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Sample records for a-type coriolis interaction

  1. The Coriolis Interaction between the nu(9) and nu(7) Fundamental Bands of Methylene Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Goh; Tan; Ong; Teo

    2000-06-01

    The infrared spectrum of the nu(7) and nu(9) bands of methylene fluoride-d(2) (CD(2)F(2)) has been recorded with an unapodized resolution of 0.0024 cm(-1) in the frequency range of 940-1030 cm(-1) using the Fourier transform technique. A weak b-type Coriolis interaction term was found to couple these two vibrational states with band centers about 42 cm(-1) apart. By fitting a total of 1031 infrared transitions of both nu(7) and nu(9) with a standard deviation of 0.0011 cm(-1) using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the I(r) representation with the inclusion of a b-type Coriolis resonance term, two sets of rovibrational constants for nu(7) = 1 and nu(9) = 1 states up to sextic order were derived. The nu(7) band is C type, while the nu(9) band is A type with band centers at 961.8958 +/- 0.0005 and 1003.7421 +/- 0.0001 cm(-1), respectively. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Vestibular coriolis effect differences modeled with three-dimensional linear-angular interactions.

    PubMed

    Holly, Jan E

    2004-01-01

    The vestibular coriolis (or "cross-coupling") effect is traditionally explained by cross-coupled angular vectors, which, however, do not explain the differences in perceptual disturbance under different acceleration conditions. For example, during head roll tilt in a rotating chair, the magnitude of perceptual disturbance is affected by a number of factors, including acceleration or deceleration of the chair rotation or a zero-g environment. Therefore, it has been suggested that linear-angular interactions play a role. The present research investigated whether these perceptual differences and others involving linear coriolis accelerations could be explained under one common framework: the laws of motion in three dimensions, which include all linear-angular interactions among all six components of motion (three angular and three linear). The results show that the three-dimensional laws of motion predict the differences in perceptual disturbance. No special properties of the vestibular system or nervous system are required. In addition, simulations were performed with angular, linear, and tilt time constants inserted into the model, giving the same predictions. Three-dimensional graphics were used to highlight the manner in which linear-angular interaction causes perceptual disturbance, and a crucial component is the Stretch Factor, which measures the "unexpected" linear component.

  3. Analysis of the Coriolis Interaction between nu(6) and nu(8) Bands of HCOOH.

    PubMed

    Tan; Goh; Ong; Teo

    2000-08-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the nu(6) band of formic acid (HCOOH) has been recorded with a resolution of 0.0024 cm(-1) in the spectral range 1050-1160 cm(-1). The nu(6) band was found to be strongly perturbed by the nearby nu(8) band centered at about 1033.5 cm(-1). Using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the I(r) representation, and with the inclusion of a-type Coriolis coupling constant, a simultaneous fit of nu(6) and nu(8) was performed. A total of 2485 infrared transitions including about 700 perturbed transitions of nu(6) and 19 transitions of nu(8) was fitted with an rms uncertainty of 0.0006 cm(-1). Accurate rovibrational constants up to sextic order for both nu(6) and nu(8) were obtained. The nu(6) band was analyzed to be a type AB hybrid with a band center at 1104.852109 +/- 0.000050 cm(-1). The band center for nu(8) was found to be 1033.4647 +/- 0.0021 cm(-1). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Coriolis Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  5. Coriolis interaction of the ν2 + ν12 band with ν2 + 2ν10 of cis-C2H2D2 by high resolution FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabona, M. G.; Tan, T. L.

    2014-05-01

    The high resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrum of the ν2 + ν12 band of cis-C2H2D2 was recorded in the frequency range of 2515-2960 cm-1 with an unapodized resolution of 0.0063 cm-1. This band was perturbed through c-type Coriolis interaction by the unobserved ν2 + 2ν10 band approximately 19 cm-1 below ν2 + ν12. A total of 751 unperturbed and perturbed infrared transitions of ν2 + ν12 were assigned and fitted using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation with the inclusion of c-type Coriolis terms to give 11 rovibrational constants for the upper state (ν2 = 1, ν12 = 1) with improved accuracy. The ν2 + ν12A-type band is centred at 2898.8975 ± 0.0004 cm-1. From the Coriolis interaction analysis between the ν2 + ν12 and ν2 + 2ν10 bands of cis-C2H2D2, a higher order K-dependent c-type Coriolis coupling constant between the two bands was derived for the first time. Furthermore, rotational constants for the ν2 + 2ν10 band of cis-C2H2D2 centred at 2880.17 ± 0.06 cm-1 were also determined.

  6. Observation of the nu(6) + nu(9) Band of Ketene via Resonant Coriolis Interaction with nu(8).

    PubMed

    Gruebele; Johns; Nemes

    1999-12-01

    We observed and analyzed a b-axis Coriolis resonance between higher J states of the nu(6) + nu(9) combination band and the nu(8) fundamental of ketene in the spectral region 940-970 cm(-1). The interaction resonantly couples K(a) = 1 states of the combination band to K(a) = 0 states of the fundamental and also affects K(a) = 1, 2 states in the fundamental. Due to the involvement of strongly asymmetry-split low K levels, the rotational constants and band origin of nu(6) + nu(9) could be accurately determined and are discussed in the light of high-quality anharmonic force fields. The Coriolis coupling parameter, zeta(b)(8,6+9), is very precisely determined. A smaller perturbation, which could not be fully analyzed, is tentatively attributed to K(a) = 2 upper states in the nu(5) + nu(9) band. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. The role of the Coriolis interaction on vector correlations in molecular predissociation: excitation of isolated rotational lines.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Vladislav V; Shternin, Peter S; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2009-04-07

    We present the full quantum mechanical expressions for the polarization differential cross sections of the photofragments produced in slow predissociation of a parent molecule via isolated rotational branches. Both radial and Coriolis nonadiabatic interactions between the molecular potential energy surfaces have been taken into account. The expressions describe the recoil angle distribution of the photofragments and the distributions of the photofragment angular momentum polarization (orientation and alignment) in terms of the anisotropy parameters of the ranks K=0,1,2. The explicit expressions for the anisotropy parameters are presented and analyzed which contain contributions from different possible photolysis mechanisms including incoherent, or coherent optical excitation of the parent molecule followed by the radial, or Coriolis nonadiabatic transitions to the dissociative states. The obtained expression for the zeroth-rank anisotropy parameter beta is valid for any molecule and for an arbitrary value of the molecular total angular momentum J. The expressions for the orientation (K=1) and alignment (K=2) anisotropy parameters are given in the high-J limit in terms of the generalized dynamical functions which were analyzed for the case of photolysis of linear/diatomic molecules. As shown, the Coriolis nonadiabatic interaction results in several new photolysis mechanisms which can play an important role in the predissociation dynamics.

  8. Coriolis Interactions in the nu2, nu4a, nu4b, and nu3a States of Phosphine-d1

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar; Job

    1997-10-01

    Spectra of the nu4a (HPH bend) and nu4b (HPD bend) bands of the PH2D molecule have been recorded and analyzed. The Coriolis interactions between the two states as well as the various Coriolis interactions of the nu4a and nu4b states with the nu2 state have been included in the analysis. Several new assignments of transitions which occur with enhanced intensity in the nu2 band also have been made. The parameters of the nu4a and nu4b states, improved parameters of the nu2 state, and the interaction parameters have been determined. The data on the nu3a band of PH2D have been reanalyzed by taking into account the b-axis Coriolis interaction of the nu3a state with the 2nu2 state. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  9. Coordinated turn-and-reach movements. I. Anticipatory compensation for self-generated coriolis and interaction torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pigeon, Pascale; Bortolami, Simone B.; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    2003-01-01

    When reaching movements involve simultaneous trunk rotation, additional interaction torques are generated on the arm that are absent when the trunk is stable. To explore whether the CNS compensates for such self-generated interaction torques, we recorded hand trajectories in reaching tasks involving various amplitudes and velocities of arm extension and trunk rotation. Subjects pointed to three targets on a surface slightly above waist level. Two of the target locations were chosen so that a similar arm configuration relative to the trunk would be required for reaching to them, one of these targets requiring substantial trunk rotation, the other very little. Significant trunk rotation was necessary to reach the third target, but the arm's radial distance to the body remained virtually unchanged. Subjects reached at two speeds-a natural pace (slow) and rapidly (fast)-under normal lighting and in total darkness. Trunk angular velocity and finger velocity relative to the trunk were higher in the fast conditions but were not affected by the presence or absence of vision. Peak trunk velocity increased with increasing trunk rotation up to a maximum of 200 degrees /s. In slow movements, peak finger velocity relative to the trunk was smaller when trunk rotation was necessary to reach the targets. In fast movements, peak finger velocity was approximately 1.7 m/s for all targets. Finger trajectories were more curved when reaching movements involved substantial trunk rotation; however, the terminal errors and the maximal deviation of the trajectory from a straight line were comparable in slow and fast movements. This pattern indicates that the larger Coriolis, centripetal, and inertial interaction torques generated during rapid reaches were compensated by additional joint torques. Trajectory characteristics did not vary with the presence or absence of vision, indicating that visual feedback was unnecessary for anticipatory compensations. In all reaches involving trunk

  10. Coordinated turn-and-reach movements. I. Anticipatory compensation for self-generated coriolis and interaction torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pigeon, Pascale; Bortolami, Simone B.; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    2003-01-01

    When reaching movements involve simultaneous trunk rotation, additional interaction torques are generated on the arm that are absent when the trunk is stable. To explore whether the CNS compensates for such self-generated interaction torques, we recorded hand trajectories in reaching tasks involving various amplitudes and velocities of arm extension and trunk rotation. Subjects pointed to three targets on a surface slightly above waist level. Two of the target locations were chosen so that a similar arm configuration relative to the trunk would be required for reaching to them, one of these targets requiring substantial trunk rotation, the other very little. Significant trunk rotation was necessary to reach the third target, but the arm's radial distance to the body remained virtually unchanged. Subjects reached at two speeds-a natural pace (slow) and rapidly (fast)-under normal lighting and in total darkness. Trunk angular velocity and finger velocity relative to the trunk were higher in the fast conditions but were not affected by the presence or absence of vision. Peak trunk velocity increased with increasing trunk rotation up to a maximum of 200 degrees /s. In slow movements, peak finger velocity relative to the trunk was smaller when trunk rotation was necessary to reach the targets. In fast movements, peak finger velocity was approximately 1.7 m/s for all targets. Finger trajectories were more curved when reaching movements involved substantial trunk rotation; however, the terminal errors and the maximal deviation of the trajectory from a straight line were comparable in slow and fast movements. This pattern indicates that the larger Coriolis, centripetal, and inertial interaction torques generated during rapid reaches were compensated by additional joint torques. Trajectory characteristics did not vary with the presence or absence of vision, indicating that visual feedback was unnecessary for anticipatory compensations. In all reaches involving trunk

  11. Coordinated turn-and-reach movements. I. Anticipatory compensation for self-generated coriolis and interaction torques.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Pascale; Bortolami, Simone B; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2003-01-01

    When reaching movements involve simultaneous trunk rotation, additional interaction torques are generated on the arm that are absent when the trunk is stable. To explore whether the CNS compensates for such self-generated interaction torques, we recorded hand trajectories in reaching tasks involving various amplitudes and velocities of arm extension and trunk rotation. Subjects pointed to three targets on a surface slightly above waist level. Two of the target locations were chosen so that a similar arm configuration relative to the trunk would be required for reaching to them, one of these targets requiring substantial trunk rotation, the other very little. Significant trunk rotation was necessary to reach the third target, but the arm's radial distance to the body remained virtually unchanged. Subjects reached at two speeds-a natural pace (slow) and rapidly (fast)-under normal lighting and in total darkness. Trunk angular velocity and finger velocity relative to the trunk were higher in the fast conditions but were not affected by the presence or absence of vision. Peak trunk velocity increased with increasing trunk rotation up to a maximum of 200 degrees /s. In slow movements, peak finger velocity relative to the trunk was smaller when trunk rotation was necessary to reach the targets. In fast movements, peak finger velocity was approximately 1.7 m/s for all targets. Finger trajectories were more curved when reaching movements involved substantial trunk rotation; however, the terminal errors and the maximal deviation of the trajectory from a straight line were comparable in slow and fast movements. This pattern indicates that the larger Coriolis, centripetal, and inertial interaction torques generated during rapid reaches were compensated by additional joint torques. Trajectory characteristics did not vary with the presence or absence of vision, indicating that visual feedback was unnecessary for anticipatory compensations. In all reaches involving trunk

  12. The Coriolis-interacting ν6 and ν4 bands of ethylene-cis-1,2-d2 (cis-C2H2D2) by high-resolution synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Gabona, M. G.; Wong, Andy; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; McNaughton, Don

    2016-11-01

    The infrared spectrum of the ν6 band of ethylene-cis-1,2-d2 (cis-C2H2D2) was recorded at the Australian Synchrotron in the 980-1100 cm-1 region at an unapodized resolution of 0.00096 cm-1. Some of the transitions of the ν6 band centered at 1039.768335(30) cm-1 were perturbed by the upper energy levels of the infrared inactive ν4 band at 980.364(24) cm-1 by an a-type Coriolis interaction. Rovibrational analysis of a total of 941 unperturbed and perturbed infrared transitions of the ν6 band was carried out using an asymmetric rotor fitting program based on the Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation to derive up to 2 sextic constants for the ν6 = 1 state and 3 rotational constants (A, B, and C) for the ν4 = 1 state with a rms deviation of 0.00028 cm-1. From the perturbed analysis, the a-type Coriolis resonance parameter Z6,4a for the ν6 and ν4 interacting bands was determined to be 0.5249(14) cm-1. The band center and the rotational constants of the ν6 = 1 state were found to agree within 1% to the calculated values using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and MP2/cc-pVTZ levels of theory. Furthermore, the a-type Coriolis coupling constant of these two bands derived from this work were compared to those experimentally determined previously and presently calculated.

  13. The Coriolis Interaction between the v2 = 1 and v3 = 2 States of Nitrosyl Bromide: Anomalous Quadrupole Patterns and Interstate Transitions in the Millimeter-Wave Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Esposti; Fuganti; Kisiel; Tamassia

    1998-10-01

    The millimeter-wave rotational spectra of 79BrNO and 81BrNO in the v2 = 1 and v3 = 2 vibrational states have been reinvestigated. Measurements of the rotational spectrum in the region of maximum c-type Coriolis interaction between the two states allowed the previous analysis to be extended to account for some uncommon effects. For the most perturbed transitions the nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure arises from coupling of not only the bromine nucleus, but also the nitrogen nucleus with the rotational angular momentum. These effects were satisfactorily fitted with a Hamiltonian describing Coriolis coupling in a molecule with two quadrupolar nuclei. The successful analysis of pure rotational transitions then allowed accurate prediction of rovibrational transitions, six of which were measured for 79BrNO and four for 81BrNO. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. The parity-adapted basis set in the formulation of the photofragment angular momentum polarization problem: the role of the Coriolis interaction.

    PubMed

    Shternin, Peter S; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2008-05-21

    We present a theoretical framework for calculating the recoil-angle dependence of the photofragment angular momentum polarization taking into account both radial and Coriolis nonadiabatic interactions in the diatomic/linear photodissociating molecules. The parity-adapted representation of the total molecular wave function has been used throughout the paper. The obtained full quantum-mechanical expressions for the photofragment state multipoles have been simplified by using the semiclassical approximation in the high-J limit and then analyzed for the cases of direct photodissociation and slow predissociation in terms of the anisotropy parameters. In both cases, each anisotropy parameter can be presented as a linear combination of the generalized dynamical functions fK(q,q',q,q') of the rank K representing contribution from different dissociation mechanisms including possible radial and Coriolis nonadiabatic transitions, coherent effects, and the rotation of the recoil axis. In the absence of the Coriolis interactions, the obtained results are equivalent to the earlier published ones. The angle-recoil dependence of the photofragment state multipoles for an arbitrary photolysis reaction is derived. As shown, the polarization of the photofragments in the photolysis of a diatomic or a polyatomic molecule can be described in terms of the anisotropy parameters irrespective of the photodissociation mechanism.

  15. Low-energy structure studies of odd-odd deformed nuclei and the coriolis and residual interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    The nuclear level structure of /sup 176/Lu, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 166/Ho, and /sup 160/Tb have been studied by means of the /sup 177/Hf(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 176/Lu, /sup 171/Yb(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 170/Tm, /sup 167/Er(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 166/Ho, and /sup 161/Dy(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 160/Tb reactions and with the use of previously published (d,p) spectroscopy and gamma transitions from the (n,..gamma..) reactions. The (t,..cap alpha..) reactions have been performed and analyzed with 17 MeV tritons and the Los Alamos Q3D spectrometer. Eighty-one new rotational states in excited proton configurations or vibrational excited states are proposed. An independent parameterization of the Coriolis interaction is presented, which leads to satisfactory results in reproducing experimental single-particle transfer reaction cross-sections by theoretical calculations. The anomalous population of the excited neutron configurations (404 reduces to -624 up arrow) in /sup 176/Lu and (411 reduces to +- 512 up arrow) in /sup 170/Tm, and the anomalously low (t,..cap alpha..) cross-sections of the (411 up arrow +- 633 up arrow) configuration in /sup 166/Ho are observed. Qualitative explanation of the anomalies is presented in terms of the mixing of states which satisfy the requirement delta/sub I'/,/sub I/delta/sub K'/,/sub K/. Off-diagonal H/sub INT/ matrix elements are calculated, which show that the residual interaction cannot be used to account for the magnitude of the cross-sections observed.

  16. Coriolis interaction of the ν12 and 2ν10 bands of ethylene-cis-1,2-d2 (cis-C2H2D2) by high-resolution FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, L. L.; Tan, T. L.; Gabona, M. G.

    2015-10-01

    The spectrum of the A-type ν12 band of ethylene-cis-1,2-d2 (cis-C2H2D2) was recorded at an unapodized resolution of 0.0063 cm-1 in the wavenumber range of 1270-1410 cm-1. The band is perturbed through a c-type Coriolis resonance with the unobserved B-type 2ν10 band which is situated approximately 11 cm-1 below the ν12 band center. In this work, a total of 73 new infrared transitions of high J and Ka values of the ν12 band were identified and assigned for a rovibrational analysis. Finally, a total of 844 perturbed and unperturbed infrared transitions (including those previously reported) of ν12 were assigned and fitted using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation with the inclusion of a second-order c-type Coriolis interaction term to derive a set of rovibrational constants of better accuracy for the ν12 = 1 state up to two sextic terms. Improved rotational and two quartic centrifugal distortion constants were also derived for the ν10 = 2 state of cis-C2H2D2 from the analysis of the Coriolis interaction between the two perturbing bands. The ν12 band is found to be centered at 1341.150877 ± 0.000088 cm-1 while that of 2ν10 is 1330.6360 ± 0.0113 cm-1. By fitting the infrared lines of ν12 with an rms deviation of 0.00067 cm-1, a second-order c-Coriolis coupling constant was accurately determined. A set of ground state rovibrational constants up to two sextic terms of comparable accuracy to those previously reported was also derived from a simultaneous fit of a total of 1728 ground state combination differences (GSCDs) from the infrared transitions of the present analysis and those of the ν7 band of cis-C2H2D2 together with 22 microwave transitions. The root-mean-square deviation of the GSCD fit was 0.00030 cm-1.

  17. Debunking Coriolis Force Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written and debated about the Coriolis force. Unfortunately, this has done little to demystify the paradoxes surrounding this fictitious force invoked by an observer in a rotating frame of reference. It is the purpose of this article to make another valiant attempt to slay the dragon of the Coriolis force! This will be done without…

  18. Debunking Coriolis Force Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written and debated about the Coriolis force. Unfortunately, this has done little to demystify the paradoxes surrounding this fictitious force invoked by an observer in a rotating frame of reference. It is the purpose of this article to make another valiant attempt to slay the dragon of the Coriolis force! This will be done without…

  19. The Coriolis Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissaman, P. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed are the history, development, and future objectives of the Coriolis program, a project designed to place large turbine units in the Florida Current that would generate large amounts of electric power. (BT)

  20. The Coriolis Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissaman, P. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed are the history, development, and future objectives of the Coriolis program, a project designed to place large turbine units in the Florida Current that would generate large amounts of electric power. (BT)

  1. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2C 1B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants

    DOE PAGES

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; ...

    2016-04-14

    Here, the C 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X~ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C state below 1600 cm–1 of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, itmore » allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry, and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C electronic state.« less

  2. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C̃ (1)B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A; Field, Robert W

    2016-04-14

    The C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X̃ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C̃ state below 1600 cm(-1) of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C̃ electronic state.

  3. Infrared and Microwave Spectra and Force Field of DBO: The Coriolis Interaction between the nu1 and nu2 + nu3 States.

    PubMed

    Kawashima; Colarusso; Zhang; Bernath; Hirota

    1998-11-01

    The nu1 and nu3 bands of D11BO and the nu1 band of D10BO were observed by using an infrared diode laser spectrometer. The DBO molecule was generated by an ac discharge in a mixture of BCl3, D2, O2, and He. As inferred previously, a strong Coriolis interaction was in fact found to take place between the nu1 and nu2 + nu3 states, and an analysis of the observed nu1 spectra, which explicitly took into account this Coriolis interaction, predicted the pure rotational transition frequencies of DBO in the nu1 state. Pure rotational lines were then detected by microwave spectroscopy, confirming the validity of the infrared assignment. In the microwave experiment DBO molecules were generated by a discharge in a mixture of B2D6 and O2. The three fundamental bands and a hot band of D11BO, as well as the nu1 and nu3 bands of D10BO, were subsequently recorded in emission with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. DBO molecules were generated by the reaction of D2 with HBO at temperatures above 800 degreesC in a ceramic tube furnace. All of the observed spectra were simultaneously subjected to a least-squares analysis to obtain molecular parameters in the ground, nu1, nu2, nu3, and nu2 + nu3 states. The results thus obtained improved the force field and molecular structure of the HBO/DBO molecules reported in a previous study (Y. Kawashima, Y. Endo, and E. Hirota, 1989, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 133, 116-127). Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. A New Look for Coriolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a demonstration of Coriolis acceleration. Discusses two different meanings of "Coriolis" and two causes of Coriolis acceleration. Gives a set-up method of the demonstration apparatus by using a rotary disk with rubber tubing for tap water, switches, lamps, battery, and counterweight. Provides two pictures with operating method.…

  5. A New Look for Coriolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a demonstration of Coriolis acceleration. Discusses two different meanings of "Coriolis" and two causes of Coriolis acceleration. Gives a set-up method of the demonstration apparatus by using a rotary disk with rubber tubing for tap water, switches, lamps, battery, and counterweight. Provides two pictures with operating method.…

  6. Infrared spectrum involving forbidden transitions & coriolis interaction and identification of optically pumped far infrared laser lines in asymmetrically mono-deuterated methanol (Methanol-D1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-05-01

    In this paper new type of ΔK = 2 and 0 transitions have been identified in the Fourier Transform spectrum of Methanol-D1 (CH2DOH). These transitions are normally forbidden but a "Coriolis" type interaction with nearby states is believed to be contributing sufficient transition strength through intensity borrowing effect. This is the first time such forbidden transitions are reported to be identified in the excited states, in this molecule. The present conjecture is supported by observation of a many strong allowed transitions to upper terminating levels which are seen to be highly perturbed. This conclusion has been reached by comparing calculated energy levels using known molecular parameters (Pearson et al., 2012; Coudert et al., 2014; El Hilali et al., 2011; Quade et al., 1998; Richard Quade, 1998, 1999; Mukhopadhyay, 1997) and the actually observed FIR lines. The upper levels are seen to be upshifted from expected position. A closer look at the calculated energy values seems to indicate a possible interaction between the above states and other proximate torsional-rotational states could occur. The possible candidates for the interacting level manifolds are narrowed down through the presence of the forbidden transition. We also take the opportunity to propose alternate rotational quantum numbers for some of the assignments recently reported in the literature (El Hilali et al., 2011). Some ambiguities are pointed out on the data and the reported analysis. There remain too many such irregularities and we propose to gather a large body assigned transitions in a future catalog. Assignments and relevant comments on optically pumped FIR laser radiation are also made.

  7. Coriolis attenuation in the A congruent 130--150 region

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, M.; Goswami, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sen, S. )

    1990-10-01

    The particle-rotor model has been applied to calculate the band structure in a number of highly neutron deficient odd-{ital A} rare-earth nuclei in the {ital A}{congruent}130--150 region. Several transitional nuclei are also included in the study. The only adjustable parameter, used in the calculation, is the Coriolis attenuation coefficient. However, it is seen that the observed band structures in these nuclei can be reproduced practically without any {ital ad} {ital hoc} reduction of the Coriolis matrix elements. The systematics of the Coriolis attenuation in the neutron-deficient, transitional, and well-deformed rare-earth nuclei are discussed in the light of the present work and several theoretical studies, made earlier. The importance of the pairing interaction in the Coriolis attenuation study is emphasized.

  8. Exposing the Bathtub Coriolis Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a demonstration that employs angular momentum to disprove the myth that water spirals down a bathtub drain clockwise in one hemisphere and counterclockwise in the other because of the Coriolis force on water. (ZWH)

  9. Exposing the Bathtub Coriolis Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a demonstration that employs angular momentum to disprove the myth that water spirals down a bathtub drain clockwise in one hemisphere and counterclockwise in the other because of the Coriolis force on water. (ZWH)

  10. Why the Coriolis force turns a wind farm wake to the right in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, M. P.; Sørensen, N. N.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between the Coriolis force and a wind farm wake is investigated by Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations, using two different wind farm representations: a high roughness and 5×5 actuator disks. Surprisingly, the calculated wind farm wake deflection is opposite in the two simulations. A momentum balance in the cross flow direction shows that the interaction between the Coriolis force and the 5 × 5 actuator disks is complex due to turbulent mixing of fresh momentum from above into the wind farm, which is not observed for the interaction between the Coriolis force and a roughness change.

  11. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaku, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern…

  12. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaku, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern…

  13. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2C 1B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-14

    Here, the C 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X~ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C state below 1600 cm–1 of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry, and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C electronic state.

  14. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2C 1B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-14

    Here, the C 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X~ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C state below 1600 cm–1 of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry, and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C electronic state.

  15. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-05-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern smartphones come with a raft of built-in sensors, we have a unique opportunity to experimentally determine the Coriolis acceleration conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment at modest cost by using student-owned smartphones. Here we employ the gyroscope and accelerometer in a smartphone to verify the dependence of Coriolis acceleration on the angular velocity of a rotatingtrack and the speed of the sliding smartphone.

  16. Linear thermal circulator based on Coriolis forces.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2015-02-01

    We show that the presence of a Coriolis force in a rotating linear lattice imposes a nonreciprocal propagation of the phononic heat carriers. Using this effect we propose the concept of Coriolis linear thermal circulator which can control the circulation of a heat current. A simple model of three coupled harmonic masses on a rotating platform permits us to demonstrate giant circulating rectification effects for moderate values of the angular velocities of the platform.

  17. Estimation of Coriolis Force and Torque Acting on Ares-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Orr, Jeb

    2011-01-01

    A document describes work on the origin of Coriolis force and estimating Coriolis force and torque applied to the Ares-1 vehicle during its ascent, based on an internal ballistics model for a multi-segmented solid rocket booster (SRB).

  18. A Coriolis force in an inertial frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Oleg; Levi, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Particles in rotating saddle potentials exhibit precessional motion which, up to now, has been explained by explicit computation. We show that this precession is due to a hidden Coriolis-like force which, unlike the standard Coriolis force, is present in the inertial frame. We do so by finding a hodograph-like ‘guiding center’ transformation using the method of normal form. We also point out that the transformation cannot be of contact type in principle, thus showing that the standard (in applied literature) heuristic averaging obscures the fact that the transformation of the position must involve the velocity.

  19. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  20. Coriolis effects on fingering patterns under rotation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Gadêlha, Hermes; Miranda, José A

    2008-08-01

    The development of immiscible viscous fingering patterns in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell is investigated. We focus on understanding how the time evolution and the resulting morphologies are affected by the action of the Coriolis force. The problem is approached analytically and numerically by employing a vortex sheet formalism. The vortex sheet strength and a linear dispersion relation are derived analytically, revealing that the most relevant Coriolis force contribution comes from the normal component of the averaged interfacial velocity. It is shown that this normal velocity, uniquely due to the presence of the Coriolis force, is responsible for the complex-valued nature of the linear dispersion relation making the linear phases vary with time. Fully nonlinear stages are studied through intensive numerical simulations. A suggestive interplay between inertial and viscous effects is found, which modifies the dynamics, leading to different pattern-forming structures. The inertial Coriolis contribution plays a characteristic role: it generates a phase drift by deviating the fingers in the sense opposite to the actual rotation of the cell. However, the direction and intensity of finger bending is predominantly determined by viscous effects, being sensitive to changes in the magnitude and sign of the viscosity contrast. The finger competition behavior at advanced time stages is also discussed.

  1. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  2. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.

    PubMed

    Bles, W

    1998-11-15

    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.

  3. Gas measurement using Coriolis mass flowmeters

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlas, G.; Patten, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper demonstrates Coriolis mass flowmeters (CMF) can provide a solution for measuring the mass flowrate of gases directly, i.e. no knowledge of the gas properties is required. The test results for natural gas and compressed air presented here were obtained using a standard factory water calibration. This demonstrates properly designed CMF and linear devices and can provide accurate results independent of gas composition over wide pressure and mass flowrate ranges.

  4. Use of Coriolis meters in gas applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, T.; Pawlas, G.

    1995-12-31

    Coriolis mass flowmeters provide a solution for measuring the mass flow rate of gases directly. Recent calibration data on compressed air shows that the factory water calibration is also valid on air. In addition, a Coriolis meter is fundamentally linear resulting in an accurate measurement over a wide flow range. Data are presented based on testing performed on Micro Motion 25 mm, 50 mm, and 75 mm Coriolis mass flowmeters on compressed air. Test pressures ranging between 1.7 bar (25 psia) and 100 bar (1450 psia) and mass flow rates ranging between 100:1 to 10:1, depending on the meter size. All calibration points fell with {plus_minus}2%, with a significant portion of the data within {plus_minus}5%. Data are also presented for a 6 mm meter on natural gas at 100 bar; all data are within {plus_minus}0.5%. Repeatability data are presented for a 9 mm meter calibrated on 100 bar air for calibration run times between 10 and 60 seconds. Meter repeatability improved approximately 10 times to {plus_minus}0.15% when the calibration time was 60 seconds.

  5. Mechanics of Coriolis stimulus and inducing factors of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Isu, N; Shimizu, T; Sugata, K

    2001-12-01

    To specify inducing factors of motion sickness comprised in Coriolis stimulus, or cross-coupled rotation, the sensation of rotation derived from the semicircular canal system during and after Coriolis stimulus under a variety of stimulus conditions, was estimated by an approach from mechanics with giving minimal hypotheses and simplifications on the semicircular canal system and the sensory nervous system. By solving an equation of motion of the endolymph during Coriolis stimulus, rotating angle of the endolymph was obtained, and the sensation of rotation derived from each semicircular canal was estimated. Then the sensation derived from the whole semicircular canal system was particularly considered in two cases of a single Coriolis stimulus and cyclic Coriolis stimuli. The magnitude and the direction of sensation of rotation were shown to depend on an angular velocity of body rotation and a rotating angle of head movement (amplitude of head oscillation when cyclic Coriolis stimuli) irrespective of initial angle (center angle) of the head relative to the vertical axis. The present mechanical analysis of Coriolis stimulus led a suggestion that the severity of nausea evoked by Coriolis stimulus is proportional to the effective value of the sensation of rotation caused by the Coriolis stimulus.

  6. Some questions on the Coriolis force, the structure of rotational states and the IBM

    SciTech Connect

    Khoo, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Participants in the Round Table Discussion at the International Conference on Band Structure and Nuclear Dynamics were to make editorial comments on what transpired during the conference. This paper contains comments of one panel member on questions which he feels were not addressed during the meeting. His comments concern the Coriolis force in rotating nuclei and its relation to the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the microscopic origin of rotational states, and the interacting boson model. (RWR)

  7. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Jui; Wu, Xiaoning; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Pei-Hung

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  8. High-resolution FTIR spectroscopy of the ν8 and Coriolis perturbation allowed ν12 bands of ketenimine.

    PubMed

    Bane, Michael K; Thompson, Christopher D; Robertson, Evan G; Appadoo, Dominique R T; McNaughton, Don

    2011-04-21

    High resolution FTIR spectra have been recorded in the region 250-770 cm(-1) using synchrotron radiation and over 2000 transitions to the ν(8) and ν(12) states of the short lived species ketenimine have been assigned. Ground state combination differences combined with published microwave transitions were used to refine the constants for the ground vibrational state. Rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters for the v(8) = 1 and v(12) = 1 levels were determined by co-fitting transitions, and treating a strong a-axis Coriolis interaction. Selection rules for the observed ν(12) transitions indicate that they arise solely from "perturbation allowed" intensity resulting from this Coriolis interaction.

  9. Coriolis effect and spin Hall effect of light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Shi, Lina; Xie, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin Hall effect of spinning light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium. The Hamiltonian equations of the photon are analytically obtained within eikonal approximation in the noninertial orthogonal frame. Besides the usual spin curvature coupling, the chiral parameter enters the Hamiltonian as a spin-torsion-like interaction. We reveal that both terms have parallel geometric origins as the Coriolis terms of Maxwell's equations in nontrivial frames.

  10. N103B: A Type Ia Supernova with Circumstellar Interaction and Kepler's Older Cousin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.; Winkler, P. Frank; Raymond, John C.; Sankrit, Ravi; Hendrick, Sean Patrick; Blair, William P.

    2014-06-01

    A small but growing subclass of Type Ia supernovae shows signs of interaction with material in a circumstellar medium (CSM). Among Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), only the remnant of Kepler's supernova has been shown to be interacting with a dense CSM, likely the result of significant pre-supernova mass loss from the progenitor system. Wereport here on Spitzer infrared observations of N103B, a Type Ia remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud approximately 1,000 years old, that also shows signs of a dense CSM. Spectroscopy of the remnant shows a continuum from warm dust heated in the post-shockenvironment. Model fits to the data give a post-shock gas density of 45 cm$^{-3}$, virtually identical to what is seen in Kepler. The dust spectrum is dominated by silicate grains, implying an oxygen-rich environment in the stellar atmosphere of at least one star in the progenitor system. In light of the densities we derive from IR fits, we examine X-ray spectra and find that while a significant amount of oxygen is present, the oxygen is consistent with an origin in the CSM, not the ejecta. Detailed morphological comparisons with X-ray images show a connection between dust emission and oxygen-rich material, while optical comparisons clearly show that dust originates in the fast, non-radiative, Balmer-dominated shocks, and not the slower, radiative shocks. We see no obvious evidence for freshly formed ejecta dust. Again, N103B shares all of these characteristics with Kepler. We conclude that N103B is an older analog of Kepler, and thus only the second known member of the subclass of Type Ia SNRs interacting with dense CSM material long after their explosion.

  11. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  12. Assessment of pharmacokinetic interaction of spirulina with glitazone in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Annu; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna; Al-Dhubiab, Bandar-E; Chattopadhyaya, Ipshita; Gupta, Sumeet

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of spirulina with glitazones in an insulin resistance rat model. Wistar male albino rats were equally divided into five groups: insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg)+pioglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+pioglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg)+rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg), and insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg). Described doses of pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, or spirulina were per orally administered and the plasma drug concentrations were determined. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-α), t1/2, and Kel were determined by plotting the drug concentration as a function of time. The data observed in this acute study indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-α), t1/2, and Kel) of glitazones (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) or spirulina, when they were coadministered. Given the promising results, this study concludes that the coadministration of spirulina does not influence the pharmacokinetics of glitazones in a type 2 diabetes rat model. Further chronic in vivo studies are recommended to assess the real time effect.

  13. Coriolis Perturbations to the 3νb{4} Level of the ˜{A} State of Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Barratt; Krueger, Bastian C.; Meyer, Sven; Schaefer, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Formaldehyde is the smallest stable organic molecule containing the carbonyl functional group, and is commonly considered to be a prototype for the study of high-resolution spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules. The a-axis Coriolis interaction between the near-degenerate ν_4 and ν_6 (out-of-plane and in-plane wagging modes, respectively) of the ground electronic state has received extensive attention and is thoroughly understood. In the first excited singlet ˜{A} ^1A_2 electronic state, the analogous Coriolis interaction does not occur, because the ˜{A} state suffers from a pseudo Jahn-Teller distortion, which causes a double-well potential energy structure in the q_4' out-of-plane coordinate, and which dramatically reduces the effective ν_4' frequency. The ν_4' frequency is reduced by so great an extent in the ˜{A} state that it is the 3ν_4' overtone which is near degenerate with ν_6'. In the current work, we report the precise ν_6' fundamental frequency in the ˜{A} state, and we determine the strength of the a-axis Coriolis interaction between 3ν_4' and ν_6'. We also provide a rotational analysis of the ν_4'+ν_6' combination band, which interacts with 3ν_4' via an additional c-axis Coriolis perturbation, and which allows us to provide a complete deperturbed fit to the 3ν_4' rotational structure. Knowledge of the Coriolis interaction strengths among the lowest-lying levels in the ˜{A} state will aid the interpretation of the spectroscopy and dynamics of many higher-lying band structures, which are perturbed by analogous interactions.

  14. The ν6 fundamental frequency of the à state of formaldehyde and Coriolis perturbations in the 3ν4 level.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Krüger, Bastian C; Meyer, Sven; Schwarzer, Dirk; Schäfer, Tim

    2016-05-21

    Formaldehyde is the smallest stable organic molecule containing the carbonyl functional group and is commonly considered to be a prototype for the study of high-resolution spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules. The a-axis Coriolis interaction between the near-degenerate ν4 and ν6 (out-of-plane and in-plane wagging modes, respectively) of the ground electronic state has received extensive attention and is thoroughly understood. In the first excited singlet Ã (1)A2 electronic state, the analogous Coriolis interaction does not occur, because the à state suffers from a pseudo-Jahn-Teller distortion, which causes a double-well potential energy structure in the q4 (') out-of-plane coordinate, and which dramatically reduces the effective ν4 (') frequency. The ν4 (') frequency is reduced by such a great extent in the à state that it is the 3ν4 (') overtone which is near degenerate with ν6 ('). In the current work, we report the precise ν6 (') fundamental frequency in the à state, and we determine the strength of the a-axis Coriolis interaction between 3ν4 (') and ν6 ('). We also provide a rotational analysis of the ν4 (')+ν6 (') combination band, which interacts with 3ν4 (') via an additional c-axis Coriolis perturbation, and which allows us to provide a complete deperturbed fit to the 3ν4 (') rotational structure. Knowledge of the Coriolis interaction strengths among the lowest-lying levels in the à state will aid the interpretation of the spectroscopy and dynamics of many higher-lying band structures, which are perturbed by analogous interactions.

  15. Coriolis effects are principally caused by gyroscopic angular acceleration.

    PubMed

    Isu, N; Yanagihara, M; Mikuni, T; Koo, J

    1994-07-01

    A cause of nausea evoked by cross-coupled rotation (termed Coriolis stimulus) was determined. Subjects were provided with two types of cross-coupled rotations: neck-forward flexion (Neck Flx) and upper body-forward flexion (Body Flx) during horizontal whole body rotation at a constant angular velocity. These Coriolis stimuli were given alternatively in an experimental sequence, and the severity of the nausea they evoked was compared by the subjects. The results indicated that the same quality of nausea was evoked by a slightly higher angular velocity during Body Flx (100.5 degrees/s) than during Neck Flx (90 degrees/s). While Body Flx generated Coriolis linear acceleration several times larger than Neck Flx, both the stimuli generated a similar magnitude of gyroscopic angular acceleration in this condition. Therefore, it was inferred that the nausea evoked by a Coriolis stimulus is principally caused by gyroscopic angular acceleration.

  16. Changes in visual function during the Coriolis illusion.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Kuo, Daih-Iluang; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Wu, Yi-Chang; Chen, Jiann-Torng; Tsai, Ming-Ling

    2009-04-01

    The Coriolis illusion produces spatial disorientation and is, therefore, dangerous for pilots. It is not known whether it also affects visual function (visual acuity and stereopsis). There were 18 subjects (15 men and 3 women, mean age 24.7 yr) enrolled in the study. A spatial disorientation simulator was used to produce Coriolis stimulation. The visual acuity of the subjects was evaluated with the Rosenbaum Vision Card before and during Coriolis stimulation. Stereopsis was measured with the Titmus stereo test. Throughout the experiments, eyeball movements were observed on a television monitor. Electrooculography (EOG) and electroencephalography (EEG) were also documented. Before Coriolis stimulation, the visual acuity and stereopsis of all subjects were 20/20 and 40 s of arc, respectively. During the Coriolis illusion, the visual acuity of nine subjects (50%) remained 20/20, whereas the visual acuity of the others (50%) dropped by two lines. The stereopsis of most subjects (77.8%) decreased to 800 arc-seconds or less. Rhythmic nystagmus was observed, while EOG amplitudes were significantly elevated compared with those at baseline (9.41 +/- 0.26 microv2 and 8.45 +/- 0.36 microv2, respectively). EEG activity (frequency) was also greater than at baseline (13.15 +/- 0.84 Hz and 11.94 +/- 1.20 Hz, respectively; P < 0.05). During Coriolis stimulation, the visual acuity of the subjects remained stable, but their stereopsis was reduced. Further study is warranted.

  17. Second order Coriolis resonance between the C-O stretch and the CH3 rock levels of methanol involving excited torsional state.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, I

    1997-12-01

    In this paper, it is shown that the interaction responsible for making the series of 'forbidden' transitions from the state (n tau K) = (110) in the ground vibrational (v = 0) state of the levels of (122+) in the CH3-rocking vibrational state (v = r) of methanol is 'Coriolis' resonance and not 'Fermi' resonance as proposed in a recent publication. This has been established from the J-dependence of the observed perturbed energy spacings between the two interacting pairs from high resolution spectroscopic analysis. The J-dependence clearly follows the classic 'Coriolis' interaction matrix elements for delta K = 2, which would not occur if the interaction were due to 'Fermi' resonance.

  18. Thermocapillary-Coriolis Instabilities in Liquid Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebib, A.; Le Cunff, C.

    1997-11-01

    Coriolis effects on thermocapillary instabilities in a liquid bridge of infinite length(J.-J. Xu & S. H. Davis, Phys. of Fluids 27, 1102-1107 (1983)) are investigated. The flow is driven by an imposed temperature gradient along the z-direction in a (r,θ,z) rotating frame of reference. When the rotation vector is parallel to the z-axis the base return flow with no rotation is not modified. In this case, rotation is stabilizing with traveling waves preferred. If the rotation is orthogonal to the z-axis, the base flow is modified and is no longer one-dimensional. Asymptotic methods valid for small rotation are used to calculate the base flow which may become multicellular, both in the radial and azimuthal directions, depending on the Prandtl, Marangoni, and Biot numbers. Linear stability analysis of the new base flow indicates that this type of rotation can be destabilizing while traveling azimuthal waves continue to be the prefered form of convection.

  19. Microwave spectrum, structure, dipole moment, and Coriolis coupling of 1,1-difluoroallene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durig, J. R.; Li, Y. S.; Tong, C. C.; Zens, A. P.; Ellis, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    Microwave spectra from 12.4 to 40.0 GHz were recorded for five isotopic species of 1,1-difluoroallene. A-type transitions were observed and R-branch assignments were made for the ground state and two vibrationally excited states. Several structural parameters of the compounds were determined. The dipole moment value obtained from Stark splitting was 2.07 plus or minus 0.03 D. A Coriolis coupling was observed between the two-low-frequency C = C = C bending modes.

  20. Exact solutions for a type of electron pairing model with spin-orbit interactions and Zeeman coupling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Han, Qiang; Shao, L B; Wang, Z D

    2011-07-08

    A type of electron pairing model with spin-orbit interactions or Zeeman coupling is solved exactly in the framework of the Richardson ansatz. Based on the exact solutions for the case with spin-orbit interactions, it is shown rigorously that the pairing symmetry is of the p + ip wave and the ground state possesses time-reversal symmetry, regardless of the strength of the pairing interaction. Intriguingly, how Majorana fermions can emerge in the system is also elaborated. Exact results are illustrated for two systems, respectively, with spin-orbit interactions and Zeeman coupling.

  1. Effect of Coriolis coupling in chemical reaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Han, Ke-Li

    2008-05-14

    It is essential to evaluate the role of Coriolis coupling effect in molecular reaction dynamics. Here we consider Coriolis coupling effect in quantum reactive scattering calculations in the context of both adiabaticity and nonadiabaticity, with particular emphasis on examining the role of Coriolis coupling effect in reaction dynamics of triatomic molecular systems. We present the results of our own calculations by the time-dependent quantum wave packet approach for H + D2 and F(2P3/2,2P1/2) + H2 as well as for the ion-molecule collisions of He + H2 +, D(-) + H2, H(-) + D2, and D+ + H2, after reviewing in detail other related research efforts on this issue.

  2. Coriolis coupling and nonadiabaticity in chemical reaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Emilia L

    2010-12-01

    The nonadiabatic quantum dynamics and Coriolis coupling effect in chemical reaction have been reviewed, with emphasis on recent progress in using the time-dependent wave packet approach to study the Coriolis coupling and nonadiabatic effects, which was done by K. L. Han and his group. Several typical chemical reactions, for example, H+D(2), F+H(2)/D(2)/HD, D(+)+H(2), O+H(2), and He+H(2)(+), have been discussed. One can find that there is a significant role of Coriolis coupling in reaction dynamics for the ion-molecule collisions of D(+)+H(2), Ne+H(2)(+), and He+H(2)(+) in both adiabatic and nonadiabatic context.

  3. The Coriolis Effect: A Model for Student Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exline, Joseph D.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and procedures for constructing a model that demonstrates certain aspects of the Coriolis effect. Materials include an electric drill motor, voltage control, toy dart gun and darts, wood blocks of varying dimensions. Includes description of an experiment illustrating relationship between speed of rotation and amount of apparent…

  4. The Coriolis Effect: A Model for Student Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exline, Joseph D.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and procedures for constructing a model that demonstrates certain aspects of the Coriolis effect. Materials include an electric drill motor, voltage control, toy dart gun and darts, wood blocks of varying dimensions. Includes description of an experiment illustrating relationship between speed of rotation and amount of apparent…

  5. Coriolis effects on nonlinear oscillations of rotating cylinders and rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effects which moderately large deflections have on the frequency spectrum of rotating rings and cylinders are considered. To develop the requisite solution, a variationally constrained version of the Lindstedt-Poincare procedure is employed. Based on the solution developed, in addition to considering the effects of displacement induced nonlinearity, the role of Coriolis forces is also given special consideration.

  6. Measurement of oscillopsia induced by vestibular Coriolis stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Jeffrey; Oman, Charles M; Harris, Laurence R

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method for measuring the time constant of head-movement-contingent oscillopsia (HMCO) produced by vestibular Coriolis stimulation. Subjects briskly rotated their heads around pitch or roll axes whilst seated on a platform rotating at constant velocity. This induced a cross-coupled vestibular Coriolis illusion. Simultaneous with the head movement, a visual display consisting of either a moving field of white dots on a black background or superimposed on a subject-stationary horizon, or a complete virtual room with conventional furnishings appeared. The scene's motion was driven by a simplified computer model of the Coriolis illusion. Subjects either nulled (if visual motion was against the illusory body rotation) or matched (if motion was in the same direction as the illusory motion) the sensation with the exponentially slowing scene motion, by indicating whether its decline was too fast or too slow. The model time constant was approximated using a staircase technique. Time constants comparable to that of the Coriolis vestibular ocular reflex were obtained. Time constants could be significantly reduced by adding subject-stationary visual elements. This technique for measuring oscillopsia might be used to quantify adaptation to artificial gravity environments. In principle more complex models can be used, and applied to other types of oscillopsia such as are experienced by BPPV patients or by astronauts returning to Earth.

  7. A Deep Chandra Observation of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: A Type Ia Event with Circumstellar Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Hwang, Una; Hughes, John P.; Badenes, Carles; Laming, J. M.; Blondin, J. M.

    2007-10-01

    We present initial results of a 750 ks Chandra observation of the remnant of Kepler's supernova of AD 1604. The strength and prominence of iron emission, together with the absence of O-rich ejecta, demonstrate that Kepler resulted from a thermonuclear supernova, even though evidence for circumstellar interaction is also strong. We have analyzed spectra of over 100 small regions, and find that they fall into three classes. (1) The vast majority show Fe L emission between 0.7 and 1 keV and Si and S Kα emission; we associate these with shocked ejecta. A few of these are found at or beyond the mean blast wave radius. (2) A very few regions show solar O/Fe abundance ratios; these we associate with shocked circumstellar medium (CSM). Otherwise O is scarce. (3) A few regions are dominated by continuum, probably synchrotron radiation. Finally, we find no central point source, with a limit ~100 times fainter than the central object in Cas A. The evidence that the blast wave is interacting with CSM may indicate a Ia explosion in a more massive progenitor.

  8. The ν6 fundamental frequency of the A ˜ state of formaldehyde and Coriolis perturbations in the 3ν4 level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. Barratt; Krüger, Bastian C.; Meyer, Sven; Schwarzer, Dirk; Schäfer, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Formaldehyde is the smallest stable organic molecule containing the carbonyl functional group and is commonly considered to be a prototype for the study of high-resolution spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules. The a-axis Coriolis interaction between the near-degenerate ν4 and ν6 (out-of-plane and in-plane wagging modes, respectively) of the ground electronic state has received extensive attention and is thoroughly understood. In the first excited singlet A ˜ 1 A 2 electronic state, the analogous Coriolis interaction does not occur, because the A ˜ state suffers from a pseudo-Jahn-Teller distortion, which causes a double-well potential energy structure in the q4 ' out-of-plane coordinate, and which dramatically reduces the effective ν4 ' frequency. The ν4 ' frequency is reduced by such a great extent in the A ˜ state that it is the 3 ν4 ' overtone which is near degenerate with ν6 ' . In the current work, we report the precise ν6 ' fundamental frequency in the A ˜ state, and we determine the strength of the a-axis Coriolis interaction between 3 ν4 ' and ν6 ' . We also provide a rotational analysis of the ν4 ' + ν6 ' combination band, which interacts with 3 ν4 ' via an additional c-axis Coriolis perturbation, and which allows us to provide a complete deperturbed fit to the 3 ν4 ' rotational structure. Knowledge of the Coriolis interaction strengths among the lowest-lying levels in the A ˜ state will aid the interpretation of the spectroscopy and dynamics of many higher-lying band structures, which are perturbed by analogous interactions.

  9. Rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of arm trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Dizio, P.

    1994-01-01

    1. Forward reaching movements made during body rotation generate tangential Coriolis forces that are proportional to the cross product of the angular velocity of rotation and the linear velocity of the arm. Coriolis forces are inertial forces that do not involve mechanical contact. Virtually no constant centrifugal forces will be present in the background when motion of the arm generates transient Coriolis forces if the radius of body rotation is small. 2. We measured the trajectories of arm movements made in darkness to a visual target that was extinguished as movement began. The reaching movements were made prerotation, during rotation at 10 rpm in a fully enclosed rotating room, and postrotation. During testing the subject was seated at the center of the room and pointed radially. Neither visual nor tactile feedback about movement accuracy was present. 3. In experiment 1, subjects reached at a fast or slow rate and their hands made contact with a horizontal surface at the end of the reach. Their initial perrotary movements were highly significantly deviated relative to prerotation in both trajectories and end-points in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces that had been generated during the reaches. Despite the absence of visual and tactile feedback about reaching accuracy, all subjects rapidly regained straight movement trajectories and accurate endpoints. Postrotation, transient errors of opposite sign were present for both trajectories and endpoints. 4. In a second experiment the conditions were identical except that subjects pointed just above the location of the extinguished target so that no surface contact was involved. All subjects showed significant initial perrotation deviations of trajectories and endpoints in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces. With repeated reaches the trajectories, as viewed from above, again became straight, but there was only partial restoration of endpoint accuracy, so that subjects reached in a straight

  10. Rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of arm trajectory.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R; Dizio, P

    1994-07-01

    1. Forward reaching movements made during body rotation generate tangential Coriolis forces that are proportional to the cross product of the angular velocity of rotation and the linear velocity of the arm. Coriolis forces are inertial forces that do not involve mechanical contact. Virtually no constant centrifugal forces will be present in the background when motion of the arm generates transient Coriolis forces if the radius of body rotation is small. 2. We measured the trajectories of arm movements made in darkness to a visual target that was extinguished as movement began. The reaching movements were made prerotation, during rotation at 10 rpm in a fully enclosed rotating room, and postrotation. During testing the subject was seated at the center of the room and pointed radially. Neither visual nor tactile feedback about movement accuracy was present. 3. In experiment 1, subjects reached at a fast or slow rate and their hands made contact with a horizontal surface at the end of the reach. Their initial perrotary movements were highly significantly deviated relative to prerotation in both trajectories and end-points in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces that had been generated during the reaches. Despite the absence of visual and tactile feedback about reaching accuracy, all subjects rapidly regained straight movement trajectories and accurate endpoints. Postrotation, transient errors of opposite sign were present for both trajectories and endpoints. 4. In a second experiment the conditions were identical except that subjects pointed just above the location of the extinguished target so that no surface contact was involved. All subjects showed significant initial perrotation deviations of trajectories and endpoints in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces. With repeated reaches the trajectories, as viewed from above, again became straight, but there was only partial restoration of endpoint accuracy, so that subjects reached in a straight

  11. Concept of Linear Thermal Circulator Based on Coriolis forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2015-03-01

    Directional transport and the creation of non-reciprocal devices that control the flow of energy and/or mass at predefined directions have been posing always fascinating challenges. In this contribution, we show that the presence of a Coriolis force in a rotating linear lattice imposes a non-reciprocal propagation of the phononic heat carriers. Using this effect we propose the concept of Coriolis linear thermal circulator which can control the circulation of a heat current. A simple model of three coupled harmonic masses on a rotating platform allow us to demonstrate giant circulating rectification effects for moderate values of the angular velocities of the platform. This work was partly sponsored by a NSF DMR-1306984 Grant and by an AFOSR MURI Grant FA9550-14-1-0037.

  12. [Changes of plasma endocrine hormone in pilots under Coriolis acceleration].

    PubMed

    Dai, Y; Ji, G; Huang, Y; Sun, X; Dai, F

    1998-04-01

    Plasma endocrine hormones were studied in both 24 motion sickness (orthostatic intolerance) and healthy pilots. Coriolis acceleration of 3.75, 5.00 and 6.25 pi 2 cm/s2 were given with intervals of 3-4 min AT-II, insulin, cortisol, Aldosterone and gastrin were determined by radioimmunoassay. It was found that aldosterone, AT-II, gastrin increased with increase of coriolis acceleration in all pilots. (P < 0.05), but cortisol and insulin only increased in healthy pilots (P < 0.05). It suggests excitation of the autonomic nervous system might be insufficient in orthostatic intolerant pilots and that determination of endocrine hormones may be useful in the evaluation of autonomic nervous activities.

  13. Parametric excitation of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droogendijk, H.; Groenesteijn, J.; Haneveld, J.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; Lötters, J. C.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate that a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor can be excited in its torsional movement by applying parametric excitation. Using AC-bias voltages for periodic electrostatic spring softening, the flow-filled tube exhibits a steady vibration at suitable voltage settings. Measurements show that the sensor for this type of excitation can be used to measure water flow rates within a range of 0 ± 500 μl/h with an accuracy of 1% full scale error.

  14. Low-temperature linear thermal rectifiers based on Coriolis forces.

    PubMed

    Suwunnarat, Suwun; Li, Huanan; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that a three-terminal harmonic symmetric chain in the presence of a Coriolis force, produced by a rotating platform that is used to place the chain, can produce thermal rectification. The direction of heat flow is reconfigurable and controlled by the angular velocity Ω of the rotating platform. A simple three-terminal triangular lattice is used to demonstrate the proposed principle.

  15. Long Term Stability of Coriolis Flow Meters: DESY experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckmann, T.; Bozhko, Y.; Escherich, K.; Petersen, B.; Putselyk, S.; Schnautz, T.; Sellmann, D.; Zhirnov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of coolant flow is important operational parameter for reliable operation of cryogenic system with superconducting magnets or cavities as well as for the system diagnostics in case of non-steady-state operation, e.g. during cool-down/warm-up or other transients. Proper flowmeter is chosen according to the different parameters, e.g. turn-down, operating temperature range, leak-tightness, pressure losses, long-term stability, etc. For helium cryogenics, the Venturi tube or Orifice, as well as Coriolis flow meters are often applied. For the present time, the orifices are usually used due to their simplicity and low costs, however, low turn-down range, large pressure drop, restriction of flow area, susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations limit their useful operation range. Operational characteristics of Venturi tubes is substantially improved in comparison to orifices, however, relative high costs and susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations still limit their application to special cases. The Coriolis flow meters do not have typical drawbacks of Venturi tube and orifices, however long-term stability over many years was not demonstrated yet. This paper describes the long-term behaviour of Coriolis flow meters after many years of operation at AMTF and XMTS facilities.

  16. The competition between Lorentz and Coriolis forces in planetary dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderlund, Krista M.; Sheyko, Andrey; King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid motions within planetary cores generate magnetic fields through dynamo action. These core processes are driven by thermo-compositional convection subject to the competing influences of rotation, which tends to organize the flow into axial columns, and the Lorentz force, which tends to inhibit the relative movement of the magnetic field and the fluid. It is often argued that these forces are predominant and approximately equal in planetary cores; we test this hypothesis using a suite of numerical geodynamo models to calculate the Lorentz to Coriolis force ratio directly. Our results show that this ratio can be estimated by ( Λ i is the traditionally defined Elsasser number for imposed magnetic fields and Rm is the system-scale ratio of magnetic induction to magnetic diffusion). Best estimates of core flow speeds and magnetic field strengths predict the geodynamo to be in magnetostrophic balance where the Lorentz and Coriolis forces are comparable. The Lorentz force may also be significant, i.e., within an order of magnitude of the Coriolis force, in the Jovian interior. In contrast, the Lorentz force is likely to be relatively weak in the cores of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Ganymede, and Mercury.

  17. Aspects of the coriolis interaction in U235

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lane, G.J.; Lee, I.Y.; Gorgen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Stephens, F.S.; Svensson, C.E.; Vetter, K.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.B.; Teng, R.; Wu, C.-Y.; Nakatsukasa, T.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed three separate experiments at LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron over a period of several years in which {sup 235}U (thick target) was Coulomb-excited. It involved stand-alone experiments with Gammasphere and with the 8PI Spectrometer using {sup 136}Xe beams at 720 MeV, and a CHICO-Gammasphere experiment with an {sup 40}Ar beam at 180 MeV. In addition to extending the known negative-parity bands to high spin, we have assigned levels in some seven positive-parity bands which are in some cases (e.g. [631]1/2, [624]7/2 and [622]5/2) strongly populated by E3 excitation. The CHICO data has been analyzed to extract E2 and E3 matrix elements from the observed yields. Additionally, many E1 and M1 matrix elements could be extracted from the {gamma}-ray branching ratios.

  18. Aspects Of The Coriolis Interaction In 235U

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Stephens, F.S.; Lane, G.J.; Goergen, A.; Svensson, C.E.; Vetter, K.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.B.; Teng, R.; Wu, C.-Y.; Nakatsukasa, T.

    2005-04-05

    We have performed three separate experiments at LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron over a period of several years in which 235U (thick target) was Coulomb-excited. It involved stand-alone experiments with Gammasphere and with the 8PI Spectrometer using 136Xe beams at 720 MeV, and a CHICO-Gammasphere experiment with an 40Ar beam at 180 MeV. In addition to extending the known negative-parity bands to high spin, we have assigned levels in some seven positive-parity bands which are in some cases ( e.g. [631]1/2, [624]7/2 and [622]5/2) strongly populated by E3 excitation. The CHICO data has been analyzed to extract E2 and E3 matrix elements from the observed yields. Additionally, many E1 and M1 matrix elements could be extracted from the {gamma}-ray branching ratios.

  19. Coriolis coupling effects on the initial-state-resolved dynamics of the N(2D)+H2-->NH+H reaction.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Paolo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2007-11-28

    We present Coriolis coupling effects on the initial-state-resolved dynamics of the insertion reaction N((2)D)+H(2)(X (1)Sigma(g) (+))-->NH(X (3)Sigma(-) and a (1)Delta)+H((2)S), without and with nonadiabatic Renner-Teller (RT) interactions between the NH(2) X (2)B(1) and A (2)A(1) electronic states. We report coupled-channel (CC) Hamiltonian matrix elements, which take into account both Coriolis and RT couplings, use the real wave-packet and flux methods for calculating initial-state-resolved reaction probabilities, and contrast CC with centrifugal-sudden (CS) results. Without RT interactions, Coriolis effects are rather small up to J=40, and the CS approximation can be safely employed for calculating initial-state-resolved, integral cross sections. On the other hand, RT effects are associated with rather large Coriolis couplings, mainly near the linearity of NH(2), and the accuracy of the CS approximation thus breaks down at high collision energies, when the reaction starts on the excited A (2)A(1) surface. We also present the CC-RT distribution of the X (3)Sigma(-) and a (1)Delta electronic states of the NH products.

  20. Parameterization of the Lorentz to Coriolis Force Ratio in Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderlund, K. M.; Sheyko, A. A.; King, E. M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lorentz to Coriolis force ratio is an important parameter for the dynamics of planetary cores: it is expected that dynamos with dominant Coriolis forces will be driven by fundamentally different archetypes of fluid motions than those with co-dominant Lorentz forces. Using a suite of geodynamo simulations, we have tested several parameterizations of the Lorentz to Coriolis force ratio against direct calculations and developed a scaling estimate to predict this ratio for planetary cores. Our results suggest that the Earth's core is likely to be in magnetostrophic balance where the Lorentz and Coriolis forces are comparable. The Lorentz force may also be significant in Jupiter's core, where it is predicted to be approximately a factor of ten less than the Coriolis force. Magnetic fields become increasingly sub-dominant for the other planets: the Coriolis force is predicted to exceed the Lorentz force by at least two orders of magnitude within the cores of Saturn, Uranus/Neptune, Ganymede, and Mercury.

  1. Effect of coriolis force on forced response magnification of intentionally mistuned bladed disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Xuanen; Xu, Zili; Zhao, Bo; Zhong, Jize

    2017-07-01

    Blade manufacturing tolerance and wear in operation may induce mistuning, and mistuning will lead to vibration localization which will result in destruction of bladed disk. Generally, intentional mistuning has been widely investigated to control the maximum forced response. On the other hand, it should be noted that the bladed disk with high rotational speed is obviously subjected to the Coriolis force. However, the Coriolis force is not included in intentionally mistuned bladed disk in previous studies. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of the Coriolis force on forced response magnification of intentionally mistuned bladed disk. Finite element method is used to calculate the harmonic response of the intentionally mistuned bladed disk with and without the Coriolis force. The effects of intentional mistuning strength and different integer harmonic order on the response magnification factor with the Coriolis force are discussed. It should be pointed out that, when the integer harmonic order is 1, 3 and 5, the response magnification factor with the effect of the Coriolis force increase by 3.9%, 3.53% and 3.76% respectively compared to the system of non-Coriolis force. In addition, forced response magnification factor of intentionally mistuned bladed disk with and without the Coriolis force under different rotational speed is researched in contrast. It shows that, when the rotational speed is 3000 rpm, the response magnification factor with the Coriolis force increases by 0.65% compared to the system of non-Coriolis force, while the response magnification factor with the Coriolis force decreases by 6.28% compared to the system of non-Coriolis force when the rotational speed is 12000 rpm.

  2. Head and Tail Deformations, Torsional Coriolis Coupling, and E(1d)-E(2d) Vibrational Mixing in Ethane-Like Molecules.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi; di Lauro C

    1999-12-01

    The mechanism of torsional Coriolis interaction of E(1d) and E(2d) vibrational modes in ethane-like molecules is investigated, and it is shown that this coupling can drastically affect the torsional splitting in the degenerate vibrational states. A basic point of our treatment is that the sets of coordinates of head and tail which combine with the + sign to generate E(1d) normal coordinates are in general different from those which combine with the - sign to generate E(2d) normal coordinates. It is shown that the zeta(gamma) torsional Coriolis coefficients calculated by the usual methods of normal mode analysis are related to the vibrational angular momenta within head and tail referred to the internal rotor axis systems. With knowledge of the L and L(-1) matrices it is possible to transform these coefficients for reference to the molecule-fixed frame. It is peculiar that torsional Coriolis matrix elements occur between E(1d) and E(2d) vibrational components with the same x or y orientation in the molecule-fixed frame. The matrix elements of the torsional Coriolis operator and other operators responsible for the end-to-end coupling are determined, and a method for calculating vibration-torsion energies, and then torsional splittings, in degenerate vibrational states is outlined. Detailed calculations require a global model, involving all the degenerate vibrational basis states in a complex mechanism of interactions, but it is shown that useful information can be obtained by means of simplified models. Our semiempirical rule that degenerate vibrational states with a large negative value of the diagonal vibration-rotation Coriolis coefficient are likely to deviate much from the behavior of E(1d) or E(2d) vibrational states, with a sensible decrease of the torsional splittings, is confirmed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Coriolis effect in optics: unified geometric phase and spin-Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Gorodetski, Yuri; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez

    2008-07-18

    We examine the spin-orbit coupling effects that appear when a wave carrying intrinsic angular momentum interacts with a medium. The Berry phase is shown to be a manifestation of the Coriolis effect in a noninertial reference frame attached to the wave. In the most general case, when both the direction of propagation and the state of the wave are varied, the phase is given by a simple expression that unifies the spin redirection Berry phase and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase. The theory is supported by the experiment demonstrating the spin-orbit coupling of electromagnetic waves via a surface plasmon nanostructure. The measurements verify the unified geometric phase, demonstrated by the observed polarization-dependent shift (spin-Hall effect) of the waves.

  4. Influence of the Coriolis force in atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shau-Yu; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Estey, Brian; Haslinger, Philipp; Müller, Holger

    2012-03-02

    In a light-pulse atom interferometer, we use a tip-tilt mirror to remove the influence of the Coriolis force from Earth's rotation and to characterize configuration space wave packets. For interferometers with a large momentum transfer and large pulse separation time, we improve the contrast by up to 350% and suppress systematic effects. We also reach what is to our knowledge the largest space-time area enclosed in any atom interferometer to date. We discuss implications for future high-performance instruments.

  5. Absolute rotation detection by Coriolis force measurement using optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we present an application of the optomechanical cavities for absolute rotation detection. Two optomechanical cavities, one in each arm, are placed in a Michelson interferometer. The interferometer is placed on a rotating table and is moved with a uniform velocity of \\dot{\\bar{y}} with respect to the rotating table. The Coriolis force acting on the interferometer changes the length of the optomechanical cavity in one arm, while the length of the optomechanical cavity in the other arm is not changed. The phase shift corresponding to the change in the optomechanical cavity length is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of the absolute rotation. An analytic expression for the minimum detectable rotation rate corresponding to the standard quantum limit of measurable Coriolis force in the interferometer is derived. Squeezing technique is discussed to improve the rotation detection sensitivity by a factor of \\sqrt{{γ }m/{ω }m} at 0 K temperature, where {γ }m and {ω }m are the damping rate and angular frequency of the mechanical oscillator. The temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  6. Immediate compensation for variations in self-generated Coriolis torques related to body dynamics and carried objects.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Pascale; Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that the Coriolis torques that result when an arm movement is performed during torso rotation do not affect movement trajectory. Our purpose in the present study was to examine whether torso motion-induced Coriolis and other interaction torques are counteracted during a turn and reach (T&R) movement when the effective mass of the hand is augmented, and whether the dominant arm has an advantage in coordinating intersegmental dynamics as predicted by the dynamic dominance hypothesis (Sainburg RL. Exp Brain Res 142: 241-258, 2002). Subjects made slow and fast T&R movements in the dark to just extinguished targets with either arm, while holding or not holding a 454-g object. Movement endpoints were equally accurate at both speeds, with either hand, and in both weight conditions, but subjects tended to angularly undershoot and produce more variable endpoints for targets requiring greater torso rotation. There were no changes in endpoint accuracy or trajectory deviation over repeated movements. The dominant right arm was more stable in its control of trajectory direction across targets, whereas the nondominant left arm had an improved ability to stop accurately on the target for higher levels of interaction torques. The trajectories to more eccentric targets were straighter when performed at higher speeds but slightly more deviated when subjects held the weight. Subjects did not slow their torso velocity or change the timing of the arm and torso velocities when holding the weight, although there was a slight decrease in their hand velocity relative to the torso. The delay between the onsets of torso and finger movements was almost twice as large for the right arm than the left, suggesting the right arm was better able to account for torso rotation in the arm movement. Holding the weight increased the peak Coriolis torque by 40% at the shoulder and 45% at the elbow and, for the most eccentric target, increased the peak net torque by 12% at the

  7. Fluid flow up a spinning egg and the Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, J. C.; Polatdemir, E.; Bansal, Ankita; Yifeng, Wang; Shengtao, Wang

    2006-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a spinning sphere whose south pole is in touch with the surface of a still body of liquid. When the sphere is turning fast enough, the fluid rises up the sphere, reaches the equator and is flung out as a fountain of droplets. Although the fountain forms for water a weakly viscous fluid, and for propylene glycol a much more viscous fluid, the dynamical situation is different for each. For flows at mid-latitudes on the sphere, we formulate the dynamical equations for the two liquids in terms of Newton's law in a rotating frame, noting that the Coriolis force plays an essential role in both liquids, and obtain qualitative agreement with observations. We also discuss the possible roles played by other forces.

  8. Analytical treatment of Coriolis coupling for three-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Bill

    2005-01-01

    In a previous article [J. Chem. Phys. 108 (1998) 5216], an efficient method was presented for performing "exact" quantum calculations for the three-body rovibrational Hamiltonian, within the helicity-conserving approximation. This approach makes use of a certain three-body "effective potential," enabling the same bend angle basis set to be employed for all values of the rotational quantum numbers, J, K and M. In the present work, the method is extended to incorporate Coriolis coupling, for which the relevant matrix elements are derived exactly. These can be used to solve the full three-body rovibrational problem, in the standard Jacobi coordinate vector embedding. Generalization of the method for coupled kinetic energy operators arising from other coordinate systems, embeddings, and/or system sizes, is also discussed.

  9. Rapid PCR amplification of DNA utilizing Coriolis effects.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Gustaf; Skote, Martin; Malmqvist, Mats; Falk, Mats; Asp, Allan; Svanvik, Nicke; Johansson, Arne

    2006-08-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented that utilizes Coriolis and centrifugal effects, produced by rotation of the sample disc, in order to increase internal circulatory rates, and with them temperature homogenization and mixing speeds. A proof of concept has been presented by testing a rapid 45-cycle PCR DNA amplification protocol. During the repeated heating and cooling that constitutes a PCR process, the 100 microL samples were rotated at a speed equivalent to an effective acceleration of gravity of 7,000 g. A cycle time of 20.5 s gave a total process time of 15 min to complete the 45 cycles. A theoretical and numerical analysis of the resulting flow, which describes the increased mixing and temperature homogenization, is presented. The device gives excellent reaction speed efficiency, which is beneficial for rapid PCR.

  10. A Type-2 fuzzy data fusion approach for building reliable weighted protein interaction networks with application in protein complex detection.

    PubMed

    Mehranfar, Adele; Ghadiri, Nasser; Kouhsar, Morteza; Golshani, Ashkan

    2017-09-01

    Detecting the protein complexes is an important task in analyzing the protein interaction networks. Although many algorithms predict protein complexes in different ways, surveys on the interaction networks indicate that about 50% of detected interactions are false positives. Consequently, the accuracy of existing methods needs to be improved. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to detect the protein complexes in 'noisy' protein interaction data. First, we integrate several biological data sources to determine the reliability of each interaction and determine more accurate weights for the interactions. A data fusion component is used for this step, based on the interval type-2 fuzzy voter that provides an efficient combination of the information sources. This fusion component detects the errors and diminishes their effect on the detection protein complexes. So in the first step, the reliability scores have been assigned for every interaction in the network. In the second step, we have proposed a general protein complex detection algorithm by exploiting and adopting the strong points of other algorithms and existing hypotheses regarding real complexes. Finally, the proposed method has been applied for the yeast interaction datasets for predicting the interactions. The results show that our framework has a better performance regarding precision and F-measure than the existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of the Coriolis force on the stability of rotating magnetic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of the Coriolis force on the stability of rotating magnetic stars in hydrostatic equilibrium is investigated by using the method of the energy principle. It is shown that this effect is to inhibit the onset of instability.

  12. The effect of the Coriolis force on the stability of rotating magnetic stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of the Coriolis force on the stability of rotating magnetic stars in hydrostatic equilibrium is investigated by using the method of the energy principle. It is shown that this effect is to inhibit the onset of instability.

  13. Study on sheath formation in astroplasmas under Coriolis force and behavior of levitated dust grains forming nebulon around Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, G. C.; Chakraborty, Rupa

    2011-04-01

    Pseudopotential analysis has been employed to derive a modified Sagdeev potential-like wave equation for studying the sheath formation in astroplasma problems. Complexity in process urges to derive the new findings numerically by using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Main emphasis has been given to investigate the role of Coriolis force on the formation and changes on coherent structures of sheath suitably thought for the configuration of astroplasma. Study determines the sheath thickness and potential variation with the interaction of Coriolis force and thereby finds dynamical behavior of levitated dust grains into the evaluated sheath region. This leads to find the dust size, and corresponding forces generated on dust grain with a view to relate theoretical observations to real astrophysical phenomena and could be of interest to explain formation of dust clouds in spaces. To support the observations, we some thoughtful numeric plasma parameters for the case of Earth's Moon, have taken for graphical presentations. Overall observations expect the study could be of interest as an advanced knowledge in rotating astroplasmas, and expecting many salient features which are yet to be known.

  14. A New Look at the Physics of Rossby Waves: A Mechanical-Coriolis Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of the latitudinal variation of the Coriolis parameter serves as a mechanical barrier that causes a mass convergence for the poleward geostrophic flow and divergence for the equatorward flow, just as a sloped bottom terrain does to a crossover flow. Part of the mass convergence causes pressure to rise along the uphill pathway while the remaining part is detoured to cross isobars out of the pathway. This mechanically excited cross-isobar flow, being unbalanced geostrophically, is subject to a "half-cycle" Coriolis force that only turns it to the direction parallel to isobars without continuing to turn it further back to its opposite direction because the geostrophic balance is reestablished once the flow becomes parallel to isobars. Such oscillation, involving a barrier-induced mass convergence, a mechanical deflection, and a half-cycle Coriolis deflection, is referred to as a mechanical-Coriolis oscillation with a "barrier-induced half-cycle Coriolis force" as its restoring force. Through a complete cycle of the mechanical-Coriolis oscillation, a new geostrophically balanced flow pattern emerges to the left of the existing flow when facing the uphill (downhill) direction of the barrier in the North (Southern) Hemisphere. The β-barrier is always sloped towards the pole in both hemispheres, responsible for the westward propagation of Rossby waves.

  15. Numerical analysis of Coriolis effect on low-head hydraulic turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Zhou, X. Z.; Zhang, J.; Zeng, C. J.; Luo, Y. Y.; Xu, W.; Wang, Z. W.

    2016-11-01

    For the low-head hydropower station, the operating head is low, and the turbine intake channel is relatively short. The turbine internal flow behaviour can be influenced by fluid flows in the upstream reservoir easily, then it would influence the turbine hydraulic performance. Water flows in the upstream reservoir can be influenced by the Coriolis force by the Earth rotation, and it differs at the different Rossby number. In this paper, the Coriolis effect on the approach flows and the turbine performances are investigated numerically for the low-head units. Firstly, the Coriolis effect (under the different latitudes and the same characteristic length scale) on reservoir flows was predicted. Secondly, the prototype performance of a bulb-type turbine was simulated including the reservoir flow with the Coriolis effect, and then the effect on the turbine performance is be discussed. Results show that the flow field in the upstream reservoir at the low Rossby number, the ratio of inertial force to Coriolis force, can sufficiently influence the turbine intake flows and the turbine performances. Adjusting the side-wall distance can reduce the Coriolis effects.

  16. Coriolis analysis of several high-resolution infrared bands of bicyclo[1 1 1]pentane-d0 and -d1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Martin, M. A.; Nibler, J. W.; Maki, A.; Weber, A.; Blake, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption spectra have been analyzed for two bicyclo[1 1 1]pentane isotopologues, C5H8 (-d0) and C5H7D (-d1), where in the latter the D-atom replaces a hydrogen on the C3 symmetry axis such that the molecular symmetry is reduced from D3h to C3v. Two (a2″) parallel bands, ν17 and ν18, of bicyclopentane-d0 were studied and the former was found to be profoundly affected by Coriolis coupling with the nearby (e') perpendicular band, ν11. Weaker coupling was observed between the ν18 band and the nearby ν13(e') band, for which fewer transitions could be assigned. For bicyclopentane-d1, the ν5 parallel band was also studied along with the nearby ν15(e') band to which it is coupled through a similar type of Coriolis resonance. For both isotopologues, quantum calculations (B3LYP/cc-pVTZ) done at the anharmonic level were very helpful in unraveling the complexities caused by the Coriolis interactions, provided that care is taken in identifying the effect of any Coriolis resonances on the theoretical values of αB and q rovibrational parameters. The ground state B0 constants were found to be 0.2399412(2) and 0.2267506(11) cm-1 for the -d0 and -d1 isotopologues. The difference yields an Rs substitution value of 2.0309(2) Å for the position of the axial H atom relative to the -d0 center of mass, a result in good accord with a corresponding Ra value of 2.044(6) Å from electron diffraction data. For both isotopologues, the theoretical results from the quantum calculations are in good agreement with all corresponding values determined from the spectra.

  17. Coriolis-coupled wave packet dynamics of H + HLi reaction.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, R; Mahapatra, S

    2006-05-11

    We investigated the effect of Coriolis coupling (CC) on the initial state-selected dynamics of H+HLi reaction by a time-dependent wave packet (WP) approach. Exact quantum scattering calculations were obtained by a WP propagation method based on the Chebyshev polynomial scheme and ab initio potential energy surface of the reacting system. Partial wave contributions up to the total angular momentum J=30 were found to be necessary for the scattering of HLi in its vibrational and rotational ground state up to a collision energy approximately 0.75 eV. For each J value, the projection quantum number K was varied from 0 to min (J, K(max)), with K(max)=8 until J=20 and K(max)=4 for further higher J values. This is because further higher values of K do not have much effect on the dynamics and also because one wishes to maintain the large computational overhead for each calculation within the affordable limit. The initial state-selected integral reaction cross sections and thermal rate constants were calculated by summing up the contributions from all partial waves. These were compared with our previous results on the title system, obtained within the centrifugal sudden and J-shifting approximations, to demonstrate the impact of CC on the dynamics of this system.

  18. Numerical Experiments on Homogeneous Strained Turbulence Subjected to Coriolis Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, K.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Abid, R.; Speziale, C. G.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Homogeneous turbulent flows with various combinations of strain-rate, rotation rate and coriolis force capture some important aspects of more complex flows with streamline curvature and rotation. Presently, a situation is considered in which as a box of turbulence rotates, strain axes rotate with it. This is to be contrasted with the elliptic streamline flow in which the strain axes are fixed in an inertial frame. The elliptic flow is known to exhibit (inviscid) growth of turbulent energy and one might expect even more rapid growth with the strain-axes following the box. Instead, it is found that the sign of the Reynolds shear stress is reversed leading to a negative production term for turbulent energy. Partial understanding of the phenomenon is obtained from a consideration of the rotation of inertial waves relative to the strain axes as well as the "pressure-less" RDT argument put forward by Cambon etal. [J. Fluid Mech, 278, 175]. Some comparisons with the predictions of second-order closure models will be presented.

  19. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  20. Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: A Type Ia with CSM Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C.; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Winkler, P. Frank; Hendrick, Sean Patrick

    2014-08-01

    A small but growing subclass of Type Ia supernovae show signs of interaction with material in a circumstellar medium (CSM), likely the result of significant pre-supernova mass loss from the progenitor system. Among Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), only the remnant of Kepler's supernova has been shown to be interacting with a dense CSM. We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm$^{-3}$, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements towards regions of higher than average density. Thisdensity is similar to that in Kepler's SNR. Optical images show H$\\alpha$ emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the ``18 $\\mu$m'' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 $\\mu$m. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic AGB progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

  1. The dispersion of magnetic-Coriolis waves in planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, O. P.; Davidson, P. A.

    2017-07-01

    We consider the dispersion of waves in a rapidly rotating, Boussinesq fluid which is threaded by a magnetic field and stirred by slowly gravitating buoyant blobs. Motivated by dynamics in the core of the Earth, we focus on the evolution of inertial-Alfvén wave packets radiated from the buoyant anomalies. These waves resemble conventional low-frequency inertial waves, in the sense that energy disperses on the fast timescale of the background rotation rate, though they also exhibit slower Alfvén-like propagation along magnetic field lines. When the magnetic field is uniform, inertial-Alfvén waves automatically focus energy radiation onto the rotation axis, a property they share with conventional low-frequency inertial waves in the hydrodynamic case, and which ensures that they dominate the dispersion pattern. However, the situation changes significantly when the magnetic field, B, is non-uniform. In particular, we show any non-uniformity of B causes inertial-Alfvén waves to evolve into a more general form of magnetic-Coriolis (MC) wave, and that these waves refract, dispersing somewhat off-axis. Moreover, if inertial-Alfvén waves are launched near the equator they can be confined to low latitudes by a critical layer at which the axial group velocity drops to zero. Given that the magnetic field in a planetary core is inevitably non-uniform, we conclude that quasi-geostrophy is most likely achieved through a combination of weakly modified inertial waves and a form of slightly off-axis MC wave in which the inertial and Alfvén frequencies are comparable.

  2. The effectiveness of Coriolis dampening of convection during aircraft high-g arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    Directional solidification data for metal samples in KC-135 parabolic maneuvers are examined to determine evidence for Coriolis dampening of convection. Microstructural and materials properties data are examined for iron carbon, immiscible, and superalloy systems. By comparison of low-g data and high-g data with those of one-g control samples, it is determined that there is no evidence that Coriolis dampening of convective flow is effective during the 1.8 g KC-135 high-g maneuvers. A first approximation model for the high-g arc is proposed. The model yields a centrifugal radius of 20,480 ft and an angular speed of 0.397 RPM. Comparison to centrifugal solidification experiments (for an equal acceleration) where Coriolis melt growth stabilization is significant indicates that the KC-135 high-g arc is less effective in dampening convection by a factor of 100. This large difference in Coriolis dampening of convection might be taken advantage of for experiments where separation of centrifugal acceeration and Coriolis acceleration is desirable.

  3. Coriolis effects on rotating Hele-Shaw flows: a conformal-mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Miranda, José A; Gadêlha, Hermes; Dorsey, Alan T

    2010-12-01

    The zero surface tension fluid-fluid interface dynamics in a radial Hele-Shaw cell driven by both injection and rotation is studied by a conformal-mapping approach. The situation in which one of the fluids is inviscid and has negligible density is analyzed. When Coriolis force effects are ignored, exact solutions of the zero surface tension rotating Hele-Shaw problem with injection reveal suppression of cusp singularities for sufficiently high rotation rates. We study how the Coriolis force affects the time-dependent solutions of the problem, and the development of finite time singularities. By employing Richardson's harmonic moments approach we obtain conformal maps which describe the time evolution of the fluid boundary. Our results demonstrate that the inertial Coriolis contribution plays an important role in determining the time for cusp formation. Moreover, it introduces a phase drift that makes the evolving patterns rotate. The Coriolis force acts against centrifugal effects, promoting (inhibiting) cusp breakdown if the more viscous and dense fluid lies outside (inside) the interface. Despite the presence of Coriolis effects, the occurrence of finger bending events has not been detected in the exact solutions.

  4. High-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the Coriolis coupled ground state and ν7 mode of ketenimine.

    PubMed

    Bane, Michael K; Robertson, Evan G; Thompson, Christopher D; Medcraft, Chris; Appadoo, Dominique R T; McNaughton, Don

    2011-06-21

    High resolution FTIR spectra of the short lived species ketenimine have been recorded in the regions 390-1300 cm(-1) and 20-110 cm(-1) using synchrotron radiation. Two thousand six hundred sixty transitions of the ν(7) band centered at 693 cm(-1) and 126 far-IR rotational transitions have been assigned. Rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters for the ν(7) mode were determined and local Fermi and b-axis Coriolis interactions with 2ν(12) are treated. A further refinement of the ground state, ν(12) and ν(8) parameters was also achieved, including the treatment of previously unrecognized ac-axis and ab-axis second order perturbations to the ground state.

  5. Synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopic investigation and ab initio calculations of 3-oxetanone: observation and analysis of the ν7 band and the Coriolis coupled ν16 and ν20 bands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziqiu; van Wijngaarden, Jennifer

    2012-09-27

    Rotationally resolved vibrational spectra of the four-membered heterocycle 3-oxetanone (c-C(3)H(4)O(2)) have been investigated in the 360-720 cm(-1) region with a resolution of 0.000 959 cm(-1) using synchrotron radiation from the Canadian Light Source. The observed bands correspond to motions best described as C═O deformation out-of-plane (ν(20)) at 399.6 cm(-1), C═O deformation in-plane (ν(16)) at 448.2 cm(-1), and the ring deformation (ν(7)) at 685.0 cm(-1). Infrared ground state combination differences along with previously reported pure rotational transitions were used to obtain the ground state spectroscopic parameters. Band centers, rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for the ν(7), ν(16), and ν(20) vibrational excited states were accurately determined by fitting a total of 10,319 assigned rovibrational transitions in a global analysis. The two adjacent carbonyl deformation bands, ν(16) and ν(20), were found to be mutually perturbed through a first-order a-type Coriolis interaction which was accounted for in the multiband analysis. The band centers agree within 3% of the ab initio estimates using DFT theory.

  6. Dynamically Consistent Shallow-Atmosphere Equations with a Complete Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tort, Marine; Dubos, Thomas; Bouchut, François; Zeitlin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Dynamically Consistent Shallow-Atmosphere Equations with a Complete Coriolis force Marine Tort1, Thomas Dubos1, François Bouchut2 & Vladimir Zeitlin1,3 1 Laboratoire of Dynamical Meteorology, Univ. P. and M. Curie, Ecole Normale Supérieure, and Ecole Polytechnique, FRANCE 2 Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Mathématiques Appliquées, FRANCE 3 Institut Universitaire de France Atmospheric and oceanic motion are usually modeled within the shallow-fluid approximation, which simplifies the 3D spherical geometry. For dynamical consistency, i.e. to ensure conservation laws for potential vorticity, energy and angular momentum, the horizontal component of the Coriolis force is neglected. Here new equation sets combining consistently a simplified shallow-fluid geometry with a complete Coriolis force is presented. The derivation invokes Hamilton's principle of least action with an approximate Lagrangian capturing the small increase with height of the solid-body entrainment velocity due to planetary rotation. A three-dimensional compressible model and a one-layer shallow-water model are obtained. The latter extends previous work done on the f-plane and β-plane. Preliminary numerical results confirm the accuracy of the 3D model within the range of parameters for which the equations are relevant. These new models could be useful to incorporate a full Coriolis force into existing numerical models and to disentangle the effects of the shallow-atmosphere approximation from those of the traditional approximation. Related papers: Tort M., Dubos T., Bouchut F. and Zeitlin V. Consistent shallow-water equations on the rotating sphere with complete Coriolis force and topography. J. Fluid Mech. (under revisions) Tort M. and Dubos T. Dynamically consistent shallow-atmosphere equations with a complete Coriolis force. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. (DOI: 10.1002/qj.2274)

  7. Semi-active on-off damping control of a dynamic vibration absorber using Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Viet Duc

    2012-07-01

    A passive dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) moving along a pendulum can cause the nonlinear Coriolis damping to reduce the pendulum swing. This paper proposes a simple semi-active on-off damping controller to improve the passive Coriolis DVA. The aim of the on-off damping control is to amplify the DVA resonance motion to increase the energy dissipated. Moreover, the paper finds the analytical solution of the harmonic vibration of semi-active controlled system. The accuracy of the analytical formulas and the superior performance of the semi-active DVA are verified by numerical simulations.

  8. Nonlinear bending-torsional vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  9. Nonlinear vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by conparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  10. Classical Solutions to Semi-geostrophic System with Variable Coriolis Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingrui; Cullen, Michael; Feldman, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    We prove the short time existence and uniqueness of smooth solutions (in {C^{k+2,α}} with {k ≥q 2} ) to the 2-D semi-geostrophic system and the semi-geostrophic shallow water system with variable Coriolis parameter f and periodic boundary conditions, under the natural convexity condition on the initial data. The dual space used in analysis of the semi-geostrophic system with constant f is not available for the variable Coriolis parameter case, and we develop a time-stepping procedure in Lagrangian coordinates in the physical space to overcome this difficulty.

  11. A novel time varying signal processing method for Coriolis mass flowmeter.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ting-Ao; Tu, Ya-Qing; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2014-06-01

    The precision of frequency tracking method and phase difference calculation method affects the measurement precision of Coriolis Mass Flowmeter directly. To improve the accuracy of the mass flowrate, a novel signal processing method for Coriolis Mass Flowmeter is proposed for this time varying signal, which is comprised of a modified adaptive lattice notch filter and a revised sliding recursive discrete-time Fourier transform algorithm. The method cannot only track the change of frequency continuously, but also ensure the calculation accuracy when measuring phase difference. The computational load of the proposed method is small with higher accuracy. Simulation and experiment results show that the proposed method is effective.

  12. Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins

    SciTech Connect

    Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Attanda, Wikayatou; Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine; Craescu, Constantin T.; Roussel, Pascal; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Oestlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J.; and others

    2011-12-10

    Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome ( Increment 607-656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

  13. Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins

    PubMed Central

    Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Attanda, Wikayatou; Kondé, Emilie; Tellier-Lebègue, Carine; Craescu, Constantin T.; Gombault, Aurélie; Roussel, Pascal; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Östlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J.; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Buendia, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome (Δ607–656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function. PMID:21993218

  14. The effective intensity of Coriolis, cross-coupling stimulation is gravitoinertial force dependent - Implications for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gravity on the severity of the Coriolis-induced motion sickness was investigated in ten individuals subjected to high and low G-force phases of parabolic flight maneuvers using constant level Coriolis, cross-coupled angular acceleration stimulation. Using seven levels of severity in the diagnosis of motion sickness, it was found that the subjects were less susceptible at 0 G than at +2 Gz, and that the perceived intensity and provocativeness of Coriolis stimulation decreased in 0 G and increased in +2 Gz relative to the +1 Gz baseline values. The changes in the apparent intensity of Coriolis stimulation occur virtually immediately when the background gravitatioinertial force level is varied. These findings explain why the Skylab astronauts were refractory to motion sickness during Coriolis stimulation in-flight.

  15. Quantitative interactions between the A-type K+ current and inositol trisphosphate receptors regulate intraneuronal Ca2+ waves and synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ashhad, Sufyan; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    The A-type potassium current has been implicated in the regulation of several physiological processes. Here, we explore a role for the A-type potassium current in regulating the release of calcium through inositol trisphosphate receptors (InsP3R) that reside on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. To do this, we constructed morphologically realistic, conductance-based models equipped with kinetic schemes that govern several calcium signalling modules and pathways, and constrained the distributions and properties of constitutive components by experimental measurements from these neurons. Employing these models, we establish a bell-shaped dependence of calcium release through InsP3Rs on the density of A-type potassium channels, during the propagation of an intraneuronal calcium wave initiated through established protocols. Exploring the sensitivities of calcium wave initiation and propagation to several underlying parameters, we found that ER calcium release critically depends on dendritic diameter and that wave initiation occurred at branch points as a consequence of a high surface area to volume ratio of oblique dendrites. Furthermore, analogous to the role of A-type potassium channels in regulating spike latency, we found that an increase in the density of A-type potassium channels led to increases in the latency and the temporal spread of a propagating calcium wave. Next, we incorporated kinetic models for the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signalling components and a calcium-controlled plasticity rule into our model and demonstrate that the presence of mGluRs induced a leftward shift in a Bienenstock–Cooper–Munro-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we show that the A-type potassium current could regulate the relative contribution of ER calcium to synaptic plasticity induced either through 900 pulses of various stimulus frequencies or through theta burst stimulation. Our results establish a novel form of interaction

  16. Myths, Misconceptions, and Misunderstandings: A Different Spin on Coriolis--Applying Frame of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best interpret the natural world (and presents alternative explanations), but it offers a rich…

  17. Myths, Misconceptions, and Misunderstandings: A Different Spin on Coriolis--Applying Frame of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best interpret the natural world (and presents alternative explanations), but it offers a rich…

  18. Mode competition and destabilization of microfluidic channel flows by the Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Saunak; Saha, Sandeep; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-11-01

    Understanding flow stability in inertial microfluidics is very important due to its increased application in medical and chemical engineering. On a steady rotating platform centrifugal actuation drives fluid flow but Coriolis force can destabilize the flow and enhance mixing in a short span. We investigate the role of Coriolis force in micro-mixing and the structure of the roll-cells formed in rotating channel flow using linear stability theory. We conduct a parametric study at different rotation numbers, Reynolds number, axial and spanwise wavenumbers. Our results reveal existence of multiple competing unstable modes (Types I to IV) due to Coriolis force: Types I and II have been reported in literature and are responsible for the formation of evenly-spaced roll-cells. We find new instabilities (Types III and IV) which contribute to the formation of twisted roll cells. The existence of the instabilities is clearly demarcated on a regime map to assist future experiments to identify them. The kinetic energy budget has been analyzed to gain insight into the mechanism of energy transfer by Coriolis force from the mean flow to the perturbations. We make a qualitative comparison of roll-cells predicted by linear stability with previously reported experiments.

  19. Nonlinear flap-lag-extensional vibrations of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the natural frequencies, steady state deflections and mode shapes of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The governing coupled equations of flap lag extensional motion are derived including the effects of large precone and retaining geometric nonlinearities up to second degree. The Galerkin method, with nonrotating normal modes, is used for the solution of both steady state nonlinear equations and linear perturbation equations. Parametric indicating the individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the steady state deflection, natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating blades are presented. It is indicated that the second degree geometric nonlinear terms, which vanish for zero precone, can produce frequency changes of engineering significance. Further confirmation of the validity of including those generated by MSC NASTRAN. It is indicated that the linear and nonlinear Coriolis effects must be included in analyzing thick blades. The Coriolis effects are significant on the first flatwise and the first edgewise modes.

  20. The influence of Coriolis forces on gyroscopic motion of spinning blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisto, F.; Chang, A.; Sutcu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Turbomachine blades on spinning and precessing rotors experience gyroscopically induced instabilities and forcing. With vehicle-mounted turbomachines, either constant or harmonic precession occurs, depending on vehicle or mount motion. Responses of uniform cantilever beams at arbitrary stagger, subjected to the noted rotor motion, are predicted in both self-excited and forced-excitation modes taking into account Coriolis acceleration.

  1. Influence of Coriolis forces on the structure and evolution of wind-turbine wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is combined with a turbine model to investigate the effect of Coriolis forces on the structure and evolution of wind-turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the turbulent wake flow, two set of simulations are performed. In the first set of simulations, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow is driven by the geostrophic forces including the effect of Earth's rotation, while in the second case, the ABL flow is driven by a unidirectional pressure gradient forcing. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis forces significantly affect the spatial distribution of the mean velocity deficit and turbulence statistics in the wake region. In particular, it is found that the Coriolis effect, responsible for vertical wind veer, has important lateral wake stretching effects, which in turn significantly impacts the wake recovery and wake meandering characteristics downwind of the turbines. We also apply the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to LES data of the wake. The results indicate a very high correlation between the most energetic modes and both maximum velocity deficit and wake meandering characteristics.

  2. Geostrophic balance with a full Coriolis Force: implications for low latitutde studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, M. de la Torre

    2002-01-01

    In its standard form, geostrophic balance uses a partial representation of the Coriolis force. The resulting formation has a singularity at the equator, and violates mass and momentum conservation. When the horizontal projection of the planetary rotation vector is considered, the singularity at the equator disappears, continuity can be preserved, and quasigeostrophy can be formulated at planetary scale.

  3. Influence of the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    In this study, large-eddy simulation combined with a turbine model is used to investigate the effect of vertical wind veer associated with the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the wake, two cases are considered. In the first case, atmospheric boundary-layer flow is driven by a geostrophic wind, including the effect of Earth's rotation and the Coriolis force. In the second case, the boundary-layer flow is unidirectional and is forced by an imposed pressure gradient. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis force significantly affects the aerodynamics of the wake including the mean velocity deficit, turbulence statistics, and wake-meandering characteristics downwind of the turbine. In particular, when the flow is forced by a geostrophic wind, vertical wind veer causes a skewed spatial structure in the wake. Moreover, the presence of lateral wind shear, in addition to the vertical one, enhances the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent momentum flux. This leads to a larger flow entrainment and, thus, a faster wake recovery compared to the case forced by unidirectional pressure gradient. Consistent with this result, wake meandering is also stronger in both lateral and vertical directions in the case of geostrophic forcing compared to the case with pressure-gradient forcing.

  4. Coriolis-induced cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Hofer, K

    2001-04-01

    Using venous occlusion plethysmography, Sunahara et al. reported that Coriolis-induced nausea was accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow, suggesting a decrease in sympathetic activity to this vascular bed. No significant blood pressure and heart rate changes were observed. Vasodilation of the limbs theoretically impairs orthostatic tolerance, particularly if blood flow is shown to increase simultaneously in the lower limbs. This study examined the latter possibility. Seventeen subjects were exposed to the Coriolis cross-coupling effects induced by 20 RPM yaw rotation, and a simultaneous 45 degrees pitch forward head movement in the sagittal plane every 12 s. Forearm and calf skin blood flow were monitored in real-time using laser Doppler flowmetry (PeriFlux 4001). Our results indicated a significant (p < 0.001) simultaneous forearm and calf skin blood flow increase as a result of Coriolis cross-coupling across all 15 susceptible subjects. No significant changes in blood pressure and heart rate were observed. Coriolis-induced cardiovascular changes may confound previous reports on reduced G tolerance using ground-based centrifuges that invariably evoke cross-coupling effects.

  5. Use of Steinhausen's model for describing periodic Coriolis star nystagmus. [biodynamics of semicircular canal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentinuzzi, M.

    1973-01-01

    Phase lag, maximal slow phase velocity, and beat frequency were measured in periodic Coriolis star nystagmus. The results have been described by Steinhausen's model of the semicircular canal system. Estimates of the biophysical constants have been obtained. It is concluded that this model is a good functional approximation for describing, and also for interpreting, the behavior of the system.

  6. Dynamics of viscous fingers in rotating Hele-Shaw cells with Coriolis effects.

    PubMed

    Gadêlha, Hermes; Brito, Nielison; Miranda, José A

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of experimental and theoretical works have been addressing various aspects of the viscous fingering formation in rotating Hele-Shaw cells. However, only a few of them consider the influence of Coriolis forces. The studies including Coriolis effects are mostly restricted to the high-viscosity-contrast limit and rely on either purely linear stability analyses or intensive numerical simulations. We approach the problem analytically and use a modified Darcy's law including the exact form of the Coriolis effects to execute a mode-coupling analysis of the system. By imposing no restrictions on the viscosity contrast A (dimensionless viscosity difference) we go beyond linear stages and examine the onset of nonlinearities. Our results indicate that when Coriolis effects are taken into account, an interesting interplay between the Reynolds number Re and A arises. This leads to important changes in the stability and morphological features of the emerging interfacial patterns. We contrast our mode-coupling approach with previous theoretical models proposed in the literature.

  7. Reaching during virtual rotation: context specific compensations for expected coriolis forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, J. V.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Subjects who are in an enclosed chamber rotating at constant velocity feel physically stationary but make errors when pointing to targets. Reaching paths and endpoints are deviated in the direction of the transient inertial Coriolis forces generated by their arm movements. By contrast, reaching movements made during natural, voluntary torso rotation seem to be accurate, and subjects are unaware of the Coriolis forces generated by their movements. This pattern suggests that the motor plan for reaching movements uses a representation of body motion to prepare compensations for impending self-generated accelerative loads on the arm. If so, stationary subjects who are experiencing illusory self-rotation should make reaching errors when pointing to a target. These errors should be in the direction opposite the Coriolis accelerations their arm movements would generate if they were actually rotating. To determine whether such compensations exist, we had subjects in four experiments make visually open-loop reaches to targets while they were experiencing compelling illusory self-rotation and displacement induced by rotation of a complex, natural visual scene. The paths and endpoints of their initial reaching movements were significantly displaced leftward during counterclockwise illusory rotary displacement and rightward during clockwise illusory self-displacement. Subjects reached in a curvilinear path to the wrong place. These reaching errors were opposite in direction to the Coriolis forces that would have been generated by their arm movements during actual torso rotation. The magnitude of path curvature and endpoint errors increased as the speed of illusory self-rotation increased. In successive reaches, movement paths became straighter and endpoints more accurate despite the absence of visual error feedback or tactile feedback about target location. When subjects were again presented a stationary scene, their initial reaches were indistinguishable from pre

  8. Gravitoinertial force background level affects adaptation to coriolis force perturbations of reaching movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Dizio, P.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the combined effects on reaching movements of the transient, movement-dependent Coriolis forces and the static centrifugal forces generated in a rotating environment. Specifically, we assessed the effects of comparable Coriolis force perturbations in different static force backgrounds. Two groups of subjects made reaching movements toward a just-extinguished visual target before rotation began, during 10 rpm counterclockwise rotation, and after rotation ceased. One group was seated on the axis of rotation, the other 2.23 m away. The resultant of gravity and centrifugal force on the hand was 1.0 g for the on-center group during 10 rpm rotation, and 1.031 g for the off-center group because of the 0.25 g centrifugal force present. For both groups, rightward Coriolis forces, approximately 0.2 g peak, were generated during voluntary arm movements. The endpoints and paths of the initial per-rotation movements were deviated rightward for both groups by comparable amounts. Within 10 subsequent reaches, the on-center group regained baseline accuracy and straight-line paths; however, even after 40 movements the off-center group had not resumed baseline endpoint accuracy. Mirror-image aftereffects occurred when rotation stopped. These findings demonstrate that manual control is disrupted by transient Coriolis force perturbations and that adaptation can occur even in the absence of visual feedback. An increase, even a small one, in background force level above normal gravity does not affect the size of the reaching errors induced by Coriolis forces nor does it affect the rate of reacquiring straight reaching paths; however, it does hinder restoration of reaching accuracy.

  9. Reaching during virtual rotation: context specific compensations for expected coriolis forces.

    PubMed

    Cohn, J V; DiZio, P; Lackner, J R

    2000-06-01

    Subjects who are in an enclosed chamber rotating at constant velocity feel physically stationary but make errors when pointing to targets. Reaching paths and endpoints are deviated in the direction of the transient inertial Coriolis forces generated by their arm movements. By contrast, reaching movements made during natural, voluntary torso rotation seem to be accurate, and subjects are unaware of the Coriolis forces generated by their movements. This pattern suggests that the motor plan for reaching movements uses a representation of body motion to prepare compensations for impending self-generated accelerative loads on the arm. If so, stationary subjects who are experiencing illusory self-rotation should make reaching errors when pointing to a target. These errors should be in the direction opposite the Coriolis accelerations their arm movements would generate if they were actually rotating. To determine whether such compensations exist, we had subjects in four experiments make visually open-loop reaches to targets while they were experiencing compelling illusory self-rotation and displacement induced by rotation of a complex, natural visual scene. The paths and endpoints of their initial reaching movements were significantly displaced leftward during counterclockwise illusory rotary displacement and rightward during clockwise illusory self-displacement. Subjects reached in a curvilinear path to the wrong place. These reaching errors were opposite in direction to the Coriolis forces that would have been generated by their arm movements during actual torso rotation. The magnitude of path curvature and endpoint errors increased as the speed of illusory self-rotation increased. In successive reaches, movement paths became straighter and endpoints more accurate despite the absence of visual error feedback or tactile feedback about target location. When subjects were again presented a stationary scene, their initial reaches were indistinguishable from pre

  10. Gravitoinertial force background level affects adaptation to coriolis force perturbations of reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R; Dizio, P

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated the combined effects on reaching movements of the transient, movement-dependent Coriolis forces and the static centrifugal forces generated in a rotating environment. Specifically, we assessed the effects of comparable Coriolis force perturbations in different static force backgrounds. Two groups of subjects made reaching movements toward a just-extinguished visual target before rotation began, during 10 rpm counterclockwise rotation, and after rotation ceased. One group was seated on the axis of rotation, the other 2.23 m away. The resultant of gravity and centrifugal force on the hand was 1.0 g for the on-center group during 10 rpm rotation, and 1.031 g for the off-center group because of the 0.25 g centrifugal force present. For both groups, rightward Coriolis forces, approximately 0.2 g peak, were generated during voluntary arm movements. The endpoints and paths of the initial per-rotation movements were deviated rightward for both groups by comparable amounts. Within 10 subsequent reaches, the on-center group regained baseline accuracy and straight-line paths; however, even after 40 movements the off-center group had not resumed baseline endpoint accuracy. Mirror-image aftereffects occurred when rotation stopped. These findings demonstrate that manual control is disrupted by transient Coriolis force perturbations and that adaptation can occur even in the absence of visual feedback. An increase, even a small one, in background force level above normal gravity does not affect the size of the reaching errors induced by Coriolis forces nor does it affect the rate of reacquiring straight reaching paths; however, it does hinder restoration of reaching accuracy.

  11. Gravitoinertial force background level affects adaptation to coriolis force perturbations of reaching movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Dizio, P.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the combined effects on reaching movements of the transient, movement-dependent Coriolis forces and the static centrifugal forces generated in a rotating environment. Specifically, we assessed the effects of comparable Coriolis force perturbations in different static force backgrounds. Two groups of subjects made reaching movements toward a just-extinguished visual target before rotation began, during 10 rpm counterclockwise rotation, and after rotation ceased. One group was seated on the axis of rotation, the other 2.23 m away. The resultant of gravity and centrifugal force on the hand was 1.0 g for the on-center group during 10 rpm rotation, and 1.031 g for the off-center group because of the 0.25 g centrifugal force present. For both groups, rightward Coriolis forces, approximately 0.2 g peak, were generated during voluntary arm movements. The endpoints and paths of the initial per-rotation movements were deviated rightward for both groups by comparable amounts. Within 10 subsequent reaches, the on-center group regained baseline accuracy and straight-line paths; however, even after 40 movements the off-center group had not resumed baseline endpoint accuracy. Mirror-image aftereffects occurred when rotation stopped. These findings demonstrate that manual control is disrupted by transient Coriolis force perturbations and that adaptation can occur even in the absence of visual feedback. An increase, even a small one, in background force level above normal gravity does not affect the size of the reaching errors induced by Coriolis forces nor does it affect the rate of reacquiring straight reaching paths; however, it does hinder restoration of reaching accuracy.

  12. Reaching during virtual rotation: context specific compensations for expected coriolis forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, J. V.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Subjects who are in an enclosed chamber rotating at constant velocity feel physically stationary but make errors when pointing to targets. Reaching paths and endpoints are deviated in the direction of the transient inertial Coriolis forces generated by their arm movements. By contrast, reaching movements made during natural, voluntary torso rotation seem to be accurate, and subjects are unaware of the Coriolis forces generated by their movements. This pattern suggests that the motor plan for reaching movements uses a representation of body motion to prepare compensations for impending self-generated accelerative loads on the arm. If so, stationary subjects who are experiencing illusory self-rotation should make reaching errors when pointing to a target. These errors should be in the direction opposite the Coriolis accelerations their arm movements would generate if they were actually rotating. To determine whether such compensations exist, we had subjects in four experiments make visually open-loop reaches to targets while they were experiencing compelling illusory self-rotation and displacement induced by rotation of a complex, natural visual scene. The paths and endpoints of their initial reaching movements were significantly displaced leftward during counterclockwise illusory rotary displacement and rightward during clockwise illusory self-displacement. Subjects reached in a curvilinear path to the wrong place. These reaching errors were opposite in direction to the Coriolis forces that would have been generated by their arm movements during actual torso rotation. The magnitude of path curvature and endpoint errors increased as the speed of illusory self-rotation increased. In successive reaches, movement paths became straighter and endpoints more accurate despite the absence of visual error feedback or tactile feedback about target location. When subjects were again presented a stationary scene, their initial reaches were indistinguishable from pre

  13. Structural insights into the interaction of the ribosomal P stalk protein P2 with a type II ribosome-inactivating protein ricin

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaojiao; Zhu, Yuwei; Wang, Chongyuan; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) that depurinates A4324 at the sarcin-ricin loop of 28 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), thus inactivating the ribosome by preventing elongation factors from binding to the GTPase activation centre. Recent studies have disclosed that the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) of eukaryotic ribosomal P stalk proteins is involved in the process that RIPs target ribosome. However, the details of the molecular interaction between ricin and P stalk proteins remain unknown. Here, we report the structure of ricin-A chain (RTA) in a complex with the CTD of the human ribosomal protein P2. The structure shows that the Phe111, Leu113 and Phe114 residues of P2 insert into a hydrophobic pocket formed by the Tyr183, Arg235, Phe240 and Ile251 residues of RTA, while Asp115 of P2 forms hydrogen bonds with Arg235 of RTA. The key residues in RTA and P2 for complex formation were mutated, and their importance was determined by pull-down assays. The results from cell-free translation assays further confirmed that the interaction with P stalk proteins is essential for the inhibition of protein synthesis by RTA. Taken together, our results provide a structural basis that will improve our understanding of the process by which ricin targets the ribosome, which will benefit the development of effective small-molecule inhibitors for use as therapeutic agents. PMID:27886256

  14. The effective damping approach to design a dynamic vibration absorber using Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viet, L. D.; Anh, N. D.; Matsuhisa, H.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the vibration reduction of a pendulum structure with dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using Coriolis force is investigated. When the pendulum structure is subjected to a single harmonic excitation, the effective damping of Coriolis force is used with the second-order approximations to obtain the closed forms of optimal parameters of the DVA. The closed forms obtained show that the natural frequency of the absorber should be tuned to twice that of the pendulum. The closed forms of optimal parameters are verified by numerical optimization. The modified forms of optimal parameters are proposed to be used in case of general excitation. Base on this modified form, the design procedure is demonstrated by the numerical calculation of the free vibration and wind-induced vibration of a ropeway gondola.

  15. 'Coriolis resonance' within a rotating duct. [flow induced vibrations in centrifugal compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurosaka, M.; Caruthers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the unsteady disturbances of a fixed frequency within a radial duct rotating at a set speed is presented. The flow is assumed to be compressible, inviscid, and of a fluid which is a perfect gas. Equations are developed for the steady and the unsteady parts of the flow in cylindrical coordinates. The unsteady disturbances are expressed by Fourier decomposition in angular position, distance into the duct, and in time. It is found that a resonance is possible when the frequency of flow disturbances is twice the shaft-rotation frequency, considering only the radial and tangential disturbances and not the radial and circumferential disturbances. The particular point at which the resonance occurs indicates the occurrence is due to the Coriolis force, which is only present in the radial and tangential directions. It is noted that the Coriolis force can only be present in open-ended ducts, such as those found in centrifugal compressors.

  16. 'Coriolis resonance' within a rotating duct. [flow induced vibrations in centrifugal compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurosaka, M.; Caruthers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the unsteady disturbances of a fixed frequency within a radial duct rotating at a set speed is presented. The flow is assumed to be compressible, inviscid, and of a fluid which is a perfect gas. Equations are developed for the steady and the unsteady parts of the flow in cylindrical coordinates. The unsteady disturbances are expressed by Fourier decomposition in angular position, distance into the duct, and in time. It is found that a resonance is possible when the frequency of flow disturbances is twice the shaft-rotation frequency, considering only the radial and tangential disturbances and not the radial and circumferential disturbances. The particular point at which the resonance occurs indicates the occurrence is due to the Coriolis force, which is only present in the radial and tangential directions. It is noted that the Coriolis force can only be present in open-ended ducts, such as those found in centrifugal compressors.

  17. Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect.

    PubMed

    Haverkort, J W; de Blank, H J

    2012-07-01

    A radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a rotating cylindrical plasma, this Coriolis-pressure effect is canceled by the centrifugal effect responsible for the magnetorotational instability. In a magnetically confined toroidal plasma, a large aspect ratio expansion shows that only half of the effect is canceled. This analytical result is confirmed by numerical computations. When the plasma rotates faster toroidally in the core than near the edge, the effect can contribute to the formation of transport barriers by stabilizing MHD instabilities.

  18. The Coriolis-Coupled States v(6) = 1 and v(8) = 1 of DCOOH.

    PubMed

    Baskakov; Alanko; Koivusaari

    1999-11-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase infrared spectra of the Coriolis-perturbed nu(6) and nu(8) bands of deuterated formic acid DCOOH were measured with a resolution of ca. 0.003 cm(-1). Combined analysis of the 8977 IR transitions and all the available rotational data (from literature) in the ground state, as well as in the excited vibrational states v(6) = 1 and v(8) = 1 was carried out. The Coriolis coupling terms were determined and improved sets of rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters for the ground and excited vibrational states were obtained. The determined band centers are nu(0) (nu(8)) = 873.385046(12) cm(-1) and nu(0) (nu(6)) = 970.8889551(46) cm(-1). Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Hydrodynamics of the VanA-type VanS histidine kinase: an extended solution conformation and first evidence for interactions with vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Jones, Mary K.; Channell, Guy; Kelsall, Claire J.; Hughes, Charlotte S.; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Patching, Simon G.; Dinu, Vlad; Gillis, Richard B.; Adams, Gary G.; Harding, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    VanA-type resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in clinical enterococci is regulated by the VanSARA two-component signal transduction system. The nature of the molecular ligand that is recognised by the VanSA sensory component has not hitherto been identified. Here we employ purified, intact and active VanSA membrane protein (henceforth referred to as VanS) in analytical ultracentrifugation experiments to study VanS oligomeric state and conformation in the absence and presence of vancomycin. A combination of sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge (SEDFIT, SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG analysis) showed that VanS in the absence of the ligand is almost entirely monomeric (molar mass M = 45.7 kDa) in dilute aqueous solution with a trace amount of high molar mass material (M ~ 200 kDa). The sedimentation coefficient s suggests the monomer adopts an extended conformation in aqueous solution with an equivalent aspect ratio of ~(12 ± 2). In the presence of vancomycin over a 33% increase in the sedimentation coefficient is observed with the appearance of additional higher s components, demonstrating an interaction, an observation consistent with our circular dichroism measurements. The two possible causes of this increase in s – either a ligand induced dimerization and/or compaction of the monomer are considered. PMID:28397853

  20. Hydrodynamics of the VanA-type VanS histidine kinase: an extended solution conformation and first evidence for interactions with vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Jones, Mary K; Channell, Guy; Kelsall, Claire J; Hughes, Charlotte S; Ashcroft, Alison E; Patching, Simon G; Dinu, Vlad; Gillis, Richard B; Adams, Gary G; Harding, Stephen E

    2017-04-11

    VanA-type resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in clinical enterococci is regulated by the VanSARA two-component signal transduction system. The nature of the molecular ligand that is recognised by the VanSA sensory component has not hitherto been identified. Here we employ purified, intact and active VanSA membrane protein (henceforth referred to as VanS) in analytical ultracentrifugation experiments to study VanS oligomeric state and conformation in the absence and presence of vancomycin. A combination of sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge (SEDFIT, SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG analysis) showed that VanS in the absence of the ligand is almost entirely monomeric (molar mass M = 45.7 kDa) in dilute aqueous solution with a trace amount of high molar mass material (M ~ 200 kDa). The sedimentation coefficient s suggests the monomer adopts an extended conformation in aqueous solution with an equivalent aspect ratio of ~(12 ± 2). In the presence of vancomycin over a 33% increase in the sedimentation coefficient is observed with the appearance of additional higher s components, demonstrating an interaction, an observation consistent with our circular dichroism measurements. The two possible causes of this increase in s - either a ligand induced dimerization and/or compaction of the monomer are considered.

  1. A Study of The Impact of Full-component Coriolis Force on Regional Climate Modeling Over Tropical Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. F.; Juang, H. M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In most numerical weather prediction models, the cosine terms of the Coriolis force are omitted due to the use of shallow-atmosphere approximation with the angular momentum principle. However, by applying the non-hydrostatic deep momentum system, we can omit the angular momentum principle for regional modeling, while leaving the cosine terms, to calculate the full-component Coriolis force. From the governing equations, we can see that the cosine terms of the Coriolis force affect zonal wind (u) and vertical wind (w). The magnitude of the Coriolis force is determined by two factors: wind speed and latitude. The maximum of the cosine function happens when the latitude is zero degrees, which is at the equator. In this study, we conduct research into the effects of full-component Coriolis force in the nonhydrostatic regional spectral model (RSM) over tropical areas. Numerical experiments will be done to show the impact of the cosine terms of Coriolis force on wind field and precipitation structure. The differences in the two approaches will be compared in order to prove their relative effectiveness in climate prediction.

  2. The role of the complete Coriolis force in weakly stratified oceanic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tort, M.; Winters, K. B.; Ribstein, B.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean dynamics is usually described using the primitive equations based on the so-called traditional approximation (TA), where the Coriolis force associated with the horizontal component of the planetary rotation is neglected (also called non-traditional (NT) part proportional to cosΦ, see Fig 1.). However, recent studies have shown that the NT part of the Coriolis force plays a non-negligible dynamical role in some particular oceanic flows (see Gerkema et al., 2008 for an extensive review of NT effects for geophysical and astrophysical flows). Here we explore the relevance of including the NT component of the Coriolis force in ocean models, by presenting particular results regarding two different mid-latitude flow configurations after relaxing the TA: Propagation of wind-induced near-inertial waves (NIWs). Under the TA, NIWs propagate toward the equator, the inertially poleward propagation being internally reflected at a depth-independent critical latitude. The combined effects of the NT Coriolis force and weak stratification in the deep ocean leads to the existence of waveguides for sub-inertial waves, which get trapped and propagate further poleward (Winters et al., 2011). Here we consider storm-induced NIWs and their evolution in a non-linear Boussinesq model on the β-plane in the NT approximation. Preliminary results are presented concerning the behavior of the waves in a weakly stratified mixed-layer, where NT effects are expected to be significant. Inertial instability. A detailed linear stability analysis of the Bickley jet at large Rossby numbers in the NT approximation on the f-plane is performed for long waves in a continuously stratified Boussinesq model. For a sufficiently weak stratification, both symmetric and asymmetric inertial instabilities have substantially higher growth rates than in the TA while no discernible differences between the two approximations are observed for strong enough stratifications (Tort et al., 2015).

  3. Modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneveld, J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, M. J.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Mehendale, A.; Lötters, J. C.; Dijkstra, M.; Wiegerink, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, design and realization of micromachined Coriolis mass flow sensors. A lumped element model is used to analyze and predict the sensor performance. The model is used to design a sensor for a flow range of 0-1.2 g h-1 with a maximum pressure drop of 1 bar. The sensor was realized using semi-circular channels just beneath the surface of a silicon wafer. The channels have thin silicon nitride walls to minimize the channel mass with respect to the mass of the moving fluid. Special comb-shaped electrodes are integrated on the channels for capacitive readout of the extremely small Coriolis displacements. The comb-shaped electrode design eliminates the need for multiple metal layers and sacrificial layer etching methods. Furthermore, it prevents squeezed film damping due to a thin layer of air between the capacitor electrodes. As a result, the sensor operates at atmospheric pressure with a quality factor in the order of 40 and does not require vacuum packaging like other micro Coriolis flow sensors. Measurement results using water, ethanol, white gas and argon are presented, showing that the sensor measures true mass flow. The measurement error is currently in the order of 1% of the full scale of 1.2 g h-1.

  4. Congenitally blind individuals rapidly adapt to coriolis force perturbations of their reaching movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Reaching movements made to visual targets in a rotating room are initially deviated in path and endpoint in the direction of transient Coriolis forces generated by the motion of the arm relative to the rotating environment. With additional reaches, movements become progressively straighter and more accurate. Such adaptation can occur even in the absence of visual feedback about movement progression or terminus. Here we examined whether congenitally blind and sighted subjects without visual feedback would demonstrate adaptation to Coriolis forces when they pointed to a haptically specified target location. Subjects were tested pre-, per-, and postrotation at 10 rpm counterclockwise. Reaching to straight ahead targets prerotation, both groups exhibited slightly curved paths. Per-rotation, both groups showed large initial deviations of movement path and curvature but within 12 reaches on average had returned to prerotation curvature levels and endpoints. Postrotation, both groups showed mirror image patterns of curvature and endpoint to the per-rotation pattern. The groups did not differ significantly on any of the performance measures. These results provide compelling evidence that motor adaptation to Coriolis perturbations can be achieved on the basis of proprioceptive, somatosensory, and motor information in the complete absence of visual experience.

  5. The Coriolis effect on mass wasting during the Rheasilvia impact on asteroid Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, K. A.; Jaumann, R.; Krohn, K.; Spahn, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the Coriolis force on mass motion related to the Rheasilvia impact on asteroid Vesta. Observations by the NASA Dawn mission revealed a pattern of curved radial ridges, which are related to Coriolis-deflected mass-wasting during the initial modification stage of the crater. Utilizing the projected curvature of the mass-wasting trajectories, we developed a method that enabled investigation of the initial mass wasting of the Rheasilvia impact by observational means. We demonstrate that the Coriolis force can strongly affect the crater formation processes on rapidly rotating objects, and we derive the material's velocities (28.9 ± 22.5 m/s), viscosities (1.5-9.0 × 106 Pa s) and coefficients of friction (0.02-0.81) during the impact modification stage. The duration of the impact modification stage could be estimated to (1.1 ± 0.5) h. By analyzing the velocity distribution with respect to the topography, we deduce that the Rheasilvia impactor hit a heterogeneous target and that the initial crater walls were significantly steeper during the modification stage.

  6. Coriolis effect on dynamic stall in a vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Chen; Colonius, Tim

    2013-11-01

    The immersed boundary method is used to simulate the flow around a two-dimensional rotating NACA 0018 airfoil at moderate (sub-scale) Reynolds number in order to investigate separated flow occurring on a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The influence of dynamic stall on the forces is characterized as a function of tip-speed ratio. The influence of the Coriolis effect is also investigated by comparing the rotating airfoil to one undergoing a surging and pitching motion that produces an equivalent speed and angle-of-attack variation over the cycle. While the Coriolis force produces only small differences in the averaged forces, it plays an important role during dynamic stall. Due to the fact that the Coriolis force deflects the fluid and propagates the vortices differently, the wake-capturing phenomenon of the trailing edge vortex is observed in the flow around the rotating airfoil during a certain range of azimuthal angle. This wake-capturing of the trailing edge vortex leads to a large decrease in lift. However, because of the phase difference between each wake-capturing, there are only small differences in the average forces. The simulations are also compared to results from companion water-tunnel experiments at Caltech. This project is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  7. Congenitally blind individuals rapidly adapt to coriolis force perturbations of their reaching movements.

    PubMed

    DiZio, P; Lackner, J R

    2000-10-01

    Reaching movements made to visual targets in a rotating room are initially deviated in path and endpoint in the direction of transient Coriolis forces generated by the motion of the arm relative to the rotating environment. With additional reaches, movements become progressively straighter and more accurate. Such adaptation can occur even in the absence of visual feedback about movement progression or terminus. Here we examined whether congenitally blind and sighted subjects without visual feedback would demonstrate adaptation to Coriolis forces when they pointed to a haptically specified target location. Subjects were tested pre-, per-, and postrotation at 10 rpm counterclockwise. Reaching to straight ahead targets prerotation, both groups exhibited slightly curved paths. Per-rotation, both groups showed large initial deviations of movement path and curvature but within 12 reaches on average had returned to prerotation curvature levels and endpoints. Postrotation, both groups showed mirror image patterns of curvature and endpoint to the per-rotation pattern. The groups did not differ significantly on any of the performance measures. These results provide compelling evidence that motor adaptation to Coriolis perturbations can be achieved on the basis of proprioceptive, somatosensory, and motor information in the complete absence of visual experience.

  8. Effect of Coriolis force on counter-current chromatographic separation by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ikehata, Jun-Ichi; Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Kobayashi, Koji; Ohshima, Hisashi; Kitanaka, Susumu; Ito, Yoichiro

    2004-02-06

    The effect of Coriolis force on the counter-current chromatographic separation was studied using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with four different two-phase solvent systems including n-hexane-acetonitrile (ACN); tert-butyl methyl ether (MtBE)-aqueous 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (1:1); MtBE-ACN-aqueous 0.1% TFA (2:2:3); and 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000-12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate. Each separation was performed by eluting either the upper phase in the ascending mode or the lower phase in the descending mode, each in clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise column rotation. Better partition efficiencies were attained by the CW rotation in both mobile phases in all the two-phase solvent systems examined. The mathematical analysis also revealed the Coriolis force works favorably under the CW column rotation for both mobile phases. The overall results demonstrated that the Coriolis force produces substantial effects on CPC separation in both organic-aqueous and aqueous-aqueous two-phase systems.

  9. Vibration and buckling of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle and Coriolis forces on the vibration and buckling behavior of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The beam is considered to be clamped on the axis of rotation in one case, and off the axis of rotation in the other. Two methods are employed for the solution of the vibration problem: (1) one based upon a finite-difference approach using second order central differences for solution of the equations of motion, and (2) based upon the minimum of the total potential energy functional with a Ritz type of solution procedure making use of complex forms of shape functions for the dependent variables. The individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, thickness ratio and Coriolis forces on the natural frequencies and the buckling boundaries are presented. It is shown that the inclusion of Coriolis effects is necessary for blades of moderate to large thickness ratios while these effects are not so important for small thickness ratio blades. The possibility of buckling due to centrifugal softening terms for large values of precone and rotation is shown.

  10. High-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the ν6 and Coriolis perturbation allowed ν10 modes of ketenimine.

    PubMed

    Bane, Michael K; Robertson, Evan G; Thompson, Christopher D; Appadoo, Dominique R T; McNaughton, Don

    2011-12-14

    High-resolution FTIR spectra of the short lived species ketenimine have been recorded in the region 700-1300 cm(-1) and over 1500 transitions of the ν(10) and ν(6) modes have been assigned. Effective rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters for the v(10) = 1 and v(6) = 1 (excluding K(a) = 5) states were determined by co-fitting transitions, and treating strong a- and c-axis Coriolis interactions between them. Other perturbations attributed to interactions with the v(8) = 2 and v(12) = 1 + v(8) = 1 dark-states were also observed and treated. The ν(10) transitions are predicted to be inherently very weak, but are enhanced by an intensity stealing effect with the highly IR active ν(6) mode. A mechanism for this intensity stealing in ketenimine is also detailed.

  11. Calcineurin and Sorting-Related Receptor with A-Type Repeats Interact to Regulate the Renal Na+-K+-2Cl− Cotransporter

    PubMed Central

    Borschewski, Aljona; Himmerkus, Nina; Boldt, Christin; Blankenstein, Katharina I.; McCormick, James A.; Lazelle, Rebecca; Willnow, Thomas E.; Jankowski, Vera; Plain, Allein; Bleich, Markus; Ellison, David H.

    2016-01-01

    The furosemide-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl−-cotransporter (NKCC2) is crucial for NaCl reabsorption in kidney thick ascending limb (TAL) and drives the urine concentrating mechanism. NKCC2 activity is modulated by N-terminal phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Serine-threonine kinases that activate NKCC2 have been identified, but less is known about phosphatases that deactivate NKCC2. Inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase has been shown to stimulate transport in the TAL and the distal convoluted tubule. Here, we identified NKCC2 as a target of the calcineurin Aβ isoform. Short-term cyclosporine administration in mice augmented the abundance of phospho-NKCC2, and treatment of isolated TAL with cyclosporine increased the chloride affinity and transport activity of NKCC2. Because sorting-related receptor with A-type repeats (SORLA) may affect NKCC2 phosphoregulation, we used SORLA-knockout mice to test whether SORLA is involved in calcineurin-dependent modulation of NKCC2. SORLA-deficient mice showed more calcineurin Aβ in the apical region of TAL cells and less NKCC2 phosphorylation and activity compared with littermate controls. In contrast, overexpression of SORLA in cultured cells reduced the abundance of endogenous calcineurin Aβ. Cyclosporine administration rapidly normalized the abundance of phospho-NKCC2 in SORLA-deficient mice, and a functional interaction between calcineurin Aβ and SORLA was further corroborated by binding assays in rat kidney extracts. In summary, we have shown that calcineurin Aβ and SORLA are key components in the phosphoregulation of NKCC2. These results may have clinical implications for immunosuppressive therapy using calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:25967121

  12. On the restricted four-body problem with the effect of small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraj, Md Sanam; Aggarwal, Rajiv; Arora, Monika

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the restricted four-body problem (R4BP) with the effect of the small perturbation in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces on the libration points and zero velocity curves (ZVCs). Further, we have supposed that all the primaries are set in an equilateral triangle configuration, moving in the circular orbits around their common centre of mass. We have observed that the effect of the small perturbation in centrifugal force has a substantial effect on the location of libration points but a small perturbation in the Coriolis force has no impact on the location of libration points. But the stability of the libration points is highly influenced by the effect of the small perturbation in the Coriolis force. It is observed that as the Coriolis parameter increases, the libration points become stable. Further, it is found that the effect of the small perturbation in the centrifugal force has a substantial influence on the regions of possible motion. Also, when the effect of small perturbation in the centrifugal force increases the forbidden region decreases; here the motion is not possible for the infinitesimal mass. It is observed when the value of the Jacobian constant decreases, the regions of possible motion increase. In addition, we have also discussed how small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces influence the Newton-Raphson basins of convergence.

  13. The possible role of Coriolis forces in structuring large-scale sinuous patterns of submarine channel-levee systems.

    PubMed

    Wells, Mathew; Cossu, Remo

    2013-01-01

    Submarine channel-levee systems are among the largest sedimentary structures on the ocean floor. These channels have a sinuous pattern and are the main conduits for turbidity currents to transport sediment to the deep ocean. Recent observations have shown that their sinuosity decreases strongly with latitude, with high-latitude channels being much straighter than similar channels near the Equator. One possible explanation is that Coriolis forces laterally deflect turbidity currents so that at high Northern latitudes both the density interface and the downstream velocity maximum are deflected to the right-hand side of the channel (looking downstream). The shift in the velocity field can change the locations of erosion and deposition and introduce an asymmetry between left- and right-turning bends. The importance of Coriolis forces is defined by two Rossby numbers, RoW=U/Wf and RoR=U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. In a bending channel, the density interface is flat when RoR∼-1, and Coriolis forces start to shift the velocity maximum when |RoW|<5. We review recent experimental and field observations and describe how Coriolis forces could lead to straighter channels at high latitudes.

  14. The possible role of Coriolis forces in structuring large-scale sinuous patterns of submarine channel-levee systems.

    PubMed

    Wells, Mathew; Cossu, Remo

    2013-12-13

    Submarine channel-levee systems are among the largest sedimentary structures on the ocean floor. These channels have a sinuous pattern and are the main conduits for turbidity currents to transport sediment to the deep ocean. Recent observations have shown that their sinuosity decreases strongly with latitude, with high-latitude channels being much straighter than similar channels near the Equator. One possible explanation is that Coriolis forces laterally deflect turbidity currents so that at high Northern latitudes both the density interface and the downstream velocity maximum are deflected to the right-hand side of the channel (looking downstream). The shift in the velocity field can change the locations of erosion and deposition and introduce an asymmetry between left- and right-turning bends. The importance of Coriolis forces is defined by two Rossby numbers, Ro(W) = U/Wf and Ro(R) = U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. In a bending channel, the density interface is flat when Ro(R) - -1, and Coriolis forces start to shift the velocity maximum when [Row] < 5. We review recent experimental and field observations and describe how Coriolis forces could lead to straighter channels at high latitudes.

  15. Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch in NSTX

    DOE Data Explorer

    Guttenfelder, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kaye, S. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Solomon, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Candy, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Yuh, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio NSTX H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostatic ballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes in a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. As the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.

  16. Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Solomon, W.; Bell, R. E.; Candy, J.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Yuh, H.

    2016-05-11

    This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostaticballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles, and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes in a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at a finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. Lastly, as the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.

  17. Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; ...

    2016-05-11

    This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostaticballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles, and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes inmore » a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at a finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. Lastly, as the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.« less

  18. Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Solomon, W.; Bell, R. E.; Candy, J.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Yuh, H.

    2016-05-11

    This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostaticballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles, and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes in a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at a finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. Lastly, as the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.

  19. A simple microfluidic Coriolis effect flowmeter for operation at high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Jundt, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    We describe a microfluidic Coriolis effect flowmeter that is simple to assemble, operates at elevated temperature and pressure, and can be operated with a lock-in amplifier. The sensor has a flow rate sensitivity greater than 2° of phase shift per 1 g/min of mass flow and is benchmarked with flow rates ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 g/min. The internal volume is 15 μl and uses off-the-shelf optical components to measure the tube motion. We demonstrate that fluid density can be calculated from the frequency of the resonating element with proper calibration.

  20. A simple microfluidic Coriolis effect flowmeter for operation at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Christopher; Jundt, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    We describe a microfluidic Coriolis effect flowmeter that is simple to assemble, operates at elevated temperature and pressure, and can be operated with a lock-in amplifier. The sensor has a flow rate sensitivity greater than 2° of phase shift per 1 g/min of mass flow and is benchmarked with flow rates ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 g/min. The internal volume is 15 μl and uses off-the-shelf optical components to measure the tube motion. We demonstrate that fluid density can be calculated from the frequency of the resonating element with proper calibration.

  1. Energy transfer of surface wind-induced currents to the deep ocean via resonance with the Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2017-03-01

    There are two main comparable sources of energy to the deep ocean-winds and tides. However, the identity of the most efficient mechanism that transfers wind energy to the deep ocean is still debated. Here we study, using oceanic general circulation model simulations and analytic derivations, the way that the wind directly supplies energy down to the bottom of the ocean when it is stochastic and temporally correlated or when it is periodic with a frequency that matches the Coriolis frequency. Basically, under these, commonly observed, conditions, one of the wind components resonates with the Coriolis frequency. Using reanalysis surface wind data and our simple model, we show that about one-third of the kinetic energy that is associated with wind-induced currents resides in the abyssal ocean, highlighting the importance of the resonance of the wind with the Coriolis force.

  2. Wavelength dependence of eddy dissipation and Coriolis force in the dynamics of gravity wave driven fluctuations in the OH nightglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, M. P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of inclusion of Coriolis force and eddy dissipation in the gravity wave dynamics theory of Walterscheid et al. (1987). It was found that the values of the ratio 'eta' (where eta is a complex quantity describing the ralationship between the intensity oscillation about the time-averaged intensity, and the temperature oscillation about the time-averaged temperature) strongly depend on the wave period and the horizontal wavelength; thus, if comparisons are to be made between observations and theory, horizontal wavelengths will need to be measured in conjunction with the OH nightglow measurements. For the waves with horizontal wavelengths up to 1000 km, the eddy dissipation was found to dominate over the Coriolis force in the gravity wave dynamics and also in the associated values of eta. However, for waves with horizontal wavelengths of 10,000 km or more, the Coriolis force cannot be neglected; it has to be taken into account along with the eddy dissipation.

  3. Exact and truncated Coriolis coupling calculations for the S(1D)+HD reaction employing the ground adiabatic electronic state.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Han, Keli; Schatz, George C; Smith, Sean C; Hankel, Marlies

    2010-10-21

    We present exact quantum differential cross sections and exact and estimated integral cross sections and branching ratios for the title reaction. We employ a time-dependent wavepacket method as implemented in the DIFFREALWAVE code including all Coriolis couplings and also an adapted DIFFREALWAVE code where the helicity quantum number and with this the Coriolis couplings have been truncated. Our exact differential cross sections at 0.453 eV total energy, one of the experimental energies, show good agreement with the experimental results for one of the product channels. While the truncated calculation present a significant reduction in the computational effort needed they overestimate the exact integral cross sections.

  4. Effects of circular rigid boundaries and Coriolis forces on the interfacial instability in a rotating annular Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Abidate, Asmaa; Aniss, Said; Caballina, Ophélie; Souhar, Mohamed

    2007-04-01

    We report analytical results for the development of instability of an interface between two immiscible, Newtonian fluid layers confined in a rotating annular Hele-Shaw cell. We perform a linear stability analysis and focus our study on the influence of both Coriolis force and curvature parameters on the interface instability growth rate. The results show that the Coriolis force does not alter the stability of a disturbance with a particular wave number but reduces the maximum growth rate. The results related to the role played by the confinement of the liquid layers are also shown to provide a modification of the fastest-growing mode and its corresponding linear growth rate.

  5. Development of Coriolis mass flowmeter with digital drive and signal processing technology.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qi-Li; Xu, Ke-Jun; Fang, Min; Liu, Cui; Xiong, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) often suffers from two-phase flowrate which may cause flowtube stalling. To solve this problem, a digital drive method and a digital signal processing method of CMF is studied and implemented in this paper. A positive-negative step signal is used to initiate the flowtube oscillation without knowing the natural frequency of the flowtube. A digital zero-crossing detection method based on Lagrange interpolation is adopted to calculate the frequency and phase difference of the sensor output signals in order to synthesize the digital drive signal. The digital drive approach is implemented by a multiplying digital to analog converter (MDAC) and a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). A digital Coriolis mass flow transmitter is developed with a digital signal processor (DSP) to control the digital drive, and realize the signal processing. Water flow calibrations and gas-liquid two-phase flowrate experiments are conducted to examine the performance of the transmitter. The experimental results show that the transmitter shortens the start-up time and can maintain the oscillation of flowtube in two-phase flowrate condition.

  6. A study of the Coriolis effect on the fluid flow profile in a centrifugal bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Christopher J; Thorson, Michael R; Van Wie, Bernard J; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2009-01-01

    Increasing demand for tissues, proteins, and antibodies derived from cell culture is necessitating the development and implementation of high cell density bioreactors. A system for studying high density culture is the centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR), which retains cells by increasing settling velocities through system rotation, thereby eliminating diffusional limitations associated with mechanical cell retention devices. This article focuses on the fluid mechanics of the CCBR system by considering Coriolis effects. Such considerations for centrifugal bioprocessing have heretofore been ignored; therefore, a simpler analysis of an empty chamber will be performed. Comparisons are made between numerical simulations and bromophenol blue dye injection experiments. For the non-rotating bioreactor with an inlet velocity of 4.3 cm/s, both the numerical and experimental results show the formation of a teardrop shaped plume of dye following streamlines through the reactor. However, as the reactor is rotated, the simulation predicts the development of vortices and a flow profile dominated by Coriolis forces resulting in the majority of flow up the leading wall of the reactor as dye initially enters the chamber, results are confirmed by experimental observations. As the reactor continues to fill with dye, the simulation predicts dye movement up both walls while experimental observations show the reactor fills with dye from the exit to the inlet. Differences between the simulation and experimental observations can be explained by excessive diffusion required for simulation convergence, and a slight density difference between dyed and un-dyed solutions. Implications of the results on practical bioreactor use are also discussed.

  7. Leading-edge vortex trajectories under the influence of Coriolis acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limacher, Eric; Morton, Chris; Wood, David

    2015-11-01

    Leading-edge vortices (LEVs) can form and remain attached to a rotating wing indefinitely, but the mechanisms of stable attachment are not well understood. Taking for granted that such stable structures do form, a practical question arisesof where an LEV core persists in the body-fixed frame of reference. Noting that span-wise flow exists within the LEV core, it is apparent that a mean streamline aligned with the axis of the LEV must exist. The present work usesthe Navier-Stokes equations alongthis steady, axial streamline in order to consider the accelerations that act in the steamline-normal direction to affect its local curvature. With some simplifying assumptions, an ordinary differential equation is derivedthat describes the trajectory of the axial streamline through the vortex core. Usingempirical values of axial velocity in the vortex core from previous studies, it can be shown that Coriolis and centrifugal forces alone can account for the tilting of the stable LEV into the wake within several chord lengths from the root of rotationin the span-wise direction. This result supports an hypothesisthat LEVs are observed at inboard locations because Coriolis force must actover a finite distance to tilt the stable LEV away from the leading edge.

  8. First experimental evaluation of cardiac apex rotation with an epicardial coriolis force sensor.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Emanuela; Plicchi, Gianni; Cercenelli, Laura; Bortolami, Filippo

    2005-01-01

    Cardiac apex rotation, quantified by sophisticated techniques (radiopaque markers and tagged magnetic resonance), has been shown to provide a sensitive index of left ventricle (LV) dynamics. The authors describe the first experimental assessment of cardiac apex rotation using a gyroscopic sensor based on Coriolis force, epicardially glued on the apex. Dynamics of apex rotation were evaluated in a sheep at baseline, after a positive inotropic drug infusion, and after impairment of cardiac function induced by coronary ligation. To evaluate the efficacy of the sensor to monitor cardiac function, results were compared to contractility variations expressed by the maximum value of the first derivative of LV pressure (LVdP/dtMAX). After inotropic drug infusion, a parallel increasing trend resulted for LVdP/dtMAX, for the maximum value of angular velocity measured by the sensor, and for apex rotation angle derived from velocity signal (+146%, +155%, and +11% from baseline, respectively), whereas a decreasing trend of all three parameters resulted after coronary ligation (-35%, -31%, and -65%). The twist pattern also was altered from baseline. These initial results suggest that the use of an implantable rotation sensor based on Coriolis force can be an efficient and effective tool to assess LV torsional deformation both in normal and failing hearts.

  9. FHF- isotopologues: highly anharmonic hydrogen-bonded systems with strong Coriolis interaction.

    PubMed

    Sebald, Peter; Bargholz, Arne; Oswald, Rainer; Stein, Christopher; Botschwina, Peter

    2013-10-03

    Explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory at the CCSD(T*)-F12b level in conjunction with the aug-cc-pV5Z basis set has been used in the calculation of three-dimensional potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for the bifluoride ion (FHF(-)). An empirically corrected analytical potential energy function (PEF) was obtained by fit to four pieces of accurate spectroscopic information. That PEF was used in variational calculations of energies and wave functions for a variety of rovibrational states of the isotopologues FHF(-), FDF(-), and FTF(-). Excellent agreement with available data from IR laser diode spectroscopy is observed and many predictions are being made. Unusual isotope effects among the spectroscopic constants and unusual features of the calculated line spectra are discussed.

  10. Energy partition, scale by scale, in magnetic Archimedes Coriolis weak wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Salhi, A; Baklouti, F S; Godeferd, F; Lehner, T; Cambon, C

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic Archimedes Coriolis (MAC) waves are omnipresent in several geophysical and astrophysical flows such as the solar tachocline. In the present study, we use linear spectral theory (LST) and investigate the energy partition, scale by scale, in MAC weak wave turbulence for a Boussinesq fluid. At the scale k^{-1}, the maximal frequencies of magnetic (Alfvén) waves, gravity (Archimedes) waves, and inertial (Coriolis) waves are, respectively, V_{A}k,N, and f. By using the induction potential scalar, which is a Lagrangian invariant for a diffusionless Boussinesq fluid [Salhi et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 026301 (2012)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.026301], we derive a dispersion relation for the three-dimensional MAC waves, generalizing previous ones including that of f-plane MHD "shallow water" waves [Schecter et al., Astrophys. J. 551, L185 (2001)AJLEEY0004-637X10.1086/320027]. A solution for the Fourier amplitude of perturbation fields (velocity, magnetic field, and density) is derived analytically considering a diffusive fluid for which both the magnetic and thermal Prandtl numbers are one. The radial spectrum of kinetic, S_{κ}(k,t), magnetic, S_{m}(k,t), and potential, S_{p}(k,t), energies is determined considering initial isotropic conditions. For magnetic Coriolis (MC) weak wave turbulence, it is shown that, at large scales such that V_{A}k/f≪1, the Alfvén ratio S_{κ}(k,t)/S_{m}(k,t) behaves like k^{-2} if the rotation axis is aligned with the magnetic field, in agreement with previous direct numerical simulations [Favier et al., Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. (2012)] and like k^{-1} if the rotation axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field. At small scales, such that V_{A}k/f≫1, there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and kinetic components. For magnetic Archimedes weak wave turbulence, it is demonstrated that, at large scales, such that (V_{A}k/N≪1), there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and potential components

  11. Energy partition, scale by scale, in magnetic Archimedes Coriolis weak wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, A.; Baklouti, F. S.; Godeferd, F.; Lehner, T.; Cambon, C.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic Archimedes Coriolis (MAC) waves are omnipresent in several geophysical and astrophysical flows such as the solar tachocline. In the present study, we use linear spectral theory (LST) and investigate the energy partition, scale by scale, in MAC weak wave turbulence for a Boussinesq fluid. At the scale k-1, the maximal frequencies of magnetic (Alfvén) waves, gravity (Archimedes) waves, and inertial (Coriolis) waves are, respectively, VAk ,N , and f . By using the induction potential scalar, which is a Lagrangian invariant for a diffusionless Boussinesq fluid [Salhi et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 026301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.026301], we derive a dispersion relation for the three-dimensional MAC waves, generalizing previous ones including that of f -plane MHD "shallow water" waves [Schecter et al., Astrophys. J. 551, L185 (2001), 10.1086/320027]. A solution for the Fourier amplitude of perturbation fields (velocity, magnetic field, and density) is derived analytically considering a diffusive fluid for which both the magnetic and thermal Prandtl numbers are one. The radial spectrum of kinetic, Sκ(k ,t ) , magnetic, Sm(k ,t ) , and potential, Sp(k ,t ) , energies is determined considering initial isotropic conditions. For magnetic Coriolis (MC) weak wave turbulence, it is shown that, at large scales such that VAk /f ≪1 , the Alfvén ratio Sκ(k ,t ) /Sm(k ,t ) behaves like k-2 if the rotation axis is aligned with the magnetic field, in agreement with previous direct numerical simulations [Favier et al., Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. (2012)] and like k-1 if the rotation axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field. At small scales, such that VAk /f ≫1 , there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and kinetic components. For magnetic Archimedes weak wave turbulence, it is demonstrated that, at large scales, such that (VAk /N ≪1 ), there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and potential components, while at small scales (VAk /N ≫1

  12. Interactions of levetiracetam with carbamazepine, phenytoin, topiramate and vigabatrin in the mouse 6Hz psychomotor seizure model - a type II isobolographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Wlaz, Aleksandra; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2014-01-15

    The aim of the presented study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with various antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, topiramate and vigabatrin) in the mouse 6Hz psychomotor seizure model. Limbic (psychomotor) seizure activity was evoked in albino Swiss mice by a current (32mA, 6Hz, 3s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes; type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the consequent anticonvulsant interactions between the various drug combinations for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. With type II isobolographic analysis, the combinations of levetiracetam with carbamazepine and phenytoin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 were supra-additive (synergistic; P<0.01) in terms of seizure suppression, while the combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 were additive. Levetiracetam combined with topiramate and vigabatrin for the fixed-ratio of 1:10 exerted supra-additive interaction (P<0.05), and simultaneously, the two-drug combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 produced additive interaction in the mouse 6Hz psychomotor seizure model. The combinations of levetiracetam with carbamazepine and phenytoin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10, as well as the combinations of levetiracetam with topiramate and vigabatrin for the fixed-ratio of 1:10 appear to be particularly favorable combinations exerting supra-additive interaction in the mouse 6Hz psychomotor seizure model. Finally, it may be concluded that because of the synergistic interactions between levetiracetam and carbamazepine, phenytoin, topiramate and vigabatrin, the combinations might be useful in clinical practice.

  13. Adaptation to Coriolis force perturbation of movement trajectory; role of proprioceptive and cutaneous somatosensory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; DiZio, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Subjects exposed to constant velocity rotation in a large fully-enclosed room that rotates initially make large reaching errors in pointing to targets. The paths and endpoints of their reaches are deviated in the direction of the transient lateral Coriolis forces generated by the forward velocity of their reaches. With additional reaches, subjects soon reach in straighter paths and become more accurate at landing on target even in the absence of visual feedback about their movements. Two factors contribute to this adaptation: first, muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ feedback interpreted in relation to efferent commands provide information about movement trajectory, and second, somatosensory stimulation of the fingertip at the completion of a reach provides information about the location of the fingertip relative to the torso.

  14. Adaptation to Coriolis force perturbation of movement trajectory; role of proprioceptive and cutaneous somatosensory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; DiZio, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Subjects exposed to constant velocity rotation in a large fully-enclosed room that rotates initially make large reaching errors in pointing to targets. The paths and endpoints of their reaches are deviated in the direction of the transient lateral Coriolis forces generated by the forward velocity of their reaches. With additional reaches, subjects soon reach in straighter paths and become more accurate at landing on target even in the absence of visual feedback about their movements. Two factors contribute to this adaptation: first, muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ feedback interpreted in relation to efferent commands provide information about movement trajectory, and second, somatosensory stimulation of the fingertip at the completion of a reach provides information about the location of the fingertip relative to the torso.

  15. Automated centrifugal-microfluidic platform for DNA purification using laser burst valve and coriolis effect.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seong; Yoo, Jae-Chern

    2015-04-01

    We report a fully automated DNA purification platform with a micropored membrane in the channel utilizing centrifugal microfluidics on a lab-on-a-disc (LOD). The microfluidic flow in the LOD, into which the reagents are injected for DNA purification, is controlled by a single motor and laser burst valve. The sample and reagents pass successively through the micropored membrane in the channel when each laser burst valve is opened. The Coriolis effect is used by rotating the LOD bi-directionally to increase the purity of the DNA, thereby preventing the mixing of the waste and elution solutions. The total process from the lysed sample injection into the LOD to obtaining the purified DNA was finished within 7 min with only one manual step. The experimental result for Salmonella shows that the proposed microfluidic platform is comparable to the existing devices in terms of the purity and yield of DNA.

  16. Calculating intensities using effective Hamiltonians in terms of Coriolis-adapted normal modes.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, S; Krishnan, Mangala Sunder; Carrington, Tucker

    2005-01-15

    The calculation of rovibrational transition energies and intensities is often hampered by the fact that vibrational states are strongly coupled by Coriolis terms. Because it invalidates the use of perturbation theory for the purpose of decoupling these states, the coupling makes it difficult to analyze spectra and to extract information from them. One either ignores the problem and hopes that the effect of the coupling is minimal or one is forced to diagonalize effective rovibrational matrices (rather than diagonalizing effective rotational matrices). In this paper we apply a procedure, based on a quantum mechanical canonical transformation for deriving decoupled effective rotational Hamiltonians. In previous papers we have used this technique to compute energy levels. In this paper we show that it can also be applied to determine intensities. The ideas are applied to the ethylene molecule.

  17. Adaptation to Coriolis force perturbation of movement trajectory; role of proprioceptive and cutaneous somatosensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Lackner, James R; DiZio, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Subjects exposed to constant velocity rotation in a large fully-enclosed room that rotates initially make large reaching errors in pointing to targets. The paths and endpoints of their reaches are deviated in the direction of the transient lateral Coriolis forces generated by the forward velocity of their reaches. With additional reaches, subjects soon reach in straighter paths and become more accurate at landing on target even in the absence of visual feedback about their movements. Two factors contribute to this adaptation: first, muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ feedback interpreted in relation to efferent commands provide information about movement trajectory, and second, somatosensory stimulation of the fingertip at the completion of a reach provides information about the location of the fingertip relative to the torso.

  18. A Study of the Coriolis Effect on the Fluid Flow Profile in a Centrifugal Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Thorson, Michael R.; Van Wie, Bernard J.; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demand for tissues, proteins, and antibodies derived from cell culture is necessitating the development and implementation of high cell density bioreactors. A system for studying high density culture is the centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) which retains cells by increasing settling velocities through system rotation, thereby eliminating diffusional limitations associated with mechanical cell retention devices. This paper focuses on the fluid mechanics of the CCBR system by considering Coriolis effects. Such considerations for centrifugal bioprocessing have heretofore been ignored; therefore a simpler analysis of an empty chamber will be performed. Comparisons are made between numerical simulations and bromophenol blue dye injection experiments. For the non-rotating bioreactor with an inlet velocity of 4.3 cm/s, both the numerical and experimental results show the formation of a teardrop shaped plume of dye following streamlines through the reactor. However, as the reactor is rotated the simulation predicts the development of vortices and a flow profile dominated by Coriolis forces resulting in the majority of flow up the leading wall of the reactor as dye initially enters the chamber, results confirmed by experimental observations. As the reactor continues to fill with dye, the simulation predicts dye movement up both walls while experimental observations show the reactor fills with dye from the exit to the inlet. Differences between the simulation and experimental observations can be explained by excessive diffusion required for simulation convergence, and a slight density difference between dyed and un-dyed solutions. Implications of the results on practical bioreactor use are also discussed. PMID:19455639

  19. Coriolis Mass-Flowmeter for aerostatic gas amount determination in zero pressure stratosperic balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The CNES ballooning community regularly operates zero pressure balloons in many countries around the world (recently in France, Sweden, Canada and soon, Australia in 2017). An important operational flight parameter is the aerostatic gas mass injected into the balloon (currently helium and hydrogen in the study). Besides the lifting force, it determines mainly the ascent rate from which the adiabatic expansion depends directly. A too high ascent velocity in very cold air temperature profiles could result in a gas temperature drop which if too great, might induce brittleness of the envelope. A precise gas mass determination is therefore critical for performance as well as for mission safety. The various gas supply tanks in various countries all have different characteristics with possible uncertainties with regard to their volumes. This makes the currently used gas mass determination method based on supply tank pressure measurements unreliable. This method also relies on tank temperature, another source of inaccuracy in the gas amount determination. CNES has therefore prospected for alternative methods to reduce inaccuracies and perhaps also ease the operational procedures during balloon inflation. Coriolis mass-flowmeters which have reached industrial maturity, offer the great advantage over other flowmeters to be able to directly measure the mass of the transferred fluid, and not deducing it from other parameters as other types of flowmeters would do. An industrial contractor has been therefore assigned to integrate this solution into the CNES operational setup. This new system is to be tested in February 2016. The presentation will briefly explain the Coriolis flowmeter's principle and display the February 2016 performance tests' results. The expected incidence on zero pressure balloons' trajectories will also be discussed based on simulations ran on a balloon flight simulator software.

  20. Adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of voluntary body sway transfers to preprogrammed fall-recovery behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Joel; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In a rotating environment, goal-oriented voluntary movements are initially disrupted in trajectory and endpoint, due to movement-contingent Coriolis forces, but accuracy is regained with additional movements. We studied whether adaptation acquired in a voluntary, goal-oriented postural swaying task performed during constant-velocity counterclockwise rotation (10 RPM) carries over to recovery from falling induced using a hold and release (H&R) paradigm. In H&R, standing subjects actively resist a force applied to their chest, which when suddenly released results in a forward fall and activation of an automatic postural correction. We tested H&R postural recovery in subjects (n = 11) before and after they made voluntary fore-aft swaying movements during 20 trials of 25 s each, in a counterclockwise rotating room. Their voluntary sway about their ankles generated Coriolis forces that initially induced clockwise deviations of the intended body sway paths, but fore-aft sway was gradually restored over successive per-rotation trials, and a counterclockwise aftereffect occurred during postrotation attempts to sway fore-aft. In H&R trials, we examined the initial 10- to 150-ms periods of movement after release from the hold force, when voluntary corrections of movement path are not possible. Prerotation subjects fell directly forward, whereas postrotation their forward motion was deviated significantly counterclockwise. The postrotation deviations were in a direction consistent with an aftereffect reflecting persistence of a compensation acquired per-rotation for voluntary swaying movements. These findings show that control and adaptation mechanisms adjusting voluntary postural sway to the demands of a new force environment also influence the automatic recovery of posture. PMID:24304863

  1. Adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of voluntary body sway transfers to preprogrammed fall-recovery behavior.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Avijit; Ventura, Joel; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2014-03-01

    In a rotating environment, goal-oriented voluntary movements are initially disrupted in trajectory and endpoint, due to movement-contingent Coriolis forces, but accuracy is regained with additional movements. We studied whether adaptation acquired in a voluntary, goal-oriented postural swaying task performed during constant-velocity counterclockwise rotation (10 RPM) carries over to recovery from falling induced using a hold and release (H&R) paradigm. In H&R, standing subjects actively resist a force applied to their chest, which when suddenly released results in a forward fall and activation of an automatic postural correction. We tested H&R postural recovery in subjects (n = 11) before and after they made voluntary fore-aft swaying movements during 20 trials of 25 s each, in a counterclockwise rotating room. Their voluntary sway about their ankles generated Coriolis forces that initially induced clockwise deviations of the intended body sway paths, but fore-aft sway was gradually restored over successive per-rotation trials, and a counterclockwise aftereffect occurred during postrotation attempts to sway fore-aft. In H&R trials, we examined the initial 10- to 150-ms periods of movement after release from the hold force, when voluntary corrections of movement path are not possible. Prerotation subjects fell directly forward, whereas postrotation their forward motion was deviated significantly counterclockwise. The postrotation deviations were in a direction consistent with an aftereffect reflecting persistence of a compensation acquired per-rotation for voluntary swaying movements. These findings show that control and adaptation mechanisms adjusting voluntary postural sway to the demands of a new force environment also influence the automatic recovery of posture.

  2. FTIR spectra of CH2F2 in the 1000-1300 cm-1 region: Rovibrational analysis and modeling of the Coriolis and anharmonic resonances in the ν3, ν5, ν7, ν9 and 2ν4 polyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, Paolo; Tasinato, Nicola; Baldacci, Agostino; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Giorgianni, Santi; Tamassia, Filippo; Cané, Elisabetta; Villa, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    The FTIR spectra of CH2F2 have been investigated in a region of atmospheric interest (1000-1300 cm-1) where four fundamentals ν3, ν5, ν7 and ν9 occur. These vibrations perturb each other by different Coriolis interactions and the forbidden ν5 borrows intensity from the neighboring levels. Furthermore, the v4=2 state has been found to interact with the v3=1 and v9=1 states by anharmonic and c-type Coriolis resonances, respectively. The spectral analysis resulted in the assignment of about 7500 rovibrational transitions which have been simultaneously fitted, together with microwave data available in literature (Hirota E. J Mol Spectrosc 1978; 69: 409-420) [15] using the Watson's A-reduction Hamiltonian in the Ir representation and the relevant perturbation operators. The model employed includes eight types of resonances within the pentad ν3/ν5/ν7/ν9/2ν4. A set of spectroscopic constants for the four fundamentals as well as parameters for the v4=2 state and eighteen coupling terms have been determined. The simulations performed in different spectral regions well reproduce the experimental data.

  3. Motion of a Point Mass in a Rotating Disc: A Quantitative Analysis of the Coriolis and Centrifugal Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddout, Soufiane

    2016-06-01

    In Newtonian mechanics, the non-inertial reference frames is a generalization of Newton's laws to any reference frames. While this approach simplifies some problems, there is often little physical insight into the motion, in particular into the effects of the Coriolis force. The fictitious Coriolis force can be used by anyone in that frame of reference to explain why objects follow curved paths. In this paper, a mathematical solution based on differential equations in non-inertial reference is used to study different types of motion in rotating system. In addition, the experimental data measured on a turntable device, using a video camera in a mechanics laboratory was conducted to compare with mathematical solution in case of parabolically curved, solving non-linear least-squares problems, based on Levenberg-Marquardt's and Gauss-Newton algorithms.

  4. Sensitivities of Tropical Cyclones to Surface Friction and the Coriolis Parameter in a 2-D Cloud-Resolving Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivities to surface friction and the Coriolis parameter in tropical cyclogenesis are studied using an axisymmetric version of the Goddard cloud ensemble model. Our experiments demonstrate that tropical cyclogenesis can still occur without surface friction. However, the resulting tropical cyclone has very unrealistic structure. Surface friction plays an important role of giving the tropical cyclones their observed smaller size and diminished intensity. Sensitivity of the cyclogenesis process to surface friction. in terms of kinetic energy growth, has different signs in different phases of the tropical cyclone. Contrary to the notion of Ekman pumping efficiency, which implies a preference for the highest Coriolis parameter in the growth rate if all other parameters are unchanged, our experiments show no such preference.

  5. Toroidal momentum pinch velocity due to the coriolis drift effect on small scale instabilities in a toroidal plasma.

    PubMed

    Peeters, A G; Angioni, C; Strintzi, D

    2007-06-29

    In this Letter, the influence of the "Coriolis drift" on small scale instabilities in toroidal plasmas is shown to generate a toroidal momentum pinch velocity. Such a pinch results because the Coriolis drift generates a coupling between the density and temperature perturbations on the one hand and the perturbed parallel flow velocity on the other. A simple fluid model is used to highlight the physics mechanism and gyro-kinetic calculations are performed to accurately assess the magnitude of the pinch. The derived pinch velocity leads to a radial gradient of the toroidal velocity profile even in the absence of a torque on the plasma and is predicted to generate a peaking of the toroidal velocity profile similar to the peaking of the density profile. Finally, the pinch also affects the interpretation of current experiments.

  6. The Coriolis-Coupled States v7 = 1 and v9 = 1 of trans-HCOOD and trans-DCOOD.

    PubMed

    Baskakov; Bürger; Jerzembeck

    1999-01-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase infrared spectra of the two lowest Coriolis-perturbed nu7 and nu9 bands of deuterated formic acid HCOOD and DCOOD have been measured with a resolution of ca. 0.003 cm-1. Combined analysis of the assigned IR transitions and all the available rotational data have allowed the determination of the band centers, rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters, and Coriolis coupling terms. Standard deviations of the IR transitions are 0.000246 cm-1 for HCOOD and 0.000209 cm-1 for DCOOD. Determined band centers are nu0(nu7) = 558.2723 cm-1, nu0(nu9) = 508.1321 cm-1 for HCOOD and nu0(nu7) = 554.4397 cm-1, nu0(nu9) = 492.2254 cm-1 for DCOOD. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Coriolis coupling effects in the dynamics of deep well reactions: application to the H(+) + D2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Hankel, M

    2011-05-07

    We present exact and estimated quantum differential and integral cross sections as well as product state distributions for the title reaction. We employ a time-dependent wavepacket method including all Coriolis couplings and also an adapted code where the helicity quantum number and with this the Coriolis couplings have been truncated. Results from helicity truncated as well as helicity conserving (HC) calculation are presented. The HC calculations fail to reproduce the exact results due to the influence of the centrifugal barrier. While the truncated calculation overestimate the exact integral cross sections they reproduce the features of the integral cross section very well. We also find that the product rotational state distributions are well reproduced if the maximum helicity state is chosen carefully. The helicity truncated calculations fail to give a good approximation of differential cross sections.

  8. Visual feedback of the moving arm allows complete adaptation of pointing movements to centrifugal and Coriolis forces in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, C; Gauthier, G; Blouin, J; Vercher, J L

    2001-03-23

    A classical visuo-manual adaptation protocol carried out on a rotating platform was used to test the ability of subjects to adapt to centrifugal and Coriolis forces when visual feedback of the arm is manipulated. Three main results emerge: (a) an early modification of the initial trajectory of the movements takes place even without visual feedback of the arm; (b) despite the change in the initial trajectory, the new external force decreases the accuracy of the pointing movements when vision is precluded; (c) a visual adaptive phase allows complete adaptation of the pointing movements performed in a modified gravitoinertial field. Therefore vision would be essential for subjects to completely adapt to centrifugal and Coriolis forces. However, other sensory signals (i.e. vestibular and proprioceptive) may constitute the basis for early but partial correction of the pointing movements.

  9. Solar system constraints on planetary Coriolis-type effects induced by rotation of distant masses

    SciTech Connect

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-08-01

    We phenomenologically put local constraints on the rotation of distant masses by using the planets of the solar system. First, we analytically compute the orbital secular precessions induced on the motion of a test particle about a massive primary by a Coriolis-like force, treated as a small perturbation, in the case of a constant angular velocity vector Ψ directed along a generic direction in space. The semimajor axis a and the eccentricity e of the test particle do not secularly change, contrary to the inclination I, the longitude of the ascending node Ω, the longitude of the pericenter varpi and the mean anomaly M. Then, we compare our prediction for (dot varpi) with the corrections Δdot varpi to the usual perihelion precessions of the inner planets recently estimated by fitting long data sets with different versions of the EPM ephemerides. We obtain as preliminary upper bounds |Ψ{sub z}| ≤ 0.0006−0.013 arcsec cty{sup −1}, |Ψ{sub x}| ≤ 0.1−2.7 arcsec cty{sup −1}, |Ψ{sub y}| ≤ 0.3−2.3 arcsec cty{sup −1}. Interpreted in terms of models of space-time involving cosmic rotation, our results are able to yield constraints on cosmological parameters like the cosmological constant Λ and the Hubble parameter H{sub 0} not too far from their values determined with cosmological observations and, in some cases, several orders of magnitude better than the constraints usually obtained so far from space-time models not involving rotation. In the case of the rotation of the solar system throughout the Galaxy, occurring clockwise about the North Galactic Pole, our results for Ψ{sub z} are in disagreement with the expected value of it at more than 3−σ level. Modeling the Oort cloud as an Einstein-Thirring slowly rotating massive shell inducing Coriolis-type forces inside yields unphysical results for its putative rotation.

  10. Moving objects in a rotating environment: rapid prediction of Coriolis and centrifugal force perturbations.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dennis A; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Schneider, Erich; Glasauer, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    Grip force adaptation to Coriolis and centrifugal force perturbations was tested in healthy subjects. Eight subjects were seated in a rotating chamber in a rotating axis position. They each grasped an instrumented object resting on the thumb, which was stabilized by the other fingers from above. Subjects performed horizontal point-to-point movements with the grasped object away and towards the trunk. These movements were directed in a nonparallel fashion towards the axis of rotation prior (40 pre-rotational movements), during (80 per-rotational movements) and following (40 post-rotational movements) clockwise body rotation. During pre- and post-rotational movements two load force peaks of similar magnitude occurred during the acceleratory and deceleratory phases of the movements. Accordingly, a Coriolis force, which was orthogonal and proportional to the linear velocity of the moving arm, as well as a centrifugal force proportional to the system's squared angular velocity and movement amplitude developed during per-rotational movements. The load perturbations altered the load force profile in a characteristic way. The first 10 per-rotational movement sequence revealed that there was a less precise coupling between grip and load force magnitudes and a reduced temporo-spatial co-ordination between grip and load force profiles. With increasing number of per-rotational movements, there was significant improvement in the temporo-spatial co-ordination and in the coupling in force magnitude between grip and load force profiles, indicating an ongoing adaptation process. The coupling between grip and load forces proved to be similarly precise for the last 10 per-rotational movements and for pre-rotational movements, suggesting complete adaptation. Significant effects were observed for the first post rotational movements following adaptation to the per-rotational load characteristics both for the temporal co-ordination between grip and load forces and for the coupling in

  11. Sensitivities of Modeled Tropical Cyclones to Surface Friction and the Coriolis Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this investigation the sensitivities of a 2-D tropical cyclone (TC) model to surface frictional coefficient and the Coriolis parameter are studied and their implication is discussed. The model used is an axisymmetric version of the latest version of the Goddard cloud ensemble model. The model has stretched vertical grids with 33 levels varying from 30 m near the bottom to 1140 m near the top. The vertical domain is about 21 km. The horizontal domain covers a radius of 962 km (770 grids) with a grid size of 1.25 km. The time step is 10 seconds. An open lateral boundary condition is used. The sea surface temperature is specified at 29C. Unless specified otherwise, the Coriolis parameter is set at its value at 15 deg N. The Newtonian cooling is used with a time scale of 12 hours. The reference vertical temperature profile used in the Newtonian cooling is that of Jordan. The Newtonian cooling models not only the effect of radiative processes but also the effect of processes with scale larger than that of TC. Our experiments showed that if the Newtonian cooling is replaced by a radiation package, the simulated TC is much weaker. The initial condition has a temperature uniform in the radial direction and its vertical profile is that of Jordan. The initial winds are a weak Rankin vortex in the tangential winds superimposed on a resting atmosphere. The initial sea level pressure is set at 1015 hPa everywhere. Since there is no surface pressure perturbation, the initial condition is not in gradient balance. This initial condition is enough to lead to cyclogenesis, but the initial stage (say, the first 24 hrs) is not considered to resemble anything observed. The control experiment reaches quasi-equilibration after about 10 days with an eye wall extending from 15 to 25 km radius, reasonable comparing with the observations. The maximum surface wind of more than 70 m/s is located at about 18 km radius. The minimum sea level pressure on day 10 is about 886 hPa. Thus the

  12. PDZ interaction sites in integrin alpha subunits. T14853, TIP/GIPC binds to a type I recognition sequence in alpha 6A/alpha 5 and a novel sequence in alpha 6B.

    PubMed

    Tani, T T; Mercurio, A M

    2001-09-28

    We used published peptide library data to identify PDZ recognition sequences in integrin alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains and found that the alpha(6)A and alpha(5) subunits contain a type I PDZ binding site (TSDA*) (asterisk indicates the stop codon). The alpha(6)A cytoplasmic domain was used for screening a two-hybrid library to find interacting proteins. The bulk of the captured cDNAs (60%) coded for TIP-2/GIPC, a cytoplasmic protein with one PDZ domain. The interaction of TIP-2/GIPC with different integrin subunits was tested in two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays. Surprisingly, TIP-2/GIPC bound strongly to the C terminus of both alpha(6)A and alpha(6)B, although the alpha(6)B sequence (ESYS*) is not suggestive of a PDZ binding site because of its polar C-terminal residue. For high affinity interaction with TIP-2/GIPC, at least one of the residues at positions -1 and -3 must be negatively charged. An aliphatic residue at position 0 increases the affinity of but is not required for this interaction. The alpha(5) integrin subunit also bound to TIP-2/GIPC. The alpha(6) integrin and TIP-2/GIPC co-localize in retraction fibers in carcinoma cells plated on laminin, a finding suggesting a functional interaction in vivo. Our results demonstrate that both splice variants of alpha(6) integrin contain a conserved PDZ binding site that enables interaction with TIP-2/GIPC. The binding site in alpha(6)B defines a new subclass of type I PDZ interaction site, characterized by a non-aliphatic residue at position 0.

  13. Axis-Switching and Coriolis Coupling in the Ã(010)- X˜(000) Transitions of DCCl and HCCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ao; Kobayashi, Kaori; Yu, Hua-Gen; Hall, Gregory E.; Muckerman, James T.; Sears, Trevor J.; Merer, Anthony J.

    2002-08-01

    The rotationally resolved Ã(010)- X˜(000) spectrum of DCCl between 12 880 and 12 964 cm -1 was measured using frequency-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of jet-cooled and ambient temperature samples. Transitions to levels with Ka'=0 and 1 were assigned, and their analysis leads to improved accuracy of both the ground state rotational constants of DCCl and, when combined with existing data for HCCl, the geometry of the radical. In addition to the expected perpendicular band structure, a number of parallel (Δ Ka=0) subbands were observed. Their intensity derives from a combination of c-type Coriolis coupling and axis-switching (J. T. Hougen and J. K. G. Watson, 1965, Can. J. Phys.43, 298) resulting from the change in geometry between the two states. The two contributions have been calculated for the (010)-(000) band of DCCl and previously recorded data for HCCl. Satisfactory agreement with experimental measurements was obtained. The Coriolis contributions are small for these transitions, but may add to or subtract from the axis-switching. For higher bending excitation in the upper state, Coriolis coupling is predicted to make larger contributions to the parallel subband intensities.

  14. Type Ia Supernovae: Can Coriolis Force Break the Symmetry of the Gravitational Confined Detonation Explosion Mechanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Senz, D.; Cabezón, R. M.; Domínguez, I.; Thielemann, F. K.

    2016-03-01

    Currently the number of models aimed at explaining the phenomena of type Ia supernovae is high and distinguishing between them is a must. In this work we explore the influence of rotation on the evolution of the nuclear flame that drives the explosion in the so-called gravitational confined detonation models. Assuming that the flame starts in a pointlike region slightly above the center of the white dwarf (WD) and adding a moderate amount of angular velocity to the star we follow the evolution of the deflagration using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the results are very dependent on the angle between the rotational axis and the line connecting the initial bubble of burned material with the center of the WD at the moment of ignition. The impact of rotation is larger for angles close to 90° because the Coriolis force on a floating element of fluid is maximum and its principal effect is to break the symmetry of the deflagration. Such symmetry breaking weakens the convergence of the nuclear flame at the antipodes of the initial ignition volume, changing the environmental conditions around the convergence region with respect to non-rotating models. These changes seem to disfavor the emergence of a detonation in the compressed volume at the antipodes and may compromise the viability of the so-called gravitational confined detonation mechanism.

  15. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: CAN CORIOLIS FORCE BREAK THE SYMMETRY OF THE GRAVITATIONAL CONFINED DETONATION EXPLOSION MECHANISM?

    SciTech Connect

    García-Senz, D.; Cabezón, R. M.; Thielemann, F. K.; Domínguez, I. E-mail: ruben.cabezon@unibas.ch

    2016-03-10

    Currently the number of models aimed at explaining the phenomena of type Ia supernovae is high and distinguishing between them is a must. In this work we explore the influence of rotation on the evolution of the nuclear flame that drives the explosion in the so-called gravitational confined detonation models. Assuming that the flame starts in a pointlike region slightly above the center of the white dwarf (WD) and adding a moderate amount of angular velocity to the star we follow the evolution of the deflagration using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the results are very dependent on the angle between the rotational axis and the line connecting the initial bubble of burned material with the center of the WD at the moment of ignition. The impact of rotation is larger for angles close to 90° because the Coriolis force on a floating element of fluid is maximum and its principal effect is to break the symmetry of the deflagration. Such symmetry breaking weakens the convergence of the nuclear flame at the antipodes of the initial ignition volume, changing the environmental conditions around the convergence region with respect to non-rotating models. These changes seem to disfavor the emergence of a detonation in the compressed volume at the antipodes and may compromise the viability of the so-called gravitational confined detonation mechanism.

  16. Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.

  17. Detection of cerebral oxyhaemoglobin changes during vestibular Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Cheung, B

    2006-02-13

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successful in monitoring cerebral haemodynamics when the subject is immobilized during surgery, and when there is a drastic depletion of blood from the cerebral cortex during positive acceleration. In this study, we monitored subtle changes of cerebral oxygen level using NIRS during vestibular stimulation. For the control conditions, cerebral oxygen status was monitored in six stationary subjects sitting upright, and while they executed head movements in the pitch axis with eyes opened and eyes closed. The experimental conditions involved the subjects making a head movement which required a 45 degrees pitch-down followed by a return to upright head movements 12 s later during yaw rotation (Coriolis cross coupling) at 10 and 20 rotations per minute (rpm) in a random order. Oxyhaemoglobin (O(2)Hb), deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) and total haemoglobin levels were recorded every 0.5 s from both the parietal and the occipital lobe simultaneously. A significant rotation effect was observed in total Hb level changes from baseline in both regions. Occipital O(2)Hb increased significantly after the head movement with eyes opened at 20 rpm. Our findings appear to be consistent with previous vestibular studies that significant changes in brain blood flow occur during caloric stimulation. NIRS can be used to monitor discrete cortical blood flow changes resulting from vestibular and other forms of stimulation.

  18. Importance of Coriolis Coupling in Isotopic Branching in (He, HD+) collisions.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Kolakkandy, Sujitha; Sathyamurthy, N

    2009-08-27

    A three-dimensional time-dependent quantum mechanical wave packet approach is used to calculate the reaction probability (P(R)) and integral reaction cross section values for both channels of the reaction He + HD(+)(v = 1; j = 0) --> HeH (D)(+) + D (H) over a range of translational energy (E(trans)) on the McLaughlin-Thompson-Joseph-Sathyamurthy potential energy surface including the Coriolis coupling (CC) term in the Hamiltonian. The reaction probability plots as a function of translational energy for different J values exhibit several oscillations, which are characteristic of the system. The sigma(R) values obtained by including CC and not including it are nearly the same over the range of E(trans) investigated for the HeD(+) channel. For the HeH(+) channel, on the other hand, sigma(R) values obtained from CC calculations are significantly smaller than those obtained from coupled state calculations. These results are compared with the available experimental results. The computed branching ratios (Gamma(sigma) = sigma(R) (HeH(+))/sigma(R) (HeD(+))) are also compared with the available experimental results.

  19. Lack of gender difference in motion sickness induced by vestibular Coriolis cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Bob; Hofer, Kevin

    It has been reported that females are more susceptible to motion sickness than males. Supporting evidence is primarily based on retrospective survey questionnaires and self-reporting. We investigated if there is a gender difference in motion sickness susceptibility using objective and subjective measurements under controlled laboratory conditions. Thirty healthy subjects (14 males and 16 females) between the ages of 18-46 years were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation, induced by 120 degrees /s yaw rotation and a simultaneous 45 degrees pitch forward head movement in the sagittal plane every 12 seconds. Cutaneous forearm and calf blood flow, blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored. Graybiel's diagnostic criteria were used to assess sickness susceptibility before and after motion exposure. Golding and Kerguelen's scale was used to assess the severity of symptoms during motion exposure. A significant (p<0.01) increase of forearm and calf blood flow during cross-coupling stimulation was observed in both sexes. However, the subjective symptoms rating and blood flow measurements indicate that there was no significant difference between male and female subjects. Our data also suggests that females may be more inclined to admit discomfort as indicated by their responses to a survey of motion sickness history prior to the experiment.

  20. Analysis of posture and eye movement responses to Coriolis stimulation under 1 G and microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Motoki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Iida, Masahiro

    2009-12-20

    To detect the effect of microgravity on vestibular responses, we conducted Coriolis stimulation experiments at 1 G and μ G. Five men with vision occluded were asked to tilt their head forward while rotating at 100 degrees/sec. Postural changes were recorded by a 3D linear accelerometer, and the distance of upper body movement was derived from recordings of linear acceleration. Eye movements were recorded by a CCD camera. For a second period after commencing head tilt, the upper body moved 10 cm in the direction of inertia input at 1 G, but it moved to the opposite direction at μ G, i.e., 4 cm in the direction of inertia force. Nystagmus peak slow-phase velocity immediately after head tilt and its attenuation process did not differ between 1 G and μ G. The strength of movement sensation and the severity of motion sickness were far weaker at μ G than at 1 G. It was concluded that inertia input is valid to induce postural and sensation responses only when the external reference is given Z axis by gravity. Vestibular ocular response may be maintained at μ G because the head reference is valid even after the external reference becomes arbitrary.

  1. Self-organization of the Ekman boundary layer turbulence forced by the horizontal component of the Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esau, Igor

    2010-05-01

    The Coriolis force is recognized as the major control factor in the shear-driven non-stratified turbulent boundary layer since the work of F. Nansen and V. Ekman in 1898. However, in geophysics (meteorology and oceanography), the central attention is paid to the vertical component of the force whereas the horizontal component is generally omitted. Contrary, in turbo-machinery, effects of the latter on certain types of the flow have been rigorously studied. Leibovich and Lele in 1986 pointed out on theoretically expected profound effect of the horizontal component of the Coriolis force on the vertical turbulent exchange in the geophysical boundary layers too. They also argued that it is the horizontal not the vertical component of the force which organizes the flow in a pattern of vortices rotated in the flow spanwise plain. This suggestion contradicts to earlier attribution of the roll pattern to the vertical component of the Coriolis force by R. Brown and many others. Since both hypotheses are based on the perturbation theory with different set of simplifications, and since the classical Ekman boundary layer cannot be easily observed in the field or reproduced in laboratories for different orientations of the frame angular velocity, it remained unclear to what degree those attributions are correct. In this study, the large-eddy simulation codes PALM and LESNIC are used to understand the problem. The Ekman boundary layer (EBL) has been simulated with the full Coriolis force. It makes the EBL depend on the latitude and the angle between the latitude and the geostrophic wind direction. This relationship was studied with a number of independent runs. It has been shown that the vertical component of the Coriolis force has no effect on the flow. Self-organization of the flow in rolls at the pole was not found in simulated data. Contrary, near the equator, the EBL turbulence was organized in well-pronounced rolls for easterly winds. At the latitude 5 degree North, the

  2. Vibration-rotation pattern in acetylene. II. Introduction of Coriolis coupling in the global model and analysis of emission spectra of hot acetylene around 3 microm.

    PubMed

    Amyay, Badr; Robert, Séverine; Herman, Michel; Fayt, André; Raghavendra, Balakrishna; Moudens, Audrey; Thiévin, Jonathan; Rowe, Bertrand; Georges, Robert

    2009-09-21

    A high temperature source has been developed and coupled to a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer to record emission spectra of acetylene around 3 mum up to 1455 K under Doppler limited resolution (0.015 cm(-1)). The nu(3)-ground state (GS) and nu(2)+nu(4)+nu(5) (Sigma(u) (+) and Delta(u))-GS bands and 76 related hot bands, counting e and f parities separately, are assigned using semiautomatic methods based on a global model to reproduce all related vibration-rotation states. Significantly higher J-values than previously reported are observed for 40 known substates while 37 new e or f vibrational substates, up to about 6000 cm(-1), are identified and characterized by vibration-rotation parameters. The 3 811 new or improved data resulting from the analysis are merged into the database presented by Robert et al. [Mol. Phys. 106, 2581 (2008)], now including 15 562 lines accessing vibrational states up to 8600 cm(-1). A global model, updated as compared to the one in the previous paper, allows all lines in the database to be simultaneously fitted, successfully. The updates are discussed taking into account, in particular, the systematic inclusion of Coriolis interaction.

  3. A discussion on corioli force effect and aftershock activity tendency of the M=8.1 Kunlun Mountain Pass earthquake on Nov. 14, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Lü; Jian-Hua, Gao; Ji-Fu, Liu; Cui-E, Hu; Shuang-Feng, Huang

    2003-07-01

    Following the theory and definition of the Corioli force in physics, the Corioli force at the site of the M=8.1 Kunlun Mountain Pass earthquake on November 14, 2001, is examined in this paper on the basis of a statistical research on relationship between the Corioli force effect and the maximum aftershock magnitude of 20 earthquakes with M≥7.5 in Chinese mainland, and then the variation tendency of aftershock activity of the M=8.1 earthquake is discussed. The result shows: a) Analyzing the Corioli force effect is an effective method to predict maximum aftershock magnitude of large earthquakes in Chinese mainland. For the sinistral slip fault and the reverse fault with its hanging wall moving toward the right side of the cross-focus meridian plane, their Corioli force pulls the two fault walls apart, decreasing frictional resistance on fault plane during the fault movement and releasing elastic energy of the mainshock fully, so the maximum magnitude of aftershocks would be low. For the dextral slip fault, its Corioli force presses the two walls against each other and increases the frictional resistance on fault plane, prohibiting energy release of the mainshock, so the maximum magnitude of aftershocks would be high. b) The fault of the M=8.1 Kunlun Mountain earthquake on Nov. 14, 2001 is essentially a sinistral strike-slip fault, and the Corioli force pulled the two fault walls apart. Magnitude of the induced stress is about 0.06 MPa. After a comparison analysis, we suggest that the aftershock activity level will not be high in the late period of this earthquake sequence, and the maximum magnitude of the whole aftershocks sequence is estimated to be about 6.0.

  4. Helicopter rotor lag damping augmentation based on a radial absorber and Coriolis coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Lynn Karen

    A radial vibration absorber is proposed to augment rotor lag damping. Modeled as a discrete mass restrained by a damped spring and moving along the spanwise direction within the rotor blade, it introduces damping into the lag mode of the blade through strong Coriolis coupling. A two-degree-of-freedom model is developed and used to examine the effectiveness of the radial absorber in transferring damping to the rotor lag mode. Results demonstrate that it is possible to introduce a significant amount of damping in the lag mode with a relatively small absorber mass, and the corresponding amplitudes of 1/rev periodic motions are not excessively large. The lag mode damping and 1/rev motions are also compared with the results achieved for an embedded chordwise inertial damper. A classical six-degree-of-freedom aeromechanical stability analysis is augmented with two absorber cyclic degrees of freedom in the nonrotating frame to examine the effect of the radial absorber on aeromechanical stability characteristics. These results indicate that ground resonance instability is eliminated for the range of absorber parameters considered, and in most cases, the stability margins are significant. A rotor blade with a discrete radial vibration absorber is also analyzed to examine the effect of the absorber on rotor blade and hub loads. The rotor blade is modeled as an elastic beam undergoing flap and lag bending, with the absorber modeled as a discrete mass restrained by a damped spring, moving in the spanwise direction within the rotor blade. Results indicate that the addition of the absorber does not detrimentally affect the blade spanwise and root loads, as well as steady and vibratory hub loads. Finally, device concepts and implementation possibilities are considered for the embedded radial vibration absorber.

  5. Thermo-mechanical phase-shift determination in Coriolis mass-flowmeters with added masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an approximate analytical solution for phase-shift (and thus mass flow) prediction along the length of the measuring tube of a Coriolis mass-flowmeter. A single, straight measuring tube is considered; added masses at the sensor and excitation locations are included in the model, and thus in the equation of motion. The measuring tube is excited harmonically by an electromagnetic driver. Taking into account thermal effects, the equation of motion is derived through use of the extended Hamilton's principle and constitutive relations. The equation of motion is discretized into a set of ordinary differential equations via Galerkin's technique. The method of multiple timescales is applied to the set of resultant equations, and the equations of order one and epsilon are obtained analytically for the system at primary resonance. The solution of the equation of motion is obtained by satisfying the solvability condition (making the solution of order epsilon free of secular terms). The flow-related phase-shift in the driver-induced tube vibration is measured at two symmetrically located points on either side of the mid-length of the tube. The analytical results for the phase-shift are compared to those obtained numerically. The effect of system parameters on the measured phase-shift is discussed. It is shown that the measured phase-shift depends on the mass flow rate, of course, but it is also affected by the magnitude of the added sensor mass and location, and the temperature change; nevertheless, the factors investigated do not induce a zero phase-shift.

  6. Turbulent flow in rib-roughened channel under the effect of Coriolis and rotational buoyancy forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Filippo; Jacono, David Lo; Cresci, Irene; Arts, Tony

    2014-04-01

    The turbulent flow inside a rotating channel provided with transverse ribs along one wall is studied by means of two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The measurement set-up is mounted on the same rotating disk with the test section, allowing to obtain the same accuracy and resolution as in a non-rotating rig. The Reynolds number is 15 000, and the rotation number is 0.38. As the ribbed wall is heated, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force play a role in the fluid dynamics. The mean velocity fields highlight the major impact of the rotational buoyancy (characterized by a buoyancy number of 0.31) on the flow along the leading side of the duct. In particular, since the flow is directed radially outward, the near-wall layers experience significant centripetal buoyancy. The recirculation area behind the obstacles is enlarged to the point of spanning the whole inter-rib space. Also the turbulent fluctuations are significantly altered, and overall augmented, with respect to the non-buoyant case, resulting in higher turbulence levels far from the rib. On the other hand the centrifugal force has little or no impact on the flow along the trailing wall. Vortex identification, proper orthogonal decomposition, and two-point correlations are used to highlight rotational effects, and in particular to determine the dominant scales of the turbulent unsteady flow, the time-dependent behavior of the shear layer and of the recirculation bubble behind the wall-mounted obstacles, the lifetime and advection velocity of the coherent structures.

  7. Coriolis coupling on the rotational and vibrational energy transfer in H2O+ Ar collisions: Classical trajectories simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, E.; Ferreira, G. G.; Braga, J. P.; Belchior, J. C.

    Classical trajectories studies in Cartesian coordinates are applied to analyze Coriolis coupling for the energy transfer in H2O + Ar process. Vibrational energies equal to 50 kcal/mol and 100 kcal/mol for initial rotational temperatures in the range 298-30,000 K are used as initial conditions. Initial translational temperatures for the incoming atom are selected in the same way. Effects of rotational and translational temperatures at different initial conditions are also investigated in the molecular vibrational relaxation process.

  8. Direct transitions from high-K isomers to low-K bands -- {gamma} softness or coriolis coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Narimatsu, Kanako; Ohtsubo, Shin-Ichi

    1996-12-31

    Recent measurements of direct transitions from high-K isomers to low-K bands reveal severe break-down of the K-selection rule and pose the problem of how to understand the mechanism of such K-violation. The authors recent systematic calculations by using a simple {gamma}-tunneling model reproduced many of the observed hindrances, indicating the importance of the {gamma} softness. However, there are some data which cannot be explained in terms of the {gamma}-degree of freedom. In this talk, the authors also discuss the results of conventional Coriolis coupling calculations, which is considered to be another important mechanism.

  9. Effect of Coriolis force on the self-gravitational instability of dusty plasma in the presence of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensia, R. K.; Sutar, D. L.; Kumar, V.; Kumar, A.

    2017-05-01

    In view of the importance of Coriolis force in an astrophysical context, the problem of self-gravitational instability of dusty plasma in the presence of magnetic field is investigated. Equations of the problem are stated and the dispersion relation has been derived with the help of linearized perturbation equations. We find that the Jeans criterion of instability remains valid but the expression of the critical Jeans wave-number is modified. Mathematical calculations have been performed and some figures are plotted between the growth rate of instability and wave numbers. From the curves, it is found that dust sonic speed has a stabilizing effect.

  10. The influence of gravitoinertial force level on oculomotor and perceptual responses to Coriolis, cross-coupling stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R.; Evanoff, John N.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the present experiment was to determine whether gravitoinertial force magnitude influences oculomotor and perceptual responses to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation. Blindfolded subjects who were rotating at constant velocity were asked to make standardized head movements during the free-fall and high-force phases of parabolic flight, and the characteristics of their horizontal nystagmus and the magnitude of their experienced self-motion were measured. Both responses were less intense in the free-fall periods than in the high-force periods. These findings suggest that the response to semicircular canal stimulation depends on the background level of gravitoinertial force.

  11. Coriolis coupling effects in the calculation of state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the H+D2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Han, Ke-Li; Hankel, Marlies; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G

    2007-06-07

    The quantum wavepacket parallel computational code DIFFREALWAVE is used to calculate state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the title reaction on the BKMP2 surface in the total energy range of 0.4-1.2 eV with D2 initially in its ground vibrational-rotational state. The role of Coriolis couplings in the state-to-state quantum calculations is examined in detail. Comparison of the results from calculations including the full Coriolis coupling and those using the centrifugal sudden approximation demonstrates that both the energy dependence and the angular dependence of the calculated cross sections are extremely sensitive to the Coriolis coupling, thus emphasizing the importance of including it correctly in an accurate state-to-state calculation.

  12. Observation of Coriolis Coupling between nu(2) + 4nu(4) and 7nu(4) in Acetylene &Xtilde;(1)Sigma(+)(g) by Stimulated Emission Pumping Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moss; Duan; Jacobson; O'Brien; Field

    2000-02-01

    Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy has been used to examine a low energy region (E(vib) approximately 4400 cm(-1)) of &Xtilde;(1)Sigma(+)(g) acetylene at higher resolution than was possible in previous dispersed fluorescence studies. The expected bright state, nu(2) + 4nu(4), is observed to be coupled to the nearly degenerate 7nu(4) state by a Coriolis mechanism. A least-squares analysis yields values for zero-order vibrational energies, rotational constants, and a Coriolis-coupling coefficient that are all consistent with expectations. Calculated relative intensities of SEP transitions, accounting for interference due to axis-switching effects, are also consistent with observations. Implications of the observed Coriolis resonance with regard to global acetylene vibrational dynamics are also discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. The Role of Coriolis Forces and Ekman Boundary Layers in Controlling Sediment Transport in Large Submarine Channel-Levee Systems: Experiments and Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale oceanic flows such as contourite currents and turbidity currents can be strongly influenced by Coriolis forces. One well known consequence of Coriolis forces is the presence of Ekman boundary layers, which result in transverse secondary flows of as much as 10% of the primary flow. For flows in sinuous channels these Ekman boundary layers can either act with, or against, the secondary flows driven by centrifugal forces. These secondary flows driven by Ekman boundary layers are likely responsible for many of the details of sediment erosion and deposition in contourites, as well as in the larger channels formed by turbidity currents. The magnitude and direction of flows in the Ekman boundary layers can be defined by two Rossby numbers, RoW =U/Wf and RoR =U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. Flows with Rossby numbers less than 1 are dominated by Coriolis forces and have strong Ekman boundary layers dominating secondary circulation. A new finding is that even when the Rossby number is of order 10 there is an appreciable influence of Coriolis forces. In this presentation we will present results of changes in velocity structure as a function of Rossby number from a series of analog laboratory experiments from a 1 m (Toronto) and 15 m (Grenoble) wide rotating Coriolis platform. Changes in flow structures will be related to experimental observations of changes in erosion and deposition of a mobile bed form. We will discuss the implications of these laboratory experiments for interpretation of large-scale contourite and turbidite deposits.

  14. An assessment of the deflecting effect on human movement due to the Coriolis inertial forces in a space vehicle.

    PubMed

    Hennion, P Y; Mollard, R

    1993-01-01

    Under conditions of prolonged space flight, it may be feasible to restore gravity artificially using centrifugal inertial forces in a spinning vehicle. As a result, the motion of the passengers relative to the vehicle is affected by Coriolis forces. The aim of this study is to propose a theoretical method to evaluate the extent of these effects compared to other inertial or motor forces affecting movement. We investigated typical right upper limb movement in a numerical model with a two-solid-links mechanism, including a spherical joint for the shoulder and a hinge joint for the elbow. The inertial and dimensional characteristics of this model derive from measurements and computations obtained on laboratory subjects. The same is true for the movements assigned to the model. These were inferred from actual recordings of arm movement when the subject presses a button placed in front of him with his index finger. From these relative velocities, the resulting forces and moments applied to the elbow and the shoulder were computed for a 1 rad s-1 rotational speed of transport motion, using classical kinetic relations. The result is that the Coriolis moments are of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding inertial moments and one-tenth of the value of a typical elbow flexion moment. Thus, they should cause a significant disturbance in movement.

  15. Deletion of MLIP (muscle-enriched A-type lamin-interacting protein) leads to cardiac hyperactivation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and impaired cardiac adaptation.

    PubMed

    Cattin, Marie-Elodie; Wang, Jessica; Weldrick, Jonathan J; Roeske, Cassandra L; Mak, Esther; Thorn, Stephanie L; DaSilva, Jean N; Wang, Yibin; Lusis, Aldon J; Burgon, Patrick G

    2015-10-30

    Aging and diseases generally result from tissue inability to maintain homeostasis through adaptation. The adult heart is particularly vulnerable to disequilibrium in homeostasis because its regenerative abilities are limited. Here, we report that MLIP (muscle enriched A-type lamin-interacting protein), a unique protein of unknown function, is required for proper cardiac adaptation. Mlip(-/-) mice exhibited normal cardiac function despite myocardial metabolic abnormalities and cardiac-specific overactivation of Akt/mTOR pathways. Cardiac-specific MLIP overexpression led to an inhibition of Akt/mTOR, providing evidence of a direct impact of MLIP on these key signaling pathways. Mlip(-/-) hearts showed an impaired capacity to adapt to stress (isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy), likely because of deregulated Akt/mTOR activity. Genome-wide association studies showed a genetic association between Mlip and early response to cardiac stress, supporting the role of MLIP in cardiac adaptation. Together, these results revealed that MLIP is required for normal myocardial adaptation to stress through integrated regulation of the Akt/mTOR pathways. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Deletion of MLIP (Muscle-enriched A-type Lamin-interacting Protein) Leads to Cardiac Hyperactivation of Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and Impaired Cardiac Adaptation*

    PubMed Central

    Cattin, Marie-Elodie; Wang, Jessica; Weldrick, Jonathan J.; Roeske, Cassandra L.; Mak, Esther; Thorn, Stephanie L.; DaSilva, Jean N.; Wang, Yibin; Lusis, Aldon J.; Burgon, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Aging and diseases generally result from tissue inability to maintain homeostasis through adaptation. The adult heart is particularly vulnerable to disequilibrium in homeostasis because its regenerative abilities are limited. Here, we report that MLIP (muscle enriched A-type lamin-interacting protein), a unique protein of unknown function, is required for proper cardiac adaptation. Mlip−/− mice exhibited normal cardiac function despite myocardial metabolic abnormalities and cardiac-specific overactivation of Akt/mTOR pathways. Cardiac-specific MLIP overexpression led to an inhibition of Akt/mTOR, providing evidence of a direct impact of MLIP on these key signaling pathways. Mlip−/− hearts showed an impaired capacity to adapt to stress (isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy), likely because of deregulated Akt/mTOR activity. Genome-wide association studies showed a genetic association between Mlip and early response to cardiac stress, supporting the role of MLIP in cardiac adaptation. Together, these results revealed that MLIP is required for normal myocardial adaptation to stress through integrated regulation of the Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:26359501

  17. Coriolis-force-induced trajectory and endpoint deviations in the reaching movements of labyrinthine-defective subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    When reaching movements are made during passive constant velocity body rotation, inertial Coriolis accelerations are generated that displace both movement paths and endpoints in their direction. These findings directly contradict equilibrium point theories of movement control. However, it has been argued that these movement errors relate to subjects sensing their body rotation through continuing vestibular activity and making corrective movements. In the present study, we evaluated the reaching movements of five labyrinthine-defective subjects (lacking both semicircular canal and otolith function) who cannot sense passive body rotation in the dark and five age-matched, normal control subjects. Each pointed 40 times in complete darkness to the location of a just extinguished visual target before, during, and after constant velocity rotation at 10 rpm in the center of a fully enclosed slow rotation room. All subjects, including the normal controls, always felt completely stationary when making their movements. During rotation, both groups initially showed large deviations of their movement paths and endpoints in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces generated by their movements. With additional per-rotation movements, both groups showed complete adaptation of movement curvature (restoration of straight-line reaches) during rotation. The labyrinthine-defective subjects, however, failed to regain fully accurate movement endpoints after 40 reaches, unlike the control subjects who did so within 11 reaches. Postrotation, both groups' movements initially had mirror image curvatures to their initial per-rotation reaches; the endpoint aftereffects were significantly different from prerotation baseline for the control subjects but not for the labyrinthine-defective subjects reflecting the smaller amount of endpoint adaptation they achieved during rotation. The labyrinthine-defective subjects' movements had significantly lower peak velocity, higher peak elevation

  18. Coriolis-force-induced trajectory and endpoint deviations in the reaching movements of labyrinthine-defective subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    When reaching movements are made during passive constant velocity body rotation, inertial Coriolis accelerations are generated that displace both movement paths and endpoints in their direction. These findings directly contradict equilibrium point theories of movement control. However, it has been argued that these movement errors relate to subjects sensing their body rotation through continuing vestibular activity and making corrective movements. In the present study, we evaluated the reaching movements of five labyrinthine-defective subjects (lacking both semicircular canal and otolith function) who cannot sense passive body rotation in the dark and five age-matched, normal control subjects. Each pointed 40 times in complete darkness to the location of a just extinguished visual target before, during, and after constant velocity rotation at 10 rpm in the center of a fully enclosed slow rotation room. All subjects, including the normal controls, always felt completely stationary when making their movements. During rotation, both groups initially showed large deviations of their movement paths and endpoints in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces generated by their movements. With additional per-rotation movements, both groups showed complete adaptation of movement curvature (restoration of straight-line reaches) during rotation. The labyrinthine-defective subjects, however, failed to regain fully accurate movement endpoints after 40 reaches, unlike the control subjects who did so within 11 reaches. Postrotation, both groups' movements initially had mirror image curvatures to their initial per-rotation reaches; the endpoint aftereffects were significantly different from prerotation baseline for the control subjects but not for the labyrinthine-defective subjects reflecting the smaller amount of endpoint adaptation they achieved during rotation. The labyrinthine-defective subjects' movements had significantly lower peak velocity, higher peak elevation

  19. Coriolis-force-induced trajectory and endpoint deviations in the reaching movements of labyrinthine-defective subjects.

    PubMed

    DiZio, P; Lackner, J R

    2001-02-01

    When reaching movements are made during passive constant velocity body rotation, inertial Coriolis accelerations are generated that displace both movement paths and endpoints in their direction. These findings directly contradict equilibrium point theories of movement control. However, it has been argued that these movement errors relate to subjects sensing their body rotation through continuing vestibular activity and making corrective movements. In the present study, we evaluated the reaching movements of five labyrinthine-defective subjects (lacking both semicircular canal and otolith function) who cannot sense passive body rotation in the dark and five age-matched, normal control subjects. Each pointed 40 times in complete darkness to the location of a just extinguished visual target before, during, and after constant velocity rotation at 10 rpm in the center of a fully enclosed slow rotation room. All subjects, including the normal controls, always felt completely stationary when making their movements. During rotation, both groups initially showed large deviations of their movement paths and endpoints in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces generated by their movements. With additional per-rotation movements, both groups showed complete adaptation of movement curvature (restoration of straight-line reaches) during rotation. The labyrinthine-defective subjects, however, failed to regain fully accurate movement endpoints after 40 reaches, unlike the control subjects who did so within 11 reaches. Postrotation, both groups' movements initially had mirror image curvatures to their initial per-rotation reaches; the endpoint aftereffects were significantly different from prerotation baseline for the control subjects but not for the labyrinthine-defective subjects reflecting the smaller amount of endpoint adaptation they achieved during rotation. The labyrinthine-defective subjects' movements had significantly lower peak velocity, higher peak elevation

  20. Darling-Dennison resonance and Coriolis coupling in the bending overtones of the A 1A(u) state of acetylene, C2H2.

    PubMed

    Merer, Anthony J; Yamakita, Nami; Tsuchiya, Soji; Steeves, Adam H; Bechtel, Hans A; Field, Robert W

    2008-08-07

    Rotational analyses have been carried out for the overtones of the nu(4) (torsion) and nu(6) (in-plane cis-bend) vibrations of the A (1)A(u) state of C(2)H(2). The v(4)+v(6)=2 vibrational polyad was observed in high-sensitivity one-photon laser-induced fluorescence spectra and the v(4)+v(6)=3 polyad was observed in IR-UV double resonance spectra via the ground state nu(3) (Sigma(+) (u)) and nu(3)+nu(4) (Pi(u)) vibrational levels. The structures of these polyads are dominated by the effects of vibrational angular momentum: Vibrational levels of different symmetry interact via strong a-and b-axis Coriolis coupling, while levels of the same symmetry interact via Darling-Dennison resonance, where the interaction parameter has the exceptionally large value K(4466)=-51.68 cm(-1). The K-structures of the polyads bear almost no resemblance to the normal asymmetric top patterns, and many local avoided crossings occur between close-lying levels with nominal K-values differing by one or more units. Least squares analysis shows that the coupling parameters change only slightly with vibrational excitation, which has allowed successful predictions of the structures of the higher polyads: A number of weak bands from the v(4)+v(6)=4 and 5 polyads have been identified unambiguously. The state discovered by Scherer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6315 (1986)], which appears to interact with the K=1 levels of the 3(3) vibrational state at low J, is identified as the second highest of the five K=1 members of the v(4)+v(6)=4 polyad. After allowing for the Darling-Dennison resonance, the zero-order bending structure can be represented by omega(4)=764.71, omega(6)=772.50, x(44)=0.19, x(66)=-4.23, and x(46)=11.39 cm(-1). The parameters x(46) and K(4466) are both sums of contributions from the vibrational angular momentum and from the anharmonic force field. For x(46) these contributions are 14.12 and -2.73 cm(-1), respectively, while the corresponding values for K(4466) are -28.24 and -23

  1. Fast Averaging for Long- and Short-wave Scaled Equatorial Shallow Water Equations with Coriolis Parameter Deviating from Linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrifoy, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    The equatorial shallow water equations at low Froude number form a symmetric hyperbolic system with large terms containing a variable coefficient, the Coriolis parameter f, which depends on the latitude. The limiting behavior of the solutions as the Froude number tends to zero was investigated rigorously a few years ago, using the common approximation that the variations of f with latitude are linear. In that case, the large terms have a peculiar structure, due to special properties of the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, which can be exploited to prove strong uniform a priori estimates in adapted functional spaces. It is shown here that these estimates still hold when f deviates from linearity, even though the special properties on which the proofs were based have no obvious generalization. As in the linear case, existence, uniqueness and convergence properties of the solutions corresponding to general unbalanced data are deduced from the estimates.

  2. Apparatus for harnessing wave motion and solar energy and coriolis acceleration of nature for solar distillation use

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.F.

    1984-04-17

    Individually useable wave-powered pumping means, solar distillation means, and cyclonic wind generating means, together with a system which employs each of them for harnessing natural energy sources are disclosed. Wave and solar energy, together with coriolis acceleration are employed in the system which includes a basin for water situated near an ocean, or other such body of water, having a surface subject to wave action. A solar energy transmitting cover is provided over the basin for solar heating, and evaporation of water contained therein. Vapor condensing means are located adjacent the bottom of the basin, and an upwardly extending inlet conduit, or passageway, connects the condenser to a source of water vapor above the water surface of the covered basin. Cooled air, and distilled water, are discharged from the condenser to a location outside the covered basin. Due to Coriolis acceleration, air enters the inlet conduit to the condenser with a rotational, or cyclonic, motion and wind driven means are located in the rotating air path for drive rotation thereof. Cooling fluid for the vapor condensing means is provided by relatively cold ocean water pumped into the basin by wave operated piston pumping means which includes an elongated upright cylinder anchored to the ocean floor near the shore. A piston, with an attached upwardly extending piston rod, is reciprocally movable within the cylinder. A surface float is attached to the piston rod for upward movement thereof as the float moves upwardly with a wave crest. Gravity returns the piston to a lowered position as the float travels downwardly from the wave crest to a wave trough. The piston is provided with inlet, check valve means through which ocean water passes into the upper end of the cylinder on the gravity-produced downstroke of the piston. Discharge, check, valve means are included in the connection of the pump cylinder to the basin to prevent reverse flow of ocean water therein.

  3. Effects of eddy viscosity and thermal conduction and Coriolis force in the dynamics of gravity wave driven fluctuations in the OH nightglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, M. P.

    1988-01-01

    The chemical-dynamical model of Walterscheid et al. (1987), which describes wave-driven fluctuations in OH nightglow, was modified to include the effects of both eddy thermal conduction and viscosity, as well as the Coriolis force (with the shallow atmosphere approximation). Using the new model, calculations were performed for the same nominal case as used by Walterscheid et al. but with only wave periods considered. For this case, the Coriolis force was found to be unimportant at any wave period. For wave periods greater than 2 or 3 hours, the inclusion of thermal conduction alone greatly modified the results (in terms of a complex ratio 'eta' which expresses the relationship between the intensity oscillation about the time-averaged intensity and the temperature oscillation about the time-averaged temperature); this effect was reduced with the further inclusion of the eddy viscosity.

  4. Changing theory, changing role of Coriolis effect - The East-West asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff seismic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    It is a long history the tale of the recognized asymmetries of the Earth. In 1600 William Gilbert (1544-1603) published De Magnete in which the North and South geomagnetic pole are described. In 1620 Francis Bacon (1561-1628) in the XXVIIth aphorism of the Novum Organum (second part) describes the southern tips of the continents, and many other asymmetries were later described. In 1975 Samuel Warren Carey (1911-2002) stated: Neither north and south, nor east and west are tectonically equivalent. A non exhaustive list of asymmetries of the Earth is: The magnetic polarity; The land-hemisphere and the water-hemisphere; Southern tips of the continents; Larger extension of expanding mid-oceanic ridges on the southern hemisphere; South-eastward trend of younger ages in the long Pacific seafloor volcanic chains; A larger width of the seafloor isochrones bands on the Nazca region; A pear-shaped Earth; etc. It is a few decades that the different slopes of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards the east and west has been enclosed in the list. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30 degrees, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper (Luyendyk, 1970; Isacks & Barazangi, 1977; and many others). The cause of this difference has been identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west - the so called westward drift (Bostrom, 1971; Stevenson & Turner, 1977; among others). This solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction (Jordan, 1974; Ranalli, 2000; Caputo & Caputo, 2012). Moreover, a simplistic evaluation of the regime of the convective motion in the mantle and of the order of magnitude of the involved forces (viscous, buoyancy, inertial) hastily judges as negligible the role of the Coriolis effect in producing the observed slope differences of the Wadati-Benioff regions. Instead, it is possible to show that changing

  5. Motor adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of reaching movements: endpoint but not trajectory adaptation transfers to the nonexposed arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dizio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. Reaching movements made in a rotating room generate Coriolis forces that are directly proportional to the cross product of the room's angular velocity and the arm's linear velocity. Such Coriolis forces are inertial forces not involving mechanical contact with the arm. 2. We measured the trajectories of arm movements made in darkness to a visual target that was extinguished at the onset of each reach. Prerotation subjects pointed with both the right and left arms in alternating sets of eight movements. During rotation at 10 rpm, the subjects reached only with the right arm. Postrotation, the subjects pointed with the left and right arms, starting with the left, in alternating sets of eight movements. 3. The initial perrotary reaching movements of the right arm were highly deviated both in movement path and endpoint relative to the prerotation reaches of the right arm. With additional movements, subjects rapidly regained straight movement paths and accurate endpoints despite the absence of visual or tactile feedback about reaching accuracy. The initial postrotation reaches of the left arm followed straight paths to the wrong endpoint. The initial postrotation reaches of the right arm had paths with mirror image curvature to the initial perrotation reaches of the right arm but went to the correct endpoint. 4. These observations are inconsistent with current equilibrium point models of movement control. Such theories predict accurate reaches under our experimental conditions. Our observations further show independent implementation of movement and posture, as evidenced by transfer of endpoint adaptation to the nonexposed arm without transfer of path adaptation. Endpoint control may occur at a relatively central stage that represents general constraints such as gravitoinertial force background or egocentric direction relative to both arms, and control of path may occur at a more peripheral stage that represents moments of inertia and muscle dynamics unique to each

  6. Motor adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of reaching movements: endpoint but not trajectory adaptation transfers to the nonexposed arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dizio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. Reaching movements made in a rotating room generate Coriolis forces that are directly proportional to the cross product of the room's angular velocity and the arm's linear velocity. Such Coriolis forces are inertial forces not involving mechanical contact with the arm. 2. We measured the trajectories of arm movements made in darkness to a visual target that was extinguished at the onset of each reach. Prerotation subjects pointed with both the right and left arms in alternating sets of eight movements. During rotation at 10 rpm, the subjects reached only with the right arm. Postrotation, the subjects pointed with the left and right arms, starting with the left, in alternating sets of eight movements. 3. The initial perrotary reaching movements of the right arm were highly deviated both in movement path and endpoint relative to the prerotation reaches of the right arm. With additional movements, subjects rapidly regained straight movement paths and accurate endpoints despite the absence of visual or tactile feedback about reaching accuracy. The initial postrotation reaches of the left arm followed straight paths to the wrong endpoint. The initial postrotation reaches of the right arm had paths with mirror image curvature to the initial perrotation reaches of the right arm but went to the correct endpoint. 4. These observations are inconsistent with current equilibrium point models of movement control. Such theories predict accurate reaches under our experimental conditions. Our observations further show independent implementation of movement and posture, as evidenced by transfer of endpoint adaptation to the nonexposed arm without transfer of path adaptation. Endpoint control may occur at a relatively central stage that represents general constraints such as gravitoinertial force background or egocentric direction relative to both arms, and control of path may occur at a more peripheral stage that represents moments of inertia and muscle dynamics unique to each

  7. Coriolis coupling as a source of non-RRKM effects in triatomic near-symmetric top molecules: Diffusive intramolecular energy exchange between rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Kryvohuz, M; Marcus, R A

    2010-06-14

    A classical theory is proposed to describe the non-RRKM effects in activated asymmetric top triatomic molecules observed numerically in classical molecular dynamics simulations of ozone. The Coriolis coupling is shown to result in an effective diffusive energy exchange between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom. A stochastic differential equation is obtained for the K-component of the rotational angular momentum that governs the diffusion.

  8. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of the Ne-D2O van der Waals complex: Strong Coriolis and angular-radial coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Zheng, Rui; Zhu, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2011-10-01

    Four internal-rotation/vibration bands of the Ne-D2O complex have been measured in the v2 bend region of D2O using a tunable infrared diode laser spectrometer to probe a slit supersonic expansion. Three ortho bands are excited from the ground state Σ(000) to the Σ and Π(111, υ2 = 1) internal rotor states and the n = 1, Σ(000, υ2 = 1) stretching-internal rotor combination state. Strong perturbations between the excited vibrational states are evident. The observed spectra are analyzed separately with a three-state J-dependent Coriolis plus J-independent angular-radial coupling model [M. J. Weida and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 3078 (1997), 10.1063/1.473051] and a three-state Coriolis coupling model [R. C. Cohen and R. J. Saykally, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7891 (1991), 10.1063/1.461318]. The former model works more successfully than the latter. Molecular constants for the ground and excited vibrational states of ortho 20Ne-D2O isotopomer as well as the Coriolis and angular-radial coupling constants are determined accurately. The van der Waals stretching frequency is estimated to be νs = 24.85 cm-1 in the ground state and decreases to about 20.8 cm-1 upon vibrational excitation of the D2O bend.

  9. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of the Ne-D2O van der Waals complex: strong Coriolis and angular-radial coupling.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Zheng, Rui; Zhu, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2011-10-07

    Four internal-rotation/vibration bands of the Ne-D(2)O complex have been measured in the v(2) bend region of D(2)O using a tunable infrared diode laser spectrometer to probe a slit supersonic expansion. Three ortho bands are excited from the ground state Σ(0(00)) to the Σ and Π(1(11), υ(2) = 1) internal rotor states and the n = 1, Σ(0(00), υ(2) = 1) stretching-internal rotor combination state. Strong perturbations between the excited vibrational states are evident. The observed spectra are analyzed separately with a three-state J-dependent Coriolis plus J-independent angular-radial coupling model [M. J. Weida and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 3078 (1997)] and a three-state Coriolis coupling model [R. C. Cohen and R. J. Saykally, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7891 (1991)]. The former model works more successfully than the latter. Molecular constants for the ground and excited vibrational states of ortho (20)Ne-D(2)O isotopomer as well as the Coriolis and angular-radial coupling constants are determined accurately. The van der Waals stretching frequency is estimated to be ν(s) = 24.85 cm(-1) in the ground state and decreases to about 20.8 cm(-1) upon vibrational excitation of the D(2)O bend.

  10. Input variable selection for data-driven models of Coriolis flowmeters for two-phase flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xue; Wang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Input variable selection is an essential step in the development of data-driven models for environmental, biological and industrial applications. Through input variable selection to eliminate the irrelevant or redundant variables, a suitable subset of variables is identified as the input of a model. Meanwhile, through input variable selection the complexity of the model structure is simplified and the computational efficiency is improved. This paper describes the procedures of the input variable selection for the data-driven models for the measurement of liquid mass flowrate and gas volume fraction under two-phase flow conditions using Coriolis flowmeters. Three advanced input variable selection methods, including partial mutual information (PMI), genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and tree-based iterative input selection (IIS) are applied in this study. Typical data-driven models incorporating support vector machine (SVM) are established individually based on the input candidates resulting from the selection methods. The validity of the selection outcomes is assessed through an output performance comparison of the SVM based data-driven models and sensitivity analysis. The validation and analysis results suggest that the input variables selected from the PMI algorithm provide more effective information for the models to measure liquid mass flowrate while the IIS algorithm provides a fewer but more effective variables for the models to predict gas volume fraction.

  11. The impact of wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing on satellite-derived ocean surface currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhenli; Xu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Ocean surface currents estimated from the satellite data consist of two terms: Ekman currents from the wind stress and geostrophic currents from the sea surface height (SSH). But the classical Ekman model does not consider the wave effects. By taking the wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing into account, the impact of waves (primarily the Stokes drift) on ocean surface currents is investigated and the wave-modified currents are formed. The products are validated by comparing with OSCAR currents and Lagrangian drifter velocity. The result shows that our products with the Stokes drift are better adapted to the in situ Lagrangian drifter currents. Especially in the Southern Ocean region (40°S-65°S), 90% (91%) of the zonal (meridional) currents have been improved compared with currents that do not include Stokes drift. The correlation (RMSE) in the Southern Ocean has also increased (decreased) from 0.78 (13) to 0.81 (10.99) for the zonal component and 0.76 (10.87) to 0.79 (10.09) for the meridional component. This finding provides the evidence that waves indeed play an important role in the ocean circulation, and need to be represented in numerical simulations of the global ocean circulation. This article was corrected on 10 FEB 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  12. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-09-01

    quickly to counteract conditions that could lead to pipeline pluggage (e.g., backflushing the pipeline with water). One of the highest priorities is to determine the concentration of suspended solids in each of the slurries. In the project described in this report, two Coriolis meters were used simultaneously to create a suspended solids monitoring system that would provide accurate results with high precision. One Coriolis meter was used to measure the density of the slurry, while the other meter was used to measure the density of the carrier fluid (i.e., after filtration to remove the solid particles). The suspended solids concentration was then calculated from the density relationships between the slurry, the carrier fluid, and the dry solid particles. The latter density was determined by laboratory analysis and was assumed to be constant throughout the periods that grab samples were collected.

  13. An energy and potential enstrophy conserving numerical scheme for the multi-layer shallow water equations with complete Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Andrew L.; Dellar, Paul J.

    2016-05-01

    We present an energy- and potential enstrophy-conserving scheme for the non-traditional shallow water equations that include the complete Coriolis force and topography. These integral conservation properties follow from material conservation of potential vorticity in the continuous shallow water equations. The latter property cannot be preserved by a discretisation on a fixed Eulerian grid, but exact conservation of a discrete energy and a discrete potential enstrophy seems to be an effective substitute that prevents any distortion of the forward and inverse cascades in quasi-two dimensional turbulence through spurious sources and sinks of energy and potential enstrophy, and also increases the robustness of the scheme against nonlinear instabilities. We exploit the existing Arakawa-Lamb scheme for the traditional shallow water equations, reformulated by Salmon as a discretisation of the Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket for this system. The non-rotating, traditional, and our non-traditional shallow water equations all share the same continuous Hamiltonian structure and Poisson bracket, provided one distinguishes between the particle velocity and the canonical momentum per unit mass. We have determined a suitable discretisation of the non-traditional canonical momentum, which includes additional coupling between the layer thickness and velocity fields, and modified the discrete kinetic energy to suppress an internal symmetric computational instability that otherwise arises for multiple layers. The resulting scheme exhibits the expected second-order convergence under spatial grid refinement. We also show that the drifts in the discrete total energy and potential enstrophy due to temporal truncation error may be reduced to machine precision under suitable refinement of the timestep using the third-order Adams-Bashforth or fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration schemes.

  14. Dissolved Fe and Fe binding ligand concentrations at the hydrothermal vent fields in the Coriolis Troughs, New Hebrides Island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleint, C.; Hawkes, J. A.; Sander, S. G.; Koschinsky, A.

    2016-02-01

    It is globally accepted that hydrothermal vent fluids are highly enriched in Fe compared to the surrounding seawater and for long it was believed that the majority of the dissolved Fe is precipitated either directly out of the fluid with seawater contact or from the plume within a short distance. Recent research at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents has shown, however, that organic ligands are able to keep Fe soluble and therefore facilitating its transport into the open ocean. This is important since Fe is also considered a limiting factor for primary production in large parts of the world`s surface ocean. The New Hebrides Island Arc is not studied well with respect to the fluid chemistry of its numerous vents. Up until now, no data is published for the crucial micronutrient Fe in these fluids. Several hydrothermal vent fluids, divided into mixing zone, outlet and pure fluid as well as one hydrothermal plume from the Coriolis Troughs have been analyzed with respect to total dissolved Fe (dFe) and Fe binding ligands (FeL), using competitive ligand exchange - adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE - AdCSV) with Salicylaldoxime as the artificial ligand. Our dFe data for the hydrothermal plume show concentrations ranging from 9.6 nM to 30.1 nM, being highly enriched compared to the surrounding seawater. Good correlation is observed between dFe and turbidity, which can be used as a proxy for hydrothermal plumes. Hydrothermal fluid samples collected near and directly from the vent outlet show total dissolved Fe concentrations varying from 0.46 µM up to 380 µM, respectively. We find enriched organic ligand concentrations in the plume samples as well as in the samples taken near the hydrothermal vent outlets. Pure hydrothermal fluid samples with an in-situ temperature of up to 370 °C show different ligand properties than low to mid temperature samples.

  15. Changes in the perceived head transversal plane and the subjective visual horizontal induced by Coriolis stimulation during gondola centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola

    2006-01-01

    For studying the influence of the vertical semicircular canals on spatial orientation in roll, the subjective visual horizontal (SVH) and the subjective transversal plane of the head (STP) were measured in a situation where the vertical canals sense a roll-velocity stimulus while the otolith organs persistently signal that the head is upright in roll. During gondola centrifugation (resultant gravitoinertial force vector 2.5 G, gondola inclination 66 degrees) subjects were exposed to controlled rotational head movements (angular speed 27 degrees/s, magnitude 40 degrees) about the yaw (body z-) axis, produced by means of a motor-driven helmet. This causes a roll-plane Coriolis stimulus to the canals, while the otoliths persistently sense upright head position in roll. The subjects reported intense sensations of rotation and tilt in the roll plane. This was reflected in tilts of both the SVH and STP. The initial tilt of the SVH was 13.0 +/- 9.7 degrees (mean +/- S.D., n=10). The STP was changed in the opposite direction. The initial tilt was 23.8 +/- 12.2 degrees (mean +/- S.D., n=5). The changes in the SVH and STP were not of equal magnitude. A few subjects who had almost no deviations in the SVH showed pronounced tilts of the STP. The time constant for exponential decay of the tilts of the SVH and STP was on average approximately 1 minute. These findings indicate that a difference in activity of the vertical canals in the right versus left ear may cause substantial tilts of the SVH even if there is no asymmetry in the activity of the otolith system. Further, the canal stimulus may induce a tilt of the fundamental egocentric frame of reference.

  16. Motion sickness adaptation to Coriolis-inducing head movements in a sustained G flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Newman, Michael C; McCarthy, Geoffrey W; Glaser, Scott T; Bonato, Frederick; Bubka, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Technological advances have allowed centrifuges to become more than physiological testing and training devices; sustained G, fully interactive flight simulation is now possible. However, head movements under G can result in vestibular stimulation that can lead to motion sickness (MS) symptoms that are potentially distracting, nauseogenic, and unpleasant. In the current study an MS adaptation protocol was tested for head movements under +Gz. Experienced pilots made 14 predetermined head movements in a sustained G flight simulator (at 3 +Gz) on 5 consecutive days and 17 d after training. Symptoms were measured after each head turn using a subjective 0-10 MS scale. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was also administered before and after each daily training session. After five daily training sessions, normalized mean MS scores were 58% lower than on Day 1. Mean total, nausea, and disorientation SSQ scores were 55%, 52%, and 78% lower, respectively. During retesting 17 d after training, nearly all scores indicated 90-100% retention of training benefits. The reduction of unpleasant effects associated with sustained G flight simulation using an adaptation training protocol may enhance the effectiveness of simulation. Practical use of sustained G simulators is also likely to be interspersed with other types of ground and in-flight training. Hence, it would be undesirable and unpleasant for trainees to lose adaptation benefits after a short gap in centrifuge use. However, current results suggest that training gaps in excess of 2 wk may be permissible with almost no loss of adaptation training benefits.

  17. Threonine side chain conformational population distribution of a type I antifreeze protein on interacting with ice surface studied via ¹³C-¹⁵N dynamic REDOR NMR.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yougang; Jeong, Myongho; Wang, Tieli; Ba, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) provide survival mechanism for species living in subzero environments by lowering the freezing points of their body fluids effectively. The mechanism is attributed to AFPs' ability to inhibit the growth of seed ice crystals through adsorption on specific ice surfaces. We have applied dynamic REDOR (Rotational Echo Double Resonance) solid state NMR to study the threonine (Thr) side chain conformational population distribution of a site-specific Thr ¹³C(γ) and ¹⁵N doubly labeled type I AFP in frozen aqueous solution. It is known that the Thr side chains together with those of the 4th and 8th Alanine (Ala) residues commencing from the Thrs (the 1st) in the four 11-residue repeat units form the peptide ice-binding surface. The conformational information can provide structural insight with regard to how the AFP side chains structurally interact with the ice surface. χ-squared statistical analysis of the experimental REDOR data in fitting the theoretically calculated dynamic REDOR fraction curves indicates that when the AFP interacted with the ice surface in the frozen AFP solution, the conformations of the Thr side chains changed from the anti-conformations, as in the AFP crystal structure, to partial population in the anti-conformation and partial population in the two gauche conformations. This change together with the structural analysis indicates that the simultaneous interactions of the methyl groups and the hydroxyl groups of the Thr side chains with the ice surface could be the reason for the conformational population change. The analysis of the theoretical dynamic REDOR fraction curves shows that the set of experimental REDOR data may fit a number of theoretical curves with different population distributions. Thus, other structural information is needed to assist in determining the conformational population distribution of the Thr side chains.

  18. Genetic interactions between the RhoA and Stubble-stubbloid loci suggest a role for a type II transmembrane serine protease in intracellular signaling during Drosophila imaginal disc morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Cynthia A; Halsell, Susan R; Fristrom, James W; Kiehart, Daniel P; von Kalm, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila RhoA (Rho1) GTPase is essential for postembryonic morphogenesis of leg and wing imaginal discs. Mutations in RhoA enhance leg and wing defects associated with mutations in zipper, the gene encoding the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin II. We demonstrate here that mutations affecting the RhoA signaling pathway also interact genetically with mutations in the Stubble-stubbloid (Sb-sbd) locus that encodes an unusual type II transmembrane serine protease required for normal leg and wing morphogenesis. In addition, a leg malformation phenotype associated with overexpression of Sb-sbd in prepupal leg discs is suppressed when RhoA gene dose is reduced, suggesting that RhoA and Sb-sbd act in a common pathway during leg morphogenesis. We also characterized six mutations identified as enhancers of zipper mutant leg defects. Three of these genes encode known members of the RhoA signaling pathway (RhoA, DRhoGEF2, and zipper). The remaining three enhancer of zipper mutations interact genetically with both RhoA and Sb-sbd mutations, suggesting that they encode additional components of the RhoA signaling pathway in imaginal discs. Our results provide evidence that the type II transmembrane serine proteases, a class of proteins linked to human developmental abnormalities and pathology, may be associated with intracellular signaling required for normal development. PMID:14668391

  19. The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background. The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect. The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 211, 212, 213. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. These are: (1) The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background; (2) The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect; and (3) The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Each of the three units are designed for students in grades 6-12.…

  20. The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background. The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect. The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 211, 212, 213. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. These are: (1) The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background; (2) The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect; and (3) The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Each of the three units are designed for students in grades 6-12.…

  1. Interaction of Atmospheric Plasma Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhovkina, N. I.; Artekha, S. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric electric fields, connected with the ionization of particles and plasma processes, occur in the fields of pressure gradients of mosaic mesh topology. Atmospheric aerosol particles play a significant role in the vortex generation. The Coriolis force and the motion of charged particles in the geomagnetic field lead to gyrotropy of the atmosphere and ionosphere. Occurrence of plasma vortices is stochastically determined for such an inhomogeneous gyrotropic medium. The geomagnetic field influences the change of structures of inhomogeneous media in the process of excitation of plasma vortices and their interaction. If colliding vortices are centered on the one geomagnetic line, the merge of vortices and the generation of a joint powerful vortex are possible. If a collision of vortices with centers at different geomagnetic field lines occurs, then the emergence of areas of heating and jet streams and the generation of new vortices are possible.

  2. Time-dependent wave-packet quantum dynamics study of the Ne + D2(+) (v0 = 0-2, j0 = 0) → NeD(+) + D reaction: including the coriolis coupling.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cui-Xia; Zhang, Pei-Yu

    2014-07-10

    The dynamics of the Ne + D2(+) (v0 = 0-2, j0 = 0) → NeD(+) + D reaction has been investigated in detail by using an accurate time-dependent wave-packet method on the ground 1(2)A' potential energy surface. Comparisons between the Coriolis coupling results and the centrifugal-sudden ones reveal that Coriolis coupling effect can influence reaction dynamics of the NeD2(+) system. Integral cross sections have been evaluated for the Ne + D2(+) reaction and its isotopic variant Ne + H2(+), and a considerable intermolecular isotopic effect has been found. Also obvious is the great enhancement of the reactivity due to the reagent vibrational excitation. Besides, a comparison with previous theoretical results is also presented and discussed.

  3. An extended hindered-rotor model with incorporation of Coriolis and vibrational-rotational coupling for calculating partition functions and derived quantities.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, P; Van Neck, D; Van Speybroeck, V; Waroquier, M

    2006-01-28

    Large-amplitude motions, particularly internal rotations, are known to affect substantially thermodynamic functions and rate constants of reactions in which flexible molecules are involved. Up to now all methods for computing the partition functions of these motions rely on the Pitzer approximation of more than 50 years ago, in which the large-amplitude motion is treated in complete independence of the other (vibrational) degrees of freedom. In this paper an extended hindered-rotor model (EHR) is developed in which the vibrational modes, treated harmonically, are correctly separated from the large-amplitude motion and in which relaxation effects (the changes in the kinetic-energy matrix and potential curvature) are taken into account as one moves along the large-amplitude path. The model also relies on a specific coordinate system in which the Coriolis terms vanish at all times in the Hamiltonian. In this way an increased level of consistency between the various internal modes is achieved, as compared with the more usual hindered-rotor (HR) description. The method is illustrated by calculating the entropies and heat capacities on 1,3-butadiene and 1-butene (with, respectively, one and two internal rotors) and the rate constant for the addition reaction of a vinyl radical to ethene. We also discuss various variants of the one-dimensional hindered-rotor scheme existing in the literature and its relation with the EHR model. It is argued why in most cases the HR approach is already quite successful.

  4. Rotational, steric, and coriolis effects on the F + HCl --> HF + Cl reaction on the 1(2)A' ground-state surface.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Paolo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2009-04-23

    We present a quantum study of the reaction F((2)P) + HCl(X(1)Sigma(+)) --> HF(X(1)Sigma(+)) + Cl((2)P) on a recently computed 1(2)A' ground-state surface, considering HCl in the ground vibrational state, with up to 16 rotational quanta j(0). We employ the real wavepacket (WP) and flux methods for calculating coupled-channel (CC) and centrifugal-sudden (CS) initial-state probabilities up to J = 80 and 140, respectively. We also report CC and CS ground-state cross sections and CS excited-state cross sections and discuss the dynamics analyzing WP time evolutions. The HCl rotation highly enhances reaction probabilities and cross sections, as it was previously found for probabilities at J Coriolis couplings favor instead the energy flow from the HCl rotation to the F-H---Cl reactive vibration. WP snapshots confirm and explain the HCl rotational effects, because the density into the nearly collinear F-H---Cl product channel increases remarkably with j(0). Finally, our CS rate constant is underestimated with respect to the experiment, pointing out the need of more accurate multisurface and CC calculations.

  5. Do A-type stars flare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, M. G.; Antoci, V.; Korhonen, H.; White, T. R.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Lehtinen, J.; Nikbakhsh, S.; Viuho, J.

    2017-04-01

    For flares to be generated, stars have to have a sufficiently deep outer convection zone (F5 and later), strong large-scale magnetic fields (Ap/Bp-type stars) or strong, radiatively driven winds (B5 and earlier). Normal A-type stars possess none of these and therefore should not flare. Nevertheless, flares have previously been detected in the Kepler light curves of 33 A-type stars and interpreted to be intrinsic to the stars. Here, we present new and detailed analyses of these 33 stars, imposing very strict criteria for the flare detection. We confirm the presence of flare-like features in 27 of the 33 A-type stars. A study of the pixel data and the surrounding field of view reveals that 14 of these 27 flaring objects have overlapping neighbouring stars and five stars show clear contamination in the pixel data. We have obtained high-resolution spectra for 2/3 of the entire sample and confirm that our targets are indeed A-type stars. Detailed analyses revealed that 11 out of 19 stars with multiple epochs of observations are spectroscopic binaries. Furthermore, and contrary to previous studies, we find that the flares can originate from a cooler, unresolved companion. We note the presence of Hα emission in eight stars. Whether this emission is circumstellar or magnetic in origin is unknown. In summary, we find possible alternative explanations for the observed flares for at least 19 of the 33 A-type stars, but find no truly convincing target to support the hypothesis of flaring A-type stars.

  6. Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that when an equal-arm Michelson interferometer is involved in rotation (for example, Earth's rotation around its axis or around the Sun) and its arms are oriented differently with respect to the plane of rotation, a phase difference arises between the light rays that pass through different arms. This phase difference is due to the fact that the arms experience variously the Newtonian (nonrelativistic) scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces. It is shown that the phase difference is proportional to the length of the interferometer arm, the square of the angular velocity of the rotation, and the square of the distance from the center of rotation — hence, the proposal to call this phenomenon the quadratic Sagnac effect. In the present paper, we consider, as an illustrative example, the results of the once well-known experiments of D C Miller, who claimed to observe the translational motion of Earth relative to the hypothetical ‘luminiferous ether’. It is shown that this claim can actually be explained by the fact that, because of the orbital revolution of Earth, the time dilations in the orthogonal arms of the Michelson interferometer are influenced differently by the scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces.

  7. Time dependent quantum dynamics study of the Ne + H2(+)(v0 = 0-4, j0 = 1) → NeH(+) + H proton transfer reaction, including the Coriolis coupling. A system with oscillatory cross sections.

    PubMed

    Gamallo, Pablo; Defazio, Paolo; González, Miguel

    2011-10-27

    The Ne + H(2)(+)(v(0) = 0-4, j(0) = 1) proton transfer reaction has been studied in a wide collision energy (E(col)) interval, using the time dependent real wave packet method and taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC-RWP method) and employing a recent ab initio potential energy surface, widely extending the reaction conditions previously explored at the CC level. The reaction probability shows a strong oscillatory behavior vs E(col) and the presence of sharp resonances, arising from metastable NeH(2)(+) states. The behavior of the reaction cross section σ vs E(col) depends on the vibrational level and can in general be interpreted in terms of the late barrier character of the potential energy surface and the existence (or not) of threshold energy. The situation is particularly complex for v(0) = 2, as σ(v0=2, j0=1) presents significant oscillations with E(col) up to ≈0.33 eV, which probably reflect the resonances found in the reaction probability. Hence, it would be particularly interesting to investigate the Ne + H(2)(+)(v(0) = 2, j(0) = 1) reaction experimentally, as some resonances survive the partial wave summation. The state selected cross sections compare well with previous CC quantum and experimental results, and although the previous centrifugal sudden RWP cross sections are reasonable, the inclusion of the Coriolis coupling is important to achieve a quantitative description of this and similar systems.

  8. Quantum wave packet and quasiclassical trajectory studies of the reaction H(2S) + CH(X2 Π; v = 0, j = 1) → C(1D) + H2 (X1 Σg+): Coriolis coupling effects and stereodynamics.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruifeng; Wang, Yunhui; Deng, Kaiming

    2013-07-30

    The quantum mechanics (QM) and quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations have been carried out for the title reaction with the ground minimal allowed rotational state of CH (j = 1) on the 1 (1)A' potential energy surface. For the reaction probability at total angular momentum J = 0, a similar trend of the QM and QCT calculations is observed, and the QM results are larger than the latter almost in the whole considered energy range (0.1-1.5 eV). The QCT integral cross sections are larger than the QM results with centrifugal sudden approximation, while smaller than those from QM method including Coriolis coupling for collision energies bigger than 0.25 eV. The quantum wave-packet computations show that the Coriolis coupling effects get more and more pronounced with increasing of J. In addition to the scalar properties, the stereodynamical properties, such as the average rotational alignment factor , the angular distributions P(θr ), P(ϕr ), P(θr ,ϕr ), and the polarization-dependent generalized differential cross sections have been explored in detail by QCT approach.

  9. AE and A type shell stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.; Andrillat, Y.

    1998-06-01

    We present and discuss the observations of 14 Ae and A type shell stars in the visual, the Hα region and the near infrared. At least 57% of these stars are spectrum variables. The Paschen lines are formed in a region which has the characterics of giant stars. We find that the systems lie one magnitude above the main sequence and that a large percentage belong to double and triple systems.

  10. A laboratory analogue of current-topography interaction in the Southern Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, Adekunle; Sommeria, Joel; Raja, Keshav; Staquet, Chantal; Viboud, Samuel; Voisin, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an active site of turbulent mixing in the circulation of Southern Ocean (SO). This is attributed to the instabilities of waves and eddies resulting from the interaction of geostrophic flow with bottom topography. For the first time, the dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is reproduced in the laboratory using the rotating Coriolis platform with diameter 13m. The tank is filled with a 1m thick layer of uniformly stratified salt water. A uniform circular current around the tank is produced by a small change of tank rotation speed which persists by inertia for the duration of the experiment, during which the flow conditions can be considered quasi-steady. Spherical cap(s) was introduce as bottom topography in the flow configuration. The experimental module was divided into two cases: with Coriolis effect and without Coriolis effect. Several experiments with multiple caps to mimic rough topography features were conducted with various values of Froude and Rossby number. Waves and eddies resulting from the interaction of the flow with the topography were studied. It was realised that rotation greatly enhances vertical transport of momentum from the bottom. Inertial oscillations were observed and likely contribute to this transport. Turbulence generation was observed close the topography but also in the fluid interior far above it, which presumably results from wave breaking. Consistently, analysis of the density probes showed vertical mixing in the water column both at the bottom and in the interior. The link with the theoretical modelling by Nikurashin & Ferrari (2010) and Labreuche et al. (2016) will be discussed.

  11. Coriolis coupling effects in O(+)(4S) + H2(X1Σg(+)) → OH (+)(X3Σ(–)) + H(2S) reaction and its isotopic variants: exact time-dependent quantum scattering study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenwu; Li, Wenliang; Lv, Shuangjiang; Zhai, Hongsheng; Duan, Zhixin; Zhang, Peiyu

    2012-11-15

    The time-dependent wave packet quantum method taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) has been employed to investigate the dynamics of O(+) + H(2)/D(2)/HD (v(i) = 0, j(i) = 0) reactions based on an accurate potential energy surface [ Martínez et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2004 , 120 , 4705 ]. Through the comparison between the results with and without CC, the pronounced CC effects have been revealed in the title reactions. Moreover, the calculated results with the CC method can well reproduce the data of close-coupling hyperspherical (CCH) exact quantum method. The calculations demonstrate that the CC effects play an important role in the O(+) + H(2) system.

  12. Fully Coriolis-coupled quantum studies of the H + O2 (upsilon i = 0-2, j i = 0,1) --> OH + O reaction on an accurate potential energy surface: integral cross sections and rate constants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi Ying; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Dong Hui; Honvault, Pascal; Xie, Daiqian; Lee, Soo-Y

    2008-01-31

    We present accurate quantum calculations of the integral cross section and rate constant for the H + O2 --> OH + O combustion reaction on a recently developed ab initio potential energy surface using parallelized time-dependent and Chebyshev wavepacket methods. Partial wave contributions up to J = 70 were computed with full Coriolis coupling, which enabled us to obtain the initial state-specified integral cross sections up to 2.0 eV of the collision energy and thermal rate constants up to 3000 K. The integral cross sections show a large reaction threshold due to the quantum endothermicity of the reaction, and they monotonically increase with the collision energy. As a result, the temperature dependence of the rate constant is of the Arrhenius type. In addition, it was found that reactivity is enhanced by reactant vibrational excitation. The calculated thermal rate constant shows a significant improvement over that obtained on the DMBE IV potential, but it still underestimates the experimental consensus.

  13. A type-1 metacaspase from Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Trzyna, Wendy C; Legras, Xavier D; Cordingley, John S

    2008-01-01

    The complete sequence of a type-1 metacaspase from Acanthamoeba castellanii is reported comprising 478 amino acids. The metacaspase was recovered from an expression library using sera specific for membrane components implicated in stimulating encystation. A central domain of 155 amino acid residues contains the Cys/His catalytic dyad and is the most conserved region containing at least 30 amino acid identities in all metacaspases. The Acanthamoeba castellanii metacaspase has the most proline-rich N-terminus so far reported in type-1 metacaspases with over 40 prolines in the first 150 residues. Ala-Pro-Pro is present 11 times. Phylogenies constructed using only the conserved proteolytic domains or the complete sequences show identical branching patterns, differing only in the rates of change.

  14. Enteropeptidase, a type II transmembrane serine protease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X Long; Kitamoto, Yasunori; Sadler, J Evan

    2009-06-01

    Enteropeptidase, a type II transmembrane serine protease, is localized to the brush border of the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. It is synthesized as a zymogen (proenteropeptidase) that requires activation by another protease, either trypsin or possibly duodenase. Active enteropeptidase then converts the pancreatic precursor, trypsinogen, to trypsin by cleavage of the specific trypsinogen activation peptide, Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys- Ile that is highly conserved in vertebrates. Trypsin, in turn, activates other digestive zymogens such as chymotrypsinogen, proelastase, procarboxypeptidase and prolipase in the lumen of the gut. The important biological function of enteropeptidase is highlighted by the manifestation of severe diarrhea, failure to thrive, hypoproteinemia and edema as a result of congenital deficiency of enteropeptidase activity in the gut. Conversely, duodenopancreatic reflux of proteolytically active enteropeptidase may cause acute and chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Intramolecular interactions in the polar headgroup of sphingosine: serinol† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ab initio parameters for serinol conformers within 1000 cm–1, measured transition frequencies, typical a-type transition for conformer aa1, interconversion barriers and possible tunnelling pathways. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09423b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Loru, Donatella; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular interactions in the lipid sphingosine have been elucidated through the investigation of the amino alcohol serinol which mimics its polar headgroup. Intricate networks of intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups and the amino group contribute to the stabilisation of five different conformations observed in the broadband rotational spectrum. PMID:26727395

  16. Inconsistencies in the work of P Maraner (reply to comment [Usp. Fiz. Nauk 186 795 (2016)] on the paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect - the influence of gravitational potential of Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921-1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the distributions of the scalar gravitational potential of Coriolis forces in different parts of the shoulder of a rotating equal-arms Michelson interferometer. It results in a view of the very small difference between the phases of light in the shoulders of the Michelson interferometer, in comparison with the phase difference due to the quadratic Sagnac effect. It has been shown that there is an effect, discussed earlier by P Maraner, which is a higher approximation to quadratic Sagnac effect.

  17. Supplement to the paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)]) is amended and supplemented with information concerning earlier work on the influence of rotation on Michelson - Morley's nonzero results.

  18. Substrate Binding Mechanism of a Type I Extradiol Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyo Je; Kim, Kyungsun; Sohn, Seo Yean; Cho, Ha Yeon; Kim, Kyung Jin; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Dockyu; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2010-01-01

    A meta-cleavage pathway for the aerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons is catalyzed by extradiol dioxygenases via a two-step mechanism: catechol substrate binding and dioxygen incorporation. The binding of substrate triggers the release of water, thereby opening a coordination site for molecular oxygen. The crystal structures of AkbC, a type I extradiol dioxygenase, and the enzyme substrate (3-methylcatechol) complex revealed the substrate binding process of extradiol dioxygenase. AkbC is composed of an N-domain and an active C-domain, which contains iron coordinated by a 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad motif. The C-domain includes a β-hairpin structure and a C-terminal tail. In substrate-bound AkbC, 3-methylcatechol interacts with the iron via a single hydroxyl group, which represents an intermediate stage in the substrate binding process. Structure-based mutagenesis revealed that the C-terminal tail and β-hairpin form part of the substrate binding pocket that is responsible for substrate specificity by blocking substrate entry. Once a substrate enters the active site, these structural elements also play a role in the correct positioning of the substrate. Based on the results presented here, a putative substrate binding mechanism is proposed. PMID:20810655

  19. Novel LinA Type 3 δ-Hexachlorocyclohexane Dehydrochlorinase

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Nidhi; Prokop, Zbynek

    2015-01-01

    LinA is the first enzyme of the microbial degradation pathway of a chlorinated insecticide, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and mediates the dehydrochlorination of α-, γ-, and δ-HCH. Its two variants, LinA type 1 and LinA type 2, which differ at 10 out of 156 amino acid residues, have been described. Their activities for the metabolism of different HCH isomers differ considerably but overall are high for γ-HCH, moderate for α-HCH, low for δ-HCH, and lacking for β-HCH. Here, we describe the characterization of a new variant of this enzyme, LinA type 3, whose gene was identified from the metagenome of an HCH-contaminated soil sample. Its deduced primary structure in the region spanning amino acid residues 1 to 147 of the protein exhibits 17 and 12 differences from LinA type 1 and LinA type 2, respectively. In addition, the residues GIHFAPS, present at the region spanning residues 148 to 154 in both LinA type 1 and LinA type 2, are deleted in LinA type 3.The activity of LinA type 3 for the metabolism of δ-HCH is several orders of magnitude higher than that of LinA type 1 or LinA type 2 and can be useful for improvement of the metabolism of δ-HCH. PMID:26296732

  20. Interaction between surface wind and ocean circulation in the Carolina Capes in a coupled low-order model

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Raman, S.

    1997-03-18

    Interactions between surface winds and ocean currents over an east-coast continental shelf are studied using a simple mathematical model. The model physics include cross-shelf advection of sea surface temperature (SST) by Ekman drift, upwelling due to Ekman transport divergence, differential heating of the low-level atmosphere by a cross-shelf SST gradient, and the Coriolis effect. Additionally, the effects of diabatic cooling of surface waters due to air-sea heat exchange and of the vertical density stratification on the thickness of the upper ocean Ekman layer are considered. The model results are qualitatively consistent with observed wind-driven coastal ocean circulation and surface wind signatures induced by SST. This simple model also demonstrates that two-way air-sea interaction plays a significant role in the subtidal frequency variability of coastal ocean circulation and mesoscale variability of surface wind fields over coastal waters.

  1. FEATURE A, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, SOUTH SIDE, REST MOSTLY COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, SOUTH SIDE, REST MOSTLY COVERED BY VEGETATION AND SAND, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 1 Pillbox, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Direct observation of inclined a-type threading dislocation with a-type screw dislocation in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Tohoru; Sugimoto, Kohei; Goubara, Shin; Inomoto, Ryo; Okada, Narihito; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2017-05-01

    We investigated both the atomic arrangements in the core structure of threading dislocations (TDs) and their behaviors in unintentionally doped c-plane-GaN layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and hydride vapor phase epitaxy using high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The extra image contrast near the core was attributed to an extra displacement in a-type TDs in addition to the core structures revealed in previous reports; we used the notation "with displacement" to describe the new core structure. We found that TDs incline towards both the m- and a-directions from the c-direction. The transition of a-type TDs from the conventional core structure to the structure with displacement was deduced from its relationship to the TD inclination. We also found similarities between a-type screw dislocations and a-type TDs with displacement in the atomic-scale HAADF-STEM images. We concluded that a-type TDs could incline towards the a-direction via a-type screw dislocations, and that these inclined a-type TDs are observed as the core structure with displacement.

  3. A Comparative Study of Drosophila and Human A-Type Lamins

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Sandra R.; Curio-Penny, Beatrice; Speese, Sean; Dialynas, George; Cryderman, Diane E.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Nalbant, Demet; Petersen, Melissa; Budnik, Vivian; Geyer, Pamela K.; Wallrath, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear intermediate filament proteins, called lamins, form a meshwork that lines the inner surface of the nuclear envelope. Lamins contain three domains: an N-terminal head, a central rod and a C-terminal tail domain possessing an Ig-fold structural motif. Lamins are classified as either A- or B-type based on structure and expression pattern. The Drosophila genome possesses two genes encoding lamins, Lamin C and lamin Dm0, which have been designated A- and B-type, respectively, based on their expression profile and structural features. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding A-type lamins are associated with a spectrum of predominantly tissue-specific diseases known as laminopathies. Linking the disease phenotypes to cellular functions of lamins has been a major challenge. Drosophila is being used as a model system to identify the roles of lamins in development. Towards this end, we performed a comparative study of Drosophila and human A-type lamins. Analysis of transgenic flies showed that human lamins localize predictably within the Drosophila nucleus. Consistent with this finding, yeast two-hybrid data demonstrated conservation of partner-protein interactions. Drosophila lacking A-type lamin show nuclear envelope defects similar to those observed with human laminopathies. Expression of mutant forms of the A-type Drosophila lamin modeled after human disease-causing amino acid substitutions revealed an essential role for the N-terminal head and the Ig-fold in larval muscle tissue. This tissue-restricted sensitivity suggests a conserved role for lamins in muscle biology. In conclusion, we show that (1) localization of A-type lamins and protein-partner interactions are conserved between Drosophila and humans, (2) loss of the Drosophila A-type lamin causes nuclear defects and (3) muscle tissue is sensitive to the expression of mutant forms of A-type lamin modeled after those causing disease in humans. These studies provide new insights on the role of lamins in

  4. Studying the evolution of a type III radio from the Sun up to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Gottfried; Breitling, Frank; Vocks, Christian; Fallows, Richard; Melnik, Valentin; Konovalenko, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    On March 16, 2016, a type III burst was observed with the ground-based radio telescopes LOFAR and URAN-2 as well as with the radiospectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND.It started at 80 MHz at 06:37 UT and reached 50 kHz after 23 minutes. A type III burst are considered as the radio signature of an electron beam travelling from the corona into the interplanetary space. The energetic electrons carrying the beam excites Langmuir waves, which convert into radio waves by wave-particle interaction. The relationship between the drift rate and the frequency as derived from the dynamic radio spectra reveals that the velocity of the electrons generating the radio waves of the type III burst is increasing with increasing distance from the center of the Sun.

  5. The Case of the Coriolis Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correll, Malcolm

    1976-01-01

    The circular motion observed when water drains into a smooth opening is analyzed. This action, as well as cycloidal atmospheric motion, is explained as the result of rotation of the coordinate system. (CP)

  6. The Case of the Coriolis Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correll, Malcolm

    1976-01-01

    The circular motion observed when water drains into a smooth opening is analyzed. This action, as well as cycloidal atmospheric motion, is explained as the result of rotation of the coordinate system. (CP)

  7. Structural Optimization Including Centrifugal and Coriolis Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    the desired frequency changes with excellent accuracy. MSC/ NASTRAN finite element solution sequences were modified to incorporate rotary effects. DMAP ...properties can be altered by a nonlinear change factor. These manipulations may be done by selective use of the MATMOD DMAP module. In the MSC/ NASTRAN ...Examples were carried out using the general purpose software package MSC/ NASTRAN and ADS (Automated Design Synthesis). "I OTIC copy INSpE TE 6

  8. On the Coriolis effect in acoustic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Wegert, Henry; Reindl, Leonard M; Ruile, Werner; Mayer, Andreas P

    2012-05-01

    Rotation of an elastic medium gives rise to a shift of frequency of its acoustic modes, i.e., the time-period vibrations that exist in it. This frequency shift is investigated by applying perturbation theory in the regime of small ratios of the rotation velocity and the frequency of the acoustic mode. In an expansion of the relative frequency shift in powers of this ratio, upper bounds are derived for the first-order and the second-order terms. The derivation of the theoretical upper bounds of the first-order term is presented for linear vibration modes as well as for stable nonlinear vibrations with periodic time dependence that can be represented by a Fourier series.

  9. Adaptation of VOR to Coriolis stimulation.

    PubMed

    Adenot, Sophie; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R

    2005-04-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is normally characterized by the gain and phase of slow-phase velocity (SPV) relative to the stimulus velocity. Although this is perfectly satisfactory for steady-state sinusoidal oscillations about a single axis, it is less useful when applied to transient responses. The well-known decay of nystagmus following a step change of head velocity approximately follows a double exponential, with an initial amplitude (A), a long time constant (tau), and an adaptation time constant (tau(a)). We have developed a means of representing the transient response for a complex head velocity stimulus as experienced during high-speed artificial gravity (AG) experiments. When a subject, lying supine on a rotating horizontal platform, makes a yaw head movement of amplitude theta, the vertical semicircular canals experience a step in angular velocity. The pitch stimulus is equal to the change in the component of the centrifuge angular velocity (omega(c)) aligned with the interaural axis, and gives rise to a vertical VOR. The magnitude of the step change is omega(c) sin theta. The SPV is approximated by an exponential decay of amplitude A and single time constant tau, and then normalized relative to this stimulus step. MATLAB scripts filter the raw eye position data to remove noise, blinks, and saccades, differentiate the signal, and remove fast phases to obtain SPV. The amplitude of the fitted SPV exponential is divided by omega(c) sin theta to obtain the normalized SPV. A and tau are shown to behave differently as subjects adapt to repeated head movements of different amplitudes.

  10. Gain spectroscopy of a type-II VECSEL chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, C.; Stein, M.; Berger, C.; Möller, C.; Fuchs, C.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Koch, M.

    2016-12-01

    Using optical pump-white light probe spectroscopy, the gain dynamics is investigated for a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser chip, which is based on a type-II heterostructure. The active region of the chip consists of a GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs multiple quantum well. For this structure, a fully microscopic theory predicts a modal room temperature gain at a wavelength of 1170 nm, which is confirmed by the experimental spectra. The results show a gain buildup on the type-II chip that is delayed relative to that of a type-I chip. This slower gain dynamics is attributed to a diminished cooling rate arising from the reduced electron-hole scattering.

  11. Classification of SN2005dj, a Type II Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, N.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Sauge, L.; Smadja, G.; Antilogus, P.; Garavini, G.; Gilles, S.; Pain, R.; Aldering, G.; Bailey, S.; Lee, B. C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Scalzo, R.; Thomas, R. C.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B. A.; Bonnaud, C.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.

    2005-08-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory reports that a spectrum (range 320-1000 nm) of SN 2005dj (IAUC#8585), obtained August 19.6 UT with the Supernova Integral Field Spectrograph on the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope, reveals P-Cygni H-alpha and H-beta, indicative of a Type II supernova. The observed redshift is consistent with that of the host UGC 3545 (z = 0.011508, Huchtmeier & Skillman 1998 via NED).

  12. DOE evaluation document for DOT 7A Type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Edling, D.A.; Hopkins, D.R.; Williams, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    This document is a support document for the ''DOE Evaluation Document for DOT 7A Type A Packaging,'' MLM-3245, March 1987. Provided herein are details concerning the performance requirements specified in 178.350 Specification 7A, General Packaging, Type A. MLM-3245 references appropriate sections in this document. This document does not by itself meet the documentation requirements specified in 49 CFR 173.415 and has compliance value only when used in conjunction with MLM-3245.

  13. Dendritic A-type potassium channel subunit expression in CA1 hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Menegola, M; Misonou, H; Vacher, H; Trimmer, J S

    2008-06-26

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and potassium channel interacting protein (KChIP) 1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal Ammon's horn (CA1) neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 mum rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with a unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs.

  14. Turbulence-particle interactions under surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paskyabi, Mostafa Bakhoday

    2016-11-01

    The dispersion and transport of single inertial particles through an oscillatory turbulent aquatic environment are examined numerically by a Lagrangian particle tracking model using a series of idealised test cases. The turbulent mixing is incorporated into the Lagrangian model by the means of a stochastic scheme in which the inhomogeneous turbulent quantities are governed by a one-dimensional k- ɛ turbulence closure scheme. This vertical mixing model is further modified to include the effects of surface gravity waves including Coriolis-Stokes forcing, wave breaking, and Langmuir circulations. To simplify the complex interactions between the deterministic and the stochastic phases of flow, we assume a time-invariant turbulent flow field and exclude the hydrodynamic biases due to the effects of ambient mean current. The numerical results show that the inertial particles acquire perturbed oscillations traced out as time-varying sinking/rising orbits in the vicinity of the sea surface under linear and cnoidal waves and acquire a non-looping single arc superimposed with the high-frequency fluctuations beneath the nonlinear solitary waves. Furthermore, we briefly summarise some recipes through the course of this paper on the implementation of the stochastic particle tracking models to realistically describe the drift and suspension of inertial particles throughout the water column.

  15. A TYPE-SPECIFIC ANTIGENIC PROTEIN DERIVED FROM THE STAPHYLOCOCCUS

    PubMed Central

    Verwey, W. F.

    1940-01-01

    Chemical extraction of lyophilized and ground staphylococci of type A has yielded a type-specific, antigenic fraction which has been shown to be protein. In precipitin tests this fraction reacts in high dilution with homologous immune sera prepared by the injection of animals either with the whole organisms or with the protein itself. Reactions with sera prepared against heterologous types of staphylococci occur only in low dilutions. The type specificity of this fraction has been found to be entirely independent of that of the type-specific carbohydrate described by Julianelle and Wieghard. PMID:19870987

  16. Interactive numerals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Although Arabic numerals (like ‘2016’ and ‘3.14’) are ubiquitous, we show that in interactive computer applications they are often misleading and surprisingly unreliable. We introduce interactive numerals as a new concept and show, like Roman numerals and Arabic numerals, interactive numerals introduce another way of using and thinking about numbers. Properly understanding interactive numerals is essential for all computer applications that involve numerical data entered by users, including finance, medicine, aviation and science. PMID:28484609

  17. Media Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Jan-Erik

    1978-01-01

    Defines and operationalizes the concept of media interaction, which implies that the audience member experiences "interaction" with, and in many cases identifies with, persons in the media content. Presents a model of media interaction and the results of surveys conducted to explore hypotheses derived form the model. (JMF)

  18. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-15

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  19. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  20. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    First Polarimetric Detection of Explosion Asymmetry has Cosmological Implications Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has performed new and very detailed observations of a supernova in a distant galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). They show for the first time that a particular type of supernova, caused by the explosion of a "white dwarf", a dense star with a mass around that of the Sun, is asymmetric during the initial phases of expansion . The significance of this observation is much larger than may seem at a first glance . This particular kind of supernova, designated "Type Ia", plays a very important role in the current attempts to map the Universe. It has for long been assumed that Type Ia supernovae all have the same intrinsic brightness , earning them a nickname as "standard candles". If so, differences in the observed brightness between individual supernovae of this type simply reflect their different distances. This, and the fact that the peak brightness of these supernovae rivals that of their parent galaxy, has allowed to measure distances of even very remote galaxies . Some apparent discrepancies that were recently found have led to the discovery of cosmic acceleration . However, this first clearcut observation of explosion asymmetry in a Type Ia supernova means that the exact brightness of such an object will depend on the angle from which it is seen. Since this angle is unknown for any particular supernova, this obviously introduces an amount of uncertainty into this kind of basic distance measurements in the Universe which must be taken into account in the future. Fortunately, the VLT data also show that if you wait a little - which in observational terms makes it possible to look deeper into the expanding fireball - then it becomes more spherical. Distance determinations of supernovae that are performed at this later stage will therefore be more accurate. PR Photo 24a/03 : Spiral galaxy NGC

  1. DOT-7A Type A packaging design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide instruction for designing a U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A packaging. Another purpose for this Design Guide is to support the evaluation and testing activities that are performed on new designs by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test facility. This evaluation and testing program is called the DOT-7A Program. When an applicant has determined that a DOT-7A packaging is needed and not commercially available, a design may be created according to this document. The design should include a packaging drawing, specifications, analysis report, operating instructions, and a Packaging Qualification Checklist; all of which should be forwarded to a DOE/HQ approved test facility for evaluation and testing. This report is being submitted through the Engineering Documentation System so that it may be used for reference and information purposes.

  2. Fatigue fracture mechanism maps for a type 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Yamaguchi, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Takeuchi, E.; Matsuoka, S.

    2004-04-01

    Fatigue fracture mechanism maps at room temperature and 573 K for a type 304 stainless steel were constructed by correlating the crack propagation rate with information obtained on the fracture surface. Depending on the crack propagation rate, ranging from 1 × 10-6 to 1 × 10-11 m/cycle, three types of fracture surfaces were observed. One was a striation region; the second was a “featureless” fracture region, which appeared rough under scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation; and the third was crystallographic fracture region, which appeared smooth under SEM observation. The area fractions and the indexes of the fracture surfaces were quantified and identified by the etch-pit method. From the results, crack initiation and propagation mechanisms were cleared and fatigue fracture mechanism maps were constructed. The maps may be useful for investigating the cause of the fatigue failure accident of structures made of type 304 steels.

  3. Vorticity and magnetic shielding in a type-II superconductor.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marco; Bicudo, Pedro; Sacramento, Pedro D

    2006-09-20

    We study in detail, solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, the magnetic field, supercurrent and order parameter profiles originated by a solenoid or magnetic whisker inserted in a type-II superconductor. We consider solutions of different vorticities, n, in the various cases. The results confirm the connection between the vorticity, the internal currents and the boundstates in a self-consistent way. The number of boundstates is given by the vorticity of the phase of the gap function as in the case with no external solenoid. In the limiting case of an infinitely thin solenoid, like a Dirac string, the solution is qualitatively different. The quasiparticle spectrum and wavefunctions are a function of n-n(ext), where n(ext) is the vorticity of the solenoid. The flux is in all cases determined by the vorticity of the gap function.

  4. Magnetic Properties of Hydrothermalized A-type Red Granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, R. I. F.; Nédélec, A.; Peschler, A.; Archanjo, C. J.; Poitrasson, F.; Bouchez, J. L.

    Hydrothermalized A-type granites are commonly identified by their pink to red-brick colour attributed to tiny flakes of hematite in the alkali feldspars. These inclusions can be of interest in magnetic studies, but their timing and process of formation are still unclear. Formation of chlorite after biotite is the commonest effect of hydrother- malization and may occur quite early after crystallization due to late-magmatic or externally-derived fluids. The reddish colour appears at a later stage. Five cases of A-type granites were investigated for their magnetic mineralogy and properties. The selected cases range from nearly unmodified granites (Panafrican stratoid granites of Madagascar) to strongly hydrothermalized ones (Meruoca, Brazil; Tana, Corsica); in- termediate cases are : Mount Scott (Oklahoma), Bushveld (granitic core kindly pro- vided by R.G. Cawthorn) and. Hydrothermal alteration is often associated to a de- crease of the magnetic susceptibility magnitude (K) and of the anisotropy degree (P). It also strongly affects the rockt's bulk coercivity parameters, since alteration changes the relative amounts of coarse-grained primary magnetite, fine-grained PSD to SD sec- ondary magnetite, and hematite. Correspondingly, most samples plot away from the magnetite trend in the Dayt's diagram, but the different groups identified after coer- civity parameters do not directly correlate with whole-rock colour. In addition, IRM- acquisition curves and thermal demagnetization of tri-axial IRM show that hematite occurs in almost all analysed samples despite their colour. Various hematite coercivity ranges are also evidenced. In fact, hematite can be formed either in feldspar crys- tals or after magnetite. Tiny hematite within feldspars can appear either by exsolu- tion process or, more likely, by precipitation from a fluid phase. For these reasons, hematite inclusions may carry a remanence acquired shortly after granite crystalliza- tion or, conversely, a recent

  5. Prospective Out-of-ecliptic White-light Imaging of Interplanetary Corotating Interaction Regions at Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ming; Davies, Jackie A.; Li, Bo; Yang, Liping; Liu, Ying D.; Xia, Lidong; Harrison, Richard A.; Keiji, Hayashi; Li, Huichao

    2017-07-01

    Interplanetary corotating interaction regions (CIRs) can be remotely imaged in white light (WL), as demonstrated by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis spacecraft and Heliospheric Imagers (HIs) on board the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The interplanetary WL intensity, due to Thomson scattering of incident sunlight by free electrons, is jointly determined by the 3D distribution of electron number density and line-of-sight (LOS) weighting factors of the Thomson-scattering geometry. The 2D radiance patterns of CIRs in WL sky maps look very different from different 3D viewpoints. Because of the in-ecliptic locations of both the STEREO and Coriolis spacecraft, the longitudinal dimension of interplanetary CIRs has, up to now, always been integrated in WL imagery. To synthesize the WL radiance patterns of CIRs from an out-of-ecliptic (OOE) vantage point, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the 3D inner heliosphere during Carrington Rotation CR1967 at solar maximum. The mixing effects associated with viewing 3D CIRs are significantly minimized from an OOE viewpoint. Our forward modeling results demonstrate that OOE WL imaging from a latitude greater than 60° can (1) enable the garden-hose spiral morphology of CIRs to be readily resolved, (2) enable multiple coexisting CIRs to be differentiated, and (3) enable the continuous tracing of any interplanetary CIR back toward its coronal source. In particular, an OOE view in WL can reveal where nascent CIRs are formed in the extended corona and how these CIRs develop in interplanetary space. Therefore, a panoramic view from a suite of wide-field WL imagers in a solar polar orbit would be invaluable in unambiguously resolving the large-scale longitudinal structure of CIRs in the 3D inner heliosphere.

  6. Interacting faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, D. C. P.; Nixon, C. W.; Rotevatn, A.; Sanderson, D. J.; Zuluaga, L. F.

    2017-04-01

    The way that faults interact with each other controls fault geometries, displacements and strains. Faults rarely occur individually but as sets or networks, with the arrangement of these faults producing a variety of different fault interactions. Fault interactions are characterised in terms of the following: 1) Geometry - the spatial arrangement of the faults. Interacting faults may or may not be geometrically linked (i.e. physically connected), when fault planes share an intersection line. 2) Kinematics - the displacement distributions of the interacting faults and whether the displacement directions are parallel, perpendicular or oblique to the intersection line. Interacting faults may or may not be kinematically linked, where the displacements, stresses and strains of one fault influences those of the other. 3) Displacement and strain in the interaction zone - whether the faults have the same or opposite displacement directions, and if extension or contraction dominates in the acute bisector between the faults. 4) Chronology - the relative ages of the faults. This characterisation scheme is used to suggest a classification for interacting faults. Different types of interaction are illustrated using metre-scale faults from the Mesozoic rocks of Somerset and examples from the literature.

  7. Monothiol glutaredoxins and A-type proteins: partners in Fe-S cluster trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mapolelo, Daphne T; Zhang, Bo; Randeniya, Sajini; Albetel, Angela-Nadia; Li, Haoran; Couturier, Jérémy; Outten, Caryn E; Rouhier, Nicolas; Johnson, Michael K

    2013-03-07

    Monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) are proposed to function in Fe-S cluster storage and delivery, based on their ability to exist as apo monomeric forms and dimeric forms containing a subunit-bridging [Fe(2)S(2)](2+) cluster, and to accept [Fe(2)S(2)](2+) clusters from primary scaffold proteins. In addition yeast cytosolic monothiol Grxs interact with Fra2 (Fe repressor of activation-2), to form a heterodimeric complex with a bound [Fe(2)S(2)](2+) cluster that plays a key role in iron sensing and regulation of iron homeostasis. In this work, we report on in vitro UV-visible CD studies of cluster transfer between homodimeric monothiol Grxs and members of the ubiquitous A-type class of Fe-S cluster carrier proteins ((Nif)IscA and SufA). The results reveal rapid, unidirectional, intact and quantitative cluster transfer from the [Fe(2)S(2)](2+) cluster-bound forms of A. thaliana GrxS14, S. cerevisiae Grx3, and A. vinelandii Grx-nif homodimers to A. vinelandii(Nif)IscA and from A. thaliana GrxS14 to A. thaliana SufA1. Coupled with in vivo evidence for interaction between monothiol Grxs and A-type Fe-S cluster carrier proteins, the results indicate that these two classes of proteins work together in cellular Fe-S cluster trafficking. However, cluster transfer is reversed in the presence of Fra2, since the [Fe(2)S(2)](2+) cluster-bound heterodimeric Grx3-Fra2 complex can be formed by intact [Fe(2)S(2)](2+) cluster transfer from (Nif)IscA. The significance of these results for Fe-S cluster biogenesis or repair and the cellular regulation of the Fe-S cluster status are discussed.

  8. Imagined Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeycutt, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Social scientists have been studying imagined interactions since the mid-1980s and have measured numerous physiological correlates (Honeycutt, 2010). In this commentary I assess the research reported in Crisp and Turner (May-June 2009) and highlight the underlying mechanisms of imagined interactions that have empirically been laid out across…

  9. Imagined Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeycutt, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Social scientists have been studying imagined interactions since the mid-1980s and have measured numerous physiological correlates (Honeycutt, 2010). In this commentary I assess the research reported in Crisp and Turner (May-June 2009) and highlight the underlying mechanisms of imagined interactions that have empirically been laid out across…

  10. A Photometric Survey of Peculiar A-type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtanidze, O. M.; Ogadze, G.

    The rapidly-oscillating Ap stars represent the only main-sequence stars, despite the Sun, which pulsate in high-overtone low degree p-moges with their axis aligned with oblique ones. We have undertook a long-term programme of high-speed photometric observations about two hundred Normal and Peculiar A-type stars with 125cm RC telescope equipped by Two-Star Photometer. It enable us to chop as frequently as need between objects, sky and dark due to effects of sky transparency and background variations are remouved and scintillation noise spectra are obtained. An attempt was made to include representative number of each spectral subtypes. The selected objects lie in the range of 8-10 magnitudes in the Jonhson wide-band B filter. At first stage it is planned to carry out a pilot survey with duration of 6-8 hours divided between two observing sessions. The objects with noticable oscillations will be studied photometrically as well as spectroscopically in detail. During the pleliminary observations one rapidly-oscillating Ap star HD231427 was revealed which should be considered as tentative.

  11. VanA-Type MRSA (VRSA) Emerged in Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Icgen, Bulent

    2016-09-01

    Due to the widespread occurrence of mecA-encoded methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), treatment of staphylococcal infections is shifted to glycopeptide antibiotics like vancomycin and teicoplanin. The selective pressure of glycopeptides has eventually led to the emergence of staphylococci with increased resistance. Of great concern is vanA-encoded high level vancomycin and teicoplanin resistance in MRSA (VRSA). Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the occurrence of VRSA in surface waters. Out of 290, two staphylococcal isolates identified as MRSA Al11, Ba01, and one as MRS Co11 through 16S rRNA sequencing, also displayed high level resistance towards vancomycin and teicoplanin. These staphylococcal isolates were found to harbor vanA gene with sequence similarities of 99 %-100 % to the vanA gene extracted from vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) surface water isolates of Enterococcus faecalis Cr07, E07, Pb06 and E. faecium E330. High level glycopeptide resistance rendering protein encoded by the vanA gene, D-alanine-D-lactate ligase found in VRE, was also shown to be present in all vanA-type staphylococcal isolates through western blot. Current study elucidated that surface waters provide high potential for enterococcal vanA gene being transferred to MRSA, so called VRSA, and require special scientific consideration.

  12. EVIDENCE FOR GRANULATION IN EARLY A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kallinger, Thomas; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    2010-03-01

    Stars with spectral types earlier than about F0 on (or close) to the main sequence have long been believed to lack observable surface convection, although evolutionary models of A-type stars do predict very thin surface convective zones. We present evidence for granulation in two {delta} Scuti stars of spectral type A2: HD 174936 and HD 50844. Recent analyses of space-based CoRoT data revealed up to some 1000 frequencies in the photometry of these stars. The frequencies were interpreted as individual pulsation modes. If true, there must be large numbers of nonradial modes of very high degree l which should suffer cancellation effects in disk-integrated photometry (even of high space-based precision). The p-mode interpretation of all the frequencies in HD 174936 and HD 50844 depends on the assumption of white (frequency-independent) noise. Our independent analyses of the data provide an alternative explanation: most of the peaks in the Fourier spectra are the signature of non-white granulation background noise, and less than about 100 of the frequencies are actual stellar p-modes in each star. We find granulation timescales which are consistent with scaling relations that describe cooler stars with known surface convection. If the granulation interpretation is correct, the hundreds of low-amplitude Fourier peaks reported in recent studies are falsely interpreted as independent pulsation modes and a significantly lower number of frequencies are associated with pulsation, consistent with only modes of low degree.

  13. Abundances in A-type Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, R.; Smith, V. V.

    1998-12-01

    As part of a program to explore correlations between abundance anomilies and physical parameters (e.g. Teff, vsini) in horizontal branch stars, we present preliminary results from high-resolution (R ~ 18,000) spectral observations of a small sample of A-type, horizontal branch stars. The sample was obtained using the 2.1m telescope and Sandiford Echelle at McDonald Observatory. A total of six standard FHB stars were observed including two, HD 130095 and HD 167105, which have been previously shown by Adleman and Philip to posses anomalously low [Ca/Fe] values. We have also obtained observations of eight of the brighter (B = 11.5-12.5) FHB stars from the HK objective-prism survey and two BHB stars from the globular cluster, M4. We will present abundance results that include [Ca/Fe], [Mg/Fe], and vsini values for the sample along with O and Na results for the two M4 stars. Our findings will be compared to previously published results for cluster BHB and field HB stars.

  14. Terminal ileum gangrene secondary to a type IV paraesophageal hernia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching Tsai; Hsiao, Po Jen; Chiu, Chih Chien; Chan, Jenq Shyong; Lin, Yee Fung; Lo, Yuan Hung; Hsiao, Chia Jen

    2016-02-28

    Type IV paraesophageal hernia (PEH) is very rare, and is characterized by the intrathoracic herniation of the abdominal viscera other than the stomach into the chest. We describe a 78-year-old woman who presented at our emergency department because of epigastric pain that she had experienced over the past 24 h. On the day after admission, her pain became severe and was accompanied by right chest pain and dyspnea. Chest radiography revealed an intrathoracic intestinal gas bubble occupying the right lower lung field. Emergency explorative laparotomy identified a type IV PEH with herniation of only the terminal ileum through a hiatal defect into the right thoracic cavity. In this report, we also present a review of similar cases in the literature published between 1980 and 2015 in PubMed. There were four published cases of small bowel herniation into the thoracic cavity during this period. Our patient represents a rare case of an individual diagnosed with type IV PEH with incarceration of only the terminal ileum.

  15. Terminal ileum gangrene secondary to a type IV paraesophageal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ching Tsai; Hsiao, Po Jen; Chiu, Chih Chien; Chan, Jenq Shyong; Lin, Yee Fung; Lo, Yuan Hung; Hsiao, Chia Jen

    2016-01-01

    Type IV paraesophageal hernia (PEH) is very rare, and is characterized by the intrathoracic herniation of the abdominal viscera other than the stomach into the chest. We describe a 78-year-old woman who presented at our emergency department because of epigastric pain that she had experienced over the past 24 h. On the day after admission, her pain became severe and was accompanied by right chest pain and dyspnea. Chest radiography revealed an intrathoracic intestinal gas bubble occupying the right lower lung field. Emergency explorative laparotomy identified a type IV PEH with herniation of only the terminal ileum through a hiatal defect into the right thoracic cavity. In this report, we also present a review of similar cases in the literature published between 1980 and 2015 in PubMed. There were four published cases of small bowel herniation into the thoracic cavity during this period. Our patient represents a rare case of an individual diagnosed with type IV PEH with incarceration of only the terminal ileum. PMID:26937153

  16. EVOLUTION OF ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Wuming; Bi Shaolan; Tian Zhijia; Meng Xiangcun E-mail: yangwuming@bnu.edu.cn

    2013-03-10

    The equatorial velocity of A-type stars undergoes an acceleration in the first third of the main sequence (MS) stage, but the velocity decreases as if the stars were not undergoing any redistribution of angular momentum in the external layers in the last stage of the MS phase. Our calculations show that the acceleration and the decrease of the equatorial velocity can be reproduced by the evolution of the differential rotation zero-age MS model with the angular momentum transport caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the MS stage. The acceleration results from the fact that the angular momentum stored in the interiors of the stars is transported outward. In the last stage, the core and the radiative envelope are uncoupling, and the rotation of the envelope is a quasi-solid rotation; the uncoupling and the expansion of the envelope indicate that the decrease of the equatorial velocity approximately follows the slope for the change in the equatorial velocity of the model without any redistribution of angular momentum. When the fractional age 0.3 {approx}< t/t{sub MS} {approx}< 0.5, the equatorial velocity remains almost constant for stars whose central density increases with age in the early stage of the MS phase, while the velocity decreases with age for stars whose central density decreases with age in the early stage of the MS phase.

  17. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  18. A-type volcanics in Central Eastern Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, M. D.; Moussa, H. E.; Azer, M. K.

    2007-04-01

    Alkaline rhyolitic and minor trachytic volcanics were erupted ˜580-530 Ma ago. They occur with their A-type intrusive equivalents in Sinai, southern Negev and southwestern Jordan. At Taba-Nuweiba district, these volcanics outcrop in three areas, namely, Wadi El-Mahash, Wadi Khileifiya and Gebel El-Homra. Mineralogically, they comprise alkali feldspars, iron-rich biotite and arfvedsonite together with rare ferro-eckermannite. Geochemically, the older rhyolitic volcanics are highly evolved, enriched in HFSE including REE and depleted in Ca, Mg, Sr and Eu. The rhyolitic rocks of Wadi El-Mahash and Gebel El-Homra are enriched in K 2O content (5.3-10.1 wt.%) and depleted in Na 2O content (0.08-2.97 wt.%), while the rhyolites of Wadi Khileifiya have normal contents of alkalis. Their REE patterns are uniform, parallel to subparallel, fractionated [(La/Yb) n = 5.4] and show prominent negative Eu-anomalies. They are classified as alkali rhyolites with minor comendites. The younger volcanics are classified as trachyandesite and quartz trachyte (56.6-62.9 wt.% SiO 2). Both older and younger volcanics represent two separate magmatic suites. The overall mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these volcanics are consistent with within plate tectonic setting. It is suggested that partial melting of crustal rocks yielded the source magma. Lithospheric extension and crustal rupture occurred prior to the eruption of these volcanics. The rather thin continental crust (˜35 km) as well as the continental upheaval and extensive erosion that preceded their emplacement favoured pressure release and increasing mantle contribution. The volatiles of the upper mantle were important agents for heat transfer, and sufficient for the anatexis of the crustal rocks. A petrogenetic hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of the recorded potassic and ultrapotassic rhyolitic rocks through the action of dissolved volatiles and their accumulation in the uppermost part of the magma chamber.

  19. A Type I Noise Storm and the Bastille Day CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yayuan; Wang, Jingxiu

    Based on Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) observations, we have identified 4 Type I noise storm continua sources associated with the Bastille Day flare/CME event. Two of them were stable and closed to active regions. Their outskirts covered AR9077 and 9082, respectively. One source was over the south-west limb and in the high corona, it was stable for hours. All the Type I storm sources weren't observed simultaneously before 10:20 UT at the onset of the global CME, which indicated the intrinsic association of Type I noise storm and CME initiation. The wide span of the Type I storm sources and burst sources clearly implied that the Bastille Day flare/CME involves large or even global magnetic interaction.

  20. Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-24

    This beautiful pair of interacting galaxies consists of NGC 5754, the large spiral on the right, and NGC 5752, the smaller companion in the bottom left corner of the image. This image is from NASA Hubble Space Telescope.

  1. A-type granite and the Red Sea opening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.; DeBari, S.; Peterman, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Miocene-Oligocene A-type granite intrudes the eastern side of the Red Sea margin within the zone of extension from Jiddah, Saudi Arabia south to Yemen. The intrusions developed in the early stages of continental extension as Arabia began to move slowly away from Africa (around 30-20 Ma). Within the narrow zone of extension silicic magmas formed dikes, sills, small plutons and extrusive equivalents. In the Jabal Tirf area of Saudi Arabia these rocks occur in an elongate zone consisting of late Precambrian basement to the east, which is gradually invaded by mafic dikes. The number of dikes increases westward until an igneous complex is produced parallel to the present Red Sea axis. The Jabal Tirf igneous complex consists of diabase and rhyolite-granophyre sills (20-24 Ma). Although these are intrusine intrusive rocks their textures indicate shallow depths of intrusion (< 1 km). To the south, in the Yemen, contemporaneous with alkali basaltic eruptions (26-30 Ma) and later silicic eruptions, small plutons, dikes, and stocks of alkali granite invaded thick (1500 m) volcanic series, at various levels and times. Erosion within the uplifted margin of Yemen suggests that the maximum depth of intrusion was less than 1-2 km. Granophyric intrusions (20-30 Ma) within mafic dike swarms similar to the Jabal Tirf complex are present along the western edge of the Yemen volcanic plateau, marking a north-south zone of continental extension. The alkali granites of Yemen consist primarily of perthitic feldspar and quartz with some minor alkali amphiboles and acmite. These granites represent water-poor, hypersolvus magmas generated from parent alkali basalt magmas. The granophyric, two-feldspar granites associated with the mafic dike swarms and layered gabbros formed by fractional crystallization from tholeiitic basalt parent developed in the early stages of extension. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of these rocks and their bulk chemistry indicate that production of peralkaline and

  2. A-type granite and the Red Sea opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Robert G.; DeBari, Susan; Peterman, Zell

    1992-03-01

    Miocene-Oligocene A-type granite intrudes the eastern side of the Red Sea margin within the zone of extension from Jiddah, Saudi Arabia south to Yemen. The intrusions developed in the early stages of continental extension as Arabia began to move slowly away from Africa (around 30-20 Ma). Within the narrow zone of extension silicic magmas formed dikes, sills, small plutons and extrusive equivalents. In the Jabal Tirf area of Saudi Arabia these rocks occur in an elongate zone consisting of late Precambrian basement to the east, which is gradually invaded by mafic dikes. The number of dikes increases westward until an igneous complex is produced parallel to the present Red Sea axis. The Jabal Tirf igneous complex consists of diabase and rhyolite-granophyre sills (20-24 Ma). Although these are intrusine intrusive rocks their textures indicate shallow depths of intrusion (< 1 km). To the south, in the Yemen, contemporaneous with alkali basaltic eruptions (26-30 Ma) and later silicic eruptions, small plutons, dikes, and stocks of alkali granite invaded thick (1500 m) volcanic series, at various levels and times. Erosion within the uplifted margin of Yemen suggests that the maximum depth of intrusion was less than 1-2 km. Granophyric intrusions (20-30 Ma) within mafic dike swarms similar to the Jabal Tirf complex are present along the western edge of the Yemen volcanic plateau, marking a north-south zone of continental extension. The alkali granites of Yemen consist primarily of perthitic feldspar and quartz with some minor alkali amphiboles and acmite. These granites represent water-poor, hypersolvus magmas generated from parent alkali basalt magmas. The granophyric, two-feldspar granites associated with the mafic dike swarms and layered gabbros formed by fractional crystallization from tholeiitic basalt parent developed in the early stages of extension. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of these rocks and their bulk chemistry indicate that production of peralkaline and

  3. Rovibrational Interactions in the Ground and Two Lowest Excited Vibrational States of Methoxy Isocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienkina, A.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2017-06-01

    Recent detection of methyl isocyanate (CH_3NCO) in the Orion, towards Sgr B2(N) and on the surface of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko motivated us to study another isocyanate, methoxy isocyanate (CH_3ONCO) as a possible candidate molecule for searches in the interstellar clouds. Neither identification or laboratory rotational spectra of CH_3ONCO has been reported up to now. Methoxy isocyanate was synthesized by the flash vacuum pyrolysis of N-Methoxycarbonyl-O-methyl-hydroxylamine (MeOC(O)NHOMe) at a temperature of 800 K. Experimental spectrum of CH_3ONCO was recorded in situ in the millimeter-wave range (75-105 GHz and 150-330 GHz) using Lille's fast-scan fully solid-state DDS spectrometer. The recorded spectrum is strongly perturbed due to the interaction between the overall rotation and the skeletal torsion. Perturbations affect even rotational transitions with low K_a levels of the ground vibrational state, appearing in shifting frequency predictions and intensities distortions of the lines. The interactions are significant due to the relatively small vibrational energy difference (≈50 \\wn) between the states and different representations of the C_s symmetry point group for the ground (A'), ν_{18}=1 (A'') and ν_{18}=2 (A') vibrational states, thus leading to a "ladder" of multiple resonances by means of a-, and b-type Coriolis coupling. The global fit analysis of the rotational spectrum of methoxy isocyanate using Coriolis coupling terms in the ground and two lowest vibrational states (ν_{18}=1 and ν_{18}=2) will be presented. J. Cernicharo, N. Marcelino, E. Roueff et al. 2012, ApJ, 759, L43 D. T. Halfen, V. V. Ilyushin, & L. M. Ziurys, 2015, ApJ, 812, L5 F. Goesmann, H. Rosenbauer, J. H. Bredehöft et al. 2015, Science, 349.6247, aab0689 This work was funded by the French ANR under the Contract No. ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS.

  4. Effects of thermodynamic profiles on the interaction of binary tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Wook; Chun, Hye-Yeong

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between idealized binary tropical cyclones (TCs) on f and β planes with different separation distance and thermodynamic soundings obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data averaged over the western North Pacific are investigated through ensemble three-dimensional numerical simulations with a horizontal resolution of 10 km in a single domain. In the simulations on the f plane, two TCs show mutual cyclonic rotations with symmetric structures. Two TCs with thermodynamic profiles of larger convective available potential energy (CAPE) and maximum potential intensity (MPI) show greater interaction than those with a smaller CAPE and MPI due to the stronger tangential velocity near the TC center. In the simulations on the β plane, the two TCs do not merge, because the beta effect prevents the attraction of the two TCs by generating asymmetric motions of the TC with northwestward forcing. The relative strengths of the two TCs change with time and depend on the low-level inflow influenced by the Coriolis parameter. Similar to the results on the f plane, the two TCs only merge with the thermodynamic soundings of large CAPE and MPI.

  5. Interpreting layer thickness advection in terms of eddy-topography interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanyu; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef

    2014-09-01

    A parameterization for the spatial pattern of the eddy induced thickness advection parameter estimated from a dynamically consistent data assimilation procedure is presented. Values of the thickness advection parameter are predominantly negative (positive) over seamounts, and positive (negative) over the deep ocean in the southern (northern) hemisphere along strong currents; its magnitude is large at high latitudes but low in the tropical regions. Those characteristics motivate a parameterization based on the Coriolis parameter, the bottom depth and an eddy length scale. As a parameterization for an eddy streamfunction, the associated bolus velocities advect density anti-cyclonically (cyclonically) around seamounts (troughs). Although the parameterization has the same form as Holloway’s streamfunction for the Neptune effect, and is also related to eddy-topography interactions, Holloway’s streamfunction is in contrast applied to the momentum equation. The parameterization is independently confirmed by the flux-mean gradient relation from the output of a high resolution model. The effect of the proposed scheme is investigated using a channel model with idealized bottom topographies and a global ocean circulation model with realistic bottom topography. In agreement with the high resolution model, our scheme generates cold (warm) domes and cyclonic circulations over seamounts (troughs), which is consistent with the eddy movement in presence of the topographic β effect. This provides a different mechanism for eddy-topography interaction than the Neptune effect, which generates circulations of opposing sign.

  6. Hot planetary winds near a star: dynamics, wind-wind interactions, and observational signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan; Frank, Adam; Liu, Baowei; Quillen, Alice C.; Blackman, Eric G.; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Signatures of 'evaporative' winds from exoplanets on short (hot) orbits around their host star have been observed in a number of systems. In this paper, we present global adaptive mesh refinement simulations that track the launching of the winds, their expansion through the circumstellar environment, and their interaction with a stellar wind. We focus on purely hydrodynamic flows including the anisotropy of the wind launching and explore the orbital/fluid dynamics of the resulting flows in detail. In particular, we find that a combination of the tidal and Coriolis forces strongly distorts the planetary 'Parker' wind creating 'up-orbit' and 'down-orbit' streams. We characterize the flows in terms of their orbital elements that change depending on their launch position on the planet. We find that the anisotropy in the atmospheric temperature leads to significant backflow on to the planet. The planetary wind interacts strongly with the stellar wind creating instabilities that may cause eventual deposition of planetary gas on to the star. We present synthetic observations of both transit and absorption line-structure for our simulations. For our initial conditions, we find that the orbiting wind material produces absorption signatures at significant distances from the planet and substantial orbit-to-orbit variability. Lyα absorption shows red- and blueshifted features out to 70 km s-1. Finally, using semi-analytic models we constrain the effect of radiation pressure, given the approximation of uniform stellar absorption.

  7. KChIP1 modulation of Kv4.3-mediated A-type K(+) currents and repetitive firing in hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, M L; Laplante, I; Laurent, C E; Lacaille, J-C

    2011-03-10

    Neuronal A-type K(+) channels regulate action potential waveform, back-propagation and firing frequency. In hippocampal CA1 interneurons located at the stratum lacunosum-moleculare/radiatum junction (LM/RAD), Kv4.3 mediates A-type K(+) currents and a Kv4 β-subunit of the Kv channel interacting protein (KChIP) family, KChIP1, appears specifically expressed in these cells. However, the functional role of this accessory subunit in A-type K(+) currents and interneuron excitability remains largely unknown. Thus, first we studied KChIP1 and Kv4.3 channel interactions in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and determined that KChIP1 coexpression modulated the biophysical properties of Kv4.3 A-type currents (faster recovery from inactivation, leftward shift of activation curve, faster rise time and slower decay) and this modulation was selectively prevented by KChIP1 short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. Next, we evaluated the effects of KChIP1 down-regulation by siRNA on A-type K(+) currents in LM/RAD interneurons in slice cultures. Recovery from inactivation of A-type K(+) currents was slower after KChIP1 down-regulation but other properties were unchanged. In addition, down-regulation of KChIP1 levels did not affect action potential waveform and firing, but increased firing frequency during suprathreshold depolarizations, indicating that KChIP1 regulates interneuron excitability. The effects of KChIP1 down-regulation were cell-specific since CA1 pyramidal cells that do not express KChIP1 were unaffected. Overall, our findings suggest that KChIP1 interacts with Kv4.3 in LM/RAD interneurons, enabling faster recovery from inactivation of A-type currents and thus promoting stronger inhibitory control of firing during sustained activity.

  8. A-type Lamins Form Distinct Filamentous Networks with Differential Nuclear Pore Complex Associations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Chojnowski, Alexandre; Boudier, Thomas; Lim, John S Y; Ahmed, Sohail; Ser, Zheng; Stewart, Colin; Burke, Brian

    2016-10-10

    The nuclear lamina is a universal feature of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs) [1]. In mammalian cells, it appears as a 10-30 nm filamentous layer at the nuclear face of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and is composed primarily of A- and B-type lamins, members of the intermediate filament family [2]. While providing structural integrity to the NE, the lamina also represents an important signaling and regulatory platform [3]. Two A-type lamin isoforms, lamins A and C (LaA and LaC), are expressed in most adult human cells. Encoded by a single gene, these proteins are largely identical, diverging only in their C-terminal tail domains. By contrast with that of LaC, the unique LaA tail undergoes extensive processing, including farnesylation and endo-proteolysis [4, 5]. However, functional differences between LaA and LaC are still unclear. Compounding this uncertainty, the structure of the lamina remains ill defined. In this study, we used BioID, an in vivo proximity-labeling method to identify differential interactors of A-type lamins [6]. One of these, Tpr, a nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein, is highlighted by its selective association with LaC. By employing superresolution microscopy, we demonstrate that this Tpr association is mirrored in enhanced interaction of LaC with NPCs. Further superresolution studies visualizing both endogenous A- and B-type lamins have allowed us to construct a nanometer-scale model of the mammalian nuclear lamina. Our data indicate that different A- and B-type lamin species assemble into separate filament networks that together form an extended composite structure at the nuclear periphery providing attachment sites for NPCs, thereby regulating their distribution.

  9. Abundance analysis of two late A-type stars HD 32115 and HD 37594

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Bruntt, H.; Musaev, F. A.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Belyakova, E. V.; Shimansky, V. V.; Barklem, P. S.; Galazutdinov, G.

    2002-07-01

    We have performed abundance analysis of two slowly rotating, late A-type stars, HD 32115 (HR 1613) and HD 37594 (HR 1940), based on obtained echelle spectra covering the spectral range 4000-9850 Å. These spectra allowed us to identify an extensive line list for 31 chemical elements, the most complete to date for A-type stars. Two approaches to abundance analysis were used, namely a ``manual'' (interactive) and a semi-automatic procedure for comparison of synthetic and observed spectra and equivalent widths. For some elements non-LTE (NLTE) calculations were carried out and the corresponding corrections have been applied. The abundance pattern of HD 32115 was found to be very close to the solar abundance pattern, and thus may be used as an abundance standard for chemical composition studies in middle and late A stars. Further, its Hα line profile shows no core-to-wing anomaly like that found for cool Ap stars and therefore also may be used as a standard in comparative studies of the atmospheric structures of cool, slowly rotating Ap stars. HD 37594 shows a metal deficiency at the level of -0.3 dex for most elements and triangle-like cores of spectral lines. This star most probably belongs to the delta Sct group. Based on observations obtained at the 2-m telescope of Peak Terskol Observatory near Elbrus mountain, International Center of Astronomical and Medical-Ecological Researches, Russia. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  10. Riftogenic A-type granites of the Polar Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udoratina, Oksana; Kulikova, Ksenia; Shuysky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    There are granitoids-markers of the riftogenic geodynamic setting in the Polar Urals. Isotope-geochronological and petrographic-petrogeochemical data on granitoids indicate the post-collisional conditions of their formation. Granitoids along with other alkaline massifs North Urals mark rifting in this part of the Urals. These granitoids formed after the collision peak of Timanides formation, after 520 Ma in the absolute chronology, when the intensity of magmatism fell sharply and only small volumes of rhyolite and A-type granites were formed. Granitoid massifs occur within the Northern Urals fragment of the Central Ural uplift composed of preuralide complexes. According to the recent data (U-Pb, SIMS) for single zircon the granitoids of the massifs (hereinafter Ma): Syadatayakhinsky (516±2, 503±6.3), Ochetinsky (500±5), Ingilorsky (487.3±6.9, 503±5), the northern part of Gerdizsky (496.2±7.1), Marunkeu Ridge (495±2.4) and part of massifs of kharbeysky complex of Laptayugansky and Evyugansky domes (497±3 and 487.1±2.1) were formed in the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician time. Within rare metal ore deposits of Taykeyusky ore unit, except for older granitoids with ages 600-560-540 Ma, the granitoids occur with the following ages: Longotyugansky (512±8, 482±8, 511±11), Taykeusky (513±3.4, 518.6±3.9, 477±12), Ust-Mramorny (516±16). There are the following situation localization of granites in the area of the Central Urals uplift: 1) in Ochetinsky and Syadatayakhinsky blocks without significant tectonic deformations among greenschist metamorphites; 2) in the areas of intense tectonic transformations (Longotyugansky, Taykeusky, Ust-Mramorny), but also among greenschist metamorphites; 3) in highly metamorphized rocks (Marunkeu Ridge, Ingilorsky, Gerdizsky, small bodies of Kharbeysky complex). Granitoids differ by the material and structural-textural features of the rocks. Some are massive with preserved granite fabric (1), the other have clearly expressed

  11. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  12. Interactive training.

    PubMed

    Toogood, Sandy

    2008-09-01

    Active support (AS) was developed to help staff organise and deliver practical support for meaningful client engagement in everyday activities. Both the amount and momentary effectiveness of staff support for client engagement have been found to increase following AS training. Training typically consists of a combination of workshops and onsite coaching sessions. To date, onsite training procedures have not been described or evaluated independently of AS workshops. An onsite training procedure used in AS--interactive training (IT)--was evaluated independently of AS workshops through direct observation of staff and client behaviour. Staff views were canvassed via a questionnaire. Following interactive training, staff assistance and client engagement increased. Staff views on the experience were positive. Results from this preliminary study suggest that further research on the effectiveness of interactive training is warranted.

  13. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the primary liner.'' The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the secondary liner.'' The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank (Wallace and Yau, 1986). The task of this analysis is to simulate the hydrogen deflagration'' scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration.

  14. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-05-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the ``primary liner.`` The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the ``secondary liner.`` The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank [Wallace and Yau, 1986]. The task of this analysis is to simulate the ``hydrogen deflagration`` scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration.

  15. Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-06-01

    Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)

  16. Interacting Compasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, Héctor G.; Betancourt, Julián

    2009-10-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur between the compasses themselves are frequently neglected. In this paper we describe demonstrations, using arrays of compasses, that show these interactions and model magnetic domains in ferromagnetic materials.

  17. Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Carol

    1992-01-01

    A workshop on interactive video was designed for fourth and fifth grade students, with the goals of familiarizing students with laser disc technology, developing a cadre of trained students to train other students and staff, and challenging able learners to utilize higher level thinking skills while conducting a research project. (JDD)

  18. Interactive Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  19. Constructive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyake, Naomi

    To identify conditions that make a conversational interaction constructive--in the sense that the participants can find the way toward the success of what they wanted to accomplish--two situations were examined. In one, a professional researcher explained her data to a statistician. In the other, three groups of two people cooperated with each…

  20. Interacting Compasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, Hector G.; Betancourt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur…

  1. Interactive Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  2. Interacting Compasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, Hector G.; Betancourt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur…

  3. A-type and I-type granitoids and mylonitic granites of Hassan Salaran area of SE Saqqez, Kurdistan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Fakhraddin Mohammad; Saeed Ahmad, Sheler

    2014-05-01

    The Hassan Salarn area is located 20km to southeast of Saqqez city in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. In this area there are two distinct granitic rock suites consisting A-type and I-type granites and also mylonitic granites. These A-type and I-type granites have various petrological and geochemical characteristics. They also have different origins and petrogenesis. A-type granitoids comprise alkali feldspar granite, syenogranite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite, whereas I-type granitoids are composed of monzogranite, granodiorite and tonalite. Geochemically, A-type granitoids are peralkaline and acmite-normative but I-type granitoids are subalkaline (calc-alkaline), metaluminous and diopside-normative. A-type granitoids are also ferroan alkali and ferroan alkali-calcic whereas I-type granitoids are magnesian and calcic. A-type granitoids resemble to within plate granites and post-orogenic granites whereas I-type granitoids resemble to volcanic arc granites. A-type granitoids contain higher concentrations of alkalies, Zr, Rb, Nb, Y, Th, Ce, high FeO/MgO ratios and lower concentrations of Mg, Ca and Sr, resembling post-orogenic A-type granites. It is possible that heat from a mantle-derived magma which intruded into the lower crust, and/or rapid crustal extension have been essential generation of approriate melts producing A-type granitoids. Thus we can conclude that A-type granitoids were generated from a mixed mantle-crust source. Negative Nb anomalies and low contents of Ti and P probably indicate a subduction-related origin for protolith of I-type granitoids. Negative Nb anomalies and enrichment in Ce relative to its adjacent elements can be related to involvement of continental crust in magmatic processes. I-type granitoids are also enriched in Rb, Ba, K, Th, Ce and depleted in Nb, Zr and Y, indicating that they have had interacted with crust. I-type granitoids may result from contamination of mantle-derived magmas by continental crust during a subduction

  4. The mouse mammary tumour virus long terminal repeat encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Korman, A J; Bourgarel, P; Meo, T; Rieckhof, G E

    1992-01-01

    Superantigens are products of bacterial or viral origin which stimulate large numbers of T cells as a consequence of the interaction of particular V beta chains of the T cell receptor with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and superantigen on the stimulating cell. The Minor lymphocyte stimulatory (Mls) antigens, originally discovered as strong lymphocyte stimulatory determinants in vitro and subsequently shown to delete T cells expressing specific V beta chains during development, have recently been shown to be genetically linked to endogenous mouse mammary tumour viruses (MTVs). This stimulation is effectuated by an unidentified product encoded by an open reading frame (orf) present in the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) of MTVs. Using in vitro translation in the presence of rough microsomal vesicles, we show that (i) the orf of MTV encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein (N-terminus intracellular, C-terminus extracytoplasmic), and (ii) a cotranslationally secreted orf protein is not produced. We have also isolated and sequenced several endogenous MTV orfs (MTV-1, MTV-6 and MTV-13) which are involved in the deletion of V beta-bearing T cells; each of these sequences are nearly identical to each other. These observations, together with sequence comparisons of several orf genes, lead to a model of action of viral superantigens. Images PMID:1316276

  5. Identification of a type I nitroreductase gene in non-virulent Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Marjorie; Cuervo, Claudia; Cardenas, Constanza; Duarte, Silvia; Díaz, Jenny R; Thomas, M Carmen; Lopez, Manuel C; Puerta, Concepcion J

    2017-07-01

    Trypanosomatid type I nitroreductases (NTRs), i.e., mitochondrial enzymes that metabolise nitroaromatic pro-drugs, are essential for parasite growth, infection, and survival. Here, a type I NTR of non-virulent protozoan Trypanosoma rangeli is described and compared to those of other trypanosomatids. The NTR gene was isolated from KP1(+) and KP1(-) strains, and its corresponding transcript and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) were determined. Bioinformatics analyses and nitro-drug activation assays were also performed. The results indicated that the type I NTR gene is present in both KP1(-) and KP1(+) strains, with 98% identity. However, the predicted subcellular localisation of the protein differed among the strains (predicted as mitochondrial in the KP1(+) strain). Comparisons of the domains and 3D structures of the NTRs with those of orthologs demonstrated that the nitroreductase domain of T. rangeli NTR is conserved across all the strains, including the residues involved in the interaction with the FMN cofactor and in the tertiary structure characteristics of this oxidoreductase protein family. mRNA processing and expression were also observed. In addition, T. rangeli was shown to be sensitive to benznidazole and nifurtimox in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, T. rangeli appears to have a newly discovered functional type I NTR.

  6. Interactive Macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Guilmi, Corrado; Gallegati, Mauro; Landini, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Preface; List of tables; List of figures, 1. Introduction; Part I. Methodological Notes and Tools: 2. The state space notion; 3. The master equation; Part II. Applications to HIA Based Models: 4. Financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics I: heterogeneity and interaction; 5. Financial fragility and macroeconomic Dynamics II: learning; Part III. Conclusions: 6. Conclusive remarks; Part IV. Appendices and Complements: Appendix A: Complements to Chapter 3; Appendix B: Solving the ME to solve the ABM; Appendix C: Specifying transition rates; Index.

  7. Roles of endothelial A-type lamins in migration of T cells on and under endothelial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Park, Hyoungjun; Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jeehun; Kwon, Keon Woo; Doh, Junsang

    2016-03-01

    Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as “duro-repulsive” cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei.

  8. Roles of endothelial A-type lamins in migration of T cells on and under endothelial layers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Park, HyoungJun; Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jeehun; Kwon, Keon Woo; Doh, Junsang

    2016-01-01

    Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as “duro-repulsive” cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei. PMID:26996137

  9. System Identification Tools for Control Structure Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    DT! FILE COPY AL-TR-89-054 AD: 00 Final Report System Identification Tools for O for the period - September 1988 to Control Structure Interaction May...Classification) System Identification Tools for Control Structure Interaction (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kosut, Robert L.; Kabuli, Guntekin M. 13a. TYPE OF...identification, dynamics, 22 01 system identification , robustness, dynamic modeling, robust 22 02 control design, control design procedure 19. ABSTRACT

  10. Preparation of A-type proanthocyanidin dimers from peanut skins and persimmon pulp and comparison of the antioxidant activity of A-type and B-type dimers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-qian; Zou, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Ge, Zhen-zhen; Du, Jing; Li, Chun-mei

    2013-12-01

    We have established a simple method for preparing large quantities of A-type dimers from peanut skin and persimmon for further structure-activity relationship study. Peanut skins were defatted with hexane and oligomeric proanthocyanidins were extracted from it with 20% of methanol, and the extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. Persimmon tannin was extracted from persimmon with methanol acidified with 1% hydrochloric acid, after removing the sugar and small phenols, the high molecular weight persimmon tannin was partially cleaved with 6.25% hydrochloric acid in methanol. The ethyl acetate fraction from peanut skins and persimmon tannin cleaved products was chromatographed on AB-8 macroporous resin followed by Toyopearl HW-50F resin to yield about 378.3mg of A-type (epi)catechin (EC) dimer from 1 kg dry peanut skins and 34.3mg of A-type (epi)catechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) dimer and 37.7 mg of A-type (epi)gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) dimer from 1 kg fresh persimmon fruit. The antioxidant properties of the A-type and B-type dimers were compared in five different assays, namely, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation in mice liver homogenate and erythrocyte hemolysis in rat blood. Our results showed that both A-type and B-type dimers showed high antioxidant potency in a dose-dependent manner. In general, B-type dimers showed higher radical scavenging potency than A-type ones with the same subunits in aqueous systems. But in tissue or lipid systems, A-type dimers showed similar or even higher antioxidant potency than B-type ones. © 2013.

  11. Modeling surf zone-inner shelf exchange: Interaction of rip currents and stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Feddersen, F.

    2014-12-01

    Transient rip currents on alongshore uniform beaches develop from the coalescence of surf zone eddies, exchanging tracers between the surf zone and the potentially stratified inner shelf. The interaction of stratification and transient rip currents has not yet been investigated. Surf zone eddies responsible for transient rip currents are generated by short-crested wave breaking, a process included in wave-resolving (WR) Boussinesq models. However, WR models are depth-integrated and cannot account for stratification and vertically sheared flows. Wave-averaged (WA) models can simulate these processes, but cannot create surf zone eddies. A combination of WR and WA models is required to accurately simulate surf zone-inner shelf exchange. Here, WR depth-integrated Boussinessq model funwaveC is coupled to the stratification and depth-resolving WA Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The surf zone eddy generation forcing is extracted from a funwaveC simulation of normally incident waves on a planar beach, and provided to COAWST as a depth-uniform surf zone force. COAWST model simulations resolving the surf zone to mid-shelf are conducted with surf zone eddy forcing, idealistic surface heating/cooling, stratification, and Coriolis effects. These simulations provide three-dimensional evolution of velocity and temperature, diagnosed to quantify the role of surf zone eddy forcing in surf zone-inner shelf exchange. The impact of stratification on rip currents and exchange is studied by varying the stratification. Funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. Study of turbulence and interacting inertial modes in a differentially rotating spherical shell experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Michael; Harlander, Uwe; Triana, Santiago Andrés

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of inertial modes in a differentially rotating spherical shell (spherical Couette flow) experiment with a radius ratio of η =1 /3 . Inertial modes are Coriolis-restored linear wave modes which often arise in rapidly rotating fluids. Recent experimental work has shown that inertial modes exist in a spherical Couette flow for Ωi<Ωo , where Ωi and Ωo are the inner and outer sphere rotation rate. A finite number of particular inertial modes has previously been found. By scanning the Rossby number from -2.5 interaction between the dominant inertial modes with a geostrophic Rossby mode exciting secondary modes whose frequencies match the triadic resonance condition.

  13. Sibling interaction.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2013-01-01

    Sibling interactions traditionally were conceived psychoanalytically in "vertical" and parentified oedipal terms and overlooked in their own right, for complicated reasons (Colonna and Newman 1983). Important work has been done to right this, from the 1980s and onward, with conferences and writings. Juliet Mitchell's 2000 and, in particular, her 2003 books, for example, have brought "lateral" sibling relations forcefully to the forefront of insights, especially about sex and violence, with the added interdisciplinary impact of illuminating upheaval in global community interactions as well as having implications for clinicians. A clinical example from the analysis of an adult woman with a ten-years-younger sister will show here how we need both concepts to help us understand complex individual psychic life. The newer "lateral" sibling emphasis, including Mitchell's "Law of the Mother" and "seriality," can be used to inform the older "vertical" take, to enrich the full dimensions of intersubjective oedipal and preoedipal reciprocities that have been foundational in shaping that particular analysand's inner landscape. Some technical recommendations for heightening sensitivity to the import of these dynamics will be offered along the way here, by invoking Hans Loewald's useful metaphor of the analytic situation as theater.

  14. [Pharmacokinetic interactions].

    PubMed

    Arazo Garcés, Piedad; de los Santos Gil, Ignacio

    2013-06-01

    Rilpivirine (RPV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that has been approved for use in treatment-naïve patients and which has potent antiviral activity. Its adverse effects profile differs from that of first-generation NNRTs. The pharmacological interactions produced by RPV are due to its effects on the CYP450 system; RPV is a substrate and mild inducer of CYP3A4. Moreover, in vitro, RPV inhibits glycoprotein-P. RPV has clinically significant pharmacological interactions, especially with protease inhibitors (except boosted darunavir and lopinavir) and the NNRTIs efavirenz and nevirapine. Coadministration of RPV with drugs that increase gastric pH, such as omeprazole, or those inducing CYP3A4, such as rifampicin, can significantly reduce RPV concentrations and is contraindicated. The concomitant use of RPV with a CYP3A4 inhibitor (such as clarithromycin) can increase RPV concentrations. Administration of PRV with food is recommended to obtain better absorption and adequate plasma values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Cosmic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members

  16. Vibration-rotation interactions and ring-puckering in 3,3-dimethyl oxetane by microwave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan C.; Lesarri, Alberto G.; Villamañán, Rosa M.; Alonso, Josél.

    1990-06-01

    Ring puckering in 3,3-dimethyl oxetane has been investigated using microwave spectroscopy. Microwave spectra of the ground state, the first six ring-puckering excited states, and nine excited states of the methyl groups' deformation vibrations have been observed. The μa electric dipole moment component has been determined as 2.03(3) D from Stark-effect measurements. The vibrational dependence of the rotational constants is consistent with the ring-puckering potential function derived by Duckett et al. ( J. Mol. Spectrosc.69, 159-165 (1978)). Coriolis coupling interactions have been observed and are satisfactorily accounted for with a quartic centrifugal distortion Hamiltonian. The vibrational dependence of the centrifugal distortion constants has been analyzed using the theory developed by Creswell and Mills. In order to reproduce the experimental value of the vibration-rotation interaction parameter, {δμ ab}/{δQ}, a dynamical model allowing the rocking of the CH 3CCH 3 group should be used. The equilibrium ring puckering angle calculated with this model and the ring-puckering potential function is 17.5°.

  17. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Lingard, R. D.; Myer, M. A.; Paget, M. L.

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  18. Electroweak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    A point of view of the electroweak interaction is presented. It begins phenomenologically and moves in stages toward the conventional gauge theory formalism containing elementary scalar Higgs-fields and then beyond. The purpose in so doing is that the success of the standard SU(2) x U(1) theory in accounting for low energy phenomena need not automatically imply success at high energies. It is deemed unlikely by most theorists that the predicted W/sup + -/ or Z/sup 0/ does not exist or does not have the mass and/or couplings anticipated in the standard model. However, the odds that the standard predictions will work are not 100%. Therefore there is some reason to look at the subject as one would were he forced by a wrong experimental outcome - to go back to fundamentals and ascertain what is the minimal amount of theory necessary to account for the data.

  19. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  20. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  1. Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 micron IR spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 micron, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally-heated dust emission from fast shocks (> 1000 km/s) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are approx 80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km/s) into moderate density material (n(sub o) approx 50-100 / cubic cm) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  2. New acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) type copolymers for efficient organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghomrasni, S.; Ayachi, S.; Alimi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Three new conjugated systems alternating acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) type copolymers have been investigated by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) at the 6-31g (d) level of theory. 4,4‧-Dimethoxy-chalcone, also called the 1,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (BMP), has been used as a common acceptor moiety. It forced intra-molecular S⋯O interactions through alternating oligo-thiophene derivatives: 4-AlkylThiophenes (4-ATP), 4-AlkylBithiophenes (4-ABTP) and 4-Thienylene Vinylene (4-TEV) as donor moieties. The band gap, HOMO and LUMO electron distributions as well as optical properties were analyzed for each molecule. The fully optimized resulting copolymers showed low band gaps (2.2-2.8 eV) and deep HOMO energy levels ranging from -4.66 to -4.86 eV. A broad absorption [300-900 nm] covering the solar spectrum and absorption maxima ranges from 486 to 604 nm. In addition, organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) based on alternating copolymers in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) composites with the 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl) propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-C61 (PCBM), as an acceptor, have been optimized. Thus, the band gap decreased to 1.62 eV, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) were about 3-5% and the open circuit voltage Voc of the resulting molecules decreased from 1.50 to 1.27 eV.

  3. A type III effector antagonises death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Kennedy, Catherine L; Kelly, Michelle; Robinson, Keith S; Wong, Tania; Mansell, Ashley; Riedmaier, Patrice; Oates, Clare VL; Zaid, Ali; Mühlen, Sabrina; Crepin, Valerie F; Marches, Olivier; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A; O’Reilly, Lorraine A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Nachbur, Ueli; Infusini, Giuseppe; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonise the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC), utilise a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonisation and interfere with antimicrobial host responses 1-3. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death domain containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death receptor induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens antagonise death receptor induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response. PMID:24025841

  4. DUST IN A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR: SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF KEPLER'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-08-10

    Characterization of the relatively poorly understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's supernova remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 {mu}m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 {mu}m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength Infrared Spectrograph and Infrared Array Camera data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally heated dust emission from fast shocks (>1000 km s{sup -1}) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are {approx}80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km s{sup -1}) into moderate density material (n{sub 0} {approx} 50-250 cm{sup -3}) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  5. Cloud Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration

  6. Tide-storm surge interaction at the apex of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Olabarrieta, M.

    2016-02-01

    Tide-storm surge interactions can affect the accuracy in predicting the timing and the extreme water levels during storm events. The analysis of 19-years long tidal gauge records along the US east coast has revealed the appearance of semidiurnal perturbations to storm surges in the mid-South Atlantic Bight. A preliminary study based on observations showed that the semidiurnal surges were highest at the apex of the South Atlantic Bight (Georgia's coast), which is featured by the quasi-standing M2 tide and a wide continental shelf. It was found that these semidiurnal surge events were triggered by the passage of tropical storms and nor'easters. As a consequence of the storm-induced forcing, observed tides were delayed and partially damped with respect to the predictions. Moreover, bottom friction and Coriolis force, via numerical simulations, were found the primary mechanisms in altering the tidal motion under the effect of storm surge. The preliminary study served to contextualize this study in exploring the factors that influence the Tide-surge interactions in the nearshore region of the South Atlantic Bight. Process-oriented models were built to investigate meteorological effect (such as storm parameters) and non-meteorological effect (such as coastline shape, continental shelf slope, sea level rise). Semidiurnal surge's amplitude and duration increased with the upgraded hurricane-wind stress, as well as with the expansion of hurricane's size. Whereas, the intense and length of semidiurnal surge reduced as of tropical cyclone's translation speed increased. For parallel-to-shore cyclones, the intense of semidiurnal surge maximized when the cyclone was at a distance of 1.5-2.0 Radius of Maximum Wind off the coast. Compared with straight shoreline, the curved shape of coastline enhanced the modification to tide and tidal current during storm events. Moreover, the tide-surge interaction increased as the shelf slope decreased.

  7. Interaction between mountain waves and shear flow in an inertial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jin-Han; Vanneste, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Mountain-generated inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) affect the dynamics of both the atmosphere and the ocean through the mean force they exert as they interact with the flow. A key to this interaction is the presence of critical-level singularities or, when planetary rotation is taken into account, inertial-level singularities, where the Doppler-shifted wave frequency matches the local Coriolis frequency. We examine the role of the latter singularities by studying the steady wavepacket generated by a multiscale mountain in a rotating linear shear flow at low Rossby number. Using a combination of WKB and saddle-point approximations, we provide an explicit description of the form of the wavepacket, of the mean forcing it induces, and of the mean-flow response. We identify two distinguished regimes of wave propagation: Regime I applies far enough from a dominant inertial level for the standard ray-tracing approximation to be valid; Regime II applies to a thin region where the wavepacket structure is controlled by the inertial-level singularities. The wave--mean-flow interaction is governed by the change in Eliassen--Palm (or pseudomomentum) flux. This change is localised in a thin inertial layer where the wavepacket takes a limiting form of that found in Regime II. We solve a quasi-geostrophic potential-vorticity equation forced by the divergence of the Eliassen--Palm flux to compute the wave-induced mean flow. Our results, obtained in an inviscid limit, show that the wavepacket reaches a large-but-finite distance downstream of the mountain (specifically, a distance of order $k_*^{1/2} \\Delta^{3/2}$, where $k_*^{-1}$ and $\\Delta$ measure the wave and envelope scales of the mountain) and extends horizontally over a similar scale.

  8. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of < 10 kbar, while decompression melting of rising asthenospheric mantle ponding at the base of the crust heated, and ultimately melted, crustal material. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat

  9. Nonadiabatic dynamics of O(1D) + N2( {X{}^1Σ _g^ + } )rArr O(3P) + N2 ( {X{}^1Σ _g^ + } ) on three coupled potential surfaces: Symmetry, Coriolis, spin-orbit, and Renner-Teller effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defazio, Paolo; Gamallo, Pablo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    We present the spin-orbit (SO) and Renner-Teller (RT) quantum dynamics of the spin-forbidden quenching O(1D) + N2( {X{}^1Σ _g^ + } ) toO(3P) + N2( {X{}^1Σ _g^ + } ) on the N2O tilde X{}^1A^' }, tilde a{}^3A^'', and tilde b{}^3A^' } coupled PESs. We use the permutation-inversion symmetry, propagate coupled-channel (CC) real wavepackets, and compute initial-state-resolved probabilities and cross sections σ _{j_0 } for the ground vibrational and the first two rotational states of N2, j0 = 0 and 1. Labeling symmetry angular states by j and K, we report selection rules for j and for the minimum K value associated with any electronic state, showing that tilde a{}^3A^'' is uncoupled in the centrifugal-sudden (CS) approximation at j0 = 0. The dynamics is resonance-dominated, the probabilities are larger at low K, σ _{j_0 } decrease with the collision energy and increase with j0, and the CS σ0 is lower than the CC one. The nonadiabatic interactions play different roles on the quenching dynamics, because the tilde X{}^1A^ ' } - tilde b{}^3A^ ' } SO effects are those most important while the tilde a{}^3A^'' - tilde b{}^3A ^' } RT ones are negligible.

  10. Nonadiabatic dynamics of O(1D) + N2(X1Σg+) → O(3P) + N2(X1Σg+) on three coupled potential surfaces: symmetry, Coriolis, spin-orbit, and Renner-Teller effects.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Paolo; Gamallo, Pablo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2012-02-07

    We present the spin-orbit (SO) and Renner-Teller (RT) quantum dynamics of the spin-forbidden quenching O((1)D) + N(2)(X(1)Σ(g)(+)) → O((3)P) + N(2)(X(1)Σ(g)(+)) on the N(2)O X(1)A', ã(3)A", and b(3)A' coupled PESs. We use the permutation-inversion symmetry, propagate coupled-channel (CC) real wavepackets, and compute initial-state-resolved probabilities and cross sections σ(j(0)) for the ground vibrational and the first two rotational states of N(2), j(0) = 0 and 1. Labeling symmetry angular states by j and K, we report selection rules for j and for the minimum K value associated with any electronic state, showing that ã(3)A" is uncoupled in the centrifugal-sudden (CS) approximation at j(0) = 0. The dynamics is resonance-dominated, the probabilities are larger at low K, σ(j(0)) decrease with the collision energy and increase with j(0), and the CS σ(0) is lower than the CC one. The nonadiabatic interactions play different roles on the quenching dynamics, because the X(1)A'-b(3)A' SO effects are those most important while the ã(3)A"-b(3)A' RT ones are negligible.

  11. Redox modulation of A-type K+ currents in pain-sensing dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Pan

    2008-06-06

    Redox modulation of fast inactivation has been described in certain cloned A-type voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels in expressing systems, but the effects remain to be demonstrated in native neurons. In this study, we examined the effects of cysteine-specific redox agents on the A-type K(+) currents in acutely dissociated small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from rats. The fast inactivation of most A-type currents was markedly removed or slowed by the oxidizing agents 2,2'-dithio-bis(5-nitropyridine) (DTBNP) and chloramine-T. Dithiothreitol, a reducing agent for the disulfide bond, restored the inactivation. These results demonstrated that native A-type K(+) channels, probably Kv1.4, could switch the roles between inactivating and non-inactivating K(+) channels via redox regulation in pain-sensing DRG neurons. The A-type channels may play a role in adjusting pain sensitivity in response to peripheral redox conditions.

  12. Comparison of the pinning and the bulk currents in the critical state of a type-II superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, V. M.; Ryazanov, V. V.

    1998-03-01

    The bulk current density distribution in the critical state of a type-II superconductor is studied for different pinning strengths and external magnetic fields. The calculations were made within the extended critical state model for a three-axis ellipsoid, taking into account the equilibrium vortex lattice magnetization caused by the vortex interaction. It is shown that the average current density, Jav, could be considerably different from the critical pinning current density, Jc, for the magnetic fields not much larger than the lower critical field Hc1. The difference between Jav and Jc result in additional curvature of the local magnetic field profiles and modifies the total moment of the sample which might be important for the analysis of various magnetization experiments.

  13. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  14. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  15. iPTF13bvn: The First Evidence of a Binary Progenitor for a Type Ib Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersten, Melina C.; Benvenuto, Omar G.; Folatelli, Gastón; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Srivastav, Shubham; Anupama, G. C.; Quimby, Robert; Sahu, Devendra K.

    2014-10-01

    The recent detection in archival Hubble Space Telescope images of an object at the location of supernova (SN) iPTF13bvn may represent the first direct evidence of the progenitor of a Type Ib SN. The object's photometry was found to be compatible with a Wolf-Rayet pre-SN star mass of ≈11 M ⊙. However, based on hydrodynamical models, we show that the progenitor had a pre-SN mass of ≈3.5 M ⊙ and that it could not be larger than ≈8 M ⊙. We propose an interacting binary system as the SN progenitor and perform evolutionary calculations that are able to self-consistently explain the light curve shape, the absence of hydrogen, and the pre-SN photometry. We further discuss the range of allowed binary systems and predict that the remaining companion is a luminous O-type star of significantly lower flux in the optical than the pre-SN object. A future detection of such a star may be possible and would provide the first robust identification of a progenitor system for a Type Ib SN.

  16. iPTF 13bvn: The first evidence of a binary progenitor of a Type Ib supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersten, Melina; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-09-01

    The recent detection in archival HST images of an object at the location of supernova (SN) iPTF 13bvn may represent the first direct evidence of the progenitor of a Type Ib SN. The object's photometry was found to be compatible with a Wolf-Rayet pre-SN star mass of ~11 Msun. However, based on hydrodynamical models, we show that the progenitor had a pre-SN mass of ~3.5 Msun and that it could not be more massive than ~8 Msun. We propose an interacting binary system as the SN progenitor and perform evolutionary calculations that are able to self-consistently explain the light-curve shape, the absence of hydrogen, and the pre-SN photometry. We further discuss the range of allowed binary systems and predict that the remaining companion is a luminous O-type star of significantly lower flux in the optical than the pre-SN object. A future detection of such a star may be possible and would provide the first robust progenitor identification for a Type Ib SN.

  17. iPTF13bvn: The first evidence of a binary progenitor for a type Ib supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Bersten, Melina C.; Folatelli, Gastón; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Quimby, Robert; Benvenuto, Omar G.; Srivastav, Shubham; Anupama, G. C.; Sahu, Devendra K.

    2014-10-01

    The recent detection in archival Hubble Space Telescope images of an object at the location of supernova (SN) iPTF13bvn may represent the first direct evidence of the progenitor of a Type Ib SN. The object's photometry was found to be compatible with a Wolf-Rayet pre-SN star mass of ≈11 M {sub ☉}. However, based on hydrodynamical models, we show that the progenitor had a pre-SN mass of ≈3.5 M {sub ☉} and that it could not be larger than ≈8 M {sub ☉}. We propose an interacting binary system as the SN progenitor and perform evolutionary calculations that are able to self-consistently explain the light curve shape, the absence of hydrogen, and the pre-SN photometry. We further discuss the range of allowed binary systems and predict that the remaining companion is a luminous O-type star of significantly lower flux in the optical than the pre-SN object. A future detection of such a star may be possible and would provide the first robust identification of a progenitor system for a Type Ib SN.

  18. Diabatic Versus Adiabatic Calculation of Torsion-Vibration Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hougen, Jon T.

    2013-06-01

    The introductory part of this talk will deal briefly with two historical topics: (i) use of the words adiabatic, nonadiabatic, and diabatic in thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, and (ii) application of diabatic and adiabatic ideas to vibrational energy level calculations for a pair of diatomic-molecule potential energy curves exhibiting an avoided crossing. The main part of the talk will be devoted to recent work with Li-Hong Xu and Ron Lees on how ab initio projected frequency calculations for small-amplitude vibrations along the large-amplitude internal rotation path in methanol can best be used to help guide experimental assignments and fits in the IR vibrational spectrum. The three CH stretching vibrations for CH_{3}OH can conveniently be represented as coefficients multiplying three different types of basis vibrations, i.e., as coefficients of: (i) the local mode C-H_i bond displacements δr_{i} for hydrogens H_{1}, H_{2} and H_{3} of the methyl top, (ii) symmetrized linear combinations of the three δr_{i} of species A_{1} oplus E in the permutation-inversion group G_{6} = C_{3v} appropriate for methanol, or (iii) symmetrized linear combinations of the three δr_{i} of species 2A_{1} oplus A_{2} in the permutation-inversion group G_{6}. In this talk, we will focus on diabatic and adiabatic computations for the A_{1} oplus E basis vibrations of case (ii) above. We will briefly explain how Jahn-Teller-like and Renner-Teller-like torsion-vibration interaction terms occurring in the potential energy expression in the diabatic calculation become torsion-vibration Coriolis interaction terms occurring in the kinetic energy expression of the adiabatic calculations, and also show how, for algebraically solvable parameter choices, the same energy levels are obtained from either calculation. A final conclusion as to which approach is computationally superior for the numerical data given in a quantum chemistry output file has not yet been arrived at.

  19. The Transition of a Type IIL Supernova into a Supernova Remnant: Late-time Observations of SN 2013by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, C. S.; Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Fesen, R. A.; Patnaude, D.; Parker, S.

    2017-10-01

    We present early-time Swift and Chandra X-ray data along with late-time optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2013by, a Type IIL supernova (SN) that occurred in the nearby spiral galaxy ESO 138‑G10 (D ∼ 14.8 Mpc). Optical and NIR photometry and spectroscopy follow the late-time evolution of the SN from days +89 to +457 post maximum brightness. The optical spectra and X-ray light curves are consistent with the picture of an SN having prolonged interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) that accelerates the transition from SN to supernova remnant (SNR). Specifically, we find SN 2013by’s Hα profile exhibits significant broadening (∼10,000 km s‑1) on day +457, the likely consequence of high-velocity, H-rich material being excited by a reverse shock. A relatively flat X-ray light curve is observed that cannot be modeled using Inverse Compton scattering processes alone, but requires an additional energy source most likely originating from the SN-CSM interaction. In addition, we see the first overtone of CO emission near 2.3 μm on day +152, signaling the formation of molecules and dust in the SN ejecta and is the first time CO has been detected in a Type IIL SN. We compare SN 2013by with Type IIP SNe, whose spectra show the rarely observed SN-to-SNR transition in varying degrees and conclude that Type IIL SNe may enter the remnant phase at earlier epochs than their Type IIP counterparts.

  20. Choosing a Type 2 Diabetes Drug: Why Generic Metformin is Often the Best Choice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Notes Stories Patients’ Stories Providers’ Stories Choosing a Type 2 Diabetes Drug Why generic metformin is often the best ... iabetes makes your blood sugar get too high. Type 2 diabetes is the most common kind of diabetes. If ...

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VAST Survey. A-type stars multiplicity (De Rosa+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, R. J.; Patience, J.; Wilson, P. A.; Schneider, A.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Vigan, A.; Marois, C.; Song, I.; Macintosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Doyon, R.; Bessell, M. S.; Thomas, S.; Lai, O.

    2014-11-01

    To measure the frequency of stellar binary companions, and the distribution of their separations and mass ratios, we have obtained observations of a sample of 435 nearby A-type stars. The sample is composed of two overlapping sets of A-type stars within 75pc: a 363 star sample observed with AO instrumentation and a 228 star sample investigated with astrometry obtained from all-sky photographic surveys, with an overlap of 156 stars. (5 data files).

  2. A Type-Theoretic Account of Standard ML 1996 (Version 1).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-10

    for ML. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 󈨤 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, 1996. To appear. 85 [WF91] Andrew Wright...Abstract A type-theoretic de nition of a variant of the Standard ML (Revised 1996) programming language is given. The de nition consists of a syntax...directed translation of SML96 programs into a typed intermediate language. The intermediate language is an explicitly-typed -calculus with product

  3. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-12-15

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of 'conditional' marine pollution.

  4. Simulations of stellar/pulsar-wind interaction along one full orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.; Khangulyan, D.; Perucho, M.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The winds from a non-accreting pulsar and a massive star in a binary system collide forming a bow-shaped shock structure. The Coriolis force induced by orbital motion deflects the shocked flows, strongly affecting their dynamics. Aims: We study the evolution of the shocked stellar and pulsar winds on scales in which the orbital motion is important. Potential sites of non-thermal activity are investigated. Methods: Relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in two dimensions, performed with the code PLUTO and using the adaptive mesh refinement technique, are used to model interacting stellar and pulsar winds on scales ~80 times the distance between the stars. The hydrodynamical results suggest the suitable locations of sites for particle acceleration and non-thermal emission. Results: In addition to the shock formed towards the star, the shocked and unshocked components of the pulsar wind flowing away from the star terminate by means of additional strong shocks produced by the orbital motion. Strong instabilities lead to the development of turbulence and an effective two-wind mixing in both the leading and trailing sides of the interaction structure, which starts to merge with itself after one orbit. The adopted moderate pulsar-wind Lorentz factor already provides a good qualitative description of the phenomena involved in high-mass binaries with pulsars, and can capture important physical effects that would not appear in non-relativistic treatments. Conclusions: Simulations show that shocks, instabilities, and mass-loading yield efficient mass, momentum, and energy exchanges between the pulsar and the stellar winds. This renders a rapid increase in the entropy of the shocked structure, which will likely be disrupted on scales beyond the simulated ones. Several sites of particle acceleration and low- and high-energy emission can be identified. Doppler boosting will have significant and complex effects on radiation. A movie of the simulation is available in

  5. Numerical simulation of wave-current interaction under strong wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga, Marco; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-01

    Although ocean surface waves are known to play an important role in the momentum and other scalar transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, most operational numerical models do not explicitly include the terms of wave-current interaction. In this work, a numerical analysis about the relative importance of the processes associated with the wave-current interaction under strong off-shore wind conditions in Gulf of Tehuantepec (the southern Mexican Pacific) was carried out. The numerical system includes the spectral wave model WAM and the 3D hydrodynamic model POLCOMS, with the vertical turbulent mixing parametrized by the kappa-epsilon closure model. The coupling methodology is based on the vortex-force formalism. The hydrodynamic model was forced at the open boundaries using the HYCOM database and the wave model was forced at the open boundaries by remote waves from the southern Pacific. The atmospheric forcing for both models was provided by a local implementation of the WRF model, forced at the open boundaries using the CFSR database. The preliminary analysis of the model results indicates an effect of currents on the propagation of the swell throughout the study area. The Stokes-Coriolis term have an impact on the transient Ekman transport by modifying the Ekman spiral, while the Stokes drift has an effect on the momentum advection and the production of TKE, where the later induces a deepening of the mixing layer. This study is carried out in the framework of the project CONACYT CB-2015-01 255377 and RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793).

  6. Formation et interaction (Teacher Education and Interaction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertocchini, Paola; Costanzo, Edwige

    1989-01-01

    Effective interaction is as important in inservice education programs for language teachers as it is in the foreign language classroom. Techniques are described for improving the quality of interaction in teacher workshops through simulation exercises. (MSE)

  7. They Work Together to Roar: Kindergartners' Understanding of an Interactive Causal Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, S. Lynneth; Grotzer, Tina A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate kindergartners' exploration of interactive causality during their play with a pair of toy sound blocks. Interactive causality refers to a type of causal pattern in which two entities interact to produce a causal force, as in particle attraction and symbiotic relationships. Despite being prevalent in nature,…

  8. A New Species of Science Education: Harnessing the Power of Interactive Technology to Teach Laboratory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Interactive television is a type of distance education that uses streaming audio and video technology for real-time student-teacher interaction. Here, I discuss the design and logistics for developing a high school laboratory-based science course taught to students at a distance using interactive technologies. The goal is to share a successful…

  9. They Work Together to Roar: Kindergartners' Understanding of an Interactive Causal Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, S. Lynneth; Grotzer, Tina A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate kindergartners' exploration of interactive causality during their play with a pair of toy sound blocks. Interactive causality refers to a type of causal pattern in which two entities interact to produce a causal force, as in particle attraction and symbiotic relationships. Despite being prevalent in nature,…

  10. A New Species of Science Education: Harnessing the Power of Interactive Technology to Teach Laboratory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Interactive television is a type of distance education that uses streaming audio and video technology for real-time student-teacher interaction. Here, I discuss the design and logistics for developing a high school laboratory-based science course taught to students at a distance using interactive technologies. The goal is to share a successful…

  11. Tissue specific loss of A-type lamins in the gastrointestinal epithelium can enhance polyp size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Audrey S; Kozlov, Serguei V; Stewart, Colin L; Horn, Henning F

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear lamina, comprised of the A and B-type lamins, is important in maintaining nuclear shape and in regulating key nuclear functions such as chromatin organization and transcription. Deletion of the A-type lamins results in genome instability and many cancers show altered levels of A-type lamin expression. Loss of function mutations in the mouse Lmna gene result in early postnatal lethality, usually within 3-5 weeks of birth making an analysis of the role of lamins in carcinogenesis difficult. To circumvent early lethality, and determine the role of the A-type lamins in specific tissues in older mice we derived a conditional allele of Lmna(FL/FL) (floxed). Lmna(FL/FL) was specifically deleted in the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium by crossing the Lmna(FL/FL) mice with Villin-Cre mice. Mice lacking Lmna in the GI are overtly normal with no effects on overall growth, longevity or GI morphology. On a GI specific sensitized (Apc(Min/+)) background, polyp numbers are unchanged, but polyp size is slightly increased, and only in the duodenum. Our findings reveal that although A-type lamins are dispensable in the postnatal GI epithelium, loss of Lmna under malignant conditions may, to a limited extent, enhance polyp size indicating that A-type lamins may regulate cell proliferation in the transformed GI epithelium. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Flares on A-type Stars: Evidence for Heating of Solar Corona by Nanoflares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švanda, Michal; Karlický, Marian

    2016-11-01

    We analyzed the occurrence rates of flares on stars of spectral types K, G, F, and A, observed by Kepler. We found that the histogram of occurrence frequencies of stellar flares is systematically shifted toward a high-energy tail for A-type stars compared to stars of cooler spectral types. We extrapolated the fitted power laws toward flares with smaller energies (nanoflares) and made estimates for total energy flux to stellar atmospheres by flares. We found that, for A-type stars, the total energy flux density was at least four-times smaller than for G stars. We speculate that this deficit in energy supply may explain the lack of hot coronae on A-type stars. Our results indicate the importance of nanoflares for heating and formation of the solar corona.

  13. Optical Foucault Pendulum: photons and the Coriolis effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Consider the motion of photons within a rotating photon clock. Will light behave as a particle as it reflects back and forth between two parallel mirrors rotating in a manner similar to the motion of a Foucault pendulum? An experiment to measure the trajectory of light in a rotating cavity is presented. Implementation details for this experiment and initial data collected are also reported.

  14. KChIPs and Kv4 alpha subunits as integral components of A-type potassium channels in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Kenneth J; Carroll, Karen I; Sung, M Amy; Doliveira, Lisa C; Monaghan, Michael M; Burke, Sharon L; Strassle, Brian W; Buchwalder, Lynn; Menegola, Milena; Cao, Jie; An, W Frank; Trimmer, James S

    2004-09-08

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels from the Kv4, or Shal-related, gene family underlie a major component of the A-type potassium current in mammalian central neurons. We recently identified a family of calcium-binding proteins, termed KChIPs (Kv channel interacting proteins), that bind to the cytoplasmic N termini of Kv4 family alpha subunits and modulate their surface density, inactivation kinetics, and rate of recovery from inactivation (An et al., 2000). Here, we used single and double-label immunohistochemistry, together with circumscribed lesions and coimmunoprecipitation analyses, to examine the regional and subcellular distribution of KChIPs1-4 and Kv4 family alpha subunits in adult rat brain. Immunohistochemical staining using KChIP-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that the KChIP polypeptides are concentrated in neuronal somata and dendrites where their cellular and subcellular distribution overlaps, in an isoform-specific manner, with that of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3. For example, immunoreactivity for KChIP1 and Kv4.3 is concentrated in the somata and dendrites of hippocampal, striatal, and neocortical interneurons. Immunoreactivity for KChIP2, KChIP4, and Kv4.2 is concentrated in the apical and basal dendrites of hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal cells. Double-label immunofluorescence labeling revealed that throughout the forebrain, KChIP2 and KChIP4 are frequently colocalized with Kv4.2, whereas in cortical, hippocampal, and striatal interneurons, KChIP1 is frequently colocalized with Kv4.3. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirmed that all KChIPs coassociate with Kv4 alpha subunits in brain membranes, indicating that KChIPs 1-4 are integral components of native A-type Kv channel complexes and are likely to play a major role as modulators of somatodendritic excitability.

  15. Uptake and catabolism of modified LDL in scavenger-receptor class A type I/II knock-out mice.

    PubMed Central

    Van Berkel, T J; Van Velzen, A; Kruijt, J K; Suzuki, H; Kodama, T

    1998-01-01

    The liver is the major organ responsible for the uptake of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from the blood circulation, with endothelial and Kupffer cells as major cellular uptake sites. Scavenger-receptors, which include various classes, are held responsible for this uptake. Mice deficient in scavenger-receptor class A types I and II were created and the fate of acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL) in vivo and its interaction with liver endothelial, Kupffer and peritoneal macrophages was characterized. Surprisingly, the decay in vivo (t12 < 2 min), tissue distribution and liver uptake (at 5 min it was 77.4 +/- 4.6% of the injected dose) of Ac-LDL in the knock-out mice were not significantly different from control mice (t12 < 2 min and liver uptake 79.1 +/- 4.6% of the injected dose). A separation of mice liver cells into parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells 10 min after injection of Ac-LDL indicated that in both control and knock-out mice the liver endothelial cells were responsible for more than 70% of the liver uptake. Both in control and knock-out mice, preinjection of polyinosinic acid (poly I, 200 microg) completely blocked the liver uptake, indicating that both in control and knock-out mice the scavenger-receptors are sensitive to poly I. Preinjection of suboptimal poly I concentrations (20 and 50 microg) provided evidence that the serum decay and liver uptake of Ac-LDL is more readily inhibited in the knock-out mice as compared with the control mice, indicating less efficient removal of Ac-LDL in vivo in the knock-out mice under these conditions. Studies in vitro with isolated liver endothelial and Kupffer cells from knock-out mice indicate that the cell association of Ac-LDL during 2 h at 37 degrees C is 50 and 53% of the control, respectively, whereas the degradation reaches values of 58 and 63%. For peritoneal macrophages from knock-out mice the cell association of Ac-LDL was identical to the control mice whereas the Ac-LDL degradation in cells from the

  16. A type IV burst associated with a coronal streamer disruption event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    A type IV burst was observed on February 17, 1985 with the Clark Lake Radio Observatory multifrequency radioheliograph operating in the frequency range 20-125 MHz. This burst was associated with a coronal streamer disruption event. From two-dimensional images produced at 50 MHz, evidence of a type II burst and a slow moving type IV burst are shown. The observations of the moving type IV burst suggests that a plasmoid containing energetic electrons can result from the disruption of a coronal streamer.

  17. Melorheostosis may originate as a type 2 segmental manifestation of osteopoikilosis.

    PubMed

    Happle, Rudolf

    2004-03-15

    Melorheostosis is a non-hereditary disorder involving the bones in a segmental pattern, whereas osteopoikilosis is a rather mild disseminated bone disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Interestingly, melorheostosis and osteopoikilosis may sometimes occur together. In analogy to various autosomal dominant skin disorders for which a type 2 segmental manifestation has been postulated, melorheostosis may be best explained in such cases as a type 2 segmental osteopoikilosis, resulting from early loss of the corresponding wild type allele at the gene locus of this autosomal dominant bone disorder. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. IPHAS A-TYPE STARS WITH MID-INFRARED EXCESSES IN SPITZER SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, Michael J.; Drew, Janet E.; Unruh, Yvonne C.; Greimel, Robert; Irwin, Michael J.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk E-mail: y.unruh@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-04-10

    We have identified 17 A-type stars in the Galactic Plane that have mid-infrared (mid-IR) excesses at 8 {mu}m. From observed colors in the (r' - H{alpha}) - (r' - i') plane, we first identified 23,050 early A-type main-sequence (MS) star candidates in the Isaac Newton Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) point source database that are located in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Galactic plane fields. Imposing the requirement that they be detected in all seven Two Micron All Sky Survey and Infrared Astronomical Satellite bands led to a sample of 2692 candidate A-type stars with fully sampled 0.6 to 8 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Optical classification spectra of 18 of the IPHAS candidate A-type MS stars showed that all but one could be well fitted using MS A-type templates, with the other being an A-type supergiant. Out of the 2692 A-type candidates 17 (0.6%) were found to have 8 {mu}m excesses above the expected photospheric values. Taking into account non-A-Type contamination estimates, the 8 {mu}m excess fraction is adjusted to {approx}0.7%. The distances to these sources range from 0.7 to 2.5 kpc. Only 10 out of the 17 excess stars had been covered by Spitzer MIPSGAL survey fields, of which five had detectable excesses at 24 {mu}m. For sources with excesses detected in at least two mid-IR wavelength bands, blackbody fits to the excess SEDs yielded temperatures ranging from 270 to 650 K, and bolometric luminosity ratios L {sub IR}/L {sub *} from 2.2 x 10{sup -3} - 1.9 x 10{sup -2}, with a mean value of 7.9 x 10{sup -3} (these bolometric luminosities are lower limits as cold dust is not detectable by this survey). Both the presence of mid-IR excesses and the derived bolometric luminosity ratios are consistent with many of these systems being in the planet-building transition phase between the early protoplanetary disk phase and the later debris disk phase.

  19. When Is a Failure to Replicate Not a Type II Error?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Urcuioli, Peter J.; Lionello-DeNolf, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Zentall and Singer (2007) challenge our conclusion that the work-ethic effect reported by Clement, Feltus, Kaiser, and Zentall (2000) may have been a Type I error by arguing that (a) the effect has been extensively replicated and (b) the amount of overtraining our pigeons received may not have been sufficient to produce it. We believe that our…

  20. Within-Trial Contrast: When Is a Failure to Replicate Not a Type I Error?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Thomas R.; Singer, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Vasconcelos, Urcuioli, and Lionello-DeNolf (2007) report the results of five experiments that fail to replicate the results of our within-trial contrast study (Clement, Feltus, Kaiser, & Zentall, 2000) and suggest that our results may represent a Type I Error. We believe that this conclusion is not warranted because (a) there is considerable…

  1. KISS: Discovery and Spectroscopic Classification of a Type Ia Supernova KISS15q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Jiang, Ji-an; Shibata, Takumi; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Doi, Mamoru; Sako, Shigeyuki; Kikuchi, Yuki; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tateuchi, Ken; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakao, Hikaru; Itoh, Yoichi; Morihana, Kumiko; Honda, Satoshi; Takagi, Yuhei; Takahashi, Jun; Takeishi, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    We report the discovery and spectroscopic identification of a Type Ia supernova, KISS15q. In Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS; Morokuma et al. 2014, PASJ, 66, 118), we found a transient object KISS15q of g=20.6 on May 19.60, 2015 UT in the g-band image.

  2. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15bzz as a type-Ia supernova at maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Miszalski, B.

    2015-09-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15bzz on 2015 Aug 16.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 360-820 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15bzz is a type-Ia supernova within a few days of maximum light.

  3. Petrogenesis of selected A-type granitic intrusions from Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Tharwat; Asran, Asran; Amron, Taha; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The Pan-African orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield was terminated by intrusion of A-type granites (~ 595 Ma; Greenberg, 1981) and its volcanic equivalents. Subsequent to the intrusions of these granitic bodies the shield was exhumed. Eroded A-type granite pebbles were found in the molasse sediments that were deposited in intermountain basins. Therefore the A-type granites provide information about the last stage of the Pan-African geochemical system. Preliminary whole-rock geochemical data of three granitic intrusions (Kadabora, Um Naggat and El shiekh Salem) from the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt; indicate that all of them are peraluminous and with A-type characteristics. These intrusions show low CaO content (average 0.43 %wt), high FeOT/MgO ratio (10.46-121.88), high Na2O+K2O (average 8.04 %wt), marked enrichment of high field strength elements (Y, Nb and Ga except Zr), depletion in MgO (0.01-0.11 %wt) and with low concentration of Sr and Ba. The studied granitoids were emplaced in within plate tectonic regime. References: Greenberg, J.K. (1981): Characteristic and origin of Egyptian younger granites. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. Part 1, v.92: 224-232.

  4. When Is a Failure to Replicate Not a Type II Error?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Urcuioli, Peter J.; Lionello-DeNolf, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Zentall and Singer (2007) challenge our conclusion that the work-ethic effect reported by Clement, Feltus, Kaiser, and Zentall (2000) may have been a Type I error by arguing that (a) the effect has been extensively replicated and (b) the amount of overtraining our pigeons received may not have been sufficient to produce it. We believe that our…

  5. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator

    PubMed Central

    Tina, K. G.; Bhadra, R.; Srinivasan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic–aromatic interactions, aromatic–sulphur interactions and cation–π interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar–apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside. PMID:17584791

  6. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator.

    PubMed

    Tina, K G; Bhadra, R; Srinivasan, N

    2007-07-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic-aromatic interactions, aromatic-sulphur interactions and cation-pi interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar-apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside.

  7. Interpretation of Isopycnal Layer Thickness Advection in Terms of Eddy-Topography Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanyu; Koehl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    Spatially varying amplitude of the eddy isopycnal layer thickness diffusivity Kgm and the layer thickness advection Kgmskew of the modified Gent and McWilliams parameterization are estimated using two different approaches: the adjoint estimation from a global data assimilation system and the inversion calculation according to divergent buoyancy eddy flux-mean buoyancy gradient relation using results from idealized eddy resolving numerical models with various bottom topographies. This work focuses on the properties of Kgmskew. From the adjoint estimation, large Kgmskew values are found along meandering currents and predominantly positive (negative) over the deep ocean and negative (positive) over seamounts in the southern (northern) hemisphere, implying close relation to the 'Neptune effect" parameterization by Holloway in which the eddy induced mean velocity stream function is represented by -fHL, where H is the bottom depth, f the Coriolis parameter and L a length scale. In the inversion calculation, divergent buoyancy eddy fluxes are obtained by removing the rotational components from the total buoyancy eddy fluxes through Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition. Though subject to topographic length scale, the inversed Kgmskew reveals characteristics of both f and H, and interactions with the mean current, inter-confirming the adjoint estimation results. Applying this parameterization for Kgmskew in the general circulation model produces cold domes and anti-cyclonic circulations over seamounts, which reduces common model biases there. By construction, the original thickness advection Kgmskew redistributes potential energy and the original "Neptune effect" parameterization improves potential vorticity conservation, applying the latter into the former as suggested in the present study thus more correctly reproduces the potential vorticity structure over a sloping topography while conserving the total potential energy.

  8. 10 CFR 33.15 - Requirements for the issuance of a Type C specific license of broad scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., radiation detection instrumentation, and biological hazards of exposure to radiation appropriate to the type... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the issuance of a Type C specific license... issuance of a Type C specific license of broad scope. An application for a Type C specific license of broad...

  9. Identification of the ice-binding surface on a type III antifreeze protein with a "flatness function" algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, D S; Hon, W C; Bubanko, S; Xue, Y; Seetharaman, J; Hew, C L; Sicheri, F

    1998-05-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to surfaces of growing ice crystals, thereby arresting their growth. The prevailing hypothesis explains the nature of adsorption in terms of a match between the hydrophilic side chains on the AFP's ice-binding surface (IBS) and the water molecules on the ice surface. The number and spatial arrangement of hydrogen bonds thus formed have been proposed to account, respectively, for the binding affinity and specificity. The crystal structure of a type III AFP from ocean pout (isoform HPLC-3) has been determined to 2.0-A resolution. The structure reveals an internal dyad motif formed by two 19-residue, loop-shaped elements. Based on of the flatness observed on the type I alpha-helical AFP's IBS, an automated algorithm was developed to analyze the surface planarity of the globular type III AFP and was used to identify the IBS on this protein. The surface with the highest flatness score is formed by one loop of the dyad motif and is identical to the IBS deduced from earlier mutagenesis studies. Interestingly, 67% of this surface contains nonpolar solvent-accessible surface area. The success of our approach to identifying the IBS on an AFP, without considering the presence of polar side chains, indicates that flatness is the first approximation of an IBS. We further propose that the specificity of interactions between an IBS and a particular ice-crystallographic plane arises from surface complementarity.

  10. Identification of the ice-binding surface on a type III antifreeze protein with a "flatness function" algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, D S; Hon, W C; Bubanko, S; Xue, Y; Seetharaman, J; Hew, C L; Sicheri, F

    1998-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to surfaces of growing ice crystals, thereby arresting their growth. The prevailing hypothesis explains the nature of adsorption in terms of a match between the hydrophilic side chains on the AFP's ice-binding surface (IBS) and the water molecules on the ice surface. The number and spatial arrangement of hydrogen bonds thus formed have been proposed to account, respectively, for the binding affinity and specificity. The crystal structure of a type III AFP from ocean pout (isoform HPLC-3) has been determined to 2.0-A resolution. The structure reveals an internal dyad motif formed by two 19-residue, loop-shaped elements. Based on of the flatness observed on the type I alpha-helical AFP's IBS, an automated algorithm was developed to analyze the surface planarity of the globular type III AFP and was used to identify the IBS on this protein. The surface with the highest flatness score is formed by one loop of the dyad motif and is identical to the IBS deduced from earlier mutagenesis studies. Interestingly, 67% of this surface contains nonpolar solvent-accessible surface area. The success of our approach to identifying the IBS on an AFP, without considering the presence of polar side chains, indicates that flatness is the first approximation of an IBS. We further propose that the specificity of interactions between an IBS and a particular ice-crystallographic plane arises from surface complementarity. PMID:9591641

  11. InvB is a type III secretion-associated chaperone for the Salmonella enterica effector protein SopE.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ho; Galán, Jorge E

    2003-12-01

    SopE is a bacteriophage-encoded effector protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that is translocated into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells by a type III secretion system (TTSS) (W.-D. Hardt, H. Urlaub, and J. E. Galán, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:2574-2579, 1998; M. W. Wood, R. Rosqvist, P. B. Mullan, M. H. Edwards, and E. E. Galyov, Mol. Microbiol. 22:327-338, 1996). In this study, we provide evidence that an unlinked gene carried within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), invB (K. Eichelberg, C. Ginocchio, and J. E. Galán, J. Bacteriol. 176:4501-4510, 1994), is required for the secretion of SopE through the SPI-1 TTSS. Furthermore, far-Western blotting analysis shows that SopE directly interacts with InvB through a domain located at its amino terminus. We conclude that InvB is the TTSS-associated chaperone for SopE.

  12. Food and Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Ko, Chang Mann

    2017-01-01

    Natural foods and vegetal supplements have recently become increasingly popular for their roles in medicine and as staple foods. This has, however, led to the increased risk of interaction between prescribed drugs and the bioactive ingredients contained in these foods. These interactions range from pharmacokinetic interactions (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion influencing blood levels of drugs) to pharmacodynamic interactions (drug effects). In a quantitative respect, these interactions occur mainly during metabolism. In addition to the systemic metabolism that occurs mainly in the liver, recent studies have focused on the metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract endothelium before absorption. Inhibition of metabolism causes an increase in the blood levels of drugs and could have adverse reactions. The food-drug interactions causing increased blood levels of drugs may have beneficial or detrimental therapeutic effects depending on the intensity and predictability of these interactions. It is therefore important to understand the potential interactions between foods and drugs should and the specific outcomes of such interactions.

  13. Identification and Analysis of Horizontal-Branch and Other A-Type Stars in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Silvia C. F.; Beers, Timothy C.; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    New techniques are being developed for the identification of Field Horizontal-Branch (FHB) and other A-type stars based on moderate-resolution spectroscopic observations and broadband UBV photometry. Physical parameters (T_eff, log g, and feh\\ ) for these stars can be estimated with accuracy on the order of sigma (T_eff) = 250 K, sigma (log g) = 0.35 dex, and sigma (feh ) = 0.30 dex, respectively. Detailed analysis such as this is required in order to form a ``clean'' sample of FHB stars, as such samples are easily confounded by the presence of halo blue stragglers (or BMP stars) and other high-gravity A-type stars. We summarize these analysis techniques, and discuss their application to a new large sample of FHB/A stars identified as part of the ongoing HK interference-filter/objective-prism survey of Beers and collaborators.

  14. HTTM - Design and Implementation of a Type-2 Hypervisor for MIPS64 Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain, Qurrat ul; Anwar, Usama; Mehmood, Muhammad Amir; Waheed, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Virtualization has emerged as an attractive software solution for many problems in server domain. Recently, it has started to enrich embedded systems domain by offering features such as hardware consolidation, security, and isolation. Our objective is to bring virtualization to high-end MIPS64 based systems, such as network routers, switches, wireless base station, etc. For this purpose a Type-2 hypervisor is a viable software solution which is easy to deploy and requires no changes in host system. In this paper we present the internal design HTTM -A Type-2 hypervisor for MIPS64 based systems and demonstrate its functional correctness by using Linux Testing Project (LTP) tests. Finally, we performed LMbench tests for performance evaluation.

  15. A two-step sulfation in antibiotic biosynthesis requires a type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Eitel, Kornelia; Kaysser, Leonard; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie; Gust, Bertolt

    2013-10-01

    Caprazamycins (CPZs) belong to a group of liponucleoside antibiotics inhibiting the bacterial MraY translocase, an essential enzyme involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We have recently identified analogs that are decorated with a sulfate group at the 2″-hydroxy of the aminoribosyl moiety, and we now report an unprecedented two-step sulfation mechanism during the biosynthesis of CPZs. A type III polyketide synthase (PKS) known as Cpz6 is used in the biosynthesis of a group of new triketide pyrones that are subsequently sulfated by an unusual 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS)-dependent sulfotransferase (Cpz8) to yield phenolic sulfate esters, which serve as sulfate donors for a PAPS-independent arylsulfate sulfotransferase (Cpz4) to generate sulfated CPZs. This finding is to our knowledge the first demonstration of genuine sulfate donors for an arylsulfate sulfotransferase and the first report of a type III PKS to generate a chemical reagent in bacterial sulfate metabolism.

  16. Combined arthroscopic repair of a type IV SLAP tear and Bankart lesion.

    PubMed

    Baker, Champ L; Romeo, Anthony A

    2009-09-01

    Lesions of the superior labrum can be a source of significant shoulder pain and disability. SLAP (superior labrum anterior-posterior) tears have been classified into many different types. A type IV SLAP tear is a bucket-handle tear of the superior labrum with extension into the biceps tendon. This relatively uncommon SLAP tear, if present, has been shown to be frequently associated with other pathology including Bankart lesions. We present an arthroscopic technique for combined repair of a type IV SLAP tear and Bankart lesion. Steps include initial reduction of the bucket-handle portion of the superior labral injury, repair of the anterior-inferior labral detachment, and, finally, repair of the superior labrum and biceps tendon split.

  17. Chlorhexidine Induces VanA-Type Vancomycin Resistance Genes in Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Ziegler, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a bisbiguanide antiseptic used for infection control. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) is among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. VREfm may be exposed to chlorhexidine at supra- and subinhibitory concentrations as a result of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine-impregnated central venous catheter use. We used RNA sequencing to investigate how VREfm responds to chlorhexidine gluconate exposure. Among the 35 genes upregulated ≥10-fold after 15 min of exposure to the MIC of chlorhexidine gluconate were those encoding VanA-type vancomycin resistance (vanHAX) and those associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility (liaXYZ). We confirmed that vanA upregulation was not strain or species specific by querying other VanA-type VRE. VanB-type genes were not induced. The vanH promoter was found to be responsive to subinhibitory chlorhexidine gluconate in VREfm, as was production of the VanX protein. Using vanH reporter experiments with Bacillus subtilis and deletion analysis in VREfm, we found that this phenomenon is VanR dependent. Deletion of vanR did not result in increased chlorhexidine susceptibility, demonstrating that vanHAX induction is not protective against chlorhexidine. As expected, VanA-type VRE is more susceptible to ceftriaxone in the presence of sub-MIC chlorhexidine. Unexpectedly, VREfm is also more susceptible to vancomycin in the presence of subinhibitory chlorhexidine, suggesting that chlorhexidine-induced gene expression changes lead to additional alterations in cell wall synthesis. We conclude that chlorhexidine induces expression of VanA-type vancomycin resistance genes and genes associated with daptomycin nonsusceptibility. Overall, our results indicate that the impacts of subinhibitory chlorhexidine exposure on hospital-associated pathogens should be further investigated in laboratory studies. PMID:26810654

  18. Osteomyelitis and Discitis Following Translumbar Repair of a Type II Endoleak

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, David M. Frey, Gregory T. Giesbrandt, Kirk

    2016-03-15

    Here we present the case of an 80-year-old man who developed a type II endoleak following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Initial attempts at treating the endoleak via a transarterial approach were unsuccessful; therefore the patient underwent percutaneous translumbar endoleak embolization. Approximately 1 month following the translumbar procedure, he developed back pain, with subsequent workup revealing osteomyelitis and discitis as a complication following repair via the translumbar approach.

  19. Regulatory compliance guide for DOT-7A type A packaging design

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1996-06-04

    The purpose of this guide is to provide instruction for assuring that the regulatory design requirements for a DOT-7A Type A packaging are met. This guide also supports the testing and evaluation activities that are performed on new packaging designs by a DOE-approved test facility through the DOE`s DOT-7A Test Program. This Guide was updated to incorporate regulatory changes implemented by HM-169A (49 CFR, `Transportation`).

  20. A comparative thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance study of synthetic carbonated A-type hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L C; Rossi, A M; Baffa, O

    2012-03-01

    Intensity of the 150°C thermoluminescence peak of beta-irradiated carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite is approximately 12 times higher than that of the noncarbonated material. Deconvolution of the glow curve showed that this peak is a result of a trap distribution. An attempt was made to relate this thermoluminescence peak enhanced by carbonation with the ESR signal of the CO(2)(-) radical in natural or synthetic hydroxyapatite.

  1. The vernon supersuite: Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoid rocks in the New Jersey highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, R.A.; Drake, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abundant Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoid rocks of two intrusive suites underlie approximately 50 percent of the New Jersey Highlands. These rocks, the Byram Intrusive and Lake Hopatcong Intrusive Suites, consist of granite, alaskite, quartz monzonite, monzonite, and minor pegmatite. Byram and Lake Hopatcong rocks, although different mineralogically, are similar geochemically and contain overlapping abundances of most major and trace elements. Petrographic relationships, geochronology, field relationships, and geochemical similarities support a comagmatic origin for both suites. They constitute the here named Vernon Supersuite.

  2. An analysis of the openehr archetype semantics based on a typed lambda theory.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Akimichi; Shinohara, Emiko Y; Kawazoe, Yoshimasa; Imai, Takeshi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The openEHR has adopted the dual model architecture consisting of Reference Model and Archetype. The specification, however, lacks formal definitions of archetype semantics, so that its behaviors have remained ambiguous. The objective of this poster is to analyze semantics of the openEHR archetypes: its variance and mutability. We use a typed lambda calculus as an analyzing tool. As a result, we have reached the conclusion that archetypes should be 1) covariant and 2) immutable schema.

  3. Spectroscopic classification of AT 2017byx as a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Sarneczky, K.; Szakats, R.; Szalai, T.; Szekely, P.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    During the commissioning phase of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) survey we observed AT 2017byx (ATLAS17bla, PS17bve) at R.A.=14:17:48.36 Dec.=+52:41:54.6 with the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) at McDonald Observatory on 2017-04-28.2 UT. The spectrum (range between 3500 and 5500 Angstroms) indicates that AT 2017byx is a Type Ia supernova.

  4. Spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-17je (=AT 2017ffq) as a Type II Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Osmar; Prieto, J. L.

    2017-07-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (450-760nm) of ASASSN-17je/AT2017ffq (ATel #10571) on 2017 July 15.19 UT with GMOS, mounted on Gemini-South. Using the SNID code (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) we find a good match with a Type II supernova at z=0.014, consistent with the redshift of its host galaxy 2MASX J17401447-5825586.

  5. Chlorhexidine Induces VanA-Type Vancomycin Resistance Genes in Enterococci.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Palmer, Kelli L

    2016-04-01

    Chlorhexidine is a bisbiguanide antiseptic used for infection control. Vancomycin-resistantE. faecium(VREfm) is among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. VREfm may be exposed to chlorhexidine at supra- and subinhibitory concentrations as a result of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine-impregnated central venous catheter use. We used RNA sequencing to investigate how VREfm responds to chlorhexidine gluconate exposure. Among the 35 genes upregulated ≥10-fold after 15 min of exposure to the MIC of chlorhexidine gluconate were those encoding VanA-type vancomycin resistance (vanHAX) and those associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility (liaXYZ). We confirmed thatvanAupregulation was not strain or species specific by querying other VanA-type VRE. VanB-type genes were not induced. ThevanHpromoter was found to be responsive to subinhibitory chlorhexidine gluconate in VREfm, as was production of the VanX protein. UsingvanHreporter experiments withBacillus subtilisand deletion analysis in VREfm, we found that this phenomenon is VanR dependent. Deletion ofvanRdid not result in increased chlorhexidine susceptibility, demonstrating thatvanHAXinduction is not protective against chlorhexidine. As expected, VanA-type VRE is more susceptible to ceftriaxone in the presence of sub-MIC chlorhexidine. Unexpectedly, VREfm is also more susceptible to vancomycin in the presence of subinhibitory chlorhexidine, suggesting that chlorhexidine-induced gene expression changes lead to additional alterations in cell wall synthesis. We conclude that chlorhexidine induces expression of VanA-type vancomycin resistance genes and genes associated with daptomycin nonsusceptibility. Overall, our results indicate that the impacts of subinhibitory chlorhexidine exposure on hospital-associated pathogens should be further investigated in laboratory studies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Struggling with a Gastric Volvulus Secondary to a Type IV Hiatal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    George, Dafnomilis; Apostolos, Pappas V.; Athanasios, Panoutsopoulos; Emmanuel, Lagoudianakis E.; Nikolaos, Koronakis E.; Nikolaos, Panagiotopoulos; Charalampos, Seretis; George, Karanikas; Andreas, Manouras J.

    2010-01-01

    Type IV hiatal hernias are characterized by herniation of the stomach along with associated viscera such as the spleen, colon, small bowel, and pancreas through the esophageal hiatus. They are relatively rare, representing only about 5%–7% of all hernias, and can be associated with severe complications. We report a 71-year-old veteran wrestler who presented to our department with a type IV paraesophageal hernia containing a gastric volvulus and treated successfully with emergency operation. PMID:20981251

  7. Dendritic A-type potassium channel subunit expression in CA1 hippocampal interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Menegola, Milena; Misonou, Hiroaki; Vacher, Helene; Trimmer, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and KChIP1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 μm rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs. PMID:18495361

  8. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  9. Effects of Imagined Interactions and Rehearsal on Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Charles W.; Honeycutt, James M.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2015-01-01

    Imagined interactions (IIs) constitute a type of social cognition that can reduce fear of communication. Through the mental preparation enabled by IIs, an individual can reduce disfluencies and mitigate the anxiety that arises from a speech. Study 1 indicated that rehearsal influences the reduction of silent pauses but not vocalized pauses. In…

  10. Effects of Imagined Interactions and Rehearsal on Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Charles W.; Honeycutt, James M.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2015-01-01

    Imagined interactions (IIs) constitute a type of social cognition that can reduce fear of communication. Through the mental preparation enabled by IIs, an individual can reduce disfluencies and mitigate the anxiety that arises from a speech. Study 1 indicated that rehearsal influences the reduction of silent pauses but not vocalized pauses. In…

  11. Spectroscopic evidence for a type II Weyl semimetallic state in MoTe2

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lunan; McCormick, Timothy M.; Ochi, Masayuki; Zhao, Zhiying; Suzuki, Michi -To; Arita, Ryotaro; Wu, Yun; Mou, Daixiang; Cao, Huibo; Yan, Jiaqiang; Trivedi, Nandini; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-07-11

    In a type I Dirac or Weyl semimetal, the low-energy states are squeezed to a single point in momentum space when the chemical potential μ is tuned precisely to the Dirac/Weyl point. Recently, a type II Weyl semimetal was predicted to exist, where the Weyl states connect hole and electron bands, separated by an indirect gap. This leads to unusual energy states, where hole and electron pockets touch at the Weyl point. Here we present the discovery of a type II topological Weyl semimetal state in pure MoTe2, where two sets of Weyl points (W±2 , W±3) exist at the touching points of electron and hole pockets and are located at different binding energies above EF. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, modelling, density functional theory and calculations of Berry curvature, we identify the Weyl points and demonstrate that they are connected by different sets of Fermi arcs for each of the two surface terminations. We also find new surface ‘track states’ that form closed loops and are unique to type II Weyl semimetals. Lastly, this material provides an exciting, new platform to study the properties of Weyl fermions.

  12. A New Chemical Pathway Yielding A-Type Vitisins in Red Wines.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Paula; Fernandes, Ana; de Freitas, Victor; Oliveira, Joana

    2017-04-04

    A new chemical pathway yielding A-type vitisins in red wines is proposed herein from the reaction between anthocyanins and oxaloacetic acid (OAA). This new chemical path is thought to occur in the first stages of the wine production even during the fermentation process. This is due to the revealed high reactivity of OAA with anthocyanins compared with the already known precursor (pyruvic acid, PA). In model solutions at wine pH (3.5), when malvidin-3-O-glucoside (mv-3-glc) is in contact with OAA and PA a decrease in the OAA concentration is observed along with the formation of A-type vitisin. Moreover, part of the OAA is also chemically converted into PA in model solutions. The reaction yields were also determined for OAA and PA using different mv-3-glc:organic acid molar ratios (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:5, 1:10; 1:50, and 1:100) and these values were always higher for OAA when compared to PA, even at the lowest molar ratio (1:0.5). The reaction yields were higher at pH 2.6 in comparison to pH 1.5 and 3.5, being less affected at pH 3.5 for OAA. These results support the idea that OAA can be at the origin of A-type vitisins in the first stages of wine production and PA in the subsequent ageing process.

  13. An asymptotic-giant-branch star in the progenitor system of a type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, M M; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Maza, José; González, L E; Roth, Miguel; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia; Green, E M; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J

    2003-08-07

    Stars that explode as supernovae come in two main classes. A type Ia supernova is recognized by the absence of hydrogen and the presence of elements such as silicon and sulphur in its spectrum; this class of supernova is thought to produce the majority of iron-peak elements in the Universe. They are also used as precise 'standard candles' to measure the distances to galaxies. While there is general agreement that a type Ia supernova is produced by an exploding white dwarf star, no progenitor system has ever been directly observed. Significant effort has gone into searching for circumstellar material to help discriminate between the possible kinds of progenitor systems, but no such material has hitherto been found associated with a type Ia supernova. Here we report the presence of strong hydrogen emission associated with the type Ia supernova SN2002ic, indicating the presence of large amounts of circumstellar material. We infer from this that the progenitor system contained a massive asymptotic-giant-branch star that lost several solar masses of hydrogen-rich gas before the supernova explosion.

  14. Starch-branching enzymes preferentially associated with A-type starch granules in wheat endosperm.

    PubMed

    Peng, M; Gao, M; Båga, M; Hucl, P; Chibbar, R N

    2000-09-01

    Two starch granule-bound proteins (SGP), SGP-140 and SGP-145, were preferentially associated with A-type starch granules (>10 microm) in developing and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels. Immunoblotting and N-terminal sequencing suggested that the two proteins were different variants of SBEIc, a 152-kD isoform of wheat starch-branching enzyme. Both SGP-140 and SGP-145 were localized to the endosperm starch granules but were not found in the endosperm soluble fraction or pericarp starch granules younger than 15 d post anthesis (DPA). Small-size starch granules (<10 microm) initiated before 15 DPA incorporated SGP-140 and SGP-145 throughout endosperm development and grew into full-size A-type starch granules (>10 microm). In contrast, small-size starch granules harvested after 15 DPA contained only low amounts of SGP-140 and SGP-145 and developed mainly into B-type starch granules (<10 microm). Polypeptides of similar mass and immunologically related to SGP-140 and/or SGP-145 were also preferentially incorporated into A-type starch granules of barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) endosperm, which like wheat endosperm have a bimodal starch granule size distribution.

  15. Analytical solutions of stellar winds in B-A type supergiants stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Ignacio; Cure, Michel

    2013-06-01

    An analytical solution for the δ-slow hydrodynamic solution (Cure et al. 2011) in B-A type supergiants stars is developed. The methodology is based on the analytical solutions of a) Villata (1992), which is described in terms of the stellar and wind parameters and b) Muller & Vink (2008), which is described in terms of fitting parameters from a numerical solution (hydrodynamic). These methodologies only apply for fast solutions, for that reason the line acceleration term (gL) of Muller & Vink method is modified in order to obtain an analytical solution for the δ-slow solution. To find a relationship between the parameters from the fit and the stellar and wind parameters, a computational grid, based on the grid of stellar models from Ekstrom et al. (2012), is created for B-A type supergiants stars with δ-slow hydrodynamic solution. Finally, an analytical solution for B-A type supergiants stars is obtained based on the Lambert W function (Corless et al. 1996). Comparing with the numerical solutions, the terminal velocity has a median relative error below 4% and the mass loss rate has a median relative error below 5%. In addition, we calculated the wind-momentum luminosity relationship (WLR) with the models from the computational grid and compared with the observations, showing a very good agreement.

  16. Wall-like spin excitations in A-type antiferromagnetic CaCo2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, A.; Ueland, B. G.; Pandey, Abhishek; Johnston, D. C.; Kreyssig, A.; McQueeney, R. J.; Goldman, A. I.; Anand, V. K.; Niedziela, J. L.; Abernathy, D. L.

    The ACo2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds are structurally and chemically similar to AFe2As2 and possess some interesting similarities and differences in their magnetism. We recently discovered that SrCo2As2 has stripe antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin correlations similar to stripe-ordered AFe2As2. On the other hand, CaCo2As2 orders in an A-type AFM structure with ferromagnetic correlation of the spins in the square-lattice Co-layer and AFM correlations between layers. Despite the A-type order, our recent inelastic neutron scattering measurements show that spin excitations in CaCo2As2 are not associated with either the A-type or stripe-type order. Instead, we observe broad excitations that extend longitudinally (along (1,1,0) in reciprocal space), but remain sharply defined in the transverse direction. These excitations seem to be best characterized as a ``wall'' of scattering and suggest that CaCo2As2 has quasi-one-dimensional spin dynamics very different than in AFe2As2 and SrCo2As2. Work at Ames Laboratory was supported by US DOE, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358. Work at ORNL was supported by US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Scientific User Facilities Division.

  17. Spectroscopic evidence for a type II Weyl semimetallic state in MoTe2

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lunan; McCormick, Timothy M.; Ochi, Masayuki; Zhao, Zhiying; Suzuki, Michi -To; Arita, Ryotaro; Wu, Yun; Mou, Daixiang; Cao, Huibo; Yan, Jiaqiang; Trivedi, Nandini; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-07-11

    In a type I Dirac or Weyl semimetal, the low-energy states are squeezed to a single point in momentum space when the chemical potential μ is tuned precisely to the Dirac/Weyl point. Recently, a type II Weyl semimetal was predicted to exist, where the Weyl states connect hole and electron bands, separated by an indirect gap. This leads to unusual energy states, where hole and electron pockets touch at the Weyl point. Here we present the discovery of a type II topological Weyl semimetal state in pure MoTe2, where two sets of Weyl points (W±2 , W±3) exist at the touching points of electron and hole pockets and are located at different binding energies above EF. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, modelling, density functional theory and calculations of Berry curvature, we identify the Weyl points and demonstrate that they are connected by different sets of Fermi arcs for each of the two surface terminations. We also find new surface ‘track states’ that form closed loops and are unique to type II Weyl semimetals. Lastly, this material provides an exciting, new platform to study the properties of Weyl fermions.

  18. Spectroscopic evidence for a type II Weyl semimetallic state in MoTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Lunan; McCormick, Timothy M.; Ochi, Masayuki; ...

    2016-07-11

    In a type I Dirac or Weyl semimetal, the low-energy states are squeezed to a single point in momentum space when the chemical potential μ is tuned precisely to the Dirac/Weyl point. Recently, a type II Weyl semimetal was predicted to exist, where the Weyl states connect hole and electron bands, separated by an indirect gap. This leads to unusual energy states, where hole and electron pockets touch at the Weyl point. Here we present the discovery of a type II topological Weyl semimetal state in pure MoTe2, where two sets of Weyl points (W±2 , W±3) exist at themore » touching points of electron and hole pockets and are located at different binding energies above EF. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, modelling, density functional theory and calculations of Berry curvature, we identify the Weyl points and demonstrate that they are connected by different sets of Fermi arcs for each of the two surface terminations. We also find new surface ‘track states’ that form closed loops and are unique to type II Weyl semimetals. Lastly, this material provides an exciting, new platform to study the properties of Weyl fermions.« less

  19. A naturally occurring cowpox virus with an ectromelia virus A-type inclusion protein gene displays atypical A-type inclusions.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hansen, Hilde; Traavik, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Human orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe are usually caused by cowpox virus (CPXV). The genetic heterogeneity of CPXVs may in part be due to recombination with other OPV species. We describe the characterization of an atypical CPXV (CPXV-No-H2) isolated from a human patient in Norway. CPXV-No-H2 was characterized on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype as well as the DNA region containing the p4c and atip open reading frames. CPXV-No-H2 produced atypical V(+/) ATI, in which virions are on the surface of ATI but not within the ATI matrix. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atip gene of CPXV-No-H2 clustered closely with that of ectromelia virus (ECTV) with a bootstrap support of 100% whereas its p4c gene is diverged compared to homologues in other OPV species. By recombination analysis we identified a putative crossover event at nucleotide 147, downstream the start of the atip gene. Our results suggest that CPXV-No-H2 originated from a recombination between CPXV and ECTV. Our findings are relevant to the evolution of OPVs.

  20. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  1. Computerized Interactive Harness Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized interactive harness engineering program inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically data-base system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records.

  2. Interactions between magnetohydrodynamical discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, W.; Woodward, P.R. )

    1994-11-01

    Interactions between magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) discontinuities are studied through numerical simulations for the set of one-dimensional MHD equations. The interactions include the impact of a shock on a contact discontinuity, the collision of two shocks, and the catchup of a shock over another shock. The shocks involved in the interactions may be very strong. Each shock in an interaction may be either a fast or a slow shock.

  3. DISCOS- DYNAMIC INTERACTION SIMULATION OF CONTROLS AND STRUCTURES (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program was developed for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft. In the use of DISCOS, the physical system undergoing analysis may be generally described as a cluster of contiguous flexible structures (bodies) that comprise a mechanical system, such as a spacecraft. The entire system (spacecraft) or portions thereof may be either spinning or nonspinning. Member bodies of the system may undergo large relative excursions, such as those of appendage deployment or rotor/ stator motion. The general system of bodies is, by its inherent nature, a feedback system in which inertial forces (such as those due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration) and the restoring and damping forces are motion-dependent. The system may possess a control system in which certain position and rate errors are actively controlled through the use of reaction control jets, servomotors, or momentum wheels. Bodies of the system may be interconnected by linear or nonlinear springs and dampers, by a gimbal and slider block mechanism, or by any combination of these. The DISCOS program can be used to obtain nonlinear and linearized time response of the system, interaction constant forces in the system, total system resonance properties, and frequency domain response and stability information for the system. DISCOS is probably the most powerful computational tool to date for the computer simulation of actively controlled coupled multi-flexible-body systems. The program is not easy to understand and effectively apply, but is not intended for simple problems. The DISCOS user is expected to have extensive working knowledge of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics, finite-element techniques, numerical methods, and frequency-domain analysis. Various applications of DISCOS include simulation of the Shuttle payload deployment/retrieval mechanism, solar panel array deployment, antenna

  4. Interactivity: A Forgotten Art?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rod

    1997-01-01

    This paper promotes further discussion and analysis of interactivity in learning environments and contains a classification of interaction types appropriate for consideration in multimedia settings. Through an examination of related factors associated with navigation and control, a matrix of interactive dimensions is proposed. (Author)

  5. Interactive Reactor Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

    In the field of chemical engineering, interactive process models can simulate the dynamic behavior and analysis of chemical processes. DYFLO was the process simulation program selected as a foundation for development of interactive programs for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in chemical engineering. Interactive Computing and time sharing…

  6. Dynamic Interactive Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabry, Khaled; Barker, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the notions of interactivity and dynamicity of learning systems in relation to information technologies and design principles that can contribute to interactive and dynamic learning. It explores the concept of dynamic interactive learning systems based on the emerging generation of information as part of a…

  7. Global Interaction in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Audrey Grace

    2010-01-01

    Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

  8. Evolving synergetic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Arranz, Jordi; Du, Jinming; Zhou, Da; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Cooperators forgo their own interests to benefit others. This reduces their fitness and thus cooperators are not likely to spread based on natural selection. Nonetheless, cooperation is widespread on every level of biological organization ranging from bacterial communities to human society. Mathematical models can help to explain under which circumstances cooperation evolves. Evolutionary game theory is a powerful mathematical tool to depict the interactions between cooperators and defectors. Classical models typically involve either pairwise interactions between individuals or a linear superposition of these interactions. For interactions within groups, however, synergetic effects may arise: their outcome is not just the sum of its parts. This is because the payoffs via a single group interaction can be different from the sum of any collection of two-player interactions. Assuming that all interactions start from pairs, how can such synergetic multiplayer games emerge from simpler pairwise interactions? Here, we present a mathematical model that captures the transition from pairwise interactions to synergetic multiplayer ones. We assume that different social groups have different breaking rates. We show that non-uniform breaking rates do foster the emergence of synergy, even though individuals always interact in pairs. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying such synergetic interactions. PMID:27466437

  9. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  10. Analytical prediction of damage in the composite part of a type-3 hydrogen storage vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouaoula, A.; Hocine, A.; Chapelle, D.; Karaachira, F.; Boubakar, M. L.

    2012-03-01

    The damage behavior of a type-3 hydrogen storage vessel is modeled. The vessel consists of a metal envelop, called liner, coated with a filament winding. The model proposed allows simulating the mechanical response of the structure to a quasi-static loading. The model is based on a meso-macro approach and takes into account the damage behavior of the composite and the elastoplastic deformation of the liner. The results obtained are compared with experimental data. Finally, the effect of stacking sequence of filament layers on the damage level in the composite is investigated.

  11. Modeling-independent elucidation of inactivation pathways in recombinant and native A-type Kv channels.

    PubMed

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D; Ritter, David M; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2012-11-01

    A-type voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na(+) channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously

  12. Reminder about potentially serious problems with a type of blocked ANOVA analysis

    Treesearch

    Steve Verrill; David E. Kretschmann

    2017-01-01

    A type of blocked experiment has the potential of being poorly designed and/or analyzed. Verrill (1993, 1999) and Verrill et al. (2004) referred to such an experiment as a “predictor sort” experiment. David and Gunnink (1997) described the procedure as “artificial pairing.” In textbooks it is sometimes referred to as a “matched pair” or a “matched...

  13. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  14. Atomic-Scale Visualization of Quasiparticle Interference on a Type-II Weyl Semimetal Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hao; Bian, Guang; Chang, Guoqing; Lu, Hong; Xu, Su-Yang; Wang, Guangqiang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zhang, Songtian; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Song, Fengqi; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Yao, Nan; Bansil, Arun; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-12-01

    We combine quasiparticle interference simulation (theory) and atomic resolution scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy (experiment) to visualize the interference patterns on a type-II Weyl semimetal Mox W1 -xTe2 for the first time. Our simulation based on first-principles band topology theoretically reveals the surface electron scattering behavior. We identify the topological Fermi arc states and reveal the scattering properties of the surface states in Mo0.66 W0.34 Te2 . In addition, our result reveals an experimental signature of the topology via the interconnectivity of bulk and surface states, which is essential for understanding the unusual nature of this material.

  15. A survey for pulsations in A-type stars using SuperWASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2015-12-01

    "It is sound judgement to hope that in the not too distant future we shall be competent to understand so simple a thing as a star." - Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, The Internal Constitution of Stars, 1926 A survey of A-type stars is conducted with the SuperWASP archive in the search for pulsationally variable stars. Over 1.5 million stars are selected based on their (J-H) colour. Periodograms are calculated for light curves which have been extracted from the archive and cleaned of spurious points. Peaks which have amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude are identified in the periodograms. In total, 202 656 stars are identified to show variability in the range 5-300 c/d. Spectroscopic follow-up was obtained for 38 stars which showed high-frequency pulsations between 60 and 235 c/d, and a further object with variability at 636 c/d. In this sample, 13 were identified to be normal A-type δ Sct stars, 14 to be pulsating metallic-lined Am stars, 11 to be rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, and one to be a subdwarf B variable star. The spectra were used not only to classify the stars, but to determine an effective temperature through Balmer line fitting. Hybrid stars have been identified in this study, which show pulsations in both the high- and low-overtone domains; an observation not predicted by theory. These stars are prime targets to perform follow-up observations, as a confirmed detection of this phenomenon will have significant impact on the theory of pulsations in A-type stars. The detected number of roAp stars has expanded the known number of this pulsator class by 22 per cent. Within these results both the hottest and coolest roAp star have been identified. Further to this, one object, KIC 7582608, was observed by the Kepler telescope for 4 yr, enabling a detailed frequency analysis. This analysis has identified significant frequency variations in this star, leading to the hypothesis that this is the first close binary star of its type. The observational

  16. Operating and maintenance instructions for the Hedgehog sample package (A DOT 7A Type A Package)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-04-07

    The Operating and Maintenance Instructions for the HEDGEHOG Sample Package describe the sequence of operations required to use this package as a US Department of Transportation (DOT) Requirements Specification 7A, Type A package for radioactive materials (RAM). This instruction includes air shipment in accordance with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations, as well as the DOT. This package can be used to ship up to one liter of radioactive liquid without shielding and up to 250 ml of radioactive liquid that requires shielding.

  17. Cyclotron resonance of figure-of-eight orbits in a type-II Weyl semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshino, Mikito

    2016-07-01

    We study the cyclotron resonance in the electron-hole joint Fermi surface of a type-II Weyl semimetal. In magnetic field, the electron and hole pockets touching at the Weyl node are hybridized to form quantized Landau levels corresponding to semiclassical 8-shaped orbits. We calculate the dynamical conductivities for the electric fields oscillating in x and y directions and find that the resonant frequencies in x and y differ by a factor of two, reflecting the figure-of-eight electron motion in real space. The peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance serves as a unique characteristic of the dumbbell-like Fermi surface.

  18. Spectroscopic classification of AT2017ffk as a Type II Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Osmar; Pignata, Giuliano

    2017-09-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (500-900nm) of AT2017ffk on 2017 Sept 12.01 UT with the Goodman spectrograph, mounted on the SOAR telescope. Using the SNID code (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) we find a good match with a Type II supernova at more than two months after the explosion at z=0.015, consistent with the redshift of its host galaxy IC 991. From the FeII absorption minima we estimate an expansion velocity of about 3300 km/s.

  19. Identification of two novel Prodelphinidin A-type dimers from roasted hazelnut skins ( Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2013-12-26

    Two new A-type dimeric prodelphinidins, EGC-(2β→O7, 4β→8)-C and EGC-(2β→O5, 4β→6)-C, were isolated from the skins of roasted hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.) by low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC) and final purification by preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and HR-ESI-MS) and NMR spectroscopy that included the application of 2D methods ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). Furthermore, circular dichroism (CD) and acid-catalyzed degradation (phloroglucinolysis) confirmed the proposed structures.

  20. Interaction between a drifting spiral and defects

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, X.; Levine, H. ); Kessler, D.A. )

    1993-02-01

    Spiral waves, a type of reentrant excitation,'' are believed to be associated with the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Recent experimental findings have implicated defective regions as a means of trapping spirals which would otherwise drift and (eventually) disappear. Here, we model the myocardium as a simple excitable medium and study via simulation the interaction between a drifting spiral and one or more such defects. We interpret our results in terms of a criterion for the transition between trapped and untrapped drifting spirals.

  1. Cryogenic-coolant He-4-superconductor interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspi, S.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Allen, R. J.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermal interaction between a type 2 composite alloy and cryo-coolant He4 was studied with emphasis on post quench phenomena of formvar coated conductors. The latter were investigated using a heater simulation technique. Overall heat transfer coefficients were evaluated for the quench onset point. Heat flux densities were determined for phenomena of thermal switching between a peak and a recovery value. The study covered near saturated liquid, pressurized He4, both above and below the lambda transition, and above and below the thermodynamic critical pressure. In addition, friction coefficients for relative motion between formvar insulated conductors were determined.

  2. The Interactive Learning Toolkit: supporting interactive classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S.; McCauley, V.; Mazur, E.

    2004-05-01

    Research-based interactive learning techniques have dramatically improved student understanding. We have created the 'Interactive Learning Toolkit' (ILT), a web-based learning management system, to help implement two such pedagogies: Just in Time Teaching and Peer Instruction. Our main goal in developing this toolkit is to save the instructor time and effort and to use technology to facilitate the interaction between the students and the instructor (and between students themselves). After a brief review of both pedagogies, we will demonstrate the many exciting new features of the ILT. We will show how technology can not only implement, but also supplement and improve these pedagogies. We would like acknowdge grants from NSF and DEAS, Harvard University

  3. [Drug-drug interactions: interactions between xenobiotics].

    PubMed

    Haen, E

    2014-04-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a major topic in programs for continuous medical education (CME). Many physicians are afraid of being trapped into charges of malpractice; however, DDI cannot be avoided in many cases. They belong to routine medical practice and it is often impossible to avoid them. Moreover, they do not just occur between drugs but between any kind of foreign substance (xenobiotica), such as food (e.g. grapefruit juice, broccoli, barbecue) as well as legal (e.g. tobacco smoke, caffeine and alcohol) and illegal drugs. Therefore, the medical challenge is not just to avoid any interaction. Instead the physician faces the question of how to proceed with drug treatment in the presence of such interactions. Based on the medical education a physician has to judge first of all whether there is a risk for interactions in the prescription being planned for an individual patient. The classification of interactions proposed in this article (PD1-PD4, PK1-PK3) might help as a sort of check list. For more detailed information the physician can then consult one of the many databases available on the internet, such as PSIAConline (http://www.psiac.de) and MediQ (http://www.mediq.ch). Pharmacokinetic interactions can be easily assessed, monitored and controlled by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Besides these tools it is important to keep in mind that nobody knows everything; even physicians do not know everything. So take pride in asking someone who might help and for this purpose AGATE offers a drug information service AID (http://www.amuep-agate.de). Just good for nothing, without being based on any kind of medical approach are computer programs that judge prescriptions without taking into account a patient's individual peculiarities. In case these types of programs produce red exclamation marks or traffic lights to underline their judgment, they might even work in a contrapuntal way by just eliciting insecurity and fear.

  4. The interactive brain hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Di Paolo, Ezequiel; De Jaegher, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organization of interaction processes that characterize the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organization help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive). This latter idea links interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios. PMID:22701412

  5. Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during…

  6. Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during…

  7. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A type A packaging. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D L

    1997-08-04

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program. This document supersedes DOE Evaluation Document for DOT-7A Type A Packaging (Edling 1987), originally issued in 1987 by Monsanto Research Corporation Mound Laboratory (MLM), Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy, Security Evaluation Program (I)P-4. Mound Laboratory issued four revisions to the document between November 1988 and December 1989. In September 1989, the program was transferred to Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) in Richland, Washington. One additional revision was issued in March 1990 by Westinghouse Hanford. This revision reflects the earlier material and incorporates a number of changes. Evaluation and testing activities on 1208 three DOT-7A Program Dockets resulted in the qualification of three new packaging configurations, which are incorporated herein and summarized. This document presents approximately 300 different packagings that have been determined to meet the requirements for a DOT-7A, type A packaging per 49 CFR 178.350.

  8. SLOW RADIATION-DRIVEN WIND SOLUTIONS OF A-TYPE SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cure, M.; Cidale, L.; Granada, A.

    2011-08-10

    The theory of radiation-driven winds succeeded in describing terminal velocities and mass-loss rates of massive stars. However, for A-type supergiants the standard m-CAK solution predicts values of mass loss and terminal velocity higher than the observed values. Based on the existence of a slow wind solution in fast rotating massive stars, we explore numerically the parameter space of radiation-driven flows to search for new wind solutions in slowly rotating stars that could explain the origin of these discrepancies. We solve the one-dimensional hydrodynamical equation of rotating radiation-driven winds at different stellar latitudes and explore the influence of ionization changes throughout the wind in the velocity profile. We have found that for particular sets of stellar and line-force parameters, a new slow solution exists over the entire star when the rotational speed is slow or even zero. In the case of slow rotating A-type supergiant stars, the presence of this novel slow solution at all latitudes leads to mass losses and wind terminal velocities which are in agreement with the observed values. The theoretical wind-momentum-luminosity relationship derived with these slow solutions shows very good agreement with the empirical relationship. In addition, the ratio between the terminal and escape velocities, which provides a simple way to predict stellar wind energy and momentum input into the interstellar medium, is also properly traced.

  9. New bright optical spectrophotometric standards: A-type stars from the STIS Next Generation Spectral Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, C.; del Burgo, C.

    2016-02-01

    Exoplanets have sparked interest in extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations of very bright stars, in a regime where flux calibrators, in particular DA white dwarfs, are not available. We argue that A-type stars offer a useful alternative and reliable space-based spectrophotometry is now available for a number of bright ones in the range 3 < V < 8 mag. By means of comparing observed spectrophotometry and model fluxes, we identify 18 new very bright trustworthy A-type flux standards for the optical range (400-800 nm), and provide scaled model fluxes for them. Our tests suggest that the absolute fluxes for these stars in the optical are reliable to within 3 per cent. We limit the spectral range to 400-800 nm, since our models have difficulties to reproduce the observed fluxes in the near-infrared and, especially, in the near-UV, where the discrepancies rise up to ˜10 per cent. Based on our model fits, we derive angular diameters with an estimated accuracy of about 1 per cent.

  10. Gas and dust around A-type stars at tens of Myr: signatures of cometary breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Holland, W. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Marshall, J. P.; Dent, W. R. F.; Woitke, P.; Wyatt, M. C.; Matrà, L.; Jackson, A.

    2016-10-01

    Discs of dusty debris around main-sequence stars indicate fragmentation of orbiting planetesimals, and for a few A-type stars, a gas component is also seen that may come from collisionally released volatiles. Here we find the sixth example of a CO-hosting disc, around the ˜30 Myr-old A0-star HD 32997. Two more of these CO-hosting stars, HD 21997 and 49 Cet, have also been imaged in dust with SCUBA-2 within the SCUBA-2 Survey of Nearby Stars project. A census of 27 A-type debris hosts within 125 pc now shows 7/16 detections of carbon-bearing gas within the 5-50 Myr epoch, with no detections in 11 older systems. Such a prolonged period of high fragmentation rates corresponds quite well to the epoch when most of the Earth was assembled from planetesimal collisions. Recent models propose that collisional products can be spatially asymmetric if they originate at one location in the disc, with CO particularly exhibiting this behaviour as it can photodissociate in less than an orbital period. Of the six CO-hosting systems, only β Pic is in clear support of this hypothesis. However, radiative transfer modelling with the ProDiMo code shows that the CO is also hard to explain in a proto-planetary disc context.

  11. Solid-state NMR on a type III antifreeze protein in the presence of ice.

    PubMed

    Siemer, Ansgar B; McDermott, Ann E

    2008-12-24

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in fish, insects, plants, and a variety of other organisms where they serve to prevent the growth of ice at subzero temperatures. Type III AFPs cloned from polar fishes have been studied extensively with X-ray crystallography, liquid-state NMR, and site directed mutagenesis and are, therefore, among the best characterized AFPs. A flat surface on the protein has previously been proposed to be the ice-binding site of type III AFP. The detailed nature of the ice binding remains controversial since it is not clear whether only polar or also hydrophobic residues are involved in ice binding and there is no structural information available of a type III AFP bound to ice. Here we present a high-resolution solid-state NMR study of a type III AFP (HPLC-12 isoform) in the presence of ice. The chemical-shift differences we detected between the frozen and the nonfrozen state agree well with the proposed ice-binding site. Furthermore, we found that the (1)H T(1) of HPLC-12 in frozen solution is very long compared to typical (1)H of proteins in the solid state as for example of ubiquitin in frozen solution.

  12. Magnetic fields in X-ray emitting A-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, C.; Hubrig, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2008-04-01

    A common explanation for the observed X-ray emission of A-type stars is the presence of a hidden late-type companion. While this hypothesis can be shown to be correct in some cases, there is also evidence suggesting that low-mass companions cannot be the proper cause for the observed X-ray activity in all cases. Babel and Montmerle (1997) presented a theoretical framework to explain the X-ray emission from magnetic Ap/Bp stars, focusing on the A0p star IQ Aur. We test whether this theoretical model is capable of explaining the observed X-ray emissions. We present observations of 13 A-type stars that have been associated with X-ray emission detected by ROSAT. To determine the mean longitudinal magnetic field strength we measured the circular polarization in the wings of the Balmer lines using FORS 1. Although the emission of those objects with magnetic fields does fit the prediction of the Babel & Montmerle model, not all X-ray detections are related to the presence of a magnetic field. Additionally, the strengths of magnetic fields do not correlate with the X-ray luminosity and thus the magnetically-confined wind shock model cannot explain the X-ray emission from all investigated stars.

  13. Magnetic fields in A-type stars associated with X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, C.; Hubrig, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2008-06-01

    A common explanation for the observed X-ray emission of A-type stars is the presence of a hidden late-type companion. While this assumption can be shown to be correct in some cases, a number of lines of evidence suggests that low-mass companions cannot be the correct cause for the observed activity in all cases. A model explains the X-ray emission for magnetic Ap/Bp stars, focusing on the A0p star IQ Aur. In this paper we test whether this theoretical model is able to explain the observed X-ray emission. We present the observations of 13 A-type stars that have been associated with X-ray emission detected by ROSAT. To determine the mean longitudinal magnetic field strength we measured the circular polarization in the wings of the Balmer lines using FORS1. Although the emission of those objects that possess magnetic fields fits the prediction of the Babel and Montmerle model, not all X-ray detections are connected to the presence of a magnetic field. Additionally, the measured magnetic fields do not correlate with the X-ray luminosity. Accordingly, the magnetically confined wind shock model cannot explain the X-ray emission from all the presented stars.

  14. The interaction between synoptic-scale balanced flow and a finite-amplitude mesoscale wave field throughout all atmospheric layers: Weak and moderately strong stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achatz, Ulrich; Ribstein, Bruno; Senf, Fabian; Klein, Rupert

    2017-04-01

    The interaction between locally monochromatic finite-amplitude mesoscale waves, their nonlinearly induced higher harmonics, and a synoptic-scale flow is reconsidered, both in the tropospheric regime of weak stratification and in the stratospheric regime of moderately strong stratification. A review of the basic assumptions of quasi-geostrophic theory on an f-plane yields all synoptic scales in terms of a minimal number of natural variables, i.e. two out of the speed of sound, gravitational acceleration and Coriolis parameter. The wave scaling is defined so that all spatial and temporal scales are shorter by one order in the Rossby number, and by assuming their buoyancy field to be close to static instability. WKB theory is applied, with the Rossby number as scale separation parameter, combined with a systematic Rossby-number expansion of all fields. Classic results for synoptic-scale-flow balances and inertia-gravity wave (IGW) dynamics are recovered. These are supplemented by explicit expressions for the interaction between mesoscale geostrophic modes (GM), a possibly somewhat overlooked agent of horizontal coupling in the atmosphere, and the synoptic-scale flow. It is shown that IGW higher harmonics are slaved to the basic IGW, and that their amplitude is one order of magnitude smaller than the basic-wave amplitude. GM higher harmonics are not that weak and they are in intense nonlinear interaction between themselves and the basic GM. Compressible dynamics plays a significant role in the stratospheric stratification regime, where anelastic theory would yield insufficient results. Supplementing classic derivations, it is moreover shown that in the absence of mesoscale waves quasi-geostrophic theory holds also in the stratospheric stratification regime.

  15. The Detection of a Type IIn Supernova in Optical Follow-up Observations of IceCube Neutrino Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Gross, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfe, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Perley, Daniel A.; Barlow, Tom; Horesh, Assaf; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Howell, D. A.; Dilday, Ben; PTF Collaboration; Evans, Phil A.; Kennea, Jamie A.; Swift Collaboration; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Waters, C.; Flewelling, H.; Tonry, J. L.; Rest, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Pan-STARRS1 Science Consortium

    2015-09-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In 2012 March, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) PTF12csy was found 0.°2 away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0.°54. It has a redshift of z = 0.0684, corresponding to a luminosity distance of about 300 Mpc and the Pan-STARRS1 survey shows that its explosion time was at least 158 days (in host galaxy rest frame) before the neutrino alert, so that a causal connection is unlikely. The a posteriori significance of the chance detection of both the neutrinos and the SN at any epoch is 2.2σ within IceCube's 2011/12 data acquisition season. Also, a complementary neutrino analysis reveals no long-term signal over the course of one year. Therefore, we consider the SN detection coincidental and the neutrinos uncorrelated to the SN. However, the SN is unusual and interesting by itself: it is luminous and energetic, bearing strong resemblance to the SN IIn 2010jl, and shows signs of interaction of the SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. High-energy neutrino emission is expected in models of diffusive shock acceleration, but at a low, non-detectable level for this specific SN. In this paper, we describe the SN PTF12csy and present both the neutrino and electromagnetic data, as well as their analysis.

  16. How Interactive Is the Interactive Whiteboard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quashie, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    An interactive whiteboard (IWB) is simply a surface onto which a computer screen can be displayed, via a projector. It is touch-sensitive and lets one use a pen like a mouse, controlling the computer from the board itself. Everything that can be displayed on a computer can be displayed onto the whiteboard and, if the computer is linked to speakers…

  17. Interactive Whiteboards: Interactive or Just Whiteboards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcote, Maria; Mildenhall, Paula; Marshall, Linda; Swan, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, interactive whiteboards have become popular teaching and learning tools, especially in primary school classrooms. Research studies from recent literature report on high levels of student motivation, teacher enthusiasm and whole-school support associated with these technological tools. Much research to date has reported on the…

  18. Beam-Bem interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Jin; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01

    In high energy storage-ring colliders, the nonlinear effect arising from beam-beam interactions is a major source that leads to the emittance growth, the reduction of beam life time, and limits the collider luminosity. In this paper, two models of beam-beam interactions are introduced, which are weak-strong and strong-strong beam-beam interactions. In addition, space-charge model is introduced.

  19. Food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-03-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  20. Test Plan for Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Hedgehog Shielded Container, Docket 94-39-7A, Type A Container

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-02-27

    This report documents the US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance testing to be followed for qualification of the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Hedgehog Shielded Container for use as a Type A packaging. The packaging configurations being tested are intended for liquids and solids, and for air transportation.

  1. A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting: The case of the Pan-African Hook Batholith in Central Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. Occasionally, sodic granitoids have been documented. Compositions were driven to more differentiated products by fractional crystallization, while Sr-Nd isotopes exclude crustal assimilation during crystallization. Recent new U-Pb age data constrain most of the felsic magmatism between 550 and 540 Ma. Scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, testify to periodic input of mantle material, and, in some cases, to interaction with metasomatizing fluids. Crystallization ages on mafic rocks span from 570 to 520 Ma, thus indicating that they were contemporaneous with the major granitic intrusion, which was the result of a number of successive felsic batches, eventually forming a coalescing batholith. Highly radiogenic Pb isotopic values attest to the radiogenic character of the rocks. Such an anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, perhaps as result of metasomatizing fluids. Enrichment in Th-U of large portions of the crust along this part of the margin of the Congo Craton is suggested. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support the interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressure of < 10 kbar, while decompression melting of rising asthenospheric mantle ponding at the base of the crust heated, and ultimately melted, crustal material. An additional and crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat production of the thickened crust, and is in agreement with the high radioactivity of the pluton. A tectono-thermal model, implying crustal accretion accompanied by slab

  2. Food and Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Ko, Chang Mann

    2017-01-01

    Natural foods and vegetal supplements have recently become increasingly popular for their roles in medicine and as staple foods. This has, however, led to the increased risk of interaction between prescribed drugs and the bioactive ingredients contained in these foods. These interactions range from pharmacokinetic interactions (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion influencing blood levels of drugs) to pharmacodynamic interactions (drug effects). In a quantitative respect, these interactions occur mainly during metabolism. In addition to the systemic metabolism that occurs mainly in the liver, recent studies have focused on the metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract endothelium before absorption. Inhibition of metabolism causes an increase in the blood levels of drugs and could have adverse reactions. The food-drug interactions causing increased blood levels of drugs may have beneficial or detrimental therapeutic effects depending on the intensity and predictability of these interactions. It is therefore important to understand the potential interactions between foods and drugs should and the specific outcomes of such interactions. PMID:28261555

  3. Two interacting Hofstadter butterflies

    SciTech Connect

    Barelli, A.; Bellissard, J.; Jacquod, P.; Shepelyansky, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    The problem of two interacting particles in a quasiperiodic potential is addressed. Using analytical and numerical methods, we explore the spectral properties and eigenstates structure from the weak to the strong interaction case. More precisely, a semiclassical approach based on noncommutative geometry techniques is used to understand the intricate structure of such a spectrum. An interaction induced localization effect is furthermore emphasized. We discuss the application of our results on a two-dimensional model of two particles in a uniform magnetic field with on-site interaction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. The Science of Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Stasko, John T.; Chang, Remco; O'Connell, Theresa

    2009-09-23

    There is a growing recognition with the visual analytics community that interaction and inquiry are inextricable. It is through the interactive manipulation of a visual interface – the analytic discourse – that knowledge is constructed, tested, refined, and shared. This paper reflects on the interaction challenges raised in the original visual analytics research and development agenda and further explores the relationship between interaction and cognition. It identifies recent exemplars of visual analytics research that have made substantive progress toward the goals of a true science of interaction, which must include theories and testable premises about the most appropriate mechanisms for human-information interaction. Six areas for further work are highlighted as those among the highest priorities for the next five years of visual analytics research: ubiquitous, embodied interaction; capturing user intentionality; knowledge-based interfaces; principles of design and perception; collaboration; and interoperability. Ultimately, the goal of a science of interaction is to support the visual analytics community through the recognition and implementation of best practices in the representation of and interaction with visual displays.

  5. Gender interactions and success.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Carla; Peterson, Teri

    2004-01-01

    Does gender by itself, or does gender's interaction with career variables, better explain the difference between women and men's careers in healthcare management? US healthcare managers were surveyed regarding career and personal experiences. Gender was statistically interacted with explanatory variables. Multiple regression with backwards selection systematically removed non-significant variables. All gender interaction variables were non-significant. Much of the literature proposes that work and career factors impact working women differently than working men. We find that while gender alone is a significant predictor of income, it does not significantly interact with other career variables.

  6. Circumstellar Gas-Disk Variability Around A-Type Stars: The Detection of Exocomets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Montgomery, Sharon

    2013-07-01

    We present medium spectral resolution (R ∼ 60,000) observations of the CaII K-line (3,933 Å) absorption profiles observed toward 21 nearby A-type stars thought to possess circumstellar gas debris disks. The stars were repeatedly observed over two observing runs on the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas in 2011 May and 2012 November. Nightly changes in the absorption strength of the CaII K-line near the stellar radial velocity were observed in four of the stars (HD 21620, HD 110411, HD 145964 and HD 183324). This type of absorption variability indicates the presence of a circumstellar gas disk around these stars. We also have detected weak absorption features that sporadically appear with velocities in the range ± 100 km s-1 of the main circumstellar K-line in the spectra of HD 21620, HD 42111, HD 110411 and HD 145964. Due to the known presence of both gas and dust disks surrounding these four stars, these transient absorption features are most probably associated with the presence of Falling Evaporated Bodies (FEBs, or exocomets) that are thought to liberate gas on their grazing trajectory toward and around the central star. This now brings the total number of A-type stars in which the evaporation of CaII gas from protoplanetary bodies (i.e., exocomets) has been observed to vary on a nightly basis to 10 systems. A statistical analysis of the 10 A-stars showing FEB-activity near the CaII K-line compared to 21 A-type stars that exhibit no measurable variability reveals that FEB-activity occurs in significantly younger stellar systems that also exhibit chemical peculiarities. The presence of FEB-activity does not appear to be associated with a strong mid-IR excess. This is probably linked to the disk inclination angle, since unless the viewing angle is favorable the detection of time-variable absorption may be unlikely. Additionally, if the systems are more evolved then the evaporation of gas due to FEB activity could have ceased

  7. Detection of Variable Gaseous Absorption Features in the Debris Disks Around Young A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon L.; Welsh, Barry Y.

    2012-10-01

    We present medium resolution (R = 60,000) absorption measurements of the interstellar Ca II K line observed towards five nearby A-type stars (49 Ceti, 5 Vul, ι Cyg, 2 And, and HD 223884) suspected of possessing circumstellar gas debris disks. The stars were observed on a nightly basis during a six night observing run on the 2.1-meter Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas. We have detected nightly changes in the absorption strength of the Ca II K line observed near the stellar radial velocity in three of the stars (49 Ceti, i Cyg and HD 223884). Such changes in absorption suggest the presence of a circumstellar (atomic) gas disk around these stars. In addition to the absorption changes in the main Ca II K line profile, we have also observed weak transient absorption features that randomly appear at redshifted velocities in the spectra of 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And. These absorption features are most probably associated with the presence of falling evaporated bodies (exo-comets) that liberate evaporating gas on their approach to the central star. This now brings the total number of systems in which exocomet activity has been observed at Ca II or Na I wavelengths on a nightly basis to seven (β Pic, HR 10, HD 85905, β Car, 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And), with 2 And exhibiting weaker and less frequent changes. All of the disk systems presently known to exhibit either type of short-term variability in Ca II K line absorption are rapidly rotating A-type stars (V sin i > 120 km s-1). Most exhibit mid-IR excesses, and many of them are very young (< 20 Myr), thus supporting the argument that many of them are transitional objects between Herbig Ae and “Vega-like” A-type stars with more tenuous circumstellar disks. No mid-IR excess (due to the presence of a dust disk) has yet been detected around either 2 And or HD 223884, both of which have been classified as λ Boötis-type stars. This may indicate that the observed changes in gas absorption for these

  8. High-resolution infrared and theoretical study of gaseous oxazole in the 600-1400 cm -1 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Larsen, R. Wugt; Palmer, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase IR spectrum of oxazole, C 3H 3NO, has been recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.0030 cm -1 in the wavenumber region 600-1400 cm -1. The rotational structures of 10 fundamental bands (four of a-type, three of b-type and three of c-type) have been analysed using the Watson model. Ground state rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants as well as upper state spectroscopic constants have been obtained from the fits. A number of perturbations have been identified in the bands. From a local crossing observed in ν15 we located the very weak ν14 band at 858.19(1) cm -1. Also ν13 is definitively located at 899.3 cm -1. The three global c-Coriolis interacting dyads ν9/ ν10, ν10/ ν11, and ν12/ ν13 have each been analysed by a model including first and second order Coriolis resonance using ab initio predicted first order Coriolis coupling constants; second order Coriolis interaction parameters are determined. The rotational constants, harmonic and anharmonic frequencies, intensities, and vibration-rotation constants (alphas, ανA,B,C) have been predicted by quantum chemical calculations using a cc-pVTZ basis at the MP2 and B3LYP methodology levels, and compared with the present experimental data. Both the rotational constants and frequencies are marginally closer to experiment from the B3LYP calculations. In order to make more significant comparisons between theory and experiment for the alphas, we take differences between ground and vibronic state values; under these circumstances, the B3LYP definitely have a closer fit to experiment.

  9. Reconceptualizing sex, brain and psychopathology: interaction, interaction, interaction

    PubMed Central

    Joel, D; Yankelevitch-Yahav, R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the influence of sex on brain structure and function, and in relation, on the susceptibility, prevalence and response to treatment of psychiatric disorders. Most theories and descriptions of the effects of sex on the brain are dominated by an analogy to the current interpretation of the effects of sex on the reproductive system, according to which sex is a divergence system that exerts a unitary, overriding and serial effect on the form of other systems. We shortly summarize different lines of evidence that contradict aspects of this analogy. The new view that emerges from these data is of sex as a complex system whose different components interact with one another and with other systems to affect body and brain. The paradigm shift that this understanding calls for is from thinking of sex in terms of sexual dimorphism and sex differences, to thinking of sex in terms of its interactions with other factors and processes. Our review of data obtained from animal models of psychopathology clearly reveals the need for such a paradigmatic shift, because in the field of animal behaviour whether a sex difference exists and its direction depend on the interaction of many factors including, species, strain, age, specific test employed and a multitude of environmental factors. We conclude by explaining how the new conceptualization can account for sex differences in psychopathology. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24758640

  10. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2013-07-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are defined as physical, chemical, physiologic, or pathophysiologic relationships between a drug and a nutrient. The causes of most clinically significant drug-nutrient interactions are usually multifactorial. Failure to identify and properly manage drug-nutrient interactions can lead to very serious consequences and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Nevertheless, with thorough review and assessment of the patient's history and treatment regimens and a carefully executed management strategy, adverse events associated with drug-nutrient interactions can be prevented. Based on the physiologic sequence of events after a drug or a nutrient has entered the body and the mechanism of interactions, drug-nutrient interactions can be categorized into 4 main types. Each type of interaction can be managed using similar strategies. The existing data that guide the clinical management of most drug-nutrient interactions are mostly anecdotal experience, uncontrolled observations, and opinions, whereas the science in understanding the mechanism of drug-nutrient interactions remains limited. The challenge for researchers and clinicians is to increase both basic and higher level clinical research in this field to bridge the gap between the science and practice. The research should aim to establish a better understanding of the function, regulation, and substrate specificity of the nutrient-related enzymes and transport proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as assess how the incidence and management of drug-nutrient interactions can be affected by sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms. This knowledge can help us develop a true personalized medicine approach in the prevention and management of drug-nutrient interactions.

  11. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-mei; Li, Shu-yan; Qiang, Meng-ye; Wang, Ru-chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  12. Temperature dependence of collisional rate coefficients for rotational transitions: a-type asymmetric top molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, M.; Chandra, S.

    2017-04-01

    On realizing that the rate coefficients for rotational transitions in the H2CS, H2CO, H2CC, H2CSi, due to collisions with He atom, under the IOS approximation, increase with the increase of kinetic temperature, we have looked analytically for 9 transitions in a-type asymmetric top molecules, because the results of Green et al. (1978) for H2CO do not increase for all the transitions, though they also are calculated under the IOS approximation. We tried to understand the source of discrepancy, but could not succeed, as the details of the work of Green et al. (1978) are not available. Data for other three molecules (H2CS, H2CC, H2CSi) are not available in the literature. Since our investigation is analytical, there is no reason not to believe our results.

  13. A Catalog of Candidate Field Horizontal-Branch and A-Type Stars. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Wilhelm, Ronald; Doinidis, Stephen P.; Mattson, Caroline J.

    1996-04-01

    We present coordinates and brightness estimates for 4175 candidate field horizontal-branch and A-type stars, in the magnitude range 10 ≤ B ≤ 15.5, selected using an objective-prism/interference-filter survey technique. The candidates lie primarily in the northern Galactic hemisphere and complement a previously published sample of southern Galactic hemisphere candidates. Available spectroscopy and photometry indicates that the great majority of the candidates are likely to be bona fide members of either the field blue horizontal-branch population or the blue, metal-deficient, high surface gravity stars referred to by Preston, Beers, & Shectman as BMP stars. The remaining stars in the catalog are likely to be a mix of metal-deficient turnoff stars, metallic-line (Am) stars, field red horizontal-branch stars, optical doubles with overlapping objective-prism spectra, and (particularly among the fainter candidates) inadvertently included late-type stars.

  14. Polarization quantum properties in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Zambrini, Roberta; Miguel, Maxi San; Gatti, Alessandra; Lugiato, Luigi

    2003-12-01

    We study the far-field spatial distribution of the quantum fluctuations in the transverse profile of the output light beam generated by a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold, including the effects of transverse walk-off. We study how quadrature field correlations depend on the polarization. We find spatial Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in quadrature-polarization components. For the far-field points not affected by walk-off there is almost complete noise suppression in the proper quadratures difference of any orthogonal polarization components. We show the entanglement of the state of symmetric, intense, or macroscopic, spatial light modes. We also investigate nonclassical polarization properties in terms of the Stokes operators. We find perfect correlations in all Stokes parameters measured in opposite far-field points in the direction orthogonal to the walk-off, while locally the field is unpolarized and we find no polarization squeezing.

  15. DISCUSSIONS ON A TYPE OF RESERVOIR CELL BOUNDARY IN THE GEYSERS STEAM FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Hebein, J.L.

    1985-01-22

    The boundaries of reservoir fluid convection cells are discreet and intricate zones, commonly sealed or reduced in permeabilities, which are often quite readily identifiable in many hydrothermal systems. Cell boundaries in the Geysers Steam Field are more vague; however, they are gradually being revealed by cumulative and extensive wellbore data. A profound example of a type of boundary has been revealed by drilling in one area of the steam field. A proposed model utilizes a sericitic alteration scheme to establish cell self-sealing. Mineralogical, permeability, and temperature properties all coincide so as to allow formation of a boundary model. This reinforces previously held views that the reservoir cell rock and hydrothermal system are greatly out of equilibrium. Such similar phenomena are suggested from drilling experiences in other parts of the steam field. Considerably, more work is required to better define and comprehend the nature and location of reservoir cell boundaries within the Geysers Steam Field.

  16. HEAO 1 observation of a type I burst from MXB 1728-34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Primini, F. A.; Wheaton, W. A.; Swank, J. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Share, G. H.; Wood, K.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for an analysis of data on a type I X-ray burst from MXB 1728-34 observed by three large-area instruments on HEAO 1. The measurements cover the energy range from 2 to 150 keV and provide the capability of resolving significant intensity variations on a time scale of milliseconds and spectral changes on a scale of tenths of seconds. The initial rise of the burst is discussed, millisecond intensity variations are examined, and the spectral evolution of the burst is described. Physical parameters are estimated for various source models, and the total X-ray flux at energies of 85 to 180 keV during the burst is shown to have been no more than about 6% of the total observed X-ray flux at energies below 25 keV.

  17. On the anomaly of Balmer line profiles of A-type stars. Fundamental binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, B.; Gardiner, R. B.; Kupka, F.; Bessell, M. S.

    2002-11-01

    In previous work, Gardiner et al. (\\cite{GKS99}) found evidence for a discrepancy between the Teff obtained from Balmer lines with that from photometry and fundamental values for A-type stars. An investigation into this anomaly is presented using Balmer line profiles of stars in binary system with fundamental values of both Teff and log g. A revision of the fundamental parameters for binary systems given by Smalley & Dworetsky (\\cite{SD95}) is also presented. The Teff obtained by fitting Hα and Hβ line profiles is compared to the fundamental values and those obtained from uvby photometry. We find that the discrepancy found by Gardiner et al. (\\cite{GKS99}) for stars in the range 7000 K <~ Teff <~ 9000 K is no longer evident. Partly based on DENIS data obtained at the European Southern Observatory.

  18. IMA clipping for a type ii endoleak: combined laparoscopic and endovascular approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Lumsden, Alan B; Li, James

    2006-08-01

    We describe herein a combined laparoscopic and endovascular approach to treat a type II endoleak due to retrograde flow in the patent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). A 61-year-old gentleman presented with enlarging aneurysm sac confirmed on computed tomography scan evaluation after elective endovascular repair of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. A combined laparoscopic and endovascular approach was used. After distal IMA was identified and marked with a clip laparoscopically, on-table angiography showed a proximal left colic branch and persistent flow in the IMA. Therefore, further laparoscopic exploration was performed by dissection along the distal branch. The origin of IMA was then located and subsequently sealed with 2 surgical clips. The completion angiography confirmed the proper position of the surgical clips and absence of endoleak. Our case demonstrated useful role of endovascular techniques in identifying the origin of IMA during laparoscopic approach for treating type II endoleak.

  19. Evaluation of non-automated techniques for phenotypic detection of VanA-type Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Girard-Blanc, C; Courvalin, P

    2005-08-01

    The study presented here was performed to evaluate the ability of various nonautomated in vitro susceptibility testing methods to detect glycopeptide resistance in the three presently identified strains of VanA-type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. To this end, MICs were determined according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie and the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and by using the E-test, agar disc diffusion, agar screening plates, and ATB galleries. In each of these methods, vancomycin was more efficient than teicoplanin for detecting glycopeptide resistance.

  20. A type 1 serine/threonine kinase receptor that can dorsalize mesoderm in Xenopus.

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, D; Gurdon, J B

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, XTrR-I, from Xenopus. XTrR-I (Xenopus transforming growth factor beta-related receptor type I) is expressed in all regions of embryos throughout early development. Overexpression of this receptor does not affect ectoderm or endoderm but dorsalizes the mesoderm such that muscle appears in ventral mesoderm and notochord appears in lateral mesoderm normally fated to become muscle. In addition, overexpression of XTrR-I in UV-treated embryos is able to cause formation of a partial dorsal axis. These results suggest that XTrR-I encodes a receptor which responds in normal development to a transforming growth factor beta-like ligand so as to promote dorsalization. Its function would therefore be to direct mesodermalized tissue into muscle or notochord. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7604016

  1. Role of A-type lamins in signaling, transcription, and chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.

    2009-01-01

    A-type lamins (lamins A and C), encoded by the LMNA gene, are major protein constituents of the mammalian nuclear lamina, a complex structure that acts as a scaffold for protein complexes that regulate nuclear structure and functions. Interest in these proteins has increased in recent years with the discovery that LMNA mutations cause a variety of human diseases termed laminopathies, including progeroid syndromes and disorders that primarily affect striated muscle, adipose, bone, and neuronal tissues. In this review, we discuss recent research supporting the concept that lamin A/C and associated nuclear envelope proteins regulate gene expression in health and disease through interplay with signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, and chromatin-associated proteins. PMID:20038676

  2. Successful stabilisation of a type III paediatric tibial eminence fracture using a tensioned wire technique.

    PubMed

    Archer, Matthew; Parkin, Tom; Latimer, Mark David

    2016-09-19

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a type III tibial eminence fracture. The fracture fragment was reduced arthroscopically. Two 1.6 mm retrograde K-wires were inserted from the tibial metaphysis across the physis and into the fracture fragment using a standard anterior cruciate ligament tibial tunnel guide. Once the wires were clearly visible within the joint the tips were bent over by ∼120°. The wires were then tensioned around a single small fragment screw inserted into the tibial metaphysis. An exceptionally strong fixation was achieved. The boy was mobilised without a brace. The wires were removed at 12 weeks and he returned to full activity at 14 weeks.

  3. The Weakly Coupled Pfaffian as a Type I Quantum Hall Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.; Spivak, B. Z.

    2011-03-01

    The Pfaffian phase of electrons in the proximity of a half-filled Landau level is understood to be a p + ip superconductor of composite fermions. We consider the properties of this paired quantum Hall phase when the pairing scale is small, i.e. in the weak-coupling, BCS, limit, where the coherence length is much larger than the charge screening length. We find that, as in a Type I superconductor, the vortices attract so that, upon varying the magnetic field from its magic value at ν = 5 / 2 , the system exhibits Coulomb frustrated phase separation. We propose that the weakly and strongly coupled Pfaffian states exemplify a general dichotomy between Type I and Type II quantum Hall fluids. This work was supported in part by NSF grants DMR-1006608 and PHY-1005429 (SAP, SLS), DMR-0758356 (SAK) and DMR-0704151 (BZS).

  4. Stacking fault domains as sources of a-type threading dislocations in III-nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Bazioti, C.; Albrecht, M.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    A mechanism for the nucleation of a-type threading dislocation half-loops from basal stacking faults in wurtzite III-nitride heterostructures is presented. Transmission electron microscopy observations, in conjunction with topological and strain analysis, show that there are two possible configurations of closed domains comprising basal stacking faults of I1 type. It is shown that the lattice dislocation may emanate when the sphalerite structural units of the stacking faults in the closed domain are oriented in a parallel manner. The closed domain configurations do not introduce any shift on the basal planes, resulting in zero defect content along the growth direction. The stacking fault domains are hexagonal, with sides along the ⟨ 10 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ directions, and the threading dislocation half loops nucleate at the line nodes. The mechanism was found to be operational in multiple III-nitride systems.

  5. Dissection of a type I interferon pathway in controlling bacterial intracellular infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Juliane; Müller, Holger C; Naujoks, Jan; Tabeling, Christoph; Shin, Sunny; Witzenrath, Martin; Hellwig, Katharina; Kirschning, Carsten J; Taylor, Gregory A; Barchet, Winfried; Bauer, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Roy, Craig R; Opitz, Bastian

    2011-11-01

    Defence mechanisms against intracellular bacterial pathogens are incompletely understood. Our study characterizes a type I IFN-dependent cell-autonomous defence pathway directed against Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular model organism and frequent cause of pneumonia. We show that macrophages infected with L. pneumophila produced IFNβ in a STING- and IRF3- dependent manner. Paracrine type I IFNs stimulated upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes and a cell-autonomous defence pathway acting on replicating and non-replicating Legionella within their specialized vacuole. Our infection experiments in mice lacking receptors for type I and/or II IFNs show that type I IFNs contribute to expression of IFN-stimulated genes and to bacterial clearance as well as resistance in L. pneumophila pneumonia in addition to type II IFN. Overall, our study shows that paracrine type I IFNs mediate defence against L. pneumophila, and demonstrates a protective role of type I IFNs in in vivo infections with intracellular bacteria.

  6. Fitness cost of VanA-type vancomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Marie-Laure; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    We have quantified the biological cost of VanA-type glycopeptide resistance due to the acquisition of the resistance operon by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Enterococcus sp. Exponential growths of recipient strain HIP11713, its transconjugant VRSA-1, VRSA-5, and VRSA-6 were compared in the absence or, except for HIP11713, in the presence of vancomycin. Induction of resistance was performed by adding vancomycin in both the preculture and the culture or the culture at only 1/50 the MIC. In the absence of vancomycin, the growth rates of the vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains were similar to that of susceptible MRSA strain HIP11713. When resistance was induced, and under both conditions, there was a significant reduction of the growth rate of the VRSA strains relative to that of HIP11713 and to those of their noninduced counterparts, corresponding to a ca. 20% to 38% reduction in fitness. Competition experiments between isogenic VRSA-1 and HIP11713 mixed at a 1:1, 1:100, or 100:1 ratio revealed a competitive disadvantage of 0.4% to 3% per 10 generations of the transconjugant versus the recipient. This slight fitness burden can be attributed to the basal level of expression of the van genes in the absence of induction combined with a gene dosage effect due to the presence of the van operon on multicopy plasmids. These data indicate that VanA-type resistance, when induced, is highly costly for the MRSA host, whereas in the absence of induction, its biological cost is minimal. Thus, the potential for the dissemination of VRSA clinical isolates should not be underestimated.

  7. Fitness Cost of VanA-Type Vancomycin Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Foucault, Marie-Laure; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    We have quantified the biological cost of VanA-type glycopeptide resistance due to the acquisition of the resistance operon by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Enterococcus sp. Exponential growths of recipient strain HIP11713, its transconjugant VRSA-1, VRSA-5, and VRSA-6 were compared in the absence or, except for HIP11713, in the presence of vancomycin. Induction of resistance was performed by adding vancomycin in both the preculture and the culture or the culture at only 1/50 the MIC. In the absence of vancomycin, the growth rates of the vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains were similar to that of susceptible MRSA strain HIP11713. When resistance was induced, and under both conditions, there was a significant reduction of the growth rate of the VRSA strains relative to that of HIP11713 and to those of their noninduced counterparts, corresponding to a ca. 20% to 38% reduction in fitness. Competition experiments between isogenic VRSA-1 and HIP11713 mixed at a 1:1, 1:100, or 100:1 ratio revealed a competitive disadvantage of 0.4% to 3% per 10 generations of the transconjugant versus the recipient. This slight fitness burden can be attributed to the basal level of expression of the van genes in the absence of induction combined with a gene dosage effect due to the presence of the van operon on multicopy plasmids. These data indicate that VanA-type resistance, when induced, is highly costly for the MRSA host, whereas in the absence of induction, its biological cost is minimal. Thus, the potential for the dissemination of VRSA clinical isolates should not be underestimated. PMID:19332680

  8. SN 2009ib: a Type II-P supernova with an unusually long plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takáts, K.; Pignata, G.; Pumo, M. L.; Paillas, E.; Zampieri, L.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Cappellaro, E.; Ergon, M.; Fraser, M.; Hamuy, M.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Smartt, S. J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Reichart, D.

    2015-07-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2009ib, a Type II-P supernova in NGC 1559. This object has moderate brightness, similar to those of the intermediate-luminosity SNe 2008in and 2009N. Its plateau phase is unusually long, lasting for about 130 d after explosion. The spectra are similar to those of the subluminous SN 2002gd, with moderate expansion velocities. We estimate the 56Ni mass produced as 0.046 ± 0.015 M⊙. We determine the distance to SN 2009ib using both the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standard candle method. We also apply EPM to SN 1986L, a Type II-P SN that exploded in the same galaxy. Combining the results of different methods, we conclude the distance to NGC 1559 as D = 19.8 ± 3.0 Mpc. We examine archival, pre-explosion images of the field taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and find a faint source at the position of the SN, which has a yellow colour [(V - I)0 = 0.85 mag]. Assuming it is a single star, we estimate its initial mass as MZAMS = 20 M⊙. We also examine the possibility, that instead of the yellow source the progenitor of SN 2009ib is a red supergiant star too faint to be detected. In this case, we estimate the upper limit for the initial zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass of the progenitor to be ˜14-17 M⊙. In addition, we infer the physical properties of the progenitor at the explosion via hydrodynamical modelling of the observables, and estimate the total energy as ˜0.55 × 1051 erg, the pre-explosion radius as ˜400 R⊙, and the ejected envelope mass as ˜15 M⊙, which implies that the mass of the progenitor before explosion was ˜16.5-17 M⊙.

  9. Tulane Virus Recognizes the A Type 3 and B Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Huang, Pengwei; Zou, Lu; Lowary, Todd L.; Tan, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tulane virus (TV), the prototype of the Recovirus genus in the calicivirus family, was isolated from the stools of rhesus monkeys and can be cultivated in vitro in monkey kidney cells. TV is genetically closely related to the genus Norovirus and recognizes the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), similarly to human noroviruses (NoVs), making it a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, the precise structures of HBGAs recognized by TV remain elusive. In this study, we performed binding and blocking experiments on TV with extended HBGA types and showed that, while TV binds all four types (types 1 to 4) of the B antigens, it recognizes only the A type 3 antigen among four types of A antigens tested. The requirements for HBGAs in TV replication were demonstrated by blocking of TV replication in cell culture using the A type 3/4 and B saliva samples. Similar results were also observed in oligosaccharide-based blocking assays. Importantly, the previously reported, unexplained increase in TV replication by oligosaccharide in cell-based blocking assays has been clarified, which will facilitate the application of TV as a surrogate for human NoVs. IMPORTANCE Our understanding of the role of HBGAs in NoV infection has been significantly advanced in the past decade, but direct evidence for HBGAs as receptors for human NoVs remains lacking due to a lack of a cell culture method. TV recognizes HBGAs and can replicate in vitro, providing a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, TV binds to some but not all saliva samples from A-positive individuals, and an unexplained observation of synthetic oligosaccharide blocking of TV binding has been reported. These issues have been resolved in this study. PMID:25392226

  10. RCW 86: A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA IN A WIND-BLOWN BUBBLE

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Brian J.; Blondin, John M.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.; Raymond, John C.; Rho, Jeonghee

    2011-11-10

    We report results from a multi-wavelength analysis of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 86, the proposed remnant of the supernova of 185 A.D. We show new infrared observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, where the entire shell is detected at 24 and 22 {mu}m. We fit the infrared flux ratios with models of collisionally heated ambient dust, finding post-shock gas densities in the non-radiative shocks of 2.4 and 2.0 cm{sup -3} in the southwest (SW) and northwest (NW) portions of the remnant, respectively. The Balmer-dominated shocks around the periphery of the shell, large amount of iron in the X-ray-emitting ejecta, and lack of a compact remnant support a Type Ia origin for this remnant. From hydrodynamic simulations, the observed characteristics of RCW 86 are successfully reproduced by an off-center explosion in a low-density cavity carved by the progenitor system. This would make RCW 86 the first known case of a Type Ia supernova in a wind-blown bubble. The fast shocks (>3000 km s{sup -1}) observed in the northeast are propagating in the low-density bubble, where the shock is just beginning to encounter the shell, while the slower shocks elsewhere have already encountered the bubble wall. The diffuse nature of the synchrotron emission in the SW and NW is due to electrons that were accelerated early in the lifetime of the remnant, when the shock was still in the bubble. Electrons in a bubble could produce gamma rays by inverse-Compton scattering. The wind-blown bubble scenario requires a single-degenerate progenitor, which should leave behind a companion star.

  11. Na+ and Ca2+ cooperatively down regulate the A-type potassium currents in Helix neurons.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi, L

    1995-01-01

    Modulatory actions of Na+, Tris+, Li+ and Ca2+ on A-type potassium currents were investigated in identified neurons of the snail, Helix pomatia L. A-currents were isolated under spike threshold voltages by use of the double pulse method in combination with computer techniques. To estimate the action of Na+ on A-type potassium currents the normal physiological solution was changed to Na-free (mannitol) medium which increased the amplitude of the A-currents at -30 mV membrane potential by 20.5% without significant modulation of the time-dependent inactivation. When Tris-HCl or LiCl substituted for NaCl, the amplitude of the A-currents decreased by 27.5 or 32.5%, respectively. Li+ did not modify the time constant of decay of the A-currents, but Tris+ decreased it by 15.8%. There was an increase of the amplitude of the A-currents in the Na-, Ca-free (Tris) medium relative to the Na-free (Tris) solution by 27.7% and a decrease of the time constant of decay by 25.3%. It is concluded that A-currents are down regulated by Na+ and Ca2+ under physiological circumstances, but the modulatory action of Ca2+ is more complex and influences the amplitude, time-dependent inactivation and potential-dependent inactivation characteristics of IA. Among monovalent cations, the A-current attenuation increases in the sequence of Na+ < Tris+ < Li+. All identified neurons react in a similar way but with different sensitivities.

  12. Normal Shock Vortex Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Figure 9: Breakdown map for normal-shock vortex-interaction. References [1] O. Thomer, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Numerical Simulation of Normal...and Oblique-Shock Vortex Interaction, ZAMM Band 80, Sub. 1, pp. 181-184, 2000. [2] O. Thomer, E. Krause, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Computational

  13. Let Social Interaction Flourish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Anny Fritzen

    2016-01-01

    The author describes lessons learned--through a high school project that grouped English language learners with native speakers to create a video--about ways to foster respectful, productive interaction among English learners and peers who are native speakers. The potential benefits of students who are just learning English interacting socially…

  14. Interactive Presentation of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdin, Martin; Turcáni, Milan; Vrábel, Marek

    2009-01-01

    In the paper we discus about design of universal environment for solution of creating effective multimedia applications with accent on the implementation of interactive elements with the possibility of using the adaptive systems (AS). We also discuss about possibilities of offline presentation of this interactive multimedia adaptive animations…

  15. Interaction Analysis in MANOVA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, M. Austin

    Simultaneous test procedures (STPS for short) in the context of the unrestricted full rank general linear multivariate model for population cell means are introduced and utilized to analyze interactions in factorial designs. By appropriate choice of an implying hypothesis, it is shown how to test overall main effects, interactions, simple main,…

  16. Storyboarding Multimedia Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how to include interactivity when designing multimedia-based training (MBT) storyboards is a major key for a successful MBT. Discusses the basic formats of interactions and when to use each format. Describes how to storyboard and areas to address, including: the display area, prompts, branching, programming and graphics notes,…

  17. Visualizing Dispersion Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

    2014-01-01

    An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

  18. Storyboarding Multimedia Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how to include interactivity when designing multimedia-based training (MBT) storyboards is a major key for a successful MBT. Discusses the basic formats of interactions and when to use each format. Describes how to storyboard and areas to address, including: the display area, prompts, branching, programming and graphics notes,…

  19. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  20. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…