best to prepare the instrument at least one week prior to use, and as our tests have confirmed even 2-3 weeks prior to use may actually be better. There are a number of factors that must be considered when preparing an ECC. These basically are the pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and the background current. Also of importance is the concentration of the potassium iodide solution. Tests conducted at Wallops Island (38 N) has enabled us to identify potential problem areas and ways to avoid them. The calibration and pre-flight preparation methods will be discussed. The method of calibrating the ECC also is used at Ascension Island (8 S) and Natal, Brazil (5 S). Comparisons between vertical profiles of the ECC instrument and satellites will be reviewed as well as comparison with ground based instruments, such as, the Dobson Spectrophotometer and hand held Microtops photometers.

  13. Titan. [Voyager IRIS observation of satellite atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's satellite Titan is the second-largest in the solar system. Its dense atmosphere is mostly molecular nitrogen with an admixture of methane, a surface pressure of 1.5 bars and a surface temperature of 94K. The fundamental driving force in the long-term evolution of Titan's atmosphere is the photolysis of methane in the stratosphere to form higher hydrocarbons and aerosols. The current rate of photolysis and undersaturation of methane in the lower troposphere suggests the presence of a massive ethane-methane-nitrogen ocean. The ocean evolves to a more ethane-rich state over geologic time, driving changes in the atmospheric thermal structure. An outstanding issue concerning Titan's earliest history is the origin of atmospheric nitrogen: was it introduced into Titan as molecular nitrogen or ammonia? Measurement of the argon-to-nitrogen ratio in the present atmosphere provides a diagnostic test of these competing hypotheses. Many of the questions raised by the Voyager encounters about Titan and its atmosphere can be adequately addressed only by an entry probe, such as that planned for the Cassini mission.

  14. ECC Ozonesonde Calibration and Observations: Satellite Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde depends on the care exercised in preparing the instrument for use. Although the ECC can be quickly prepared and flown, generally within less then one day if necessary, it is best to prepare the instrument at least one week prior to use, and as our tests have confirmed even 2-3 weeks prior to use may actually be better. There are a number of factors that must be considered when preparing an ECC. These basically are the pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and the background current. Also of importance is the concentration of the potassium iodide solution. Tests conducted at Wallops Island (38 N) has enabled us to identify potential problem areas and ways to avoid them. The calibration and pre-flight preparation methods will be discussed. The method of calibrating the ECC also is used at Ascension Island (8 S) and Natal, Brazil (5 S). Comparisons between vertical profiles of the ECC instrument and satellites will be reviewed as well as comparison with ground based instruments, such as, the Dobson Spectrophotometer and hand held Microtops photometers.

  15. Observing tectonic plate motions and deformations from satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Klosko, S. M.; Torrence, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The scope of geodesy has been greatly affected by the advent of artificial near-earth satellites. The present paper provides a description of the results obtained from the reduction of data collected with the aid of satellite laser ranging. It is pointed out that dynamic reduction of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data provides very precise positions in three dimensions for the laser tracking network. The vertical components of the stations, through the tracking geometry provided by the global network and the accurate knowledge of orbital dynamics, are uniquely related to the center of mass of the earth. Attention is given to the observations, the methodologies for reducing satellite observations to estimate station positions, Lageos-observed tectonic plate motions, an improved temporal resolution of SLR plate motions, and the SLR vertical datum.

  16. VLBI observations of GNSS-satellites: from scheduling to analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Lucia; Hellerschmied, Andreas; McCallum, Jamie; Böhm, Johannes; Lovell, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of observing satellites with the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique has been discussed for several years in the geodetic community, with observations of either existing satellites of the global navigation satellite systems or of satellites dedicated to realise a space tie. Such observations were carried out using the Australian telescopes in Hobart and Ceduna which, for the first time, integrated all the necessary steps: planning the observations (automated scheduling), correlation of the data and the generation of a series of time delay observables suitable for a subsequent geodetic analysis. We report on the development of new and the adaptation of existing routines for observing and data processing, focusing on technology development. The aim was to use methods that are routinely used in geodetic VLBI. A series of test experiments of up to six hours duration was performed, allowing to improve the observations from session to session and revealing new problems still to be solved. The newly developed procedures and programs now enable more observations. Further development assumed, this bears the prospect of being directly applied to the observation of dedicated space-tie satellites.

  17. VLBI observations of GNSS-satellites: from scheduling to analysis.

    PubMed

    Plank, Lucia; Hellerschmied, Andreas; McCallum, Jamie; Böhm, Johannes; Lovell, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of observing satellites with the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique has been discussed for several years in the geodetic community, with observations of either existing satellites of the global navigation satellite systems or of satellites dedicated to realise a space tie. Such observations were carried out using the Australian telescopes in Hobart and Ceduna which, for the first time, integrated all the necessary steps: planning the observations (automated scheduling), correlation of the data and the generation of a series of time delay observables suitable for a subsequent geodetic analysis. We report on the development of new and the adaptation of existing routines for observing and data processing, focusing on technology development. The aim was to use methods that are routinely used in geodetic VLBI. A series of test experiments of up to six hours duration was performed, allowing to improve the observations from session to session and revealing new problems still to be solved. The newly developed procedures and programs now enable more observations. Further development assumed, this bears the prospect of being directly applied to the observation of dedicated space-tie satellites.

  18. VLBI observations of GNSS-satellites: from scheduling to analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Lucia; Hellerschmied, Andreas; McCallum, Jamie; Böhm, Johannes; Lovell, Jim

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of observing satellites with the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique has been discussed for several years in the geodetic community, with observations of either existing satellites of the global navigation satellite systems or of satellites dedicated to realise a space tie. Such observations were carried out using the Australian telescopes in Hobart and Ceduna which, for the first time, integrated all the necessary steps: planning the observations (automated scheduling), correlation of the data and the generation of a series of time delay observables suitable for a subsequent geodetic analysis. We report on the development of new and the adaptation of existing routines for observing and data processing, focusing on technology development. The aim was to use methods that are routinely used in geodetic VLBI. A series of test experiments of up to six hours duration was performed, allowing to improve the observations from session to session and revealing new problems still to be solved. The newly developed procedures and programs now enable more observations. Further development assumed, this bears the prospect of being directly applied to the observation of dedicated space-tie satellites.

  19. Model of load distribution for earth observation satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shumin; Du, Min; Li, Wei

    2017-03-01

    For the system of multiple types of EOS (Earth Observing Satellites), it is a vital issue to assure that each type of payloads carried by the group of EOS can be used efficiently and reasonably for in astronautics fields. Currently, most of researches on configuration of satellite and payloads focus on the scheduling for launched satellites. However, the assignments of payloads for un-launched satellites are bit researched, which are the same crucial as the scheduling of tasks. Moreover, the current models of satellite resources scheduling lack of more general characteristics. Referring the idea about roles-based access control (RBAC) of information system, this paper brings forward a model based on role-mining of RBAC to improve the generality and foresight of the method of assignments of satellite-payload. By this way, the assignment of satellite-payload can be mapped onto the problem of role-mining. A novel method will be introduced, based on the idea of biclique-combination in graph theory and evolutionary algorithm in intelligence computing, to address the role-mining problem of satellite-payload assignments. The simulation experiments are performed to verify the novel method. Finally, the work of this paper is concluded.

  20. Precision of natural satellite ephemerides from observations of different types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, N. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, various types of observations of natural planetary satellites are used to refine their ephemerides. A new type of measurement - determining the instants of apparent satellite encounters - has recently been proposed by Morgado and co-workers. The problem that arises is which type of measurement to choose in order to obtain an ephemeris precision that is as high as possible. The answer can be obtained only by modelling the entire process: observations, obtaining the measured values, refining the satellite motion parameters, and generating the ephemeris. The explicit dependence of the ephemeris precision on observational accuracy as well as on the type of observations is unknown. In this paper, such a dependence is investigated using the Monte Carlo statistical method. The relationship between the ephemeris precision for different types of observations is then assessed. The possibility of using the instants of apparent satellite encounters to obtain an ephemeris is investigated. A method is proposed that can be used to fit the satellite orbital parameters to this type of measurement. It is shown that, in the absence of systematic scale errors in the CCD frame, the use of the instants of apparent encounters leads to less precise ephemerides. However, in the presence of significant scale errors, which is often the case, this type of measurement becomes effective because the instants of apparent satellite encounters do not depend on scale errors.

  1. Assessing Satellite Column Observation of Formaldehyde over Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; White, A.; Khan, M. N.; McNider, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    The advent of satellite observation of trace gases has provided valuable information for better understanding of chemical atmosphere. One of these products, satellite observation of column formaldehyde, can be especially valuable in air quality studies. Since photochemical production of formaldehyde constitutes a large portion of summertime atmospheric concentration, satellite observations can be used to constraint the uncertainties in primary aldehyde emissions. In particular, isoprene as the major precursor of formaldehyde in most areas during summer, contributes 20-60% of total production. However, the magnitude of this contribution is spatially variable. Therefore, in comparing model column formaldehyde to that of the satellite, environmental factors affecting this variation must agree with observations. In this study, first we correct the radiation field used in the model for estimating emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Then by performing photochemical simulations for the summer of 2013, model formaldehyde field will be compared to that of satellite observed. WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system is being used for these simulations. The model simulations use satellite-based estimates of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in BVOC emission estimates produced by the latest version of biogenic emission inventory system (BEIS). The results for the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign) will be presented.

  2. Astrometric observations of planetary satellites at the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, T. P.; Chanturiya, S. M.; Vasil'eva, T. A.; Kalinichenko, O. A.

    2012-11-01

    We present and discuss the results of the astrometry project during which we observed the satellites of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune at the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory (Georgia) between 1983 and 1994. Observations at the Abastumani Observatory were performed with the double Zeiss astrograph (DZA: D/ F = 400/3024 mm) and AZT-11 telescope ( F = 16 m). We processed a large array of observations and determined exact coordinates of the planets and their satellites in a system of reference stars of modern catalogues as well as relative coordinates of the satellites. The results were compared with modern ephemerides using the MULTI-SAT software. The comparison enabled us to estimate the accuracy of observations (their random and systematic uncertainties) and the accuracy of modern theories of the motion of planets and their satellites. Random uncertainties of observations are estimated to be 0.10″-0.40″ for various objects and observational conditions. Observational results obtained for Uranus, Neptune and the satellites Titania and Oberon were shown to deviate appreciably and systematically from theories of their motion. The results of observations are presented in the Pulkovo database for Solar System bodies that is available at the website http://www.puldb.ru.

  3. The Earth Phenomena Observing System: Intelligent Autonomy for Satellite Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricard, Michael; Abramson, Mark; Carter, David; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Earth monitoring systems of the future may include large numbers of inexpensive small satellites, tasked in a coordinated fashion to observe both long term and transient targets. For best performance, a tool which helps operators optimally assign targets to satellites will be required. We present the design of algorithms developed for real-time optimized autonomous planning of large numbers of small single-sensor Earth observation satellites. The algorithms will reduce requirements on the human operators of such a system of satellites, ensure good utilization of system resources, and provide the capability to dynamically respond to temporal terrestrial phenomena. Our initial real-time system model consists of approximately 100 satellites and large number of points of interest on Earth (e.g., hurricanes, volcanoes, and forest fires) with the objective to maximize the total science value of observations over time. Several options for calculating the science value of observations include the following: 1) total observation time, 2) number of observations, and the 3) quality (a function of e.g., sensor type, range, slant angle) of the observations. An integrated approach using integer programming, optimization and astrodynamics is used to calculate optimized observation and sensor tasking plans.

  4. The Earth Phenomena Observing System: Intelligent Autonomy for Satellite Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricard, Michael; Abramson, Mark; Carter, David; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Earth monitoring systems of the future may include large numbers of inexpensive small satellites, tasked in a coordinated fashion to observe both long term and transient targets. For best performance, a tool which helps operators optimally assign targets to satellites will be required. We present the design of algorithms developed for real-time optimized autonomous planning of large numbers of small single-sensor Earth observation satellites. The algorithms will reduce requirements on the human operators of such a system of satellites, ensure good utilization of system resources, and provide the capability to dynamically respond to temporal terrestrial phenomena. Our initial real-time system model consists of approximately 100 satellites and large number of points of interest on Earth (e.g., hurricanes, volcanoes, and forest fires) with the objective to maximize the total science value of observations over time. Several options for calculating the science value of observations include the following: 1) total observation time, 2) number of observations, and the 3) quality (a function of e.g., sensor type, range, slant angle) of the observations. An integrated approach using integer programming, optimization and astrodynamics is used to calculate optimized observation and sensor tasking plans.

  5. Improvements to the OMI Near-uv Aerosol Algorithm Using A-train CALIOP and AIRS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Ahn, C.; Zhong, C.

    2014-01-01

    The height of desert dust and carbonaceous aerosols layers and, to a lesser extent, the difficulty in assessing the predominant size mode of these absorbing aerosol types, are sources of uncertainty in the retrieval of aerosol properties from near UV satellite observations. The availability of independent, near-simultaneous measurements of aerosol layer height, and aerosol-type related parameters derived from observations by other A-train sensors, makes possible the direct use of these parameters as input to the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) near UV retrieval algorithm. A monthly climatology of aerosol layer height derived from observations by the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) sensor, and real-time AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) CO observations are used in an upgraded version of the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm. AIRS CO measurements are used as a reliable tracer of carbonaceous aerosols, which allows the identification of smoke layers in areas and times of the year where the dust-smoke differentiation is difficult in the near-UV. The use of CO measurements also enables the identification of elevated levels of boundary layer pollution undetectable by near UV observations alone. In this paper we discuss the combined use of OMI, CALIOP and AIRS observations for the characterization of aerosol properties, and show a significant improvement in OMI aerosol retrieval capabilities.

  6. CEOS Committee on Earth Observations Satellites Consolidated Report, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A concise overview of the committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) and its Working Groups, covering the history and purpose of the Committee and its accomplishments to date are provided. The report will be updated annually before each Plenary meeting, and as developments in the Working Groups warrant. The committee on Earth Observations Satellites (originally named the International Earth Observations Satellite committee, IEOS) was treated in 1984, in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. This group recognized the multidisciplinary nature of satellite Earth observations, and the value of coordinating across all proposed missions. Thus, CEOS combined the previously existing groups for coordination on Ocean Remote-Sensing Satellites (CORSS) and coordination on Land Remote-Sensing Satellites (CLRSS), and established a broad framework for coordination across all spaceborne Earth observations missions. The first three LEOS Plenary meetings focused on treating and guiding the Working Groups deemed necessary to carry out the objectives of the CEOS members. After the third meeting, it was agreed that a more active orientation was required by the Plenary, and additional issues were brought before the group at the fourth meeting. At the fifth Plenary, international scientific programs and relevant intergovernmental organizations accepted invitations and participated as affiliate members of CEOS. This enabled progress toward integrating satellite data users' requirements into the CEOS process. Data exchange principles for global change research were also adopted. An interim CEOS Plenary meeting was held in April 1992, in preparation for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Brief encapsulations of the Plenary sessions immediately follow the Terms of Reference that govern the activities of CEOS as

  7. US EPA: A USER AGENCY PERSPECTIVE ON POLAR SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency uses satellite sensor observations in its work on measuring, monitoring and modeling the environment and human health. It generates observations in collaboration with states, local and regional governments, tribes and others, and is a consumer of observations from a v...

  8. US EPA: A USER AGENCY PERSPECTIVE ON POLAR SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency uses satellite sensor observations in its work on measuring, monitoring and modeling the environment and human health. It generates observations in collaboration with states, local and regional governments, tribes and others, and is a consumer of observations from a v...

  9. FORTE satellite observations of VHF radiation from lightning discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Junor, William; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory/Sandia National Laboratory FORTE satellite is described and its capabilities for global remote sensing of lightning in the radio regime are described. Some results from 7 years of successful operation are presented. A future global lightning monitoring mission, VGLASS, is described. The FORTE satellite program has provided a powerful tool for the observation and understanding of the natural RF background due to thunderstorm activity. Unfortunately, because of hardware failures, the satellite ceased operation in late summer of 2003 after 6 years of very successful operation.

  10. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program has supported a vigorous three-year program of groundbased observations and detailed analysis of the Jupiter/Io system. Our work focused on Io's escaping atmosphere and the plasma torus that it creates.

  11. Variability and Uncertainty in Satellite Sea-surface Salinity Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayler, E. J.; Ren, L.

    2016-02-01

    When employing satellite sea-surface salinity (SSS) observations in studies of observed and modeled ocean variability and change, assessments must consider the variability and uncertainty contained within the satellite SSS data that may or may not reflect physical processes. Coherent temporal and spatial structures exists in the differences between the ascending (south to north) and descending (north to south) nodes of both NASA's Aquarius mission and ESA's Soil Moisture - Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, introducing non-physical variability into the data. When examining "simultaneous" match-ups of both Aquarius and SMOS satellite observations with Argo float in situ observations (triple match-up), the Aquarius and SMOS data exhibit different temporal and spatial variabilities with respect to the in situ data, as well as with respect to each other. While physical differences will exist between the skin salinity (approximately 1cm) observed by the satellites and the near-surface salinity (approximately 5 m) observed by Argo floats, when using satellite SSS observations, non-physical variability may intrude into assessments of ocean salinity variability.

  12. Use of meteorological satellite observations in weather modification programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, A. S.; Smith, P. L., Jr.; Biswas, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    The potential value of weather satellite data in field operations of weather modification is appraised. It was found that satellites could play a useful role in operational weather modification projects, particularly in the recognition of treatment opportunities. Satellite cloud photographs and infrared observations appear promising in the identification of treatment opportunities in seeding orographic cloud systems for increased snowpack, in seeding convective clouds for increased rainfall, in identifying hail threats, and in tracking and observing hurricanes as an aid to timing and location of seeding treatments. It was concluded that the potential value of satellite data in the treatment and evaluation phases of operational projects is not as great as in the recognition of treatment opportunity.

  13. PSC Characteristics from Satellite Observations and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Drdla, K.; Bokarius, K.; Fromm, M.; Alfred, J.

    2004-01-01

    POAM solar occultation observations from 1994 to present are studied for the purpose of determining Type I PSC formation characteristics and winter-long evolution. This study examines PSC observations from many years on a common basis to see if characteristics can be identified. The results show that Type Ia PSCs form at the beginning of the winter, within several days of the first drop in temperature below T_NAT, and peak early in the winter. Type Ia PSCs typically out number Ib PSCs over the winter, especially at the beginning of the winter. Type Ia and Ib PSC observations continue throughout the winter. Micro-physical models of PSC formation must match these observed characteristics. Some models predict that temperatures must be more than 5 K below T_NAT for five days before significant freezing can occur. This is not seen in the POAM observations. Differences in PSC characteristics between the first two Arctic winters (1994-1995 and 1995-1996) and later winters also suggest the influence of volcanic perturbations on PSC formation. Type Ia and Ib PSC Characteristics observed by POAM III and SAGE III for the 2002-2003 Arctic winter are compared.

  14. Numerical Weather Prediction and Satellite Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    weather predictions , and it clearly and inextricably linked the observational problem with numerical weather predictions . Quoted below is a translation...computers, an IBM 701, and dedicated it to numerical weather prediction. By the summer of 1955, numerical weather predictions were being produced on a twice...research. With operational numerical weather predictions a reality, we now speak not of necessary and sufficient conditions, but of broad areas of

  15. Microphysical, Macrophysical and Radiative Signatures of Volcanic Aerosols in Trade Wind Cumulus Observed by the A-Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, T.; Remer, L. A.; Yu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Increased aerosol concentrations can raise planetary albedo not only by reflecting sunlight and increasing cloud albedo, but also by changing cloud amount. However, detecting aerosol effect on cloud amount has been elusive to both observations and modeling due to potential buffering mechanisms and convolution of meteorology. Here through a natural experiment provided by long-tem1 degassing of a low-lying volcano and use of A-Train satellite observations, we show modifications of trade cumulus cloud fields including decreased droplet size, decreased precipitation efficiency and increased cloud amount are associated with volcanic aerosols. In addition we find significantly higher cloud tops for polluted clouds. We demonstrate that the observed microphysical and macrophysical changes cannot be explained by synoptic meteorology or the orographic effect of the Hawaiian Islands. The "total shortwave aerosol forcin", resulting from direct and indirect forcings including both cloud albedo and cloud amount. is almost an order of magnitude higher than aerosol direct forcing alone. Furthermore, the precipitation reduction associated with enhanced aerosol leads to large changes in the energetics of air-sea exchange and trade wind boundary layer. Our results represent the first observational evidence of large-scale increase of cloud amount due to aerosols in a trade cumulus regime, which can be used to constrain the representation of aerosol-cloud interactions in climate models. The findings also have implications for volcano-climate interactions and climate mitigation research.

  16. Observations of sea ice and icebergs from satellite radar altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapley, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite radar altimeters can make useful contributions to the study of sea ice both by enhancing observations from other instruments and by providing a unique probe of ocean-ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). The problems, results and future potential of such observations are discussed.

  17. Observations of Uranus' satellites: Bibliography and literature search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A literature search has yielded more than 10,000 observations of the satellites of Uranus made from 1787 to 1985. The type (photographic, micrometer) and the number of observations are tabulated in 5 year increments and a complete bibliography is provided.

  18. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.

    2000-01-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, and it is embedded deep within the strongest magnetosphere of any planet. This combination of circumstances leads to a host of scientifically compelling phenomena, including (1) an atmosphere out of proportion with such a small object, (2) a correspondingly large atmospheric escape rate, (3) a ring of dense plasma locked in a feedback loop with the atmosphere, and (4) a host of Io-induced emissions from radio bursts to UV auroral spots on Jupiter. This proposal seeks to continue our investigation into the physics connecting these phenomena, with emphasis on Io's atmosphere and plasma torus. The physical processes are clearly of interest for Io, and also other places in the solar system where they are important but not readily observable.

  19. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, Doreen O.; Kondragunbta, Shobha; Osterman, Gregory; Pickering, Kenneth; Pinder, Robert W.; Prados, Ana I.; Szykman, James

    2009-01-01

    The satellite observations provide constraints on detailed atmospheric modeling, including emissions inventories, indications of transport, harmonized data over vast areas suitable for trends analysis, and a link between spatial scales ranging from local to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to interannual. 1 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) long-term commitments help provide these observations in cooperation with international meteorological organizations. NASA s long-term commitments will advance scientifically important observations as part of its Earth Science Program, and will assist the transition of the science measurements to applied analyses through the Applied Science Program. Both NASA and NOAA have begun to provide near realtime data and tools to visualize and analyze satellite data,2 while maintaining data quality, validation, and standards. Consequently, decision-makers can expect satellite data services to support air quality decision making now and in the future. The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System Report3 outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite measurements and models to integrate the observations into a four-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space and time) to support assessment and policy information needs. This plan is being carried out under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Demonstrations of such an integrated capability4 provide new understanding of the changing atmosphere and link policy decisions to benefits for society. In this article, we highlight the use of satellite data to constrain biomass burning emissions, to assess oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions, and to contribute to state implementation plans, as examples of the use of satellite observations for detecting and tracking changes in atmospheric composition.

  20. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, Doreen O.; Kondragunbta, Shobha; Osterman, Gregory; Pickering, Kenneth; Pinder, Robert W.; Prados, Ana I.; Szykman, James

    2009-01-01

    The satellite observations provide constraints on detailed atmospheric modeling, including emissions inventories, indications of transport, harmonized data over vast areas suitable for trends analysis, and a link between spatial scales ranging from local to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to interannual. 1 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) long-term commitments help provide these observations in cooperation with international meteorological organizations. NASA s long-term commitments will advance scientifically important observations as part of its Earth Science Program, and will assist the transition of the science measurements to applied analyses through the Applied Science Program. Both NASA and NOAA have begun to provide near realtime data and tools to visualize and analyze satellite data,2 while maintaining data quality, validation, and standards. Consequently, decision-makers can expect satellite data services to support air quality decision making now and in the future. The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System Report3 outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite measurements and models to integrate the observations into a four-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space and time) to support assessment and policy information needs. This plan is being carried out under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Demonstrations of such an integrated capability4 provide new understanding of the changing atmosphere and link policy decisions to benefits for society. In this article, we highlight the use of satellite data to constrain biomass burning emissions, to assess oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions, and to contribute to state implementation plans, as examples of the use of satellite observations for detecting and tracking changes in atmospheric composition.

  1. On the Cloud Observations in JAXA's Next Coming Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, Takashi Y.; Nagao, Takashi M.; Letu, Husi; Ishida, Haruma; Suzuki, Kentaroh

    2012-01-01

    The use of JAXA's next generation satellites, the EarthCARE and the GCOM-C, for observing overall cloud systems on the Earth is discussed. The satellites will be launched in the middle of 2010-era and contribute for observing aerosols and clouds in terms of climate change, environment, weather forecasting, and cloud revolution process study. This paper describes the role of such satellites and how to use the observing data showing concepts and some sample viewgraphs. Synergistic use of sensors is a key of the study. Visible to infrared bands are used for cloudy and clear discriminating from passively obtained satellite images. Cloud properties such as the cloud optical thickness, the effective particle radii, and the cloud top temperature will be retrieved from visible to infrared wavelengths of imagers. Additionally, we are going to combine cloud properties obtained from passive imagers and radar reflectivities obtained from an active radar in order to improve our understanding of cloud evolution process. This is one of the new techniques of satellite data analysis in terms of cloud sciences in the next decade. Since the climate change and cloud process study have mutual beneficial relationship, a multispectral wide-swath imagers like the GCOM-C SGLI and a comprehensive observation package of cloud and aerosol like the EarthCARE are both necessary.

  2. On the Cloud Observations in JAXA's Next Coming Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, Takashi Y.; Nagao, Takashi M.; Letu, Husi; Ishida, Haruma; Suzuki, Kentaroh

    2012-01-01

    The use of JAXA's next generation satellites, the EarthCARE and the GCOM-C, for observing overall cloud systems on the Earth is discussed. The satellites will be launched in the middle of 2010-era and contribute for observing aerosols and clouds in terms of climate change, environment, weather forecasting, and cloud revolution process study. This paper describes the role of such satellites and how to use the observing data showing concepts and some sample viewgraphs. Synergistic use of sensors is a key of the study. Visible to infrared bands are used for cloudy and clear discriminating from passively obtained satellite images. Cloud properties such as the cloud optical thickness, the effective particle radii, and the cloud top temperature will be retrieved from visible to infrared wavelengths of imagers. Additionally, we are going to combine cloud properties obtained from passive imagers and radar reflectivities obtained from an active radar in order to improve our understanding of cloud evolution process. This is one of the new techniques of satellite data analysis in terms of cloud sciences in the next decade. Since the climate change and cloud process study have mutual beneficial relationship, a multispectral wide-swath imagers like the GCOM-C SGLI and a comprehensive observation package of cloud and aerosol like the EarthCARE are both necessary.

  3. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  4. Satellite observations of power line harmonic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullough, K.

    1983-06-01

    Observations of the spheric wavefield over North America, the adjacent North Atlantic, and their Southern-Hemisphere geomagnetic conjugates made with Ariel 4 are analyzed in terms of the relative influence of power-line harmonic radiation (PLHR) on wave-particle interactions affecting the earth's radiation belts. Inconsistencies in previous reports on the Sunday effect, on the starting frequencies of chorus emissions, and on the global distribution of PLHR are reviewed, and the validity of Ariel-3 and Ariel-4 findings of increased PLHR-induced emissions over the industrial areas of the US is asserted. At 9.6 kHz, the emissions over North America and the North Atlantic are characterized by almost identical spherical wavefields, while the whistler-mode signal in the Atlantic conjugate zone was found to be weaker than that in the North American conjugate; at 3.2 kHz, the sea-conjugate signal was weakened, but the land-conjugate signal was found to be identical to the land signal. It is inferred that multihop propagation permanently present over the mainland but rare over the sea is the result of duct structures which can be supported by PLHR.

  5. Use of new satellite sea surface temperature observations in OSTIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Emma; Mao, Chongyuan; Good, Simon

    2017-04-01

    OSTIA is the Met Office's Operational SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and Ice Analysis system, which produces L4 (globally complete, gridded) analyses on a daily basis. The product is made freely available through CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service). Additional satellite SST datasets have been assimilated into the OSTIA analysis operationally from 15 March 2016. These datasets are ACSPO VIIRS L3U from NOAA/NESDIS/STAR and AMSR2 L2P from REMSS (Remote Sensing Systems). This has led to a sizable improvement in the RMS error of the OSTIA analysis compared to independent Argo observations. Test runs assimilating ACSPO VIIRS and REMSS AMSR2 observations separately have indicated that the total improvement is due to the action of both datasets together rather than one or the other. In addition, ACSPO VIIRS replaced MetOp-A AVHRR as the reference satellite dataset used in OSTIA on 6 November 2016. The reference satellite data, in addition to in situ observations, are used for bias correction of the other satellite data types used in the analysis. The change to using VIIRS as a reference has led to notable improvements in regional biases for OSTIA compared to Argo, drifters and other satellite SST datasets, particularly in the high latitudes. Methods will be described and validation results shown in this presentation.

  6. Satellite Type Estination from Ground-based Photometric Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, T.; Ono, H.; Suzuki, J.; Ando, T.; Takanezawa, T.

    2016-09-01

    The optical photometric observation is potentially a powerful tool for understanding of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) objects. At first, we measured in laboratory the surface reflectance of common satellite materials, for example, Multi-layer Insulation (MLI), mono-crystalline silicon cells, and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP). Next, we calculated visual magnitude of a satellite by simplified shape and albedo. In this calculation model, solar panels have dimensions of 2 by 8 meters, and the bus area is 2 meters squared with measured optical properties described above. Under these conditions, it clarified the brightness can change the range between 3 and 4 magnitudes in one night, but color index changes only from 1 to 2 magnitudes. Finally, we observed the color photometric data of several GEO satellites visible from Japan multiple times in August and September 2014. We obtained that light curves of GEO satellites recorded in the B and V bands (using Johnson filters) by a ground-base optical telescope. As a result, color index changed approximately from 0.5 to 1 magnitude in one night, and the order of magnitude was not changed in all cases. In this paper, we briefly discuss about satellite type estimation using the relation between brightness and color index obtained from the photometric observation.

  7. Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

  8. Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

  9. Students as Ground Observers for Satellite Cloud Retrieval Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin H.; Costulis, P. Kay; Young, David F.; Rogerson, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project was initiated in 1997 to obtain student observations of clouds coinciding with the overpass of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Earth Observing System satellites. Over the past seven years we have accumulated more than 9,000 cases worldwide where student observations are available within 15 minutes of a CERES observation. This paper reports on comparisons between the student and satellite data as one facet of the validation of the CERES cloud retrievals. Available comparisons include cloud cover, cloud height, cloud layering, and cloud visual opacity. The large volume of comparisons allows some assessment of the impact of surface cover, such as snow and ice, reported by the students. The S'COOL observation database, accessible via the Internet at http://scool.larc.nasa.gov, contains over 32,000 student observations and is growing by over 700 observations each month. Some of these observations may be useful for assessment of other satellite cloud products. In particular, some observing sites have been making hourly observations of clouds during the school day to learn about the diurnal cycle of cloudiness.

  10. NEOWISE: OBSERVATIONS OF THE IRREGULAR SATELLITES OF JUPITER AND SATURN

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Masiero, J. R.; Sonnett, S.; Kramer, E.; Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M.

    2015-08-10

    We present thermal model fits for 11 Jovian and 3 Saturnian irregular satellites based on measurements from the WISE/NEOWISE data set. Our fits confirm spacecraft-measured diameters for the objects with in situ observations (Himalia and Phoebe) and provide diameters and albedo for 12 previously unmeasured objects, 10 Jovian and 2 Saturnian irregular satellites. The best-fit thermal model beaming parameters are comparable to what is observed for other small bodies in the outer solar system, while the visible, W1, and W2 albedos trace the taxonomic classifications previously established in the literature. Reflectance properties for the irregular satellites measured are similar to the Jovian Trojan and Hilda Populations, implying common origins.

  11. An Evaluation of the WRF Simulations of the Clouds over the Southern Ocean with A-Train Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Siems, Steve; Manton, Michael; Thompson, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    The radiative budget over the Southern Ocean (SO) strongly depends upon the thermodynamic phase of the ubiquitous low-altitude clouds observed over the region (Mace et al. 2010). This budget has been found to be poorly represented in both state-of-the-art reanalysis and coupled global climate models (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2010). Recently, the study by Bodas-Salcedo et al. (2012) using the UK Met Office United Model highlights that the largest bias of the surface downwelling shortwave radiation over the SO is due to the underprediction of the low- and mid-top postfrontal clouds typically associated with supercooled liquid water (SLW). The A-Train satellite constellation has been used to evaluate the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRFV3.3.1) NWP Model in simulating the postfrontal clouds over Tasmania and the SO to directly address the findings by Bodas-Salcedo et al. (2012). Common cloud regimes associated with two frontal passages over this region are studied. The simulated cloud structure, radar reflectivities, cloud thermodynamic phase and cloud-top and column integrated properties are compared against the along-track A-Train observations. The statistics of cloud-top phase composition and the potential impact on the radiative transmission are explored in comparison with the observed climatology constructed with MODIS and the A-Train merged product DARDAR-MASK. Experiments have also been undertaken to test the sensitivity of the simulated cloud properties to model resolution, microphysics (MP) scheme, planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. Results of the study show that the simulation is capable of capturing the macrostructure and thermodynamic phase composition of the frontal convective clouds and the postfrontal stratocumuli. The mid-top stratiform SLW clouds within the postfrontal air mass can be reproduced but are sensitive to MP scheme. The simulated cloud-top phase population depends strongly upon both

  12. CCD observations of Phoebe, 9th satellite of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienga, A.; Arlot, J.-E.; Baron, N.; Bec-Borsenberger, A.; Crochot, A.; Emelyanov, N.; Thuillot, W.

    2002-08-01

    In 1998 and 1999, we started observations of the 9th satellite of Saturn. We made 163 observations using the 120 cm-telescope of Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France. We used the USNO A2 catalogue of stars for the astrometric reduction. With the help of observations of optical counterparts of ICRF sources, a zonal correction to the USNO A2.0 catalogue was computed and applied to the Phoebe positions. A comparison with the most recent theories was made.

  13. Satellite observations of aerosol and CO over Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Steven T.; Gille, John C.; Edwards, David P.; Nandi, Sreela

    The development of remote sensing satellite technology potentially will lead to the technical means to monitor air pollution emitted from large cities on a global basis. This paper presents observations by the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) experiments of aerosol optical depths and CO mixing ratios, respectively, in the vicinity of Mexico City to illustrate current satellite capabilities. MOPITT CO mixing ratios over Mexico City, averaged between January-March 2002-2005, are 19% above regional values and the CO plume extends over 10° 2 in the free troposphere at 500 hPa. Time series of Red Automatica de Monitoreo Ambiental (RAMA) PM10, and (Aerosol Robotic Network) AERONET and MODIS aerosol optical depths, and RAMA and MOPITT CO time series are inter-compared to illustrate the different perspectives of ground based and satellite instrumentation. Finally, we demonstrate, by examining MODIS and MOPITT data in April 2003, that satellite data can be used to identify episodes in which pollution form fires influences the time series of ground based and satellite observations of urban pollution.

  14. Challenges to Deriving Climate Time Series From Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, F. J.; Mears, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Satellites have been observing the Earth's weather and climate since the launch of TIROS-1 in 1960. As satellite and sensor technology advanced over the next two decades, the accuracy of the satellite observations improved to the point of being useful for climate monitoring. The launch of the first Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) in October 1978 and the first Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) in June 1987 mark the beginning of research-quality time series for several important climate state variables, including tropospheric temperature and water vapor, cloud and rain water, and ocean surface winds. In this talk, we will illustrate the many obstacles that must be overcome to convert raw satellite measurements into climate data records. Probably the most pivotal issue is sensor calibration. Although an on-board self-calibrating apparatus is part of each satellite sensor, the accuracy of the calibration system is limited and in some cases unexpected calibration problems occurred on-orbit. The lack of exact calibration leads to a second problem: merging sensors flying on many different satellites into one consistent decadal time series. Also drifts in the satellites' orbits, both in altitude and local time of day, must be carefully taken into account else spurious signals will enter the time series. In addition to these technical difficulties, programmatic problems present a different set of hurdles that must be overcome. The maintenance of a long-term climate record may necessitate sustaining a long-term research activity requiring continuity in both expert staffing and funding. The alternative of computing climate records in an operational rather than research environment creates a new set of problems. As the satellite sensor technology continues to advance into the next decade, new challenges will arise. The new sensors will have different channel sets, viewing geometries, and orbital characteristics. Their complexity will be an order of magnitude greater than

  15. Use of Combined A-Train Observations to Validate GEOS Model Simulated Dust Distributions During NAMMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowottnick, E.

    2007-01-01

    During August 2006, the NASA African Multidisciplinary Analyses Mission (NAMMA) field experiment was conducted to characterize the structure of African Easterly Waves and their evolution into tropical storms. Mineral dust aerosols affect tropical storm development, although their exact role remains to be understood. To better understand the role of dust on tropical cyclogenesis, we have implemented a dust source, transport, and optical model in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) atmospheric general circulation model and data assimilation system. Our dust source scheme is more physically based scheme than previous incarnations of the model, and we introduce improved dust optical and microphysical processes through inclusion of a detailed microphysical scheme. Here we use A-Train observations from MODIS, OMI, and CALIPSO with NAMMA DC-8 flight data to evaluate the simulated dust distributions and microphysical properties. Our goal is to synthesize the multi-spectral observations from the A-Train sensors to arrive at a consistent set of optical properties for the dust aerosols suitable for direct forcing calculations.

  16. Use of Combined A-Train Observations to Validate GEOS Model Simulated Dust Distributions During NAMMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowottnick, E.

    2007-01-01

    During August 2006, the NASA African Multidisciplinary Analyses Mission (NAMMA) field experiment was conducted to characterize the structure of African Easterly Waves and their evolution into tropical storms. Mineral dust aerosols affect tropical storm development, although their exact role remains to be understood. To better understand the role of dust on tropical cyclogenesis, we have implemented a dust source, transport, and optical model in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) atmospheric general circulation model and data assimilation system. Our dust source scheme is more physically based scheme than previous incarnations of the model, and we introduce improved dust optical and microphysical processes through inclusion of a detailed microphysical scheme. Here we use A-Train observations from MODIS, OMI, and CALIPSO with NAMMA DC-8 flight data to evaluate the simulated dust distributions and microphysical properties. Our goal is to synthesize the multi-spectral observations from the A-Train sensors to arrive at a consistent set of optical properties for the dust aerosols suitable for direct forcing calculations.

  17. satellite synthetic observations heterogenety variability as studied from virtual catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Pablo; Simmer, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    The FOR2131 research unit is currently developing and improving data assimilation schemes for coupled subsurface-land surface-atmosphere models, namely the TerrSysMP comprised by ParFlow-CLM-COSMO models. That framework is used to test how different kinds of observations and networks of observations can improve system state estimation with a focus on in and inter-compartment fluxes of matter and heat energy. The focus of the present contribution is to analyze satellite observations (focus on SMOS and SMAP missions) which provide information on spatial and temporal scales that are hardly supported by in-situ observation networks. In that context, a satellite virtual observation operator has been developed in order to provide synthetic observation for the high spatial-resolution TerrSysMP model applied to the Neckar catchment in the south-west of Germany. Therefore, SMOS real and synthetic observations are used in order to understand the the effects on the microwave signature from the inclusion of sub-pixel land-surface heterogeneity which incorporates comparatively large-scale satellite observations in the data assimilation framework developed by the FOR2131 research unit. Preliminary results performed in a multi incident angle approach it is shown that SMOS real observations shows larger dynamic range as compared to the synthetic observations, while the temporal variability (daily bases) is good represented after a estimation of proper MW radiative transfer parameter specifically adjusted for the TerrSysMP Neckar catchment. This results focused on satellite observations, among other data sources, are mean to support and to confine the system states needed for the development of data assimilation framework by FOR2131.

  18. Assessment of the Accuracy of Global Satellite Laser Ranging Observations - Multi-Satellite Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, G. M.; Rodriguez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Effort continues to be made within the ILRS community to capture and mitigate systematic range error, both on short timescales via daily QC efforts and in longer-term analyses via dynamical solutions from observations of the two LAGEOS satellites. A recently published analysis [1] of 20 years' LAGEOS observations that included weekly solutions for systematic range error at all the tracking stations as well as reference frame parameters (station coordinates, EOPs) revealed few mm up to cm-level systematics at many of the stations. More importantly, the results showed that failure to accommodate in the dynamical solutions the potential for systematic ranging error at all the stations has led to a systematic error of nearly 1ppb in the SLR-derived scale of the ITRF. In the work presented here, we extend that study to include in new multi-satellite solutions the two high-orbiting Etalon satellites and the LEO satellite LARES. We use recently available [2] station-dependent centre-of-mass values for LARES, and study the impact of using all five satellites on the determination of the scale of the SLR-derived reference frame, as well as assessing the value of these solutions as tests of the currently-adopted value of GM. [1] G.M. Appleby et al, 2016 Assessment of the accuracy of global geodetic satellite laser ranging observations and estimated impact on ITRF scale: estimation of systematic errors in LAGEOS observations 1993-2014. Journal of Geodesy, DOI 10.1007/s00190-016-0929-2 [2] T. Otsubo et al, 2015 Center-of-mass corrections for sub-cm-precision laser-ranging targets: Starlette, Stella and LARES. Journal of Geodesy, DOI 10.1007/s00190-014-0776-y

  19. Satellite observation of particulate organic carbon dynamics in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in coastal carbon cycling and the formation of hypoxia. Yet, coastal POC dynamics are often poorly understood due to a lack of long-term POC observations and the complexity of coastal hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes that influence POC sources and sinks. Using field observations and satellite ocean color products, we developed a nw multiple regression algorithm to estimate POC on the Louisiana Continental Shelf (LCS) from satellite observations. The algorithm had reliable performance with mean relative error (MRE) of ?40% and root mean square error (RMSE) of ?50% for MODIS and SeaWiFS images for POC ranging between ?80 and ?1200 mg m23, and showed similar performance for a large estuary (Mobile Bay). Substantial spatiotemporal variability in the satellite-derived POC was observed on the LCS, with high POC found on the inner shelf (<10 m depth) and lower POC on the middle (10–50 m depth) and outer shelf (50–200 m depth), and with high POC found in winter (January–March) and lower POC in summer to fall (August–October). Correlation analysis between long-term POC time series and several potential influencing factors indicated that river discharge played a dominant role in POC dynamics on the LCS, while wind and surface currents also affected POC spatial patterns on short time scales. This study adds another example where satellite data with carefully developed algorithms can greatly increase

  20. Greenland surface albedo changes 1981-2012 from satellite observations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Significant melt over Greenland has been observed during the last several decades associated with extreme warming events over the northern Atlantic Ocean. An analysis of surface albedo change over Greenland is presented, using a 32-year consistent satellite albedo product from the Global Land Surfac...

  1. Sensor Web Interoperability Testbed Results Incorporating Earth Observation Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Daniel J.; Alameh, Nadine; Bambacus, Myra; Cappelaere, Pat; Falke, Stefan; Derezinski, Linda; Zhao, Piesheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an Earth Observation Sensor Web scenario based on the Open Geospatial Consortium s Sensor Web Enablement and Web Services interoperability standards. The scenario demonstrates the application of standards in describing, discovering, accessing and tasking satellites and groundbased sensor installations in a sequence of analysis activities that deliver information required by decision makers in response to national, regional or local emergencies.

  2. CORRECTING PHOTOLYSIS RATES ON THE BASIS OF SATELLITE OBSERVED CLOUDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clouds can significantly affect photochemical activities in the boundary layer by altering radiation intensity, and therefore their correct specification in the air quality models is of outmost importance. In this study we introduce a technique for using the satellite observed c...

  3. Pulse strobing in VLBI for observation of geostationary earth satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskij, V. M.

    The possibility of broadband synthesis by pulse strobing for observation of slow-moving objects using standard MARK-1 VLBI processing methods is discussed. The possibility of increasing the SNR by using a special type of pulse function is indicated. A specific scheme for application of the method in satellite radiointerferometry is examined.

  4. Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite Plan in Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, H.; Kasai, Y.; Kita, K.; Irie, H.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.

    2009-12-01

    As emissions of air pollutants in Asia have increased in the past decades accompanying with rapid economic growth of developing countries, Asian regional air pollution has attracted concern from the view of inter-continental and intra-continental long-range transport as well as domestic air quality. Particularly in Japan, transboundary transport of ozone is of recent social concern as one of a cause of increasing trend of near surface ozone concentration. In order to elucidate the transport and chemical transformation processes of air pollution in East Asia, and to attain internationally common understanding on this issue, geostationary atmospheric observation satellite has been proposed in Japan. In 2006, the Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) formed Commission on the Atmospheric Environmental Observation Satellite to initiate the discussion. In 2009, Committee on Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite has been formed within JAXA to promote the plan. The proposed satellite consists of a UV/VIS sensor for O3, NO2, HCHO and AOT, and a MIR sensor for O3, CO, HNO3, NO2, H2O and temperature. Targeted spatial and temporal resolutions are ca.10 km and 1-2 hrs, respectively, and focused observation area is northeast Asia potentially covering the southeast and south Asia. Sensitivity analysis and simulation have been made for both the UV/VIS and MIR sensors. Overview of user requirement and the sensitivity analysis for each species will be presented in this talk.

  5. Satellite observation of particulate organic carbon dynamics in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in coastal carbon cycling and the formation of hypoxia. Yet, coastal POC dynamics are often poorly understood due to a lack of long-term POC observations and the complexity of coastal hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes that influence POC sources and sinks. Using field observations and satellite ocean color products, we developed a nw multiple regression algorithm to estimate POC on the Louisiana Continental Shelf (LCS) from satellite observations. The algorithm had reliable performance with mean relative error (MRE) of ?40% and root mean square error (RMSE) of ?50% for MODIS and SeaWiFS images for POC ranging between ?80 and ?1200 mg m23, and showed similar performance for a large estuary (Mobile Bay). Substantial spatiotemporal variability in the satellite-derived POC was observed on the LCS, with high POC found on the inner shelf (<10 m depth) and lower POC on the middle (10–50 m depth) and outer shelf (50–200 m depth), and with high POC found in winter (January–March) and lower POC in summer to fall (August–October). Correlation analysis between long-term POC time series and several potential influencing factors indicated that river discharge played a dominant role in POC dynamics on the LCS, while wind and surface currents also affected POC spatial patterns on short time scales. This study adds another example where satellite data with carefully developed algorithms can greatly increase

  6. CORRECTING PHOTOLYSIS RATES ON THE BASIS OF SATELLITE OBSERVED CLOUDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clouds can significantly affect photochemical activities in the boundary layer by altering radiation intensity, and therefore their correct specification in the air quality models is of outmost importance. In this study we introduce a technique for using the satellite observed c...

  7. Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

  8. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  9. Relationships Between Ice Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects from A-Train Observations and Global Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, B. J.; Mace, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the A-Train satellites, we investigate the distribution of clouds and their microphysical and radiative properties in Southeast Asia during the summer monsoon. We find an approximate balance in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effect, which is largely due to commonly occurring cirrus layers that warm the atmosphere, and less frequent deep layer clouds, which produce a strong cooling at the surface. The distribution of cloud ice water path (IWP) in cirrus layers, obtained from the 2C-ICE CloudSat data product, is highly skewed with a mean value of 170 g m-2 and a median of 16 g m-2. We evaluate the fraction of the total IWP observed by CloudSat and CALIPSO individually and find that both instruments are necessary for describing the overall IWP statistics and particularly the values that are most important to cirrus radiative impact. In examining how cirrus cloud radiative effects at the TOA vary as a function of IWP, we find that cirrus with IWP less than 200 g m-2 produce a net warming. Weighting the distribution of radiative effect by the frequency of occurrence of IWP values, we find that cirrus with IWP around 20 g m-2 contribute most to heating at the TOA. We conclude that the mean IWP is a poor diagnostic of radiative impact. We suggest that climate model intercomparisons with data should focus on the median IWP because that statistic is more descriptive of the cirrus that contribute most to the radiative impacts of tropical ice clouds. Given these findings, we use the A-Train observations to address the issues of IWP occurrence and high cloud forcing in a global climate model (GCM). Our goal is to determine whether the clouds that heat the upper troposphere in the model are the same genre of clouds that heat the upper troposphere in the real atmosphere. First, we define a cloud radiative kernel that's a function of IWP to determine whether the modeled ice clouds produce similar shortwave and longwave radiative effects at the TOA

  10. SLR system improvement for GIOVE-A satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, You; Fan, Cunbo; Han, Xingwei; Yang, Dingjiang; Chen, Nianjiang; Xue, Feng; Geng, Lin

    2008-03-01

    Galileo system consists of 27 satellites distributed in three uniformly separated planes. At the end of 2005, one satellite, Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element-A (GIOVE-A), was launched as planned into an MEO with an altitude of 23,260 kilometers. Carrying a payload of rubidium clocks, signal-generation units, and a phase-array antenna of individual L-band elements. GIOVE-A started broadcasting on January 28, 2006, securing the frequencies allocated by the ITU for Galileo. Performance of the on-board atomic clocks, antenna infrastructure, and signal properties is evaluated through precise orbit determination, supported by Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), an independent high-precision range measurement technique for orbit determination based on a global network of stations that measure the round-trip flight-time of ultra short laser pulses to satellites equipped with laser retro reflector arrays (LRAs). SLR provides instantaneous range measurements of millimeter-level precision which can be compiled to provide accurate orbits and to measure the on-board clock error. Given the importance of SLR data for the characterization of the GIOVE-A clocks, the Changchun SLR station in northeast China was selected among the Chinese stations contributing to the ILRS because it had demonstrated strong MEO satellite tracking; collocation with an existing International GPS Service station; and good weather conditions. This paper introduces the SLR system improvement for tracking GIOVE-A satellite in Changchun station. During the more than two months improvement, the new servo and encoder systems were installed, primary mirror, second mirror and some other mirrors have been cleaned and recoated, and the laser system was adjusted in order to improve the laser efficiency and output energy. The paper gives out the improvement results, and the GIOVE-A satellite observation results.

  11. Permanent GNSS Observations at Agh-Ust Satellite Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrys, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    GPS satellite observations at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering AGH-UST are conducted since the early 90s of the last century. In 2001, efforts have been made on getting permanently functioning GPS station. At present, observatory is EPN operational center for two GNSS stations KRAW and KRA1. Moreover, KRA1 station is one of fundamental control points in polish horizontal network. The article gives the history and scope of the research carried out in the satellite observatory AGH-UST during the period 2001 - 2015.

  12. Voyager 2 photopolarimeter observations of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Wallis, Brad D.; Lane, Arthur L.; West, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The surfaces of the principal Uranian satellites are characterized on the basis of UV and IR geometric albedos, phase curves, and phase coefficients obtained in full-disk photopolarimetric observations during the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The data are presented in tables and graphs and found to be consistent with a heavily cratered terrain and loosely packed regolith. The Bond albedos are calculated as 0.22 + or - 0.1 for Ariel, 0.07 + or - 0.05 for Umbriel, 0.16 + or - 0.12 for Titania, and 0.19 + or - 0.22 for Oberon. The characteristics of the Uranian satellites indicate compositions (and probably formation conditions and surface-modification mechanisms) distinct from those of the Saturnian and Jovian satellites.

  13. System definition of SEASAT-A, an ocean observation satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, J. R.; Mccandless, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    SEASAT will be an earth-satellite system designed to monitor and observe ocean dynamics in order to provide data for real-time use and predictive purposes. SEASAT-A will be a prototype satellite which will provide experience for system development and some operational demonstration capability. The SEASAT-A will use passive and active visible, infrared, and microwave sensing techniques. The payload will include a scanning radiometer (SR) and a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), which are passive sensors, a short-pulse altimeter, a scatterometer, and a synthetic aperture radar, which are active. The major functional elements considered in the definition-phase studies are the sensors, data handling, communications, attitude control, power, orbit adjust, thermal control, structures, and mechanical design. An existing satellite bus, with sensors and sensor modules to be developed, is to be used on SEASAT-A.

  14. System definition of SEASAT-A, an ocean observation satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, J. R.; Mccandless, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    SEASAT will be an earth-satellite system designed to monitor and observe ocean dynamics in order to provide data for real-time use and predictive purposes. SEASAT-A will be a prototype satellite which will provide experience for system development and some operational demonstration capability. The SEASAT-A will use passive and active visible, infrared, and microwave sensing techniques. The payload will include a scanning radiometer (SR) and a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), which are passive sensors, a short-pulse altimeter, a scatterometer, and a synthetic aperture radar, which are active. The major functional elements considered in the definition-phase studies are the sensors, data handling, communications, attitude control, power, orbit adjust, thermal control, structures, and mechanical design. An existing satellite bus, with sensors and sensor modules to be developed, is to be used on SEASAT-A.

  15. Sensor system for Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2004-11-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is design to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from orbit. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  16. Fourier transform spectrometer for Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  17. Satellite missions, global environment, and the concept of a global satellite observation information network - The role of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. B.; Williams, David F.; Fujita, Akihiro

    1993-10-01

    The efforts of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) to assure broad user access to satellite-produced data is discussed. The role of CEOS in fostering acceptance of applications of those data in areas such as disaster monitoring and mitigation, land cover change, weather forecasting, and long-term climate modeling is addressed. The initiative of UK Prime Minister John Major calling for increased attention to CEOS is discussed along with the related CEOS Dossier effort. The tasks of the CEOS Secretariat in these areas are examined, and the role of CEOS is developing a global satellite network is considered. The future of CEOS is discussed.

  18. Combined Space-Based Observations of Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Bernard, K.; Thorsteinson, S.

    2016-09-01

    One of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) science experiments of the NEOSSat mission is to learn the practicalities of combining space-based metric observations with the Sapphire system. To answer this question, an experiment was performed observing clustered Canadian geostationary satellites using both Sapphire and NEOSSat in early 2016. Space-based tracking data was collected during tracking intervals where both NEOSSat and Sapphire had visibility on the geostationary objects enabling astrometric (orbit determination) and photometric (object characterization) observations to be performed. We describe the orbit determination accuracies using live data collected from orbit for different collection cases; a) NEOSSat alone, b) Sapphire alone, and c) Combined observations from both platforms. We then discuss the practicalities of using space-based sensors to reduce risk of orbital collisions of Canadian geostationary satellites by proactively tasking space based sensors in response to conjunction data warnings in GEO.

  19. Generation of VLF saucer emissions observed by the Viking satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Loennqvist, H.; Andre, M.; Matson, L.; Bahnsen, A.; Blomberg, L.G.; Erlandson, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    The authors report observations of V shaped saucer emissions by the Viking satellite. This V shaped saucer emission refers to the observational feature of the VLF or ELF emissions which shows a v shaped appearance on a plot of frequency as a function of time. Viking provided not only wave, but electric and magnetic field measurements, as well as charged particle measurements. These measurements show electrons flowing upwards with enegies of up to a few hundred eV in conjunction with the saucer emissions. Other wave structures observed in this same region may originate from the electron flows. The satellite observations also find such events at altitudes from 4000 to 13000km, where the generation region is found to be much more spread out in space.

  20. Observations and ephemerides of the faint satellites of Jupiter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocher, P.; Chapront, J.

    1996-07-01

    The observations of the faint satellites of Jupiter JVI, JVII, JVIII and JIX, have been collected since their discoveries. Numerical integrations of their motions have been performed and fitted to all observations. The final standard deviations in right ascension and declination for the whole set of satellites lie between 0.9" and 1.4". Besides, a list of the individual observations and post-fit residuals is provided. Using the results from the numerical integrations, we have constructed ephemerides of the equatorial jovicentric rectangular coordinates of the satellites. Usually the results are represented in form of series of Chebychev polynomials; here instead, we have taken advantage of a new type of approximation in Poisson series, available on relatively long time intervals. The natural frequencies of the motion have been obtained by frequency analysis of the time series. This process of approximation economizes the amount of numbers necessary to evaluate the jovicentric or geocentric coordinates to a reasonable precision (below 0.01"), and allows one to produce compact and easily-handled ephemerides programs. The main practical result of this contribution is to provide to users numerical tools for the reconstruction of satellite ephemerides, covering 150 years starting from 1900. Tables and software are published in electronic form.

  1. Use of Earth Observing Satellites for Operational Hazard Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, H. M.; Lauritson, L.

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) relies on Earth observing satellite data to carry out its operational mission to monitor, predict, and assess changes in the Earth's atmosphere, land, and oceans. NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) uses satellite data to help lessen the impacts of natural and man-made disasters due to tropical cyclones, flash floods, heavy snowstorms, volcanic ash clouds (for aviation safety), sea ice (for shipping safety), and harmful algal blooms. Communications systems on NOAA satellites are used to support search and rescue and to relay data from data collection platforms to a variety of users. NOAA's Geostationary (GOES) and Polar (POES) Operational Environmental Satellites are used in conjunction with other satellites to support NOAA's operational mission. While NOAA's National Hurricane Center is responsible for predicting tropical cyclones affecting the U.S. mainland, NESDIS continuously monitors the tropics world wide, relaying valuable satellite interpretations of tropical systems strength and position to users throughout the world. Text messages are sent every six hours for tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific, South Pacific, and Indian Oceans. To support the monitoring, prediction, and assessment of flash floods and winter storms, NESDIS sends out text messages alerting U.S. weather forecast offices whenever NOAA satellite imagery indicates the occurrence of heavy rain or snow. NESDIS also produces a 24-hour rainfall composite graphic image covering those areas affected by heavy precipitation. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other aviation concerns recognized the need to keep aviators informed of volcanic hazards. To that end, nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC's) were created to monitor volcanic ash plumes within their assigned airspace. NESDIS hosts one of the VAAC's. Although the NESDIS VAAC's primary responsibility is the

  2. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques

  3. Whistler-triggered emissions observed by ISIS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Ondoh, T.

    1989-01-01

    A statistical examination has been conducted of the ducted and nonducted whistler-triggered emissions (WTEs) observed by the ISIS satellites in the 1979-1981 period. Most WTEs are observed with simultaneous lower hybrid resonance in the topside ionosphere. The VLF emissions triggered by ducted whistlers frequently occur at L of 2-3, while those triggered by nonducted whistlers occur in the wider latitudinal regions at L of 2.2-4.3.

  4. Whistler-triggered emissions observed by ISIS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Ondoh, T.

    1989-01-01

    A statistical examination has been conducted of the ducted and nonducted whistler-triggered emissions (WTEs) observed by the ISIS satellites in the 1979-1981 period. Most WTEs are observed with simultaneous lower hybrid resonance in the topside ionosphere. The VLF emissions triggered by ducted whistlers frequently occur at L of 2-3, while those triggered by nonducted whistlers occur in the wider latitudinal regions at L of 2.2-4.3.

  5. Spectroscopic Observations of Geo-Stationary Satellites Over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. K.; Kim, S. J.; Han, W. Y.; Park, J. S.; Min, S. W.

    2001-11-01

    Low resolution spectroscopic observations of geo-stationary satellites over the Korean peninsula have been carried out at the KyungHee Optical Satellite Observing Facility (KOSOF) with a 40cm telescope. We have observed 9 telecommunication satellites and 1 weather satellite of 6 countries. The obtained spectral data showed that satellites could be classified and grouped with similar basic spectral feature. We divided the 10 satellites into 4 groups based on spectral slop and reflectance. It is suggested that the material types of the satellites can be determined through spectral comparisons with the ground laboratory data. We will continuously observe additional geo-stationary satellites for the accurate classification of spectral features.

  6. Satellite aerosol observations for air quality: matching the scales of observations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Curtis, C. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Westphal, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    The combination of satellite observations and numerical models of the atmosphere is a powerful tool for air quality studies. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and surface observations of particulate matter concentrations provide complementary views of particulate air quality, and methods are rapidly improving for using these observations together with the aid of atmospheric models. Advances in numerical modeling, together with increased computational power, have greatly improved the spatial resolution of atmospheric models. Air quality scientists have seized on these improvements, recognizing that important variation in pollution transport and air quality conditions can occur at very fine scales. But the scale and coverage of satellite resolutions make them very useful for some specific applications and less useful for others. The raw satellite observations used to retrieve properties of atmospheric aerosols have spatial resolution on the order of hundreds of meters, still finer than most numerical atmospheric models used for air quality. However, current aerosol retrievals require averaging over broader areas to achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, and steps taken to reduce uncertainty act to reduce the effective resolution of aerosol observations from satellite. This creates a complicated situation where the processing of the satellite data must balance observation accuracy and precision with the need to observe features at the scale appropriate to the problem. The Naval Research Laboratory has developed post-processors for satellite aerosol data that yield products suitable for initialization or validation of aerosol transport models; these post-processors are capable of generating output at a range of spatial resolutions. In this study, these products are used to examine the interaction between spatial averaging and observation uncertainty, and discuss how these tradeoffs affect specific air quality applications related to source

  7. Remote Observing with the Keck Telescope Using the ACTS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Judy; Shopbell, Patrick; Bergman, Larry

    1998-01-01

    As a technical demonstration project for the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), we have implemented remote observing on the 10-meter Keck II telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii from the California Institute of Technology campus in Pasadena. The data connection consists of optical fiber networks in Hawaii and California, connecting the end-points to high data rate (HDR) ACTS satellite antennae at JPL in Pasadena and at the Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu. The terrestrial fiber networks run the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) protocol at DS-3 (45 Mbit/sec) speeds, providing ample bandwidth to enable remote observing with a software environment identical to that used for on-site observing in Hawaii. This experiment has explored the data requirements of remote observing with a modern research telescope and large-format detector arrays. While the maximum burst data rates are lower than those required for many other applications (e.g., HDTV), the network reliability and data integrity requirements are critical. As we show in this report, the former issue particularly may be the greatest challenge for satellite networks for this class of application. We have also experimented with the portability of standard TCP/IP applications to satellite networks, demonstrating the need for alternative TCP congestion algorithms and minimization of bit error rates (BER). Reliability issues aside, we have demonstrated that true remote observing over high-speed networks provides several important advantages over standard observing paradigms. Technical advantages of the high-speed network access include more rapid download of data to a user's home institution and the opportunity for alternative communication facilities between members of an observing team, such as audio- and videoconferencing.

  8. Stratocumulus cloud height variations determined from surface and satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Davies, R.; Blaskovic, M.; Albrecht, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of cloud-top heights from satellite-inferred cloud-top temperatures is a relatively straightforward procedure for a well-behaved troposphere. The assumption of a monotonically decreasing temperature with increasing altitude is commonly used to assign a height to a given cloud-top temperature. In the hybrid bispectral threshold method, or HBTM, Minnis et al. (1987) assume that the lapse rate for the troposphere is -6.5/Kkm and that the surface temperature which calibrated this lapse rate is the 24 hour mean of the observed or modeled clear-sky, equivalent blackbody temperature. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) algorithm (Rossow et al., 1988) attempts a more realistic assignment of height by utilizing interpolations of analyzed temperature fields from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) to determine the temperature at a given level over the region of interest. Neither these nor other techniques have been tested to any useful extent. The First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observations (IFO) provide an excellent opportunity to assess satellite-derived cloud height results because of the availability of both direct and indirect cloud-top altitude data of known accuracy. The variations of cloud-top altitude during the Marine Stratocumulus IFO (MSIFO, June 29 to July 19, 1987) derived from surface, aircraft, and satellite data are examined.

  9. Possible satellite-based observations of the 1997 Leonid meteoroids

    SciTech Connect

    Pongratz, M.B.; Carlos, R.C.; Cayton, T.

    1998-12-01

    The Block IIA GPS satellites are equipped with a sensor designed to detect electromagnetic transients. Several phenomena will produce triggers in this sensor. They include earth-based electromagnetic transients such as lightning and two space-based phenomena--deep dielectric discharge and meteoroid or hyper-velocity micro-gram particle impact (HMPI). Energetic electrons in the GPS environment cause the deep dielectric charging. HMPIs cause triggers through the transient electric fields generated by the ejecta plasma. During the 1997 Leonid passage the energetic particle fluxes were very low. In the presence of such low fluxes the typical median trigger rate is 20 per minute with a standard deviation of about 20 per minute. Between 0800 UT and 1200 UT on November 17, 1997, the sensor on a specially configured satellite observed trigger rates more than 10 sigma above the nominal median rate. Sensors on other Block IIA GPS satellites also observed excess triggers during November. Detection is enhanced when the sensor antenna is oriented into the Leonid radiant. While many questions persist the authors feel that it is likely that the excess events during the November interval were caused by the close approach of the satellites to the Leonid meteoroid path.

  10. Principle characteristics of the National Earth Observation Satellite. Project SPOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazenave, M.

    1977-01-01

    A recent meeting of the Economic and Social Committee examined the programs and means currently being implemented by France in the field in the field of space research and industry which could bring about fast results. This was prompted by man's desire to insure rational resource management of his planet and by man's awareness of the definite contribution that space observation can make to this field of research. Through discussion, the Economic and Social Committee has approved the plan for creating an earth observation satellite. A detailed discussion of the principle characteristics of this earth observation satellite include the objectives, the orbit, characteristics and operations of the platform, maintenance, attitude measurement, the power available and many other characteristics.

  11. Advances in using satellite altimetry to observe storm surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqi

    2017-04-01

    Storm surges are the major cause for coastal flooding, resulting in catastrophic damage to properties and loss of life in coastal communities. Thus it is important to utilize new technology to enhance our capabilities of observing storm surges and ultimately to improve our capacity for forecasting storm surges and mitigating damage and loss. In this talk we first review traditional methods of monitoring storm surges. We then provide examples of storm surges observed by nadir satellite altimetry, during Hurricane Sandy and Igor, as well as typhoon and cyclone events. We further evaluate satellite results against tide-gauge data and explain storm surge features. Finally, we discuss the potential of a wide-swath altimetry mission, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), for observing storm surges.

  12. Geomagnetic pulsations observed simultaneously on three geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. J.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Barfield, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of magnetic pulsations have been made by three geostationary satellites carrying similar magnetometers and acting as an azimuthal array. Autospectral and cross-spectral analysis yields coherence and phase differences between the pulsations at the satellite positions. The majority of the data fit the Kelvin-Helmholtz generation mechanism. The azimuthal wave number changes sign near noon and corresponds to propagation away from noon. Usually, the wave number is less than 10 deg per degree of longitude. Later in the afternoon, however, strong pulsations are observed with low coherence, implying large wave numbers. This suggests an instability driven by a gradient in the intensity of energetic protons, which may be expected at this local time. The data also suggest that some of the observed phase difference between the azimuthal components is due to small separations in magnetic shell, whereas this is not the case for the radial components. This implies a localized field-line resonance.

  13. A comparison of some observations of the Galilean satellites with Sampson's tables. [position error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arlot, J.-E.

    1975-01-01

    Two series of photographic observations of the Galilean satellites are analyzed to determine systematic errors in the observations and errors in Sampson's (1921) theory. Satellite-satellite as well as planet-satellite positions are used in comparing theory with observation. Ten unknown errors are identified, and results are presented for three determinations of the unknown longitude error.

  14. Observing outer planet satellites (except Titan) with JWST: Science justification and observational requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kestay, Laszlo P.; Grundy, Will; Stansberry, John; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Thatte, Deepashri; Gudipati, Murthy; Tsang, Constantine; Greenbaum, Alexandra; McGruder, Chima

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will allow observations with a unique combination of spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the study of outer planet satellites within our Solar System. We highlight the infrared spectroscopy of icy moons and temporal changes on geologically active satellites as two particularly valuable avenues of scientific inquiry. While some care must be taken to avoid saturation issues, JWST has observation modes that should provide excellent infrared data for such studies.

  15. Mapping of satellite Earth observations using moving window block kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadić, J. M.; Qiu, X.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    Global gridded maps (a.k.a. Level 3 products) of Earth system properties observed by satellites are central to understanding the spatiotemporal variability of these properties. They also typically serve either as inputs into biogeochemical models or as independent data for evaluating such models. Spatial binning is a common method for generating contiguous maps, but this approach results in a loss of information, especially when the measurement noise is low relative to the degree of spatiotemporal variability. Such "binned" fields typically also lack a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Geostatistical mapping has previously been shown to make higher spatiotemporal resolution maps possible, and also provides a measure uncertainty associated with the gridded products. This study proposes a flexible moving window block kriging method that can be used as a tool for creating high spatiotemporal resolution maps from satellite data. It relies only on the assumption that the observed physical quantity exhibits spatial correlation that can be inferred from the observations. The method has several innovations relative to previously applied methods: (1) it provides flexibility in the spatial resolution of the contiguous maps, (2) it is applicable for physical quantities with varying spatiotemporal coverage (i.e., density of measurements) by utilizing a more general and versatile data sampling approach, and (3) it provides rigorous assessments of the uncertainty associated with the gridded products. The method is demonstrated by creating Level 3 products from observations of column-integrated carbon dioxide (XCO2) from the GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) satellite, and solar induced fluorescence (SIF) from the GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) instrument.

  16. Observations of Outer Solar System Satellites and Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, James R.; van Cleve, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    We examine the principal satellites of outer Solar System planets, as well as Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, using all SIRTF instruments. IRAC photometry will establish the hitherto unknown albedo of these cold objects at wavelengths between 3.5 and 8 microns, IRS will do reflectance spectrosopy at wavelengths between 5.3 and 15 um, and thermal emission spectroscopy between 10 and 40 um. Combined with MIPS photometry and SED measurements, these data willl provide compositional information, albedo, and thermal properties of these objects. All synchronous satellites are observed at leading and trailing hemispheres, while in addition the sub-Neptune hemisphere of Triton, and a series of follow-on measurements of this particularly interesting moon, are performed. The observations of Uranus and Neptune will be used to monitor atmospheric trends seen by HST and ISO, for trace composition data, and for precise straylight subtraction for observations of their innermost principal satellites. Observations of Titan will be examined for different spectral signatures of the hemisphere containing the "continent" seen in near-IR Hubble images compared to the trailing hemisphere, and interpreted in terms of surface composition and temperature.

  17. Observation of global electromagnetic resonances by low- orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkov, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Penetration of Schumann resonances energy from the Earth-ionosphere resonance cavity into the circumterrestrial space is examined. This study focuses on estimates of Alfvén wave amplitude and spectra in the frequency range of 7-50 Hz which can be observed by low-orbiting satellites. Differences in Schumann resonances observation conditions between the nighttime and sunlit sides of the ionosphere are analyzed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) excited by both global thunderstorm activity and individual lightning discharges. IAR spectra in the frequency range of 0.5-10 Hz are calculated for ionospheric altitudes. The calculated spectral amplitudes of IAR and Schumann resonances are compatible with C/NOFS satellite observations. To explain a shift of IAR resonant frequencies observed during C/NOFS satellite passage through terminator region, the IAR model is developed in which an interference of Alfvén waves reflected from the ionospheric E-layer and the IAR upper boundary is taken into account.

  18. Daily Emission Estimates in China Constrained by Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. We present a new algorithm specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~25Å~25 km2). The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates of East China, using the CHIMERE model on a 0.25 degree resolution together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments.

  19. Al Gore attends Fall Meeting session on Earth observing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2011-12-01

    Former U.S. vice president Al Gore, making unscheduled remarks at an AGU Fall Meeting session, said, "The reason you see so many pictures" of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite at this session is "that it already has been built." However, "because one of its primary missions was to help document global warming, it was canceled. So for those who are interested in struggling against political influence," Gore said, "the benefits have been documented well here." Gore made his comments after the third oral presentation at the 8 December session entitled "Earth Observations From the L1 (Lagrangian Point No. 1)," which focused on the capabilities of and progress on refurbishing DSCOVR. The satellite, formerly called Triana, had been proposed by Gore in 1998 to collect climate data. Although Triana was built, it was never launched: Congress mandated that before the satellite could be sent into space the National Academies of Science needed to confirm that the science it would be doing was worthwhile. By the time the scientific validation was complete, the satellite "was no longer compatible with the space shuttle manifest," Robert C. Smith, program manager for strategic integration at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, told Eos.

  20. Large Scale Surface Radiation Budget from Satellite Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinker, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    During the current reporting period, the focus of our work was on preparing and testing an improved version of our Surface Radiation Budget algorithm for processing the ISCCP D1 data routinely at the SRB Satellite Data Analysis Center (SDAC) at NASA Langley Research Center. The major issues addressed are related to gap filling and to testing whether observations made from ERBE could be used to improve current procedures of converting narrowband observations, as available from ISCCP, into broadband observations at the TOA. The criteria for selecting the optimal version are to be based on results of intercomparison with ground truth.

  1. Observations of RR Lyrae with the ANS satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnell, J.; Wu, C.-C.; Bell, R. A.; Hutchinson, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Photometric observations of RR Lyr in the ultraviolet have been obtained using the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite. The observations are compared with theoretical light curves calculated using synthetic spectra and angular diameters determined as a function of phase for RR Lyr by Manduca et al. from photometry at longer wavelengths. A good agreement is found. A bump in the observed light curves in the phase range 0.6 to 0.8 supports the existence of a shock as predicted by Hutchinson, Hill, and Lillie.

  2. First UV Satellite Observations of Mesospheric Water Vapor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-21

    Rottman et al., 1993] on UARS, which has an absolute accuracy of about 3.5% near 280 nm [ Woods et al., 1996]. We degrade the Kohl et al. [1978... near 280 nm [ Woods et al., 1996] and 3% for the wavelength uncertainty of the solar atlas [Kohl et al., 1978]. The total root-sum-squared 1-s...Finally, previous satellite observations of mesospheric water vapor have been made at infrared and microwave wavelengths. There have been no UV

  3. Stellar Source Selections for Image Validation of Earth Observation Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiwoong; Park, Sang-Young; Lim, Dongwook; Lee, Dong-Han; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2011-12-01

    A method of stellar source selection for validating the quality of image is investigated for a low Earth orbit optical remote sensing satellite. Image performance of the optical payload needs to be validated after its launch into orbit. The stellar sources are ideal source points that can be used to validate the quality of optical images. For the image validation, stellar sources should be the brightest as possible in the charge-coupled device dynamic range. The time delayed and integration technique, which is used to observe the ground, is also performed to observe the selected stars. The relations between the incident radiance at aperture and V magnitude of a star are established using Gunn & Stryker's star catalogue of spectrum. Applying this result, an appropriate image performance index is determined, and suitable stars and areas of the sky scene are selected for the optical payload on a remote sensing satellite to observe. The result of this research can be utilized to validate the quality of optical payload of a satellite in orbit.

  4. Analysis of UV Satellite and Ground Observed data for Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, Guido; Manca, Germana; Johnson, Kathleen

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the 280 to 400 nanometers range has been found to be one of the primary cause for skin cancer. The correlation between UV radiation and skin cancer prevention is of global concern. Satellite observations from Nimbus7 (1978-1993), EarthProbe (1996-2004) and OMI/AURA (2004-present) provide long term UV time-series that can be used to study and compute the risk associated with exposure to harmful radiation. Additionally, several ground installations exist to acquire UV radiation data that can be paired with satellite observations. The current work presents the data mining analysis of UV time series from 1978 to present for the Italian region of Sardinia. Satellite observations are paired with ground measurements to provide historical averages of UV radiation, and daily maps of current exposure. A Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to fuse UV data with ground characteristics. The use of GIS is fundamental to calculate the real value of UV on the ground. It is known that the incidence of solar radiation, and consequently of UV, is modified by topography and surface features. Topography plays a important rule, because it is a major factor that determines the spatial variability of insulation and UV being a part of direct insulation. variation in elevation orientation (slope and aspect), and shadow cast by topographical features, determine the UV insulation in a given area or point.

  5. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  6. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  7. Evaluation of cloud-resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-train observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlbauer, A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, R. P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the upper troposphere and still constitute one of the largest uncertainties in climate predictions. This paper evaluates cloud-resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration A-train satellites. The CRM simulations are driven with periodic boundary conditions and ARM forcing data, whereas the CSRM simulations are driven by the ERA-Interim product. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM, but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds, and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500 m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in general circulation models and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1 km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward the cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain, but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating

  8. Documenting Long-term Earth System Evolution With Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, J. A.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Cramer, B.; Karl, T.; Privette, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite observations play a critical role in documenting earth system evolution, both in terms of characterizing prior and current evolution of the Earth and providing a baseline against which future measurements can be compared. Given that the construction of the necessary long-term data sets requires the use of multiple instruments on multiple platforms, each of which may have their own characteristics, drifts, and degradation, this represents a significant challenge to the scientific community. Over the last 30-or so years, going back to the launch of the Nimbus 7 in 1978, earth scientists learned significant lessons about how to create accurate and stable long-term data records. Sponsoring agencies have tried to capture the lessons and use them as a basis for planning for future systems. This presentation will examine and present future approaches to maximize the quality of the long-term data records produced from earth satellites.

  9. Observation of blue satellite bands and photoassociation at ultracold temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pichler, Marin; Qi Jianbing; Stwalley, William C.; Beuc, Robert; Pichler, Goran

    2006-02-15

    We have observed atomic line self-broadening of Cs near 7P{sub 3/2} and 7P{sub 1/2} atomic lines at ultracold temperatures using a magneto-optical trap and resonant ionization detection. We have observed blue satellite band features at detunings of 560 and 800 MHz, respectively, as well as sharp hyperfine-split photoassociative spectra on the red wings of each line and also on the blue wings. Possible explanations of these features are discussed.

  10. Pearson type VII distribution of errors of laser satellite observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhun', I. V.

    The distribution of the difference O-C between observed and calculated satellite distances obtained on execution of the short MERIT program is studied. It is shown that the distribution of these differences is described better by the curve of a Pearson type VII distribution than by the normal law. This can be explained by fluctuations in the accuracy of the observations due to instability of the metrological situation. It is shown that the parameter m of the Pearson distribution varies from 2.7 to ∞ (normal law).

  11. Satellite missions, global environment, and the concept of a global satellite observation information network. The role of the committee on Earth observation satellites (CEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. Brent; Williams, David F.; Fujita, Akihiro

    The paper traces the development of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) since its November 1990 Plenary: its restructuring to include major intergovernmental user and international scientific organizational affiliates; its focus on data sharing issues and completion of a CEOS resolution guaranteeing global change researchers access to satellite data at the cost of filling a user request; unfolding of a CEOS-associated initiative of the UK Prime Minister reporting to UNCED delegations on the relevance of satellite missions to the study of the global environment; development of a "Dossier" providing detailed information on all CEOS agency satellite missions, including sensor specifications, ground systems, standard data products, and other information relevant to users; creation of a permanent CEOS Secretariat; and efforts currently underway to assess the feasibility of a global satellite observation information network. Of particular relevance to developing countries, the paper will discuss CEOS efforts to assure broad user access and to foster acceptance of applications in such important areas as disaster monitoring and mitigation, land cover change, weather forecasting, and long-term climate modeling.

  12. Observational and Dynamical Wave Climatologies. VOS vs Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, Victoria; Badulin, Sergei; Chernyshova, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The understanding physics of wind-driven waves is crucially important for fundamental science and practical applications. This is why experimental efforts are targeted at both getting reliable information on sea state and elaborating effective tools of the sea wave forecasting. The global Visual Wave Observations and satellite data from the GLOBWAVE project of the European Space Agency are analyzed in the context of these two viewpoints. Within the first "observational" aspect we re-analyze conventional climatologies of all basic wave parameters for the last decades [5]. An alternative "dynamical" climatology is introduced as a tool of prediction of dynamical features of sea waves on global scales. The features of wave dynamics are studied in terms of one-parametric dependencies of wave heights on wave periods following the theoretical concept of self-similar wind-driven seas [3, 1, 4] and recently proposed approach to analysis of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) data [2]. Traditional "observational" climatologies based on VOS and satellite data collections demonstrate extremely consistent pictures for significant wave heights and dominant periods. On the other hand, collocated satellite and VOS data show significant differences in wave heights, wind speeds and, especially, in wave periods. Uncertainties of visual wave observations can explain these differences only partially. We see the key reason of this inconsistency in the methods of satellite data processing which are based on formal application of data interpolation methods rather than on up-to-date physics of wind-driven waves. The problem is considered within the alternative climatology approach where dynamical criteria of wave height-to-period linkage are used for retrieving wave periods and constructing physically consistent dynamical climatology. The key dynamical parameter - exponent R of one-parametric dependence Hs ~ TR shows dramatically less pronounced latitudinal dependence as compared to observed Hs

  13. Improving a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme Using TRMM Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Liu, Chuntao; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    Comparisons between cloud model simulations and observations are crucial in validating model performance and improving physical processes represented in the mod Tel.hese modeled physical processes are idealized representations and almost always have large rooms for improvements. In this study, we use data from two different sensors onboard TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) satellite to improve the microphysical scheme in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. TRMM observed mature-stage squall lines during late spring, early summer in central US over a 9-year period are compiled and compared with a case simulation by GCE model. A unique aspect of the GCE model is that it has a state-of-the-art spectral bin microphysical scheme, which uses 33 different bins to represent particle size distribution of each of the seven hydrometeor species. A forward radiative transfer model calculates TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) reflectivity and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) 85 GHz brightness temperatures from simulated particle size distributions. Comparisons between model outputs and observations reveal that the model overestimates sizes of snow/aggregates in the stratiform region of the squall line. After adjusting temperature-dependent collection coefficients among ice-phase particles, PR comparisons become good while TMI comparisons worsen. Further investigations show that the partitioning between graupel (a high-density form of aggregate), and snow (a low-density form of aggregate) needs to be adjusted in order to have good comparisons in both PR reflectivity and TMI brightness temperature. This study shows that long-term satellite observations, especially those with multiple sensors, can be very useful in constraining model microphysics. It is also the first study in validating and improving a sophisticated spectral bin microphysical scheme according to long-term satellite observations.

  14. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

  15. Astrometric observations of the satellites of the outer planets. I - The Galilean satellites in 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ianna, P. A.; Seitzer, P.; Levinson, F.

    1979-01-01

    Astrometric observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter performed around the opposition of 1977 with a 67-cm photovisual refractor are reported. The measurements are reduced to absolute and intersatellite positions by two different methods: a linear least-squares plate-constant solution to the AGK3 reference-star frame and the trail-scale method of Pascu (1977). Results of a plate-constant reduction are also presented for two observations of JV (Amalthea). Comparison of the data with Liske's (1978) theoretical predictions for the intersatellite positions indicates no systematic bias in the data; a probable scatter of about 15 arcsec in both right ascension and declination is estimated.

  16. Compact SAR and Small Satellite Solutions for Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRosa, M.; L'Abbate, M.

    2016-12-01

    Requirements for near and short term mission applications (Observation and Reconnaissance, SIGINT, Early Warning, Meteorology,..) are increasingly calling for spacecraft operational responsiveness, flexible configuration, lower cost satellite constellations and flying formations, to improve both the temporal performance of observation systems (revisit, response time) and the remote sensing techniques (distributed sensors, arrays, cooperative sensors). In answer to these users' needs, leading actors in Space Systems for EO are involved in development of Small and Microsatellites solutions. Thales Alenia Space (TAS) has started the "COMPACT-SAR" project to develop a SAR satellite characterized by low cost and reduced mass while providing, at the same time, high image quality in terms of resolution, swath size, and radiometric performance. Compact SAR will embark a X-band SAR based on a deployable reflector antenna fed by an active phased array feed. This concept allows high performance, providing capability of electronic beam steering both in azimuth and elevation planes, improving operational performance over a purely mechanically steered SAR system. Instrument provides both STRIPMAP and SPOTLIGHT modes, and thanks to very high gain antenna, can also provide a real maritime surveillance mode based on a patented Low PRF radar mode. Further developments are in progress considering missions based on Microsatellites technology, which can provide effective solutions for different user needs, such as Operational responsiveness, low cost constellations, distributed observation concept, flying formations, and can be conceived for applications in the field of Observation, Atmosphere sensing, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR), Signal Intelligence. To satisfy these requirements, flexibility of small platforms is a key driver and especially new miniaturization technologies able to optimize the performance. An overview new micros-satellite (based on NIMBUS

  17. Co-ordination of satellite and data programs: The committee on earth observation satellites' approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embleton, B. J. J.; Kingwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Every year, an average of eight new civilian remote sensing satellite missions are launched. Cumulatively, over 250 such missions, each with a cost equivalent in current value to between US 100 million to US 1000 million, have been sponsored by space agencies in perhaps two dozen countries. These missions produce data and information products which are vital for informed decision making all over the world, on matters relating to natural resource exploitation, health and safety, sustainable national development, infrastructure planning, and a host of other applications. By contributing to better scientific understanding of global changes in the atmosphere, land surface, oceans and ice caps, these silently orbiting sentinels in the sky make it possible for governments and industries to make wiser environmental policy decisions and support the economic development needs of humanity. The international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is the premier world body for co-ordinating and planning civilian satellite missions for Earth observation. Through its technical working groups and special task teams, it endeavours to: • maximise the international benefits from Earth observation satellites; and • harmonise practice in calibration, validation, data management and information systems for Earth observation. CEOS encompasses not only space agencies (data providers), but also the great international scientific and operational programs which rely on Earth science data from space. The user organisations affiliated with CEOS, together with the mission operators, attempt to reconcile user needs with the complex set of considerations — including national interests, cost, schedule — which affect the undertaking of space missions. Without such an internationally co-ordinated consensual approach, there is a much greater risk of waste through duplication, and of missed opportunity, or through the absence of measurements of some vital physical or biological

  18. Global Distribution of Photosynthetically Active Radiation as Observed from Satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.

    1992-01-01

    Concern about possible effects of a steady increase in CO2 on the earth's climate, and the fact that current estimates of sources and sinks of CO2 do not balance, generated interest to improve knowledge of rates at which carbon is cycled between the oceans, land, and atmosphere. The net primary productivity (NPP)-namely, the rate at which inorganic carbon is transformed into organic matter-is strongly controlled by the availability and intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR); the distribution of photoactive pigments; the efficiency with which the light is absorbed; and the efficiency of its conversion into organic matter. In this study the feasibility to derive one of the above parameters is demonstrated-namely, PAR on a global scale. In the past, information on PAR was obtained from local ground measurements in the 0.40.7-µm spectral interval. In the absence of such measurements, PAR was estimated from measured total solar irradiance, using empirical `conversion factors.' It is demonstrated that this important bigeophysical parameter can now be derived from satellite observations. The inference model is implemented with global satellite data that are available ftom the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) to produce for the fire time global fields of PAR and corresponding `conversion factors.'

  19. Contributions of Satellite Observations to Understanding Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.

    2006-01-01

    One of the challenges facing atmospheric scientists is to interpret trends in multi-decadal data records. Although data records from satellite instruments are not as long as some ground-based records, global coverage and resolved vertical profiles provide unique information for identifying signatures of climate change. For example, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite provided profiles of O3, H2O, HC1, HF, CH4 from October 1991 until November 2005. There are also multi-annual ground based measurements of the column HCl. Middle latitude ground-based measurements show a seasonal cycle, and the HALOE profiles show that this is driven by the seasonal change in the composition and mass of the region between the tropopause and 380K surface (the lowermost stratosphere). Understanding the processes that produce the seasonal cycle makes it possible to interpret a future change in the seasonal cycle as a marker of a change in the stratospheric residual circulation. Satellite observations have also provided key information for improving the physical basis of models used to predict future composition and climate circulation. An example is the "tape recorder" signature in tropical stratospheric water vapor, i.e., the slow ascent of high and low water vapor anomalies roughly corresponding to the tropopause temperature at the time air entered the stratosphere. This signature has become a key diagnostic of performance for climate models.

  20. Evaluation of a GCM cirrus parameterization using satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soden, B. J.; Donner, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    This study applies a simple yet effective methodology to validate a general circulation model parameterization of cirrus ice water path. The methodology combines large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic fields from operational analyses with prescribed occurrence of cirrus clouds from satellite observations to simulate a global distribution of ice water path. The predicted cloud properties are then compared with the corresponding satellite measurements of visible optical depth and infrared cloud emissivity to evaluate the reliability of the parameterization. This methodology enables the validation to focus strictly on the water loading side of the parameterization by eliminating uncertainties involved in predicting the occurrence of cirrus internally within the parameterization. Overall the parameterization performs remarkably well in capturing the observed spatial patterns of cirrus optical properties. Spatial correlations between the observed and the predicted optical depths are typically greater than 0.7 for the tropics and northern hemisphere midlatitudes. The good spatial agreement largely stems from the strong dependence of the ice water path upon the temperature of the environment in which the clouds form. Poorer correlations (r approximately 0.3) are noted over the southern hemisphere midlatitudes, suggesting that additional processes not accounted for by the parameterization may be important there. Quantitative evaluation of the parameterization is hindered by the present uncertainty in the size distribution of cirrus ice particles. Consequently, it is difficult to determine if discrepancies between the observed and the predicted optical properties are attributable to errors in the parameterized ice water path or to geographic variations in effective radii.

  1. Comparing soil moisture memory in satellite observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan; Loew, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    A major obstacle to a correct parametrization of soil processes in large scale global land surface models is the lack of long term soil moisture observations for large parts of the globe. Currently, a compilation of soil moisture data derived from a range of satellites is released by the ESA Climate Change Initiative (ECV_SM). Comprising the period from 1978 until 2010, it provides the opportunity to compute climatological relevant statistics on a quasi-global scale and to compare these to the output of climate models. Our study is focused on the investigation of soil moisture memory in satellite observations and models. As a proxy for memory we compute the autocorrelation length (ACL) of the available satellite data and the uppermost soil layer of the models. Additional to the ECV_SM data, AMSR-E soil moisture is used as observational estimate. Simulated soil moisture fields are taken from ERA-Interim reanalysis and generated with the land surface model JSBACH, which was driven with quasi-observational meteorological forcing data. The satellite data show ACLs between one week and one month for the greater part of the land surface while the models simulate a longer memory of up to two months. Some pattern are similar in models and observations, e.g. a longer memory in the Sahel Zone and the Arabian Peninsula, but the models are not able to reproduce regions with a very short ACL of just a few days. If the long term seasonality is subtracted from the data the memory is strongly shortened, indicating the importance of seasonal variations for the memory in most regions. Furthermore, we analyze the change of soil moisture memory in the different soil layers of the models to investigate to which extent the surface soil moisture includes information about the whole soil column. A first analysis reveals that the ACL is increasing for deeper layers. However, its increase is stronger in the soil moisture anomaly than in its absolute values and the first even exceeds the

  2. Fast Emission Estimates in China Constrained by Satellite Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R.

    2013-12-01

    Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Unfortunately, bottom-up emission inventories, compiled from large quantities of statistical data, are easily outdated for an emerging economy such as China, where rapid economic growth changes emissions accordingly. Alternatively, top-down emission estimates from satellite observations of air constituents have important advantages of being spatial consistent, having high temporal resolution, and enabling emission updates shortly after the satellite data become available. Constraining emissions from concentration measurements is, however, computationally challenging. Within the GlobEmission project of the European Space Agency (ESA) a new algorithm has been developed, specifically designed for fast daily emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric species on a mesoscopic scale (0.25 × 0.25 degree) from satellite observations of column concentrations. The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates in East China, using the CHIMERE model together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. The observations are used to construct a monthly emission time series, which reveal important emission trends such as the emission reduction measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the impact and recovery from the global economic crisis. The algorithm is also able to detect emerging sources (e.g. new power plants) and improve emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e.g. shipping emissions). The new emission estimates result in a better

  3. Large-scale and Convective-scale Updraft Profiles from Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, H.; Luo, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Among the crucial problems involved in the tropical energy budget are the thermodynamic effects of an ensemble of convective clouds on their environment and the large-scale influence imposed back on the convective-scale dynamics. Efforts to seek observational evidence for this problem, however, are challenged by limitations in the capability of measuring vertical motion across different horizontal scales. We have recently been exploring new analysis strategies in hopes to make this seemingly impossible possible, exploiting a suite of satellite instruments including the CloudSat and TRMM radars and Aqua AIRS. Since a complete vertical structure of in-cloud vertical velocity, wc, is unable to be reconstructed from satellite measurements alone, a single-column plume model is run with the environmental soundings from AIRS to obtain a set of synthetic wc profiles under a range of entrainment rates. The solutions are then narrowed down in a Bayesian manner so as to match the cloud-top vertical velocity and buoyancy estimates from A-Train infrared and radar measurements. The vertical profile of large-scale mean vertical motion, ω, is also evaluated from satellite observations in its own approach: ω as a function of pressure is determined so that it satisfies the horizontal divergence terms in the tropospheric water and thermal budget equations in which the remaining terms are constrained by satellite measurements. In this talk, the methodology is briefly outlined and the results are presented and discussed in light of outstanding issues in tropical dynamics. The wc and ω estimates above, although subject to intrinsic uncertainties yet to be verified, do not involve any closure assumption as required for cumulus parameterizations and would offer a useful test bed for climate models and reanalysis data as well as a unique opportunity to study the mechanism of tropical convection.

  4. Solar neutron observations with ChubuSat-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    2016-07-01

    Solar neutron observation is a key in understanding of ion accerelation mechanism in the Sun surface since neutrons are hardly affected by magnetic field around the Sun and intersteller mediums unlike charged particles. However, there was only a few tenth detections so far since its discovery in 1982. Actually SEDA-AP Fiber detector (FIB) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was suffered from a high neutron background produced by the ISS itself. ChubuSat is a series of 50-kg class microsatellite jointly depeloped by universities (Nagoya university and Daido university) and aerospace companies at the Chubu area of central Japan. The ChubuSat-2 is the second ChubuSat following the ChubuSat-1 which was launched by Russian DNEPR rocket on November 6, 2014. It was selected as one of four piggyback payloads of the X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H in 2014 summer, and will be launched by the H-IIA launch vehcles from from JAXA Tanegashima Space Center (TNSC) in February 2016. The ChubuSat-2 carries a mission instrument, radiation detector (RD). The main mission of ChubuSat-2 is devoted for monitoring neutrons and gamma-rays which can be background source for ASTRO-H celestrial observations with the RD. The mission also involves a function of solar neutron observations which were originally proposed by graduate students who join the leadership development program for space exploration and research, program for leading graduate schools at Nagoya University. The RD has a similar detection area and efficiency to those of the SEDA-AP FIB, but is expected to have lower backgrounthan the ISS thanks to much smaller mass of the micro-satellite. In this paper, we will describe details of ChubuSat-2 satellite and RD, and in-orbit performance of RD.

  5. Correlation of satellite lightning observations with ground-based lightning experiments in Florida, Texas and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, B. C.; Turman, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning were correlated with ground-based measurements of lightning from data bases obtained at three separate sites. The percentage of ground-based observations of lightning that would be seen by an orbiting satellite was determined.

  6. Observations of Active Volcanoes Using the EO-1 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, L. P.; Harris, A. J.; Wright, R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Geschwind, L. R.; Donegan, S.; Garbeil, H.

    2001-12-01

    Previous satellite observations of active volcanoes have been hampered by instruments that are primarily designed to measure surface reflectance of the Earth's vegetation. Sensors detecting radiation in the near-IR and IR are frequently saturated by highly radiant active volcanic features. Two satellite instruments, Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing -1 (EO-1) offer a means to circumvent saturation issues. Hyperion is a hyperspectral instrument that collects data in 242 narrow spectral bands between 0.4 and 2.5 microns and produces images that are 7.5 km x 100 km. For each 30m x 30m pixel, accurate atmospheric corrections and multiple component thermal models for lava flows can be generated. ALI is a Landsat-like instrument having 10 spectral bands at 0.4 - 2.35 microns. One of these, the 1.2 micron band, is sensitive to high temperature thermal anomalies such as overturning lava lakes and open lava channels. ALI also has a 10-m panchromtic band that allows for greater detailed mapping of volcanic features. ALI and Hyperion analyses for Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Mt. Etna (Sicily), Santiaguito (Guatemala), Popocatepetl (Mexico), and Mayon (Philippines) will be presented. While distribution of these data sets is limited to the EO-1 Science Team, the future of NASA's high spatial resolution terrestrial observation program will likely be based on a hybrid of these EO-1 sensors.

  7. Satellite Observations of Desert Dust-induced Himalayan Snow Darkening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2013-01-01

    The optically thick aerosol layer along the southern edge of the Himalaya has been subject of several recent investigations relating to its radiative impacts on the South Asian summer monsoon and regional climate forcing. Prior to the onset of summer monsoon, mineral dust from southwest Asian deserts is transported over the Himalayan foothills on an annual basis. Episodic dust plumes are also advected over the Himalaya, visible as dust-laden snow surface in satellite imagery, particularly in western Himalaya. We examined spectral surface reflectance retrieved from spaceborne MODIS observations that show characteristic reduction in the visible wavelengths (0.47 nm) over western Himalaya, associated with dust-induced solar absorption. Case studies as well as seasonal variations of reflectance indicate a significant gradient across the visible (0.47 nm) to near-infrared (0.86 nm) spectrum (VIS-NIR), during premonsoon period. Enhanced absorption at shorter visible wavelengths and the resulting VIS-NIR gradient is consistent with model calculations of snow reflectance with dust impurity. While the role of black carbon in snow cannot be ruled out, our satellite-based analysis suggests the observed spectral reflectance gradient dominated by dust-induced solar absorption during premonsoon season. From an observational viewpoint, this study underscores the importance of mineral dust deposition toward darkening of the western Himalayan snow cover, with potential implications to accelerated seasonal snowmelt and regional snow albedo feedbacks.

  8. Assessment of Global Annual Atmospheric Energy Balance from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice); Hinkelman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and latent and sensible heat over oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimations. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 Watts per square meter, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 9 Watts per square meter, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated at about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements significantly reduces the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

  9. Satellite observations of NOx and VOC emissions from fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Huang, G.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Miller, C. E.; Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    We present estimates of NOx, formaldehyde, and glyoxal emissions from biomass burning events derived from enhancements measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). Emissions from biomass burning can vary greatly both regionally and from event to event, but previous work has been unable to fully explain this variability. Satellite observations from OMI offer a powerful tool to observe biomass burning events by providing observations globally over a range of environmental conditions that effect emissions of NOx, formaldehyde, and glyoxal. We will expand on previous studies by using OMI measurements to investigate not only the dependence of the emissions of each of these species on fire intensity but also the dependence of the ratios of these species. Fire intensity is quantified by using fire radiative power quantified by the MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) satellite instrument. We also account for variation of emissions and their ratios due to available fuel loading and fire types, which are affected by regional (e.g. biome type) and meteorological (e.g. wind, temperature, rainfall) factors. Furthermore, in individual case studies we will constrain how the chemical processing of primary fire emissions effects the secondary formation of VOCs and ozone by exploiting the temporal and spatial evolution of these interspecies relationships.

  10. Physical properties of the planets and satellites from radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengill, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    The radar cross section of a planetary target is defined as the area of an isotropic scatterer, normal to the illumination, that would yield the observed echo intensity, if it were placed at the target's location. Attention is given to the angular scattering law, surface imagery, and topography. The observational results are discussed, taking into account the moon and the inner planets, the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, and the rings of Saturn. It is pointed out that the reach of radar astronomy has maintained nearly an exponential growth over the past three decades, as the sensitivity of available radar systems has on average more than doubled each year. There are, however, limits to this growth set by the large costs required for a new generation of observing facilities. Only modest increases in radar system sensitivity are, therefore, expected for the next decade.

  11. Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer observations of geosynchronous satellites.

    PubMed

    Hindsley, Robert B; Armstrong, J Thomas; Schmitt, Henrique R; Andrews, Jonathan R; Restaino, Sergio R; Wilcox, Christopher C; Vrba, Frederick J; Benson, James A; DiVittorio, Michael E; Hutter, Donald J; Shankland, Paul D; Gregory, Steven A

    2011-06-10

    Using a 15.9  m baseline at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI), we have successfully detected interferometric fringes in observations of the geosynchronous satellite (geosat) DirecTV-9S while it glinted on two nights in March 2009. The fringe visibilities can be fitted by a model consisting of two components, one resolved (≳3.7  m) and one unresolved (∼1.1  m). Both the length of the glint and the specular albedos are consistent with the notion that the glinting surfaces are not completely flat and scatter reflected sunlight into an opening angle of roughly 15°. Enhancements to the NPOI that would improve geosat observations include adding an infrared capability, which could extend the glint season, and adding larger, adaptive-optics equipped telescopes. Future work may test the feasibility of observing geosats with aperture-masked large telescopes and of developing an array of six to nine elements.

  12. Every Day is a Snow Day: Leveraging A-Train Observations to Evaluate Arctic Liquid Containing Cloud Processes in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlhattan, E.; L'Ecuyer, T.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate representation of cloud processes remains one of the most challenging obstacles for global climate models (GCMs) to correctly model our current climate and predict future scenarios. Portraying the behavior of super-cooled liquid containing clouds (LCCs) in the Arctic region is particularly difficult owing to both an incomplete understanding of their microphysics and a lack of observations for validation. This work leverages the unique capabilities of two instruments flown in NASA's A-Train satellite constellation to measure co-varying cloud characteristics and infer processes surrounding LCCs. Despite winter darkness and ice-covered surfaces, CALIPSO's two-channel lidar is able to identify Arctic LCCs, and CloudSat`s millimeter-wavelength cloud profiling radar (CPR) is able to simultaneously detect snowfall beneath the cloud layer. The A-Train is the first and only space-borne observing system with these observational capabilities. Here we evaluate the representation of LCCs in the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) project using A-Train derived data products (2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR, 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR, 2C-PRECIP-COLUMN, and 2C-SNOW-PROFILE). We present the observed Arctic distributions (temporal and spatial) of LCCs, precipitation frequency, radiative fluxes, and the relationships between them. Comparing the observations to the corresponding CESM-LE outputs, we find LCCs snow far more often in the model than in observations, implying that too-frequent precipitation scours the super-cooled liquid from the cloud layer. This bias in LCCs leads to an underestimation of downwelling longwave radiation reaching the surface. Implications of the biases and implied processes are discussed, with particular focus on their impacts on the Greenland ice sheet.

  13. Seismo-magnetic observations aboard the upcoming Chinese CSES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Magnes, Werner; Xuhui, Shen; Wang, Jindong; Pollinger, Andreas; Hagen, Christian; Lammegger, Roland; Ellmeier, Michaela; Prattes, Gustav; Eichelberger, Hans U.; Wolbang, Daniel; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Besser, Bruno P.; Rozhnoi, Alexander A.; Zhang, Tielong; Delva, Magda; Jernej, Irmgard; Aydogar, Özer

    2017-04-01

    One objective of the upcoming Chinese Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) mission is the observation of seismo-magnetic phenomena aboard CSES. Several hypothesis exist in order to explain the influence of seismic phenomena on magnetic field variations in the atmosphere and in the ionosphere. The so called microfracture electrification (Molchanov and Hayakawa, 1998) proposes the generation of a broad band electric-magnetic signal which is low-pass filtered by the crustal and atmospheric/ionospheric conductivity. Depending on the environmental conductivity sigma and on the permeability mu (Prattes et al., 2008) the electromagnetic field fluctuations with the frequency omega can propagate approximately d_skin. (d_skin) = sqrt(2/(mu*sigma*omega)) We present the sensitivity of the CSES scalar dark state magnetometer (Schwingenschuh et al., 2016) after the final tests and compare it with seismo-magnetic ULF model results using various earthquake parameters. References: Prattes, G. et al.: Multi-point ground-based ULF magnetic field observations in Europe during seismic active periods in 2004 and 2005, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 501-507, 2008 Molchanov, O. and Hayakawa, M.: On the generation mechanism of ULF seismogenic electromagnetic emissions, Phys. of the Earth and Planet. Int., 105, 201-210, 1998 Schwingenschuh, K. et al.: Study of earthquakes and related phenomena using a satellite scalar magnetometer, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 18, EGU2016-8448, 2016

  14. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  15. Radar and satellite observations of the storm time cleft

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C.; Holt, J.M.; Redus, R.H.; Rich, F.J.

    1990-08-01

    During the magnetic storm of February 8-9, 1986, the region of strong ion convection in the vicinity of the dayside cusp expanded equatorward into the field of view of the Millstone Hill radar at lower mid-latitudes. High-speed (>1.5 km/s) poleward ion flows were found at latitudes as low as 60 deg invariant latitude, at least 10 deg lower than the typical cleft/cusp position for moderately disturbed (Kp>4) magnetospheric conditions. The ion velocity pattern responded promptly to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field By direction. The large-scale two-dimensional convection pattern across the dayside was well resolved using radar azimuth scan data at Millstone Hill, thus enabling us to place the fine-scale radar/satellite observations of the storm time cusp and cleft in the context of the large-scale pattern. We present a detailed comparison of radar and DMSP F7 satellite observations in the prenoon sector during a period of Kp > 7, to examine the low-altitude signatures of various plasma regions in the vicinity of the cusp. The combination of particle precipitation, magnetic field perturbation, radar measurements of ion heating, and convection consistently suggests the unusual low-latitude position of cusp at 65 invariant latitude.

  16. Alaskan mountain glacial melting observed by satellite gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Wilson, C. R.

    2006-08-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) as an indication of mass change to study potential long-term mountain glacial melting in southern Alaska and West Canada. The first 3.5 yr of GRACE monthly gravity data, spanning April 2002-November 2005, show a prominent glacial melting trend in the mountain regions around the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). GRACE-observed surface mass changes correlate remarkably well with available mass balance data at Gulkana and Wolverine, two benchmark glaciers of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), although the GRACE signals are smaller in magnitude. In addition, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes estimated from an advanced land surface model show significant mass loss in this region during the same period. After correcting for the leakage errors and removing TWS contributions using model estimates, we conclude that GRACE-observed glacial melting in the GOA mountain region is equivalent to ˜ - 101 ± 22 km 3/yr, which agrees quite well with the assessment of ˜ - 96 ± 35 km 3/yr based on airborne laser altimetry data, and is consistent with an earlier estimate based on the first 2 yr of GRACE data. This study demonstrates the significant potentials of satellite gravity measurements for monitoring mountain glacial melting and regional climate change.

  17. Eclipses of the inner satellites of Jupiter observed in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquet, E.; Emelyanov, N.; Colas, F.; Arlot, J.-E.; Robert, V.; Christophe, B.; Dechambre, O.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: During the 2014-2015 campaign of mutual events, we recorded ground-based photometric observations of eclipses of Amalthea (JV) and, for the first time, Thebe (JXIV) by the Galilean moons. We focused on estimating whether the positioning accuracy of the inner satellites determined with photometry is sufficient for dynamical studies. Methods: We observed two eclipses of Amalthea and one of Thebe with the 1 m telescope at Pic du Midi Observatory using an IR filter and a mask placed over the planetary image to avoid blooming features. A third observation of Amalthea was taken at Saint-Sulpice Observatory with a 60 cm telescope using a methane filter (890 nm) and a deep absorption band to decrease the contrast between the planet and the satellites. After background removal, we computed a differential aperture photometry to obtain the light flux, and followed with an astrometric reduction. Results: We provide astrometric results with an external precision of 53 mas for the eclipse of Thebe, and 20 mas for that of Amalthea. These observation accuracies largely override standard astrometric measurements. The (O - C)s for the eclipse of Thebe are 75 mas on the X-axis and 120 mas on the Y-axis. The (O - C)s for the total eclipses of Amalthea are 95 mas and 22 mas, along the orbit, for two of the three events. Taking into account the ratio of (O - C) to precision of the astrometric results, we show a significant discrepancy with the theory established by Avdyushev and Ban'shikova in 2008, and the JPL JUP 310 ephemeris. Three of the four eclipse observations where recorded at the 1 m telescope of Pic du Midi Observatory (S2P), the other at Saint-Sulpice Observatory.

  18. Comparisons of Satellite Optical Observations with Ground-Based Observations of Lightning, Then and Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, W. H.; Noble, C. M.; Edgar, B. C.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, T. E.

    2001-12-01

    About 20 years ago, the first and third authors presented a paper comparing the optical observations of lightning from the DMSP Piggy Back Experiment (PBE) with ground-based manually determined lightning ground-strike locations. In one case in 1977 there were eleven optical events from one satellite pass over the region of interest for which there were ground-based data available. In general there were few periods of overlap because the area covered by the ground-based research direction-finding systems was limited. Now, the Photo-Diode Detector (PDD) on board the FORTE satellite, a cooperative effort between LANL and Sandia Labs, provides hundreds of optical observations that are correlated with ground-strike location data from the National Lightning Detection Network on every pass over a stormy region of the U.S. Though in some ways it should not be too surprising that there are similarities, since the PDD instrument on the FORTE satellite is very similar to the PBE instrument, it has been very interesting to re-visit the 1977 observations to compare what was seen and what was not seen by the satellite and ground-based systems, then and now. The characteristics of the optical observations for which there were no ground-strike data in 1977 are remarkably similar to those of the events attributed to cloud flashes in the FORTE data sets. We show the power-time histories of the optical observations then and now.

  19. Satellite Observation Highlights of the 2010 Russian Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan N.; daSilva, Arlindo; Torres, Omar

    2010-01-01

    From late-July through mid-August 2010, wildfires raged in western Russia. The resulting thick smoke and biomass burning products were transported over the highly populated Moscow city and surrounding regions, seriously impairing visibility and affecting human health. We demonstrate the uniqueness of the 2010 Russian wildfires by using satellite observations from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. Over Moscow and the region of major fire activity to the southeast, we calculate unprecedented increases in the MODIS fire count record of 178 %, an order of magnitude increase in the MODIS fire radiative power (308%) and OMI absorbing aerosols (255%), and a 58% increase in AIRS total carbon monoxide (CO). The exceptionally high levels of CO are shown to be of comparable strength to the 2006 El Nino wildfires over Indonesia. Both events record CO values exceeding 30x10(exp 7) molec/ square cm.

  20. Satellite-observed characteristics of midwest severe thunderstorm anvils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Blackmer, Roy H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The cloud top and anvil structure of severe thunderstorms observed by the GOES satellite are analyzed for five SESAME cases in 1979 and four non-SESAME cases in 1980-1982. The data is compared with previous models and hypotheses, paying particular attention to the V feature and thermal couplets in the IR observations. The characteristics of the cases are examined and related to the upper-level temperature and wind conditions. It is found that the warm points downwind of the cloud top are due to subsidence. The anaylsis suggests the presence of subsidence due to mountainlike waves. A model in which the close-in warm point is produced by both internal cloud air motions and stratospheric flow around and over the cloud top. It is suggested that the distant warm point is due to either a wave perturbation from air flowing over the cloud top, or air flowing horizonatlly around the elevated portion of the cloud top and anvil.

  1. LCROSS: Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmie, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the success of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) project. The LCROSS mission science goals was to: (1) Confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region on the Moon (2) Identify the form/state of hydrogen observed by at the lunar poles (3) Quantify, if present, the amount of water in the lunar regolith, with respect to hydrogen concentrations (4) Characterize the lunar regolith within a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon. The mission confirmed the presence of water ice on the moon by impacting a part of the spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater.. The presentation includes pictures of the development of the spacecraft, testing, launch, impact site, impact and a section of what the author called "Lunacy" which showed joking cartoons.

  2. Global Observations from a Constellation of Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S. M.; Allen, D. R.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Fish, C. S.; Fromm, M. D.; Gordley, L. L.; Hoppel, K.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M. J.; Nedoluha, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of reliable, miniaturized spacecraft technology has enabled the use of constellations of small spacecraft to achieve global observations of the atmosphere and geospace environment. The need for the spacecraft to be spread globally can be met even with a single launch vehicle by deploying the spacecraft in orbits with slightly different precession rates. Within one year, the spacecraft can be in orbits spread uniformly around the Earth. As many as ten to one hundred satellites can be launched from a single, commonly used launch vehicle, depending on their mass and volume. In this talk we describe the concepts behind achieving global coverage through a constellation of small spacecraft. We describe a small rugged solar occultation instrument that is well suited to this approach and is capable of obtaining high vertical resolution observations of a variety of species important to atmospheric and geospace research. Specific applications regarding stratosphere troposphere exchange are also discussed.

  3. Radar and satellite observations of the storm time cleft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, H.-C.; Foster, J. C.; Holt, J. M.; Redus, R. H.; Rich, F. J.

    1990-08-01

    A combination is made of observations from the Millstone Hill radar (MHR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's F7 spacecraft of the dayside features on the ionospheric cleft/cusp during the magnetic storm of February 8-9, 1986; the MHR was in the dayside. Attention is given to the two sets of observations for the prenoon sector in order to ascertain the low-altitude signatures of plasma regions in the vicinity of the cusp. Boundary plasma sheet particles coincided with a narrow region of magnetic field-aligned currents, as well as with antisunward convection flows at the equatorward edge of the cleft. Particle and field signatures are identified for the plasma sheet, plasma sheet boundary layer, low latitude boundary layer, cusp, and mantle, at unusually low magnetic latitude during the event.

  4. Satellite microwave observations of the Utah Great Salt Lake Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dellwig, L. F.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave data acquired over the Great Salt Lake Desert by sensors aboard Skylab and Nimbus 5 indicate that microwave emission and backscatter were strongly influenced by contributions from subsurface layers of sediment saturated with brine. This phenomenon was observed by Skylab's S-194 radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz, S-193 RADSCAT (Radiometer-Scatterometer) operating at 13.9 GHz and the Nimbus 5 ESMR (Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer) operating at 19.35 GHz. The availability of ESMR data over an 18 month period allowed an investigation of temporal variations. Aircraft 1.4 GHz radiometer data acquired two days after one of the Skylab passes confirm the satellites observations. Data from the ESMR revealed similar responses over the Bolivian deserts, which have geologic features similar to those of the Utah desert.

  5. Space technology in support of Earth observational satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, R.

    With the sucessful launch of the remote sensing satellite ERS-1 in July 1991, the Earth Observation Commmunity in Europe came of age. The United Kingdom (UK) is guaranteed a leading role in this, the newest of the Space industries, because of its sustained commitment to support and development of related technologies. The Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) acts as the focus for these efforts and serves as the platform on which allied and complementary technology programs can be built in a coordinated and strategic manner. This paper presents a summary of the work carried out at the RAE and shows how this has evolved to support the technological requirements of Earth Observation activities in the UK.

  6. The Saturnian Satellite Tethys Observed By Cassini-VIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, R.; Wagner, R.; Clark, R. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C.; Hansen, G. B.; Brown, R. H.; Giese, B.; Roatsch, T.; Matson, D.; Baines, K.; Filiacchione, G.; Cappacione, F.; Rodriguez, S.; Buratti, B. J.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sotin, C.

    2012-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the variations in spectral properties across the surface of Saturn's satellite Tethys using Cassini/VIMS data and their relationships to geological and/or morphological characteristics as seen in the Cassini/ISS images. Despite the spectral dominance of water ice on Tethys’ surface distinct spectral variations could be detected, which are surprisingly very different from what was expected from the visible albedo derived from Voyager and Cassini camera data. The abundance of water ice usually follows the visible surface albedo as seen on many other satellites. Although on Tethys, the weakest water ice signature could be also measured on the trailing hemisphere as known from Dione and Rhea [1-3], the detailed mapping, however, shows a more complex pattern. Two relatively narrow N/S-trending bands characterized by larger ice particle sizes rather than the higher abundance of water ice separate the Saturn-facing and the anti-Saturnian hemisphere of Tethys. So far, larger ice particles could only be found in geologically young, less weathered portions of the surfaces of the icy Saturnian satellites [2,3]. On Tethys, however, the observed variations might be more complex due to the influence of fine particles from the E-ring coating the surface. In contrast to the prominent graben systems on Dione and Rhea, which show fresh ice exposed on steep walls, no spectral properties could be exclusively associated to Tethys’ extended graben system Ithaca Chasma supporting its geologically old age and that its formation was not caused by the impact event that created Odysseus [4]. References: [1] Clark, R. N., et al. (2008), Icarus, 193(2), 372-386. [2] Stephan, K., et al. (2010) Icarus, 206(2), 631-652. [3] Stephan, K. et al. (2012) PSS, 61(1), 142-160. [4] Giese et al., (2007) GRL, 34(21), L21203.

  7. Subtropical Gyre Variability Observed by Ocean Color Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Christian, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The subtropical gyres of the world are extensive, coherent regions that occupy about 40% of the surface of the earth. Once thought to be homogeneous and static habitats, there is increasing evidence that mid-latitude gyres exhibit substantial physical and biological variability on a variety of time scales. While biological productivity within these oligotrophic regions may be relatively small, their immense size makes their total contribution significant. Global distributions of dynamic height derived from satellite altimeter data, and chlorophyll concentration derived from satellite ocean color data, show that the dynamic center of the gyres, the region of maximum dynamic height where the thermocline is deepest, does not coincide with the region of minimum chlorophyll concentration. The physical and biological processes by which this distribution of ocean properties is maintained, and the spatial and temporal scales of variability associated with these processes, are analyzed using global surface chlorophyll-a concentrations, sea surface height, sea surface temperature and surface winds from operational satellite and meteorological sources, and hydrographic data from climatologies and individual surveys. Seasonal and interannual variability in the areal extent of the subtropical gyres are examined using 8 months (November 1996 - June 1997) of OCTS and nearly 5 years (September 1997 - June 02) of SeaWiFS ocean color data and are interpreted in the context of climate variability and measured changes in other ocean properties (i.e., wind forcing, surface currents, Ekman pumping, and vertical mixing). The North Pacific and North Atlantic gyres are observed to be shrinking over this period, while the South Pacific, South Atlantic, and South Indian Ocean gyres appear to be expanding.

  8. Satellite-based Observation of Arctic River Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, R.; Hudson, B.

    2015-12-01

    One of the indicators of a warming Arctic region is an intensification of the hydrological cycle, with increasing permafrost and glacial melt and possibly more precipitation resulting in higher river runoff. Indeed, a significant increase of nearly 10% in annual river flux has been observed in 13 major rivers throughout the entire Arctic region over the last 30 years. However, direct measurements are extremely sparse for 100's of smaller-scale tundra river systems, as well as for proglacial rivers around the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. Observations at in-situ gauging stations are hampered by seasonal ice coverage, break-up and freeze-up dynamics, unstable banks, and difficult access. To overcome such difficulties, we develop remote-sensing based river discharge measurement techniques using a variety of satellite sensors, including reflectance in the near-infrared band of MODIS, LANDSAT, and brightness temperature from the passive microwave sensors AMSR-E and AMSR-2. We use varying inundation of the river channel and floodplain throughout a season to quantify the changing Arctic river flux. A new approach to detect river ice break up in spring has been developed, and is now undergoing validation. To calibrate the remote sensing signal to daily river discharge, we employ either in-situ short observation records, or a numerical distributed hydrological model driven by daily reanalysis climate data. Quantitative reconstructions of meltwater fluxes in rivers along the Greenland Ice Sheet margin obtained so far show a dampened response of these rivers to Greenland Ice Sheet melt. Techniques are now deployed to map river dynamics along the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea coasts, and show shifts in break-up dynamics and flooding patterns. Once calibrated, satellite-based reconstructions have the potential to lengthen short observational records to a ~15 year timespan.

  9. Using A-Train Observations to Evaluate Ice Water Path and Ice Cloud Radiative Effects in the Community Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we first use A-Train satellite data to investigate the distribution of clouds, along with their radiative and microphysical properties, in Southeast Asia during the summer monsoon. The distribution of ice water path (IWP) in this region is highly skewed, such that the mean value is not representative of the typical ice cloud. In examining how cirrus cloud radiative effects at the TOA vary as a function of IWP, we find that cirrus with an IWP less than 200 g m-2 produce a net warming. And weighting the radiative effect by the frequency of occurrence of IWP, reveals that cirrus with an IWP around 20 g m-2contribute most to the heating at the TOA. Next, we use the A-Train results to address the issues of IWP occurrence and high cloud forcing in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. Our goal is to determine if the clouds that heat the upper troposphere in the model are the same genre of clouds that heat the upper troposphere in the real atmosphere. First, we assess the distribution of ice cloud fraction in the model. Then we define a cloud radiative kernel that's a function of cloud top pressure and IWP, to determine whether the modeled ice clouds produce similar shortwave and longwave radiative effects at the TOA. Lastly, we use the cloud radiative kernel and cloud fraction histogram to evaluate how the ice cloud forcing in the model compares to the ice cloud forcing derived from A-Train.

  10. Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

  11. An Examination of Intertidal Temperatures Through Remotely Sensed Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, V.

    2010-12-01

    MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites produce both land surface temperatures and sea surface temperatures using calibrated algorithms. In this study, the land surface temperatures were retrieved during clear-sky (non-cloudy) conditions at a 1 km2 resolution (overpass time at 10:30 am) whereas the sea surface temperatures are also retrieved during clear-sky conditions at approximately 4 km resolution (overpass time at 1:30 pm). The purpose of this research was to examine remotely sensed sea surface (SST), intertidal (IST), and land surface temperatures (LST), in conjunction with observed in situ mussel body temperatures, as well as associated weather and tidal data. In Strawberry Hill, Oregon, it was determined that intertidal surface temperatures are similar to but distinctly different from land surface temperatures although influenced by sea surface temperatures. The air temperature and differential heating throughout the day, as well as location in relation to the shore, can greatly influence the remotely sensed surface temperatures. Therefore, remotely sensed satellite data is a very useful tool in examining intertidal temperatures for regional climatic changes over long time periods and may eventually help researchers forecast expected climate changes and help determine associated biological implications.

  12. Antartic sea ice, 1973 - 1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Comiso, J. C.; Parkinson, C. L.; Campbell, W. J.; Carsey, F. D.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.

  13. Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance and Sun-climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahalan, R.

    Solar activity is now near its maximum, with events such as the 2001"Bastille Day Event", a Coronal Mass Ejection which merited a full session at AGU's annual meet- ing - and two major sunspot groupings earlier this year, with associated variations in TSI (Total Solar Irradiance). We discuss recent satellite measurements of TSI by ACRIM 2 and 3 and Virgo, and new precision observations of TSI and SSI (Solar Spectral Irradiance) expected from the SORCE mission, planned to launch in fall 2002. SSI has been added to TSI as a required EOS and NPOESS measurement be- cause different spectral components provide energy inputs to different components of the climate system - UV into upper atmosphere and ozone, IR into lower atmo- sphere and clouds, and Visible into the biosphere. Succeeding satellite missions being planned for 2006 and 2010 will continue to monitor both TSI and SSI. We summarize current ideas about the potential impact of solar variability on Earth's climate on time scales from days to decades to centuries.

  14. Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance and Sun-Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Solar activity is now near its maximum, with events such as the 2001 "Bastille Day Event", a Coronal Mass Ejection which merited a full session at AGO'S annual meeting - and two major sunspot groupings earlier this year, with associated variations in TSI (Total Solar Irradiance). We discuss recent satellite measurements of TSI by ACRIM 2 and 3 And Virgo, and new precision observations of TSI and SSI (Solar Spectral Irradiance) expected from the SORCE mission, planned to launch in fall 2002. SSG has been added to TSI as a required EOS and NPOESS measurement because different spectral components provide energy inputs to different components of the climate system - UV into upper atmosphere and ozone, IR into lower atmosphere and clouds, and Visible into the biosphere. Succeeding satellite missions being planned for 2006 and 2010 will continue to monitor both TSI and SSI. We summarize current ideas about the potential impact of solar variability on Earth's climate on time scales from days to decades to centuries.

  15. Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance and Sun-Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Solar activity is now near its maximum, with events such as the 2001 "Bastille Day Event", a Coronal Mass Ejection which merited a full session at AGUs annual meeting - and two major sunspot groupings earlier this year, with associated variations in TSI (Total Solar Irradiance). We discuss recent satellite measurements of TSI by ACRIM 2 and 3 and Virgo, and new precision observations of TSI and SSI (Solar Spectral Irradiance) expected from the SORCE mission, planned to launch in fall 2002. SSI has been added to TSI as a required EOS and NPOESS measurement because different spectral components provide energy inputs to different components of the climate system - UV into upper atmosphere and ozone, IR into lower atmosphere and clouds, and Visible into the biosphere. Succeeding satellite missions being planned for 2006 and 2010 will continue to monitor both TSI and SSI. We summarize current ideas about the potential impact of solar variability on Earth's climate on time scales from days to decades to centuries.

  16. International Collaboration in Satellite Observations for Disaster Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  17. Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance and Sun-Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Solar activity is now near its maximum, with events such as the 2001 "Bastille Day Event", a Coronal Mass Ejection which merited a full session at AGUs annual meeting - and two major sunspot groupings earlier this year, with associated variations in TSI (Total Solar Irradiance). We discuss recent satellite measurements of TSI by ACRIM 2 and 3 and Virgo, and new precision observations of TSI and SSI (Solar Spectral Irradiance) expected from the SORCE mission, planned to launch in fall 2002. SSI has been added to TSI as a required EOS and NPOESS measurement because different spectral components provide energy inputs to different components of the climate system - UV into upper atmosphere and ozone, IR into lower atmosphere and clouds, and Visible into the biosphere. Succeeding satellite missions being planned for 2006 and 2010 will continue to monitor both TSI and SSI. We summarize current ideas about the potential impact of solar variability on Earth's climate on time scales from days to decades to centuries.

  18. Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance and Sun-Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Solar activity is now near its maximum, with events such as the 2001 "Bastille Day Event", a Coronal Mass Ejection which merited a full session at AGO'S annual meeting - and two major sunspot groupings earlier this year, with associated variations in TSI (Total Solar Irradiance). We discuss recent satellite measurements of TSI by ACRIM 2 and 3 And Virgo, and new precision observations of TSI and SSI (Solar Spectral Irradiance) expected from the SORCE mission, planned to launch in fall 2002. SSG has been added to TSI as a required EOS and NPOESS measurement because different spectral components provide energy inputs to different components of the climate system - UV into upper atmosphere and ozone, IR into lower atmosphere and clouds, and Visible into the biosphere. Succeeding satellite missions being planned for 2006 and 2010 will continue to monitor both TSI and SSI. We summarize current ideas about the potential impact of solar variability on Earth's climate on time scales from days to decades to centuries.

  19. Observation of suspended sediments in Mobile Bay, Alabama from satellite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive geologic study of coastal Alabama and Mississippi, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating coastal sediment transport in Mobile Bay and the adjacent shelf. Satellite imagery from the NOAA AVHRR is being used to provide data on the variability of spatial patterns in the near-surface suspended sediment concentration. This imagery is processed using atmospheric corrections to remove haze and Rayleigh radiance in order to obtain water reflectances; the reflectances are than converted to approximate sediment concentrations using standard relationships between water reflectance and in situ sediment concentrations. A series of images from early 1990 shows rapid changes in sediment concentrations in response to high river flow of the Alabama-Tombigbee river system. During these times, suspended sediment tends to flow out Mobile Bay without mixing into the eastern lobe of the Bay (Bon Secour Bay). The sediment concentration field also appears to be disturbed by the main ship channel. The sediment plume extends more than 60 km offshore after the peak flow event. One wind event in December 1989 was identified as increasing sediment concentration in the Bay. It is not believed that such an event has been previously observed from satellite.

  20. Tropical widening in models, reanalyses, and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Young, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Poleward migration of the latitudinal edge of the tropics of ~0.25 - 3° decade-1 has been reported in several recent studies based on satellite, radiosonde, and reanalysis data covering the past ~30 years. Disagreements between models and observations have been noted, and to date, it has been unclear to what extent this large range of trends can be explained by the use of different data sources, time periods, and edge definitions. In this presentation, we address these issues by applying a suite of tropical edge latitude diagnostics based on tropopause height, winds, precipitation/evaporation, and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) to six reanalyses and four satellite data sets. These diagnostics include both previously used definitions and new definitions designed for more robust detection. The wide range of widening trends is shown to be primarily due to the use of different data sets and edge definitions, and only secondarily due to varying start/end dates. We also show that the large trends (> ~ 1° decade-1) previously reported in tropopause and OLR diagnostics are partially due to the use of subjective definitions based on absolute thresholds. Statistically significant Hadley cell expansion based on the mean meridional streamfunction of ~1.0° decade-1 is present in all but one reanalysis, whereas other diagnostics yield trends of -0.5 - 0.8° decade-1 that are mostly insignificant. These results are compared to coupled model trends calculated over both the 20th and 21st centuries.

  1. International Collaboration in Satellite Observations for Disaster Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  2. A-Train Based Observational Metrics for Model Evaluation in Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C. M.; Booth, J. F.; Del Genio, A. D.; Posselt, D. J.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones contribute most of the precipitation in the midlatitudes, i.e. up to 70% during winter in the northern hemisphere, and can generate flooding, extreme winds, blizzards and have large socio-economic impacts. As such, it is important that general circulation models (GCMs) accurately represent these systems so their evolution in a warming climate can be understood. However, there are still uncertainties on whether warming will increase their frequency of occurrence, their intensity and how much rain or snow they bring. Part of the issue is that models have trouble representing their strength, but models also have biases in the amount of clouds and precipitation they produce. This is caused by potential issues in various aspects of the models: convection, boundary layer, and cloud scheme to only mention a few. In order to pinpoint which aspects of the models need improvement for a better representation of extratropical cyclone precipitation and cloudiness, we will present A-train based observational metrics: cyclone-centered, warm and cold frontal composites of cloud amount and type, precipitation rate and frequency of occurrence. Using the same method to extract similar fields from the model, we will present an evaluation of the GISS-ModelE2 and the IPSL-LMDZ-5B models, based on their AR5 and more recent versions. The AR5 version of the GISS model underestimates cloud cover in extratropical cyclones while the IPSL AR5 version overestimates it. In addition, we will show how the observed CloudSat-CALIPSO cloud vertical distribution across cold fronts changes with moisture amount and cyclone strength, and test if the two models successfully represent these changes. We will also show how CloudSat-CALIPSO derived cloud type (i.e. convective vs. stratiform) evolves across warm fronts as cyclones age, and again how this is represented in the models. Our third process-based analysis concerns cumulus clouds in the post-cold frontal region and how their

  3. A-Train Based Observational Metrics for Model Evaluation in Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Booth, James F.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Posselt, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones contribute most of the precipitation in the midlatitudes, i.e. up to 70 during winter in the northern hemisphere, and can generate flooding, extreme winds, blizzards and have large socio-economic impacts. As such, it is important that general circulation models (GCMs) accurately represent these systems so their evolution in a warming climate can be understood. However, there are still uncertainties on whether warming will increase their frequency of occurrence, their intensity and how much rain or snow they bring. Part of the issue is that models have trouble representing their strength, but models also have biases in the amount of clouds and precipitation they produce. This is caused by potential issues in various aspects of the models: convection, boundary layer, and cloud scheme to only mention a few. In order to pinpoint which aspects of the models need improvement for a better representation of extratropical cyclone precipitation and cloudiness, we will present A-train based observational metrics: cyclone-centered, warm and cold frontal composites of cloud amount and type, precipitation rate and frequency of occurrence. Using the same method to extract similar fields from the model, we will present an evaluation of the GISS-ModelE2 and the IPSL-LMDZ-5B models, based on their AR5 and more recent versions. The AR5 version of the GISS model underestimates cloud cover in extratropical cyclones while the IPSL AR5 version overestimates it. In addition, we will show how the observed CloudSat-CALIPSO cloud vertical distribution across cold fronts changes with moisture amount and cyclone strength, and test if the two models successfully represent these changes. We will also show how CloudSat-CALIPSO derived cloud type (i.e. convective vs. stratiform) evolves across warm fronts as cyclones age, and again how this is represented in the models. Our third process-based analysis concerns cumulus clouds in the post-cold frontal region and how their

  4. Energy deposition in the ionosphere derived from LEO satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Claudia; Park, Jaeheung; Buchert, Stephan; Trulik, Vladimir; Bilitza, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Ten years of successful operation of the multi-instrument CHAMP satellite mission at a unique orbit altitude of about 400 km revealed many interesting features of the coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere. Different processes contribute to the deposition of solar and magnetospheric energy into the thermosphere. One important venue is heating through thermal electrons transferring energy by collisions with ions and neutrals. In the ionospheric F region thermal electrons are heated primarily through photoelectrons by local or non-local processes. At high latitudes soft precipitation and electromagnetic heating play a major role. The energy deposition can be quantified by a family of chemo-physical equations (Schunk and Nagy, 2009) that depend on plasma and neutral densities and temperatures. One important indicator for the energy transfer is the difference between electron and ion- and neutral- temperatures. Electron cooling leads to thermospheric heating and and we expect that this process leads to a local enhancement of mass density (air drag). Sizable electron cooling rates in the F region have been published from EISCAT radar observations in the ionospheric cusp. Based on CHAMP observation of electron density and temperature we estimate the energy deposit in the F-region through cooling of the thermal electron gas caused by elastic and inelastic processes. We find that a significant deposition is present during day at mid latitudes. At low latitudes the energy flux remains important until midnight. Observed heating rates depend on the satellite altitudes, but they are globally available from the CHAMP data. Missing observations in the CHAMP dataset, e.g., ion temperature, are derived from empirical models as IRI or MSIS. We investigate the global distribution of the electron cooling rate, we quantify the contributions of the different processes (equations) to the total energy transfer, e.g., depending on height, and we intend to compare our results

  5. A satellite observation test bed for cloud parameterization development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebsock, M. D.; Suselj, K.

    2015-12-01

    We present an observational test-bed of cloud and precipitation properties derived from CloudSat, CALIPSO, and the the A-Train. The focus of the test-bed is on marine boundary layer clouds including stratocumulus and cumulus and the transition between these cloud regimes. Test-bed properties include the cloud cover and three dimensional cloud fraction along with the cloud water path and precipitation water content, and associated radiative fluxes. We also include the subgrid scale distribution of cloud and precipitation, and radiaitive quantities, which must be diagnosed by a model parameterization. The test-bed further includes meterological variables from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). MERRA variables provide the initialization and forcing datasets to run a parameterization in Single Column Model (SCM) mode. We show comparisons of an Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-FLux (EDMF) parameterization coupled to micorphsycis and macrophysics packages run in SCM mode with observed clouds. Comparsions are performed regionally in areas of climatological subsidence as well stratified by dynamical and thermodynamical variables. Comparisons demonstrate the ability of the EDMF model to capture the observed transitions between subtropical stratocumulus and cumulus cloud regimes.

  6. A web-based tool that combines satellite and weather station observations to support irrigation scheduling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract: The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery, and reference evapotranspiration from surface weather station networks to map daily crop irrigation demand in California in ...

  7. Characterizing user requirements for future land observing satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Cressy, P. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The objective procedure was developed for identifying probable sensor and mission characteristics for an operational satellite land observing system. Requirements were systematically compiled, quantified and scored by type of use, from surveys of federal, state, local and private communities. Incremental percent increases in expected value of data were estimated for critical system improvements. Comparisons with costs permitted selection of a probable sensor system, from a set of 11 options, with the following characteristics: 30 meter spatial resolution in 5 bands and 15 meters in 1 band, spectral bands nominally at Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1 through 6 positions, and 2 day data turn around for receipt of imagery. Improvements are suggested for both the form of questions and the procedures for analysis of future surveys in order to provide a more quantitatively precise definition of sensor and mission requirements.

  8. Tropospheric emission spectrometer for the Earth Observing System's Aura satellite.

    PubMed

    Beer, R; Glavich, T A; Rider, D M

    2001-05-20

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an imaging infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer scheduled to be launched into polar Sun-synchronous orbit aboard the Earth Observing System's Aura satellite in June 2003. The primary objective of the TES is to make global three-dimensional measurements of tropospheric ozone and of the physical-chemical factors that control its formation, destruction, and distribution. Such an ambitious goal requires a highly sophisticated cryogenic instrument operating over a wide frequency range, which, in turn, demands state-of-the-art infrared detector arrays. In addition, the measurements require an instrument that can operate in both nadir and limb-sounding modes with a precision pointing system. The way in which these mission objectives flow down to the specific science and measurement requirements and in turn are implemented in the flight hardware are described. A brief overview of the data analysis approach is provided.

  9. Towards Using Satellite Altimetry for the Observation of Coastal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, F.; Roblou, L.; Lyard, F.; Llovel, W.; Durand, F.; Renault, L.; Dewitte, B.; Morrow, R.; Ménard, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine to what extent coastal processes can be observed with satellite altimetry. Therefore, we have used a new data processing approach developed in the context of the ALBICOCCA project (Altimeter-Based Investigations in COrsica, Capraia and Contiguous Area). This approach uses improved local modelling of environmental corrections (MOG2D solutions), new experimental editing criteria and an inversion method to derive the mean sea surface. It substantially increases the number of valid data in the coastal domain and their accuracy. So far, we have used this original approach to reprocess all the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric data in three experimental areas: the NW Mediterranean Sea, the Northern Indian Ocean and the region of the Humboldt current system. We present the validated results and show some analyses of the coastal signal contained in these datasets.

  10. Unusual satellite data: A black hole?. [International Ultraviolet Explorer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Data obtained by the NASA-launched European Space Agency's International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite suggests the possibility of a massive black hole at the center of some globular clusters (star groups) in our galaxy. Six of these clusters, three of them X-ray sources, were closely examined. Onboard short wavelength UV instrumentation penetrated the background denseness of the clusters 15,000 light years away where radiation, probably from a group of 10 to 20 bright blue stars orbiting the core, was observed. The stars may well be orbiting a massive black hole the size of 1,000 solar systems. The existence of the black hole is uncertain. The dynamics of the stars must be studied first to determine how they rotate in relation to the center of the million-star cluster. This may better indicate what provides the necessary gravitational pull that holds them in orbit.

  11. Satellites - New global observing techniques for ice and snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility that the variation in areal extent of the snow cover may be related by empirical means to the average monthly run-off in a given watershed was demonstrated by comparing run-off records from the Indus River Basin in south-east Asia with a series of snow-cover maps obtained from Nimbus-3 and 4 imagery. Similar studies using the higher spatial resolution available with ERTS-1 imagery were carried out for the Wind River Mountains watersheds in Wyoming, where it was found that the empirical relationship varied with mean elevation of the watershed. In addition, digital image enhancement techniques are shown to be useful for identifying glacier features thought to be related to extent of snow cover, moraine characteristics, debris coverage, and the like. Finally, longer wavelength observations using sensors on board the Nimbus-5 satellite are shown to be useful for indicating crystal size distributions and onset of melting on glacier snow cover.

  12. Interactive analysis of a large aperture Earth observations satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Smith, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    A system level design and analysis has been conducted on an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis program. The IDEAS program consists of about 40 user-friendly technical modules and an interactive graphics display. The reflector support system and feed mast of the EOS spacecraft are constructed with box-truss structural concept, a lattice configuration which can be packaged for delivery in a single Shuttle flight and deployed in orbit. The deployed spacecraft consists of a 120-m by 60-m parabolic focal axis. The spacecraft was modeled for structural, thermal, and control systems analysis and structural elements were designed. On-orbit dynamic and thermal loading analyses were conducted; spacecraft weights and developmental and first unit costs were determined.

  13. Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst Observed by IMAGE and Geotail Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Hashimoto, KoZo; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Boardson, Scott A.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Green, James L.; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2013-01-01

    We report the simultaneous detection of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) by IMAGE and Geotail on 19 August 2001. The TMRB was confined in time (0830-1006 UT) and frequency (12-50kHz). Comparisons with all known nonthermal myriametric radiation components reveal that the TMRB might be a distinct radiation with a source that is unrelated to the previously known radiation. Considerations of beaming from spin-modulation analysis and observing satellite and source locations suggest that the TMRB may have a fan beamlike radiation pattern emitted by a discrete, dayside source located along the poleward edge of magnetospheric cusp field lines. TMRB responsiveness to IMF Bz and By orientations suggests that a possible source of the TMRB could be due to dayside magnetic reconnection instigated by northward interplanetary field condition.

  14. Observations of volcanic emissions using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helen E.

    Volcanoes pose a threat to the human population at regional and global scales and so efficient monitoring is essential in order to effectively manage and mitigate the risks that they pose. Volcano monitoring from space has been possible for over thirty years and now, more than ever, a suite of instruments exists with the capability to observe emissions of gas and ash from a unique perspective. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the use of a range of satellite-based sensors in order to detect and quantify volcanic sulphur dioxide, and to assess the relative performances of each sensor against one another. Such comparisons are important in order to standardise retrievals and permit better estimations of the global contribution of sulphur dioxide to the atmosphere from volcanoes for climate modelling. In this work, retrievals of volcanic sulphur dioxide from a number of instruments are compared, and the individual performances at quantifying emissions from large, explosive volcanic eruptions are assessed. Retrievals vary widely from sensor to sensor, and often the use of a number of sensors in synergy can provide the most complete picture, rather than just one instrument alone. Volcanic emissions have the ability to result significant economic loses by grounding aircraft due to the high risk associated with ash encountering aircraft. As sulphur dioxide is often easier to measure than ash, it is often used as a proxy. This work examines whether this is a reasonable assumption, using the Icelandic eruption in early 2010 as a case study. Results indicate that although the two species are for the most part collocated, separation can occur under some conditions, meaning that it is essential to accurately measure both species in order to provide effective hazard mitigation. Finally, the usefulness of satellite remote sensing in quantifying the passive degassing from Turrialba, Costa Rica is demonstrated. The increase in activity from 2005 - 2010 can be observed in

  15. Earth observations satellite data policy: Process and outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) develops, launches, and operates satellites to observe and monitor the Earth and its environment. This study categorizes each program based on the relationship between NASA and external organizations. A program can be an autonomous mission undertaken for NASA`s own constituency, or it can involve a client agency or a partner. These relationships affect how data policy decisions are made and implemented, and how the valuable output of NASA`s Earth observations satellites is managed. The process in NASA for determining which programs will be approved is very informal. Ideas and concepts surface and reach the consciousness of NASA management; if sufficient support is achieved, a proposal can move to the feasibility study phase and from there become an approved and funded mission. The handling of data can be an important consideration in generating political support for program approval. Autonomous programs tend to have decisions made at lower levels and documented informally or not at all. Data policy is part of routine implementation of programs and does not generally rise to the visibility of the agency head or congressional staff or the Executive Office of the President. Responsibility for data management for autonomous missions is retained at NASA centers. Client programs involve higher level decision makers, and are the subject of political interest because they cross agency boundaries. The data policy process includes presidential statements on data access. As part of the client relationship, NASA often provides resources to the client for data handling and analysis, and shares these responsibilities. Data policy for partner programs is the result of bargaining between the partners, either foreign government agencies or private companies.

  16. The NASA CYGNSS Satellite Constellation for Tropical Cyclone Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, C. S.; Provost, D.; Rose, R.; Scherrer, J.; Atlas, R. M.; Chang, P.; Clarizia, M. P.; Garrison, J. L.; Gleason, S.; Katzberg, S. J.; Jelenak, Z.; Johnson, J. T.; Majumdar, S.; O'Brien, A.; Posselt, D. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Said, F.; Soisuvarn, S.; Zavorotny, V. U.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is scheduled for launch in November 2016 to study the surface wind structure in and near the inner core of tropical cyclones. CYGNSS consists of a constellation of eight observatories carried into orbit on a single launch vehicle. Each observatory carries a 4-channel bistatic radar receiver tuned to receive GPS navigation signals scattered from the ocean surface. The eight satellites are spaced approximately twelve minutes apart in a common circular, low inclination orbit plane to provide frequent temporal sampling in the tropics. The 35deg orbit inclination results in coverage of the full globe between 38deg N and 38deg S latitude with a median(mean) revisit time of 3(7) hours The 32 CYGNSS radars operate in L-Band at a wavelength of 19 cm. This allows for adequate penetration to enable surface wind observations under all levels of precipitation, including those encountered in the inner core and eyewall of tropical cyclones. The combination of operation unaffected by heavy precipitation together with high temporal resolution throughout the life cycle of storms is expected to support significant improvements in the forecast skill of storm track and intensity, as well as better situational awareness of the extent and structure of storms in near real time. A summary of the properties of the CYGNSS science data products will be presented, together with an update on the results of ongoing Observation System Simulation Experiments performed by members of the CYGNSS science team over the past four years, in particular addressing the expected impact on storm track and intensity forecast skill. With launch scheduled for the month prior to AGU, the on orbit status of the constellation will also be presented.

  17. Ground and satellite observations of auroral fragmentation into patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo; Nishi, Katsuki

    2016-07-01

    We review characteristic auroral fragmentation which is the process by which uniform aurora is broken into several fragments to form auroral patches, based on the all-sky camera observations at Tromsoe, Norway and THEMIS chain in Canada. The auroral fragmentation occurs as finger-like structures developing predominantly in meridional direction with speeds of several tens m/s and scale sizes of several tens kilometers without any shearing motion. These features suggest that pressure-driven instability in the balance between the earthward magnetic-tension force and the tailward pressure gradient force in the magnetosphere is the main driving force of the auroral fragmentation. Thus, these observations indicate that auroral fragmentation associated with pressure-driven instability is a process that creates auroral patches. Auroral fragmentation is seen from midnight to dawn local time and usually appears at the beginning of the substorm recovery phase, near the low latitude boundary of the auroral region. One example of plasma and magnetic field observations by the THEMIS satellite in the conjugate magnetosphere shows diamagnetic anti-phase variations of magnetic and plasma pressures with time scales of several to tens minutes associated with the auroral fragmentation. This observation also supports the idea of pressure-driven instability to cause the auroral fragmentation into patches.

  18. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  19. Observing convection with satellite, radar, and lightning measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Ulrich; Nisi, Luca; Clementi, Lorenzo; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Gabella, Marco; Hering, Alessandro M.; Sideris, Ioannis; Trefalt, Simona; Germann, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Heavy precipitation, hail, and wind gusts are the fundamental meteorological hazards associated with strong convection and thunderstorms. The thread is particularly severe in mountainous areas, e.g. it is estimated that on average between 50% and 80% of all weather-related damage in Switzerland is caused by strong thunderstorms (Hilker et al., 2010). Intense atmospheric convection is governed by processes that range from the synoptic to the microphysical scale and are considered to be one of the most challenging and difficult weather phenomena to predict. Even though numerical weather prediction models have some skills to predict convection, in general the exact location of the convective initialization and its propagation cannot be forecasted by these models with sufficient precision. Hence, there is a strong interest to improve the short-term forecast by using statistical, object oriented and/or heuristic nowcasting methods. MeteoSwiss has developed several operational nowcasting systems for this purpose such as TRT (Hering, 2008) and COALITION (Nisi, 2014). In this contribution we analyze the typical development of convection using measurements of the Swiss C-band Dual Polarization Doppler weather radar network, the MSG SEVIRI satellite, and the Météorage lighting network. The observations are complemented with the analysis and forecasts of the COSMO model. Special attention is given to the typical evolutionary stages like the pre-convective environment, convective initiation, cloud top glaciation, start, maximum, and end of precipitation and lightning activity. The pre-convective environment is examined using instability indices derived from SEVIRI observations and the COSMO forecasts. During the early development satellite observations are used to observe the rise of the cloud top, the growth of the cloud droplet or crystals, and the glaciation of the cloud top. SEVIRI brightness temperatures, channel differences, and temporal trends as suggested by

  20. Satellites: New global observing techniques for ice and snow. [using erts-1 and nimbus 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    The relation of aereal extent of snow cover to the average monthly runoff in a given watershed was investigated by comparing runoff records with a series of snowcover maps. Studies using the high spatial resolution available with ERTS-1 imagery were carried out for the Wind River Mountains watersheds in Wyoming, where it was found that the empirical relationship varied with mean elevation of the watershed. In addition, digital image enhancement techniques are shown to be useful for identifying glacier features related to extent of snowcover, moraine characteristics, and debris average. Longer wavelength observations using sensors on board the Nimbus 5 Satellite are shown to be useful for indicating crystal size distributions and onset of melting on glacier snow cover.

  1. Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of Neptune's Ring and Satellite Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of Neptune's Ring and Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S.; Martin, S.; Marchis, F.; Roe, H. G.; Macintosh, B.

    2003-05-01

    We observed Neptune, its satellites and ring system on UT 27 and 28 July 2002, with NIRC2 on the 10-m Keck II telescope at 2.2 micron. The total field of view was 10". Each image was integrated for 1 minute; on the first day we had a total of 18 frames, and 33 images on the second day, each spread out over a time interval of 1-2 hours. The complete Adams and Le Verrier rings are visible on each day, after combining all images. In the regions away from the ring arcs, we find that the Le Verrier ring is brighter (up to 20-40%) than the Adams ring. The ring arcs are readily apparent in combinations of the data that take into account Keplerian motion. The ring arc positions are in close agreement with Nicholson et al's (1995) result, as in HST/NICMOS images (Dumas et al. 2002). The Egalite ring has broadened even more since observed with HST/NICMOS in 1998, and is clearly the brightest ring arc. Liberte has decreased in intensity since Voyager and NICMOS. Courage was extremely faint in our images. The satellites Proteus, Larissa, Galatea and Despina are easily seen on individual frames. Thalassa is detected after properly shifting/rotating and adding several frames. This is the first time since the Voyager flybys that Thalassa is detected. Preliminary astrometric measurements suggest the satellites Larissa and Galathea, relative to Proteus, to be off from their nominal (JPL Horizons) positions by 0.3", and Despina by 0.1". Recent results indicate that Proteus is offset by 0.1" compared to Triton (Martins et al. 2003). Preliminary I/F values are 0.06 for Proteus, 0.045 for Larissa and Galatea, and 0.03 for Despina and Thalassa. These observations were supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783

  2. Observation and Analysis of Jovian and Saturnian Satellite Mutual Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to acquire high time resolution photometry of satellite-satellite mutual events during the equatorial plane crossing for Saturn in 1995 and Jupiter in 1997. The data would be used to improve the orbits of the Saturnian satellites to support Cassini mission requirements, and also to monitor the secular acceleration of Io's orbit to compare with heat flow measurements.

  3. Improved satellite observations in coastal areas from altimetry and SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Martin, Adrien; Gommenginger, Christine; Calafat, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The coastal environment is under constant pressure by natural forces and anthropogenic activities and is very sensitive to climate change. Observations of many physical and biological parameters are critical for its monitoring and management. Satellite observations constitute an efficient way to observe the global coastal environment, but ocean satellite observations have often been designed and optimised for the open ocean: algorithms and processing techniques need to be revisited and adapted for application in the coastal zone. A case in point is that of satellite altimetry, which over the oceans is regarded as one of the most successful remote sensing techniques, as it has allowed an unprecedented mapping of the ocean surface dynamics at the large- and meso-scale. With the improvements in orbit models, radar processing, atmospheric and geophysical effect corrections that have emerged over the years, altimetry gives today also a very accurate estimation of the rate of sea level rise and its geographical variability. However, altimetric data in the near-land strip (0 to 50 km from the coastline) are often flagged as bad and left unused, essentially owing to 1) difficulties with the corrections; and/or 2) the modification of the radar returns due to the presence of land in the footprint, which makes the fitting of the altimetric echoes with a waveform model (the so-called "retracking") problematic. Techniques to recover meaningful estimates of the altimeter-derived parameters (height, significant wave height and wind) in the coastal zone have been developed and lead to a number of new applications, which will be presented here. The new observation from coastal altimetry are highly synergistic with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). SAR imagers measure the backscattered signal from the ocean surface at spatial resolution better than 100m. This backscattered signal gives knowledge on the sea surface roughness, which is related to wind and waves. The very high resolution

  4. MPEG-7 Descriptors for Earth Observation Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, X. Giro I.; Marques Acosta, F.

    The amount of digital multimedia information has experienced a spectacular growth during the last years thanks to the advances on digital systems of image, video and audio acquisition. As a response to the need of organising all this information, ISO/IEC has developed a new standard for multimedia content description called MPEG-7. Among other topics, MPEG-7 defines a set of multimedia descriptors that can be automatically generated using signal processing techniques. Earth Observation Satellites generate large quantities of images stored on enormous databases that can take advantage of the new standard. An automatic indexation of these images using MPEG-7 metadata can improve their contents management as well as simplify interaction between independent databases. This paper gives an overall description on MPEG-7 standard focusing on the low-level Visual Descriptors. These descriptors can be grouped into four categories: color, texture, shape and motion. Visual Color Descriptors represent the colour distribution of an image in terms of a specified colour space. Visual Texture Descriptors define the visual pattern of an image according to its homogenities and non-homogenities. Visual Shape Descriptors describe the shape of 2D and 3D objects being, at the same time, invariant to scaling, rotation and translation. Motion Descriptors give the essential characteristics of objects and camera motions. These descriptors can be used individually or in combination to index and retrieve satellite images of the Earth from a database. For example, oceans and glaciars can be discerned based on their Colour Descriptors, also cities and deserts based on the Texture Descriptors, island images can be grouped using the Shape Descriptors, and cyclone trajectories studied and compared using the Motion Descriptors.

  5. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  6. The Chinese FY-1 Meteorological Satellite Application in Observation on Oceanic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimin, S.

    meteorological satellite is stated in this paper. exploration of the ocean resources has been a very important question of global strategy in the world. The exploration of the ocean resources includes following items: Making full use of oceanic resources and space, protecting oceanic environment. to observe the ocean is by using of satellite. In 1978, US successfully launched the first ocean observation satellite in the world --- Sea Satellite. It develops ancient oceanography in to advanced space-oceanography. FY-1 B and FY- IC respectively. High quality data were acquired at home and abroad. FY-1 is Chinese meteorological satellite, but with 0.43 ~ 0.48 μm ,0.48 ~ 0.53 μm and 0.53 ~ 0.58 μm three ocean color channels, actually it is a multipurpose remote sensing satellite of meteorology and oceanography. FY-1 satellite's capability of observation on ocean partly, thus the application field is expanded and the value is increased. With the addition of oceanic channels on FY-1, the design of the satellite is changed from the original with meteorological observation as its main purpose into remote sensing satellite possessing capability of observing meteorology and ocean as well. Thus, the social and economic benefit of FY-1 is increased. the social and economic benefit of the development of the satellite is the key technique in the system design of the satellite. technically feasible but also save the funds in researching and manufacturing of the satellite, quicken the tempo of researching and manufacturing satellite. the scanning radiometer for FY-1 is conducted an aviation experiment over Chinese ocean. This experiment was of vital importance to the addition of oceanic observation channel on FY-1. FY-1 oceanic channels design to be correct. detecting ocean color. This is the unique character of Chinese FY-1 meteorological satellite. meteorological remote sensing channel on FY-1 to form detecting capability of three visible channels: red, yellow and blue

  7. Using Satellite Observations of Cloud Vertical Distribution to Improve Global Model Estimates of Cloud Radiative Effect on Key Tropospheric Oxidants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Ham, Seung-Hee; Crawford, James; Kato, Seiji; Chen, Gao; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Duncan, Bryan; Yantosca, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Radiative effect of clouds is one of the major factors that affect tropospheric OH. Large differences in cloud distributions among current (chemistry-climate or chemical transport) models could contribute significantly to the wide model spread of tropospheric OH, which was reported by the ACCMIP activity (Voulgarakis et al., ACP 2013). CCCM, a 3-D cloud data product developed at NASA Langley and merged from multiple A-Train satellite observations, provides unprecedentedly strong constraints on the vertical distribution of clouds and therefore simulated effects of clouds on key tropospheric oxidants.

  8. Synoptic Mapping of Convective Structure from Undersampled Satellite Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salby, Murry; Sassi, Fabrizio

    2001-05-01

    Climate properties regulated by convection, such as water vapor, cloud cover, and related distributions, are undersampled in asynoptic data from an individual orbiting platform, which must therefore be restricted to time-mean distributions. A procedure is developed to identify small-scale undersampled variance in asynoptic data and reject it, leaving a more accurate representation of large-scale variance that describes the organization of climate properties. The procedure is validated against high-resolution distributions that have been constructed from six satellites simultaneously observing the earth. Observing the high-resolution distributions asynoptically is shown to result in sampling error at large scales that is as great as the large-scale signal present, limiting the usefulness of the raw asynoptic data to time-mean distributions. However, processing the asynoptic data to reject undersampled incoherent variability reduces the error variance to 10% or less, yielding a fairly accurate representation of large-scale coherent variability, which then can be mapped synoptically on periods as short as 2.0 days. Made possible then are studies of how cloud, water vapor, and related distributions are organized by unsteady elements of the general circulation, which cannot be studied in the raw asynoptic data.

  9. Monitoring of Observation Errors from Satellite Ozone Instruments in Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Winslow, Nathan; Rood, Richard B.; Pawson, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Ozone distributions derived from the Solar Backscatter UltraViolet/2 (SBUV/2) instruments and the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) have been assimilated in near-real time at the NASA/Goddard Data Assimilation Office since January 2000. Observed-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals are the differences between the incoming ozone data and the co-located short-term model forecast. They are routinely produced and monitored in the assimilation process. Using examples from the NOAA-14 and NOAA-16 SBUV/2 and the EP-TOMS instruments, it is demonstrated that the monitoring of time series of O-F residual statistics is an effective method of identifying time-dependent changes in the observation-error characteristics of ozone. In addition, the data assimilation system was used to assist the validation of updated calibration coefficients for the NOAA-14 SBUV/2 instrument. This assimilation-based monitoring work will be extended to ozone data from instruments on new satellites: Envisat EOS, Aqua, and EOS Aura.

  10. Determining dislocation Love numbers using satellite gravity mission GRACE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    junyan, Y.; Sun, W.

    2013-12-01

    Some large megathrust earthquakes can be detected by satellite gravity mission GRACE. The coseismic gravity changes from GRACE measurements can be perfectly explained by spherical dislocation theory. On the contrary, we can use GRACE data to invert earth dislocation Love numbers. This paper proposes a more completed theory and an inversion method to determine dislocation Love numbers using GRACE data. Taking effect of ocean water mass redistribution into consideration, we give an observation equation to model GRACE observations. The ABIC (Akaike Bayes Information Criterion) method is employed to inverse the gravity dislocation Love numbers by the constraint of a prior PREM model. Based on this method, we inverse sphere dislocation Love numbers by using simulated data and GRACE data of 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) respectively. The results show that sensitivities of Love numbers to the measurement errors are dependent on spherical harmonic degrees. The SNRs (Signal Noise Ratio) of lower degrees are much stronger than the higher ones, and the inverted gravity Love numbers of former are closer to the priori PREM model than the latter. Furthermore, GRACE can be used to invert dislocation Love numbers. However, the unknown Love numbers K12, K32 and K33-K22 cannot be constrained by the PREM Earth model at the same extent due to the orders of magnitude are much different; the K33-K22 agrees the PREM model best. Finally, the gravity changes predicted by inverted Love numbers agree GRACE data well.

  11. Satellite Observations of Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness and Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Nathan; Markus, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    We utilize satellite laser altimetry data from ICESat combined with passive microwave measurements to analyze basin-wide changes in Antarctic sea ice thickness and volume over a 5 year period from 2003-2008. Sea ice thickness exhibits a small negative trend while area increases in the summer and fall balanced losses in thickness leading to small overall volume changes. Using a five year time-series, we show that only small ice thickness changes of less than -0.03 m/yr and volume changes of -266 cu km/yr and 160 cu km/yr occurred for the spring and summer periods, respectively. The calculated thickness and volume trends are small compared to the observational time period and interannual variability which masks the determination of long-term trend or cyclical variability in the sea ice cover. These results are in stark contrast to the much greater observed losses in Arctic sea ice volume and illustrate the different hemispheric changes of the polar sea ice covers in recent years.

  12. Quantitative comparisons of satellite observations and cloud models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang

    Microwave radiation interacts directly with precipitating particles and can therefore be used to compare microphysical properties found in models with those found in nature. Lower frequencies (< 37 GHz) can detect the emission signals from the raining clouds over radiometrically cold ocean surfaces while higher frequencies (≥ 37 GHz) are more sensitive to the scattering of the precipitating-sized ice particles in the convective storms over high-emissivity land, which lend them particular capabilities for different applications. Both are explored with a different scenario for each case: a comparison of two rainfall retrievals over ocean and a comparison of a cloud model simulation to satellite observations over land. Both the Goddard Profiling algorithm (GPROF) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) one-dimensional + four-dimensional variational analysis (1D+4D-Var) rainfall retrievals are inversion algorithms based on the Bayes' theorem. Differences stem primarily from the a-priori information. GPROF uses an observationally generated a-priori database while ECMWF 1D-Var uses the model forecast First Guess (FG) fields. The relative similarity in the two approaches means that comparisons can shed light on the differences that are produced by the a-priori information. Case studies have found that differences can be classified into four categories based upon the agreement in the brightness temperatures (Tbs) and in the microphysical properties of Cloud Water Path (CWP) and Rain Water Path (RWP) space. We found a category of special interest in which both retrievals converge to similar Tb through minimization procedures but produce different CWP and RWP. The similarity in Tb can be attributed to comparable Total Water Path (TWP) between the two retrievals while the disagreement in the microphysics is caused by their different degrees of constraint of the cloud/rain ratio by the observations. This situation occurs frequently and takes up 46

  13. Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David; Worden, Helen

    This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution

  14. Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution

  15. PROBA2: a Micro-Satellite Observing the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiyannis, A.; Dominique, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Berghmans, D.; West, M. J.; Dolla, L.; Ryan, D.; Bonte, K.; Kretzschmar, M.; Dammasch, I. E.; Wauters, L.; Rachmeler, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    PROBA2 (http://proba2.oma.be) is an ESA micro-satellite that was launched in November 2009. It carries two solar-observing instruments: SWAP, an EUV imager observing the one-million-degree corona, and LYRA, a UV-EUV radiometer acquiring time-series in four broadband channels. The characteristics of both instruments make them highly complementary to bigger missions such as SDO for the observation of solar eruptions and flares. SWAP benefits from a large field-of-view and flexible off-pointing capabilities that allow the instrument to fill part of the observational gap between imagers and coronographs and to shed a new light on eruptive events (see e.g. West and Seaton, 2015; Kumar and Cho, 2014; Byrne et al., 2014) LYRA acquires at a very fast cadence (20 Hz nominally) and with a high signal-to-noise ratio, and can therefore be used for the detailed analysis of the short-timescale variations of solar irradiance, such as the so-called quasi-periodic pulsations appearing in flares that could be intrinsically related to the nature of the flaring process (see e.g. Dolla et al., 2012). The two instruments provide data suitable for the detection of space weather related events such as flares, CMEs, dimmings, EUV waves, etc. Automated tools (e.g. SOFAST, see Bonte et al. 2012) are already operational and are used daily in the frame of space weather services such as the ESA's Space Weather Coordination Centre (SSCC). These tools should be soon enriched with new capabilities.

  16. Satellite observations of large power plants and megacities from GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Tom; Maksyutov, Shamil; Boesch, Hartmut; Butz, Andre; Ganshin, Alexander; Guerlet, Sandrine; Parker, Robert; O'Dell, Chris; Oshchepkov, Sergey; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2013-04-01

    Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major source of CO2 to the global carbon cycle over decadal time scales and international efforts to curb those missions are required for mitigating climate change. Although emissions from nations are estimated and reported to help monitor their compliance of emission reductions, we still lack an objective method to monitor emissions directly. Future carbon-observing space missions are thus expected to provide an independent tool for directly measuring emissions. We proposed and have implemented satellite observations specifically over intense large point sources (LPS), including large fossil-fueled power plants and megacities, worldwide (N > 300) using the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing SATelllite (GOSAT). Our target LPS sites have been occasionally included in the observation schedule of GOSAT and the measurements are made using the target observation mode. This proposal was officially accepted by the GOSAT project office and we have attempted to use these data to detect signatures of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. We have submitted our locations of interest on a monthly basis two month prior to observation. We calculated the X_CO2 concentration enhancement due to the LPS emissions. We analyzed GOSAT X_CO2 retrievals from four research groups (five products total): the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) (both the NIES standard Level 2 and NIES-PPDF products), the NASA Atmospheric CO2 from Space (ACOS) team (ACOS Level 2 product), the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)/Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany (RemoTeC), and the University of Leicester, UK (Full-Physics CO2 retrieval dataset). Although we obtained fewer retrieved soundings relative to what we requested (probably due to geophysical difficulties in the retrievals), we did obtain statistically significant enhancements at some LPS sites where weather condition were ideal for viewing. We also implemented simulations of enhanced X

  17. ECC Ozonesonde Reliability, Observations, and Comparisons with Satellite Ozone Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Schauer, A. G.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone instruments depend on the quality of care exercised in their pre-flight preparation. The ozone-measuring project conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility uses a number of mechanisms designed to inspect the ECC for anomalies that may interfere with the reception of valid ozone profiles. Complete electronic testing of the instrument, individually and when coupled to its radiosonde has led to exceptional monitoring of ozone for detecting long-term atmospheric changes. A number of factors are considered when preparing an ECC instrument for flight. These basically are specific calibrations of pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and background current. The concentration of the potassium iodide solution is also important. Wallops is the only site using a UV photometer (Dasibi) to compare ECC ozone output at various concentrations of ozone that allows adjustment to be made to offsets that may appear in the balloon-borne instrument prior to release. All of the above procedures allow identification of potential problems before release of the ECC instrument. Procedures followed at Wallops also are employed in Brazil, and Ascension Island where NASA has cooperative agreements in place to obtain ozonesondes data. All ECC instruments are prepared 3-4 weeks prior to the day of observation. We will briefly describe the instrumental tests employed. These tests have included simultaneous dual observations to compare the effect of different solution concentrations, comparison of sensors of different manufacturers, and comparisons with surface- and space-based instrumentation such as the Dobson Spectrophotometer and satellites. Vertical profiles of ozone from Arctic, mid-latitudes, and Antarctica will be discussed. Although not unusual, the data reveals ozone structure that correlate well with typical atmospheric temperatures and possibly relative humidity. Finally

  18. HXMT satellite for space hard X-ray observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Ren, D.; You, Z.

    Space hard X-ray in the energy band from 10Kev to 250KeV is very important to the research of high energy astrophysical processes, especially some of the fundamental problems in astrophysics. Due to imaging difficulty in the hard X-ray band, Observations made over this band is comparatively less than other bands such as soft X-ray and gamma -ray. Up to now, there has been no hard X ray all sky- survey of high sensitivity. Based on the Direct Demodulation imaging method recently developed, the Hard X- ray Modulation Telescope(HXMT) mission is proposed under the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China. The scientific objective of HXMT mission is to realize the first hard X-ray all sky survey of high sensitivy and angular resolution in the world, and to present the first detailed sky map of hard X r a y - distribution. In this article, the physical basis, the imaging principle and the basic structure of HXMT are briefly introduced. The expected angular resolution of observation and position accuracy of radiant source are 2' and 0.2' respectively. Based on the analysis of the mission requirement of HXMT, the mission design of HXMT satellite is presented in which the concept of integrative design approach is presented and implemented. The design of spacecraft subsystems such as strcuture,C&DH and energy are also introduced. To meet the high precision demand of the attitude determination of HXMT, a new Attitude Determination &Control Subsystem(ADCS) scheme is presented in which the Microminiature Inertial Measurement Unit(MIMU) is employed as one of the key attitude sensors. Combined with star tracker, the expected attitude measurement accuracy is 0.01° in the normal mission mode. Based on all these thoughts, the ADCS is analyzed and its general design is presented in the paper. As the first chinese space hard X-ray observatory, the design approach of HXMT satellite is also helpful for other space exploration missions such as solar activity inspection

  19. ECC Ozonesonde Reliability, Observations, and Comparisons with Satellite Ozone Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Schauer, A. G.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone instruments depend on the quality of care exercised in their pre-flight preparation. The ozone-measuring project conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility uses a number of mechanisms designed to inspect the ECC for anomalies that may interfere with the reception of valid ozone profiles. Complete electronic testing of the instrument, individually and when coupled to its radiosonde has led to exceptional monitoring of ozone for detecting long-term atmospheric changes. A number of factors are considered when preparing an ECC instrument for flight. These basically are specific calibrations of pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and background current. The concentration of the potassium iodide solution is also important. Wallops is the only site using a UV photometer (Dasibi) to compare ECC ozone output at various concentrations of ozone that allows adjustment to be made to offsets that may appear in the balloon-borne instrument prior to release. All of the above procedures allow identification of potential problems before release of the ECC instrument. Procedures followed at Wallops also are employed in Brazil, and Ascension Island where NASA has cooperative agreements in place to obtain ozonesondes data. All ECC instruments are prepared 3-4 weeks prior to the day of observation. We will briefly describe the instrumental tests employed. These tests have included simultaneous dual observations to compare the effect of different solution concentrations, comparison of sensors of different manufacturers, and comparisons with surface- and space-based instrumentation such as the Dobson Spectrophotometer and satellites. Vertical profiles of ozone from Arctic, mid-latitudes, and Antarctica will be discussed. Although not unusual, the data reveals ozone structure that correlate well with typical atmospheric temperatures and possibly relative humidity. Finally

  20. Recent Ship, Satellite and Autonomous Observations of Southern Ocean Eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutton, P. G.; Moreau, S.; Llort, J.; Phillips, H. E.; Patel, R.; Della Penna, A.; Langlais, C.; Lenton, A.; Matear, R.; Dawson, H.; Boyd, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is the area of greatest uncertainty regarding the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. It is also a region of abundant energetic eddies that significantly impact circulation and biogeochemistry. In the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, cyclonic eddies are unusual in that they are upwelling favorable, as for cyclonic eddies elsewhere, but during summer they are low in silicate and phytoplankton biomass. The reverse is true for anticyclonic eddies in that they have counter-intuitive positive chlorophyll anomalies in summer. Similar but less obvious patterns occur in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors. Using ship, satellite and autonomous observations in the region south of Australia, the physical and biogeochemical signatures of both types of eddies were documented in 2016. A cyclonic eddy that lived for seven weeks exhibited doming isopycnals indicative of upwelling. However, low surface silicate and chlorophyll concentrations appeared to be characteristic of surface waters to the south where the eddy formed. Higher chlorophyll was confined to filaments at the eddy edge. Surface nitrate and phosphate concentrations were more than sufficient for a bloom of non-siliceous phytoplankton to occur. Acoustic observations from a high resolution TRIAXUS transect through the eddy documented high zooplankton biomass in the upper 150m. It is hypothesized that a non-diatom bloom was prevented by grazing pressure, but light may have also been an important limiting resource in late summer (April). Two SOCCOM floats that were deployed in the eddy field continued to monitor the physics, nitrate and bio-optics through the transition to winter. These observations across complementary platforms have identified and then explained the reason for these unexpected biological anomalies in an energetic and globally important region of the global ocean. Understanding the role of eddies in this region will be critical to the representation of mesoscale

  1. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  2. Improving BeiDou precise orbit determination using observations of onboard MEO satellite receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Haibo; Li, Bofeng; Ge, Maorong; Shen, Yunzhong; Schuh, Harald

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the precise orbit determination (POD) of the regional Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been a hot spot because of its special constellation consisting of five geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites and five inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) satellites besides four medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites since the end of 2012. GEO and IGSO satellites play an important role in regional BDS applications. However, this brings a great challenge to the POD, especially for the GEO satellites due to their geostationary orbiting. Though a number of studies have been carried out to improve the POD performance of GEO satellites, the result is still much worse than that of IGSO and MEO, particularly in the along-track direction. The major reason is that the geostationary characteristic of a GEO satellite results in a bad geometry with respect to the ground tracking network. In order to improve the tracking geometry of the GEO satellites, a possible strategy is to mount global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers on MEO satellites to collect the signals from GEO/IGSO GNSS satellites so as that these observations can be used to improve GEO/IGSO POD. We extended our POD software package to simulate all the related observations and to assimilate the MEO-onboard GNSS observations in orbit determination. Based on GPS and BDS constellations, simulated studies are undertaken for various tracking scenarios. The impact of the onboard GNSS observations is investigated carefully and presented in detail. The results show that MEO-onboard observations can significantly improve the orbit precision of GEO satellites from metres to decimetres, especially in the along-track direction. The POD results of IGSO satellites also benefit from the MEO-onboard data and the precision can be improved by more than 50% in 3D direction.

  3. Making Data Visible: Satellite Observations of Arctic Change (SOAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitler, J.; Tanner, S.; Barrett, A. P.; Savoie, M. H.; Wilcox, H.; Hoyer, T.; Beam, K.

    2014-12-01

    A new Web site, Satellite Observations of Arctic Change (SOAC, http://nsidc.org/soac), was developed to open up NASA Earth science data that show changes taking place in the Arctic over time to a broader range of users. The site was designed to be used by decision makers, teachers, non-specialist scientists, and the motivated public without the need for technical tools or expertise in manipulating data. The data are displayed on interactive maps, allowing users to explore how and where conditions in the Arctic have changed from the 1970s to the present. Users may animate a time series, zoom in or out, and view a bar graph of anomalies over time. Supporting pages provide brief scientific discussion and background to help users understand the data and the significance of the changes. Links to the source data and documentation are also included. Initial data products for SOAC include anomalies associated with near-surface air temperature; water vapor; sea ice concentration; snow cover; and several others. The potential for use and for inclusion of more data will be discussed.

  4. Observational Evidence for Desert Amplification Using Multiple Satellite Datasets.

    PubMed

    Wei, Nan; Zhou, Liming; Dai, Yongjiu; Xia, Geng; Hua, Wenjian

    2017-05-17

    Desert amplification identified in recent studies has large uncertainties due to data paucity over remote deserts. Here we present observational evidence using multiple satellite-derived datasets that desert amplification is a real large-scale pattern of warming mode in near surface and low-tropospheric temperatures. Trend analyses of three long-term temperature products consistently confirm that near-surface warming is generally strongest over the driest climate regions and this spatial pattern of warming maximizes near the surface, gradually decays with height, and disappears in the upper troposphere. Short-term anomaly analyses show a strong spatial and temporal coupling of changes in temperatures, water vapor and downward longwave radiation (DLR), indicating that the large increase in DLR drives primarily near surface warming and is tightly associated with increasing water vapor over deserts. Atmospheric soundings of temperature and water vapor anomalies support the results of the long-term temperature trend analysis and suggest that desert amplification is due to comparable warming and moistening effects of the troposphere. Likely, desert amplification results from the strongest water vapor feedbacks near the surface over the driest deserts, where the air is very sensitive to changes in water vapor and thus efficient in enhancing the longwave greenhouse effect in a warming climate.

  5. Satellite orbits, their observables, and tests of gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laemmerzahl, Claus; Perlick, Volker

    Spectrometric detector complex ZINA-NT is intended to study a radiation conditions onboard satellite and characteristics of hard X-ray and gamma-ray fluxes from GRB, solar flares and to detect other non-stationary fluxes of cosmic gamma-rays. The advantages for using of this new detector for modification of present neutral particles detector on base of CsI(Tl) are discussed. Scintillation detectors based on BrilLanCe series crystal has a very small lighting time, an excellent energy resolution and light output, more intensive than devices based on CsI(Tl). Using of BrilLanCe series crystal instead of CsI(Tl) ones allows to detect both terrestrial gamma flashes and solar gamma ray bursts and flares with smaller time durations and intensities. Moreover, the counts rate linearity region of BrilLanCe detectors is extended up to 106 s-1 and it allows to observe a very intensive events. So, the using of such type of detector permits us the possibility to separate gamma-quanta and neutrons on the timescales less than 50 microseconds.

  6. Analysis of observations of the middle atmosphere from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.; Russell, James M., III; Grose, William L.; Miles, Thomas; Gordley, Larry L.; Oneill, Alan; Fairlie, Duncan

    1990-01-01

    Satellite data are being used to investigate problems in middle atmosphere chemistry and dynamics. Efforts have been focused primarily on studies to determine the quality of observed distributions of trace species and derived dynamical quantities. Those data have been used as diagnostics for model-derived constituent profiles and fields and for improving our understanding of some of the fundamental processes occurring in the middle atmosphere. Temperatures and derived winds from Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitoring of the Stratosphere (LIMS) data were compared with long-time series of rawinsonde data at Invercargill, New Zealand, and Berlin, West Germany, and the results are excellent for both quantities. It was also demonstrated that more highly-derived dynamical quantities can be obtained reliably from those LIMS fields. Furthermore, both the diabatic and residual-mean circulations derived using LIMS data agree qualitatively with changes in the distribution of trace species determined independently with the Nimbus 7 SAMS and LIMS experiments. Subsequently, an examination of LIMS data at mid to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere has revealed a synoptic-scale, upper stratospheric instability during late autumn that is associated with the development of the stratospheric polar jet. Investigation of this phenomenon continues with Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) data sets.

  7. Satellite observations of oil spills in Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y. L.; Tang, Z. Y.; Li, X. F.

    2014-03-01

    Several oil spills occurred at two oil platforms in Bohai Sea, China on June 4 and 17, 2011. The oil spills were subsequently imaged by different types of satellite sensors including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NOAA MODIS. In order to detect the oil spills more accurately, images of the former three sensors were used in this study. Oil spills were detected using the semi-supervised Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) in SAR images and gradient edge detection algorithm in HJ-1-B and MODIS images. The results show that, on June 11, the area of oil slicks is 31 km2 and they are observed in the vicinity and to the north of the oilfield in SAR image. The coverage of the oil spill expands dramatically to 244 km2 due to the newly released oil after June 11 in SAR image of June 14. The results on June 19 show that under a cloud-free condition, CCD and MODIS images capture the oil spills clearly while TCNNA cannot separate them from the background surface, which implies that the optical images play an important role in oil detection besides SAR images.

  8. Observations of A0535 + 26 with the SMM satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembay, S.; Schwartz, R. A.; Orwig, L. E.; Dennis, B. R.; Davies, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of archival data from the hard X-ray instruments on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite has revealed a previously undetected outburst from the recurrent X-ray transient, A0535 + 26. The outburst occurred in June 1983 and reached a peak intensity of about 2 crab units in the energy range 32-91 keV. The outburst was detected over a span of 18 days, and the pulse period was observed to spin-up with an average rate of about -6 x 10 to the -8th s/s. A recently proposed model for A0535 + 26 has a pulsar powered by a short-lived accretion disk. A thin accretion disk model is fitted to the present data, assuming an orbital period of 111 days. Two solutions to the magnetic moment of the neutron star are derived. The slow rotator solution is more consistent with the model than the fast rotator, on the grounds that the conditions for the formation of an accretion disk are more favorable for a lower magnetic field strength.

  9. First Satellite Observations of Lower Tropospheric Ammonia and Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard; Shephard, Mark W.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Clough, Shepard A.; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin W.; Sander, Stanley P.; Fisher, Brendan M.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Luo, Mingzhao; Osterman, Gregory B.; Worden, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite makes global measurements of infrared radiances which are used to derive profiles of species such as O3, CO, H2O, HDO and CH4 as routine standard products. In addition, TES has a variety of special modes that provide denser spatial mapping over a limited geographical area. A continuous-coverage mode (called ''transect'', about 460 km long) has now been used to detect additional molecules indicative of regional air pollution. On 10 July 2007 at about 05:37 UTC (13:24 LMST) TES conducted such a transect observation over the Beijing area in northeast China. Examination of the residual spectral radiances following the retrieval of the TES standard products revealed surprisingly strong features attributable to enhanced concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have been detected in space-based nadir viewing measurements that penetrate into the lower atmosphere.

  10. First Satellite Observations of Lower Tropospheric Ammonia and Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard; Shephard, Mark W.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Clough, Shepard A.; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin W.; Sander, Stanley P.; Fisher, Brendan M.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Luo, Mingzhao; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite makes global measurements of infrared radiances which are used to derive profiles of species such as O3, CO, H2O, HDO and CH4 as routine standard products. In addition, TES has a variety of special modes that provide denser spatial mapping over a limited geographical area. A continuous-coverage mode (called ''transect'', about 460 km long) has now been used to detect additional molecules indicative of regional air pollution. On 10 July 2007 at about 05:37 UTC (13:24 LMST) TES conducted such a transect observation over the Beijing area in northeast China. Examination of the residual spectral radiances following the retrieval of the TES standard products revealed surprisingly strong features attributable to enhanced concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have been detected in space-based nadir viewing measurements that penetrate into the lower atmosphere.

  11. The Weddell sea anomaly observed with the Topex satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, I.; Essex, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    This paper introduces the complete image of the Weddell Sea Anomaly, observed with the over-the-ocean ionospheric total electron content (TEC) values obtained from the TOPEX satellite data with an almost unlimited coverage over the oceans, the first time according to the literature; and investigates its development. With a series of TOPEX TEC maps, this paper demonstrates the diurnal variations of both the night-time and the day-time Weddell Sea Anomaly, which appeared as a night-time TEC enhancement and as a day-time TEC depletion, during the near sunspot maximum period of 1998 and 1999 investigated. Several TOPEX passes, plotted in geomagnetic latitudes, are also presented to demonstrate the longitudinal variations of the Weddell Sea Anomaly, and also to show other ionospheric features appearing such as the southern-hemisphere mid-latitude day-time and night-time trough, the northern-hemisphere mid-latitude night-time trough and the equatorial anomaly. This paper demonstrates how large the anomaly is in reality situated west of the Faraday ionosonde station over the Bellinghausen Sea and not over the Weddell Sea that is east of Faraday. Thus the correct name should be Bellinghausen Sea Anomaly. Based upon the review paper of Dudeney and Piggott (1978), the development of the Weddell Sea Anomaly is explained with the combined effects of solar ultraviolet radiation and thermospheric neutral winds.

  12. Satellite-observed pollution from Southern Hemisphere biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Emmons, L. K.; Gille, J. C.; Chu, A.; Attié, J.-L.; Giglio, L.; Wood, S. W.; Haywood, J.; Deeter, M. N.; Massie, S. T.; Ziskin, D. C.; Drummond, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of pollution in the tropical Southern Hemisphere, and fine mode carbonaceous particles are produced by the same combustion processes that emit carbon monoxide (CO). In this paper we examine these emissions with data from the Terra satellite, CO profiles from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, and fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The satellite measurements are used in conjunction with calculations from the MOZART chemical transport model to examine the 2003 Southern Hemisphere burning season with particular emphasis on the months of peak fire activity in September and October. Pollutant emissions follow the occurrence of dry season fires, and the temporal variation and spatial distributions of MOPITT CO and MODIS AOD are similar. We examine the outflow from Africa and South America with emphasis on the impact of these emissions on clean remote regions. We present comparisons of MOPITT observations and ground-based interferometer data from Lauder, New Zealand, which indicate that intercontinental transport of biomass burning pollution from Africa often determines the local air quality. The correlation between enhancements of AOD and CO column for distinct biomass burning plumes is very good with correlation coefficients greater than 0.8. We present a method using MOPITT and MODIS data for estimating the emission ratio of aerosol number density to CO concentration which could prove useful as input to modeling studies. We also investigate decay of plumes from African fires following export into the Indian Ocean and compare the MOPITT and MODIS measurements as a way of estimating the regional aerosol lifetime. Vertical transport of biomass burning emissions is also examined using CO profile information. Low-altitude concentrations are very high close to source regions, but further downwind of the continents, vertical mixing takes place

  13. Wind-driven marine phytoplank blooms: Satellite observation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, DanLing

    2016-07-01

    Algal bloom is defined as a rapid increase or accumulation in biomass in an aquatic system. It not only can increase the primary production but also could result in negative ecological consequence, e.g.,Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). According to the classic theory for the formation of algal blooms "critical depth" and "eutrophication", oligotrophic sea area is usually difficult to form a large area of algal blooms, and actuallythe traditional observation is only sporadic capture to the existence of algal blooms.Taking full advantage of multiple data of satellite remote sensing , this study introduces "Wind-driven algal blooms in open oceans: observation and mechanisms" It explained except classic coastal Ekman transport, the wind through a variety of mechanisms affecting the formation of algal blooms. Proposed a conceptual model of "Strong wind -upwelling-nutrient-phytoplankton blooms" in Western South China Sea (SCS) to assess role of wind-induced advection transport in phytoplankton bloom formation. It illustrates the nutrient resources that support long-term offshore phytoplankton blooms in the western SCS; (2)Proposal of the theory that "typhoons cause vertical mixing, induce phytoplankton blooms", and quantify their important contribution to marine primary production; Proposal a new ecological index for typhoon. Proposed remote sensing inversion models. (3)Finding of the spatial and temporaldistributions pattern of harmful algal bloom (HAB)and species variations of HAB in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and in the Pearl River estuary, and their oceanic dynamic mechanisms related with monsoon; The project developed new techniques and generated new knowledge, which significantly improved understanding of the formation mechanisms of algal blooms. The proposed "wind-pump" mechanism integrates theoretical system combined "ocean dynamics, development of algal blooms, and impact on primary production", which will benefit fisheries management. These

  14. Rocket and satellite observations of the local interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect

    Jelinsky, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to obtained new information on the structure of the local interstellar medium (ISM). Two separate experiments using different instruments were used in this study. The first experiment employed a spectrometer with a spectral bandpass from 350-1150 {angstrom} which was placed at the focus of a 95 cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on an Aries sounding rocket. The purpose of this experiment was to measure the interstellar absorption edges, due to neutral helium and neutral hydrogen, in the spectrum of a hot white dwarf. The hot white dwarf G191-B2B was observed for 87 seconds during the flight. Unfortunately, due to high pressure in the rocket, no scientifically useful data was obtained during the flight. The second experiment utilized the high resolution spectrometer on the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The purpose of the experiment was to observe interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of hot white dwarfs. A new method of determining the equivalent widths of absorption lines and their uncertainties was developed. The neutral hydrogen column density is estimated from the N I, Si II, and C II columns. Unfortunately, the uncertainties in the neutral hydrogen columns are very large, only two are constrained to better than an order of magnitude. High ionization species (N V, Si IV, and C IV) are seen in five of the stars. Upper limits to the temperature of the ISM are determined from the velocity dispersions. The temperature of the low ionization gas toward four of the stars is constrained to be less than 50,000 K.

  15. Newest Ocean-Observing Satellite Records Recent Sea Level Changes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-24

    NASA Ocean Surface Topography Mission OSTM/Jason-2, launched on June 20, 2008, wasted no time getting to work. The satellite radar altimeter collected its first data a little more than 48 hours after launch.

  16. An observational philosophy for GEOS-C satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiffenbach, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The parameters necessary for obtaining a 10 cm accuracy for GEOS-C satellite altimetry are outlined. These data include oceanographic parameters, instrument calibration, pulse propagation, sea surface effects, and optimum design.

  17. NASDA's earth observation satellite data archive policy for the earth observation data and information system (EOIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobue, Shin-ichi; Yoshida, Fumiyoshi; Ochiai, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    NASDA's new Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is scheduled for launch in August, 1996. ADEOS carries 8 sensors to observe earth environmental phenomena and sends their data to NASDA, NASA, and other foreign ground stations around the world. The downlink data bit rate for ADEOS is 126 MB/s and the total volume of data is about 100 GB per day. To archive and manage such a large quantity of data with high reliability and easy accessibility it was necessary to develop a new mass storage system with a catalogue information database using advanced database management technology. The data will be archived and maintained in the Master Data Storage Subsystem (MDSS) which is one subsystem in NASDA's new Earth Observation data and Information System (EOIS). The MDSS is based on a SONY ID1 digital tape robotics system. This paper provides an overview of the EOIS system, with a focus on the Master Data Storage Subsystem and the NASDA Earth Observation Center (EOC) archive policy for earth observation satellite data.

  18. Sensitivity of Northern Hemispheric Tropospheric Ozone To Anthropogenic Emissions as Observed by Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Worden, J. R.; Payne, V.; Bowman, K. W.; Kuai, L.; Jones, D. B. A.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric composition is rapidly changing in response to changes in industrialization, land-use, and climate. Tropospheric ozone is at the nexus of atmospheric chemistry, air-quality, and climate as it is not only the third most important greenhouse gas and a primary air pollutant, but also affects carbon dioxide by damaging plants and the lifetime of atmospheric methane by influencing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Observed trends in free-tropospheric ozone as observed by ozone-sondes and more recently by satellite measurements from the Aura TES and IASI instruments do not agree with models that are driven by observed changes in ozone pre-cursor emissions. As a consequence, estimates of ozone radiative forcing and the future trajectory of tropospheric ozone concentrations are highly uncertain. In this study, we explore the use of satellite observations of ozone and its pre-cursors for constraining the sensitivity of Northern hemispheric tropospheric ozone to anthropogenic emissions. New measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) from the Aura TES instrument suggest that one explanation for the model/data mismatch in trends is reduced ventilation of reactive nitrogen into the free-troposphere over Asia. Ultimately, continued well validated observation of ozone and its pre-cursors from IASI, AIRS, CRIS, and Trop-OMI will be needed to solve this critical scientific question.

  19. A review of satellite observations of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alvin J.

    1989-12-01

    This paper overviews the development of the satellite ozone methodology since about 1980, with emphasis on the solar backscattered UV technique, the IR emission technique, and the solar occultation technique. The instruments used in these methods are discussed with special consideration given to the error estimates of the instruments. Future measurement systems are discussed with particualr attention given to the ten instruments and their primary measurements planned for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite which will be launched in about 1991.

  20. The need for satellite based observations of global surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D.; Alsdorf, D.; Vörösmarty, C.; Birkett, C.

    2003-04-01

    River discharge as well as lake and wetland storage of water are critical elements of land surface hydrology, yet they are poorly observed globally and the prospects for improvement from in-situ networks are bleak. Considering this, our NASA Surface Water working group is focused on the following science and applications questions: (1) What are the observational and data assimilation requirements for measuring natural and manmade surface storage and river discharge that will allow us to (a) understand the land surface branch of the global hydrologic cycle, (b) predict the consequences of global change, and (c) make assessments for water resources management? (2) What are the roles of wetlands, lakes, and rivers (a) as regulators of biogeochemical and constituent cycles (e.g., carbon, nutrients, and sediments) and (b) in creating or ameliorating water-related hazards of relevance to society? Global models of weather and climate could be constrained spatially and temporally by stream discharge and surface storage measurements. Yet this constraint is rarely applied, despite weather and climate modeling results showing that predicted precipitation is often inconsistent with observed discharge. Thus, as satellite missions are developed for global observations of critical hydrologic parameters such as soil moisture (i.e., HYDROS) and precipitation (i.e., GPM), the lack of concomitant measurements of runoff and surface water storage at compatible spatial and temporal scales may well result in inconsistent parameterizations of global hydrologic, weather, and climate models. Although off-river-channel environments, such as wetlands, floodplains, and anabranches (e.g., braided channels) are increasingly recognized for their important roles in delaying continental runoff, in biogeochemical cycling of waterborne constituents, and in trace gas exchange with the atmosphere, these environments are not gauged because flow is diffusive (non-channelized). Rather than fixed station

  1. Satellite-based Observation of the Tectonics of Southern Tibet

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Finkel, R; van der Woerd, J

    2003-02-06

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau were formed as a result of the collision of India and Asia, and provide an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of the mechanical response of the outer 100 km of the Earth (the lithosphere) to tectonic stress. Geophysicists are divided in their views on the nature of this response with one group advocating homogeneously distributed deformation in which the lithosphere deforms as a fluid continuum while others contend that deformation is highly localized with the lithosphere deforming as a system of rigid blocks. These rigid blocks or plate undergo little internal deformation. The latter group draws support from the high slip-rates recently observed on strike-slip faults along the northern edge of the Plateau (the Altyn Tagh Fault, ATF), coupled with seismic observations suggesting that these faults penetrate the entire lithosphere. These ''lithospheric faults'' define continental lithospheric plates and facilitate the eastward extrusion of the ''central Tibet plate''. If extrusion of a rigid Tibet occurs then there must be equivalent features at its southern boundary with slip-rates similar to those in the north. The southern boundary of Tibet, defined by the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), has no lateral component of motion and is therefore kinematically incompatible with motion in the north. However, a series of features, the Karakorum Fault, the Karakorum-Jiali Fracture Zone (KJFZ), the Jiali Fault and the Red River Fault which lie to the north of the MHT may define the actual, kinematic, southern boundary of this ''central Tibet plate''. We have investigated the rate of slip along the Karakorum Fault (KKF), the major strike-slip fault in southwestern Tibet. If the KKF represents the actual, kinematic, southern boundary of this Tibet, and is the only feature accommodating eastward extrusion of Tibet, then its slip-rate should be similar to that of the ATF in the north. Offsets along the Karakorum Fault ranging

  2. MISR Satellite Observations of Aerosol Types Affecting Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Franklin, M.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based observations of pollutants and concentrations of particulate matter (PM), that includes small particles designated PM2.5 and dust-dominated PM10, are the gold standard in studies of environmental impacts on human health. However, because monitoring stations are costly, they typically provide only limited spatial coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. We will demonstrate how data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument that has been flying on NASA's Terra Earth Observing System satellite since early 2000 can be used to provide estimates of surface PM types. The current MISR operational aerosol retrieval uses a combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property information (including dust AOD) globally at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Using the same algorithm with data collected in all 36-channels at 275 m resolution (Local Mode), which is available over greater Los Angeles area, and also was activated during 2013 DISCOVER-AQ California field campaign, high-resolution 4.4 km aerosol retrievals were performed in addition to the standard 17.6 km retrievals. The 4.4 km spatial resolution of the PM information data is fine enough to be able to resolve local differences in PM loading that may be important for understanding regional health effects of pollution in the region. In particular, we demonstrate that MISR high-resolution AOD retrievals are in better agreement with ground-based aerosol observations and reveal more details about the aerosol spatial variability compared to the MISR standard 17.6 km product. Then we will discuss techniques and show examples of the application of high-resolution MISR data to provide estimates of surface PM for the greater Los Angeles area in 2008 and for California San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Finally, we will discuss future NASA instruments that will provide new information allowing for better

  3. Observations of land-atmosphere interactions using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Julia; Gentine, Pierre; Konings, Alexandra; Alemohammad, Hamed; Kolassa, Jana

    2016-04-01

    Observations of land-atmosphere interactions using satellite data Julia Green (1), Pierre Gentine (1), Alexandra Konings (1,2), Seyed Hamed Alemohammad (3), Jana Kolassa (4) (1) Columbia University, Earth and Environmental Engineering, NY, NY, USA, (2) Stanford University, Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford, CA, USA, (3) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cambridge, MA, USA, (4) National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. Previous studies of global land-atmosphere hotspots have often relied solely on data from global models with the consequence that they are sensitive to model error. On the other hand, by only analyzing observations, it can be difficult to distinguish causality from mere correlation. In this study, we present a general framework for investigating land-atmosphere interactions using Granger Causality analysis applied to remote sensing data. Based on the near linear relationship between chlorophyll sun induced fluorescence (SIF) and photosynthesis (and thus its relationship with transpiration), we use the GOME-2 fluorescence direct measurements to quantify the surface fluxes between the land and atmosphere. By using SIF data to represent the flux, we bypass the need to use soil moisture data from FLUXNET (limited spatially and temporally) or remote sensing (limited by spatial resolution, canopy interference, measurement depth, and radio frequency interference) thus eliminating additional uncertainty. The Granger Causality analysis allows for the determination of the strength of the two-way causal relationship between SIF and several climatic variables: precipitation, radiation and temperature. We determine that warm regions transitioning from water to energy limitation exhibit strong feedbacks between the land surface and atmosphere due to their high sensitivity to climate and weather variability. Tropical rainforest regions show low magnitudes of

  4. Observation of Wetland Dynamics with Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuffada, C.; Shah, R.; Nghiem, S. V.; Cardellach, E.; Chew, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dynamics is crucial to changes in both atmospheric methane and terrestrial water storage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) highlights the role of wetlands as a key driver of methane (CH4) emission, which is more than one order of magnitude stronger than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the centennial time scale. Among the multitude of methane emission sources (hydrates, livestock, rice cultivation, freshwaters, landfills and waste, fossil fuels, biomass burning, termites, geological sources, and soil oxidation), wetlands constitute the largest contributor with the widest uncertainty range of 177-284 Tg(CH4) yr-1 according to the IPCC estimate. Wetlands are highly susceptible to climate change that might lead to wetland collapse. Such wetland destruction would decrease the terrestrial water storage capacity and thus contribute to sea level rise, consequently exacerbating coastal flooding problems. For both methane change and water storage change, wetland dynamics is a crucial factor with the largest uncertainty. Nevertheless, a complete and consistent map of global wetlands still needs to be obtained as the Ramsar Convention calls for a wetlands inventory and impact assessment. We develop a new method for observations of wetland change using Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry (GNSS-R) signatures for global wetland mapping in synergy with the existing capability, not only as a static inventory but also as a temporal dataset, to advance the capability for monitoring the dynamics of wetland extent relevant to addressing the science issues of CH4 emission change and terrestrial water storage change. We will demonstrate the capability of the new GNSS-R method over a rice field in the Ebro Delta wetland in Spain.

  5. Retrieval of Aerosol Absorption Properties from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jethva, H.; Ahn, Chang-Woo

    2012-01-01

    The Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE) is a parameter commonly used to characterize the wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD). It is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses multi-spectral measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds as indicated by the UV Aerosol Index. For those conditions, the satellite measurement can be explained, using an approximations of Beer's Law (BL), as the upwelling reflectance at the cloud top attenuated by the absorption effects of the overlying aerosol layer. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud-top in an aerosol-free atmospheric column is mainly a function of cloud optical depth (COD). In the proposed method of AAE derivation, the first step is determining COD which is retrieved using a previously developed color-ratio based approach. In the second step, corrections for molecular scattering effects are applied to both the observed ad the calculated cloud reflectance terms, and the spectral AAOD is then derived by an inversion of the BL approximation. The proposed technique will be discussed in detail and application results making use of OMI multi-spectral measurements in the UV-Vis. will be presented.

  6. Satellite observations of transient radio impulses from thunderstorms

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Kirkland, M.; Jacobson, A.; Massey, R.; Suszynsky, D.; Eack, K.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Smith, D.

    1999-06-01

    Transient radio emissions from thunderstorms detected by satellites were first reported in 1995. The nature and source of these emissions remained a mystery until the launch of the FORTE satellite in 1997. FORTE, with its more sophisticated triggering and larger memory capacity showed that these emissions were connected to major thunderstorm systems. The analysis reported here, connecting FORTE RF events with ground based lightning location data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), shows that localized regions within thunderstorms are responsible for the creation of the satellite detected rf signals. These regions are connected with the areas of strong radar returns from the NEXRAD Doppler radar system, indicating that they are from regions of intense convection. The authors will also show data from several storms detected in the extended Caribbean, in which the height profile of the source regions can be determined. Although as a single low earth orbit satellite FORTE cannot provide global coverage of thunderstorm/lightning events, follow-on satellite constellations should be able to provide detailed information on global lightning in near real-time.

  7. Ionospheric electron density irregularities observed by satellite-to-satellite, dual-frequency, low-low Doppler tracking link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. D.; Grossi, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    A low-low, satellite-to-satellite, dual-frequency, Doppler tracking experiment was performed. The data are analyzed here for irregularities in electron density at the altitude of 212 km. The differential Doppler data with the relative motion term removed are integrated to obtain a representation of the electron density variation along the satellite path. Well-known large-scale features such as the equatorial geomagnetic anomaly and day/night ionization level differences are clearly observed in the integrated data. The larger crest of the morning geomagnetic anomaly is seen to occur in the southern (winter) hemisphere in agreement with previous observations. In addition, a sharp peak in the electron density at the day-to-night transition point is observed in two consecutive revolutions. This effect may be due to the previously postulated atmospheric shock wave generated by supersonic motion of the terminator.

  8. Modeling Prairie Pothole Lakes: Linking Satellite Observation and Calibration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Liu, G.; Zhang, B.; Yu, Z.

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the response of a complex lake wetland system to variations in climate. The focus is on the lakes and wetlands of the Missouri Coteau, which is part of the larger Prairie Pothole Region of the Central Plains of North America. Information on lake size was enumerated from satellite images, and yielded power law relationships for different hydrological conditions. More traditional lake-stage data were made available to us from the USGS Cottonwood Lake Study Site in North Dakota. A Probabilistic Hydrologic Model (PHM) was developed to simulate lake complexes comprised of tens-of-thousands or more individual closed-basin lakes and wetlands. What is new about this model is a calibration scheme that utilizes remotely-sensed data on lake area as well as stage data for individual lakes. Some ¼ million individual data points are used within a Genetic Algorithm to calibrate the model by comparing the simulated results with observed lake area-frequency power law relationships derived from Landsat images and water depths from seven individual lakes and wetlands. The simulated lake behaviors show good agreement with the observations under average, dry, and wet climatic conditions. The calibrated model is used to examine the impact of climate variability on a large lake complex in ND, in particular, the “Dust Bowl Drought” 1930s. This most famous drought of the 20th Century devastated the agricultural economy of the Great Plains with health and social impacts lingering for years afterwards. Interestingly, the drought of 1930s is unremarkable in relation to others of greater intensity and frequency before AD 1200 in the Great Plains. Major droughts and deluges have the ability to create marked variability of the power law function (e.g. up to one and a half orders of magnitude variability from the extreme Dust Bowl Drought to the extreme 1993-2001 deluge). This new probabilistic modeling approach provides a novel tool to examine the response of the

  9. Recent Galileo and Cassini Observations of the Galilean Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A.; Geissler, P.; Turtle, E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Belton, M.; Porco, C.; Klemaszewski, J.; Williams, D.; Spencer, J.; Lopes, R.; Pappalardo, R.; GLL Team

    2001-11-01

    Galileo has completed several orbits of Jupiter in the past year, Cassini passed by on its way to Saturn, and a suite of new observations of the Galilean satellites have been acquired. Galileo data obtained of Callisto's surface during the 30th orbit (May 2001) show bright, icy regions with high-standing knobs and spires tens to hundreds of meters tall (Klemaszewski et al., this conference). The gradual loss of ice by sublimation may liberate non-ice material which slides down-slope due to gravity, piling up at the base of the spires. Galileo acquired color observations of Ganymede's polar cap in orbit G29 (the joint encounter). Cassini captured several sequences of images showing Io, Europa, and Ganymede while eclipsed by Jupiter (Geissler et al., this conference). The images show that Europa is brightest along its limb, suggesting auroral emissions. The Io data have been assembled into color time-lapse sequences showing motion of the equatorial sulfur dioxide and oxygen glows in response to the changing orientation of the Jovian magnetic field. The eclipse data also show temporal variations in the temperatures at Pele, which may be a vigorously overturning lava lake (Radebaugh et al., this conference). The joint Cassini and Galileo images of Io revealed a large (400 km) plume over Tvashtar Catena. The Galileo spacecraft flew through the volume of this (former?) plume in the I31 flyby (August 6). When the imaging data has been fully returned we may be able to say whether the Tvashtar plume was active, but there are several other large new plumes and plume deposits. The Galileo PPR instrument mapped Io's thermal emission in detail in I31, which will provide new information on the global heat flow and processes at Loki. NIMS acquired a wealth of new data in I31 and mapped several intense hot spots (Lopes et al., this conference). SSI failed to acquire any high-resolution images in I31 due to radiation-sensitive electronics, but will try again with a new strategy in

  10. Small Satellite Constellations: The Future for Operational Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Nanosat, microsat and minisat are low-cost, rapid-response small-satellites built from advanced terrestrial technology. SSTL delivers the benefits of affordable access to space through low-cost, rapid response, small satellites designed and built with state-of-the-art COTS technologies by: a) reducing the cost of entry into space; b) Achieving more missions within fixed budgets; c) making constellations and formation flying financially viable; d) responding rapidly from initial concept to orbital operation; and e) bringing the latest industrial COTS component advances to space. Growth has been stimulated in constellations for high temporal revisit&persistent monitoring and military responsive space assets.

  11. On the geometric analysis and adjustment of optical satellite observations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsimis, E.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite geodesy methods were catagorized into three divisions: geometric, dynamic, and mixed. These catagories furnish the basis for distinction between geometric and dynamic satellite geodesy. The dual adjustment, geometric analysis, and Cartesian coodinate determination are examined for two observing stations. Similar illustrations are given when more than two observing stations are used.

  12. Outline of the survey on the development of earth observation satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An independent earth observation system with land and sea satellites to be developed by Japan is described. Visible and infrared radiometers, microwave radiometers, microwave scattermeters, synthetic aperture radar, and laser sensors are among the instrumentation discussed. Triaxial attitude control, basic technology common to sea and land observation satellites as well as land data analytical technology developed for U.S. LANDSAT data are reviewed.

  13. SATELLITES AROUND MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 2: CONFRONTING THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION WITH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2012-06-20

    Minor merging has been postulated as the most likely evolutionary path to produce the increase in size and mass observed in the massive galaxies since z {approx} 2. In this Letter, we directly test this hypothesis, comparing the population of satellites around massive galaxies in cosmological simulations versus the observations. We use state-of-the-art, publically available, Millennium I and II simulations, and the associated semi-analytical galaxy catalogs to explore the time evolution of the fraction of massive galaxies that have satellites, the number of satellites per galaxy, the projected distance at which the satellites locate from the host galaxy, and the mass ratio between the host galaxies and their satellites. The three virtual galaxy catalogs considered here overproduce the fraction of galaxies with satellites by a factor ranging between 1.5 and 6 depending on the epoch, whereas the mean projected distance and ratio of the satellite mass over host mass are in closer agreement with data. The larger pull of satellites in the semi-analytical samples could suggest that the size evolution found in previous hydrodynamical simulations is an artifact due to the larger number of infalling satellites compared to the real universe. These results advise us to revise the physical ingredients implemented in the semi-analytical models in order to reconcile the observed and computed fraction of galaxies with satellites, and eventually, it would leave some room for other mechanisms explaining the galaxy size growth not related to the minor merging.

  14. Observations of Reflected Ions and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater Than the Ion Ram Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.

    1997-01-01

    During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the ions flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential on the satellite was changed from below to above 5 Volts. The ram energy of the ambient atomic oxygen ions is about 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no ions were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised above 5 V, ions were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the ion flux was a few percent of the ambient with energies of about 5 eV. The temperature of the outflowing ions was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere, and had a maximum in a plane containing the center of the satellite and normal to the geomagnetic field. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials above 5 V as compared with satellite potentials below 5 V indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.

  15. Assimilation of hyperspectral satellite radiance observations within tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Haidao

    The availability of high resolution temperature and water vapor data is critical for the study of mesoscale scale weather phenomena (e.g., convective initiations, and tropical cyclones). As hyperspectral infrared sounders, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) could provide high resolution atmospheric profiles by measuring radiations in many thousands of different channels. This work focuses on the assessment of the potential values of satellite hyperspectral radiance data on the study of convective initiations (CI) and the assimilation of AIRS radiance observations within tropical storms. First, the potential capability of hyperspectral infrared measurements (GIFTS) to provide convective precipitation forecasts has been studied and assessed. Using both the observed and the model-predicted profiles as input to the GIFTS radiative transfer model (RTM), it is shown that the simulated GIFTS radiance could capture the high vertical and temporal variability of the real and modeled atmosphere prior to a convective initiation, as well as the differences between observations and model forecasts. This study suggests the potential for hyperspectral infrared radiance data to make an important contribution to the improvement of the forecast skill of convective precipitation. Second, as the first step toward applying AIRS data to tropical cyclone (TC) prediction, a set of dropsonde profiles during Hurricane Rita (2005) is used to simulate AIRS radiance data and to assess the ability of AIRS data in capturing the vertical variability within TCs through one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) twin experiments. The AIRS observation errors and background errors are first estimated. Five sets of 1D-Var twin experiments are then performed using different combinations of AIRS channels. Finally, results from these 1D-Var experiments are analyzed. Major findings are: (1) AIRS radiance data contain useful information about

  16. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.; Savage, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Met Office's operational regional Air Quality Unified Model (AQUM) contains a description of atmospheric chemistry/aerosols which allows for the short-term forecast of chemical weather (e.g. high concentrations of ozone or nitrogen dioxide, which can trigger warnings of poor air quality). AQUM's performance has so far only been tested against a network of surface monitoring stations. Therefore, with recent improvements in the quality and quantity of satellite measurements, data products (e.g. tropospheric columns, vertical profiles) from several satellite instruments will be used to test the performance of the model. First comparisons between an AQUM simulation for the UK heatwave event of July 2006 and data from OMI, TES (both on AURA) and MODIS (on AQUA) have identified multiple model-satellite biases. The chemical/aerosol species investigated for this simulation include nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.55 microns wavelength. NO2 spatial positive mean biases (AQUM-OMI July 2006 monthly mean tropospheric columns) over north- east England suggest model overestimation in the area's urban regions. Currently, sensitivity tests of the NOx emission datasets are investigating these biases and the model's represent of urban pollution. In the UK O3 monthly mean vertical profile comparisons (AQUM-TES), strong positive mean biases are detected in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Since the AQUM does not use a stratospheric chemistry scheme, the satellite climatological vertical boundary conditions will be investigated (e.g. test the model with new boundary conditions using multiple satellite instruments or perturb existing climatologies). Comparisons of HCHO (AQUM-OMI monthly mean tropospheric columns) biases highlight strong negative biases over continental Europe and sporadic positive biases in the south-east lateral boundary conditions. Therefore, evaluation and development of

  17. Satellite Observations For Calibration of Ground Radar Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, M.; Morris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Calibration differences between weather service ground radars is one source of error that can lead to bias in quantitative precipitation estimates. In the U.S., calibration differences among Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars are know to vary by up to several decibels in reflectivity. Such differences have been shown to cause significant radar-to-radar observation differences, and can lead to significant error in precipitation estimates. The calibration of 21 WSR-88D radars in the southeast U.S. was assessed using methods developed for NASA's Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Validation Network (VN) prototype. The VN performs geometric matching of Precipitation Radar (PR) data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite to ground radars. The VN geometric matching method averages PR reflectivity (both raw and attenuation corrected) and rain rate, and ground radar (GR) reflectivity at the geometric intersection of the PR rays with the individual GR elevation sweeps. The algorithm thus averages the minimum PR and GR sample volumes needed to ''matchup'' the spatially coincident PR and ground radar data types. This geometric matching method has been demonstrated to out-perform gridding techniques by providing better estimates of GR-to-PR bias. TRMM PR data were used as the calibration reference because analyses of the PR performance estimated the instrument calibration to be stable and accurate to within less than 1dBZ (3-sigma). The calibration accuracy of the 21 WSR-88D radars was assessed for the period of record from August 2006 to July 2011. For purposes of calibration assessments, the data were restricted to PR-GR match-up volumes >750m above the bright band in stratiform rain areas where PR radar attenuation is not at issue. Based on space and ground radar matchups, most WSR-88D radars were found to have a mean PR-GR bias of less than 1 dBZ. Several adjacent WSR-88D sites near or along the Gulf Coast between Louisiana and

  18. Impacts of Different Aerosol Types on Convective Cloud as Observed by CALIPSO/CloudSat Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J. H.; Huang, L.; Su, H.

    2016-12-01

    A major uncertainty in the study of aerosol effects on climate is how different types of aerosol affect the properties of different types of clouds. This study takes full advantage of collocated measurements over the globe from CloudSat/CALIPSO and other A-Train satellites to characterize the influence of various aerosol types on convective clouds. The occurrence frequency of six different types of aerosol (i.e., clean marine, dust, polluted continental, clean continental, polluted dust, and smoke) in each target region, as well as their probability density function, vertical and seasonal variations are determined using CALIPSO observations. The effects of different aerosol types on cloud vertical structure, cloud water content and cloud particle effective radius are investigated using collocated CloudSat and CALIPSO profile data. The influence of meteorological conditions on clouds is distinguished from aerosol effects using multi-variable composite analysis. The results will improve our understanding of the aerosol-cloud-climate interactions and potentially help to reduce uncertainties in climate change predictions.

  19. ASPECTS OF ARCTIC SEA ICE OBSERVABLE BY SEQUENTIAL PASSIVE MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS FROM THE NIMBUS-5 SATELLITE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, William J.; Gloersen, Per; Zwally, H. Jay; ,

    1984-01-01

    Observations made from 1972 to 1976 with the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer on board the Nimbus-5 satellite provide sequential synoptic information of the Arctic sea ice cover. This four-year data set was used to construct a fairly continuous series of three-day average 19-GHz passive microwave images which has become a valuable source of polar information, yielding many anticipated and unanticipated discoveries of the sea ice canopy observed in its entirety through the clouds and during the polar night. Short-term, seasonal, and annual variations of key sea ice parameters, such as ice edge position, ice types, mixtures of ice types, ice concentrations, and snow melt on the ice, are presented for various parts of the Arctic.

  20. Low-tech highly efficient radiotechnical solutions for meteors and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, V. S.; Shulga, O. V.; Sybiryakova, Ye. S.; Kaliuzny, M. P.; Bushuev, F. I.; Kulichenko, M. O.

    2017-02-01

    Single-station technique of meteors' observation using inexpensive receivers is developed. The receivers are also suitable for observing active artificial Earth's satellites on solar-synchronous orbits when measuring the Doppler shift frequency at which they emit.

  1. Spacecraft Charging: Observations and Relationship to Satellite Anomalies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Spacecraft charging at high altitudes: the SCATHA satellite program," in Spacecraft Charging by Magnetospheric Plasmas , A. Rosen Ed., Pro- gress in... magnetospheric plasma is very dense, it is usually "cold" and doesn’t cause significant charging . The equatorial ionosphere and the plasmasphere are such... Astronautics and Aeronautics, 47, p. 15, 1975. 3. Anderson, P. C., and H. C. Koons, " Spacecraft charging anomaly on a low-altitude

  2. Gas Flaring Volume Estimates with Multiple Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziskin, D. C.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Ghosh, T.; Hsu, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    Flammable gases (primarily methane) are a common bi-product associated with oil wells. Where there is no infrastructure to use the gas or bring it to market, the gases are typically flared off. This practice is more common at remote sites, such as an offshore drilling platform. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is a series of satellites with a low-light imager called the Operational Linescan System (OLS). The OLS, which detects the flares at night, has been a valuable tool in the estimation of flared gas volume [Elvidge et al, 2009]. The use of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire product has been processed to create products suitable for an independent estimate of gas flaring on land. We are presenting the MODIS flare product, the results of our MODIS gas flare volume analysis, and independent validation of the published DMSP estimates. Elvidge, C. D., Ziskin, D., Baugh, K. E., Tuttle, B. T., Ghosh, T., Pack, D. W., Erwin, E. H., Zhizhin, M., 2009, "A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data", Energies, 2 (3), 595-622

  3. Results from comparing THEMIS satellite and ground based observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, Stephen; Frey, Harald; Donovan, Eric; Jackel, Brian; Angelopoulos, V.

    The NASA Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) project is intended to investigate the major controversy in substorm science, the uncertainty whether the instability leading to the substorm is initiated near the Earth or in the more distant >20 Re magnetic tail. THEMIS will use the timing of the occurrence of substorm signatures at five satellites and at ground based all-sky imagers and magnetometers to infer the propagation direction. The array of stations consists of 20 all-sky imagers and 30 plus magnetometers deployed in the North American continent from Alaska to Labrador. Each ground based observatory contains a white light imager taking auroral images at a 3 second repetition rate and a magnetometer that records the 3 axis variation of the magnetic field at 2 Hz frequency. During the winter of 2007-08 the THEMIS satellites achieved their intended strategic locations to monitor substorms. For example in the time period between 06 and 09 UT on the 2nd of February 2008 several substorms occurred while the THEMIS satellites P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 were located in the tail of the magnetosphere at approximately 29.6, 18.5, 11, 11 and 8Re downtail distance (GSM) respectively. The weather was relatively clear permitting the recording of the auroral features while the particle and field measurements were taken. In this paper we will discuss the preliminary results drawn from the data taken during substorms that occur during THEMIS conjunctions.

  4. Malvinas Current variability as observed by satellite altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, Martin; Artana, Camila; Bodichon, Renaud; Provost, Christine

    The Malvinas Current (MC) is the northernmost extension of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that carries cold and nutrient-rich waters. The MC is thought to be a major source of nutrients to the SW South Atlantic. The interaction of the MC with the sloping bottom is presumably responsible for sustaining upwelling along the shelf-break. Numerical and analytical models indicate that the upwelling intensity and mean transport along the Patagonian continental shelf is modulated by the MC transport. Apart from its regional influence, the MC contributes to regulate the climate since it helps the exchange of heat and salt as is a crucial component of the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Satellite altimetry data in conjunction with in-situ data allowed monitoring the transport of the MC at 41ºS. A CNES founded program will repeat those measures and will measure at the same time currents over the continental shelf under a satellite altimetry track. First deployment of instruments will occur in November 2014. In this work we use satellite altimetry data to explore the relationship between the MC and continental shelf transports and the correspondence between the variability of the MC and the mesoscale activity in the SW South Atlantic. Results suggest that (i) the large decreases of the MC transport are associated to eddies that interact with the MC and (ii) the first mode associated to the variability of the transport over the Patagonian continental shelf is significantly correlated to the first mode of variability of the MC transport.

  5. Observations of Reflected Ions and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater than the Ion Ram Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.

    1998-01-01

    During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the ions flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential of the satellite was changed from below to above 5 V. The ram energy of the ambient atomic oxygen ions is approximately 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no ions were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised greater than 5 V, ions were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the ion flux was a few percent of the ambient with energies of approximately 5 eV. The temperature of the out-flowing ions was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials greater than 5 V as compared with satellite potentials less than 5 V, indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.

  6. Present status and future plans of the Japanese earth observation satellite program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi; Arai, Kohei; Igarashi, Tamotsu

    Japan is now operating 3 earth observation satellites, i. e. MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1, Momo-1 in Japanese), EGS (Experimental Geodetic Satellite, Ajisai in Japanese) and GMS (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, Himawari in Japanese). MOS-1 has 3 different sensors, MESSR (Multispectral Electronic Self Scanning Radiometer), VTIR (Visible and Thermal Infrared Radiometer) and MSR (Microwave Scanning Radiometer) in addition to DCS (Data Collection System). GMS has two sensors, VISSR (Visible and IR Spin Scan Radiometer) and SEM (Solar Environmental Monitor). EGS is equipped with reflecting mirrors of the sun light and laser reflecters. For the future earth observation satellites, ERS-1 (Earth Resources Satellite-1), MOS-1b, ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) are under development. Two sensors, AMSR (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) and ITIR (Intermediate Thermal IR Radiometer) for NASA's polar platform are initial stage of development. Study and planning are made for future earth observation satellites including Japanese polor platform, TRMM, etc.). The study for the second generation GMS has been made by the Committee on the Function of Future GMS under the request of Japan Meteorological Agency in FY 1987.

  7. Ephemerides of the major Neptunian satellites determined from earth-based astrometric and Voyager imaging observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Lewis, G. D.; Owen, W. M.; Riedel, J. E.; Roth, D. C.; Synnott, S. P.; Taylor, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    The Voyager project used Neptunian satellite ephemerides to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. The development of postencounter ephemerides for the satellites Triton, Nereid, and 1989N1 is discussed. Primary results are the final set of model parameters which generate orbits that best fit both the earth-based satellite observations and data acquired by Voyager. The ephemerides are compared with those generated preencounter, and the accuracy of the final ephemerides is assessed. Mean orbital elements are also provided as a geometrical representation for the satellite orbits.

  8. Comparisons of warm cloud properties in climate models and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Toon, O. B.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite observations play an irreplaceable role in validating and advancing climate models. However, the cloud properties simulated by GCMs are often inconsistent with those retrieved by satellite instruments. In this study, we compare the cloud droplet effective radius, cloud liquid optical depth, cloud liquid water path, and cloud fractions simulated by the NSF/DOE/NCAR/CESM model with the corresponding retrievals from various satellite instruments, such as MODIS, CALIOP, MISR, and CloudSat-CPR. In addition, we explore several reasons that might cause the model-satellite discrepancies.

  9. Astrometric observations of Saturn's satellites from McDonald Observatory, 1972. [using reference stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbot, R. I.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of Saturn's satellites were reduced by means of secondary reference stars obtained by reduction of Palomar Sky Survey (PSS) plates. This involved the use of 39 SAO stars and plate overlap technique to determine the coordinates of 59 fainter stars in the satellite field. Fourteen plate constants were determined for each of the two PSS plates. Comparison of two plate measurement and reduction techniques on the satellite measurements demonstrate the existence of a serious background gradient effect and the utility of microdensitometry to eliminate this error source in positional determinations of close satellites.

  10. Astrometric observations of Saturn's satellites from McDonald Observatory, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbot, R. I.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of Saturn's satellites have been reduced by means of secondary reference stars obtained by reduction of Palomar Sky Survey plates. This involved the use of 29 SAO stars and plate overlap technique to determine the coordinates of 59 fainter stars in the satellite field. Fourteen plate constants were determined for each of the two PSS plates. Comparison of two plate measurement and reduction techniques on the satellite measures appears to demonstrate the existence of a serious background gradient effect and the utility of microdensitometry to eliminate this error source in positional determinations of close satellites.

  11. An analysis of satellite state vector observability using SST tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S., Jr.; Hammond, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Observability of satellite state vectors, using only SST tracking data was investigated by covariance analysis under a variety of satellite and station configurations. These results indicate very precarious observability in most short arc cases. The consequences of this are large variances on many state components, such as the downrange component of the relay satellite position. To illustrate the impact of observability problems, an example is given of two distinct satellite orbit pairs generating essentially the same data arc. The physical bases for unobservability are outlined and related to proposed TDRSS configurations. Results are relevant to any mission depending upon TDRSS to determine satellite state. The required mathematical analysis and the software used is described.

  12. Numerically Integrated Orbits of the Major Saturnian Satellites fit to Earthbased Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Vaughan, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have fit numerically integrated orbits of the eight major satellites of Saturn to all available astrometric and meridian circle observations for the period of 1971 to 1992. The integration was carried out in cartesian coordinates in the J2000 system. The force model included the gravitational effects of the oblate primary, the mutual perturbations of the satellites, and perturbations due to Jupiter and the Sun. Values of the gravitational parameters of the Saturnian system, e.g. planet and satellite masses, were taken from Campbell, et. al., 1989, only the epoch state vectors of the satellites were adjusted to obtain orbits which fit the observations. All astrometric data was processed in the form of satellite relative positions which were weighted according to observer and opposition to reflect the varying data quality...

  13. Satellite observations and instrumentation for measuring energetic neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, H.D.; Mobilia, J.; Collin, H.L.; Imhof, W.L. . Space Sciences Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    Direct measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) and ions have been obtained with the cooled solid state detectors on the low-altitude (220 km) three-axis stabilized S81-1/ stimulated emissions of energetic particles (SEEP) satellite and on the spinning 400 km [times] 5.5 R[sub e] (where R[sub e] is Earth radii) Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). During magnetic storms ENA and ion precipitation (E > 10 keV) are evident over the low-altitude equatorial region based on data from the SEEP (ONR 804) spectrometers and CRRES ion mass spectrometer (IMS-HI) (ONR 307-8-3) ion composition and ENA instrument. The IMS-HI neutral atom spectrometer covers the energy range from 20 to 1,500 keV with a geometrical factor of 10[sub [minus]3] cm[sup 2] sr and uses a 7-kG magnetic field to screen out protons less than about 50 MeV. During the strong magnetic storm of 24 March 1991 the first ENA and ion mass composition measurements were obtained of ring current particles below the inner belt and these fluxes are compared to the IMS-HI flux measurements in the ring current. Recently, an advanced spectrometer, the Source/Loss-cone Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS), has been developed to image electrons, ions, and neutrals on the despun platform of the POLAR satellite ([approximately]1.8 [times] 9 R[sub e]) for launch in the mid 1990s as part of NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program.

  14. Investigating Satellite Microwave observations of Precipitation in Different Climate Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave satellite remote sensing of precipitation over land is a challenging problem due to the highly variable land surface emissivity, which, if not properly accounted for, can be much greater than the precipitation signal itself, especially in light rain/snow conditions. Additionally, surfaces such as arid land, deserts and snow cover have brightness temperature characteristics similar to precipitation Ongoing work by GPM microwave radiometer team is constructing databases through a variety of means, however, there is much uncertainty as to what is the optimal information needed for the wide array of sensors in the GPM constellation, including examination of regional conditions. The original data sets will focus on stratification by emissivity class, surface temperature and total perceptible water. We'll perform sensitivity studies to determine the potential role of ancillary data (e.g., land surface temperature, snow cover/water equivalent, etc.) to improve precipitation estimation over land in different climate regimes, including rain and snow. In other words, what information outside of the radiances can help describe the background and subsequent departures from it that are active precipitating regions? It is likely that this information will be a function of the various precipitation regimes. Statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) will be utilized in this task. Databases from a variety of sources are being constructed. They include existing satellite microwave measurements of precipitating and non-precipitating conditions, ground radar precipitation rate estimates, surface emissivity climatology from satellites, surface temperature and TPW from NWP reanalysis. Results from the analysis of these databases with respect to the microwave precipitation sensitivity to the variety of environmental conditions in different climate regimes will be discussed.

  15. Online Resource for Earth-Observing Satellite Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, J.; Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Wenny, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada is being developed by the University of Arizona to enable improved accuracy and consistency for airborne and satellite sensor calibration. Primary instrumentation at the site consists of ground-viewing radiometers, a sun photometer, and a meteorological station. Measurements made by these instruments are used to calculate surface reflectance, atmospheric properties and a prediction for top-of-atmosphere reflectance and radiance. This work will leverage research for RadCaTS, and describe the requirements for an online database, associated data formats and quality control, and processing levels.

  16. Online Resource for Earth-Observing Satellite Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, J.; Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Wenny, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada is being developed by the University of Arizona to enable improved accuracy and consistency for airborne and satellite sensor calibration. Primary instrumentation at the site consists of ground-viewing radiometers, a sun photometer, and a meteorological station. Measurements made by these instruments are used to calculate surface reflectance, atmospheric properties and a prediction for top-of-atmosphere reflectance and radiance. This work will leverage research for RadCaTS, and describe the requirements for an online database, associated data formats and quality control, and processing levels.

  17. Wind waves in tropical cyclones: satellite altimeter observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubkin, Pavel; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Results of investigation of wind-wave generation by tropical cyclones using satellite altimeter data are presented. Tropical cyclones are generally relatively small rapidly moving low pressure systems that are capable of generating severe wave conditions. Translation of a tropical cyclone leads to a prolonged period of time surface waves in the right sector remain under high wind forcing conditions. This effect has been termed extended fetch, trapped fetch or group velocity quasi-resonance. A tropical cyclone wave field is thus likely more asymmetrical than the corresponding wind field: wind waves in the tropical cyclone right sector are more developed with larger heights than waves in the left one. A dataset of satellite altimeter intersections of the Western Pacific tropical cyclones was created for 2010-2013. Data from four missions were considered, i.e., Jason-1, Jason-2, CryoSat-2, SARAL/AltiKa. Measurements in the rear-left and front-right sectors of tropical cyclones were examined for the presence of significant wave asymmetry. An analytical model is then derived to efficiently describe the wave energy distribution in a moving tropical cyclone. The model essentially builds on a generalization of the self-similar wave growth model and the assumption of a strongly dominant single spectral mode in a given quadrant of the storm. The model provides a criterion to anticipate wave enhancement with the generation of trapped abnormal waves. If forced during a sufficient timescale interval, also defined from this generalized self-similar wave growth model, waves can be trapped and large amplification of the wave energy will occur in the front-right storm quadrant. Remarkably, the group velocity and corresponding wavelength of outrunning wave systems will become wind speed independent and solely relate to the translating velocity. The resulting significant wave height also only weakly depends on wind speed, and more strongly on the translation velocity. Satellite

  18. Geodetic satellite observations in North American (solution NA-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Reilly, J. P.; Soler, T.

    1972-01-01

    A new detailed geoidal map with claimed accuracies of plus or minus 2 meters (on land), based on gravimetric and satellite data, was presented. With the new geoid and the orthometric heights given, more reliable height constraints were calculated and applied. The basic purpose of this experiment was to compute the new solution NA9 by defining the origin of the system, from the point of view of error propagation, in the most favorable position applying inner constraints and imposing new weighted height constraints to all of the stations. The major differences with respect to formerly published adjustments are presented.

  19. Online resource for Earth-observing satellite sensor calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Wenny, B.

    2015-09-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada is being developed by the University of Arizona to enable improved accuracy and consistency for airborne and satellite sensor calibration. Primary instrumentation at the site consists of ground-viewing radiometers, a sun photometer, and a meteorological station. Measurements made by these instruments are used to calculate surface reflectance, atmospheric properties and a prediction for top-of-atmosphere reflectance and radiance. This work will leverage research for RadCaTS, and describe the requirements for an online database, associated data formats and quality control, and processing levels.

  20. NASA Perspectives on Earth Observations from Satellite or 50 Years of Meteorological Satellite Experiments-The NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The NASA was established in 1959. From those very eady days to the present NASA has been intimately involved with NOAA and the scientific community in the development and operation of satellite and sensor experiments. The early efforts included experiments on the TIROS and geostationary Applications Technology Satellites (ATS) series. In the latter case the spin-scan cameras conceived by Verner Suomi, along with the TIROS cameras, opened new vistas at what could be done in meteorological studies with the daily, nearly global, synoptic views from space-borne sensors As the years passed and the Nimbus series of satellites came into being in the 1960's, more quantitative observations with longer-lifetime, increasingly capable, better calibrated instruments came into being. NASA, in collaboration with and in support of NOAA, implemented operational systems that we now know as the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) series and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series that provided dependable, continuous, dedicated satellite observations for use by the weather and atmospheric science communities. Through the 1970's, 1980's, and 1990's improved, well-calibrated instruments with more spectral bands extending into the thermal and the microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum were provided to obtain accurate soundings of the atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry constituents such as ozone, global sea surface temperature, snow and ice extent, vegetation dynamics, etc. In the 1990's and up to the present the NASA/Earth Observing System (EOS) has been developed, implemented, and operated over many years to provide a very comprehensive suite of observations of the atmosphere, as well as land and ocean parameters. The future looks bright wherein the development of new systems, broadly described by the National Academy of Science Decadal Study, is now underway. NASA, along with collaborations with NOAA, other agencies, and the

  1. Evaluation of Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations Using Satellite Radiance Observations and Multi-Frequency Satellite Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Masunaga, Hirohiko; Olson, William S.; Lang, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology known as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Triple-Sensor Three-step Evaluation Framework (T3EF) for the systematic evaluation of precipitating cloud types and microphysics in a cloud-resolving model (CRM). T3EF utilizes multi-frequency satellite simulators and novel statistics of multi-frequency radiance and backscattering signals observed from the TRMM satellite. Specifically, T3EF compares CRM and satellite observations in the form of combined probability distributions of precipitation radar (PR) reflectivity, polarization-corrected microwave brightness temperature (Tb), and infrared Tb to evaluate the candidate CRM. T3EF is used to evaluate the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model for cases involving the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) and Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). This evaluation reveals that the GCE properly captures the satellite-measured frequencies of different precipitating cloud types in the SCSMEX case but underestimates the frequencies of deep convective and deep stratiform types in the KWAJEX case. Moreover, the GCE tends to simulate excessively large and abundant frozen condensates in deep convective clouds as inferred from the overestimated GCE-simulated radar reflectivities and microwave Tb depressions. Unveiling the detailed errors in the GCE s performance provides the best direction for model improvements.

  2. Spatial evaluation of volcanic ash forecasts using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, N. J.; Dacre, H. F.

    2015-09-01

    The decision to close airspace in the event of a volcanic eruption is based on hazard maps of predicted ash extent. These are produced using output from volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models. In this paper an objective metric to evaluate the spatial accuracy of VATD simulations relative to satellite retrievals of volcanic ash is presented. The metric is based on the fractions skill score (FSS). This measure of skill provides more information than traditional point-by-point metrics, such as success index and Pearson correlation coefficient, as it takes into the account spatial scale over which skill is being assessed. The FSS determines the scale over which a simulation has skill and can differentiate between a "near miss" and a forecast that is badly misplaced. The idealised scenarios presented show that even simulations with considerable displacement errors have useful skill when evaluated over neighbourhood scales of 200-700 km2. This method could be used to compare forecasts produced by different VATDs or using different model parameters, assess the impact of assimilating satellite retrieved ash data and evaluate VATD forecasts over a long time period.

  3. Spatial evaluation of volcanic ash forecasts using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, N. J.; Dacre, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    The decision to close airspace in the event of a volcanic eruption is based on hazard maps of predicted ash extent. These are produced using output from volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models. In this paper the fractions skill score has been used for the first time to evaluate the spatial accuracy of VATD simulations relative to satellite retrievals of volcanic ash. This objective measure of skill provides more information than traditional point-by-point metrics, such as success index and Pearson correlation coefficient, as it takes into the account spatial scale over which skill is being assessed. The FSS determines the scale over which a simulation has skill and can differentiate between a "near miss" and a forecast that is badly misplaced. The idealized scenarios presented show that even simulations with considerable displacement errors have useful skill when evaluated over neighbourhood scales of 200-700 (km)2. This method could be used to compare forecasts produced by different VATDs or using different model parameters, assess the impact of assimilating satellite-retrieved ash data and evaluate VATD forecasts over a long time period.

  4. Tracking Cholera in Coastal Regions using Satellite Observations

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S; Islam, Shafiqul

    2010-01-01

    Cholera remains a significant health threat across the globe. The pattern and magnitude of the seven global pandemics suggest that cholera outbreaks primarily originate in coastal regions and then spread inland through secondary means. Cholera bacteria show strong association with plankton abundance in coastal ecosystems. This review study investigates relationship(s) between cholera incidence and coastal processes and explores utility of using remote sensing data to track coastal plankton blooms, using chlorophyll as a surrogate variable for plankton abundance, and subsequent cholera outbreaks. Most studies over the last several decades have primarily focused on the microbiological and epidemiological understanding of cholera outbreaks. Accurate identification and mechanistic understanding of large scale climatic, geophysical and oceanic processes governing cholera-chlorophyll relationship is important for developing cholera prediction models. Development of a holistic understanding of these processes requires long and reliable chlorophyll dataset(s), which are beginning to be available through satellites. We have presented a schematic pathway and a modeling framework that relate cholera with various hydroclimatic and oceanic variables for understanding disease dynamics using latest advances in remote sensing. Satellite data, with its unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage, have potentials to monitor coastal processes and track cholera outbreaks in endemic regions. PMID:21072249

  5. Tracking Cholera in Coastal Regions using Satellite Observations.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S; Islam, Shafiqul

    2010-08-01

    Cholera remains a significant health threat across the globe. The pattern and magnitude of the seven global pandemics suggest that cholera outbreaks primarily originate in coastal regions and then spread inland through secondary means. Cholera bacteria show strong association with plankton abundance in coastal ecosystems. This review study investigates relationship(s) between cholera incidence and coastal processes and explores utility of using remote sensing data to track coastal plankton blooms, using chlorophyll as a surrogate variable for plankton abundance, and subsequent cholera outbreaks. Most studies over the last several decades have primarily focused on the microbiological and epidemiological understanding of cholera outbreaks. Accurate identification and mechanistic understanding of large scale climatic, geophysical and oceanic processes governing cholera-chlorophyll relationship is important for developing cholera prediction models. Development of a holistic understanding of these processes requires long and reliable chlorophyll dataset(s), which are beginning to be available through satellites. We have presented a schematic pathway and a modeling framework that relate cholera with various hydroclimatic and oceanic variables for understanding disease dynamics using latest advances in remote sensing. Satellite data, with its unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage, have potentials to monitor coastal processes and track cholera outbreaks in endemic regions.

  6. An EOF Iteration Approach for Obtaining Homogeneous Radiative Fluxes from Satellites Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Banglin; Pinker, Rachel T.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional observations of climate parameters are sparse in space and/or in time and the representativeness of such information needs to be optimized. Observations from satellites provide improved spatial coverage than point observations however they pose new challenges for obtaining homogeneous coverage. Surface radiative fluxes, the forcing functions of the hydrologic cycle and biogeophysical processes, are now becoming available from global scale satellite observations. They are derived from independent satellite platforms and sensors that differ in temporal and spatial resolution and in the size of the footprint from which information is derived. Data gaps, degraded spatial resolution near boundaries of geostationary satellites, and different viewing geometries in areas of satellite overlap, could result in biased estimates of radiative fluxes. In this study, discussed will be issues related to the sources of inhomogeneity in surface radiative fluxes as derived from satellites; development of an approach to obtain homogeneous data sets; and application of the methodology to the widely used International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data that currently serve as a source of information for deriving estimates of surface and top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes. Introduced is an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) iteration scheme for homogenizing the fluxes. The scheme is evaluated in several ways including comparison of the inferred radiative fluxes against ground observations, both before and after the EOF approach is applied. On the average, the latter reduces the rms error by about 2-3 W/m2.

  7. Fuel models and fire potential from satellite and surface observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgan, R.E.; Klaver, R.W.; Klarer, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A national 1-km resolution fire danger fuel model map was derived through use of previously mapped land cover classes and ecoregions, and extensive ground sample data, then refined through review by fire managers familiar with various portions of the U.S. The fuel model map will be used in the next generation fire danger rating system for the U.S., but it also made possible immediate development of a satellite and ground based fire potential index map. The inputs and algorithm of the fire potential index are presented, along with a case study of the correlation between the fire potential index and fire occurrence in California and Nevada. Application of the fire potential index in the Mediterranean ecosystems of Spain, Chile, and Mexico will be tested.

  8. Satellite-Observed Algae Blooms in China's Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei

    2008-05-01

    During the spring of 2007, a massive blue-green algae (Microcystis) bloom broke out in Lake Taihu, one of the largest inland lakes in China. This freshwater lake is located in the Yangtze River delta (Figure 1), one of the world's most urbanized and heavily populated areas. The massive bloom event became an environmental crisis that prompted officials to cut tap water supply to several million residents in nearby Wuxi city in China's Jiangsu province. The outbreak, which the Chinese government identified as a major natural disaster, forced unprepared residents to rush to buy bottled water for their normal usage. This article presents results from an analysis of that event that demonstrate an application of satellite-derived imagery for inland lake water quality monitoring, assessment, and management.

  9. Genesis of tropical cyclone Nargis revealed by multiple satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kazuyoshi; Wang, Bin; Fudeyasu, Hironori

    2009-03-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) Nargis recently battered Myanmar on May 2 2008 is one of the most deadly tropical storms in history. Nargis was initiated by an abnormally strong intraseasonal westerly event associated with Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) in the eastern Indian Ocean. An incipient cyclonic disturbance emerged as an emanation of Rossby wave-induced vortex when the intraseasonal convective anomaly reached the Maritime Continent. The northeastward movement of MJO convection facilitated further development of the disturbance. The incipient disturbance became a tropical disturbance (TD) with a central warm-core structure on April 26. The further development from the TD to TC formation on April 28 is characterized by two distinctive stages: a radial contraction followed by a rapid intensification. The processes responsible for contraction and rapid intensification are discussed by diagnosis of multiple satellite data. This proposed new scenario is instrumental for understanding how a major TC develops in the northern Indian Ocean.

  10. Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.

  11. Satellite Altimeter Observations of Black Sea Level Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotaev, G. K.; Saenko, O. A.; Koblinsky, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite altimeter data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-1 are used to examine seasonal and mesoscale variability of the Black Sea level. Consistent processing procedures of the altimeter measurements make it possible to determine the dynamical Black Sea level with an rms accuracy about 3 cm. It is shown that the Black Sea circulation intensifies in the winter-spring seasons and attenuates in summer-autumn. The seasonal variability of sea level is accompanied by a radiation of Rossby waves from the eastern coast of the basin. Mesoscale oscillations of the dynamical sea level are found to vary spatially and temporarily. Usually, strong eddy intensity is associated with instabilities of the Rim Current. Away from this circulation feature, in the deep basin, mesoscale variability is much smaller. Mesoscale variability has a strong seasonal signal, which is out of phase with the strength of the Rim Current.

  12. Monitoring tropical cyclone evolution with NOAA satellite microwave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, C.; Smith, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    NOAA satellite microwave soundings, which penetrate high clouds, delineate the development and dissipation of the upper tropospheric warm core associated with a tropical cyclone. The storm's 'core" may be detected from microwave imagery. Vertical cross sections reveal the intensification of the upper tropospheric warm core as the storm develops, and the downward propagation of the warm core as the storm dissipates. Excellent correlation is found between the horizontal Laplacian of an upper tropospheric temperature field and the intensity of the storm, as categorized by its surface central pressure and maximum sustained wind speed at the eye wall. The microwave monitoring of tropical cyclones is achieved in real time at the University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center through high-speed teleconnections to direct readout receiving systems at Wallops Island, Virginia and Redwood City, California.

  13. Application of high resolution satellite observations to monitor urban ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhova, I. N.

    2011-02-01

    Topographic identification and mapping were carried out for different key plots in Moscow according to satellite images using geoinformation technologies; a complex ecological map was constructed for the key plots. The main advantage of this project is using the remote information for obtaining quick-look data on the ecosystem's state. The following ecological parameters were determined during the mapping: the percentage of forest area, the canopy's density, and the sites of forest uprooting in forests-parks; the recreational load on the soil cover in the forests, valleys of small rivers, and public gardens; the areas of disturbances of the herbaceous cover and soil overcompaction in lawns; the vertical and lateral structure of line plantings in community landscapes; and the disturbances in the land use in the territory of water-control areas of small rivers.

  14. Characterization of Spectral Absorption Properties of Aerosols Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ahn, C.

    2012-01-01

    The wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) is generally represented in terms of the Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE), a parameter that describes the dependence of AAOD with wavelength. The AAE parameter is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses high spectral resolution measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds as indicated by the UV Aerosol Index. For those conditions, the satellite measured reflectance (rho lambda) is approximately given by Beer's law rho lambda = rho (sub 0 lambda) e (exp -mtau (sub abs lambda)) where rho(sub 0 lambda) is the cloud reflectance, m is the geometric slant path and tau (sub abs lambda) is the spectral AAOD. The rho (sub 0 lambda) term is determined by means of radiative transfer calculations using as input the cloud optical depth derived as described in Torres et al. [JAS, 2012] that accounts for the effects of aerosol absorption. In the second step, corrections for molecular and aerosol scattering effects are applied to the cloud reflectance term, and the spectral AAOD is then derived by inverting the equation above. The proposed technique will be discussed in detail and application results will be presented. The technique can be easily applied to hyper-spectral satellite measurements that include UV such as OMI, GOME and SCIAMACHY, or to multi-spectral visible measurements by other sensors provided that the aerosol-above-cloud events are easily identified.

  15. Satellite Microwave Radar Observations of Antarctic Sea Ice. Chapter 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    Historical data on Antarctic sea ice extent and concentration have traditionally been derived from visible and near-infrared images acquired by the polar-orbiting National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency's (NOAA) meteorological satellites, using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and more recently by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (OLS). The limitation of these systems is that the majority of energy imparted to the Antarctic sea-ice system is transferred during b6y fast-moving low pressure systems. Since the Southern Ocean sea-ice cover is completely bounded at its lower latitude limit by open ocean, these "polar lows" transport large amounts of moisture (contained in warm air masses) over the outer ice cover. The result is that most, if not all, noteworthy periods of wind- and temperature-driven dynamic changes in the ice cover are accompanied by periods where the region is blanketed by cloud, and when the atmosphere is inherently more electromagnetically opaque. During storms, the probability with which the area is cloud covered is extremely high, thereby ruling out use of visible or near-infrared images as a practical method of monitoring the associated changes in ice conditions. Instead, Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and DMSP Special Sensor Microwave/imager (SSM/I) have been the primary workhorses to build up a microwave record of Antarctic sea-ice characteristics. Similar problems, however, occur in passive microwave retrievals of sea-ice concentration, and the algorithms are called into question during these periods of change. The influence of water vapor in the atmosphere alone can modify the ice concentration retrievals by fractions exceeding 105, and that retrievals of ice concentration must compensate for the atmospheric water vapor and liquid water contents.

  16. Astrometry of the main satellites of Uranus: 18 years of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, J. I. B.; Magalhães, F. P.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Assafin, M.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Gomes-Júnior, A. R.; Andrei, A. H.; da Silva Neto, D. N.

    2015-10-01

    Context. We contribute to developing dynamical models of the motions of Uranus' main satellites. Aims: We determine accurate positions of the main satellites of Uranus: Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon. Positions of Uranus, as derived from those of these satellites, are also determined. The observational period spans from 1992 to 2011. All runs were made at the Pico dos Dias Observatory, Brazil. Methods: We used the software called Platform for Reduction of Astronomical Images Automatically (PRAIA) to perform a digital coronography to minimise the influence of the scattered light of Uranus on the astrometric measurements and to determine accurate positions of the main satellites. The positions of Uranus were then indirectly determined by computing the mean differences between the observed and ephemeris positions of these satellites. A series of numerical filters was applied to filter out spurious data. These filters are mostly based on (a) the comparison between the positions of Oberon with those of the other satellites and on (b) the offsets as given by the differences between the observed and ephemeris positions of all satellites. Results: We have, for the overall offsets of the five satellites, -29 mas (±63 mas) in right ascension and -27 mas (±46 mas) in declination. For the overall difference between the offsets of Oberon and those of the other satellites, we have +3 mas (±30 mas) in right ascension and -2 mas (±28 mas) in declination. Ephemeris positions for the satellites were determined from DE432+ura111. Comparisons using other modern ephemerides for the solar system - INPOP13c - and for the motion of the satellites - NOE-7-2013 - were also made. They confirm that the largest contribution to the offsets we find comes from the motion of the barycenter of the Uranus system around the barycenter of the solar system, as given by the planetary ephemerides. For the period from 1992 to 2011, our final catalogues contain 584 observed positions of

  17. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.; Glavich, T.; Rider, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an imaging infrared Fourier transform spectrometer scheduled to be launched into polar sun-synchronous orbit on the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM satellite in December 2002.

  18. Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaing, Soe; Harmel, Tristan; Ibrahim, Amir; Ioannou, Ioannis; Tonizzo, Alberto; Gilerson, Alexander; Ahmed, Samir

    2010-10-01

    The Long Island Sound Coastal Observational platform (LISCO) near Northport, New York, has been recently established to support satellite data validation. LISCO is equipped with both multispectral SeaPRISM and hyperspectral HyperSAS radiometers for ocean color measurements. LISCO substantially expands observational capabilities for the continuous monitoring and assessment of ocean color satellite data quality. This offers the potential for improving the calibration and validation activities of current and future Ocean Color satellite missions, as well as for satellite intercomparisons and spectral characterization of coastal waters. Results of measurements made by both the multi and hyperspectral instruments, in operation since October 2009, are presented, evaluated and compared with ocean color satellite data. The comparisons with the normalized water-leaving radiance derived from SeaPRISM with that from MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS showed satisfactory correlations (r > 0.9 at 550nm) and consistencies (APD < 15% at 550nm). Similar and equivalent results are obtained when the hyperspectral HYPERSAS data are compared with the same satellite datasets. The results confirm that the LISCO site is appropriate for use in calibration/validation of the ocean color satellites in coastal waters and as a key element of the AERONET-OC network. This makes it possible to foresee a wider use of the LISCO site to monitor current and future ocean color multispectral (NPOESS, Sentinel) and hyperspectral (HICO) satellite missions.

  19. Equatorial long waves in geostationary satellite observations and in a multichannel sea surface temperature analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legeckis, R.; Pichel, W.; Nesterczuk, G.

    1983-01-01

    Geostationary satellite observations of a zonally oriented sea surface temperature front in the eastern equatorial Pacific were made between 1975 and 1981. Long waves appeared along the front mainly during the summer and fall, except during 1976, the year of an El Nino. The waves have averaged periods of 25 days and wavelengths of 1000 km. At the end of 1981, the long waves also were detected in a new sea surface temperature analysis based on multichannel infrared measurements from a polar-orbiting satellite. This quantitative analysis may improve the ability to resolve low-frequency equatorial wave motions from satellite observations.

  20. Satellite Observations of the Mt. St. Helens Eruption of 18 May 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-21

    and doubtless corresponded to the establishment of the Plinian column which dominated the later eruption period. Although the motion of overlying ash...AO-A1GS 784 AEROSPACE CORP EL SEGUNDO CA SPACE SCIENCES LAB F/B 8/7 SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS OF THE MT. ST. HELENS ERUPTION OF SB MAT--ETCIU)AUG 81 C J... Eruption of Mt. St. Helens Mt. St. Helens Satellite Observations Eruption Chronology Volcanic Eruptions 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If

  1. Comparison of Satellite Observations of Nitrogen Dioxide to Surface Monitor Nitrogen Dioxide Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Pippin, Margaret R.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Neil, Doreen O.; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Szykman, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is one of the U. S. EPA s criteria pollutants, and one of the main ingredients needed for the production of ground-level ozone. Both ozone and nitrogen dioxide cause severe public health problems. Existing satellites have begun to produce observational data sets for nitrogen dioxide. Under NASAs Earth Science Applications Program, we examined the relationship between satellite observations and surface monitor observations of this air pollutant to examine if the satellite data can be used to facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network. This report provides a comparison of satellite tropospheric column nitrogen dioxide to surface monitor nitrogen dioxide concentration for the period from September 1996 through August 1997 at more than 300 individual locations in the continental US. We found that the spatial resolution and observation time of the satellite did not capture the variability of this pollutant as measured at ground level. The tools and processes developed to conduct this study will be applied to the analysis of advanced satellite observations. One advanced instrument has significantly better spatial resolution than the measurements studied here and operates with an afternoon overpass time, providing a more representative distribution for once-per-day sampling of this photochemically active atmospheric constituent.

  2. Tuna aggregation and feeding near fronts observed in satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Bernard, Hannah J.

    1987-08-01

    Stomach contents of albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) and skipjack ( Katsuwonus pelamis) caught off California in August 1983 showed they were feeding on juvenile northern anchovy ( Engraulis mordax), other fishes, and planktonic crustaceans. The distribution and diet of these predators were related to mesoscale frontal features visible in satellite sea surface temperature and phytoplankton pigment imagery. Albacore were caught in the vicinity of a filament of cold, pigment-rich surface water that varied with the intensity of coastal upwelling on time scales of several days. Stomachs of albacore caught closer to the filament contained relatively more juvenile anchovy and fewer pelagic red crabs ( Pleuroncodes planipes). Skipjack were caught in warm water in the Southern California Bight, north of their normal range due to El Nin˜o warming. They appeared to be feeding most successfully near the strong frontal boundary of a productive, cold water mass south of Pt. Conception, where dense patches of euphausiids were available. Both species were feeding near variable, mesoscale centers of high productivity where prey abundance may be enhanced.

  3. Spatiotemporal variability of methane over the Amazon from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere over the Amazon is studied using data from the space-borne measurements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on board NASA's AQUA satellite for the period 2003-12. The results show a pronounced variability of this gas over the Amazon Basin lowlands region, where wetland areas occur. CH4 has a well-defined seasonal behavior, with a progressive increase of its concentration during the dry season, followed by a decrease during the wet season. Concerning this variability, the present study indicates the important role of ENSO in modulating the variability of CH4 emissions over the northern Amazon, where this association seems to be mostly linked to changes in flooded areas in response to ENSO-related precipitation changes. In this region, a CH4 decrease (increase) is due to the El Niño-related (La Niña-related) dryness (wetness). On the other hand, an increase (decrease) in the biomass burning over the southeastern Amazon during very dry (wet) years explains the increase (decrease) in CH4 emissions in this region. The present analysis identifies the two main areas of the Amazon, its northern and southeastern sectors, with remarkable interannual variations of CH4. This result might be useful for future monitoring of the variations in the concentration of CH4, the second-most important greenhouse gas, in this area.

  4. SORCE and Future Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Rottman, G.; Woods, T.; Lawrence, G.; Kopp, G.; Harder, J.; McClintock, W.

    2003-01-01

    With solar activity just passing the maximum of cycle 23, SORCE is beginning a 5 year mission to measure total solar irradiance (TSI) with unprecedented accuracy using phase-sensitive detection, and to measure spectral solar irradiance (SSI) with unprecedented spectral coverage, from 1 to 2000 nm. The new Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) has 4 active cavity radiometers, any one of which can be used as a fixed-temperature reference against any other that is exposed to the Sun via a shutter that cycles at a rate designed to minimize noise at the shutter frequency. The new Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) is a dual Fery prism spectrometer that can employ either prism as a monochromatic source on the other prism, thus monitoring its transmission during the mission lifetime. Either prism can measure SSI from 200 to 2000 nm, employing the same phase-sensitive electrical substitution strategy as TIM. SORCE also carries dual SOLSTICE instruments to cover the spectral range 100-320 nm, similar to the instruments onboard UARS, and also an XUV Photometer System (XPS) similar to that on TIMED. SSI has now been added to TSI as a requirement of EOS and NPOESS, because different spectral components drive different components of the climate system - UV into upper atmosphere and stratospheric ozone, IR into tropospheric water vapor and clouds, and Visible into the oceans and biosphere. Succeeding satellite missions being planned for 2006 and 2011 will continue to monitor these critical solar variables.

  5. Satellite Observations of Atmospheric SO2 from Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhar, M. F.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    Volcanoes are an important source of various atmospheric trace gases. Volcanic eruptions and their emissions are sporadic and intermittent and often occur in uninhabited regions. Therefore assessing the amount and size of the gaseous and particulate emission from volcanoes is difficult. Satellite remote sensing measurements provide one well suited opportunity to overcome this difficulty. Onboard ERS-2, GOME's moderate spectral resolution enables us to apply the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm to retrieve SO2 column densities from radiance/irradiance measurements in UV spectral region. Volcanic emissions can cause significant variations of climate on a variety of time scales; just one very large eruption can cause a measurable change in the Earth's climate with a time scale of a few years. Stratospheric aerosols produced by volcanic eruptions can influence stratospheric chemistry both through chemical reactions that take place on the surface of the aerosols and through temperature changes induced by their presence in the stratosphere. In this work we give a comprehensive overview on several volcanoes and the retrieval of SO2 column densities from GOME data for the years 1996 - 2002. The focus is on both eruption and out gassing scenarios from different volcanic eruptions in Italy, Iceland, Congo/ Zaire, Ecuador and Mexico.

  6. Inferring Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Exponent using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Jethva, H. T.; Ahn, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE) is a parameter commonly used to characterize the wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD). It is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellite-based method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses multi-spectral measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols are present above clouds. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud top is attenuated by the absorption effects of the overlying aerosol layer. This attenuation effect can be described using an approximations of Beer's Law. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud-top in an aerosol-free atmospheric column is mainly a function of cloud optical depth (COD). In the proposed method of AAE derivation, the first step is determining COD which is retrieved using a previously developed color-ratio based approach. In the second step, the spectral AAOD is derived by an inversion of the measured spectral reflectance. The proposed technique will be discussed and application results making use of OMI multi-spectral measurements in the UV-Vis. will be presented.

  7. Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Romanov, P.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important element to measure the state of the terrestrial ecosystems and to study the surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected the global monthly LST measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS LST time series have ~11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and ~9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend and variability. In this study, monthly climatology from two satellite platforms are calculated and compared. The spatial patterns of LST trends are accessed, focusing on the Asian Monsoon region. Furthermore, the MODIS LST trends are compared with the skin temperature trend from the NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (MODERN ERA RETROSPECTIVE-ANALYSIS FOR RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS), which has longer data record since 1979. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS LST will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy access and use by scientists and general public.

  8. Propagation features of chorus-like emissions and their satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chum, J.; Jiricek, F.; Smilauer, J.; Shklyar, D.

    2003-04-01

    After a brief introduction to chorus-like emission, we present an overview of MAGION 5 satellite observations of these emissions in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. From the extensive VLF data recorded onboard the MAGION 5 satellite, we show examples of different types of discrete elements, representing rising and falling tones, and discuss their spectral properties such as the bandwidth and the characteristic frequency as compared to the equatorial electron gyrofrequency. Next we focus on the analysis of a possibility of satellite observation of discrete elements assuming nonducted wave propagation from the source. As for the characteristic dimension of the generation region, we apply the figures obtained from the correlation analysis of chorus emission recorded by four satellites in CLUSTER experiment. We conclude that different frequencies in the chorus element should be emitted in a certain span of wave normal angles, so that the whole element could be observed far from the generation region.

  9. Observing Planetary Rings and Small Satellites with the James Webb Space Telescope: Science Justification and Observation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Showalter, Mark R.; French, Richard G.; Burns, Joseph A.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; de Pater, Imke; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Tamayo, Daniel; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide unprecedented opportunities to observe the rings and small satellites in our Solar System, accomplishing three primary objectives: (1) discovering new rings and moons, (2) unprecedented spectroscopy, and (3) time-domain observations. We give details on these science objectives and describe requirements that JWST must fulfill in order to accomplish the science objectives.

  10. Observing Planetary Rings and Small Satellites with the James Webb Space Telescope: Science Justification and Observation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Showalter, Mark R.; French, Richard G.; Burns, Joseph A.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; de Pater, Imke; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Tamayo, Daniel; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide unprecedented opportunities to observe the rings and small satellites in our Solar System, accomplishing three primary objectives: (1) discovering new rings and moons, (2) unprecedented spectroscopy, and (3) time-domain observations. We give details on these science objectives and describe requirements that JWST must fulfill in order to accomplish the science objectives.

  11. New Directions: Emerging Satellite Observations of Above-cloud Aerosols and Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar and passive sensors with multi-wavelength and polarization capabilities onboard the A-Train provide unprecedented opportunities of observing above-cloud aerosols and direct radiative forcing. Significant progress has been made in recent years in exploring these new aerosol remote sensing capabilities and generating unique datasets. The emerging observations will advance the understanding of aerosol climate forcing.

  12. SatelliteDL - An IDL Toolkit for the Analysis of Satellite Earth Observations - GOES, MODIS, VIIRS and CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillmore, D. W.; Galloy, M. D.; Kindig, D.

    2013-12-01

    SatelliteDL is an IDL toolkit for the analysis of satellite Earth observations from a diverse set of platforms and sensors. The design features an abstraction layer that allows for easy inclusion of new datasets in a modular way. The core function of the toolkit is the spatial and temporal alignment of satellite swath and geostationary data. IDL has a powerful suite of statistical and visualization tools that can be used in conjunction with SatelliteDL. Our overarching objective is to create utilities that automate the mundane aspects of satellite data analysis, are extensible and maintainable, and do not place limitations on the analysis itself. Toward this end we have constructed SatelliteDL to include (1) HTML and LaTeX API document generation, (2) a unit test framework, (3) automatic message and error logs, (4) HTML and LaTeX plot and table generation, and (5) several real world examples with bundled datasets available for download. For ease of use, datasets, variables and optional workflows may be specified in a flexible format configuration file. Configuration statements may specify, for example, a region and date range, and the creation of images, plots and statistical summary tables for a long list of variables. SatelliteDL enforces data provenance; all data should be traceable and reproducible. The output NetCDF file metadata holds a complete history of the original datasets and their transformations, and a method exists to reconstruct a configuration file from this information. Release 0.1.0 of SatelliteDL is anticipated for the 2013 Fall AGU conference. It will distribute with ingest methods for GOES, MODIS, VIIRS and CERES radiance data (L1) as well as select 2D atmosphere products (L2) such as aerosol and cloud (MODIS and VIIRS) and radiant flux (CERES). Future releases will provide ingest methods for ocean and land surface products, gridded and time averaged datasets (L3 Daily, Monthly and Yearly), and support for 3D products such as temperature and

  13. Variability of Arctic Sea Ice as Determined from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    1999-01-01

    The compiled, quality-controlled satellite multichannel passive-microwave record of polar sea ice now spans over 18 years, from November 1978 through December 1996, and is revealing considerable information about the Arctic sea ice cover and its variability. The information includes data on ice concentrations (percent areal coverages of ice), ice extents, ice melt, ice velocities, the seasonal cycle of the ice, the interannual variability of the ice, the frequency of ice coverage, and the length of the sea ice season. The data reveal marked regional and interannual variabilities, as well as some statistically significant trends. For the north polar ice cover as a whole, maximum ice extents varied over a range of 14,700,000 - 15,900,000 sq km, while individual regions experienced much greater percent variations, for instance, with the Greenland Sea having a range of 740,000 - 1,110,000 sq km in its yearly maximum ice coverage. In spite of the large variations from year to year and region to region, overall the Arctic ice extents showed a statistically significant, 2.80% / decade negative trend over the 18.2-year period. Ice season lengths, which vary from only a few weeks near the ice margins to the full year in the large region of perennial ice coverage, also experienced interannual variability, along with spatially coherent overall trends. Linear least squares trends show the sea ice season to have lengthened in much of the Bering Sea, Baffin Bay, the Davis Strait, and the Labrador Sea, but to have shortened over a much larger area, including the Sea of Okhotsk, the Greenland Sea, the Barents Sea, and the southeastern Arctic.

  14. Scaling properties of observed and simulated satellite visible radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Howard W.; Qu, Zhipeng; Bélair, Stéphane; Leroyer, Sylvie; Milbrandt, Jason A.; Vaillancourt, Paul A.

    2017-09-01

    Structure functions Sq, which are related to power spectra and used to study turbulence, were computed for GOES-13 visible radiances measured on 16 May 2015 over French Guiana and adjacent Atlantic Ocean. The nested Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model was run for the same time and area. Cloud data generated by GEM over (300 km)2 domains, with one-way nesting ending at horizontal grid-spacing of 0.25 km, were operated on by a 3-D solar radiative transfer model with resulting radiances degraded to GOES-13 resolution ( 1 km) and Sq computed for them, too. For GOES-13 radiances, scaling exponents ζ(2) associated with S2, for separation distances between 5 km and 25 km, were typically >0.6 for deep convective and marine boundary layer clouds and <0.4 for shallow cumuli over land. ζ(2) for GEM agreed well with GOES-13 for deep convective clouds. This suggests that the self-organizing properties of deep convection in GEM exhibit realistic geometric features, a potentially important point given the link between cloud structure and precipitation, with the latter being much more difficult to measure and assess than visible radiances. Regarding radiances for GEM's marine boundary layer clouds, their Sq differed markedly from GOES-13's; better resembling fair-weather cumulus. Likewise, GEM's shallow cumuli over land appear to have bypassed the "scattered" fair-weather stage and went straight into more organized convection. Thus, it appears that comparing time series of Sq for geostationary satellite data and corresponding modeled radiances has the potential to benefit assessment of cloud system-resolving models.

  15. Variability of Arctic Sea Ice as Determined from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    1999-01-01

    The compiled, quality-controlled satellite multichannel passive-microwave record of polar sea ice now spans over 18 years, from November 1978 through December 1996, and is revealing considerable information about the Arctic sea ice cover and its variability. The information includes data on ice concentrations (percent areal coverages of ice), ice extents, ice melt, ice velocities, the seasonal cycle of the ice, the interannual variability of the ice, the frequency of ice coverage, and the length of the sea ice season. The data reveal marked regional and interannual variabilities, as well as some statistically significant trends. For the north polar ice cover as a whole, maximum ice extents varied over a range of 14,700,000 - 15,900,000 sq km, while individual regions experienced much greater percent variations, for instance, with the Greenland Sea having a range of 740,000 - 1,110,000 sq km in its yearly maximum ice coverage. In spite of the large variations from year to year and region to region, overall the Arctic ice extents showed a statistically significant, 2.80% / decade negative trend over the 18.2-year period. Ice season lengths, which vary from only a few weeks near the ice margins to the full year in the large region of perennial ice coverage, also experienced interannual variability, along with spatially coherent overall trends. Linear least squares trends show the sea ice season to have lengthened in much of the Bering Sea, Baffin Bay, the Davis Strait, and the Labrador Sea, but to have shortened over a much larger area, including the Sea of Okhotsk, the Greenland Sea, the Barents Sea, and the southeastern Arctic.

  16. The results of the 2015 campaign of observation of mutual events of the Jovian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlot, J. E.; Saquet, E.; Emelianov, N.

    2015-10-01

    From September 2014 to June 2015 mutual events of the Galilean satellites occurred around the Jovian equinox occurring on February 6, 2015. The observations of these events provide very accurate information on the relative astrometry of the satellites. Previous campaign of observations have shown the high interest of such observations now performed mainly by amateur astronomers: the Galilean satellites are bright and the magnitude drop during these events is easily observable. The 2014- 2015 campaign is especially favorable because of the maximum of events which will occur during the opposition between the Sun and Jupiter. More, eclipses of Thebe and Amalthea by the Galileans have been observed. Note that the positive declination of Jupiter made the observations easier in the Northern hemisphere where, unfortunately, the meteorological conditions were bad.

  17. Methods for Observing and Quantifying Muscle Satellite Cell Motility and Invasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lund, Dane K; McAnulty, Patrick; Siegel, Ashley L; Cornelison, Ddw

    2017-01-01

    Motility and/or chemotaxis of satellite cells has been suggested or observed in multiple in vitro and in vivo contexts. Satellite cell motility also affects the efficiency of muscle regeneration, particularly in the context of engrafted exogenous cells. Consequently, there is keen interest in determining what cell-autonomous and environmental factors influence satellite cell motility and chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the ability of activated satellite cells to relocate in vivo would suggest that they must be able to invade and transit through the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is supported by studies in which alteration or addition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity enhanced the spread of engrafted satellite cells. However, despite its potential importance, analysis of satellite cell motility or invasion quantitatively even in an in vitro setting can be difficult; one of the most powerful techniques for overcoming these difficulties is timelapse microscopy. Identification and longitudinal evaluation of individual cells over time permits not only quantification of variations in motility due to intrinsic or extrinsic factors, it permits observation and analysis of other (frequently unsuspected) cellular activities as well. We describe here three protocols developed in our group for quantitatively analyzing satellite cell motility over time in two dimensions on purified ECM substrates, in three dimensions on a living myofiber, and in three dimensions through an artificial matrix.

  18. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of High-m ULF Waves Observed by ST-5 Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinweber, H. K.; Chi, P. J.; Le, G.

    2013-12-01

    The ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the inner magnetosphere with small azimuthal scale lengths, high azimuthal wavenumbers (m) have important implications in identifying the condition of wave-particle interactions. These high-m waves are invisible to ground magnetometers due to ionospheric screening, and the estimation of m using multi-satellite observations is often difficult because of the stringent requirements in satellite separation. Le et al. [2011] discovered that the Pc 2-3 waves frequently observed by the ST-5 satellites at low altitudes should be Doppler shifted Pc 5 waves with high m values. Following their first study on the high-m waves observed by ST-5, we further the analysis by estimating the wave frequency in the Earth's frame with satellite measurements and by examining how this frequency varies with L-value. The analysis is aided by the string-of-pearls configuration of the ST-5 satellites. We also compare the wave frequencies inferred from ST-5 observations with field line resonance frequencies detected by ground-based magnetometers located near the footpoints of ST-5 satellites.

  19. Multi-satellite observations of plasmoids - IMP 8 and ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moldwin, Mark B.; Hughes, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of IMP 8 and ISEE 3 magnetotail data during the 1983 Geotail Mission yielded one plasmoid event which was observed by both satellites and two other possible cases. These are the first multisatellite observations of plasoids. These observations provide a unique opportunity to examine how plasmoid characteristics change as plasmoids propagate downtail and they show that plasmoids are very stable structures.

  20. Multi-satellite observations of plasmoids - IMP 8 and ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moldwin, Mark B.; Hughes, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of IMP 8 and ISEE 3 magnetotail data during the 1983 Geotail Mission yielded one plasmoid event which was observed by both satellites and two other possible cases. These are the first multisatellite observations of plasoids. These observations provide a unique opportunity to examine how plasmoid characteristics change as plasmoids propagate downtail and they show that plasmoids are very stable structures.

  1. Magnitude Standardization Procedure for OWL-Net Optical Observations of LEO Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Dong-Goo; Choi, Jin; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Sun-Youp; Park, Maru; Choi, Young-Jun; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Young-Sik; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Kim, Ji-Hye; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    As a governmentally approved domestic entity for Space Situational Awareness, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is developing and operating an optical telescopes system, Optical Wide-field PatroL (OWL) Network. During the test phase of this system, it is necessary to determine the range of brightness of the observable satellites. We have defined standard magnitude for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites to calibrate their luminosity in terms of standard parameters such as distance, phase angle, and angular rate. In this work, we report the optical brightness range of five LEO Satellites using OWL-Net.

  2. Multiple Satellite Observations of High-Latitude Ionospheric Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Zeng, W.; Stevenson, B. A.; Wu, X.-Y.; Germany, G. A.; Craven, Paul D.; Rich, F. J.; Moore, T. E.

    2000-01-01

    We will present reported observations of up- and down-flows of topside ionospheric thermal plasmas from multiple near-simultaneous tracks through the high-latitude topside ionosphere. From several Southern polar passes, it has been possible to construct plots of field-aligned flows of O+ observed by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment(TIDE) on the POLAR spacecraft near 5000 km altitude together with vertical ion flow observations from one or more DMSP spacecraft near 800 km altitude. We will also involve simulations from our Dynamic Fluid-Kinetic(DyFK) modeling of polar plasma transport and display resulting altitude profiles of ion parallel velocities and densities, and overlay those profiles with the "conjunction" measurements by DMSP(800 km) and POLAR(approx. 5000 km altitude). We also will present simultaneous observations of POLAR auroral UVI images with field-aligned flows.

  3. Investigation of trace gas to aerosol relationships over biomass burning areas using daily satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Thomas; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Zörner, Jan; Beirle, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    The quantification and characterization of aerosols from space is a great challenge. Especially in the presence of clouds and over land surfaces, it is often difficult to distinguish the signals of aerosol scattering from scattering by cloud particles or surface reflection. Instead of deriving aerosol properties directly, satellite observations of tropospheric trace gases, emitted by the same emission sources as the aerosols, can be used to derive additional information on the aerosols. Such observations have two potential advantages: First, from the composition of trace gases, information on the aerosol type can be derived. Second, such observations are possible in the presence of clouds (although usually with reduced sensitivity if the trace gases are located below the cloud). In this feasibility study we investigate the relationship between satellite observations of trace gases (CO, NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO) and AOD (measured from satellite or ground). We also include in our comparison satellite observations of the so called UV aerosol index (UVAI), which is an indicator of the aerosol absorption. Like the trace gas observations, also the UVAI can be retrieved in the presence of clouds. We investigate aerosol-trace gas relationships over biomass burning regions. Depending on their optical properties and altitude distribution such aerosols can have a strong impact on the atmospheric energy budget through direct and indirect effects. We perform correlation analyses for selected AERONET stations and also for larger biomass burning areas by also taking into account satellite observations of fire counts.

  4. Multi-sensor Observations of the SpinSat Satellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-18

    ensemble of eight light - emitting diodes (LEDs) arranged along a meridian (i.e., a line of longitude) which can be turned on for brief periods. The...reflectance pattern much like that of a beach-ball, a distributed sequence of retro-reflectors, as well as a set of eight light - emitting diodes (LEDs...inactive mode, using only passive observations of reflected light and/or thermal emissions. Three SpinSat terminator passes were observed using

  5. An Analysis of Martian Satellite Photographic Observations of 1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-25

    was estimated to be not greater than ±0~10. The main result of the orbital adjustment is a +2° correction to the zero of mean longitude for Phobos ...systematic error in either the theory or the observations. For Phobos , however, the residual error, ±O:󈧗, is twice the expected observational...Wilkins (1964, 1967, 1968) could neither confirm nor reject the secular accelerations in the longitudes of Phobos and Deimos found by Sharpless (1945

  6. Satellite Earth observation data to identify climate and anthropogenic pressures on Bucharest periurban forests

    SciTech Connect

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Dida, Adrian

    2016-03-25

    Satellite Earth observation data in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths represent a useful source of information for forest systems monitoring through derived biogeophysical parameters (vegetation index, leaf area index, canopy cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll content, net primary production, canopy water stress, etc.). Use of satellite remote sensing data to assess forest spatio-temporal changes due to climatic or anthropogenic stressors is an excellent example of the value of multispectral and multitemporal observations. Fusion technique was applied to time-series multispectral and multitemporal satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua, Landsat ETM and IKONOS satellite data) for periurban forest areas Cernica-Branesti, placed in the neighboring of Bucharest town, Romania, over 2002-2014 period.

  7. Retrieval of CFC concentrations from thermal infrared spectrum observed by Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagoya, A.; Imasu, R.; Hayashi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Chemical substances emitted by the anthropological activities cause serious environmental problems. Among them, CFCs have been depleting ozone layer in the stratosphere. Also, it is reported that their radiative forcing is 0.268 W/m2 and they could largely account for global warming. To mitigate these problems, it is important to estimate their distribution and amount globally with good accuracy. Though on site measurements provide considerably precise data, the observation sites are quite limited. In contrast, results retrieved from data obtained by remote sensing may contain more errors, but its wide spatial coverage is great advantage to monitor atmosphere globally and continuously for long term. The purpose of this study is to retrieve concentrations of CFC-11 and CFC-12, and replacements for CFCs from thermal infrared spectrum data obtained by Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT). We use spectrum data taken from its main sensor, Fourier transform spectrometer TANSO-FTS, particularly its band 4 (5.5 - 14.3μm). The sub-sensor called TANSO-CAI is used for cloud screening. To calculate simulated spectrum using a radiative transfer model, LBLRTM, the meteorological reanalysis data including atmospheric information at each point such as surface temperature and atmospheric composition are prepared. As the first step, we focus on CFC-11 and CFC-12 which have strong absorption band near 850 cm-1 and 920 cm-1 respectably. For retrieving the gases, the baselines of the observed and calculated spectrum need to be matched. However, it is not always true due to the uncertainty of information in the reanalysis data. To match baselines, we first set the constant emissivity and estimate the surface temperature. Even after the procedure, spectral residue still remained particularly on the peaks of water vapor absorption lines. We will retrieve more precise surface temperature and the amount of water vapor from observed each spectrum so that we could get better a

  8. The state of the atmosphere as inferred from the FGGE satellite observing systems during SOP-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Kalnay, E.; Baker, W. E.; Atlas, R.

    1981-01-01

    Data assimilation experiments were performed to test the influence of different elements of the satellite observing systems. Results from some of the experiments are presented. These findings show that the FGGE satellite systems are able to infer the three-dimensional motion field and improve the representation of the large-scale state of the atmosphere. Preliminary results of the forecast impact of the FGGE data sets are also presented.

  9. Combined analysis of GNSS and SLR observations for the GIOVE satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, D.; Steinbach, A.; Dach, R.

    2009-04-01

    The GGSP (Galileo Geodetic Service Provider) is responsible to provide the geodetic basement of the future European GNSS, the Galileo system. The AIUB is one partner of the consortium of seven institutions. In the context of this project, the data of 13 GESS (Galileo Experimental Sensor Stations) are processed together with the GPS data of about 120 IGS sites. Apart from the station coordinates also the satellite orbits, ERPs, and clock corrections are computed. Since the 13 GESS do not only provide GPS data but also track the two first Galileo satellites (i.e., GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B), a combined processing of the GPS and Galileo data using microwave data is possible. Due to the sparse network of GESS the GPS data highly support the Galileo related products (the orbits and satellite clock corrections). Nevertheless, the quality of the GIOVE orbits is limited to about 20 cm. As both GIOVE are equipped with retro-reflector arrays, the satellites are tracked by satellite laser ranging (SLR), as it is already done for some GLONASS satellites and those two GPS satellites equipped with retro-reflectors. The availability of SLR data allows a validation of the satellite orbits determined from GNSS observations. The range residuals show whether there is any systematic difference between the GNSS and SLR system and, thus, may help to improve the orbit modeling for the GIOVE satellites. Furthermore, we will include the SLR tracking data into the orbit determination in order to derive a combined GNSS+SLR orbit. It will be studied whether the inclusion of SLR data shows any significant improvement for the combined orbit compared to the GNSS-only orbit. This study can be seen as a further step toward the combined processing of GNSS and SLR observations for a fully integrated multi-technique data analysis.

  10. Screwworm ecology from field observations to satellite imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in its larval stage is a parasite of warm-blooded animals. Screwworm has been successfully eradicated from the United Sates and Central America using the sterile insect technique. Here we present how the field observations o...

  11. A global comparison of Argo and satellite altimetry observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomps, A.-L.; Guinehut, S.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Larnicol, G.

    2010-05-01

    Differences and complementarities between Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) deduced from altimeter measurements and dynamic height anomalies (DHA) calculated from Argo in situ temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles are globally analyzed. Compared to previous studies, Argo data allows a much better spatial coverage of all oceans and particularly the Southern Ocean, the use of salinity measurements and the use of a deeper reference level. The use of time series along the Argo float trajectories also provides a means to describe the vertical structure of the ocean both for the low frequency and the mesoscale part of the circulation. The comparison shows the very good consistency between Argo and altimeter observations. Correlations range from 0.9 in low latitudes to 0.3 in high latitudes where the contributions of deep baroclinic and barotropic signals are the largest. The study underlines the large influence of salinity observations on the consistency between altimetry and hydrographic observations. SLA/DHA consistency is thus improved by 35% (relative to the SLA minus DHA signal) by using measured S profiles instead of climatology data. The use of a deep reference level also significantly improves the correlation at mid and high latitudes. The role of seasonal signals on the correlation and regression analysis between altimeter and Argo observations is also analyzed. As they are mainly associated with the heating/cooling of surface layers, removing these large scale signals significantly reduces the correlation and impacts the geographical structure of the Argo/altimetry regression coefficients. These results emphasize the need to separate the different time and space scales in order to improve the merging of the two data sets. The study of seasonal to interannual SLA minus DHA signals finally reveals interesting signals related to deep ocean circulation variations. Future work is, however, needed to understand the observed differences and relate them to different

  12. Opportunities for Coordinated Observations of CO2 with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2008-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are the first two satellites designed to make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision and sampling needed identify and monitor surface sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Because the operational phases of the OCO and GOSAT missions overlap in time, there are numerous opportunities for comparing and combining the data from these two satellites to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that control the atmospheric CO2 and it variability over time. Opportunities for cross-calibration, cross-validation, and coordinated observations that are currently under consideration are summarized here.

  13. Opportunities for Coordinated Observations of CO2 with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2008-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are the first two satellites designed to make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision and sampling needed identify and monitor surface sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Because the operational phases of the OCO and GOSAT missions overlap in time, there are numerous opportunities for comparing and combining the data from these two satellites to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that control the atmospheric CO2 and it variability over time. Opportunities for cross-calibration, cross-validation, and coordinated observations that are currently under consideration are summarized here.

  14. A Generic Environment for Calibration/Validation Analysis (GECA) of Earth Observation satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kuhlmann, Rolf; Fehr, Thorsten; Meijer, Y. J.; Fehr, T.; Pellegrini, A.; Koopman, R. M.; Busswell, G.; Scott, N.; Williams, I.; de Maziere, M.; Niemeijer, S.; van Deelen, R.; Balzter, H.; Corlett, G.; Tansey, K.; Collard, F.; Dorandeau, J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Piters, A.; Smith, D.

    Assessing the quality of Earth Observation satellite data through Calibration and Validation activities is an essential part of all satellite missions. In the coming decade the availability of EO satellite data will exhibit a significant growth. In addition to the upcoming GMES Sentinel missions, ESA develops a continuous series of Earth Explorer satellites. To facilitate Cal/Val activities ESA has initiated a project to develop a Generic Environment for Calibration and Validation Analysis (GECA), the next generation validation data centre. GECA will offer several functionalities facilitating validation analysis with full traceability, including access to satellite data and collocated in-situ measurements. At the core of GECA is the collocation engine which finds matches of satellite data with validation data fulfilling user defined criteria. It will also be possible to compare satellite and correlative data using `best practice' analysis functions either via internet on the dedicated GECA server or locally at the user. Closely linked to this development, a network of data centres -the Data Center Interoperability Group (DCIO) has been initiated. Currently data centre interoperability has started with the Aura Validation Data Center (AVDC), ENVISAT Validation Data Centre (EVDC), EARLINET, and NDACC. Objectives of the group are to facilitate access to their data thereby increasing its usage.

  15. Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst Observed by IMAGE and Geotail Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Hashimoto, Kozo; Boardsen, Scott A.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Green, James L.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2010-01-01

    We report IMAGE and Geotail simultaneous observations of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) detected on August 19, 2001. The TMRB was confined in time (0830-1006 UT) and frequency (12-50 kHz), suggesting a fan beam-like emission pattern from a single discrete source. Analysis and comparisons with existing TMR radiations strongly suggest that the TMRB is a distinct emission perhaps resulting from dayside magnetic reconnection instigated by northward interplanetary field condition.

  16. A global comparison of Argo and satellite altimetry observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomps, A.-L.; Guinehut, S.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Larnicol, G.

    2011-03-01

    Differences, similarities and complementarities between Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) deduced from altimeter measurements and dynamic height anomalies (DHA) calculated from Argo in situ temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles are globally analyzed. SLA and DHA agree remarkably well and, compared to previous studies, Argo dataset allows an improvement in the coherence between SLA and DHA. Indeed, Argo data provides a much better spatial coverage of all oceans and particularly the Southern Ocean, the use of an Argo mean dynamic height, the use of measured salinity profiles (versus climatological salinity), and the use of a deeper reference level (1000 m versus 700 m). The large influence of Argo salinity observations on the consistency between altimetry and hydrographic observations is particularly demonstrated with an improvement of 35% (relative to the SLA minus DHA signal) by using measured salinity profiles instead of climatological data. The availability of observations along the Argo float trajectories also provides a means to describe the sea level variability of the global ocean both for the low frequency and the mesoscale part of the circulation. Results indicate that sea level variability is dominated by baroclinic signal at seasonal to inter-annual periods for all latitudes. In the tropics, sea level variability is baroclinic for meso-scale to interannual periods and at high latitudes, sea level variability is barotropic with also deep baroclinic signals (i.e. influence of deep temperature and salinity signals) for intra seasonal and mesoscale periods. These results emphasize the need to separate the different time and space scales in order to improve the merging of the two data sets. The qualitative study of seasonal to interannual SLA minus DHA signals finally reveals signals related to deep ocean circulation variations and basin-scale barotropic signals. Future work is, however, needed to understand the observed differences and relate them to different

  17. Satellite Observations of New Volcanic Island in Tonga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Abrams, Michael J.; Hook, Simon J.; Pieri, David C.

    2007-01-01

    A rising volcanic plume from an unknown source was observed on 9-11 August 2006 in the Vava'u Island group in the northernmost islands of Tonga [Matangi News Online, 2006]. On 12 August, the crew on board the yacht Maiken, sailing west from Vava'u to Fiji, encountered 'a vast, many miles wide, belt of densely packed pumice' floating on the water (F. Fransson personal communication, 2006). Later, the crew sailed south and discovered that the source of the pumice was a newly erupting submarine volcano near Home Reef (18.991 deg S, 174.767 deg W).

  18. Radio frequency observations of lightning discharges by the forte satellite.

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Jacobson, A. R.; Light, T.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    FORTE-observed VHF signatures for different lightning discharges are presented. For in-cloud discharges, a pulse pair is typically recorded and is named a 'transionospheric pulse pair' (TIPP). Many intense TIPPs are coherent and polarized, whereas initial and dart leaders do not show a recognizable degree of polarization. TIPPs are optically weaker than cloud-to-ground (CG) strokes, and stronger VHF TIPPs are optically darker. About 10% of CG strokes, mostly over seawater, produce extremely narrow, powerful VHF pulses at the very beginning of the return strokes. These narrow pulses are found to form an upward beam pattern.

  19. Applications of neural network methods to the processing of earth observation satellite data.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Diego G

    2006-03-01

    The new generation of earth observation satellites carries advanced sensors that will gather very precise data for studying the Earth system and global climate. This paper shows that neural network methods can be successfully used for solving forward and inverse remote sensing problems, providing both accurate and fast solutions. Two examples of multi-neural network systems for the determination of cloud properties and for the retrieval of total columns of ozone using satellite data are presented. The developed algorithms based on multi-neural network are currently being used for the operational processing of European atmospheric satellite sensors and will play a key role in related satellite missions planed for the near future.

  20. VLBI observations of GNSS satellites on the baseline Hobart-Ceduna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellerschmied, Andreas; Böhm, Johannes; Kwak, Younghee; McCallum, Jamie; Plank, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Observations of satellites of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with the geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique open a variety of new possibilities and promote the integration of these techniques within the framework of GGOS, the Global Geodetic Observing System of the IAG. Such observations provide possibilities to directly connect the dynamic GNSS and the kinematic VLBI reference frame, which may result in improved future ITRF realizations. In our research we are trying to apply observation strategies, which are commonly used in geodetic VLBI, i.e. the main observables are group delay values derived from direct observations and the subsequent correlations of GNSS satellite signals. However, data acquisition schemes for VLBI satellite observations are still at an experimental stage. Further research is required to establish an operational process chain, similar to that applied for natural radio sources, such as quasars, which are observed generally. In 2015 we successfully carried out several experiments on the Australian baseline Ceduna-Hobart. During these sessions, with a few hours duration each, GNSS satellites (GLONASS and GPS) were observed in the L1 and L2 band along with natural radio sources for calibrations. All experiments were based on schedule files created with the satellite scheduling module in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS). The recorded data were successfully correlated with the DiFX correlator software in combination with a suitable input model for near field targets. A preliminary analysis of the group delay measurements derived with the AIPS software suite was carried out with VieVS. Using this workflow we can achieve a measurement precision of the group delays down to a few picoseconds (5-30, depending on the satellite) over a 5 minutes track. Nevertheless, our results also show a residual signal of a few nanoseconds, which might be caused by the ionosphere or insufficient orbit modelling in the present state of

  1. Real Time Monitoring of Flooding from Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, John F.; Frey, Herb (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new method for making high-resolution flood extent maps (e.g., at the 30-100 m scale of digital elevation models) in real-time from low-resolution (20-70 km) passive microwave observations. The method builds a "flood-potential" database from elevations and historic flood imagery and uses it to create a flood-extent map consistent with the observed open water fraction. Microwave radiometric measurements are useful for flood monitoring because they sense surface water in clear-or-cloudy conditions and can provide more timely data (e.g., compared to radars) from relatively wide swath widths and an increasing number of available platforms (DMSP, ADEOS-II, Terra, NPOESS, GPM). The chief disadvantages for flood mapping are the radiometers' low resolution and the need for local calibration of the relationship between radiances and open-water fraction. We present our method for transforming microwave sensor-scale open water fraction estimates into high-resolution flood extent maps and describe 30-day flood map sequences generated during a retrospective study of the 1993 Great Midwest Flood. We discuss the method's potential improvement through as yet unimplemented algorithm enhancements and expected advancements in microwave radiometry (e.g., improved resolution and atmospheric correction).

  2. Interpreting satellite column observations of formaldehyde over tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Paul I; Barkley, Michael P; Kurosu, Thomas P; Lewis, Alastair C; Saxton, Julie E; Chance, Kelly; Gatti, Luciana V

    2007-07-15

    Space-borne column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), a high-yield oxidation product of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), represent important constraints for quantifying net regional fluxes of VOCs. Here, we interpret observed distributions of HCHO columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) over tropical South America during 1997-2001. We present the first comparison of year-long in situ isoprene concentrations and fire-free GOME HCHO columns over a tropical ecosystem. GOME HCHO columns and in situ isoprene concentrations are elevated in the wet and dry seasons, with the highest values in the dry season. Previous analysis of the in situ data highlighted the possible role of drought in determining the elevated concentrations during the dry season, inferring the potential of HCHO columns to provide regional-scale constraints for estimating the role of drought on isoprene emissions. The agreement between the observed annual cycles of GOME HCHO columns and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer firecount data over the Amazon basin (correlations typically greater than 0.75 for a particular year) illustrates the potential of HCHO column to provide quantitative information about biomass burning emissions.

  3. Precise relative location estimation from satellite laser observations. [Geos 3 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Laser data from the Greenbelt, Bermuda, and Grand Turk Island tec tracking stations, and from observation at Patrick Air Force Base were used in an experiment to determine precise inter-station baselines and relative heights in short orbital arcs of no more than 12 minutes duration. The relative locations obtained are sensitive to reasonable variations in the gravity field to less than 15 cm in inter-station baseline and less than 35 cm in relative height. The formal standard deviations for range measurements at the observed 7 cm noise level are less than 10 cm for either baseline or relative height determinations from the twenty-arc combination solution. The method of data analysis is described, the baseline and relative height results are presented, and gravity model dependence is considered.

  4. Incorporating Satellite Observations of `No Rain' in an Australian Daily Rainfall Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Weymouth, Gary T.

    1999-01-01

    Geostationary satellite observations can be used to distinguish potential rain-bearing clouds from nonraining areas, thereby providing surrogate observations of `no rain' over large areas. The advantages of including such observations are the provision of data in regions void of conventional rain gauges or radars, as well as the improved delineation of raining from nonraining areas in gridded rainfall analyses.This paper describes a threshold algorithm for delineating nonraining areas using the difference between the daily minimum infrared brightness temperature and the climatological minimum surface temperature. Using a fixed difference threshold of 13 K, the accuracy of `no rain' detection (defined as the percentage of no-rain diagnoses that was correct) was 98%. The average spatial coverage was 45%, capturing about half of the observed space-time frequency of no rain over Australia. By delineating cool, moderate, and warm threshold areas, the average spatial coverage was increased to 54% while maintaining the same level of accuracy.The satellite no-rain observations were sampled to a density consistent with the existing gauge network, then added to the real-time gauge observations and analyzed using the Bureau of Meteorology's operational three-pass Barnes objective rainfall analysis scheme. When verified against independent surface rainfall observations, the mean bias in the satellite-augmented analyses was roughly half of bias in the gauge-only analyses. The most noticeable impact of the additional satellite observations was a 66% reduction in the size of the data-void regions.

  5. Battery Performance of ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) and Ground Simulation Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kuwajima, S.; Kusawake, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is developed with the aim of establishment of platform technology for future spacecraft and inter-orbit communication technology for the transmission of earth observation data. ADEOS uses 5 batteries, consists of two packs. This paper describes, using graphs and tables, the ground simulation tests and results that are carried to determine the performance of the ADEOS batteries.

  6. Astrometric observations of the faint satellites of Jupiter during the 1975 - 1976 opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.; Benedict, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    The series of astrometric observations of the satellites of the trans-martian planets re-established at the McDonald Observatory in 1972 is continued. The positions deduced from photographic observations of the jovian system obtained during the 1975-76 opposition are presented together with the discovery positions of four asteroids found on these plates.

  7. Global Terrestrial Evapotranspiration from Optical and Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Li; Zhang, Chaolei; Hu, Guangcheng; Zhou, Jie; Cui, Yaokui; Lu, Jing; Wang, Kun; Liu, Qinhuo; Menenti, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the terrestrial water cycle and links the hydrological, energy, and carbon cycles. Considering the diverse landscapes and multi-climatic features, a hybrid remotely sensed ET estimation model named ETMonitor was developed to estimate the daily actual evapotranspiration globally at a spatial resolution of 1 km. The ETMonitor model uses a variety of biophysical parameters derived from microwave and optical remote sensing observations as input data to estimate the daily ET for all sky conditions. This dataset provides important support to the large-scale evaluation of the environment, and some preliminary applications were conducted for regional- to global-scale mapping and monitoring of water consumption and drought severity.

  8. Surface moisture and satellite microwave observations in semiarid southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Owe, M.; Chang, A.T.C. ); Van de Griend, A.A. )

    1992-03-01

    Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer 6.6-GHz passive microwave data were studied in relation to large-scale soil moisture estimates over a 3-year period in southeastern Bostwana. An extensive data base of weekly surface soil moisture measurements was used with meteorological data to estimate pixel average soil moisture on a daily basis. The influence of the vegetation canopy on the surface emissivity was studied by partitioning the data set into classes on the basis of the normalized difference vegetation index. After correcting for the vegetation optical depth, a correlation of r = 0.84 was established between the normalized brightness temperature observations and surface soil moisture for the 3-year period.

  9. Monitoring water quality from LANDSAT. [satellite observation of Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Water quality monitoring possibilities from LANDSAT were demonstrated both for direct readings of reflectances from the water and indirect monitoring of changes in use of land surrounding Swift Creek Reservoir in a joint project with the Virginia State Water Control Board and NASA. Film products were shown to have insufficient resolution and all work was done by digitally processing computer compatible tapes. Land cover maps of the 18,000 hectare Swift Creek Reservoir watershed, prepared for two dates in 1974, are shown. A significant decrease in the pine cover was observed in a 740 hectare construction site within the watershed. A measure of the accuracy of classification was obtained by comparing the LANDSAT results with visual classification at five sites on a U-2 photograph. Such changes in land cover can alert personnel to watch for potential changes in water quality.

  10. Land surface water cycles observed with satellite sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Njoku, E. G.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Kim, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Acceleration of the global water cycle may lead to increased global precipitation, faster evaporation and a consequent exacerbation of hydrologic extreme. In the U.S. national assessment of the potential consequences of climate variability and change, two GCMs (CGCM1 and HadCM2) show a large increase in precipitation in the future over the southwestern U.S. particularly during winter (Felzer and Heard, 1999). Increased precipitation potentially has important impacts on agricultural and water use in the southeast U.S. (Hatch et al., 1999) and in the central Great Plains (Nielsen, 1997). A hurricane model predicts a 40% precipitation increase for severe hurricanes affecting southeastern Florida, which provokes substantially greater flooding that could negate most of the benefits of present water-management practices in this basin (Gutowski et al., 1994). Thus, it is important to observe the hydroclimate on a continuous longterm basis to address the question of increased precipitation in the enhanced water cycle.

  11. Stereoscopic observations of hurricanes and tornadic thunderstorms from geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, R.; Hasler, A. F.; Rodgers, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented which show the application of GOES stereoscopy to the investigation of hurricanes and tornadic thunderstorms. Stereo cloud top height contour maps were constructed to observe the structural evolution of two hurricanes, Frederic on September 12, 1979 and Allen on August 8, 1980, and a tornadic thunderstorm complex over Oklahoma on May 2-3, 1979. Stereo height contours of Hurricane Allen reveal a very intense and symmetric storm with a circular shaped central dense overcast with an average height of 16.5 km. Contours of Hurricane Frederic reveal a preferred region for convection with an explosive exhaust tower attaining a maximum height of 17.8 km. Also presented is a technique for estimating tropical cyclone intensity using GOES stereo height and IR temperature information. Results indicate vertical motions ranging from 4.4 m/s for a moderate storm to 7.7 m/s for an intense storm.

  12. Ecosystem Changes in the Diminishing Aral Sea Observed by Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, W.; Wang, M.

    2016-02-01

    The diminishing of the Aral Sea is "one of the worst environmental disasters in the world" (from United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon). Total coverage maps since 1981 show constant decline of the Aral Sea. The coverage dropped from 4.7-4.8×104 km2 in 1981 to about ¼ of the value in recent years. Twelve-year MODIS-Aqua observations (2002-2013) are used to quantitatively assess the water property changes in the Aral Sea. We used radiance ratio nLw(555)/nLw(443) as a surrogate to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in the Aral Sea. Both seasonal variability and significant interannual changes were observed when the Aral Sea desiccated between 2002 and 2013. All three regions of the Aral Sea show increased nLw(555)/nLw(443) ratio and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)) during the fall season. Of the three regions, the North Aral Sea has had the least interannual variability, while South-East (SE) Aral Sea experienced drastic changes. Waters in the SE Aral Sea are the most turbid with significantly higher Kd(490) than those in the other two sub-regions. Kd(490) gradually increased from 2 m-1 in 2002 to 3.5 m-1 after 2008 in the SE Aral Sea. In comparison, both radiance ratio nLw(555)/nLw(443) and Kd(490) were relatively stable for the North Aral Sea. In the South-West (SW) Aral Sea, however, nLw(555)/nLw(443) values reached peaks in the fall of 2007 and 2010. A possible link between the Aral Sea water property change and the regional climate variation is also discussed.

  13. Monitoring Western Siberian Wetlands from satellite observations and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, E. A.; Kouraev, A. V.; Kolmakova, M. V.; Bazanov, V. A.; Skugarev, A. A.; Berezin, A. E.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Zemtsov, V. A.; Mognard, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    Western Siberia is a large region with mostly flat relief. Most of its territory comprises the watershed of the Ob' river, and much smaller part in the north - watersheds of Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers. Flat relief significantly affects the hydrographical network, creating a multitude of interconnected natural objects - large and small rivers streams, large floodplains, lakes, bogs etc. The region is also abundant with lakes, mainly small ones with surface area less than 1 km2 and depths of 2-5 m. Flooded areas and bogs also act as a buffer zone, providing a dampening "sponge" effect on the water redistribution within the river system. Large area covered by rivers and wetlands results in high rate of evaporation compared to any other large boreal watershed. Contrasting processes are occurring in the Southern and Northern parts of the Western Siberian Plain. In the south, bogs are expanding in the taiga zone and there is progressive swamping which leads to forest death. These bogs act as a carbon sink due to carbon sequestration in their peat layers. Among the bogs of this part of Western Siberia there is the Great Vasiugan Bog - world's largest peatland with a total area of 6.78 million hectares. Bogs of Vasyugan have appeared about 10 000 years ago and since then are constantly growing. 75% of the actual surface of the Great Vasyugan Bog have appeared during the last 500 years. The situation in the northern part (affected by permafrost) is different. The bogs there are reducing their surface and the forest-tundra regions are being subjected to thermokarst activity and colonisation of bogs by trees. Two contrast processes are observed here - a) increase of lake surface due to melting of lakes' coasts, and b) decrease of surface area or disappearance of lakes due to water drain downstream the hydrological network. We combine in situ observations with satellite remote sensing to monitor hydrological regime of the Western Siberian wetlands. Radar altimetry (TOPEX

  14. Capturing complete spatial context in satellite observations of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Frankenberg, Christian; Kuhnert, Andreas C.; Spiers, Gary D.; Eldering, Annmarie; Rud, Mayer; Pagano, Thomas S.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Brooks, Cynthia; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-09-01

    Scientific consensus from a 2015 pre-Decadal Survey workshop highlighted the essential need for a wide-swath (mapping) low earth orbit (LEO) instrument delivering carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements with global coverage. OCO-2 pioneered space-based CO2 remote sensing, but lacks the CH4, CO and mapping capabilities required for an improved understanding of the global carbon cycle. The Carbon Balance Observatory (CARBO) advances key technologies to enable high-performance, cost-effective solutions for a space-based carbon-climate observing system. CARBO is a compact, modular, 15-30° field of view spectrometer that delivers high-precision CO2, CH4, CO and solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data with weekly global coverage from LEO. CARBO employs innovative immersion grating technologies to achieve diffraction-limited performance with OCO-like spatial (2x2 km2) and spectral (λ/Δλ ≍ 20,000) resolution in a package that is >50% smaller, lighter and more cost-effective. CARBO delivers a 25- to 50-fold increase in spatial coverage compared to OCO-2 with no loss of detection sensitivity. Individual CARBO modules weigh < 20 kg, opening diverse new space-based platform opportunities.

  15. Estimation of gross primary production capacity from global satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Thanyapraneedkul, Juthasinee; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

    2012-10-01

    To estimate gross primary production (GPP), the process of photosynthesis was considered as two separate phases: capacity and reduction. The reduction phase is influenced by environmental conditions such as soil moisture and weather conditions such as vapor pressure differences. For a particular leaf, photosynthetic capacity mainly depends on the amount of chlorophyll and the RuBisCO enzyme. The chlorophyll content can be estimated by the color of the leaf, and leaf color can be detected by optical sensors. We used the chlorophyll content of leaves to estimate the level of GPP. A previously developed framework for GPP capacity estimation employs a chlorophyll index. The index is based on the linear relationship between the chlorophyll content of a leaf and the maximum photosynthesis at PAR =2000 (μmolm -2s-1) on a light-response curve under low stress conditions. As a first step, this study examined the global distribution of the index and found that regions with high chlorophyll index values in winter corresponded to tropical rainforest areas. The seasonal changes in the chlorophyll index differed from those shown by the normalized difference vegetation index. Next, the capacity of GPP was estimated from the light-response curve using the index. Most regions exhibited a higher GPP capacity than that estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, except in areas of tropical rainforest, where the GPP capacity and the MODIS GPP estimates were almost identical.

  16. Multiple Satellite Observations of Cloud Cover in Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Booth, James F.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Using cloud observations from NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, and CloudSat-CALIPSO, composites of cloud fraction in southern and northern hemisphere extratropical cyclones are obtained for cold and warm seasons between 2006 and 2010, to assess differences between these three data sets, and between summer and winter cyclones. In both hemispheres and seasons, over the open ocean, the cyclone-centered cloud fraction composites agree within 5% across the three data sets, but behind the cold fronts, or over sea ice and land, the differences are much larger. To supplement the data set comparison and learn more about the cyclones, we also examine the differences in cloud fraction between cold and warm season for each data set. The difference in cloud fraction between cold and warm season southern hemisphere cyclones is small for all three data sets, but of the same order of magnitude as the differences between the data sets. The cold-warm season contrast in northern hemisphere cyclone cloud fractions is similar for all three data sets: in the warm sector, the cold season cloud fractions are lower close to the low, but larger on the equator edge than their warm season counterparts. This seasonal contrast in cloud fraction within the cyclones warm sector seems to be related to the seasonal differences in moisture flux within the cyclones. Our analysis suggests that the three different data sets can all be used confidently when studying the warm sector and warm frontal zone of extratropical cyclones but caution should be exerted when studying clouds in the cold sector.

  17. Constraining the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes using satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Terai, C. R.; Klein, S. A.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-08-26

    The increase in cloud optical depth with warming at middle and high latitudes is a robust cloud feedback response found across all climate models. This study builds on results that suggest the optical depth response to temperature is timescale invariant for low-level clouds. The timescale invariance allows one to use satellite observations to constrain the models' optical depth feedbacks. Three passive-sensor satellite retrievals are compared against simulations from eight models from the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This study confirms that the low-cloud optical depth response is timescale invariant in the AMIP simulations, generally at latitudes higher than 40°. Compared to satellite estimates, most models overestimate the increase in optical depth with warming at the monthly and interannual timescales. Many models also do not capture the increase in optical depth with estimated inversion strength that is found in all three satellite observations and in previous studies. The discrepancy between models and satellites exists in both hemispheres and in most months of the year. A simple replacement of the models' optical depth sensitivities with the satellites' sensitivities reduces the negative shortwave cloud feedback by at least 50% in the 40°–70°S latitude band and by at least 65% in the 40°–70°N latitude band. Furthermore, based on this analysis of satellite observations, we conclude that the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes is likely too negative in climate models.

  18. Constraining the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes using satellite observations

    DOE PAGES

    Terai, C. R.; Klein, S. A.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-08-26

    The increase in cloud optical depth with warming at middle and high latitudes is a robust cloud feedback response found across all climate models. This study builds on results that suggest the optical depth response to temperature is timescale invariant for low-level clouds. The timescale invariance allows one to use satellite observations to constrain the models' optical depth feedbacks. Three passive-sensor satellite retrievals are compared against simulations from eight models from the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This study confirms that the low-cloud optical depth response is timescale invariant in the AMIPmore » simulations, generally at latitudes higher than 40°. Compared to satellite estimates, most models overestimate the increase in optical depth with warming at the monthly and interannual timescales. Many models also do not capture the increase in optical depth with estimated inversion strength that is found in all three satellite observations and in previous studies. The discrepancy between models and satellites exists in both hemispheres and in most months of the year. A simple replacement of the models' optical depth sensitivities with the satellites' sensitivities reduces the negative shortwave cloud feedback by at least 50% in the 40°–70°S latitude band and by at least 65% in the 40°–70°N latitude band. Furthermore, based on this analysis of satellite observations, we conclude that the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes is likely too negative in climate models.« less

  19. Constraining the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes using satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Terai, C. R.; Klein, S. A.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-08-26

    The increase in cloud optical depth with warming at middle and high latitudes is a robust cloud feedback response found across all climate models. This study builds on results that suggest the optical depth response to temperature is timescale invariant for low-level clouds. The timescale invariance allows one to use satellite observations to constrain the models' optical depth feedbacks. Three passive-sensor satellite retrievals are compared against simulations from eight models from the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This study confirms that the low-cloud optical depth response is timescale invariant in the AMIP simulations, generally at latitudes higher than 40°. Compared to satellite estimates, most models overestimate the increase in optical depth with warming at the monthly and interannual timescales. Many models also do not capture the increase in optical depth with estimated inversion strength that is found in all three satellite observations and in previous studies. The discrepancy between models and satellites exists in both hemispheres and in most months of the year. A simple replacement of the models' optical depth sensitivities with the satellites' sensitivities reduces the negative shortwave cloud feedback by at least 50% in the 40°–70°S latitude band and by at least 65% in the 40°–70°N latitude band. Furthermore, based on this analysis of satellite observations, we conclude that the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes is likely too negative in climate models.

  20. Galilean satellite evolution - Observational evidence for secular changes in mean motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, J. H.

    1987-04-01

    Various theories of the evolution of Jupiter's Galilean satellite system critically depend upon reliable values for secular changes in the mean motion n1 of Io and upon the relative evolution between Io and Europa ν= n1 - 2n2. Previous determinations of n1 by de Sitter and by Goldstein are reviewed and new results based upon an analysis of over 16000 eclipse observations combined with modern photographic data, with mutual event observations and with Voyager optical navigation images are presented. It is found that the secular changes in the mean motions of the satellites are much smaller than those determined from other investigations.

  1. Use of Multiangle Satellite Observations to Retrieve Aerosol Properties and Ocean Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martonchik, John V.; Diner, David; Khan, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    A new technique is described for retrieving aerosol over ocean water and the associated ocean color using multiangle satellite observations. Unlike current satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms which only utilize observations at red wavelengths and longer, with the assumption that these wavelengths have a negligible ocean (water-leaving radiance), this new algorithm uses all available spectral bands and simultaneously retrieves both aerosol properties and the spectral ocean color. We show some results of case studies using MISR data, performed over different water conditions (coastal water, blooms, and open water).

  2. Neural Networks Technique for Filling Gaps in Satellite Measurements: Application to Ocean Color Observations

    PubMed Central

    Nadiga, Sudhir; Mehra, Avichal; Bayler, Eric; Behringer, David

    2016-01-01

    A neural network (NN) technique to fill gaps in satellite data is introduced, linking satellite-derived fields of interest with other satellites and in situ physical observations. Satellite-derived “ocean color” (OC) data are used in this study because OC variability is primarily driven by biological processes related and correlated in complex, nonlinear relationships with the physical processes of the upper ocean. Specifically, ocean color chlorophyll-a fields from NOAA's operational Visible Imaging Infrared Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used, as well as NOAA and NASA ocean surface and upper-ocean observations employed—signatures of upper-ocean dynamics. An NN transfer function is trained, using global data for two years (2012 and 2013), and tested on independent data for 2014. To reduce the impact of noise in the data and to calculate a stable NN Jacobian for sensitivity studies, an ensemble of NNs with different weights is constructed and compared with a single NN. The impact of the NN training period on the NN's generalization ability is evaluated. The NN technique provides an accurate and computationally cheap method for filling in gaps in satellite ocean color observation fields and time series. PMID:26819586

  3. Using Satellite Observations to Infer the Relationship Between Cold Pools and Subsequent Convection Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsaesser, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Cold pools are increasingly being recognized as important players in the evolution of both shallow and deep convection; hence, the incorporation of cold pool processes into a number of recently developed convective parameterizations. Unfortunately, observations serving to inform cold pool parameterization development are limited to select field programs and limited radar domains. However, a number of recent studies have noted that cold pools are often associated with arcs-lines of shallow clouds traversing 10 100 km in visible satellite imagery. Boundary layer thermodynamic perturbations are plausible at such scales, coincident with such mesoscale features. Atmospheric signatures of features at these spatial scales are potentially observable from satellites. In this presentation, we discuss recent work that uses multi-sensor, high-resolution satellite products for observing mesoscale wind vector fluctuations and boundary layer temperature depressions attributed to cold pools produced by antecedent convection. The relationship to subsequent convection as well as convective system longevity is discussed. As improvements in satellite technology occur and efforts to reduce noise in high-resolution orbital products progress, satellite pixel level (10 km) thermodynamic and dynamic (e.g. mesoscale convergence) parameters can increasingly serve as useful benchmarks for constraining convective parameterization development, including for regimes where organized convection contributes substantially to the cloud and rainfall climatology.

  4. Neural Networks Technique for Filling Gaps in Satellite Measurements: Application to Ocean Color Observations.

    PubMed

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir; Nadiga, Sudhir; Mehra, Avichal; Bayler, Eric; Behringer, David

    2016-01-01

    A neural network (NN) technique to fill gaps in satellite data is introduced, linking satellite-derived fields of interest with other satellites and in situ physical observations. Satellite-derived "ocean color" (OC) data are used in this study because OC variability is primarily driven by biological processes related and correlated in complex, nonlinear relationships with the physical processes of the upper ocean. Specifically, ocean color chlorophyll-a fields from NOAA's operational Visible Imaging Infrared Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used, as well as NOAA and NASA ocean surface and upper-ocean observations employed--signatures of upper-ocean dynamics. An NN transfer function is trained, using global data for two years (2012 and 2013), and tested on independent data for 2014. To reduce the impact of noise in the data and to calculate a stable NN Jacobian for sensitivity studies, an ensemble of NNs with different weights is constructed and compared with a single NN. The impact of the NN training period on the NN's generalization ability is evaluated. The NN technique provides an accurate and computationally cheap method for filling in gaps in satellite ocean color observation fields and time series.

  5. NASA Now: A-Train: Monitoring the Earth System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The topic for this NASA Now is the Earth system and how NASA uses a constellation of satellites called the A-Train to monitor the Earth system. All five satellites in the A-Train fly over the same ...

  6. Analysis of L5 phase variations in GPS IIF satellites by the raw observation PPP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sha; Becker, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    GPS modernization along with Glonass modernization and the emerging Galileo and Compass system has been highly anticipated by every GNSS user since several years. The third civilian L5 signal transmitted by the modernized GPS satellites brings us to the GNSS multi-frequency era. The first GPS IIF