Science.gov

Sample records for a-type gaba receptor

  1. GABA(C) receptors: a molecular view.

    PubMed

    Enz, R

    2001-08-01

    In the central nervous system inhibitory neurotransmission is primarily achieved through activation of receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Three types of GABA receptors have been identified on the basis of their pharmacological and electrophysiological properties. The predominant type, termed GABA(A), and a recently identified GABA(C) type, form ligand-gated chloride channels, whereas GABA(B) receptors activate separate cation channels via G proteins. Based on their homology to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, GABA(C) receptors are believed to be oligomeric protein complexes composed of five subunits in a pentameric arrangement. To date up to five different GABA(C) receptors subunits have been identified in various species. Recent studies have shed new light on the biological characteristics of GABA(C) receptors, including the chromosomal localization of its subunit genes and resulting links to deseases, the cloning of new splice variants, the identification of GABA(C) receptor-associated proteins, the identification of domains involved in subunit assembly, and finally structure/function studies examining functional consequences of introduced mutations. This review summarizes recent data in view of the molecular structure of GABA(C) receptors and presents new insights into the biological function of this protein in the retina.

  2. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  3. GABA, its receptors, and GABAergic inhibition in mouse taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Huang, Yijen A; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds consist of at least three principal cell types that have different functions in processing gustatory signals — glial-like Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Using a combination of Ca2+ imaging, single cell RT-PCR, and immunostaining, we show that γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter in mouse taste buds, acting on GABA-A and GABA-B receptors to suppress transmitter (ATP) secretion from Receptor cells during taste stimulation. Specifically, Receptor cells express GABA-A receptor subunits β2, δ, π, as well as GABA-B receptors. In contrast, Presynaptic cells express the GABA-Aβ3 subunit and only occasionally GABA-B receptors. In keeping with the distinct expression pattern of GABA receptors in Presynaptic cells, we detected no GABAergic suppression of transmitter release from Presynaptic cells. We suggest that GABA may serve function(s) in taste buds in addition to synaptic inhibition. Finally, we also defined the source of GABA in taste buds: GABA is synthesized by GAD65 in Type I taste cells as well as by GAD67 in Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells and is stored in both those two cell types. We conclude that GABA is released during taste stimulation and possibly also during growth and differentiation of taste buds. PMID:21490220

  4. GABA, its receptors, and GABAergic inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    PubMed

    Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Huang, Yijen A; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2011-04-13

    Taste buds consist of at least three principal cell types that have different functions in processing gustatory signals: glial-like (type I) cells, receptor (type II) cells, and presynaptic (type III) cells. Using a combination of Ca2+ imaging, single-cell reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunostaining, we show that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter in mouse taste buds, acting on GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to suppress transmitter (ATP) secretion from receptor cells during taste stimulation. Specifically, receptor cells express GABA(A) receptor subunits β2, δ, and π, as well as GABA(B) receptors. In contrast, presynaptic cells express the GABA(A) β3 subunit and only occasionally GABA(B) receptors. In keeping with the distinct expression pattern of GABA receptors in presynaptic cells, we detected no GABAergic suppression of transmitter release from presynaptic cells. We suggest that GABA may serve function(s) in taste buds in addition to synaptic inhibition. Finally, we also defined the source of GABA in taste buds: GABA is synthesized by GAD65 in type I taste cells as well as by GAD67 in presynaptic (type III) taste cells and is stored in both those two cell types. We conclude that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter released during taste stimulation and possibly also during growth and differentiation of taste buds.

  5. Enhancement of GABA release through endogenous activation of axonal GABA(A) receptors in juvenile cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Chat, Mireille; Marty, Alain

    2007-11-14

    Recent evidence indicates the presence of presynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) in the axon domain of several classes of central neurons, including cerebellar basket and stellate cells. Here, we investigate the possibility that these receptors could be activated in the absence of electrical or chemical stimulation. We find that low concentrations of GABA increase the frequency of miniature GABAergic synaptic currents. Submaximal concentrations of a GABA(A)R blocker, gabazine, decrease both the miniature current frequency and the probability of evoked GABA release. Zolpidem, an agonist of the benzodiazepine binding site, and NO-711 (1-[2-[[(diphenylmethylene)imino]oxy]ethyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride), a blocker of GABA uptake, both increase the frequency of miniature currents. These effects occur up to postnatal day 14, but not later. Immunohistochemistry indicates the presence of alpha1-containing GABA(A)Rs in interneuron presynaptic terminals with a similar age dependence. We conclude that, under resting conditions, axonal GABA(A)Rs are significantly activated, that this activation results in enhanced GABA release, and that it can be augmented by increasing the affinity of GABA(A)Rs or reducing GABA uptake. Our findings suggest the existence of a positive-feedback mechanism involving presynaptic GABA(A)Rs that maintains a high release rate and a high local GABA concentration in the immature cerebellar network.

  6. Insights into GABA receptor signalling in TM3 Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Doepner, Richard F G; Geigerseder, Christof; Frungieri, Monica B; Gonzalez-Calvar, Silvia I; Calandra, Ricardo S; Raemsch, Romi; Fohr, Karl; Kunz, Lars; Mayerhofer, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an emerging signalling molecule in endocrine organs, since it is produced by endocrine cells and acts via GABA(A) receptors in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. Testicular Leydig cells are producers and targets for GABA. These cells express GABA(A) receptor subunits and in the murine Leydig cell line TM3 pharmacological activation leads to increased proliferation. The signalling pathway of GABA in these cells is not known in this study. We therefore attempted to elucidate details of GABA(A) signalling in TM3 and adult mouse Leydig cells using several experimental approaches. TM3 cells not only express GABA(A )receptor subunits, but also bind the GABA agonist [(3)H]muscimol with a binding affinity in the range reported for other endocrine cells (K(d) = 2.740 +/- 0.721 nM). However, they exhibit a low B(max) value of 28.08 fmol/mg protein. Typical GABA(A) receptor-associated events, including Cl(-) currents, changes in resting membrane potential, intracellular Ca(2+) or cAMP, were not measurable with the methods employed in TM3 cells, or, as studied in part, in primary mouse Leydig cells. GABA or GABA(A) agonist isoguvacine treatment resulted in increased or decreased levels of several mRNAs, including transcription factors (c-fos, hsf-1, egr-1) and cell cycle-associated genes (Cdk2, cyclin D1). In an attempt to verify the cDNA array results and because egr-1 was recently implied in Leydig cell development, we further studied this factor. RT-PCR and Western blotting confirmed a time-dependent regulation of egr-1 in TM3. In the postnatal testis egr-1 was seen in cytoplasmic and nuclear locations of developing Leydig cells, which bear GABA(A) receptors and correspond well to TM3 cells. Thus, GABA acts via an atypical novel signalling pathway in TM3 cells. Further details of this pathway remain to be elucidated. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Evidence that GABA ρ subunits contribute to functional ionotropic GABA receptors in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Victoria L; Duguid, Ian C; Krasel, Cornelius; Stephens, Gary J

    2006-01-01

    Ionotropic γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors composed of heterogeneous molecular subunits are major mediators of inhibitory responses in the adult CNS. Here, we describe a novel ionotropic GABA receptor in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) using agents reported to have increased affinity for ρ subunit-containing GABAC over other GABA receptors. Exogenous application of the GABAC-preferring agonist cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) evoked whole-cell currents in PCs, whilst equimolar concentrations of GABA evoked larger currents. CACA-evoked currents had a greater sensitivity to the selective GABAC antagonist (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) than GABA-evoked currents. Focal application of agonists produced a differential response profile; CACA-evoked currents displayed a much more pronounced attenuation with increasing distance from the PC soma, displayed a slower time-to-peak and exhibited less desensitization than GABA-evoked currents. However, CACA-evoked currents were also completely blocked by bicuculline, a selective agent for GABAA receptors. Thus, we describe a population of ionotropic GABA receptors with a mixed GABAA/GABAC pharmacology. TPMPA reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission at interneurone–Purkinje cell (IN–PC) synapses, causing clear reductions in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) amplitude and frequency. Combined application of NO-711 (a selective GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT-1) antagonist) and SNAP-5114 (a GAT-(2)/3/4 antagonist) induced a tonic GABA conductance in PCs; however, TPMPA had no effect on this current. Immunohistochemical studies suggest that ρ subunits are expressed predominantly in PC soma and proximal dendritic compartments with a lower level of expression in more distal dendrites; this selective immunoreactivity contrasted with a more uniform distribution of GABAA α1 subunits in PCs. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies suggest that ρ subunits can form complexes

  8. GABA receptors, alcohol dependence and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Tucci, Marianna; Sartore, Daniela; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Di Pietra, Laura; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the connection between alcohol dependence and criminal behavior by an integrated genetic-environmental approach. The research, structured as a case-control study, examined 186 alcohol-dependent males; group 1 (N = 47 convicted subjects) was compared with group 2 (N = 139 no previous criminal records). Genetic results were innovative, highlighting differences in genotype distribution (p = 0.0067) in group 1 for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs 3780428, located in the intronic region of subunit 2 of the GABA B receptor gene (GABBR2). Some environmental factors (e.g., grade repetition) were associated with criminal behavior; others (e.g., attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous) were inversely related to convictions. The concomitant presence of the genetic and environmental factors found to be associated with the condition of alcohol-dependent inmate showed a 4-fold increase in the risk of antisocial behavior. The results need to be replicated on a larger population to develop new preventive and therapeutic proposals. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. GABA[subscript A] Receptor Downregulation in Brains of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediation of fast inhibitory action of GABA in the brain. Preliminary reports have demonstrated altered expression of GABA receptors in the brains of subjects with autism suggesting GABA/glutamate system dysregulation. We investigated the…

  10. Multiple functions of GABA A and GABA B receptors during pattern processing in the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Rico; Yaksi, Emre; Friedrich, Rainer W

    2008-07-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapses are thought to play pivotal roles in the processing of activity patterns in the olfactory bulb (OB), but their functions have been difficult to study during odor responses in the intact system. We pharmacologically manipulated GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in the OB of zebrafish and analysed the effects on odor responses of the output neurons, the mitral cells (MCs), by electrophysiological recordings and temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca2+ imaging. The blockade of GABA(B) receptors enhanced presynaptic Ca2+ influx into afferent axon terminals, and changed the amplitude and time course of a subset of MC responses, indicating that GABA(B) receptors have a modulatory influence on OB output activity. The blockade of GABA(A) receptors induced epileptiform firing, enhanced excitatory responses and abolished fast oscillations in the local field potential. Moreover, the topological reorganization and decorrelation of MC activity patterns during the initial phase of the response was perturbed. These results indicate that GABA(A) receptor-containing circuits participate in the balance of excitation and inhibition, the regulation of total OB output activity, the synchronization of odor-dependent neuronal ensembles, and the reorganization of odor-encoding activity patterns. GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors are therefore differentially involved in multiple functions of neuronal circuits in the OB.

  11. GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

  12. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render itmore » unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.« less

  13. Action of tremorgenic mycotoxins on GABA/sub A/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, D.B.; Cole, R.J.; Valdes, J.J.

    1987-11-09

    The effects of four tremorgenic and one nontremorgenic mycotoxins were studied on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA/sub A/) receptor binding and function in rat brain and on binding of a voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel in Torpedo electric organ. None of the mycotoxins had significant effect on (/sup 3/H)muscimol or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding to the GAMA/sup A/ receptor. However, only the four tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibited GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx and (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((/sup 35/S)TBPS) binding in rate brain membranes, while the nontremorgenic verruculotoxin had no effect. Inhibition of (/sup 35/S)TBPS binding by paspalinine was non-competitive. This suggests that tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibit GABA/submore » A/ receptor function by binding close to the receptor's Cl/sup -/ channel. On the voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel, only high concentrations of verruculogen and verruculotoxin caused significant inhibition of the channel's binding of (/sup 35/S)TBPS. The data suggest that the tremorgenic action of these mycotoxins may be due in part to their inhibition of GABA/sub A/ receptor function. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.« less

  14. The effects of agonists of ionotropic GABA(A) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors on learning.

    PubMed

    Zyablitseva, Evgeniya A; Kositsyn, Nikolay S; Shul'gina, Galina I

    2009-05-01

    The research described here investigates the role played by inhibitory processes in the discriminations made by the nervous system of humans and animals between familiar and unfamiliar and significant and nonsignificant events. This research compared the effects of two inhibitory mediators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): 1) phenibut, a nonselective agonist of ionotropic GABA(A) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors and 2) gaboxadol a selective agonist of ionotropic GABA(A) receptors on the process of developing active defensive and inhibitory conditioned reflexes in alert non-immobilized rabbits. It was found that phenibut, but not gaboxadol, accelerates the development of defensive reflexes at an early stage of conditioning. Both phenibut and gaboxadol facilitate the development of conditioned inhibition, but the effect of gaboxadol occurs at later stages of conditioning and is less stable than that of phenibut. The earlier and more stable effects of phenibut, as compared to gaboxadol, on storage in memory of the inhibitory significance of a stimulus may occur because GABA(B) receptors play the dominant role in the development of internal inhibition during an early stage of conditioning. On the other hand this may occur because the participation of both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors are essential to the process. We discuss the polyfunctionality of GABA receptors as a function of their structure and the positions of the relevant neurons in the brain as this factor can affect regulation of various types of psychological processes.

  15. Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Receptor Mutations and Human Neurologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongjie; Low, Chian-Ming; Moody, Olivia A; Jenkins, Andrew; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2015-07-01

    The advent of whole exome/genome sequencing and the technology-driven reduction in the cost of next-generation sequencing as well as the introduction of diagnostic-targeted sequencing chips have resulted in an unprecedented volume of data directly linking patient genomic variability to disorders of the brain. This information has the potential to transform our understanding of neurologic disorders by improving diagnoses, illuminating the molecular heterogeneity underlying diseases, and identifying new targets for therapeutic treatment. There is a strong history of mutations in GABA receptor genes being involved in neurologic diseases, particularly the epilepsies. In addition, a substantial number of variants and mutations have been found in GABA receptor genes in patients with autism, schizophrenia, and addiction, suggesting potential links between the GABA receptors and these conditions. A new and unexpected outcome from sequencing efforts has been the surprising number of mutations found in glutamate receptor subunits, with the GRIN2A gene encoding the GluN2A N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit being most often affected. These mutations are associated with multiple neurologic conditions, for which seizure disorders comprise the largest group. The GluN2A subunit appears to be a locus for epilepsy, which holds important therapeutic implications. Virtually all α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor mutations, most of which occur within GRIA3, are from patients with intellectual disabilities, suggesting a link to this condition. Similarly, the most common phenotype for kainate receptor variants is intellectual disability. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of disease-associated mutations in ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor families, and discuss implications regarding the identification of human mutations and treatment of neurologic diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

  16. Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Receptor Mutations and Human Neurologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongjie; Low, Chian-Ming; Moody, Olivia A.; Jenkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The advent of whole exome/genome sequencing and the technology-driven reduction in the cost of next-generation sequencing as well as the introduction of diagnostic-targeted sequencing chips have resulted in an unprecedented volume of data directly linking patient genomic variability to disorders of the brain. This information has the potential to transform our understanding of neurologic disorders by improving diagnoses, illuminating the molecular heterogeneity underlying diseases, and identifying new targets for therapeutic treatment. There is a strong history of mutations in GABA receptor genes being involved in neurologic diseases, particularly the epilepsies. In addition, a substantial number of variants and mutations have been found in GABA receptor genes in patients with autism, schizophrenia, and addiction, suggesting potential links between the GABA receptors and these conditions. A new and unexpected outcome from sequencing efforts has been the surprising number of mutations found in glutamate receptor subunits, with the GRIN2A gene encoding the GluN2A N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit being most often affected. These mutations are associated with multiple neurologic conditions, for which seizure disorders comprise the largest group. The GluN2A subunit appears to be a locus for epilepsy, which holds important therapeutic implications. Virtually all α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor mutations, most of which occur within GRIA3, are from patients with intellectual disabilities, suggesting a link to this condition. Similarly, the most common phenotype for kainate receptor variants is intellectual disability. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of disease-associated mutations in ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor families, and discuss implications regarding the identification of human mutations and treatment of neurologic diseases. PMID:25904555

  17. Ionotropic GABA Receptors and Distal Retinal ON and OFF Responses

    PubMed Central

    Popova, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, visual signals are segregated into parallel ON and OFF pathways, which provide information for light increments and decrements. The segregation is first evident at the level of the ON and OFF bipolar cells in distal retina. The activity of large populations of ON and OFF bipolar cells is reflected in the b- and d-waves of the diffuse electroretinogram (ERG). The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through ionotropic GABA receptors in shaping the ON and OFF responses in distal retina, is a matter of debate. This review summarized current knowledge about the types of the GABAergic neurons and ionotropic GABA receptors in the retina as well as the effects of GABA and specific GABAA and GABAC receptor antagonists on the activity of the ON and OFF bipolar cells in both nonmammalian and mammalian retina. Special emphasis is put on the effects on b- and d-waves of the ERG as a useful tool for assessment of the overall function of distal retinal ON and OFF channels. The role of GABAergic system in establishing the ON-OFF asymmetry concerning the time course and absolute and relative sensitivity of the ERG responses under different conditions of light adaptation in amphibian retina is also discussed. PMID:25143858

  18. Actions of insecticides on the insect GABA receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, I.; Hawkins, C.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The actions of insecticides on the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor were investigated using (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (( 35S)TBPS) binding and voltage-clamp techniques. Specific binding of (35S)TBPS to a membrane homogenate derived from the brain of Locusta migratoria locusts is characterised by a Kd value of 79.3 {plus minus} 2.9 nM and a Bmax value of 1770 {plus minus} 40 fmol/mg protein. (35S)TBPS binding is inhibited by mM concentrations of barbiturates and benzodiazepines. In contrast dieldrin, ivermectin, lindane, picrotoxin and TBPS are inhibitors of (35S)TBPS binding at the nanomolar range. Bicuculline, baclofen and pyrethroid insecticides have no effect on (35S)TBPS binding. Thesemore » results are similar to those obtained in electrophysiological studies of the current elicited by GABA in both Locusta and Periplaneta americana central neurones. Noise analysis of the effects of lindane, TBPS, dieldrin and picrotoxin on the cockroach GABA responses reveals that these compounds decrease the variance of the GABA-induced current but have no effect on its mean open time. All these compounds, with the exception of dieldrin, significantly decrease the conductance of GABA-evoked single current.« less

  19. Flavonoid nutraceuticals and ionotropic receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Graham A R

    2015-10-01

    Flavonoids that are found in nutraceuticals have many and varied effects on the activation of ionotropic receptors for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in our brains. They can act as positive or negative modulators enhancing or reducing the effect of GABA. They can act as allosteric agonists. They can act to modulate the action of other modulators. There is considerable evidence that these flavonoids are able to enter the brain to influence brain function. They may have a range of effects including relief of anxiety, improvement in cognition, acting as neuroprotectants and as sedatives. All of these effects are sought after in nutraceuticals. A number of studies have likened flavonoids to the widely prescribed benzodiazepines as 'a new family of benzodiazepine receptor ligands'. They are much more than that with many flavonoid actions on ionotropic GABA receptors being insensitive to the classic benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil and thus independent of the classic benzodiazepine actions. It is time to consider flavonoids in their own right as important modulators of these vital receptors in brain function. Flavonoids are rarely consumed as a single flavonoid except as dietary supplements. The effects of mixtures of flavonoids and other modulators on GABAA receptors need to be more thoroughly investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laser photolysis of DPNI-GABA, a tool for investigating the properties and distribution of GABA receptors and for silencing neurons in situ.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Papageorgiou, George; Corrie, John E T; Ogden, David

    2009-07-30

    Laser photolysis to release GABA at precisely defined times and locations permits investigation of the distribution of functional GABA(A) receptors in neuronal compartments, the activation kinetics and pharmacology of GABA(A) receptors in situ, and the role of individual neurons in neural circuits by selective silencing with low GABA concentrations. We describe the experimental evaluation and applications of a new nitroindoline-caged GABA, DPNI-GABA, modified to minimize the pharmacological interference commonly found with caged GABA reagents, but retaining the advantages of nitroindoline cages. Unlike the 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-7-nitroindolinyl-GABA tested previously, DPNI-GABA inhibited GABA(A) receptors with much lower affinity, reducing peak GABA-evoked responses with an IC(50) of approximately 0.5 mM. Most importantly, the kinetics of receptor activation, determined as 10-90% rise-times, were comparable to synaptic events and were little affected by DPNI-GABA present at 1mM concentration, permitting photolysis of DPNI-GABA to mimic synaptic activation of GABA(A) receptors. With a laser spot of 1 microm applied to cerebellar molecular layer interneurons, the spatial resolution of uncaging DPNI-GABA in dendrites was estimated as 2 microm laterally and 7.5 microm focally. Finally, at low DPNI-GABA concentration, photorelease restricted to the area of the soma suppressed spiking in single Purkinje neurons or molecular layer interneurons for periods controlled by the flash intensity and duration. DPNI-GABA has properties better adapted for fast kinetic studies with laser photolysis at GABA(A) receptors than previously reported caged GABA reagents, and can be used in experiments where spatial resolution is determined by the dimensions of the laser light spot.

  1. d Subunit-Containing GABA[subscript A] Receptor Prevents Overgeneralization of Fear in Adult Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Han-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Wei-Zhu; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Pan, Bing-Xing

    2017-01-01

    The role of d subunit-containing GABA[subscript A] receptor (GABA[subscript A](d)R) in fear generalization is uncertain. Here, by using mice with or without genetic deletion of GABA[subscript A](d)R and using protocols in which the conditioned tone stimuli were cross presented with different nonconditioned stimuli, we observed that when the two…

  2. Brain distribution and molecular cloning of the bovine GABA rho1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Arellano, Abraham; Ochoa-de la Paz, Lenin David; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo

    2007-03-01

    GABA(C) receptors were originally found in the mammalian retina and recent evidence shows that they are also expressed in several areas of the brain, including caudate nucleus, brain stem, pons and corpus callosum. In this study, plasma membranes from the caudate nucleus were microinjected into X. laevis oocytes. This led the oocyte plasma membrane to incorporate functional bicuculline-resistant, Cl(-) conducting bovine GABA receptors, similar to those of the retina. Immunolocalization of the GABA rho1 subunit revealed its expression in bovine neurons in the head of the caudate as well as in the olive, cuneiform and reticular nuclei of the brain stem. The same antibodies failed to show expression in the callosum and pons, where the GABA rho1 mRNA was previously detected. The cloned GABA rho1 sequence predicts a protein with 473 amino acids and 74-93% similarity to other GABA rho1 subunits. Oocytes injected with the cDNA express a non-desensitizing, homomeric receptor with a GABA EC(50)=6.0 microM and a Hill coefficient of 1.8. The results confirm the presence of GABA(C) receptor mRNAs in several areas of the mammalian brain and show that some of these areas express functional GABA rho1 receptors that have the classic GABA(C) receptor characteristics.

  3. [Effect of acupuncture at different acupoints on expression of hypothalamic GABA and GABA(A) receptor proteins in insomnia rats].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Gao, Xi-Yan; Wang, Pei-Yu; Ren, Shan

    2012-08-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture of "Shenmai" (BL 62) and "Zhaohai" (KI 6), "Shenmen" (HT 7), etc. on the expression of hypothalamic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) proteins in experimental insomnia rats so as to explore its mechanism underlying improving sleeping. Seventy Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, "Sanyinjiao" (SP6), "Neiguan" (PC 6), "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Shenmen" (HT7), and "Shenmai" (BL 62)-Zhaohai (KI 6, BL 62-KI 6) groups, with 10 rats in each group. Insomnia model was established by intraperitoneal injection of chlorophenylalanine solution (PCPA, 1 mL/100 g). An acupuncture needle was inserted into each of the bilateral HT 7, PC 6, SP 6, ST 36 and BL 62-KI 6 respectively and manipulated for about 1 min, once daily for 7 days. Hypothamic GABA and GABA(A)R protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry. The animals' physical ability was evaluated by using pole-climbing test in a water tank. In comparison with the normal control group, the numbers of hypothalamic GABA immunoreaction (IR)- and GABA(A)R IR-positive neurons and the pole-climbing time were reduced significantly in the model group (P < 0.05). While in comparison with the model group, the numbers of hypothalamic GABA IR-positive neurons and those of hypothalamic GABA(A)R IR-positive neurons in the HT 7, PC 6, SP 6, ST 36 and BL 62-KI 6 groups, as well as the pole-climbing duration in the SP 6, ST 36 and BL 62-KI 6 groups were increased considerably (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The effects of HT 7 and BL 62-KI 6 groups were significantly superior to those of PC 6, ST 36 and SP 6 groups in up-regulating GABA and GABA(A)R expression, and the effect of BL 62-KI 6 group was remarkably better than those of HT 7, PC 6, SP 6 and ST 36 groups in lengthening the pole-climbing time (P < 0.05). Acupuncture can effectively suppress insomnia induced down-regulation of hypothalamic GABA and GABA(A)R in rats and lengthen pole-climbing time

  4. The role of GABA(A) receptors in the development of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2008-07-01

    Alcoholism is a common, heritable, chronic relapsing disorder. GABA(A) receptors undergo allosteric modulation by ethanol, anesthetics, benzodiazepines and neurosteroids and have been implicated in the acute as well as the chronic effects of ethanol including tolerance, dependence and withdrawal. Medications targeting GABA(A) receptors ameliorate the symptoms of acute withdrawal. Ethanol induces plasticity in GABA(A) receptors: tolerance is associated with generally decreased GABA(A) receptor activation and differentially altered subunit expression. The dopamine (DA) mesolimbic reward pathway originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and interacting stress circuitry play an important role in the development of addiction. VTA GABAergic interneurons are the primary inhibitory regulators of DA neurons and a subset of VTA GABA(A) receptors may be implicated in the switch from heavy drinking to dependence. GABA(A) receptors modulate anxiety and response to stress; important elements of sustained drinking and relapse. The GABA(A) receptor subunit genes clustered on chromosome 4 are highly expressed in the reward pathway. Several recent studies have provided strong evidence that one of these genes, GABRA2, is implicated in alcoholism in humans. The influence of the interaction between ethanol and GABA(A) receptors in the reward pathway on the development of alcoholism together with genetic and epigenetic vulnerabilities will be explored in this review.

  5. 2-Aminoethyl Methylphosphonate, a Potent and Rapidly Acting Antagonist of GABA A-ρ1 Receptors

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, A.; Yan, J.; Yue, L.; ...

    2011-08-02

    All three classes of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (GABAR) are expressed in the retina. This study investigated roles of GABAR, especially GABA(C)R (GABA(A)-rho), in retinal signaling in vivo by studying effects on the mouse electroretinogram (ERG) of genetic deletion of GABA(C)R versus pharmacological blockade using receptor antagonists. Brief full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, and WT C57BL/6 (B6) mice, before and after intravitreal injection of GABA(C)R antagonists, TPMPA, 3-APMPA, or the more recently developed 2-AEMP; GABA(A)R antagonist, SR95531; GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP, and agonist, baclofen. Intravitreal injections of TPMPA and SR95531 were also made in Brownmore » Norway rats. The effect of 2-AEMP on GABA-induced current was tested directly in isolated rat rod bipolar cells, and 2-AEMP was found to preferentially block GABA(C)R in those cells. Maximum amplitudes of dark (DA) and light-adapted (LA) ERG b-waves were reduced in GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, compared to B6 mice, by 30-60%; a-waves were unaltered and oscillatory potential amplitudes were increased. In B6 mice, after injection of TPMPA (also in rats), 3-APMPA or 2-AEMP, ERGs became similar to ERGs of GABA(C)R(-/-) mice. Blockade of GABA(A)Rs and GABA(B)Rs, or agonism of GABA(B)Rs did not alter B6 DA b-wave amplitude. The negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR) was slightly less sensitive in GABA(C)R(-/-) than in B6 mice, and unaltered by 2-AEMP. However, amplitudes of nSTR and photopic negative response (PhNR), both of which originate from inner retina, were enhanced by TPMPA and 3-APMPA, each of which has GABA(B) agonist properties, and further increased by baclofen. The finding that genetic deletion of GABA(C)R, the GABA(C)R antagonist 2-AEMP, and other antagonists all reduced ERG b-wave amplitude, supports a role for CABA(C)R in determining the maximum response amplitude of bipolar cells contributing to the b-wave. GABA(C)R antagonists

  6. GABA-A Receptors Mediate Tonic Inhibition and Neurosteroid Sensitivity in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2018-01-01

    Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus. Recently, a consensus neurosteroid pharmacophore model has been proposed at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors based on structure-activity relationship for functional activation of tonic currents and seizure protection. Aside from anticonvulsant actions, neurosteroids have been found to be powerful anxiolytic and anesthetic agents. Neurosteroids and Zn 2+ have preferential affinity for δ-containing receptors. Thus, Zn 2+ can prevent neurosteroid activation of extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition. Recently, we demonstrated that Zn 2+ selectively inhibits extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors and thereby fully prevents AP activation of tonic inhibition and seizure protection. We confirmed that neurosteroids exhibit greater sensitivity at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors. Overall, extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors are primary mediators of tonic inhibition in the brain and play a key role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell type specificity of GABA(A) receptor mediated signaling in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Semyanov, A

    2003-08-01

    Inhibitory signaling mediated by ionotropic GABA(1) receptors generally acts as a major brake against excessive excitability in the brain. This is especially relevant in epilepsy-prone structures such as the hippocampus, in which GABA(A) receptor mediated inhibition is critical in suppressing epileptiform activity. Indeed, potentiating GABA(A) receptor mediated signaling is an important target for antiepileptic drug therapy. GABA(A) receptor mediated inhibition has different roles in the network dependent on the target neuron. Inhibiting principal cells will thus reduce network excitability, whilst inhibiting interneurons will increase network excitability; GABAergic therapeutic agents do not distinguish between these two alternatives, which may explain why, on occasion, GABAergic antiepileptic drugs can be proconvulsant. The importance of the target-cell for the effect of neuroactive drugs has emerged from a number of recent studies. Immunocytochemical data have suggested non-uniform distribution of GABA(A) receptor subunits among hippocampal interneurons and pyramidal cells. This has been confirmed by subsequent electropharmacological data. These have demonstrated that compounds which act on GABA(A) receptors or the extracellular GABA concentration can have distinct effects in different neuronal populations. Recently, it has also been discovered that presynaptic glutamate heteroreceptors can modulate GABA release in the hippocampus in a postsynaptic cell-specific manner. Since systemically administrated drugs may act on different neuronal subtypes, they can exhibit paradoxical effects. Distinguishing compounds that have target specific effects on GABAergic signaling may lead to novel and more effective treatments against epilepsy.

  8. Immunocytochemical Mapping of an RDL-Like GABA Receptor Subunit and of GABA in Brain Structures Related to Learning and Memory in the Cricket Acheta domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Strambi, Colette; Cayre, Myriam; Sattelle, David B.; Augier, Roger; Charpin, Pierre; Strambi, Alain

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of putative RDL-like GABA receptors and of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain of the adult house cricket Acheta domesticus was studied using specific antisera. Special attention was given to brain structures known to be related to learning and memory. The main immunostaining for the RDL-like GABA receptor was observed in mushroom bodies, in particular the upper part of mushroom body peduncle and the two arms of the posterior calyx. Weaker immunostaining was detected in the distal part of the peduncle and in the α and β lobes. The dorso- and ventrolateral protocerebrum neuropils appeared rich in RDL-like GABA receptors. Staining was also detected in the glomeruli of the antennal lobe, as well as in the ellipsoid body of the central complex. Many neurons clustered in groups exhibit GABA-like immunoreactivity. Tracts that were strongly immunostained innervated both the calyces and the lobes of mushroom bodies. The glomeruli of the antennal lobe, the ellipsoid body, as well as neuropils of the dorso- and ventrolateral protocerebrum were also rich in GABA-like immuno- reactivity. The data demonstrated a good correlation between the distribution of the GABA-like and of the RDL-like GABA receptor immunoreactivity. The prominent distribution of RDL-like GABA receptor subunits, in particular areas of mushroom bodies and antennal lobes, underlines the importance of inhibitory signals in information processing in these major integrative centers of the insect brain. PMID:10454373

  9. Manganese exposure alters extracellular GABA, GABA receptor and transporter protein and mRNA levels in the developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joel G.; Fordahl, Steve C.; Cooney, Paula T.; Weaver, Tara L.; Colyer, Christa L.; Erikson, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other essential trace elements (e.g., zinc and iron) it is the toxicity of manganese (Mn) that is more common in human populations than its deficiency. Data suggest alterations in dopamine biology may drive the effects associated with Mn neurotoxicity, though recently γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated. In addition, iron deficiency (ID), a common nutritional problem, may cause disturbances in neurochemistry by facilitating accumulation of Mn in the brain. Previous data from our lab have shown decreased brain tissue levels of GABA as well as decreased 3H-GABA uptake in synaptosomes as a result of Mn exposure and ID. These results indicate a possible increase in the concentration of extracellular GABA due to alterations in expression of GABA transport and receptor proteins. In this study weanling-male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly placed into one of four dietary treatment groups: control (CN; 35 mg Fe/kg diet), iron-deficient (ID; 6 mg Fe/kg diet), CN with Mn supplementation (via the drinking water; 1 g Mn/L) (CNMn), and ID with Mn supplementation (IDMn). Using in vivo microdialysis, an increase in extracellular GABA concentrations in the striatum was observed in response to Mn exposure and ID although correlational analysis reveals that extracellular GABA is related more to extracellular iron levels and not Mn. A diverse effect of Mn exposure and ID was observed in the regions examined via Western blot and RT-PCR analysis, with effects on mRNA and protein expression of GAT-1, GABAA, and GABAB differing between and within the regions examined. For example, Mn exposure reduced GAT-1 protein expression by approximately 50% in the substantia nigra, while increasing mRNA expression approximately four-fold, while in the caudate putamen mRNA expression was decreased with no effect on protein expression. These data suggest that Mn exposure results in an increase in extracellular GABA concentrations via altered expression of transport and receptor

  10. A molecular characterization of the agonist binding site of a nematode cys-loop GABA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Mark D; Kwaka, Ariel; Callanan, Micah K; Nusrat, Humza; Desaulniers, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Sean G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cys-loop GABA receptors represent important targets for human chemotherapeutics and insecticides and are potential targets for novel anthelmintics (nematicides). However, compared with insect and mammalian receptors, little is known regarding the pharmacological characteristics of nematode Cys-loop GABA receptors. Here we have investigated the agonist binding site of the Cys-loop GABA receptor UNC-49 (Hco-UNC-49) from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Experimental Approach We used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology to measure channel activation by classical GABA receptor agonists on Hco-UNC-49 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, along with site-directed mutagenesis and in silico homology modelling. Key Results The sulphonated molecules P4S and taurine had no effect on Hco-UNC-49. Other classical Cys-loop GABAA receptor agonists tested on the Hco-UNC-49B/C heteromeric channel had a rank order efficacy of GABA > trans-4-aminocrotonic acid > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid (IMA) > (R)-(−)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [R(−)-GABOB] > (S)-(+)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [S(+)-GABOB] > guanidinoacetic acid > isonipecotic acid > 5-aminovaleric acid (DAVA) (partial agonist) > β-alanine (partial agonist). In silico ligand docking revealed some variation in binding between agonists. Mutagenesis of a key serine residue in binding loop C to threonine had minimal effects on GABA and IMA but significantly increased the maximal response to DAVA and decreased twofold the EC50 for R(−)- and S(+)-GABOB. Conclusions and Implications The pharmacological profile of Hco-UNC-49 differed from that of vertebrate Cys-loop GABA receptors and insect resistance to dieldrin receptors, suggesting differences in the agonist binding pocket. These findings could be exploited to develop new drugs that specifically target GABA receptors of parasitic nematodes. PMID:25850584

  11. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) stimulates pancreatic cancer growth through overexpressing GABAA receptor pi subunit.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Akio; Hosokawa, Masayo; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ohigashi, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2007-10-15

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system, and GABA/GABA receptors are also present in nonneural tissues, including cancer, but their precise function in nonneuronal or cancerous cells has thus far been poorly defined. Through the genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells as well as subsequent reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analyses, we identified the overexpression of GABA receptor pi subunit (GABRP) in PDAC cells. We also found the expression of this peripheral type GABAA receptor subunit in few adult human organs. Knockdown of endogenous GABRP expression in PDAC cells by small interfering RNA attenuated PDAC cell growth, suggesting its essential role in PDAC cell viability. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRP-expressing PDAC cells, but not GABRP-negative cells, and GABAA receptor antagonists inhibited this growth-promoting effect by GABA. The HEK293 cells constitutively expressing exogenous GABRP revealed the growth-promoting effect of GABA treatment. Furthermore, GABA treatment in GABRP-positive cells increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk) cascade. Clinical PDAC tissues contained a higher level of GABA than normal pancreas tissues due to the up-regulation of glutamate decarboxylase 1 expression, suggesting their autocrine/paracrine growth-promoting effect in PDACs. These findings imply that GABA and GABRP could play important roles in PDAC development and progression, and that this pathway can be a promising molecular target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for PDAC.

  12. Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0144 TITLE: Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0144 5c...ABSTRACT Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a polygenic signaling disorder that may result, in part, from an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory

  13. GABA type a receptor trafficking and the architecture of synaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Jacob, Tija C

    2018-03-01

    Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABA A R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABA A Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition. The molecular mechanisms constituting receptor trafficking to and from these compartments therefore dictate the efficacy of GABA A R function. Here we review the current understanding of how GABA A Rs traffic through biogenesis, plasma membrane transport, and degradation. Emphasis is placed on discussing novel GABAergic synaptic proteins, receptor and scaffolding post-translational modifications, activity-dependent changes in GABA A R confinement, and neuropeptide and neurosteroid mediated changes. We further highlight modern techniques currently advancing the knowledge of GABA A R trafficking and clinically relevant neurodevelopmental diseases connected to GABAergic dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 238-270, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Homocysteine alters cerebral microvascular integrity and causes remodeling by antagonizing GABA-A receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Lominadze, David; Tyagi, Neetu; Sen, Utpal; Ovechkin, Alexander; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2012-01-01

    High levels of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), are associated with cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascualr dementia, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. The -amino butyric acid (GABA) is a inhibitory neurotransmitter and a ligand of GABA-A receptor. By inhibiting excitatory response it may decrease complications associated with vascular dementia and stroke. Hcy specifically competes with the GABA-A receptors and acts as an excitotoxic neurotransmitter. Previously we have shown that Hcy increases levels of NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreases levels of thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin by antagonizing the GABA-A receptor. Hcy treatment leads to activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cerebral circualtion by inducing redox stress and ROS. The hypothesis is that Hcy induces MMPs and suppresses tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs), in part, by inhibiting the GABA-A receptor. This leads to degradation of the matrix and disruption of the blood brain barrier. The brain cortex of transgenic mouse model of HHcy (cystathionine -synthase, CBS −/+) and GABA-A receptor null mice treated with and without muscimol (GABA-A receptor agonist) was analysed. The mRNA levels were measured by Q-RT-PCR. Levels of MMP-2, -9, -13, and TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4 were evaluated by in situ labeling and PCR-gene arrays. Pial venular permeability to fluorescence-labeled albumin was assessed with intravital fluorescence microscopy. We found that Hcy increases metalloproteinase activity and decreases TIMP-4 by antagonizing the GABA-A receptor. The results demonstrate a novel mechanism in which brain microvascular permeability changes during HHcy and vascular dementias, and have therapeutic ramifications for microvascular disease in Alzheimer's patients. PMID:22886392

  15. Modulation of GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid and food additives.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, H; Tenpaku, Y

    1997-12-01

    To study the effects of 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid (LOH) and food additives on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, ionotropic GABA receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNAs prepared from rat whole brain. LOH, which was prepared by reduction of 13-L-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (LOOH), inhibited the response of GABA receptors in the presence of high concentrations of GABA. LOH also inhibited nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and kainate receptors, while it had little effect on NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, LOH potentiated the response of GABA receptors as well as LOOH in the presence of low concentrations of GABA, possibly increasing the affinity of GABA for the receptors, while linoleic acid did not. Since some modification of the compounds seemed to change their effects on GABA receptors, the responses of GABA receptors elicited by 10 microM GABA were measured in the presence of compounds with various kinds of functional groups or the structural isomers of pentanol. Potentiation of GABA receptors depended strongly on the species of functional groups and also depended on the structure of the isomers. Then effects of various kinds of food additives on GABA receptors were also examined; perfumes such as alcohols or esters potentiated the responses strongly, while hexylamine, nicotinamide, or caffeine inhibited the responses, mainly in a competitive manner, and vanillin inhibited the responses noncompetitively. These results suggest the possibility that production of LOOH and LOH, or intake of much of some food additives, modulates the neural transmission in the brain, especially through ionotropic GABA receptors and changes the frame of the human mind, as alcohol or tobacco does.

  16. Metabotropic GABAB receptors mediate GABA inhibition of acetylcholine release in the rat neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Malomouzh, Artem I; Petrov, Konstantin A; Nurullin, Leniz F; Nikolsky, Evgeny E

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Here, we studied the effects of GABA on non-quantal, spontaneous, and evoked quantal acetylcholine (ACh) release from motor nerve endings. We found that while the application of 10 μM of GABA had no effect on spontaneous quantal ACh release, as detected by the frequency of miniature endplate potentials, GABA reduced the non-quantal ACh release by 57%, as determined by the H-effect value. Finally, the evoked quantal ACh release, estimated by calculating the quantal content of full-sized endplate potentials (EPPs), was reduced by 34%. GABA's inhibitory effect remained unchanged after pre-incubation with picrotoxin, an ionotropic GABAA receptor blocker, but was attenuated following application of the GABAB receptor blocker CGP 55845, which itself had no effect on ACh release. An inhibitor of phospholipase C, U73122, completely prevented the GABA-induced decrease in ACh release. Immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of both subunits of the GABAB receptor (GABAB R1 and GABAB R2) in the neuromuscular junction. These findings suggest that metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse and their activation results in a phospholipase C-mediated reduction in the intensity of non-quantal and evoked quantal ACh release. We investigated the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neuromuscular transmission. GABA reduced the non-quantal and evoked quantal release of acetylcholine. These effects are mediated by GABAB receptors and are implemented via phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Our findings suggest that in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse, metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed and their activation results in a reduction in the intensity of acetylcholine release. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. GABA(B) receptor modulation of feedforward inhibition through hippocampal neurogliaform cells.

    PubMed

    Price, Christopher J; Scott, Ricardo; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Capogna, Marco

    2008-07-02

    Feedforward inhibition of neurons is a fundamental component of information flow control in the brain. We studied the roles played by neurogliaform cells (NGFCs) of stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus in providing feedforward inhibition to CA1 pyramidal cells. We recorded from synaptically coupled pairs of anatomically identified NGFCs and CA1 pyramidal cells and found that, strikingly, a single presynaptic action potential evoked a biphasic unitary IPSC (uIPSC), consisting of two distinct components mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. A GABA(B) receptor-mediated unitary response has not previously been observed in hippocampal excitatory neurons. The decay of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response was slow (time constant = 50 ms), and was tightly regulated by presynaptic GABA(B) receptors. Surprisingly, the GABA(B) receptor ligands baclofen and (2S)-3-{[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl}(phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP55845), while affecting the NGFC-mediated uIPSCs, had no effect on action potential-evoked presynaptic Ca2+ signals monitored in individual axonal boutons of NGFCs with two-photon microscopy. In contrast, baclofen clearly depressed presynaptic Ca2+ transients in non-NGF interneurons. Changes in extracellular Ca2+ concentration that mimicked the effects of baclofen or CGP55845 on uIPSCs significantly altered presynaptic Ca2+ transients. Electrophysiological data suggest that GABA(B) receptors expressed by NGFCs contribute to the dynamic control of the excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal neurons from the temporoammonic path. The NGFC-CA1 pyramidal cell connection therefore provides a unique and subtle mechanism to shape the integration time domain for signals arriving via a major excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal cells.

  18. Role of GABA Release From Leptin Receptor-Expressing Neurons in Body Weight Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanzhong; O'Brien, William G.; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Myers, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that leptin regulates energy balance largely through isoform B leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepR neurons) in the brain and that leptin activates one subset of LepR neurons (leptin-excited neurons) while inhibiting the other (leptin-inhibited neurons). However, the neurotransmitters released from LepR neurons that mediate leptin action in the brain are not well understood. Previous results demonstrate that leptin mainly acts on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons to reduce body weight, and that leptin activates proopiomelanocortin neuron activity by reducing GABA release onto these neurons, suggesting a body weight-promoting role for GABA released from leptin-inhibited neurons. To directly examine the role of GABA release from LepR neurons in body weight regulation, mice with disruption of GABA release specifically from LepR neurons were generated by deletion of vesicular GABA transporter in LepR neurons. Interestingly, these mice developed mild obesity on chow diet and were sensitive to diet-induced obesity, which were associated with higher food intake and lower energy expenditure. Moreover, these mice showed blunted responses in both food intake and body weight to acute leptin administration. These results demonstrate that GABA plays an important role in mediating leptin action. In combination with the previous studies that leptin reduces GABA release onto proopiomelanocortin neurons through leptin-inhibited neurons and that disruption of GABA release from agouti gene-related protein neurons, one subset of LepR-inhibited neurons, leads to a lean phenotype, our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, GABA release from leptin-excited neuron dominates over leptin-inhibited ones. PMID:22334723

  19. Stellate and pyramidal neurons in goldfish telencephalon respond differently to anoxia and GABA receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Javaheri, Nariman; Wilkie, Michael P; Lado, Wudu E; Buck, Leslie T

    2017-02-15

    With oxygen deprivation, the mammalian brain undergoes hyper-activity and neuronal death while this does not occur in the anoxia-tolerant goldfish ( Carassius auratus ). Anoxic survival of the goldfish may rely on neuromodulatory mechanisms to suppress neuronal hyper-excitability. As γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, we decided to investigate its potential role in suppressing the electrical activity of goldfish telencephalic neurons. Utilizing whole-cell patch-clamp recording, we recorded the electrical activities of both excitatory (pyramidal) and inhibitory (stellate) neurons. With anoxia, membrane potential ( V m ) depolarized in both cell types from -72.2 mV to -57.7 mV and from -64.5 mV to -46.8 mV in pyramidal and stellate neurons, respectively. While pyramidal cells remained mostly quiescent, action potential frequency (AP f ) of the stellate neurons increased 68-fold. Furthermore, the GABA A receptor reversal potential ( E - GABA ) was determined using the gramicidin perforated-patch-clamp method and found to be depolarizing in pyramidal (-53.8 mV) and stellate neurons (-42.1 mV). Although GABA was depolarizing, pyramidal neurons remained quiescent as E GABA was below the action potential threshold (-36 mV pyramidal and -38 mV stellate neurons). Inhibition of GABA A receptors with gabazine reversed the anoxia-mediated response. While GABA B receptor inhibition alone did not affect the anoxic response, co-antagonism of GABA A and GABA B receptors (gabazine and CGP-55848) led to the generation of seizure-like activities in both neuron types. We conclude that with anoxia, V m depolarizes towards E GABA which increases AP f in stellate neurons and decreases AP f in pyramidal neurons, and that GABA plays an important role in the anoxia tolerance of goldfish brain. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. A Review of the Updated Pharmacophore for the Alpha 5 GABA(A) Benzodiazepine Receptor Model

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Terry; Poe, Michael M.; Rallapalli, Sundari; Biawat, Poonam; Savić, Miroslav M.; Rowlett, James K.; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W.; Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Stafford, Douglas C.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Cook, James M.

    2015-01-01

    An updated model of the GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor pharmacophore of the α5-BzR/GABA(A) subtype has been constructed prompted by the synthesis of subtype selective ligands in light of the recent developments in both ligand synthesis, behavioral studies, and molecular modeling studies of the binding site itself. A number of BzR/GABA(A) α5 subtype selective compounds were synthesized, notably α5-subtype selective inverse agonist PWZ-029 (1) which is active in enhancing cognition in both rodents and primates. In addition, a chiral positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SH-053-2′F-R-CH3 (2), has been shown to reverse the deleterious effects in the MAM-model of schizophrenia as well as alleviate constriction in airway smooth muscle. Presented here is an updated model of the pharmacophore for α5β2γ2 Bz/GABA(A) receptors, including a rendering of PWZ-029 docked within the α5-binding pocket showing specific interactions of the molecule with the receptor. Differences in the included volume as compared to α1β2γ2, α2β2γ2, and α3β2γ2 will be illustrated for clarity. These new models enhance the ability to understand structural characteristics of ligands which act as agonists, antagonists, or inverse agonists at the Bz BS of GABA(A) receptors. PMID:26682068

  1. Metabotropic glutamate receptors in the trafficking of ionotropic glutamate and GABA(A) receptors at central synapses.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min-Yi; Gustafsson, Bengt; Niu, Yin-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The trafficking of ionotropic glutamate (AMPA, NMDA and kainate) and GABA(A) receptors in and out of, or laterally along, the postsynaptic membrane has recently emerged as an important mechanism in the regulation of synaptic function, both under physiological and pathological conditions, such as information processing, learning and memory formation, neuronal development, and neurodegenerative diseases. Non-ionotropic glutamate receptors, primarily group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), co-exist with the postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate and GABA(A) receptors. The ability of mGluRs to regulate postsynaptic phosphorylation and Ca(2+) concentration, as well as their interactions with postsynaptic scaffolding/signaling proteins, makes them well suited to influence the trafficking of ionotropic glutamate and GABA(A) receptors. Recent studies have provided insights into how mGluRs may impose such an influence at central synapses, and thus how they may affect synaptic signaling and the maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity. In this review we will discuss some of the recent progress in this area: i) long-term synaptic plasticity and the involvement of mGluRs; ii) ionotropic glutamate receptor trafficking and long-term synaptic plasticity; iii) the involvement of postsynaptic group I mGluRs in regulating ionotropic glutamate receptor trafficking; iv) involvement of postsynaptic group I mGluRs in regulating GABA(A) receptor trafficking; v) and the trafficking of postsynaptic group I mGluRs themselves.

  2. A human anti-neuronal autoantibody against GABA B receptor induces experimental autoimmune agrypnia.

    PubMed

    Frisullo, Giovanni; Della Marca, Giacomo; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Caggiula, Marcella; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Rubino, Marco; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Batocchi, Anna Paola

    2007-04-01

    In the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with recurrent acute episodes of respiratory crises, autonomic symptoms and total insomnia (agrypnia), we identified a novel anti-neural complement fixing antibody directed against GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R). Patient purified IgG recognized a band of approximately 110 kDa on protein extracts of mouse cerebellum, cortex and brainstem and immunolabelled cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, transfected with human GABA(B)R1 and rat GABA(B)R2 receptors. Western blot analysis of transfected CHO homogenates showed the same band using both patient purified IgG and anti-GABA(B)R1 antibody. In order to verify the pathogenic role of these purified antibodies, we injected patient IgG intrathecally into cisterna magna of C57BL/6 mice pre-implanted with EEG electrodes and we observed severe ataxia followed by breathing depression and total suppression of slow wave sleep, as evidenced by EEG recording, in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry on brain sections of mice injected with patient IgG showed the simultaneous presence of bound human IgG and C5b-9 deposits on Purkinje cells and cerebellar granular layer. After incubation with anti-GABA(B)R antibody, a marked reduction of receptor immunostaining was found with relative sparing of neuronal architecture. In conclusion we recognized an anti-neuronal autoantibody directed against GABA(B)R that is associated with autoimmune agrypnia and we showed that our patient purified IgG was able to induce in mice experimental autoimmune agrypnia characterized by a complex neurological syndrome affecting several CNS functions.

  3. In vivo electroretinographic studies of the role of GABA C receptors in retinal signal processing

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jing; Mojumder, Deb Kumar; Yan, Jun; ...

    2015-07-08

    The retina expresses all three classes of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (GABAR). Our study investigated roles of GABAR, especially GABA(C)R (GABA(A)-rho), in retinal signaling in vivo by studying effects on the mouse electroretinogram (ERG) of genetic deletion of GABA(C)R versus pharmacological blockade using receptor antagonists. Brief full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, and WT C57BL/6 (B6) mice, before and after intravitreal injection of GABA(C)R antagonists, TPMPA, 3-APMPA, or the more recently developed 2-AEMP; GABA(A)R antagonist, SR95531; GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP, and agonist, baclofen. Intravitreal injections of TPMPA and SR95531 were also made in Brown Norway rats.more » The effect of 2-AEMP on GABA-induced current was tested directly in isolated rat rod bipolar cells, and 2-AEMP was found to preferentially block GABA(C)R in those cells. Maximum amplitudes of dark (DA) and light-adapted (LA) ERG b-waves were reduced in GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, compared to B6 mice, by 30-60%; a-waves were unaltered and oscillatory potential amplitudes were increased. In B6 mice, after injection of TPMPA (also in rats), 3-APMPA or 2-AEMP, ERGs became similar to ERGs of GABA(C)R(-/-) mice. Blockade of GABA(A)Rs and GABA(B)Rs, or agonism of GABA(B)Rs did not alter B6 DA b-wave amplitude. Furthermore, the negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR) was slightly less sensitive in GABA(C)R(-/-) than in B6 mice, and unaltered by 2-AEMP. However, amplitudes of nSTR and photopic negative response (PhNR), both of which originate from inner retina, were enhanced by TPMPA and 3-APMPA, each of which has GABA(B) agonist properties, and further increased by baclofen. The finding that genetic deletion of GABA(C)R, the GABA(C)R antagonist 2-AEMP, and other antagonists all reduced ERG b-wave amplitude, supports a role for CABA(C)R in determining the maximum response amplitude of bipolar cells contributing to the b-wave. GABA

  4. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    SciTech Connect

    Malatynska, E.; Knapp, R.J.; Ikeda, M.

    1988-01-01

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced bymore » them.« less

  5. Effect of GABA agonists and GABA-A receptor modulators on cocaine- and food-maintained responding and cocaine discrimination in rats.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Andrew C; Negus, S Stevens; Mello, Nancy K; Caine, S Barak

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that GABAergic ligands modulate abuse-related effects of cocaine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mechanistically diverse group of GABAergic ligands on the discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats. One group of rats was trained to discriminate 5.6 mg/kg cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-reinforced, drug discrimination procedure. In two other groups, responding was maintained by cocaine (0-3.2 mg/kg/injection) or liquid food (0-100%) under a fixed ratio 5 schedule. Six GABA agonists were tested: the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen, the GABA transaminase inhibitor gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), and three GABA-A receptor modulators (the barbiturate pentobarbital, the high-efficacy benzodiazepine midazolam, and the low-efficacy benzodiazepine enazenil). When tested alone, none of the compounds substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. As acute pretreatments, select doses of midazolam and pentobarbital produced 2.2- to 3.6-fold rightward shifts in the cocaine dose-effect function. In contrast, muscimol, baclofen, GVG, and enazenil failed to alter the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. In assays of cocaine- and food-maintained responding, midazolam and pentobarbital decreased cocaine self-administration at doses 9.6- and 3.3-fold lower, respectively, than those that decreased food-maintained responding. In contrast, muscimol, baclofen, and GVG decreased cocaine self-administration at doses that also decreased food-maintained responding. Enazenil failed to alter cocaine self-administration. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that among mechanistically diverse GABA agonists, high-efficacy GABA-A modulators may be the most effective for modifying the abuse-related effects of cocaine.

  6. Furosemide suppresses ileal and colonic contractility via interactions with GABA-A receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaewsaro, Kannaree; Nualplub, Suparp; Bumrungsri, Sara; Khuituan, Pissared

    2017-11-01

    The loop diuretic furosemide has an action to inhibit Na + -K + -2Cl - co-transporter at the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop resulting in diuresis. Furosemide also has the non-diuretic effects by binding to GABA-A receptor which may involve the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of furosemide on smooth muscle contractions in mice ileum and proximal colon. Each intestinal segment suspended in an organ bath was connected to a force transducer. Signal output of mechanical activity was amplified and recorded for analysis using PowerLab System. After equilibration, the intestine was directly exposed to furosemide, GABA, GABA-A receptor agonist (muscimol), or muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine). Furosemide (50, 100 and 500 μmol L -1 ) acutely reduced the amplitude of ileal and colonic contraction. In the ileum, 1 mmol L -1 GABA and 10-60 μmol L -1 muscimol significantly increased the amplitude, whereas in the colon, 50-100 mmol L -1 GABA and 60 μmol L -1 muscimol decreased the contractions. The contractions were also significantly suppressed by atropine. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the inhibiting effect of furosemide, furosemide was added to the organ bath prior to the addition of muscimol or atropine. A comparison of furosemide combined with muscimol or atropine group and furosemide group showed no significant difference of the ileal contraction, but the amplitude of colonic contraction significantly decreased when compared to adding furosemide alone. These results suggest that furosemide can reduce the ileal and proximal colonic contraction mediated by blocking and supporting of GABA-A receptor, respectively, resulting in decreased acetylcholine release. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. GABA stimulates human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through overexpressed GABAA receptor theta subunit

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue-Hui; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan-Dong; Liu, Yan-Hong; Li, Feng; Ju, Qiang; Xie, Ping-Li; Li, Guan-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor θ subunit (GABRQ) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for detecting the expression of GABRQ receptor among HCC cell line HepG2, normal liver cell line L-02, non-malignant Chang’s liver cells, 8 samples of HCC tissues and paired non-cancerous tissues. HepG2 cells were treated with GABA at serial concentrations (0, 1, 10, 20, 40 and 60 μmol/L), and their proliferating abilities were analyzed with the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, cell cycle analysis and tumor implanted in nude mice. Small interfering RNA was used for knocking down the endogenous GABRQ in HepG2. Proliferating abilities of these cells treated with or without GABA were analyzed. RESULTS: We identified the overexpression of GABRQ in HCC cell lines and half of the tested HCC tissues. Knockdown of endogenous GABRQ expression in HepG2 attenuated HCC cell growth, suggesting its role in HCC cell viability. We studied the effect of GABA in the proliferation of GABRQ-positive cell lines in vitro and in vivo, and found that GABA increased HCC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRQ-expressing HepG2 cells, but not GABRQ-knockdown HepG2 cells, which means that GABA stimulates HepG2 cell growth through GABRQ. CONCLUSION: GABRQ play important roles in HCC development and progression and could be a promising molecular target for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of HCC. PMID:22690081

  8. GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in long-sleep and short-sleep mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.

    LS mice are more sensitive to benzodiazepine-induced anesthesia; however, the two lines do not differ in their hypothermic response to flurazepam. SS mice are more resistant to 3-mercaptopropionic acid-induced seizures and more sensitive to the anticonvulsant effects of benzodiazepines. The various correlates of GABA and benzodiazepine actions probably are the results of different mechanisms of action and/or differential regional control. Bicuculline competition for /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites is greater in SS cerebellar tissue and /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding is greater in the mid-brain region of LS mice. GABA enhancement of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepma binding is greater in SS mice. Ethanol also enhancesmore » /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding and increases the levels of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding above those observed for GABA. Using correlational techniques on data from LS and SS mice and several inbred mouse strains, it was demonstrated that a positive relationship exists between the degree of receptor coupling within the GABA receptor complex and the degree of resistance to seizures.« less

  9. GABA receptors and T-type Ca2+ channels crosstalk in thalamic networks.

    PubMed

    Leresche, Nathalie; Lambert, Régis C

    2017-06-07

    Although the thalamus presents a rather limited repertoire of GABAergic cell types compare to other CNS area, this structure is a privileged system to study how GABA impacts neuronal network excitability. Indeed both glutamatergic thalamocortical (TC) and GABAergic nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) neurons present a high expression of T-type voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels whose activation that shapes the output of the thalamus critically depends upon a preceding hyperpolarisation. Because of this strict dependence, a tight functional link between GABA mediated hyperpolarization and T-currents characterizes the thalamic network excitability. In this review we summarize a number of studies showing that the relationships between the various thalamic GABA A/B receptors and T-channels are complex and bidirectional. We discuss how this dynamic interaction sets the global intrathalamic network activity and its long-term plasticity and highlight how the functional relationship between GABA release and T-channel-dependent excitability is finely tuned by the T-channel activation itself. Finally, we illustrate how an impaired balance between T-channels and GABA receptors can lead to pathologically abnormal cellular and network behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GABA[subscript A] Receptors Determine the Temporal Dynamics of Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Gavan P.; Augustyn, Katarzyna A.; Richardson, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments studied the role of GABA[subscript A] receptors in the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Memory for an active avoidance response was a nonmonotonic function of the retention interval. When rats were tested shortly (2 min) or some time (24 h) after training, retention was excellent, but when they were tested at intermediate…

  11. Women with PTSD have a changed sensitivity to GABA-A receptor active substances.

    PubMed

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Nyberg, Sigrid; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2016-06-01

    The use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety symptoms in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been debated. Studies on other anxiety disorders have indicated changed sensitivity to GABA-A receptor active substances. In the present study, we investigated the GABA receptor sensitivity in PTSD patients. Injections of allopreganolone, diazepam, and flumazenil were carried out, each on separate occasions, in 10 drug naïve patients with PTSD compared to 10 healthy controls. Effects were measured in saccadic eye velocity (SEV) and in subjective ratings of sedation. The PTSD patients were less sensitive to allopregnanolone compared with healthy controls. This was seen as a significant difference in SEV between the groups (p = 0.047). Further, the patients were less sensitive to diazepam, with a significant less increase in sedation compared to controls (p = 0.027). After flumazenil injection, both patients and controls had a significant agonistic effect on SEV, leading to decreased SEV after injection. The patients also responded with an increase in sedation after flumazenil injection, while this was not seen in the controls. Patients with PTSD have a changed sensitivity to GABA-A receptor active substances. As a consequence of this, benzodiazepines and other GABA-A receptor active compounds such as sleeping pills will be less useful for this group of patients.

  12. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the hippocampus of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jobin; Gangadharan, Gireesh; Kuruvilla, Korah P; Paulose, C S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, alterations of the General GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epileptic rats and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri and its active component Bacoside-A were investigated. Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae. Hippocampus is the major region of the brain belonging to the limbic system and plays an important role in epileptogenesis, memory and learning. Scatchard analysis of [³H]GABA and [³H]bicuculline in the hippocampus of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in B(max) (P < 0.001) compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of GABA(A) receptor sub-units such as GABA(Aά₁), GABA(Aά₅) GABA(Aδ), and GAD were down regulated (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus of the epileptic rats compared to control. GABA(Aγ) subunit was up regulated. Epileptic rats have deficit in the radial arm and Y maze performance. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses all these changes near to control. Our results suggest that decreased GABA receptors in the hippocampus have an important role in epilepsy associated behavioral deficit, Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have clinical significance in the management of epilepsy.

  13. Decreased GABA receptor in the striatum and spatial recognition memory deficit in epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and bacoside-A.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jobin; Soman, Smijin; Sadanandan, Jayanarayanan; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

    2010-07-20

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors are the principal mediators of synaptic inhibition in striatal neurons and play an important role in preventing the spreading of seizures through the striatum. In the present study, effect of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and its active component bacoside-A on spatial recognition memory deficit and alterations of GABA receptor in the striatum of epileptic rats were investigated. Total GABA and GABA(A) receptor numbers in the control and epileptic rats were evaluated using [(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]bicuculline binding. GABA(Aalpha1,) GABA(Aalpha5,) GABA(Agamma3) and GABA(Adelta) gene expressions were studied. Behavioral performance was assed using Y-maze. Scatchard analysis of [(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]bicuculline in the striatum of epileptic rats showed significant decrease in B(max) compared to control. Real-Time PCR amplification of GABA(A) receptor subunits such as GABA(Aalpha1,) GABA(Aalpha5) and GABA(Adelta), were down regulated (p<0.001) in the striatum of epileptic rats compared to control. Epileptic rats have deficit in Y-maze performance. Bacopa monnieri and bacoside-A treatment reversed these changes to near control. Our results suggest that decreased GABA receptors in the striatum have an important role in epilepsy associated motor learning deficits and Bacopa monnieri and bacoside-A has a beneficial effect in the management of epilepsy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Whissell, Paul D; Eng, Dave; Lecker, Irene; Martin, Loren J; Wang, Dian-Shi; Orser, Beverley A

    2013-01-01

    Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABA(A) receptors) are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase δGABA(A) receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the δGABA(A) receptor-preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) enhances discrimination memory and increases neurogenesis in the DG. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of such treatments, the effects of acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity on memory behaviors remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of THIP (4 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory performance in wild-type (WT) and δGABA(A) receptor null mutant (Gabrd(-/-)) mice. Additionally, the effects of THIP on long-term potentiation (LTP), a molecular correlate of memory, were studied within the DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices. The results showed that THIP impaired performance in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and object recognition tasks in WT mice but not Gabrd(-/-) mice. Furthermore, THIP inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices from WT but not Gabrd(-/-) mice, an effect that was blocked by GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity impairs memory behaviors and inhibits synaptic plasticity. These results have important implications for the development of therapies aimed at increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity.

  15. Genetic differences in the ethanol sensitivity of GABA sub A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wafford, K.A.; Burnett, D.M.; Dunwiddie, T.V.

    1990-07-20

    Animal lines selected for differences in drug sensitivity can be used to help determine the molecular basis of drug action. Long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice differ markedly in their genetic sensitivity to ethanol. To investigate the molecular basis for this difference, mRNA from brains of LS and SS mice was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the ethanol sensitivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA{sub A})- and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) - activated ion channels was tested. Ethanol facilitated GABA responses in oocytes injected with mRNA from LS mice but antagonized responses in oocytes injected with mRNA from SS animals. Ethanol inhibitedmore » NMDA responses equally in the two lines. Thus, genes coding for the GABA{sub A} receptor or associated proteins may be critical determinants of individual differences in ethanol sensitivity.« less

  16. Acupuncture suppresses intravenous methamphetamine self-administration through GABA receptor's mediation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yi Jeong; Kim, Nam Jun; Zhao, Rong Jie; Kim, Da Hye; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young; Gwak, Young S; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Jae Su; Lee, Yun Kyu; Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Sang Nam; Lim, Sung Chul; Lee, Bong Hyo

    2018-01-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the widely abused drugs. In spite of a number of studies, there is still little successful therapy to suppress the methamphetamine abuse. Acupuncture has shown to attenuate the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant. Based on, the present study investigated if acupuncture could suppress intravenous methamphetamine self-administration behavior. In addition, a possible neuronal mechanism was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 270-300g were trained to intake food pellet. After catheter implantation, animal was trained to self-administer methamphetamine (0.05mg/kg) intravenously using fixed ratio 1 schedule in daily 2h session during 3 weeks. After training, rats who established baseline (infusion variation less than 20% of the mean for 3 consecutive days) received acupuncture treatment on the next day. Acupuncture was performed at each acupoint manually. In the second experiment, the selective antagonists of GABA A or GABA B receptor were given before acupuncture to investigate the possible neuronal involvement of GABA receptor pathway in the acupuncture effects. C-Fos expression was examined in the nucleus accumbens to support behavioral data. Acupuncture at HT7, but not at control acupoint LI5, reduced the self-administration behavior significantly. Also, the effects of acupuncture were blocked by the GABA receptor antagonists. C-Fos expression was shown to be parallel with the behavioral data. Results of this study have shown that acupuncture at HT7 suppressed methamphetamine self-administration through GABA receptor system, suggesting that acupuncture at HT7 can be a useful therapy for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Amani, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an inhibitory role in the mature brain, and has a complex and bidirectional effect in different parts of the immature brain which affects proliferation, migration and differentiation of neurons during development. There is also increasing evidence suggesting that activation or blockade of the GABA-A receptors during early life can induce brain and behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. We investigated whether neonatal blockade of the GABA-A receptors by bicuculline can alter anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, body weight, food intake, corticosterone and testosterone levels in adult mice (postnatal days 80-95). To this end, neonatal mice were treated with either DMSO or bicuculline (70, 150 and 300μg/kg) during postnatal days 7, 9 and 11. When grown to adulthood, mice were exposed to behavioral tests to measure anxiety- (elevated plus-maze and light-dark box) and depression-like behaviors (tail suspension test and forced swim test). Stress-induced serum corticosterone and testosterone levels, body weight and food intake were also evaluated. Neonatal bicuculline exposure at dose of 300μg/kg decreased anxiety-like behavior, stress-induced corticosterone levels and increased testosterone levels, body weight and food intake, without significantly influencing depression-like behavior in adult male mice. However, no significant changes in these parameters were observed in adult females. These findings suggest that neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors affects anxiety-like behavior, physiological and hormonal parameters in a sex-dependent manner in mice. Taken together, these data corroborate the concept that GABA-A receptors during early life have an important role in programming neurobehavioral phenotypes in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  19. Ionotropic GABA receptor antagonism-induced adverse outcome pathways for potential neurotoxicity biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Hong, Huixiao; Perkins, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Antagonism of ionotropic GABA receptors (iGABARs) can occur at three distinct types of receptor binding sites causing chemically induced epileptic seizures. Here we review three adverse outcome pathways, each characterized by a specific molecular initiating event where an antagonist competitively binds to active sites, negatively modulates allosteric sites or noncompetitively blocks ion channel on the iGABAR. This leads to decreased chloride conductance, followed by depolarization of affected neurons, epilepsy-related death and ultimately decreased population. Supporting evidence for causal linkages from the molecular to population levels is presented and differential sensitivity to iGABAR antagonists in different GABA receptors and organisms discussed. Adverse outcome pathways are poised to become important tools for linking mechanism-based biomarkers to regulated outcomes in next-generation risk assessment.

  20. Cell and receptor type-specific alterations in markers of GABA neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David A; Hashimoto, Takanori; Morris, Harvey M

    2008-10-01

    Impairments in cognitive control, such as those involved in working memory, are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals with schizophrenia. This dysfunction appears to result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA-mediated neurotransmission. In this paper, we review recent findings indicating that the altered DLPFC circuitry in subjects with schizophrenia reflects changes in the expression of genes that encode selective presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABA neurotransmission. Specifically, using a combination of methods, we found that subjects with schizophrenia exhibited expression deficits in GABA-related transcripts encoding presynaptic regulators of GABA neurotransmission, neuropeptide markers of specific subpopulations of GABA neurons, and certain subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. In particular, alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin suggested that GABA neurotransmission is impaired in the Martinotti subset of GABA neurons that target the dendrites of pyramidal cells. In contrast, none of the GABA-related transcripts assessed to date were altered in the DLPFC of monkeys chronically exposed to antipsychotic medications, suggesting that the effects observed in the human studies reflect the disease process and not its treatment. In concert with previous findings, these data suggest that working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia may be attributable to altered GABA neurotransmission in specific DLPFC microcircuits.

  1. Antiseizure Activity of Midazolam in Mice Lacking δ-Subunit Extrasynaptic GABA(A) Receptors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sandesh D; Younus, Iyan; Clossen, Bryan L; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2015-06-01

    Midazolam is a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant with rapid onset and short duration of action. Midazolam is the current drug of choice for acute seizures and status epilepticus, including those caused by organophosphate nerve agents. The antiseizure activity of midazolam is thought to result from its allosteric potentiation of synaptic GABA(A) receptors in the brain. However, there are indications that benzodiazepines promote neurosteroid synthesis via the 18-kDa cholesterol transporter protein (TSPO). Therefore, we investigated the role of neurosteroids and their extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor targets in the antiseizure activity of midazolam. Here, we used δ-subunit knockout (DKO) mice bearing a targeted deletion of the extrasynaptic receptors to investigate the contribution of the extrasynaptic receptors to the antiseizure activity of midazolam using the 6-Hz and hippocampus kindling seizure models. In both models, midazolam produced rapid and dose-dependent protection against seizures (ED50, 0.4 mg/kg). Moreover, the antiseizure potency of midazolam was undiminished in DKO mice compared with control mice. Pretreatment with PK11195 [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide], a TSPO blocker, or finasteride, a 5α-reductase neurosteroid inhibitor, did not affect the antiseizure effect of midazolam. The antiseizure activity of midazolam was significantly reversed by pretreatment with flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist. Plasma and brain levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone were not significantly greater in midazolam-treated animals. These studies therefore provide strong evidence that neurosteroids and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are not involved in the antiseizure activity of midazolam, which mainly occurs through synaptic GABA(A) receptors via direct binding to benzodiazepine sites. This study reaffirms midazolam's use for controlling acute seizures and status epilepticus. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for

  2. Nicotinic receptors and functional regulation of GABA cell microcircuitry in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Benes, Francine M

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the hippocampus in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have provided evidence for a defect of GABAergic interneurons. Significant decreases in the expression of GAD67, a marker for GABA cell function, have been found repeatedly in several different brain regions that include the hippocampus. In this region, nicotinic receptors are thought to play an important role in modulating the activity of GABAergic interneurons by influences of excitatory cholinergic afferents on their activity. In bipolar disorder, this influence appears to be particularly prominent in the stratum oriens of sectors CA3/2 and CA1, two sites where these cells constitute the exclusive neuronal cell type. In sector CA3/2, this layer receives a robust excitatory projection from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and this is thought to play a central role in regulating GABA cells at this locus. Using laser microdissection, recent studies have focused selectively on these two layers and their associated GABA cells using microarray technology. The results have provided support for the idea that nicotinic cholinergic receptors play a particularly important role in regulating the activity of GABA neurons at these loci by regulating the progression of cell cycle and the repair of damaged DNA. In bipolar disorder, there is a prominent reduction in the expression of mRNAs for several different nicotinic subunit isoforms. These decreases could reflect a diminished influence of this receptor system on these GABA cells, particularly in sector CA3/2 where a preponderance of abnormalities have been observed in postmortem studies. In patients with bipolar disorder, excitatory nicotinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum may converge with glutamatergic fibers from the BLA on GABAergic interneurons in the stratum oriens of CA3/2 and result in disturbances of their genomic and functional integrity, ones that may induce disruptions of the integration of

  3. Behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, its precursor gamma-butyrolactone, and GABA(B) receptor agonists: time course and differential antagonism by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348).

    PubMed

    Koek, Wouter; Mercer, Susan L; Coop, Andrew; France, Charles P

    2009-09-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used therapeutically and recreationally. The mechanism by which GHB produces its therapeutic and recreational effects is not entirely clear, although GABA(B) receptors seem to play an important role. This role could be complex, because there are indications that different GABA(B) receptor mechanisms mediate the effects of GHB and the prototypical GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen. To further explore possible differences in underlying GABA(B) receptor mechanisms, the present study examined the effects of GHB and baclofen on operant responding and their antagonism by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348). Pigeons were trained to peck a key for access to food during response periods that started at different times after the beginning of the session. In these pigeons, GHB, its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and the GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid hydrochloride (SKF97541) decreased the rate of responding in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CGP35348 shifted the dose-response curve of each agonist to the right, but the magnitude of the shift differed among the agonists. Schild analysis yielded a pA(2) value of CGP35348 to antagonize GHB and GBL [i.e., 3.9 (3.7-4.2)] that was different (P = 0.0011) from the pA(2) value to antagonize baclofen and SKF97541 [i.e., 4.5 (4.4-4.7)]. This finding is further evidence that the GABA(B) receptor mechanisms mediating the effects of GHB and prototypical GABA(B) receptor agonists are not identical. A better understanding of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms, and their involvement in the therapeutic effects of GHB and baclofen, could lead to more effective medications with fewer adverse effects.

  4. GABA(A) receptors mediate orexin-A induced stimulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Patole, Angad M; Carta, Anna; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2006-01-01

    Although the role of orexins in sleep/wake cycle and feeding behavior is well established, underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood. An attempt has been made to investigate the role of GABA(A) receptors and their benzodiazepine site on the orexin-A induced response to feeding. Different groups of rats were food deprived overnight and next day injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) with vehicle (artificial CSF; 5 microl/rat) or orexin-A (20-50 nM/rat) and the animals were given free access to food. Cumulative food intake was measured during light phase of light/dark cycle at 1-, 2-, 4- and 6-h post-injection time points. Orexin-A (30-50 nM/rat, icv) stimulated food intake at all the time points (P < 0.05). Prior administration of GABA(A) receptor agonists muscimol (25 ng/rat, icv) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, ip) at subeffective doses significantly potentiated the hyperphagic effect of orexin-A (30 nM/rat, icv). However, the effect was negated by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, ip). Interestingly, benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (5 ng/rat, icv), augmented the orexin-A (30 nM/rat, icv) induced hyperphagia; the effect may be attributed to the intrinsic activity of the agent. The results suggest that the hyperphagic effect of orexin-A, at least in part, is mediated by enhanced GABA(A) receptor activity.

  5. Contribution of ventral tegmental GABA receptors to cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Backes, E N; Hemby, S E

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0, 125, 250 and 500 microg/infusion) under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Separate groups of rats received bilateral intra-VTA injections of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (34 ng/side, n = 7; 68 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-A agonist muscimol (14 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-B agonist baclofen (56 ng/side, n = 7; 100 ng/side, n = 6), picrotoxin (68 ng/side) co-injected with the GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 ng/side, n = 7; 2 microg/side, n = 8) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, n = 6) to assess the effects of the various compounds on the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve. Both picrotoxin and baclofen reduced responding maintained by cocaine, whereas muscimol had no effect on responding. In contrast, neither picrotoxin (n = 6) nor baclofen (n = 8) affected responding maintained by food. Interestingly, 2-hydroxysaclofen effectively blocked the suppression of responding produced by picrotoxin, suggesting that both picrotoxin and baclofen exert their effects via activation of GABA-B receptors. Additionally, these effects appear to be specific to cocaine reinforcement, supporting current investigation of baclofen as a treatment for cocaine addiction.

  6. Contribution of ventral tegmental GABA receptors to cocaine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Backes, E.N.; Hemby, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0, 125, 250 and 500 µg/infusion) under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Separate groups of rats received bilateral intra-VTA injections of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (34 ng/side, n=7; 68 ng/side, n=8), GABA-A agonist muscimol (14 ng/side, n=8), GABA-B agonist baclofen (56 ng/side, n=7; 100 ng/side, n=6), picrotoxin (68 ng/side) co-injected with the GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 ng/side, n=7; 2 µg/side, n=8) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, n=6) to assess the effects of the various compounds on the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve. Both picrotoxin and baclofen reduced responding maintained by cocaine, whereas muscimol had no effect on responding. In contrast, neither picrotoxin (n=6) nor baclofen (n=8) affected responding maintained by food. Interestingly, 2-hydroxysaclofen effectively blocked the suppression of responding produced by picrotoxin, suggesting that both picrotoxin and baclofen exert their effects via activation of GABA-B receptors. Additionally, these effects appear to be specific to cocaine reinforcement, supporting current investigation of baclofen as a treatment for cocaine addiction. PMID:17943439

  7. Valerian Inhibits Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis by Activating GABA(A) Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Kato, Ayumi; Ishii, Naomi; Wei, Min; Morimura, Keiichirou; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Valerian is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep due to interaction of several active components with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor (GABA(A)R) system. Recently, activation of GABA signaling in stem cells has been reported to suppress cell cycle progression in vivo. Furthermore, possible inhibitory effects of GABA(A)R agonists on hepatocarcinogenesis have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate modulating effects of Valerian on hepatocarcinogenesis using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were treated with one of the most powerful Valerian species (Valeriana sitchensis) at doses of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm in their drinking water after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P+) foci was significantly inhibited by Valerian at all applied doses compared with DEN initiation control rats. Generation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in the rat liver was significantly suppressed by all doses of Valerian, likely due to suppression of Nrf2, CYP7A1 and induction of catalase expression. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in areas of GST-P+ foci of Valerian groups associated with suppression of c-myc, Mafb, cyclin D1 and induction of p21Waf1/Cip1, p53 and Bax mRNA expression. Interestingly, expression of the GABA(A)R alpha 1 subunit was observed in GST-P+ foci of DEN control rats, with significant elevation associated with Valerian treatment. These results indicate that Valerian exhibits inhibitory effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GST-P+ foci by activating GABA(A)R-mediated signaling. PMID:25419570

  8. GABA(B) receptors, schizophrenia and sleep dysfunction: a review of the relationship and its potential clinical and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz, Joshua; Citrome, Leslie; Javitt, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Evidence for an intrinsic relationship between sleep, cognition and the symptomatic manifestations of schizophrenia is accumulating. This review presents evidence for the possible utility of GABA(B) receptor agonists for the treatment of subjective and objective sleep abnormalities related to schizophrenia. At the phenotypic level, sleep disturbance occurs in 16-30% of patients with schizophrenia and is related to reduced quality of life and poor coping skills. On the neurophysiological level, studies suggest that sleep deficits reflect a core component of schizophrenia. Specifically, slow-wave sleep deficits, which are inversely correlated with cognition scores, are seen. Moreover, sleep plays an increasingly well documented role in memory consolidation in schizophrenia. Correlations of slow-wave sleep deficits with impaired reaction time and declarative memory have also been reported. Thus, both behavioural insomnia and sleep architecture are critical therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia. However, long-term treatment with antipsychotics often results in residual sleep dysfunction and does not improve slow-wave sleep, and adjunctive GABA(A) receptor modulators, such as benzodiazepines and zolpidem, can impair sleep architecture and cognition in schizophrenia. GABA(B) receptor agonists have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. These agents have minimal effect on rapid eye movement sleep while increasing slow-wave sleep. Preclinical associations with increased expression of genes related to slow-wave sleep production and circadian rhythm function have also been reported. GABA(B) receptor deficits result in a sustained hyperdopaminergic state and can be reversed by a GABA(B) receptor agonist. Genetic, postmortem and electrophysiological studies also associate GABA(B) receptors with schizophrenia. While studies thus far have not shown significant effects, prior focus on the use of GABA(B) receptor agonists has been on the positive symptoms of

  9. Characterization of GABA/sub A/ receptor-mediated /sup 36/chloride uptake in rat brain synaptoneurosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, M.D.; Morrow, A.L.; Paul, S.M.

    1987-09-07

    ..gamma..-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated /sup 36/chloride (/sup 36/Cl/sup -/) uptake was measured in synaptoneurosomes from rat brain. GABA and GABA agonists stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with the following order of potency: Muscimol>GABA>piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (P4S)>4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP)=3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (3APS)>>taurine. Both P4S and 3APS behaved as partial agonists, while the GABA/sub B/ agonist, baclofen, was ineffective. The response to muscimol was inhibited by bicuculline and picrotoxin in a mixed competitive/non-competitive manner. Other inhibitors of GABA receptor-opened channels or non-neuronal anion channels such as penicillin, picrate, furosemide and disulfonic acid stilbenes also inhibited the response to muscimol. A regionalmore » variation in muscimol-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake was observed; the largest responses were observed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus, moderate responses were obtained in the striatum and hypothalamus and the smallest response was observed in the pons-medulla. GABA receptor-mediated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake was also dependent on the anion present in the media. The muscinol response varied in media containing the following anions: Br/sup -/>Cl/sup -/greater than or equal toNO/sub 3//sup -/>I/sup -/greater than or equal toSCN/sup -/>>C/sub 3/H/sub 5/OO/sup -/greater than or equal toClO/sub 4//sup -/>F/sup -/, consistent with the relative anion permeability through GABA receptor-gated anion channels and the enhancement of convulsant binding to the GABA receptor-gated Cl/sup -/ channel. 43 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.« less

  10. Assessment of GABA(A)benzodiazepine receptor (GBzR) sensitivity in patients on benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Potokar, J; Coupland, N; Wilson, S; Rich, A; Nutt, D

    1999-09-01

    To measure GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity in patients taking benzodiazepines and compare with matched controls. Seven patients who were on prescribed benzodiazepines for an anxiety disorder or insomnia were recruited from general practice and an adult mental health service outpatient clinic. They were matched with seven volunteers. All subjects received an intravenous injection of midazolam 50 microgram/kg in 10 ml normal saline over 10 min. Objective responses to midazolam were assessed using saccadic eye movement velocity slowing and subjective assessments using visual analogue scales. Measurements were recorded for 120 min and plasma midazolam concentrations obtained at 15-min intervals post-infusion to 120 min. Ratios of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic effects were obtained for each individual to estimate GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity. Patients had an attenuated response to midazolam on both subjective and objective measures. GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity was significantly reduced in the patient group. Chronic treatment with benzodiazepines was associated with reduced effects of midazolam. Saccadic eye movement velocity was especially sensitive as a measure of attenuated response.

  11. The GABA(A) receptor RDL acts in peptidergic PDF neurons to promote sleep in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chung, Brian Y; Kilman, Valerie L; Keath, J Russel; Pitman, Jena L; Allada, Ravi

    2009-03-10

    Sleep is regulated by a circadian clock that times sleep and wake to specific times of day and a homeostat that drives sleep as a function of prior wakefulness. To analyze the role of the circadian clock, we have used the fruit fly Drosophila. Flies display the core behavioral features of sleep, including relative immobility, elevated arousal thresholds, and homeostatic regulation. We assessed sleep-wake modulation by a core set of circadian pacemaker neurons that express the neuropeptide PDF. We find that disruption of PDF function increases sleep during the late night in light:dark and the first subjective day of constant darkness. Flies deploy genetic and neurotransmitter pathways to regulate sleep that are similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, including GABA. We find that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the GABA(A) receptor gene, Resistant to dieldrin (Rdl), in PDF neurons reduces sleep, consistent with a role for GABA in inhibiting PDF neuron function. Patch-clamp electrophysiology reveals GABA-activated picrotoxin-sensitive chloride currents on PDF+ neurons. In addition, RDL is detectable most strongly on the large subset of PDF+ pacemaker neurons. These results suggest that GABAergic inhibition of arousal-promoting PDF neurons is an important mode of sleep-wake regulation in vivo.

  12. Responses to GABA(A) receptor activation are altered in NTS neurons isolated from chronic hypoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, Gleb; Belugin, Sergei; Mifflin, Steve

    2004-04-23

    The inhibitory amino acid GABA is released within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) during hypoxia and modulates the respiratory response to hypoxia. To determine if responses of NTS neurons to activation of GABA(A) receptors are altered following exposure to chronic hypoxia, GABA(A) receptor-evoked whole cell currents were measured in enzymatically dispersed NTS neurons from normoxic and chronic hypoxic rats. Chronic hypoxic rats were exposed to 10% O(2) for 9-12 days. Membrane capacitance was the same in neurons from normoxic (6.9+/-0.5 pF, n=16) and hypoxic (6.3+/-0.5 pF, n=15) rats. The EC(50) for peak GABA-evoked current density was significantly greater in neurons from hypoxic (21.7+/-2.2 microM) compared to normoxic rats (12.2+/-0.9 microM) (p<0.001). Peak and 5-s adapted GABA currents evoked by 1, 3 and 10 microM were greater in neurons from normoxic compared to hypoxic rats (p<0.05) whereas peak and 5-s adapted responses to 30 and 100 microM GABA were not different comparing normoxic to hypoxic rats. Desensitization of GABA(A)-evoked currents was observed at concentrations greater than 3 microM and, measured as the ratio of the current 5 s after the onset of 100 microM GABA application to the peak GABA current, was the same in neurons from normoxic (0.37+/-0.03) and hypoxic rats (0.33+/-0.04). Reduced sensitivity to GABA(A) receptor-evoked inhibition in chronic hypoxia could influence chemoreceptor afferent integration by NTS neurons.

  13. GABA-benzodiazepine receptor function in alcohol dependence: a combined 11C-flumazenil PET and pharmacodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Lingford-Hughes, A R; Wilson, S J; Cunningham, V J; Feeney, A; Stevenson, B; Brooks, D J; Nutt, D J

    2005-08-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-benzodiazepine receptor function is hypothesised to be reduced in alcohol dependence. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]flumazenil, a non-selective tracer for brain GABA-benzodiazepine (GABA-BDZ) receptor binding, to determine in vivo the relationship between BDZ receptor occupancy by an agonist, midazolam, and its functional effects. Abstinent male alcohol dependent subjects underwent [11C]flumazenil PET to measure occupancy of BDZ receptors by midazolam whilst recording its pharmacodynamic effects on behavioural and physiological measures. Rate constants describing the exchange of [11C]flumazenil between the plasma and brain compartments were derived from time activity curves. A 50% reduction in electroencephalography (EEG)-measured sleep time was seen in the alcohol dependent group despite the same degree of occupancy by midazolam as seen in the control group. The effects of midazolam on other measures of benzodiazepine receptor function, increasing EEG beta1 power and slowing of saccadic eye movements, were similar in the two groups. No differences in midazolam or flumazenil metabolism were found between the groups. In summary, our study suggests that alcohol dependence in man is associated with a reduced EEG sleep response to the benzodiazepine agonist, midazolam, which is not explained by reduced BDZ receptor occupancy, and is consistent with reduced sensitivity in this measure of GABA-BDZ receptor function in alcohol dependence. The lack of change in other functional measures may reflect a differential involvement of particular subtypes of the GABA-BDZ receptor.

  14. GABA(A) receptors in visual and auditory cortex and neural activity changes during basic visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengmin; Duncan, Niall W; Wiebking, Christine; Gravel, Paul; Lyttelton, Oliver; Hayes, Dave J; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Kostikov, Alexey; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Reader, Andrew J; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have demonstrated that levels of resting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the visual cortex predict the degree of stimulus-induced activity in the same region. These studies have used the presentation of discrete visual stimulus; the change from closed eyes to open also represents a simple visual stimulus, however, and has been shown to induce changes in local brain activity and in functional connectivity between regions. We thus aimed to investigate the role of the GABA system, specifically GABA(A) receptors, in the changes in brain activity between the eyes closed (EC) and eyes open (EO) state in order to provide detail at the receptor level to complement previous studies of GABA concentrations. We conducted an fMRI study involving two different modes of the change from EC to EO: an EO and EC block design, allowing the modeling of the haemodynamic response, followed by longer periods of EC and EO to allow the measuring of functional connectivity. The same subjects also underwent [(18)F]Flumazenil PET to measure GABA(A) receptor binding potentials. It was demonstrated that the local-to-global ratio of GABA(A) receptor binding potential in the visual cortex predicted the degree of changes in neural activity from EC to EO. This same relationship was also shown in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, the local-to-global ratio of GABA(A) receptor binding potential in the visual cortex also predicted the change in functional connectivity between the visual and auditory cortex from EC to EO. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of GABA(A) receptors in stimulus-induced neural activity in local regions and in inter-regional functional connectivity.

  15. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  16. Modulation of acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices by the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Supavilai, P.; Karobath, M.

    1985-02-04

    GABA, THIP and muscimol enhance spontaneous and inhibit electrically induced release of tritium labelled compounds from rat striatal slices which have been pre-labelled with /sup 3/H-choline. Baclofen is inactive in this model. Muscimol can inhibit electrically induced release of tritiated material by approximately 75% with half maximal effects at 2 ..mu..M. The response to muscimol can be blocked by the GABA antagonists bicuculline methobromide, picrotoxin, anisatin, R 5135 and CPTBO (cyclopentylbicyclophosphate). Drugs which act on the benzodiazepine receptor (BR) require the presence of muscimol to be effective and they modulate the effects of muscimol in a bidirectional manner. Thus BRmore » agonists enhance and inverse BR agonists attenuate the inhibitory effects of muscimol on electrically induced release. Ro15-1788, a BR antagonist, does not modulate the inhibitory effects of muscimol but antagonizes the actions of clonazepam, a BR agonist, and of DMCM, an inverse BR agonist. These results demonstrate that a GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex can modulate acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices in vitro. 24 references, 3 figures, 5 table.« less

  17. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jobin; Balakrishnan, Savitha; Antony, Sherin; Abraham, Pretty Mary; Paulose, C S

    2012-02-24

    Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex, maintains the inhibitory tones that counter balances neuronal excitation. When this balance is perturbed, seizures may ensue. In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated. Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P < 0.001) compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of GABA receptor subunits such as GABAAά1, GABAAγ, GABAAδ, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P < 0.001) in epileptic rats. GABAAά5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management.

  18. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstact Background Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex, maintains the inhibitory tones that counter balances neuronal excitation. When this balance is perturbed, seizures may ensue. Methods In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated. Results Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P < 0.001) compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of GABA receptor subunits such as GABAAά1, GABAAγ, GABAAδ, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P < 0.001) in epileptic rats. GABAAά5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance. Conclusions Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management. PMID:22364254

  19. Hypoglycemia induced behavioural deficit and decreased GABA receptor, CREB expression in the cerebellum of streptozoticin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sherin, A; Peeyush, K T; Naijil, G; Chinthu, R; Paulose, C S

    2010-11-20

    Intensive glycemic control during diabetes is associated with an increased incidence of hypoglycemia, which is the major barrier in blood glucose homeostasis during diabetes therapy. The CNS neurotransmitters play an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In the present study, we showed the effects of hypoglycemia in diabetic and non- diabetic rats on motor functions and alterations of GABA receptor and CREB expression in the cerebellum. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with seizure generation, motor deficits and memory impairment. Scatchard analysis of [(3)H]GABA binding in the cerebellum of diabetic hypoglycemic and control hypoglycemic rats showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in B(max) and K(d) compared to diabetic and control rats. Real-time PCR amplification of GABA receptor subunit GABA(Aα1) and GAD showed significant (P<0.001) down-regulation in the cerebellum of hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control rats. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in hypoglycemic rats. CREB mRNA expression was down-regulated during recurrent hypoglycemia. Both diabetic and non-diabetic hypoglycemic rats showed impaired performance in grid walk test compared to diabetic and control. Impaired GABA receptor and CREB expression along with motor function deficit were more prominent in hypoglycemic rats than hyperglycemic which showed that hypoglycemia is causing more neuronal damage at molecular level. These molecular changes observed during hypo/hyperglycemia contribute to motor and learning deficits which has clinical significance in diabetes treatment. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Taurine-induced attenuation of MPP+ neurotoxicity in vitro: a possible role for the GABA(A) subclass of GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, M B; Tipton, K F

    2000-05-01

    Taurine is a sulphur-containing beta-amino acid found in high (millimolar) concentrations in excitable tissues such as brain and heart. Its suggested roles include osmoregulator, thermoregulator, neuromodulator, and potential neurotransmitter. This amino acid has also been shown to be released in large concentrations during ischaemia and excitotoxin-induced neuronal damage. Here we report a protective effect of taurine against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in coronal slices from rat brain. Significant protective effects were observed at taurine concentrations of 20 and 1 mM, suggesting a potential role for taurine in cases of neuronal insult. Studies with the synthetic taurine analogues taurine phosphonate, guanidinoethane sulphonate, and trimethyltaurine suggested the observed effect to be mediated via an extracellular mechanism. The use of GABA receptor ligands muscimol and bicuculline indicated the effect to be mediated through activation of GABA(A) receptors.

  1. Context-dependent modulation of alphabetagamma and alphabetadelta GABA A receptors by penicillin: implications for phasic and tonic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J; Macdonald, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin, an open-channel blocker of GABA(A) receptors, was recently reported to inhibit phasic, but not tonic, currents in hippocampal neurons. To distinguish between isoform-specific and context-dependent modulation as possible explanations for this selectivity, the effects of penicillin were evaluated on recombinant GABA(A) receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. When co-applied with saturating GABA, penicillin decreased peak amplitude, induced rebound, and prolonged deactivation of currents evoked from both synaptic and extrasynaptic receptor isoforms. However, penicillin had isoform-specific effects on the extent of desensitization, reflecting its ability to differentially modulate peak (non-equilibrium) and residual (near-equilibrium) currents. This suggested that the context of activation could determine the apparent sensitivity of a given receptor isoform to penicillin. To test this hypothesis, we explored the ability of penicillin to modulate synaptic and extrasynaptic isoform currents that were activated under more physiologically relevant conditions. Interestingly, while currents evoked from synaptic isoforms under phasic conditions (transient activation by a saturating concentration of GABA) were substantially inhibited by penicillin, currents evoked from extrasynaptic isoforms under tonic conditions (prolonged application by a sub-saturating concentration of GABA) were minimally affected. We therefore concluded that the reported inability of penicillin to modulate tonic currents could not simply be attributed to insensitivity of extrasynaptic receptors, but rather, reflected an inability to modulate these receptors in their native context of activation.

  2. Effects of central histamine receptors blockade on GABA(A) agonist-induced food intake in broiler cockerels.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Zendehdel; Vahhab, Babapour; Hossein, Jonaidi

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection of H1, H2 and H3 antagonists on feed intake induced by GABA(A) agonist was evaluated. In Experiment 1, the animals received chloropheniramine, a H1 antagonist and then muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist. In Experiment 2, chickens received famotidine, a H2 receptor antagonist, prior to injection of muscimol. Finally in Experiment 3, the birds were injected with thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist and muscimol. Cumulative food intake was measured 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after injections. The results of this study indicated that effects of muscimol on food intake inhibited by pretreatment with chloropheneramine maleate (p < or = 0.05), significantly, while the famotidine and thioperamide were ineffective. These results suggest the existence of H1-receptor mediated histamine-GABA(A) receptor interaction on food intake in broiler cockerels.

  3. Reduction of GABA/sub B/ receptor binding induced by climbing fiber degeneration in the rat cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, K.; Fukuda, H.

    1985-07-22

    When the rat cerebellar climbing fibers degenerated, as induced by lesioning the inferior olive with 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP), GABA/sub B/ receptor binding determined with /sup 3/H-(+/-)baclofen was reduced in the cerebellum but not in the cerebral cortex of rats. Computer analysis of saturation data revealed two components of the binding sites, and indicated that decrease of the binding in the cerebellum was due to reduction in receptor density, mainly of the high-affinity sites, the B/sub max/ of which was reduced to one-third that in the control animals. In vitro treatment with 3-AP, of the membranes prepared from either the cerebellum ormore » the cerebral cortex, induced no alteration in the binding sites, thereby indicating that the alteration of GABA/sub B/ sites induced by in vivo treatment with 3-AP is not due to a direct action of 3-AP on the receptor. GABA/sub A/ and benzodiazepine receptor binding labelled with /sup 3/H-muscimol and /sup 3/H-diazepam, respectively, in both of brain regions was not affected by destruction of the inferior olive. These results provide evidence that some of the GABA/sub B/ sites but neither GABA/sub A/ nor benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebellum are located at the climbing fiber terminals. 28 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.« less

  4. Structure and functional interaction of the extracellular domain of human GABA[subscript B] receptor GBR2

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Yong; Xiong, Dazhi; Mosyak, Lidia

    2012-10-24

    Inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated primarily by GABA. The metabotropic GABA{sub B} receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor central to mammalian brain function. Malfunction of GABA{sub B} receptor has been implicated in several neurological disorders. GABA{sub B} receptor functions as a heterodimeric assembly of GBR1 and GBR2 subunits, where GBR1 is responsible for ligand-binding and GBR2 is responsible for G protein coupling. Here we demonstrate that the GBR2 ectodomain directly interacts with the GBR1 ectodomain to increase agonist affinity by selectively stabilizing the agonist-bound conformation of GBR1. We present the crystal structure of the GBR2 ectodomain, which reveals a polar heterodimericmore » interface. We also identify specific heterodimer contacts from both subunits, and GBR1 residues involved in ligand recognition. Lastly, our structural and functional data indicate that the GBR2 ectodomain adopts a constitutively open conformation, suggesting a structural asymmetry in the active state of GABA{sub B} receptor that is unique to the GABAergic system.« less

  5. Effects of Antecedent GABA A Receptor Activation on Counterregulatory Responses to Exercise in Healthy Man

    PubMed Central

    Hedrington, Maka S.; Tate, Donna B.; Younk, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antecedent stimulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors with the benzodiazepine alprazolam can blunt physiologic responses during next-day moderate (90 min) exercise in healthy man. Thirty-one healthy individuals (16 male/15 female aged 28 ± 1 year, BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m2) were studied during separate, 2-day protocols. Day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hypoglycemic clamps with or without 1 mg alprazolam given 30 min before a clamp. Day 2 consisted of 90-min euglycemic cycling exercise at 50% VO2max. Despite similar euglycemia (5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and insulinemia (46 ± 6 pmol/L) during day 2 exercise studies, GABA A activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone responses. Lipolysis (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and endogenous glucose production during exercise were also reduced, and glucose infusion rates were increased following prior euglycemia with alprazolam. Prior hypoglycemia with alprazolam resulted in further reduction of glucagon and cortisol responses during exercise. We conclude that prior activation of GABA A pathways can play a significant role in blunting key autonomous nervous system, neuroendocrine, and metabolic physiologic responses during next-day exercise in healthy man. PMID:25901095

  6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor 1 in cerebellar cortex of essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Luo, C; Rajput, A H; Robinson, C A; Rajput, A

    2012-06-01

    Some reports suggest cerebellar dysfunction as the basis of essential tremor (ET). Several drugs with the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to improve ET. Autopsy studies were performed on brains from nine former patients followed at the Movement Disorders Clinic Saskatchewan, Canada, and compared with five normal control brains. We aimed to measure the concentration of GABA B receptor 1 (GBR1) in the brains of patients who had had ET and to compare them to the GABA concentration in brains of controls. Western blot was used to determine the expression of GBR1 in cerebellar cortex tissue. We found that compared to the controls, the ET brains had three different patterns of GBR1 protein concentration--two with high, four comparable, and three with marginally low levels. There was no association between the age of onset, severity or duration of tremor, the response to alcohol or other drugs and GBR1 level. Thus, we conclude that our study does not support that GBR1 is involved in ET. Further studies are needed to verify these results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactions of pyrethroid insecticides with GABA sub A and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Devaud, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are potent proconvulsants in the rat. All pyrethroids evincing proconvulsant activity elicited a similar 25-30% maximal reduction of seizure threshold. The Type II pyrethroids were the most potent proconvulsants with 1R{alpha}S, cis cypermethrin having an ED{sub 50} value of 6.3 nmol/kg. The proconvulsant activity of both Type I and Type II pyrenthroids was blocked by pretreatment with PK 11195, the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PTBR) antagonist. In contrast, phenytoin did not antagonize the proconvulsant activity of either deltamethrin or permethrin. Pyrethroids displaced the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)Ro5-4864 to rat brain membranes with a significant correlation between the logmore » EC{sub 50} values for their activities as proconvulsants and the log IC{sub 50} values for their inhibition of ({sup 3}H)Ro5-4864 binding. Both Ro5-4864 and pyrethroid insecticides were found to influence specific ({sup 35}S)TBPS binding in a GABA-dependent manner. PK 11195 and the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin antagonized the Ro5-4864-induced modulation of ({sup 35}S)TBPS binding. Pyrethroid insecticides, Ro5-4864 and veratridine influenced GABA-gated {sup 36}Chloride influx. Moreover, the Type II pyrethroids elicited an increase in {sup 36}chloride influx in the absence of GABA-stimulation. Both of these actions were antagonized by PK 11195 and tetrodotoxin.« less

  8. A novel GABA(A) alpha 5 receptor inhibitor with therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Ling, István; Mihalik, Balázs; Etherington, Lori-An; Kapus, Gábor; Pálvölgyi, Adrienn; Gigler, Gábor; Kertész, Szabolcs; Gaál, Attila; Pallagi, Katalin; Kiricsi, Péter; Szabó, Éva; Szénási, Gábor; Papp, Lilla; Hársing, László G; Lévay, György; Spedding, Michael; Lambert, Jeremy J; Belelli, Delia; Barkóczy, József; Volk, Balázs; Simig, Gyula; Gacsályi, István; Antoni, Ferenc A

    2015-10-05

    Novel 2,3-benzodiazepine and related isoquinoline derivatives, substituted at position 1 with a 2-benzothiophenyl moiety, were synthesized to produce compounds that potently inhibited the action of GABA on heterologously expressed GABAA receptors containing the alpha 5 subunit (GABAA α5), with no apparent affinity for the benzodiazepine site. Substitutions of the benzothiophene moiety at position 4 led to compounds with drug-like properties that were putative inhibitors of extra-synaptic GABAA α5 receptors and had substantial blood-brain barrier permeability. Initial characterization in vivo showed that 8-methyl-5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-benzothiophen-2-yl]-1,9-dihydro-2H-[1,3]oxazolo[4,5-h][2,3]benzodiazepin-2-one was devoid of sedative, pro-convulsive or motor side-effects, and enhanced the performance of rats in the object recognition test. In summary, we have discovered a first-in-class GABA-site inhibitor of extra-synaptic GABAA α5 receptors that has promising drug-like properties and warrants further development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. K+ channel TASK-1 knockout mice show enhanced sensitivities to ataxic and hypnotic effects of GABA(A) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Linden, Anni-Maija; Aller, M Isabel; Leppä, Elli; Rosenberg, Per H; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R

    2008-10-01

    TASK two-pore-domain leak K(+) channels occur throughout the brain. However, TASK-1 and TASK-3 knockout (KO) mice have few neurological impairments and only mildly reduced sensitivities to inhalational anesthetics, contrasting with the anticipated functions and importance of these channels. TASK-1/-3 channel expression can compensate for the absence of GABA(A) receptors in GABA(A) alpha6 KO mice. To investigate the converse, we analyzed the behavior of TASK-1 and -3 KO mice after administering drugs with preferential efficacies at GABA(A) receptor subtypes: benzodiazepines (diazepam and flurazepam, active at alpha1betagamma2, alpha2betagamma2, alpha3betagamma2, and alpha5betagamma2 subtypes), zolpidem (alpha1betagamma2 subtype), propofol (beta2-3-containing receptors), gaboxadol (alpha4betadelta and alpha6betadelta subtypes), pregnanolone, and pentobarbital (many subtypes). TASK-1 KO mice showed increased motor impairment in rotarod and beam-walking tests after diazepam and flurazepam administration but not after zolpidem. They also showed prolonged loss of righting reflex induced by propofol and pentobarbital. Autoradiography indicated no change in GABA(A) receptor ligand binding levels. These altered behavioral responses to GABAergic drugs suggest functional up-regulation of alpha2beta2/3gamma2 and alpha3beta2/3gamma2 receptor subtypes in TASK-1 KO mice. In addition, female, but not male, TASK-1 KO mice were more sensitive to gaboxadol, suggesting an increased influence of alpha4betadelta or alpha6betadelta subtypes. The benzodiazepine sensitivity of TASK-3 KO mice was marginally increased. Our results underline that TASK-1 channels perform such key functions in the brain that compensation is needed for their absence. Furthermore, because inhalation anesthetics act partially through GABA(A) receptors, the up-regulation of GABA(A) receptor function in TASK-1 KO mice might mask TASK-1 channel's significance as a target for inhalation anesthetics.

  10. Meta-diamide insecticides acting on distinct sites of RDL GABA receptor from those for conventional noncompetitive antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Banba, Shinich; Nomura, Michikazu; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2013-04-01

    The RDL GABA receptor is an attractive target of insecticides. Here we demonstrate that meta-diamides [3-benzamido-N-(4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl)benzamides] are a distinct class of RDL GABA receptor antagonists showing high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura. We also suggest that the mode of action of the meta-diamides is distinct from that of conventional noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs), such as fipronil, picrotoxin, lindane, dieldrin, and α-endosulfan. Using a membrane potential assay, we examined the effects of the meta-diamide 3-benzamido-N-(2-bromo-4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (meta-diamide 7) and NCAs on mutant Drosophila RDL GABA receptors expressed in Drosophila Mel-2 cells. NCAs had little or no inhibitory activity against at least one of the three mutant receptors (A2'S, A2'G, and A2'N), which were reported to confer resistance to NCAs. In contrast, meta-diamide 7 inhibited all three A2' mutant receptors, at levels comparable to its activity with the wild-type receptor. Furthermore, the A2'S·T6'V mutation almost abolished the inhibitory effects of all NCAs. However, meta-diamide 7 inhibited the A2'S・T6'S mutant receptor at the same level as its activity with the wild-type receptor. In contrast, a G336M mutation in the third transmembrane domain of the RDL GABA receptor abolished the inhibitory activities of meta-diamide 7, although the G336M mutation had little effect on the inhibitory activities of conventional NCAs. Molecular modeling studies also suggested that the binding site of meta-diamides was different from those of NCAs. Meta-diamide insecticides are expected to be prominent insecticides effective against A2' mutant RDL GABA receptors with a different mode of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hippocampal low-frequency stimulation inhibits afterdischarge and increases GABA (A) receptor expression in amygdala-kindled pharmacoresistant epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guofeng; Wang, Likun; Hong, Zhen; Ren, Siying; Zhou, Feng

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of hippocampal low-frequency stimulation (Hip-LFS) on amygdala afterdischarge and GABA (A) receptor expression in pharmacoresistant epileptic (PRE) rats. A total of 110 healthy adult male Wistar rats were used to generate a model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of the amygdala. Sixteen PRE rats were selected from 70 amygdala-kindled rats by testing their response to Phenytoin and Phenobarbital, and they were randomly assigned to a pharmacoresistant stimulation group (PRS group, 8 rats) or a pharmacoresistant control group (PRC group, 8 rats). A stimulation electrode was implanted into the hippocampus of all of the rats. Hip-LFS was administered twice per day in the PRS group for two weeks. Simultaneously, amygdala stimulus-induced seizures and afterdischarge were recorded. After the hippocampal stimulation was terminated, the brain tissues were obtained to determine the GABA (A) receptors by a method of immumohistochemistry and a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stages and duration of the amygdala stimulus-induced epileptic seizures were decreased in the PRS group. The afterdischarge threshold was increased and the duration as well as the afterdischarge frequency was decreased. Simultaneously, the GABA (A) expression was significantly increased in the PRS group. Hip-LFS may inhibit amygdala stimulus-induced epileptic seizures and up-regulate GABA (A) receptor expression in PRE rats. The antiepileptic effects of hippocampal stimulation may be partly achieved by increasing the GABA (A) receptor.

  12. Association of GABA(B)R1 receptor gene polymorphism with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bayazit, Yildirim A; Yilmaz, Metin; Kokturk, Oguz; Erdal, M Emin; Ciftci, Tansu; Gokdogan, Tuba; Kemaloglu, Yusuf; Ileri, Fikret

    2007-01-01

    GABA(B)R (gamma-amino butyric acid B receptor)-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. GABA(B)R1 gene variants were identified by single-strand conformation analysis. The nucleotide exchanges cause a substitution of alanine to valine in exon 1a1 (Ala20Val), a substitution of glycine to serine in exon 7 (Gly489Ser) and a silent C to G nucleotide exchange encoding the amino acid phenylalanine in exon 11 (Phe658Phe). The significance of GABA(B)R1a gene polymorphism in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as the association of these polymorphisms with the polysomnography findings in OSAS patients are not known. In this study, we aimed to assess the significance of 3 different GABA(B)R1 gene polymorphisms (Ala20Val, Gly489Ser and Phe658Phe) in OSAS. Seventy-five patients (23 female and 52 male) with OSAS and 99 healthy volunteers (51 female, 48 male) were included in the study to assess Ala20Val, Gly489Ser and Phe658Phe polymorphisms of the GABA(B)R1 gene. For the Ala20Val variants, there was no significant difference between the genotypes and allele frequencies of the patients and controls, nor between both genders (p > 0.05). For Phe658Phe polymorphism, there was no significant difference between genotypes and allele frequencies of the patients and controls (p > 0.05). However, the C/C genotype was overrepresented and the T/C genotype was less frequent in male than female patients (p = 0.03). The C/C genotype was overrepresented and the T/C genotype was less frequent in male patients than male controls (p = 0.01). For GABA(B)R1-Gly489Ser polymorphism, all of the patients and controls had G/G genotype. The apnea arousal index scores of the male patients with C/C genotype were significantly higher than in the patients with C/T genotype (p = 0.01). The percent total sleep time in non-REM 1 scores of the male patients with T/T genotype were significantly higher than in the patients with T

  13. Glutamate and GABA receptors and transporters in the basal ganglia: What does their subsynaptic localization reveal about their function?

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Kuwajima, Masaaki; Smith, Yoland

    2006-01-01

    GABA and glutamate, the main transmitters in the basal ganglia, exert their effects through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. The dynamic activation of these receptors in response to released neurotransmitter depends, among other factors, on their precise localization in relation to corresponding synapses. The use of high resolution quantitative electron microscope immunocytochemical techniques has provided in-depth description of the subcellular and subsynaptic localization of these receptors in the CNS. In this article, we review recent findings on the ultrastructural localization of GABA and glutamate receptors and transporters in the basal ganglia, at synaptic, extrasynaptic and presynaptic sites. The anatomical evidence supports numerous potential locations for receptor-neurotransmitter interactions, and raises important questions regarding mechanisms of activation and function of synaptic versus extrasynaptic receptors in the basal ganglia. PMID:17059868

  14. Decreased agonist sensitivity of human GABA(A) receptors by an amino acid variant, isoleucine to valine, in the alpha1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Westh-Hansen, S E; Rasmussen, P B; Hastrup, S; Nabekura, J; Noguchi, K; Akaike, N; Witt, M R; Nielsen, M

    1997-06-25

    Recombinant human GABA(A) receptors were investigated in vitro by coexpression of cDNAs coding for alpha1, beta2, and gamma2 subunits in the baculovirus/Sf-9 insect cell system. We report that a single amino acid exchange (isoleucine 121 to valine 121) in the N-terminal, extracellular part of the alpha1 subunit induces a marked decrease in agonist GABA(A) receptor ligand sensitivity. The potency of muscimol and GABA to inhibit the binding of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist [3H]SR 95531 (2-(3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyridazinium bromide) was higher in receptor complexes of alpha1(ile 121) beta2gamma2 than in those of alpha1(val 121) beta2gamma2 (IC50 values were 32-fold and 26-fold lower for muscimol and GABA, respectively). The apparent affinity of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide to inhibit the binding of [3H]SR 95531 did not differ between the two receptor complex variants. Electrophysiological measurements of GABA induced whole-cell Cl- currents showed a ten-fold decrease in the GABA(A) receptor sensitivity of alpha1 (val 121) beta2gamma2 as compared to alpha1(ile 121) beta2gamma2 receptor complexes. Thus, a relatively small change in the primary structure of the alpha1 subunit leads to a decrease selective for GABA(A) receptor sensitivity to agonist ligands, since no changes were observed in a GABA(A) receptor antagonist affinity and benzodiazepine receptor binding.

  15. Responses to GABA(A) receptor activation are altered in NTS neurons isolated from renal-wrap hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, Gleb; Belugin, Sergei; Tolstykh, Olga; Mifflin, Steve

    2003-10-01

    The inhibitory amino acid GABA is a potent modulator of the spontaneous discharge and the responses to afferent inputs of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). To determine if responses to activation of GABA(A) receptors are altered in hypertension, GABA(A) receptor-evoked whole cell currents were measured in enzymatically dispersed NTS neurons from 33 normotensive (NT, 109+/-4 mm Hg, n=7) and 24 hypertensive (HT, 167+/-5 mm Hg, n=24) rats. GABA(A) receptor-evoked currents reversed at the calculated equilibrium potential for chloride and were blocked by bicuculline (n=6). Membrane capacitance was the same in neurons from NT (7.5+/-0.6 pF, n=62) and HT (6.8+/-0.6 pF, n=51) rats. The EC50 for peak GABA-evoked currents cells was significantly greater in neurons from HT (21.0+/-2.6 micromol/L, n=16) compared with NT rats (13.0+/-1.8 micromol/L, n=14, P=0.01). The EC50 of neurons exhibiting DiA labeling of presumptive aortic nerve terminals was no different than that observed in the nonlabeled cells (19.0+/-4.9 micromol/L, n=4). The time constant for desensitization of GABA(A)-evoked currents was the same in neurons from HT (4.5+/-0.3 seconds, n=17) and NT rats (3.8+/-0.3 seconds, n=17, P>0.05). Repetitive pulse application of GABA revealed a more rapid decline in the evoked current in neurons from HT compared with NT rats. The amplitude of the 5th pulse of GABA (5-second duration, 2-second interval) was 21+/-2% the amplitude of the 1st pulse in NT rats (n=10) and 14+/-2% in HT rats (n=11, P<0.05). These alterations in GABAA-receptor evoked currents could render the neurons less sensitive to GABA(A) receptor inhibition and influence afferent integration by NTS neurons in HT.

  16. GABA-A receptors in mPOAH simultaneously regulate sleep and body temperature in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Yadav, V; Mallick, B N

    2001-09-01

    Sleep-wakefulness and body temperature are two circadian rhythmic biological phenomena. The role of GABAergic inputs in the medial preoptico-anterior hypothalamus (mPOAH) on simultaneous regulation of those phenomena was investigated in freely moving normally behaving rats. The GABA-A receptors were blocked by microinjecting picrotoxin, and the effects on electrophysiological parameters signifying sleep-wakefulness, rectal temperature and brain temperature were recorded simultaneously. The results suggest that, normally, GABA in the medial preoptic area acts through GABA-A receptor that induces sleep and prevents an excessive rise in body temperature. However, the results do not allow us to comment on the cause and effect relationship, if any, between changes in sleep-wakefulness and body temperature. The changes in brain and rectal temperatures showed a positive correlation, however, the former varied within a narrower range than that of the latter.

  17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors genes polymorphisms and risk for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix Javier; Esguevillas, Gara; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Zurdo, Martín; Turpín-Fenoll, Laura; Millán-Pascual, Jorge; Adeva-Bartolomé, Teresa; Cubo, Esther; Navacerrada, Francisco; Amo, Gemma; Rojo-Sebastián, Ana; Rubio, Lluisa; Díez-Fairén, Mónica; Pastor, Pau; Calleja, Marisol; Plaza-Nieto, José Francisco; Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belén; Arroyo-Solera, Margarita; García-Albea, Esteban; Agúndez, José A G; García-Martín, Elena

    2018-05-03

    The possible role of gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is suggested by the symptomatic improvement achieved with GABAergic drugs. Thalamic GABA levels have shown positive correlation with periodic limb movements indices and with RLS severity. We tried to investigate the possible association between the most common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GABA receptors (GABR) genes rho1, 2, and 3 (GABRR1, GABRR2, GABRR3), alpha4 (GABRA4), epsilon (GABRE), and theta (GABRQ) with the risk of developing RLS. We studied the genotype and allelic variant frequencies of the most common SNPs in the GABRR1(rs12200969, rs1186902), GABRR2(rs282129), GABRR3(rs832032), GABRA4(rs2229940), GABRE(rs1139916), and GABRQ(rs3810651) genes in 205 RLS patients and 230 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using specific TaqMan assays. The frequencies of the GABRR3 rs832032TT genotype and the allelic variant GABRR3 rs832032T were significantly higher in RLS patients than in controls (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] 7.08[1.48-46.44] and 1.66[1.16-2.37], respectively), although only the higher frequency of the rs832032T allele remained as significant after multiple comparison analysis, both in the whole series and in the female gender. The frequencies of the other genotypes of allelic variants did not differ significantly between RLS patients and controls. RLS patients carrying the GABRA4 rs2229940TT genotype showed a significantly younger age at onset of RLS symptoms than those with the other two genotypes. These results suggest association between GABRR3rs832032 polymorphism and the risk for RLS, and a modifier effect of GABRA4 rs2229940 on the age of onset of RLS.

  18. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and the mesoaccumbens reward circuit: evidence for GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects.

    PubMed

    Pistis, M; Muntoni, A L; Pillolla, G; Perra, S; Cignarella, G; Melis, M; Gessa, G L

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid naturally occurring in the mammalian brain, which recently emerged as a major recreational drug of abuse. GHB has multiple neuronal mechanisms including activation of both the GABA(B) receptor, and a distinct GHB-specific receptor. This complex GHB-GABA(B) receptor interaction is probably responsible for the multifaceted pharmacological, behavioral and toxicological profile of GHB. Drugs of abuse exert remarkably similar effects upon reward-related circuits, in particular the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We used single unit recordings in vivo from urethane-anesthetized rats to characterize the effects of GHB on evoked firing in NAc "shell" neurons and on spontaneous activity of antidromically identified dopamine (DA) cells located in the ventral tegmental area. GHB was studied in comparison with the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and antagonist (2S)(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH50911). Additionally, we utilized a GHB analog, gamma-(p-methoxybenzil)-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (NCS-435), devoid of GABA(B) binding properties, but with high affinity for specific GHB binding sites. In common with other drugs of abuse, GHB depressed firing in NAc neurons evoked by the stimulation of the basolateral amygdala. On DA neurons, GHB exerted heterogeneous effects, which were correlated to the baseline firing rate of the cells but led to a moderate stimulation of the DA system. All GHB actions were mediated by GABA(B) receptors, since they were blocked by SCH50911 and were not mimicked by NCS-435. Our study indicates that the electrophysiological profile of GHB is close to typical drugs of abuse: both inhibition of NAc neurons and moderate to strong stimulation of DA transmission are distinctive features of diverse classes of abused drugs. Moreover, it is concluded that addictive and rewarding properties of GHB do not necessarily involve a putative high affinity GHB

  19. GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence alters adult ethanol intake and preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Mary W; Amato, Russell J; Winsauer, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    To address the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence may alter the abuse liability of ethanol during adulthood, the effects of adolescent administration of both a positive and negative GABA(A) receptor modulator on adult alcohol intake and preference were assessed. Three groups of adolescent male rats received 12 injections of lorazepam (3.2 mg/kg), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 56 mg/kg), or vehicle on alternate days starting on postnatal day (PD) 35. After this time, the doses were increased to 5.6 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 more injections on alternate days. Subjects had access to 25 to 30 g of food daily, during the period of the first 6 injections, and 18 to 20 g thereafter. Food intake of each group was measured 60 minutes after food presentation, which occurred immediately after drug administration on injection days or at the same time of day on noninjection days. When subjects reached adulthood (PD 88), ethanol preference was determined on 2 separate occasions, an initial 3-day period and a 12-day period, in which increasing concentrations of ethanol were presented. During each preference test, intake of water, saccharin, and an ethanol/saccharin solution was measured after each 23-hour access period. During adolescence, lorazepam increased 60-minute food intake, and this effect was enhanced under the more restrictive feeding schedule. DHEA had the opposite effect on injection days, decreasing food intake compared with noninjection days. In adulthood, the lorazepam-treated group preferred the 2 lowest concentrations of ethanol/saccharin more than saccharin alone compared with vehicle-treated subjects, which showed no preference for any concentration of ethanol/saccharin over saccharin. DHEA-treated subjects showed no preference among the 3 solutions. These data demonstrate that GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence can alter intake and preference for ethanol in adulthood and highlights the importance of drug history

  20. Local GABA receptor blockade reveals hindlimb responses in the SI forelimb-stump representation of neonatally amputated rats.

    PubMed

    Pluto, Charles P; Lane, Richard D; Rhoades, Robert W

    2004-07-01

    In adult rats that sustained forelimb amputation on the day of birth, there are numerous multi-unit recording sites in the forelimb-stump representation of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) that also respond to cutaneous stimulation of the hindlimb when cortical receptors for GABA are blocked. These normally suppressed hindlimb inputs originate in the SI hindlimb representation and synapse in the dysgranular cortex before exciting SI forelimb-stump neurons. In our previous studies, GABA (A + B) receptor blockade was achieved by topically applying a bicuculline methiodide/saclofen solution (BMI/SAC) to the cortical surface. This treatment blocks receptors throughout SI and does not allow determination of where along the above circuit the GABA-mediated suppression of hindlimb information occurs. In this study, focal injections of BMI/SAC were delivered to three distinct cortical regions that are involved in the hindlimb-to-forelimb-stump pathway. Blocking GABA receptors in the SI hindlimb representation and in the dysgranular cortex was largely ineffective in revealing hindlimb inputs ( approximately 10% of hindlimb inputs were revealed in both cases). In contrast, when the blockade was targeted at forelimb-stump recording sites, >80% of hindlimb inputs were revealed. Thus GABAergic interneurons within the forelimb-stump representation suppress the expression of reorganized hindlimb inputs to the region. A circuit model incorporating these and previous observations is presented and discussed.

  1. Effect of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists injected spinally on the blood glucose level in mice.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-05-01

    The possible roles of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors located in the spinal cord for the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. The hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen was more pronounced than that induced by bicuculline. However, muscimol (a GABAA receptor agonist; 1-5 μg/5 μl) or phaclofen (a GABAB receptor antagonist; 5-10 μg/5 μl) administered i.t. did not affect the blood glucose level. Baclofen-induced elevation of the blood glucose was dose-dependently attenuated by phaclofen. Furthermore, i.t. pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.05 or 0.1 μg/5 μl) for 6 days dose-dependently reduced the hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Our results suggest that GABAB receptors located in the spinal cord play important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Spinally located PTX-sensitive G-proteins appear to be involved in hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Furthermore, inactivation of GABAA receptors located in the spinal cord appears to be responsible for tonic up-regulation of the blood glucose level.

  2. Pyrethroid insecticides and radioligand displacement from the GABA receptor chloride ionophore complex

    SciTech Connect

    Crofton, K.M.; Reiter, L.W.; Mailman, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Radioligand binding displacement studies were conducted to determine the effects of Type I and II pyrethroids on /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (FLU), /sup 3/H-muscimol (MUS), and (/sup 35/S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding. Competition experiments with /sup 3/H-FLU and /sup 3/H-MUS indicate a lack of competition for binding by the pyrethroids. Type I pyrethroids failed to compete for the binding of (/sup 35/S-TBPS at concentrations as high as 50 pM. Type II pyrethroids inhibited (/sup 35/S-TBPS binding to rat brain synaptosomes with Ki values ranging from 5-10 pM. The data presented suggest that the interaction of Type II pyrethroids with the GABA receptor-ionophore complex ismore » restricted to a site near the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding site.« less

  3. Rapid compensatory changes in GABA receptor efficacy in rat vestibular neurones after unilateral labyrinthectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Him, Aydin; Cameron, Susan A; Dutia, Mayank B

    2000-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the GABAA agonist muscimol and the GABAB agonist baclofen on tonically active medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurones were recorded in slices of the rat dorsal brainstem in vitro, to determine whether any changes occurred in the functional efficacy of GABAergic inhibition in these cells during the initial rapid stage of ‘vestibular compensation’, the behavioural recovery that takes place after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). These experiments were carried out in preparations where the midline was cut, severing all commissural connections between the two vestibular nuclei. Slices of the MVN were prepared from normal animals and animals that had been unilaterally labyrinthectomised 4 h earlier. The mean in vitro discharge rate of MVN neurones in the rostral region of the ipsi-lesional nucleus after UL was significantly higher than that in control slices, confirming our earlier reports of an increase in intrinsic excitability of these cells in the early stage of vestibular compensation. The in vitro discharge rates of caudal ipsi-lesional MVN cells, and rostral and caudal contra-lesional MVN cells, were not different from controls. Muscimol and baclofen caused reversible, dose-related inhibition of the tonic discharge rate of MVN cells in control slices. In slices prepared from UL animals, MVN cells in the rostral region of the ipsi-lesional nucleus showed a marked downregulation of their response to both muscimol and baclofen, seen as a rightward shift and a decrease in slope of the dose-response relationships for the two agonists. In the contra-lesional nucleus, there was a small but significant upregulation of the responsiveness of both rostral and caudal MVN cells to baclofen, and a marked upregulation of the responsiveness of caudal MVN cells to muscimol. In slices from animals that had undergone bilateral labyrinthectomy 4 h earlier, the downregulation of the functional efficacy of GABA receptors in the rostral MVN cells did not

  4. p-Coumaric acid activates the GABA-A receptor in vitro and is orally anxiolytic in vivo.

    PubMed

    Scheepens, Arjan; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Skinner, Margot

    2014-02-01

    The increasing prevalence and social burden of subclinical anxiety in the western world represents a significant psychosocial and financial cost. Consumers are favouring a more natural and nonpharmacological approach for alleviating the effects of everyday stress and anxiety. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor is the primary mediator of central inhibitory neurotransmission, and GABA-receptor agonists are well known to convey anxiolytic effects. Using an in vitro screening approach to identify naturally occurring phytochemical GABA agonists, we discovered the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid to have significant GABAergic activity, an effect that could be blocked by co-administration of the specific GABA-receptor antagonist, picrotoxin. Oral administration of p-coumaric acid to rodents induced a significant anxiolytic effect in vivo as measured using the elevated plus paradigm, in line with the effects of oral diazepam. Given that p-coumaric acid is reasonably well absorbed following oral consumption in man and is relatively nontoxic, it may be suitable for the formulation of a safe and effective anxiolytic functional food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Timing of the Excitatory-to-Inhibitory GABA Switch Is Regulated by the Oxytocin Receptor via KCC2

    PubMed Central

    Leonzino, Marianna; Busnelli, Marta; Antonucci, Flavia; Verderio, Claudia; Mazzanti, Michele; Chini, Bice

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oxytocin and its receptor (Oxtr) play a crucial role in the postnatal transition of neuronal GABA neurotransmission from excitatory to inhibitory, a developmental process known as the GABA switch. Using hippocampal neurons from Oxtr-null mice, we show that (1) Oxtr is necessary for the correct timing of the GABA switch by upregulating activity of the chloride cotransporter KCC2, (2) Oxtr, in a very early and narrow time window, directly modulates the functional activity of KCC2 by promoting its phosphorylation and insertion/stabilization at the neuronal surface, and (3) in the absence of Oxtr, electrophysiological alterations are recorded in mature neurons, a finding consistent with a reduced level of KCC2 and increased susceptibility to seizures observed in adult Oxtr-null mice. These data identify KCC2 as a key target of oxytocin in postnatal events that may be linked to pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27052180

  6. Insights into the binding of GABA to the insect RDL receptor from atomistic simulations: a comparison of models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comitani, Federico; Cohen, Netta; Ashby, Jamie; Botten, Dominic; Lummis, Sarah C. R.; Molteni, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The resistance to dieldrin (RDL) receptor is an insect pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC). It is activated by the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding to its extracellular domain; hence elucidating the atomistic details of this interaction is important for understanding how the RDL receptor functions. As no high resolution structures are currently available, we built homology models of the extracellular domain of the RDL receptor using different templates, including the widely used acetylcholine binding protein and two pLGICs, the Erwinia Chrysanthemi ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC) and the more recently resolved GluCl. We then docked GABA into the selected three dimensional structures, which we used as starting points for classical molecular dynamics simulations. This allowed us to analyze in detail the behavior of GABA in the binding sites, including the hydrogen bond and cation-π interaction networks it formed, the conformers it visited and the possible role of water molecules in mediating the interactions; we also estimated the binding free energies. The models were all stable and showed common features, including interactions consistent with experimental data and similar to other pLGICs; differences could be attributed to the quality of the models, which increases with increasing sequence identity, and the use of a pLGIC template. We supplemented the molecular dynamics information with metadynamics, a rare event method, by exploring the free energy landscape of GABA binding to the RDL receptor. Overall, we show that the GluCl template provided the best models. GABA forming direct salt-bridges with Arg211 and Glu204, and cation-π interactions with an aromatic cage including Tyr109, Phe206 and Tyr254, represents a favorable binding arrangement, and the interaction with Glu204 can also be mediated by a water molecule.

  7. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3…

  8. Distribution of metabotropic receptors of serotonin, dopamine, GABA, glutamate, and short neuropeptide F in the central complex of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kahsai, L; Carlsson, M A; Winther, A M E; Nässel, D R

    2012-04-19

    The central complex is a prominent set of midline neuropils in the insect brain, known to be a higher locomotor control center that integrates visual inputs and modulates motor outputs. It is composed of four major neuropil structures, the ellipsoid body (EB), fan-shaped body (FB), noduli (NO), and protocerebral bridge (PB). In Drosophila different types of central complex neurons have been shown to express multiple neuropeptides and neurotransmitters; however, the distribution of corresponding receptors is not known. Here, we have mapped metabotropic, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of several neurotransmitters to neurons of the central complex. By combining immunocytochemistry with GAL4 driven green fluorescent protein, we examined the distribution patterns of six different GPCRs: two serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(7)), a dopamine receptor (DopR), the metabotropic GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R), the metabotropic glutamate receptor (DmGluR(A)) and a short neuropeptide F receptor (sNPFR1). Five of the six GPCRs were mapped to different neurons in the EB (sNPFR1 was not seen). Different layers of the FB express DopR, GABA(B)R, DmGluR(A,) and sNPFR1, whereas only GABA(B)R and DmGluR(A) were localized to the PB. Finally, strong expression of DopR and DmGluR(A) was detected in the NO. In most cases the distribution patterns of the GPCRs matched the expression of markers for their respective ligands. In some nonmatching regions it is likely that other types of dopamine and serotonin receptors or ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptors are expressed. Our data suggest that chemical signaling and signal modulation are diverse and highly complex in the different compartments and circuits of the Drosophila central complex. The information provided here, on receptor distribution, will be very useful for future analysis of functional circuits in the central complex, based on targeted interference with receptor expression. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by

  9. Proton modulation of recombinant GABAA receptors: influence of GABA concentration and the β subunit TM2–TM3 domain

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Megan E; Hosie, Alastair M; Smart, Trevor G

    2005-01-01

    Regulation of GABAA receptors by extracellular pH exhibits a dependence on the receptor subunit composition. To date, the molecular mechanism responsible for the modulation of GABAA receptors at alkaline pH has remained elusive. We report here that the GABA-activated current can be potentiated at pH 8.4 for both αβ and αβγ subunit-containing receptors, but only at GABA concentrations below the EC40. Site-specific mutagenesis revealed that a single lysine residue, K279 in the β subunit TM2–TM3 linker, was critically important for alkaline pH to modulate the function of both α1β2 and α1β2γ2 receptors. The ability of low concentrations of GABA to reveal different pH titration profiles for GABAA receptors was also examined at acidic pH. At pH 6.4, GABA activation of αβγ receptors was enhanced at low GABA concentrations. This effect was ablated by the mutation H267A in the β subunit. Decreasing the pH further to 5.4 inhibited GABA responses via αβγ receptors, whereas those responses recorded from αβ receptors were potentiated. Inserting homologous β subunit residues into the γ2 subunit to recreate, in αβγ receptors, the proton modulatory profile of αβ receptors, established that in the presence of β2H267, the mutation γ2T294K was necessary to potentiate the GABA response at pH 5.4. This residue, T294, is homologous to K279 in the β subunit and suggests that a lysine at this position is an important residue for mediating the allosteric effects of both acidic and alkaline pH changes, rather than forming a direct site for protonation within the GABAA receptor. PMID:15946973

  10. Expression of specific ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits is decreased in central amygdala of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe; Bhandage, Amol K; Bazov, Igor; Kononenko, Olga; Bakalkin, Georgy; Korpi, Esa R; Birnir, Bryndis

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) has a role for mediating fear and anxiety responses. It is also involved in emotional imbalance caused by alcohol abuse and dependence and in regulating relapse to alcohol abuse. Growing evidences suggest that excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmissions in the CeA are affected by chronic alcohol exposure. Human post-mortem CeA samples from male alcoholics (n = 9) and matched controls (n = 9) were assayed for the expression level of ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptors subunit mRNAs using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data revealed that out of the 16 ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, mRNAs encoding two AMPA [2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid] receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA4; one kainate receptor subunit GluK2; one NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor subunit GluN2D and one delta receptor subunit GluD2 were significantly decreased in the CeA of alcoholics. In contrast, of the 19 GABA-A receptor subunits, only the mRNA encoding the α2 subunit was significantly down-regulated in the CeA of the alcoholics as compared with control subjects. Our findings imply that the down-regulation of specific ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits in the CeA of alcoholics may represent one of the molecular substrates underlying the new balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in alcohol dependence.

  11. Expression of specific ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits is decreased in central amygdala of alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhe; Bhandage, Amol K.; Bazov, Igor; Kononenko, Olga; Bakalkin, Georgy; Korpi, Esa R.; Birnir, Bryndis

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) has a role for mediating fear and anxiety responses. It is also involved in emotional imbalance caused by alcohol abuse and dependence and in regulating relapse to alcohol abuse. Growing evidences suggest that excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmissions in the CeA are affected by chronic alcohol exposure. Human post-mortem CeA samples from male alcoholics (n = 9) and matched controls (n = 9) were assayed for the expression level of ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptors subunit mRNAs using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data revealed that out of the 16 ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, mRNAs encoding two AMPA [2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid] receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA4; one kainate receptor subunit GluK2; one NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor subunit GluN2D and one delta receptor subunit GluD2 were significantly decreased in the CeA of alcoholics. In contrast, of the 19 GABA-A receptor subunits, only the mRNA encoding the α2 subunit was significantly down-regulated in the CeA of the alcoholics as compared with control subjects. Our findings imply that the down-regulation of specific ionotropic glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits in the CeA of alcoholics may represent one of the molecular substrates underlying the new balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in alcohol dependence. PMID:25278838

  12. Embryonic GABA(B) receptor blockade alters cell migration, adult hypothalamic structure, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors sex specifically in mice.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Matthew S; Staros, Michelle; Budefeld, Tomaz; Searcy, Brian T; Nash, Connor; Eitel, Chad; Carbone, David; Handa, Robert J; Majdic, Gregor; Tobet, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABA(B) receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABA(B) receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11-E17) during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABA(B) receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABA(B) receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABA(B) receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity.

  13. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B.; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M.; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups, where orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying DA action on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using whole cell patch clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration dependent, bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high concentrations (100 μM) of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors, whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours. PMID:26036709

  14. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups: orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the action of DA on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration-dependent bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high (100 μM) concentrations of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G-protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Spinal GABA-B receptor modulates neutrophil recruitment to the knee joint in zymosan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Gabriel S; do C Malvar, David; Cunha, Thiago M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Kanashiro, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system controls inflammatory responses by activating complex efferent neuroimmune pathways. The present study was designed to evaluate the role that central gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor plays in neutrophil migration in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis by using different pharmacological tools. We observed that intrathecal administration of baclofen, a selective GABA-B agonist, exacerbated the inflammatory response in the knee after zymosan administration characterized by an increase in the neutrophil recruitment and knee joint edema, whereas saclofen, a GABA-B antagonist, exerted the opposite effect. Intrathecal pretreatment of the animals with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) blocked the pro-inflammatory effect of baclofen. On the other hand, systemic administration of guanethidine, a sympatholytic drug that inhibits catecholamine release, and nadolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, reversed the effect of saclofen. Moreover, saclofen suppressed the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines into the knee joint (ELISA) and pain-related behaviors (open field test). Since the anti-inflammatory effect of saclofen depends on the sympathetic nervous system integrity, we observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, mimics the central GABA-B blockade decreasing knee joint neutrophil recruitment. Together, these results demonstrate that the pharmacological manipulation of spinal GABAergic transmission aids control of neutrophil migration to the inflamed joint by modulating the activation of the knee joint-innervating sympathetic terminal fibers through a mechanism dependent on peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors and central components, such as p38 MAPK.

  16. γ-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit and transporter expression in the gonad and liver of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Biggs, Katie; Seidel, Jason S; Wilson, Alex; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    γ-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. GABA receptors and synthesizing enzymes have also been localized to peripheral tissues including the liver, oviduct, uterus and ovary of mammals but the distribution and role of GABA in peripheral tissues of fish has not been fully investigated. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if mRNA encoding GABA synthesizing enzymes (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67; gad65 and gad67), GABA transporters, and GABAA receptor subunits are localized to liver and gonad of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (FHM) (2) investigate the effects of GABA on ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) production, and (3) measure transcript responses in the ovary after in vitro incubation to GABA. Real-time PCR assays were developed for gad65, gad67, vesicular GABA transporter (vgat) and GABA transporter 1 (gat1), and select GABAA receptor subunits (gabra1, gabra5, gabrb1, gabrb2, gabrg1, gabrg2). All transcripts were localized to the brain as expected; however transcripts were also detected in the liver, ovary, and testis of FHMs. In the female liver, gad65 mRNA was significantly higher in expression compared to the male liver. Transcripts for gad67 were the highest in the brain>gonad>liver and in the gonads, gad67 was significantly higher in expression than gad65 mRNA. In the liver and gonad, the relative abundance of the subunits followed a general trend of gabrb1>gabrb2=gabrg1=gabrg2>gabra1=gabra5. To explore the effects of GABA in the ovary, tissue explants from reproductive female FHMs were treated with GABA (10(-10), 10(-8) and 10(-6)M) for 12h. GABA had no significant effect on 17β-estradiol production or on mRNA abundance for genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis (e.g., 11βhsd, cyp17, cyp19a). There was a significant decrease in estrogen receptor 2a (esr2a) mRNA with 10(-10)M GABA. This study begins to investigate the GABA system in non-neural tissues of

  17. Molecular dynamics investigation of Cl(-) transport through the closed and open states of the 2α12β2γ2 GABA(A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jian; Sha, Yu; Cheng, Mao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The α1β2γ2 gamma-aminobutyric type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is one of the most widely expressed GABA(A)R subtypes in the mammalian brain. GABA(A)Rsbelonging to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels have been identified as key targets for many clinical drugs, and the motions that govern the gating mechanism are still not well understood. In this study, an open-state GABA(A)R was constructed using the structure of the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), which has a high sequence identity to GABA(A)R. A closed-state model was constructed using the structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Molecular dynamics simulations of the open-state and closed-state GABA(A)R were performed. We calculated the electrostatic potential of the two conformations, the pore radius of the two ion channels and the root-mean-square fluctuation. We observed the presence of two positively charged girdles around the ion channel and found flexible regions in the GABA(A)R. Then, the free-energy of chloride ion permeations through the closed-state and open-state G GABA(A)R has been estimated using adaptive biasing force (ABF) simulation. For the closed-state G GABA(A)R, we observed two major energy barriers for chloride ion translocation in the transmembrane domain (TMD). For the open-state GABA(A)R, there was only one energy barrier formed by two Thr261 (α1), two Thr255 (β2) and one Thr271 (γ2). By using ABF simulation, the overall free-energy profile is obtained for Cl(-) transporting through GABA(A)R, which gives a complete map of the ion channel of Cl(-) permeation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol interactions with channel activation and desensitization at 5-HT[sub 3] and GABA[sub A] receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lovinger, D.M.; Zhou, O.

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) and trichloroethanol (TCEt) potentiate 5-HT[sub 3] receptor-mediated ion current in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells and nodose ganglion neurons. TCEt potentiates GABA[sub A] receptor-mediated current in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to examine the interactions of alcohols with current activation and receptor desensitization. Alcohols increased the potency of 5-HT, consistent with an increase in channel activation rate. Current decay rate increased in the presence of alcohols such that potentiation decreased with time following in onset of agonist + alcohol treatment. Potentiation of 5-HT-activated current by EtOH was 61 [plus minus] 17% above control at the startmore » of application but was absent 10 sec after current onset. Agonist pretreatment decreased potentiation by subsequent agonist + alcohol application. Potentiation by TCEt of 5-HT-activated current decreased from 96% above control with simultaneous application of 5-HT + TCEt to 44% after a 30 sec 5-HT treatment. This agonist- and time-dependent loss of potentiation was observed prior to the onset of current decay when low agonist concentrations were used. Agonist pretreatment appears to drive the channel into an alcohol-insensitive. Current activated by GABA + TCEt recovers from desensitization produced by GABA alone more slowly than recovery tested in the absence of TCEt.« less

  19. GABA-A Receptor Modulation and Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Antidepressant Activities of Constituents from Artemisia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Karim, Nasiara; Ahmad, Waqar; Abdelhalim, Abeer; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia indica, also known as “Mugwort,” has been widely used in traditional medicines. However, few studies have investigated the effects of nonvolatile components of Artemisia indica on central nervous system's function. Fractionation of Artemisia indica led to the isolation of carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid which were evaluated for their effects on GABA-A receptors in electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes and were subsequently investigated in mouse models of acute toxicity, convulsions (pentylenetetrazole induced seizures), depression (tail suspension and forced swim tests), and anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms). Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be positive modulators of α1β2γ2L GABA-A receptors and the modulation was antagonized by flumazenil. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be devoid of any signs of acute toxicity (50–200 mg/kg) but elicited anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolytic activities. Thus carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid demonstrated CNS activity in mouse models of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolysis. The anxiolytic activity of all three compounds was ameliorated by flumazenil suggesting a mode of action via the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA-A receptors. PMID:27143980

  20. GABA(A) receptor antagonism in the ventrocaudal periaqueductal gray increases anxiety in the anxiety-resistant postpartum rat.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie M; Piasecki, Christopher C; Peabody, Mitchell F; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2010-06-01

    Postpartum mammals show suppressed anxiety, which is necessary for their ability to appropriately care for offspring. It is parsimonious to suggest that the neurobiological basis of this reduced anxiety is similar to that of non-parturient animals, involving GABA(A) receptor activity in sites including the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). In Experiment 1, postpartum and diestrous virgin female rats received an intraperitoneal injection of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist (+)-bicuculline (0, 2 and 4 mg/kg) and anxiety-related behavior was assessed with an elevated plus maze. The 4 mg/kg dose of (+)-bicuculline significantly increased anxiety-related behavior, particularly in the postpartum females. Experiment 2 revealed that bicuculline's action was within the central nervous system, because anxiety in neither dams nor virgins was significantly affected by intraperitoneal injection of bicuculline methiodide (0, 2 and 6 mg/kg), which does not readily cross the blood-brain-barrier. In Experiment 3, bicuculline methiodide (2.5 ng/side) was directly infused into the ventrocaudal PAG (cPAGv) and significantly increased dams' anxiety compared to saline-infused controls. These studies expand our knowledge of how GABA(A) receptor modulators affect anxiety behaviors in postpartum rats to the widely-used elevated plus maze, and indicate that the postpartum suppression of anxiety is in part a consequence of elevated GABAergic neurotransmission in the cPAGv. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-neuronal, slow GABA signalling in the ventrobasal thalamus targets δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-González, Cristina; Pirttimaki, Tiina; Cope, David W; Parri, H R

    2011-01-01

    The rodent ventrobasal (VB) thalamus contains a relatively uniform population of thalamocortical (TC) neurons that receive glutamatergic input from the vibrissae and the somatosensory cortex, and inhibitory input from the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT). In this study we describe γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-dependent slow outward currents (SOCs) in TC neurons that are distinct from fast inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and tonic currents. SOCs occurred spontaneously or could be evoked by hypo-osmotic stimulus, and were not blocked by tetrodotoxin, removal of extracellular Ca2+ or bafilomycin A1, indicating a non-synaptic, non-vesicular GABA origin. SOCs were more common in TC neurons of the VB compared with the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, and were rarely observed in nRT neurons, whilst SOC frequency in the VB increased with age. Application of THIP, a selective agonist at δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors, occluded SOCs, whereas the benzodiazepine site inverse agonist β-CCB had no effect, but did inhibit spontaneous and evoked IPSCs. In addition, the occurrence of SOCs was reduced in mice lacking the δ-subunit, and their kinetics were also altered. The anti-epileptic drug vigabatrin increased SOC frequency in a time-dependent manner, but this effect was not due to reversal of GABA transporters. Together, these data indicate that SOCs in TC neurons arise from astrocytic GABA release, and are mediated by δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the therapeutic action of vigabatrin may occur through the augmentation of this astrocyte–neuron interaction, and highlight the importance of glial cells in CNS (patho) physiology. PMID:21395866

  2. The interaction between hippocampal GABA-B and cannabinoid receptors upon spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Alaghmandan-Motlagh, Niyousha; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have postulated functional links between GABA and cannabinoid systems in the hippocampus. The aim of the present study was to investigate any possible interaction between these systems in spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory consolidation in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) of NMRI mice. Assessment of the spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function was carried out in a non-associative task. The experiment comprised mice exposure to an open field containing five objects followed by the examination of their reactivity to object displacement (spatial change) and object substitution (object novelty) after three sessions of habituation. Our results showed that the post-training intraperitoneal administration of the higher dose of ACPA (0.02 mg/kg) impaired both spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions. Meanwhile, the higher dose of GABA-B receptor agonist, baclofen, impaired the spatial change memory by itself. Moreover, the post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of a subthreshold dose of baclofen increased the ACPA effect on spatial change and novelty discrimination memory at a lower and higher dose, respectively. On the other hand, the lower and higher but not mid-level doses of GABA-B receptor antagonist, phaclofen, could reverse memory deficits induced by ACPA. However, phaclofen at its mid-level dose impaired the novelty discrimination memory and whereas the higher dose impaired the spatial change memory. Based on our findings, GABA-B receptors in the CA1 region appear to modulate the ACPA-induced cannabinoid CB1 signaling upon spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions.

  3. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Hoda; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Riahi, Esmail; Badavi, Mohammad; Shakoori, Abbas; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Aghajani, Marjan; Rajani, Sulail Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist) administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia), followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR). The five experimental groups (n=12) included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Results: Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Conclusion: Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production. PMID:29299201

  4. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Hoda; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Riahi, Esmail; Badavi, Mohammad; Shakoori, Abbas; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Aghajani, Marjan; Rajani, Sulail Fatima

    2017-11-01

    Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist) administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia), followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR). The five experimental groups (n=12) included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  5. Linking GABA(A) receptor subunits to alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion and recovery from acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Y A; Benavidez, J M; Black, M; Chandra, D; Homanics, G E; Rudolph, U; Harris, R A

    2013-04-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-R) are important for ethanol actions and it is of interest to link individual subunits with specific ethanol behaviors. We studied null mutant mice for six different GABA(A)-R subunits (α1, α2, α3, α4, α5 and δ). Only mice lacking the α2 subunit showed reduction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to ethanol. These results are in agreement with data from knock-in mice with mutation of the ethanol-sensitive site in the α2-subunit (Blednov et al., 2011). All together, they indicate that aversive property of ethanol is dependent on ethanol action on α2-containing GABA(A)-R. Deletion of the α2-subunit led to faster recovery whereas absence of the α3-subunit slowed recovery from ethanol-induced incoordination (rotarod). Deletion of the other four subunits did not affect this behavior. Similar changes in this behavior for the α2 and α3 null mutants were found for flurazepam motor incoordination. However, no differences in recovery were found in motor-incoordinating effects of an α1-selective modulator (zolpidem) or an α4-selective agonist (gaboxadol). Therefore, recovery of rotarod incoordination is under control of two GABA(A)-R subunits: α2 and α3. For motor activity, α3 null mice demonstrated higher activation by ethanol (1 g/kg) whereas both α2 (-/-) and α3 (-/Y) knockout mice were less sensitive to ethanol-induced reduction of motor activity (1.5 g/kg). These studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol which may be relevant to the genetic linkage of the α2 subunit with human alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of GABA(B) receptor agents on cocaine priming, discrete contextual cue and food induced relapses.

    PubMed

    Filip, Małgorzata; Frankowska, Małgorzata

    2007-10-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist (2S)-(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911), the agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid (SKF 97541), and the allosteric positive modulator 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy-beta,beta-dimethylbenzenepropanol (CGP 7930) on cocaine seeking behavior. The effects of the above drugs on the reinstatement of responding induced by natural reinforcer (food) were also studied. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer either cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) or food (sweet milk) and responding on the reinforcer-paired lever was extinguished. Reinstatement of responding was induced by a noncontingent presentation of the self-administered reinforcer (10 mg/kg cocaine, i.p.), a discrete contextual cue, or a contingent presentation of food. SCH 50911 (3-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated responding on the previously cocaine-paired lever during both reinstatement conditions, with slightly greater efficacy at reducing conditioned cue reinstatement. At the same time, it failed to alter reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Baclofen (1.25-5 mg/kg) and SKF 97541 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) attenuated cocaine- or food-seeking behavior; the effect of the drug appeared more effective for cocaine-seeking than food-seeking. CGP 7930 (10-30 mg/kg) reduced cocaine seeking without affecting food-induced reinstatement on reward seeking. Our results indicate that tonic activation of GABA(B) receptors is required for cocaine seeking behavior in rats. Moreover, the GABA(B) receptor antagonist SCH 50911 was effective in reducing relapse to cocaine at doses that failed to alter reinstatement of food-seeking behavior (present study), basal locomotor activity, cocaine and food self-administration (Filip et al., submitted for publication), suggesting its selective effects on motivated drug-seeking behavior. The potent inhibitory responses on cocaine seeking behavior were also seen

  7. Effects of GABA receptor antagonists on thresholds of P23H rat retinal ganglion cells to electrical stimulation of the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Ralph J.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III

    2011-06-01

    An electronic retinal prosthesis may provide useful vision for patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In animal models of RP, the amount of current needed to activate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is higher than in normal, healthy retinas. In this study, we sought to reduce the stimulation thresholds of RGCs in a degenerate rat model (P23H-line 1) by blocking GABA receptor mediated inhibition in the retina. We examined the effects of TPMPA, a GABAC receptor antagonist, and SR95531, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on the electrically evoked responses of RGCs to biphasic current pulses delivered to the subretinal surface through a 400 µm diameter electrode. Both TPMPA and SR95531 reduced the stimulation thresholds of ON-center RGCs on average by 15% and 20% respectively. Co-application of the two GABA receptor antagonists had the greatest effect, on average reducing stimulation thresholds by 32%. In addition, co-application of the two GABA receptor antagonists increased the magnitude of the electrically evoked responses on average three-fold. Neither TPMPA nor SR95531, applied alone or in combination, had consistent effects on the stimulation thresholds of OFF-center RGCs. We suggest that the effects of the GABA receptor antagonists on ON-center RGCs may be attributable to blockage of GABA receptors on the axon terminals of ON bipolar cells.

  8. Recovery from ketamine-induced amnesia by blockade of GABA-A receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-06

    Ketamine and other noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are known to induce deficits in learning and cognitive performance sensitive to prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions. The interaction of a glutamatergic and GABAergic systems is essential for many cognitive behaviors. In order to understand the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of GABAergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training systemic administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC injection of muscimol, GABAA receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/mouse) and baclofen GABAB receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1μg/mouse), impaired memory acquisition. However, co-pretreatment of different doses of muscimol and baclofen with a lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. Our data showed that sole pre-training administration of bicuculline, GABA-A receptor antagonist and phaclofen GABA-B receptor antagonist into the mPFC, did not affect memory acquisition. In addition, the amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) was significantly decreased by the pretreatment of bicuculline (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5μg/mouse). It can be concluded that GABAergic system of the mPFC is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GABA as a rising gliotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Bo-Eun; Lee, C. Justin

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter that is known to be synthesized and released from GABAergic neurons in the brain. However, recent studies have shown that not only neurons but also astrocytes contain a considerable amount of GABA that can be released and activate GABA receptors in neighboring neurons. These exciting new findings for glial GABA raise further interesting questions about the source of GABA, its mechanism of release and regulation and the functional role of glial GABA. In this review, we highlight recent studies that identify the presence and release of GABA in glial cells, we show several proposed potential pathways for accumulation and modulation of glial intracellular and extracellular GABA content, and finally we discuss functional roles for glial GABA in the brain. PMID:25565970

  10. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2016-03-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 h/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5" duration, average every 40 s; range 10-70 s) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 μg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Blacktop, Jordan M.; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A.; Mantsch, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 hrs/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5” duration, average every 40 sec; range 10–70 sec) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 µg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. PMID:26596556

  12. Experiment K-6-18. Study of muscarinic and gaba (benzodiazepine) receptors in the sensory-motor cortex, hippcampus and spinal code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N.; Damelio, F.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    Frontal lobe samples of rat brains flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were processed for the study of muscarinic (cholinergic) and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors and for immunocytochemical localization of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Although radioactive labeling of both muscarinic cholinergic and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors proved to be successful with the techniques employed, distinct receptor localization of individual laminae of the frontal neocortex was not possible since the sampling of the area was different in the various groups of animals. In spite of efforts made for proper orientation and regional identification of laminae, it was found that a densitometric (quantitation of autoradiograms) analysis of the tissue did not contribute to the final interpretation of the effects of weightlessness on these receptors. As to the immunocytochemical studies the use of both markers, GFAP and GABA antiserum, confirmed the suitability of the techniques for use in frozen material. However, similar problems to those encountered in the receptor studies prevented an adequate interpretation of the effects of micro-G exposure on the localization and distribution of GABA and GFAP. This study did, however, confirm the feasibility of investigating neurotransmitters and their receptors in future space flight experiments.

  13. Role of the amygdala GABA-A receptors in ACPA-induced deficits during conditioned fear learning.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Roghani, Farnaz; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-05-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure for the emotional processing and storage of memories associated with emotional events, especially fear. On the other hand, endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors play a key role in learning and memory partly through long-term synaptic depression of GABAergic synapses in the BLA. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of GABA-A receptor agonist and antagonist in the fear-related memory acquisition deficits induced by ACPA (a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist). This study used context and tone fear conditioning paradigms to assess fear-related memory in male NMRI mice. Our results showed that the pre-training intraperitoneal administration of ACPA (0.5mg/kg) or (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) decreased the percentage of freezing time in the contextual and tone fear conditioning, respectively. This indicated an impaired context- or tone-dependent fear memory acquisition. Moreover, the pre-training intra-BLA microinjection of GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol, at 0.05 and 0.5μg/mouse impaired context-dependent fear memory, while the same doses of GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, impaired tone-dependent fear memory. However, a subthreshold dose of muscimol or bicuculline increased the effect of ACPA at 0.1 and 0.5 or 0.05mg/kg on context- or tone-dependent fear memory, respectively. In addition, bicuculline at the lower dose increased the ACPA response on locomotor activity compared to its respective group. Such findings highlighted an interaction between BLA GABAergic and cannabinoidergic systems during the acquisition phase of conditioned fear memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dose-dependent EEG effects of zolpidem provide evidence for GABA(A) receptor subtype selectivity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Visser, S A G; Wolters, F L C; van der Graaf, P H; Peletier, L A; Danhof, M

    2003-03-01

    Zolpidem is a nonbenzodiazepine GABA(A) receptor modulator that binds in vitro with high affinity to GABA(A) receptors expressing alpha(1) subunits but with relatively low affinity to receptors expressing alpha(2), alpha(3), and alpha(5) subunits. In the present study, it was investigated whether this subtype selectivity could be detected and quantified in vivo. Three doses (1.25, 5, and 25 mg) of zolpidem were administered to rats in an intravenous infusion over 5 min. The time course of the plasma concentrations was determined in conjunction with the change in the beta-frequency range of the EEG as pharmacodynamic endpoint. The concentration-effect relationship of the three doses showed a dose-dependent maximum effect and a dose-dependent potency. The data were analyzed for one- or two-site binding using two pharmacodynamic models based on 1) the descriptive model and 2) a novel mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for GABA(A) receptor modulators that aims to separates drug- and system-specific properties, thereby allowing the estimation of in vivo affinity and efficacy. The application of two-site models significantly improved the fits compared with one-site models. Furthermore, in contrast to the descriptive model, the mechanism-based PK/PD model yielded dose-independent estimates for affinity (97 +/- 40 and 33,100 +/- 14,800 ng x ml(-1)). In conclusion, the mechanism-based PK/PD model is able to describe and explain the observed dose-dependent EEG effects of zolpidem and suggests the subtype selectivity of zolpidem in vivo.

  15. Intracerebroventricular injection of the antibiotic cefoselis produces convulsion in mice via inhibition of GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shunji; Mochizuki, Yoshitaka; Terai, Takao; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Uchida, Ichiro; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2002-12-01

    A majority of beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins and penicillins) have convulsive activity to a greater or lesser extent. (6R,7R)-3-[[3-Amino-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2H-pyrazol-1-ium-1-yl]methyl]-7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-methoxyiminoacetylamino]-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate monosulfate (cefoselis), a newly developed injectable beta-lactam antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), might induce convulsions if cerebral concentrations become highly elevated. In the present study, we examined whether or not cefoselis had convulsive activity after direct brain administration, and we attempted to clarify the pharmacological mechanism of action. When cefoselis was injected into the lateral ventricle of the mouse brain at doses higher than 20 microg/animal, it produced convulsions dose-dependently. Cefoselis (50 microg/animal)-induced convulsions were prevented by pretreatment with 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK-801), diazepam and phenobarbital (ED(50) values (mg/kg) of 0.78, 1.59 and 33.0, respectively), but not by carbamazepine or phenytoin. When the effects of these anticonvulsants on the convulsions induced by intracerebral injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were investigated, the inhibitory profile of anticonvulsants on cefoselis-induced convulsions was similar to those induced by BMI (125 ng/animal) but differed markedly in their inhibitory activity on NMDA (100 ng/animal)-induced convulsions, which were not inhibited by diazepam. These results suggest that cefoselis may be convulsive at higher concentrations through a mechanism involving inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors.

  16. Virus-mediated swapping of zolpidem-insensitive with zolpidem-sensitive GABA(A) receptors in cortical pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Sumegi, Mate; Fukazawa, Yugo; Matsui, Ko; Lorincz, Andrea; Eyre, Mark D; Nusser, Zoltan; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2012-04-01

    Recently developed pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches, with their own advantages and disadvantages, have become indispensable tools in modern neuroscience. Here, we employed a previously described knock-in mouse line (GABA(A)Rγ2(77I)lox) in which the γ2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) was mutated to become zolpidem insensitive (γ2(77I)) and used viral vectors to swap γ2(77I) with wild-type, zolpidem-sensitive γ2 subunits (γ2(77F)). The verification of unaltered density and subcellular distribution of the virally introduced γ2 subunits requires their selective labelling. For this we generated six N- and six C-terminal-tagged γ2 subunits, with which cortical cultures of GABA(A)Rγ2(−/−) mice were transduced using lentiviruses. We found that the N-terminal AU1 tag resulted in excellent immunodetection and unimpaired synaptic localization. Unaltered kinetic properties of the AU1-tagged γ2 ((AU1)γ2(77F)) channels were demonstrated with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous IPSCs from cultured cells. Next, we carried out stereotaxic injections of lenti- and adeno-associated viruses containing Cre-recombinase and the (AU1)γ2(77F) subunit (Cre-2A-(AU1)γ2(77F)) into the neocortex of GABA(A)Rγ2(77I)lox mice. Light microscopic immunofluorescence and electron microscopic freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling demonstrated the efficient immunodetection of the AU1 tag and the normal enrichment of the (AU1)γ2(77F) subunits in perisomatic GABAergic synapses. In line with this,miniature and action potential-evoked IPSCs whole-cell recorded from transduced cells had unaltered amplitudes, kinetics and restored zolpidem sensitivity. Our results obtained with a wide range of structural and functional verification methods reveal unaltered subcellular distributions and functional properties of γ2(77I) and (AU1)γ2(77F) GABA(A)Rs in cortical pyramidal cells. This transgenic–viral pharmacogenetic approach has the advantage that it

  17. 4,5-Substituted 3-Isoxazolols with Insecticidal Activity Act as Competitive Antagonists of Housefly GABA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Genyan; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Furuta, Kenjiro; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2015-07-22

    The insect GABA receptor (GABAR), which is composed of five RDL subunits, represents an important target for insecticides. A series of 4,5-disubstituted 3-isoxazolols, including muscimol analogues, were synthesized and examined for their activities against four splice variants (ac, ad, bc, and bd) of housefly GABARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Muscimol was a more potent agonist than GABA in all four splice variants, whereas synthesized analogues did not exhibit agonism but rather antagonism in housefly GABARs. The introduction of bicyclic aromatic groups at the 4-position of muscimol and the simultaneous replacement of the aminomethyl group with a carbamoyl group at the 5-position to afford six 4-aryl-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolols resulted in compounds that exhibited significantly enhanced antagonism with IC50 values in the low micromolar range in the ac variant. The inhibition of GABA-induced currents by 100 μM analogues was approximately 1.5-4-fold greater in the ac and bc variants than in the ad and bd variants. 4-(3-Biphenylyl)-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolol displayed competitive antagonism, with IC50 values of 30, 34, 107, and 96 μM in the ac, bc, ad, and bd variants, respectively, and exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against houseflies, with an LD50 value of 5.6 nmol/fly. These findings suggest that these 3-isoxazolol analogues are novel lead compounds for the design and development of insecticides that target the orthosteric site of housefly GABARs.

  18. Effects of acute administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on behavioral flexibility in rats

    PubMed Central

    Beas, B. Sofia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE The ability to adjust response strategies when faced with changes in the environment is critical for normal adaptive behavior. Such behavioral flexibility is compromised by experimental disruption of cortical GABAergic signaling, as well as in conditions such as schizophrenia and normal aging that are characterized by cortical hyperexcitability. The current studies were designed to determine whether stimulation of GABAergic signaling using the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility. METHODS Male Fischer 344 rats were trained in a set-shifting task in which they learned to discriminate between two response levers to obtain a food reward. Correct levers were signaled in accordance with two distinct response rules (Rule 1: correct lever signaled by a cue light; Rule 2: correct lever signaled by its left/right position). The order of rule presentation varied, but they were always presented sequentially, with the trials and errors to reach criterion performance on the second (set shift) rule providing the measure of behavioral flexibility. Experiments determined the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (i.p., 0, 1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 mg/kg) administered acutely before the shift to the second rule. RESULTS Baclofen enhanced set-shifting performance. Control experiments demonstrated that this enhancement was not simply due to improved discrimination learning, nor was it due to impaired recall of the initial discrimination rule. CONCLUSIONS The results demonstrate that baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility, suggesting that GABA(B) receptor agonists may have utility for treating behavioral dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27256354

  19. Effects of acute administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on behavioral flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Beas, B Sofia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    The ability to adjust response strategies when faced with changes in the environment is critical for normal adaptive behavior. Such behavioral flexibility is compromised by experimental disruption of cortical GABAergic signaling, as well as in conditions such as schizophrenia and normal aging that are characterized by cortical hyperexcitability. The current studies were designed to determine whether stimulation of GABAergic signaling using the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility. Male Fischer 344 rats were trained in a set-shifting task in which they learned to discriminate between two response levers to obtain a food reward. Correct levers were signaled in accordance with two distinct response rules (rule 1: correct lever signaled by a cue light; rule 2: correct lever signaled by its left/right position). The order of rule presentation varied, but they were always presented sequentially, with the trials and errors to reach criterion performance on the second (set shift) rule providing the measure of behavioral flexibility. Experiments determined the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (intraperitoneal, 0, 1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 mg/kg) administered acutely before the shift to the second rule. Baclofen enhanced set-shifting performance. Control experiments demonstrated that this enhancement was not simply due to improved discrimination learning, nor was it due to impaired recall of the initial discrimination rule. The results demonstrate that baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility, suggesting that GABA(B) receptor agonists may have utility for treating behavioral dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Homeostatic Changes in GABA and Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptors on GABAergic Neurons in the Mesencephalic Reticular Formation following Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Toossi, Hanieh; Del Cid-Pellitero, Esther; Jones, Barbara E

    2017-01-01

    We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABA A or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition. We found that a significantly greater proportion of the GABAergic neurons were positively stained for c-Fos after SD (∼27%) as compared to sleep control (SC; ∼1%) and sleep recovery (SR; ∼6%), suggesting that they were more active during waking with SD and less active or inactive during sleep with SC and SR. The density of GABA A Rs and AChM2Rs on the plasma membrane of the GABAergic neurons was significantly increased after SD and restored to control levels after SR. We conclude that the density of these receptors is increased on RFMes GABAergic neurons during presumed enhanced activity with SD and is restored to control levels during presumed lesser or inactivity with SR. Such increases in GABA A R and AChM2R with sleep deficits would be associated with increased susceptibility of the wake-active GABAergic neurons to inhibition from GABAergic and cholinergic sleep-active neurons and to thus permitting the onset of sleep and PS with muscle atonia.

  1. Under stressful conditions activation of the ionotropic P2X7 receptor differentially regulates GABA and glutamate release from nerve terminals of the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Barros-Barbosa, Aurora R; Oliveira, Ângela; Lobo, M Graça; Cordeiro, J Miguel; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) are the main inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), respectively. Fine tuning regulation of extracellular levels of these amino acids is essential for normal brain activity. Recently, we showed that neocortical nerve terminals from patients with epilepsy express higher amounts of the non-desensitizing ionotropic P2X7 receptor. Once activated by ATP released from neuronal cells, the P2X7 receptor unbalances GABAergic vs. glutamatergic neurotransmission by differentially interfering with GABA and Glu uptake. Here, we investigated if activation of the P2X7 receptor also affects [ 3 H]GABA and [ 14 C]Glu release measured synchronously from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) of the rat cerebral cortex. Data show that activation of the P2X7 receptor consistently increases [ 14 C]Glu over [ 3 H]GABA release from cortical nerve terminals, but the GABA/Glu ratio depends on extracellular Ca 2+ concentrations. While the P2X7-induced [ 3 H]GABA release is operated by a Ca 2+ -dependent pathway when external Ca 2+ is available, this mechanism shifts towards the reversal of the GAT1 transporter in low Ca 2+ conditions. A different scenario is verified regarding [ 14 C]Glu outflow triggered by the P2X7 receptor, since the amino acid seems to be consistently released through the recruitment of connexin-containing hemichannels upon P2X7 activation, both in the absence and in the presence of external Ca 2+ . Data from this study add valuable information suggesting that ATP, via P2X7 activation, not only interferes with the high-affinity uptake of GABA and Glu but actually favors the release of these amino acids through distinct molecular mechanisms amenable to differential therapeutic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recruitment of GABA(A) receptors and fearfulness in chicks: modulation by systemic insulin and/or epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Cid, Mariana Paula; Toledo, Carolina Maribel; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2013-02-01

    One-day-old chicks were individually assessed on their latency to peck pebbles, and categorized as low latency (LL) or high latency (HL) according to fear. Interactions between acute stress and systemic insulin and epinephrine on GABA(A) receptor density in the forebrain were studied. At 10 days of life, LL and HL chicks were intraperitoneally injected with insulin, epinephrine or saline, and immediately after stressed by partial water immersion for 15 min and killed by decapitation. Forebrains were dissected and the GABA(A) receptor density was measured ex vivo by the (3)[H]-flunitrazepam binding assay in synaptosomes. In non-stressed chicks, insulin (non-hypoglycemic dose) at 2.50 IU/kg of body weight incremented the Bmax by 40.53% in the HL chicks compared to saline group whereas no significant differences were observed between individuals in the LL subpopulation. Additionally, insulin increased the Bmax (23.48%) in the HL group with respect to the LL ones, indicating that the insulin responses were different according to the anxiety of each category. Epinephrine administration (0.25 and 0.50mg/kg) incremented the Bmax in non-stressed chicks, in the LL group by about 37% and 33%, respectively, compared to ones injected with saline. In the stressed chicks, 0.25mg/kg bw epinephrine increased the Bmax significantly in the HL group by about 24% compared to saline, suggesting that the effect of epinephrine was only observed in the HL group under acute stress conditions. Similarly, the same epinephrine doses co-administered with insulin increased the receptor density in both subpopulations and also showed that the highest dose of epinephrine did not further increase the maximum density of GABA(A)R in HL chicks. These results suggest that systemic epinephrine, perhaps by evoking central norepinephrine release, modulated the increase in the forebrain GABA(A) receptor recruitment induced by both insulin and stress in different ways depending on the subpopulation

  3. Identification and cloning of a gamma 3 subunit splice variant of the human GABA(A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, C F; Christjansen, K N; Hastrup, S; Hartvig, L

    2000-05-31

    cDNA sequences encoding two forms of the GABA(A) gamma 3 receptor subunit were cloned from human hippocampus. The nucleotide sequences differ by the absence (gamma 3S) or presence (gamma 3L) of 18 bp located in the presumed intracellular loop between transmembrane region (TM) III and IV. The extra 18 bp in the gamma 3L subunit generates a consensus site for phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC). Analysis of human genomic DNA encoding the gamma 3 subunit reveals that the 18 bp insert is contiguous with the upstream proximal exon.

  4. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and bacoside A.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jobin; Peeyush Kumar, T; Khan, Reas S; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of Bacopa monnieri and its active component, bacoside A, on motor deficit and alterations of GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats were investigated. Scatchard analysis of [(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]bicuculline in the cerebellum of epileptic rats revealed a significant decrease in B(max) compared with control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of GABA(A) receptor subunits-GABA(Aalpha1), GABA(Aalpha5,) and GABA(Adelta)-was downregulated (P<0.001) in the cerebellum of epileptic rats compared with control rats. Epileptic rats exhibit deficits in radial arm and Y-maze performance. Treatment with B. monnieri and bacoside A reversed these changes to near-control levels. Our results suggest that changes in GABAergic activity, motor learning, and memory deficit are induced by the occurrence of repetitive seizures. Treatment with B. monnieri and bacoside A prevents the occurrence of seizures thereby reducing the impairment of GABAergic activity, motor learning, and memory deficit. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment responsive GABA(B)-receptor limbic encephalitis presenting as new-onset super-refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) in a deployed U.S. soldier.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Jeffrey Brian; Shishido, Akira; Theeler, Brett James; Carroll, Craig Grason; Fasano, Rebecca Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A 23-year-old, previously healthy, deployed U.S. soldier presented with bilateral temporal lobe seizures recalcitrant to multiple antiepileptic drugs and anti-seizure anaesthetic agents. He received methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, and rituximab for presumed autoimmune encephalitis before achieving seizure freedom. Six weeks after presentation, the aetiology of his refractory seizures was found to be due to autoantibodies targeting the anti-GABA(B)-receptor. This case is noteworthy for being the first reported case of anti-GABA(B)-receptor limbic encephalitis presenting with new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE), a clinical syndrome that often carries a grave prognosis and in which a treatable aetiology is often never discovered. Our case also supports testing for GABA-receptor autoantibodies and the upfront use of multi-modal immunotherapy in patients presenting with limbic encephalitis and new refractory seizures.

  6. Successful combination immunotherapy of anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody-positive encephalitis with extensive multifocal brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Yuki; Okada, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Mari; Yamaguchi, Keiji

    2017-08-31

    A 78-year old woman who presented with akinetic mutism was admitted to our hospital. Brain MRI showed multifocal increased T 2 /FLAIR signal with extensive cortical-subcortical involvement. We suspected autoimmune encephalitis and the patient received methylprednisolone pulse. Her conscious level gradually recovered, but later relapsed again and presented with refractory status epilepticus. We treated her with intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and pulsed cyclophosphamide, with satisfactory response. A brain biopsy showed perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates and reactive gliosis. Anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor antibodies test came back to be positive after her recovery, and the diagnosis of anti-GABA A receptor antibody-positive encephalitis was made. This is a very rare case where brain biopsies were performed in a patient with anti-GABA A receptor antibody-positive encephalitis.

  7. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade on the ERG b- and d-waves during blockade of ionotropic GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Popova, Elka; Kostov, Momchil; Kupenova, Petia

    2016-01-01

    Some data indicate that the dopaminergic and GABAergic systems interact in the vertebrate retina, but the type of interactions is not well understood. In this study we investigated the effect of dopamine D 1 receptor blockade by 75 μM SCH 23390 on the electroretinographic ON (b-wave) and OFF (d-wave) responses in intact frog eyecup preparations and in eyecups where the ionotropic GABA receptors were blocked by 50 μM picrotoxin. Student's t -test, One-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test and Two-way ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation of the data. We found that SCH 23390 alone significantly enhanced the amplitude of the b- and d-waves without altering their latency. The effect developed rapidly and was fully expressed within 8-11 min after the blocker application. Picrotoxin alone also markedly enhanced the amplitude of the ERG ON and OFF responses and increased their latency significantly. The effect was fully expressed within 25-27 min after picrotoxin application and remained very stable in the next 20 min. The effects of SCH 23390 and picrotoxin are similar to that reported in our previous studies. When SCH 23390 was applied on the background of the fully developed picrotoxin effect, it diminished the amplitude of the b- and d-waves in comparison to the corresponding values obtained during application of picrotoxin alone. Our results demonstrate that the enhancing effect of D 1 receptor blockade on the amplitude of the ERG b- and d-waves is not evident during the ionotropic GABA receptor blockade, indicating an interaction between these neurotransmitter systems in the frog retina. We propose that the inhibitory effect of endogenous dopamine mediated by D 1 receptors on the ERG ON and OFF responses in the frog retina may be due to the dopamine-evoked GABA release.

  8. Connections between EM2-containing terminals and GABA/μ-opioid receptor co-expressing neurons in the rat spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng-Ying; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Yu-Lin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Endomorphin-2 (EM2) demonstrates a potent antinociceptive effect via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). To provide morphological evidence for the pain control effect of EM2, the synaptic connections between EM2-immunoreactive (IR) axonal terminals and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)/MOR co-expressing neurons in lamina II of the spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc) were investigated in the rat. Dense EM2-, MOR- and GABA-IR fibers and terminals were mainly observed in lamina II of the Vc. Within lamina II, GABA- and MOR-neuronal cell bodies were also encountered. The results of immunofluorescent histochemical triple-staining showed that approximately 14.2 or 18.9% of GABA-IR or MOR-IR neurons also showed MOR- or GABA-immunopositive staining in lamina II; approximately 45.2 and 36.1% of the GABA-IR and MOR-IR neurons, respectively, expressed FOS protein in their nuclei induced by injecting formalin into the left lower lip of the mouth. Most of the GABA/MOR, GABA/FOS, and MOR/FOS double-labeled neurons made close contacts with EM2-IR fibers and terminals. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the EM2-IR terminals formed synapses with GABA-IR or MOR-IR dendritic processes and neuronal cell bodies in lamina II of the Vc. These results suggest that EM2 might participate in pain transmission and modulation by binding to MOR-IR and GABAergic inhibitory interneuron in lamina II of the Vc to exert inhibitory effect on the excitatory interneuron in lamina II and projection neurons in laminae I and III. PMID:25386121

  9. Association between the GABA(A) receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) and bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, G N; Dikeos, D G; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Daskalopoulou, E G; Vassilopoulos, D; Stefanis, C N

    1998-02-07

    Genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of affective disorder. The candidate gene strategies are being used, among others, to identify the genes conferring vulnerability to the disease. The genes coding for the receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been proposed as candidates for affective disorder, since the GABA neurotransmitter system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the illness. We examined the possible genetic association between the GABA(A) receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) on chromosome 15 and affective disorder, in 48 bipolar patients (BP), 40 unipolar patients (UP), and 50 healthy individuals, age- and sex-matched to the patients. All patients and controls were unrelated Greeks. Diagnoses were made after direct interviews according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. For the genotyping, a dinucleotide (CA) repeat marker was used. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products found were nine alleles with lengths between 272 and 290 base pairs (bp). The distribution of allelic frequencies of the GABRA5 locus differed significantly between BP patients and controls with the 282-bp allele found to be associated with BP affective disorder, while no such difference was observed between the groups of UP patients and controls nor between the two patient groups. The presence or absence of the 282-bp allele in the genotype of BP patients was not shown to influence the age of onset and the overall clinical severity, but was found to be associated with a preponderance of manic over depressive episodes in the course of the illness.

  10. Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on rat GABA(A) and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors expressed by lateral/basolateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    McCool, Brian A; Frye, Gerald D; Pulido, Marisa D; Botting, Shaleen K

    2003-02-14

    It is well known that the anxiolytic potential of ethanol is maintained during chronic exposure. We have confirmed this using a light-dark box paradigm following chronic ethanol ingestion via a liquid diet. However, cessation from chronic ethanol exposure is known to cause severe withdrawal anxiety. These opposing effects on anxiety likely result from neuro-adaptations of neurotransmitter systems within the brain regions regulating anxiety. Recent work highlights the importance of amygdala ligand-gated chloride channels in the expression of anxiety. We have therefore examined the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on GABA(A) and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors expressed by acutely isolated adult rat lateral/basolateral amygdala neurons. Chronic ethanol exposure increased the functional expression of GABA(A) receptors in acutely isolated basolateral amygdala neurons without altering strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. Neither the acute ethanol nor benzodiazepine sensitivity of either receptor system was affected. We explored the likelihood that subunit composition might influence each receptor's response to chronic ethanol. Importantly, when expressed in a mammalian heterologous system, GABA(A) receptors composed of unique alpha subunits were differentially sensitive to acute ethanol. Likewise, the presence of the beta subunit appeared to influence the acute ethanol sensitivity of glycine receptors containing the alpha(2) subunit. Our results suggest that the facilitation of GABA(A) receptors during chronic ethanol exposure may help explain the maintenance of ethanol's anti-anxiety effects during chronic ethanol exposure. Furthermore, the subunit composition of GABA(A) and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may ultimately influence the response of each system to chronic ethanol exposure.

  11. Increased GABA-A receptor binding and reduced connectivity at the motor cortex in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a multimodal investigation using 18F-fluoroflumazenil PET, immunohistochemistry, and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Chul Hoon; Park, Eun Sook; Park, Bumhee; Oh, So Ra; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Park, Chang Il; Lee, Jong Doo

    2013-08-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor-mediated neural transmission is important to promote practice-dependent plasticity after brain injury. This study investigated alterations in GABA-A receptor binding and functional and anatomic connectivity within the motor cortex in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We conducted (18)F-fluoroflumazenil PET on children with hemiplegic CP to investigate whether in vivo GABA-A receptor binding is altered in the ipsilateral or contralateral hemisphere of the lesion site. To evaluate changes in the GABA-A receptor subunit after prenatal brain injury, we performed GABA-A receptor immunohistochemistry using rat pups with a diffuse hypoxic ischemic insult. We also performed diffusion tensor MR imaging and resting-state functional MR imaging on the same children with hemiplegic CP to investigate alterations in anatomic and functional connectivity at the motor cortex with increased GABA-A receptor binding. In children with hemiplegic CP, the (18)F-fluoroflumazenil binding potential was increased within the ipsilateral motor cortex. GABA-A receptors with the α1 subunit were highly expressed exclusively within cortical layers III, IV, and VI of the motor cortex in rat pups. The motor cortex with increased GABA-A receptor binding in children with hemiplegic CP had reduced thalamocortical and corticocortical connectivity, which might be linked to increased GABA-A receptor distribution in cortical layers in rats. Increased expression of the GABA-A receptor α1 subunit within the ipsilateral motor cortex may be an important adaptive mechanism after prenatal brain injury in children with CP but may be associated with improper functional connectivity after birth and have adverse effects on the development of motor plasticity.

  12. Protein kinase and phosphatase modulation of quail brain GABA(A) and non-NMDA receptors co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Moon, C; Fraser, S P; Djamgoz, M B

    2000-02-01

    The GABA(A) receptor and the non-NMDA subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptor were co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of quail brain mRNA. The oocytes were treated with various protein kinase (PK) and protein phosphatase (PP) activators and inhibitors and the effects on receptor functioning were monitored. Two phorbol esters, 4-beta-phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and 4-beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu); the cGMP-dependent PK activators sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG); and the PP inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) reduced the amplitude of the GABA-induced currents, whilst the PK inhibitor staurosporine potentiated it. In addition, PMA, PDBu, SNP, and OA reduced the desensitization of the GABA-induced response. Identical treatments generally had similar but less pronounced effects on responses generated by kainate (KA) but the desensitization characteristic of the non-NMDA receptor was not affected. None of the treatments had any effect on the reversal potentials of the induced currents. Immunoblots revealed that the oocytes express endogenous PKG and guanylate cyclase. The results are discussed in terms of the molecular structures of GABA(A) and non-NMDA receptors and the potential functional consequences of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.

  13. Brain region-selective cellular redistribution of mGlu5 but not GABA(B) receptors following methamphetamine-induced associative learning.

    PubMed

    Herrold, Amy A; Voigt, Robin M; Napier, T Celeste

    2011-12-01

    Alterations in receptor expression and distribution between cell surface and cytoplasm are means by which psychostimulants regulate neurotransmission. Metabotropic glutamate receptor group I, subtype 5 (mGluR5) and GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B) R) are critically involved in the development and expression of stimulant-induced behaviors, including conditioned place preference (CPP), an index of drug-seeking. However, it is not known if psychostimulant-induced CPP alters the trafficking of these receptors. To fill this gap, this study used methamphetamine (Meth)-induced CPP in rats to ascertain if receptor changes occur in limbic brain regions that regulate drug-seeking, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral pallidum (VP). To do so, ex vivo tissue was assessed for changes in expression and surface vs. intracellular distribution of mGluR5 and GABA(B) Rs. There was a decrease in the surface to intracellular ratio of mGluR5 in the mPFC in Meth-conditioned rats, commensurate with an increase in intracellular levels. mGluR5 levels in the NAc or the VP were unaltered. There were no changes for GABA(B) R in any brain region assayed. This ex vivo snapshot of metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptor cellular distribution following induction of Meth-induced CPP is the first report to determine if these receptors are differentially altered after Meth-induced CPP. The results suggest that this Meth treatment paradigm likely induced a compensatory change in mGluR5 surface to intracellular ratio such that the surface remains unaltered while an increase in intracellular protein occurred. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Morphine history sensitizes postsynaptic GABA receptors on dorsal raphe serotonin neurons in a stress-induced relapse model in rats.

    PubMed

    Staub, D R; Lunden, J W; Cathel, A M; Dolben, E L; Kirby, L G

    2012-06-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system plays an important role in stress-related psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Previous work has shown that the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR)-5-HT system is inhibited by swim stress via stimulation of GABA synaptic activity by the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Additionally, the DR 5-HT system is regulated by opioids. The present study tests the hypothesis that the DR 5-HT system regulates stress-induced opioid relapse. In the first experiment, electrophysiological recordings of GABA synaptic activity in 5-HT DR neurons were conducted in brain slices from Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to swim stress-induced reinstatement of previously extinguished morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Behavioral data indicate that swim stress triggers reinstatement of morphine CPP. Electrophysiology data indicate that 5-HT neurons in the morphine-conditioned group exposed to stress had increased amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), which would indicate greater postsynaptic GABA receptor density and/or sensitivity, compared to saline controls exposed to stress. In the second experiment, rats were exposed to either morphine or saline CPP and extinction, and then 5-HT DR neurons from both groups were examined for sensitivity to CRF in vitro. CRF induced a greater inward current in 5-HT neurons from morphine-conditioned subjects compared to saline-conditioned subjects. These data indicate that morphine history sensitizes 5-HT DR neurons to the GABAergic inhibitory effects of stress as well as to some of the effects of CRF. These mechanisms may sensitize subjects with a morphine history to the dysphoric effects of stressors and ultimately confer an enhanced vulnerability to stress-induced opioid relapse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of progesterone on the expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of rats: implications of sex differences and brain hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Susie; Arbo, Bruno D; Batista, Bruna A M; Neves, Alice M; Branchini, Gisele; Brum, Ilma S; Barros, Helena M T; Gomez, Rosane; Ribeiro, Maria Flavia M

    2012-12-01

    Progesterone is a neuroactive hormone with non-genomic effects on GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R). Changes in the expression of GABA(A)R subunits are related to depressive-like behaviors in rats. Moreover, sex differences and depressive behaviors have been associated with prefrontal brain asymmetry in rodents and humans. Thus, our objective was to investigate the effect of progesterone on the GABA(A)R α1 and γ2 subunits mRNA expression in the right and left prefrontal cortex of diestrus female and male rats exposed to the forced swimming test (FST). Male and female rats (n = 8/group) were randomly selected to receive a daily dose of progesterone (0·4 mg·kg⁻¹) or vehicle, during two complete female estrous cycles (8-10 days). On the experiment day, male rats or diestrus female rats were euthanized 30 min after the FST. Our results showed that progesterone significantly increased the α1 subunit mRNA in both hemispheres of male and female rats. Moreover, there was an inverse correlation between depressive-like behaviors and GABA(A)R α1 subunit mRNA expression in the right hemisphere in female rats. Progesterone decreased the GABA(A)R γ2 mRNA expression only in the left hemisphere of male rats. Therefore, we conclude that the GABA(A) system displays an asymmetric distribution according to sex and that progesterone, at lower doses, presents an antidepressant effect after increasing the GABA(A) R α1 subunit expression in the right prefrontal cortex of female rats. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Role of a gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor mutation in the evolution and spread of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera resistance to cyclodiene insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An alanine to serine amino acid substitution within the Rdl subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides in many species. The corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a damaging pest of cultivated corn that was partially controlled by ...

  17. The GABA[subscript A] Receptor Agonist Muscimol Induces an Age- and Region-Dependent Form of Long-Term Depression in the Mouse Striatum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaoqun; Yao, Ning; Chergui, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Several forms of long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synaptic transmission have been identified in the dorsal striatum and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Such experience-dependent synaptic plasticity might play important roles in reward-related learning. The GABA[subscript A] receptor agonist muscimol was recently found to trigger a…

  18. Systematic study of association of four GABAergic genes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 gene, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene, GABA(B) receptor 1 gene and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene, with schizophrenia using a universal DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Qin, Shengying; Shi, Yongyong; Zhang, Aiping; Zhang, Jing; Bian, Li; Wan, Chunling; Feng, Guoyin; Gu, Niufan; Zhang, Guangqi; He, Guang; He, Lin

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have suggested the dysfunction of the GABAergic system as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, case-control association analysis was conducted in four GABAergic genes: two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes (GAD1 and GAD2), a GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene (GABRB2) and a GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1). Using a universal DNA microarray procedure we genotyped a total of 20 SNPs on the above four genes in a study involving 292 patients and 286 controls of Chinese descent. Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=12.40, OR=1.65) and the -292A/C polymorphism in the GAD1 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=14.64 OR=1.77). In addition, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we discovered differences in the U251 nuclear protein binding to oligonucleotides representing the -292 SNP on the GAD1 gene, which suggests that the -292C allele has reduced transcription factor binding efficiency compared with the 292A allele. Using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR), we found that the interactions among the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene, the -243A/G polymorphism in the GAD2 gene and the 27379C/T and 661C/T polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the GABRB2 and GAD1 genes alone and the combined effects of the polymorphisms in the four GABAergic system genes may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

  19. Evidence of two populations of GABA(A) receptors in cerebellar granule cells in culture: different desensitization kinetics, pharmacology, serine/threonine kinase sensitivity, and localization.

    PubMed

    Robello, M; Amico, C; Cupello, A

    1999-12-20

    GABA(A) receptors of rat cerebellar granule cells in culture have been studied by the whole cell patch clamp technique. The biphasic desensitization kinetic observed could be due either to different desensitization mechanisms of a single receptor population or to different receptor populations. The overall data indicate that the latter hypothesis is most probably the correct one. In fact, the fast desensitizing component was selectively potentiated by a benzodiazepine agonist and preferentially down-regulated by activation of the protein serine/threonine kinases A and G, as a consequence of the latter characteristic that receptor population was preferentially down-regulated by previous activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors, via production of nitric oxide and PKG activation, most probably in dendrites. The other population is benzodiazepine insensitive and not influenced by activation of PKA or PKG. This slowly desensitizing population may correspond to the extrasynaptic delta subunit containing GABA(A) receptors described by other authors. Instead, the rapidly desensitizing population appears to represent dendritic synaptic GABA(A) receptors. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. [Schizophrenia and cortical GABA neurotransmission].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Matsubara, Takuro; Lewis, David A

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia show disturbances in a number of brain functions that regulate cognitive, affective, motor, and sensory processing. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related molecules. First, mRNA levels for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), an enzyme principally responsible for GABA synthesis, and the GABA membrane transporter GAT1, which regulates the reuptake of synaptically released GABA, are decreased in a subset of GABA neurons. Second, affected GABA neurons include those that express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV), because PV mRNA levels are decreased in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia and GAD67 mRNA is undetectable in almost half of PV-containing neurons. These changes are accompanied by decreased GAT1 expression in the presynaptic terminals of PV-containing neurons and by increased postsynaptic GABA-A receptor alpha2 subunit expression at the axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons. These findings indicate decreased GABA synthesis/release by PV-containing GABA neurons and compensatory changes at synapses formed by these neurons. Third, another subset of GABA neurons that express the neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) also appear to be affected because their specific markers, SST and neuropeptide Y mRNAs, are decreased in a manner highly correlated with the decreases in GAD67 mRNA. Finally, mRNA levels for GABA-A receptor subunits for synaptic (alpha1 and gamma2) and extra-synaptic (delta) receptors are decreased, indicating alterations in both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA neurotransmission. Together, this pattern of changes indicates that the altered GABA neurotransmission is specific to PV-containing and SST-containing GABA neuron subsets and involves both synaptic and extra

  1. GABA(A) receptors in the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse modulate neurochemical, electrographic, and behavioral phenotypes of wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Flint, RaShonda R; Chang, Theresa; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2010-09-15

    Drugs that potentiate transmission at GABA(A) receptors are widely used to enhance sleep and to cause general anesthesia. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptors in the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) of mouse modulate five phenotypes of arousal: sleep and wakefulness, cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, acetylcholine (ACh) release in the PnO, breathing, and recovery time from general anesthesia. Microinjections into the PnO of saline (vehicle control), the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, muscimol with the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline, and bicuculline alone were performed in male C57BL/6J mice (n = 33) implanted with EEG recording electrodes. Muscimol caused a significant increase in wakefulness and decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. These effects were reversed by coadministration of bicuculline. Bicuculline administered alone caused a significant decrease in wakefulness and increase in NREM sleep and REM sleep. Muscimol significantly increased EEG power in the delta range (0.5-4 Hz) during wakefulness and in the theta range (4-9 Hz) during REM sleep. Dialysis delivery of bicuculline to the PnO of male mice (n = 18) anesthetized with isoflurane significantly increased ACh release in the PnO, decreased breathing rate, and increased anesthesia recovery time. All drug effects were concentration dependent. The effects on phenotypes of arousal support the conclusion that GABA(A) receptors in the PnO promote wakefulness and suggest that increasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO may be one mechanism underlying the phenomenon of paradoxical behavioral activation by some benzodiazepines.

  2. Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell.

    PubMed

    Wirtshafter, David; Stratford, Thomas R

    2010-09-01

    Microinjections of the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol into the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) have been reported to induce large increases in food intake, but the effect of these injections on motivational processes is less clear. In the current study, bilateral injections of saline, muscimol (50ng/side) or d-amphetamine (10mug/side) were made into the AcbSh of rats trained to lever press on a progressive ratio schedule for food reward. Injections of both muscimol and amphetamine were found to produce a large increase in the breaking point relative to saline injections. This result suggests that inactivation of the AcbSh does not simply drive ingestive behavior, but also affects motivational processes assessed by the progressive ratio schedule. Breaking points were also increased by injections of amphetamine into the AcbSh. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell

    PubMed Central

    Wirtshafter, David; Stratford, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Microinjections of the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol into the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) have been reported to induce large increases in food intake, but the effect of these injections on motivational processes is less clear. In the current study, bilateral injections of saline, muscimol (50 ng/side) or D-amphetamine (10 μg/side) were made into the AcbSh of rats trained to lever press on a progressive ratio schedule for food reward. Injections of both muscimol and amphetamine were found to produce a large increase in the breaking point relative to saline injections. This result suggests that inactivation of the AcbSh does not simply drive ingestive behavior, but also affects motivational processes assessed by the progressive ratio schedule. Breaking points were also increased by injections of amphetamine into the AcbSh. PMID:20598739

  4. Exploring QSARs of the interaction of flavonoids with GABA (A) receptor using MLR, ANN and SVM techniques.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Omar; Shaik, Basheerulla; Agrawal, Vijay K

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models for binding affinity constants (log Ki) of 78 flavonoid ligands towards the benzodiazepine site of GABA (A) receptor complex were calculated using the machine learning methods: artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The models obtained were compared with those obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. The descriptor selection and model building were performed with 10-fold cross-validation using the training data set. The SVM and MLR coefficient of determination values are 0.944 and 0.879, respectively, for the training set and are higher than those of ANN models. Though the SVM model shows improvement of training set fitting, the ANN model was superior to SVM and MLR in predicting the test set. Randomization test is employed to check the suitability of the models.

  5. Somato-synaptic variation of GABA(A) receptors in cultured murine cerebellar granule cells: investigation of the role of the alpha6 subunit.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J R; Wisden, W; Randall, A D

    2000-07-10

    Electrophysiological investigation of cultured cerebellar murine granule cells revealed differences between the GABA(A) receptors at inhibitory synapses and those on the cell body. Specifically, mIPSCs decayed more rapidly than cell body receptors deactivated, the mean single channel conductance at the synapse (32 pS) was greater than that at cell body (21 pS) and only cell body receptors were sensitive to Zn(2+) (150 microM), which depressed response amplitude by 82+/-5% and almost doubled the rate of channel deactivation. The GABA(A) receptor alpha6 subunit is selectively expressed in cerebellar granule cells. Although concentrated at synapses, it is also found on extrasynaptic membranes. Using a mouse line (Deltaalpha6lacZ) lacking this subunit, we investigated its role in the somato-synaptic differences in GABA(A) receptor function. All differences between cell body and synaptic GABA(A) receptors observed in wild-type (WT) granule cells persisted in Deltaalpha6lacZ cells, thus demonstrating that they are not specifically due to the cellular distribution of the alpha6 subunit. However, mIPSCs from WT and Deltaalpha6lacZ cells differed in both their kinetics (faster decay in WT cells) and underlying single channel conductance (32 pS WT, 25 pS Deltaalpha6lacZ). This provides good evidence for a functional contribution of the alpha6 subunit to postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors in these cells. Despite this, deactivation kinetics of mIPSCs in WT and Deltaalpha6lacZ granule cells exhibited similar benzodiazepene (BDZ) sensitivity. This suggests that the enhanced BDZ-induced ataxia seen in Deltaalpha6lacZ mice may reflect physiological activity at extrasynaptic receptors which, unlike those at synapses, display differential BDZ-sensitivity in WT and Deltaalpha6lacZ granule cells (Jones, A.M., Korpi, E.R., McKernan, R.M., Nusser, Z., Pelz, R., Makela, R., Mellor, J.R., Pollard, S., Bahn, S., Stephenson, F.A., Randall, A.D., Sieghart, W., Somogyi, P., Smith, A.J.H., Wisden

  6. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Javier A.; Forsythe, Paul; Chew, Marianne V.; Escaravage, Emily; Savignac, Hélène M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Bienenstock, John; Cryan, John F.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. Alterations in central GABA receptor expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, which are highly comorbid with functional bowel disorders. In this work, we show that chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus (JB-1) induced region-dependent alterations in GABAB1b mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions (cingulate and prelimbic) and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice. In addition, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced GABAAα2 mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but increased GABAAα2 in the hippocampus. Importantly, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Moreover, the neurochemical and behavioral effects were not found in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulatory constitutive communication pathway between the bacteria exposed to the gut and the brain. Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut–brain axis and suggest that certain organisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. PMID:21876150

  7. Honokiol promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep via the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wei-Min; Yue, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Yu; Fan, Kun; Chen, Chang-Rui; Hou, Yi-Ping; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2012-10-01

    Decoctions of the Chinese herb houpu contain honokiol and are used to treat a variety of mental disorders, including depression. Depression commonly presents alongside sleep disorders and sleep disturbances, which appear to be a major risk factor for depression. Here, we have evaluated the somnogenic effect of honokiol and the mechanisms involved. Honokiol was administered i.p. at 20:00 h in mice. Flumazenil, an antagonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor, was administered i.p. 15 min before honokiol. The effects of honokiol were measured by EEG and electromyogram (EMG), c-Fos expression and in vitro electrophysiology. Honokiol (10 and 20 mg·kg⁻¹) significantly shortened the sleep latency to non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep and increased the amount of NREM sleep. Honokiol increased the number of state transitions from wakefulness to NREM sleep and, subsequently, from NREM sleep to wakefulness. However, honokiol had no effect on either the amount of REM sleep or EEG power density of both NREM and REM sleep. Honokiol increased c-Fos expression in ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) neurons, as examined by immunostaining, and excited sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO by whole-cell patch clamping in the brain slice. Pretreatment with flumazenil abolished the somnogenic effects and activation of the VLPO neurons by honokiol. Honokiol promoted NREM sleep by modulating the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor, suggesting potential applications in the treatment of insomnia, especially for patients who experience difficulty in falling and staying asleep. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Loss of ethanol conditioned taste aversion and motor stimulation in knockin mice with ethanol-insensitive α2-containing GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Y A; Borghese, C M; McCracken, M L; Benavidez, J M; Geil, C R; Osterndorff-Kahanek, E; Werner, D F; Iyer, S; Swihart, A; Harrison, N L; Homanics, G E; Harris, R A

    2011-01-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including α2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705-714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95-104, 2008; J Psychiatr Res 42:184-191, 2008). The goal of our study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action. We designed an α2 subunit with serine 270 to histidine and leucine 277 to alanine mutations that was insensitive to potentiation by ethanol yet retained normal GABA sensitivity in a recombinant expression system. Knockin mice containing this mutant subunit were tested in a range of ethanol behavioral tests. These mutant mice did not develop the typical conditioned taste aversion in response to ethanol and showed complete loss of the motor stimulant effects of ethanol. Conversely, they also demonstrated changes in ethanol intake and preference in multiple tests. The knockin mice showed increased ethanol-induced hypnosis but no difference in anxiolytic effects or recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing the α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol that may be relevant to the genetic linkage of this subunit with human alcoholism.

  9. GABA/sub B/ receptor activation inhibits Ca/sup 2 +/-activated potassium channels in synaptosomes: involvement of G-proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ticku, M.K.; Delgado, A.

    1989-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb-efflux assay from preloaded synaptosomes of rat cerebral cortex was developed to study the effect of GABA/sub B/ receptor agonist baclofen on Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/-channels. Depolarization of /sup 86/Rb-loaded synaptosomes in physiological buffer increased Ca/sup 2 +/-activated /sup 86/Rb-efflux by 400%. The /sup 86/Rb-efflux was blocked by quinine sulfate, tetraethylammonium, and La/sup 3 +/ indicating the involvement of Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/-channels. (-)Baclofen inhibited Ca/sup 2 +/-activated /sup 86/Rb-efflux in a stereospecific manner. The inhibitory effect of (-)baclofen was mediated by GABA/sub B/ receptor activation, since it was blocked by GABA/sub B/ antagonist phaclofen, but notmore » by bicuculline. Further, pertussis toxin also blocked the ability of baclofen or depolarizing action to affect Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/-channels. These results suggest that baclofen inhibits Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/-channels in synaptosomes and these channels are regulated by G-proteins. This assay may provide an ideal in vitro model to study GABA/sub B/ receptor pharmacology.« less

  10. Reduced binding potential of GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptors in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis: an [18F]-fluoroflumazenil positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jee In; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Se Joo; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Su Young; Lee, Eun; An, Suk Kyoon; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lee, Jong Doo

    2014-05-01

    Altered transmission of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of GABA-A/benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor binding abnormalities in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in comparison with normal controls using [(18)F]-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) positron emission tomography (PET). In particular, we set regions of interest in the striatum (caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens) and medial temporal area (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus). Eleven BZ-naive people at UHR and 15 normal controls underwent PET scanning using [(18)F]-FFMZ to measure GABA-A/BZ receptor binding potential. The regional group differences between UHR individuals and normal controls were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software. Participants were evaluated using the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and neurocognitive function tasks. People at UHR demonstrated significantly reduced binding potential of GABA-A/BZ receptors in the right caudate. Altered GABAergic transmission and/or the imbalance of inhibitory and excitatory systems in the striatum may be present at the putative prodromal stage and play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of psychosis.

  11. Reduced Binding Potential of GABA-A/Benzodiazepine Receptors in Individuals at Ultra-high Risk for Psychosis: An [18F]-Fluoroflumazenil Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jee In; Park, Hae-Jeong; An, Suk Kyoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Altered transmission of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of GABA-A/benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor binding abnormalities in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in comparison with normal controls using [18F]-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) positron emission tomography (PET). In particular, we set regions of interest in the striatum (caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens) and medial temporal area (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus). Methods: Eleven BZ-naive people at UHR and 15 normal controls underwent PET scanning using [18F]-FFMZ to measure GABA-A/BZ receptor binding potential. The regional group differences between UHR individuals and normal controls were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software. Participants were evaluated using the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and neurocognitive function tasks. Results: People at UHR demonstrated significantly reduced binding potential of GABA-A/BZ receptors in the right caudate. Conclusions: Altered GABAergic transmission and/or the imbalance of inhibitory and excitatory systems in the striatum may be present at the putative prodromal stage and play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of psychosis. PMID:23588475

  12. Blockade of GABA, type A, receptors in the rat pontine reticular formation induces rapid eye movement sleep that is dependent upon the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Marks, G A; Sachs, O W; Birabil, C G

    2008-09-22

    The brainstem reticular formation is an area important to the control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The antagonist of GABA-type A (GABA(A)) receptors, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), injected into the rat nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of the reticular formation resulted in a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Thus, one factor controlling REM sleep appears to be the number of functional GABA(A) receptors in the PnO. The long-lasting effect produced by BMI may result from secondary influences on other neurotransmitter systems known to have long-lasting effects. To study this question, rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep recording and additionally implanted with guide cannulas aimed at sites in the PnO. Multiple, 60 nl, unilateral injections were made either singly or in combination. GABA(A) receptor antagonists, BMI and gabazine (GBZ), produced dose-dependent increases in REM sleep with GBZ being approximately 35 times more potent than BMI. GBZ and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced very similar results, both increasing REM sleep for about 8 h, mainly through increased period frequency, with little reduction in REM latency. Pre-injection of the muscarinic antagonist, atropine, completely blocked the REM sleep-increase by GBZ. GABAergic control of REM sleep in the PnO requires the cholinergic system and may be acting through presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release.

  13. GABA-BZD Receptor Modulating Mechanism of Panax quinquefolius against 72-h Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety like Behavior: Possible Roles of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Priyanka; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng) is known for its therapeutic potential against various neurological disorders, but its plausible mechanism of action still remains undeciphered. GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) plays an important role in sleep wake cycle homeostasis. Thus, there exists rationale in exploring the GABA-ergic potential of Panax quinquefolius as neuroprotective strategy in sleep deprivation induced secondary neurological problems. Objective: The present study was designed to explore the possible GABA-ergic mechanism in the neuro-protective effect of Panax quinquefolius against 72-h sleep deprivation induced anxiety like behavior, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, HPA-axis activation and neuroinflammation. Materials and Methods: Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72-h by using Grid suspended over water method. Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with GABA modulators (GABA Cl− channel inhibitor, GABA-benzodiazepine receptor inhibitor and GABAA agonist) for 8 days, starting 5 days prior to 72-h sleep deprivation period. Various behavioral (locomotor activity, mirror chamber test), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels), mitochondrial complexes, neuroinflammation marker (Tumor Necrosis Factor, TNF-alpha), serum corticosterone, and histopathological sections of brains were assessed. Results: Seventy two hours sleep deprivation significantly impaired locomotor activity, caused anxiety-like behavior, conditions of oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, raised serum corticosterone levels, brain TNFα levels and led to neuroinflammation like signs in discrete brain areas as compared to naive group. Panax quinquefolius (100 and 200 mg/kg) treatment restored the behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations. Pre-treatment of GABA Cl− channel

  14. Src family kinases mediate the inhibition of substance P release in the rat spinal cord by μ-opioid receptors and GABA(B) receptors, but not α2 adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohua; Chen, Wenling; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G

    2010-09-01

    GABA(B) , μ-opioid and adrenergic α(2) receptors inhibit substance P release from primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn. Studies in cell expression systems suggest that μ-opioid and GABA(B) receptors inhibit transmitter release from primary afferents by activating Src family kinases (SFKs), which then phosphorylate and inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels. This study investigated whether SFKs mediate the inhibition of substance P release by these three receptors. Substance P release was measured as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization in spinal cord slices and in vivo. In slices, NK1R internalization induced by high-frequency dorsal root stimulation was inhibited by the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen. This inhibition was reversed by the SFK inhibitor PP1. NK1R internalization induced by low-frequency stimulation was also inhibited by DAMGO, but PP1 did not reverse this effect. In vivo, NK1R internalization induced by noxious mechanical stimulation of the hind paw was inhibited by intrathecal DAMGO and baclofen. This inhibition was reversed by intrathecal PP1, but not by the inactive PP1 analog PP3. PP1 produced no effect by itself. The α(2) adrenergic agonists medetomidine and guanfacine produced a small but statistically significant inhibition of NK1R internalization induced by low-frequency dorsal root stimulation. PP1 did not reverse the inhibition by guanfacine. These results show that SFKs mediate the inhibition of substance P release by μ-opioid and GABA(B) receptors, but not by α(2) receptors, which is probably mediated by the binding of G protein βγ subunits to calcium channels. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  15. Lack of effect of mossy fiber-released zinc on granule cell GABA(A) receptors in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Molnár, P; Nadler, J V

    2001-05-01

    The recurrent mossy fiber pathway of the dentate gyrus expands dramatically in the epileptic brain and serves as a mechanism for synchronization of granule cell epileptiform activity. It has been suggested that this pathway also promotes epileptiform activity by inhibiting GABA(A) receptor function through release of zinc. Hippocampal slices from pilocarpine-treated rats were used to evaluate this hypothesis. The rats had developed status epilepticus after pilocarpine administration, followed by robust recurrent mossy fiber growth. The ability of exogenously applied zinc to depress GABA(A) receptor function in dentate granule cells depended on removal of polyvalent anions from the superfusion medium. Under these conditions, 200 microM zinc reduced the amplitude of the current evoked by applying muscimol to the proximal portion of the granule cell dendrite (23%). It also reduced the mean amplitude (31%) and frequency (36%) of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Nevertheless, repetitive mossy fiber stimulation (10 Hz for 1 s, 100 Hz for 1 s, or 10 Hz for 5 min) at maximal intensity did not affect GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents evoked by photorelease of GABA onto the proximal portion of the dendrite, where recurrent mossy fiber synapses were located. These results could not be explained by stimulation-induced depletion of zinc from the recurrent mossy fiber boutons. Negative results were obtained even during exposure to conditions that promoted transmitter release and synchronized granule cell activity (6 mM [K(+)](o), nominally Mg(2+)-free medium, 33 degrees C). These results suggest that zinc released from the recurrent mossy fiber pathway did not reach a concentration at postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors sufficient to inhibit agonist-evoked activation.

  16. Music therapy inhibits morphine-seeking behavior via GABA receptor and attenuates anxiety-like behavior induced by extinction from chronic morphine use.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Jin; Lee, Sang Nam; Lee, Bong Hyo

    2018-05-01

    Morphine is a representative pain killer. However, repeated use tends to induce addiction. Music therapy has been gaining interest as a useful type of therapy for neuropsychiatric diseases. The present study examined whether Korean traditional music (KT) could suppress morphine-seeking behavior and anxiety-like behavior induced by extinction from chronic morphine use and additionally investigated a possible neuronal mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to intravenously self-administer morphine hydrochloride (1.0 mg/kg) using a fixed ratio 1 schedule in daily 2 h session during 3 weeks. After training, rats who established baseline (variation less than 20% of the mean of infusion for 3 consecutive days) underwent extinction. Music was played twice a day during extinction. In the second experiment, the selective antagonists of GABA A and GABA B receptors were treated before the last playing to investigate the neuronal mechanism focusing on the GABA receptor pathway. Another experiment of elevated plus maze was performed to investigate whether music therapy has an anxiolytic effect at the extinction phase. KT but not other music (Indian road or rock music) reduced morphine-seeking behavior induced by a priming challenge with morphine. And, this effect was blocked by the GABA receptor antagonists. In addition, KT showed anxiolytic effects against withdrawal from morphine. Results of this study suggest that KT suppresses morphine-seeking behavior via GABA receptor pathway. In addition, KT showed to have anxiolytic effects, suggesting it has bi-directional effects on morphine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Activation of GABA-A receptors during postnatal brain development increases anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Bakhtiari, Amir; Homberg, Judith R

    2015-08-01

    Disturbances of the gamma-amino butyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) system during postnatal development can have long-lasting consequences for later life behavior, like the individual's response to stress. However, it is unclear which postnatal windows of sensitivity to GABA-ergic modulations are associated with what later-life behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we sought to determine whether neonatal activation of the GABA-A receptor during two postnatal periods, an early window (postnatal day 3-5) and a late window (postnatal day 14-16), can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in male mice in later life. To this end, mice were treated with either saline or muscimol (50, 100, 200, 300 and 500μg/kg) during the early and late postnatal periods. An additional group of mice was treated with the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline+muscimol. When grown to adulthood male mice were exposed to behavioral tests to measure anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. Baseline and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) levels were also measured. The results indicate that early postnatal and to a lesser extent later postnatal exposure to the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol increased anxiety-like behavior and stress-induced CORT levels in adults. Moreover, the early postnatal treatment with muscimol increased depression-like behavior with increasing baseline CORT levels. The anxiogenic and depression-like later-life consequences could be antagonized by bicuculline. Our findings suggest that GABA-A receptor signaling during early-life can influence anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in later life. Our findings help to increase insight in the developmental mechanisms contributing to stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. The insecticide fipronil and its metabolite fipronil sulphone inhibit the rat alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA(A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Akk, G

    2008-11-01

    Fipronil is the active ingredient in a number of widely used insecticides. Human exposure to fipronil leads to symptoms (headache, nausea and seizures) typically associated with the antagonism of GABA(A) receptors in the brain. In this study, we have examined the modulation of the common brain GABA(A) receptor subtype by fipronil and its major metabolite, fipronil sulphone. Whole-cell and single-channel recordings were made from HEK 293 cells transiently expressing rat alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA(A) receptors. The major effect of fipronil was to increase the rate of current decay in macroscopic recordings. In single-channel recordings, the presence of fipronil resulted in shorter cluster durations without affecting the intracluster open and closed time distributions or the single-channel conductance. The alpha1V256S mutation, previously shown alleviate channel inhibition by inhibitory steroids and several insecticides, had a relatively small effect on channel block by fipronil. The mode of action of fipronil sulphone was similar to that of its parent compound but the metabolite was less potent at inhibiting the alpha1beta2gamma2L receptor. We conclude that exposure to fipronil induces accumulation of receptors in a novel, long-lived blocked state. This process proceeds in parallel with and independently of, channel desensitization. The lower potency of fipronil sulphone indicates that the conversion serves as a detoxifying process in mammalian brain.

  19. Vortioxetine Treatment Reverses Subchronic PCP Treatment-Induced Cognitive Impairments: A Potential Role for Serotonin Receptor-Mediated Regulation of GABA Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Pehrson, Alan L.; Pedersen, Christian S.; Tølbøl, Kirstine Sloth; Sanchez, Connie

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive impairments that may contribute to poor functional outcomes. Clinical data suggests that the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine attenuates some cognitive impairments in MDD patients, but the mechanistic basis for these improvements is unclear. One theory suggests that vortioxetine improves cognition by suppressing γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission, thereby increasing glutamatergic activation. Vortioxetine’s effects on cognition, GABA and glutamate neurotransmission have been supported in separate experiments, but no empirical work has directly connected vortioxetine’s cognitive effects to those on GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. In this paper, we attempt to bridge this gap by evaluating vortioxetine’s effects in the subchronic PCP (subPCP) model, which induces impaired cognitive function and altered GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. We demonstrate that acute or subchronic vortioxetine treatment attenuated subPCP-induced deficits in attentional set shifting (AST) performance, and that the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron or the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram could mimic this effect. Furthermore, acute vortioxetine treatment reversed subPCP-induced object recognition (OR) deficits in rats, while subchronic vortioxetine reversed subPCP-induced Object Recognition and object placement impairments in mice. Finally, subPCP treatment reduced GABAB receptor expression in a manner that was insensitive to vortioxetine treatment, and subchronic vortioxetine treatment alone, but not in combination with subPCP, significantly increased GABA’s affinity for the GABAA receptor. These data suggest that vortioxetine reverses cognitive impairments in a model associated with altered GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, further supporting the hypothesis that vortioxetine’s GABAergic and glutamatergic effects are relevant for cognitive function. PMID:29559911

  20. Actions of Agonists, Fipronil and Ivermectin on the Predominant In Vivo Splice and Edit Variant (RDLbd, I/V) of the Drosophila GABA Receptor Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Suwanmanee, Siros; Buckingham, Steven David; Biggin, Philip; Sattelle, David

    2014-01-01

    Ionotropic GABA receptors are the targets for several classes of insecticides. One of the most widely-studied insect GABA receptors is RDL (resistance to dieldrin), originally isolated from Drosophila melanogaster. RDL undergoes alternative splicing and RNA editing, which influence the potency of GABA. Most work has focussed on minority isoforms. Here, we report the first characterisation of the predominant native splice variant and RNA edit, combining functional characterisation with molecular modelling of the agonist-binding region. The relative order of agonist potency is GABA> muscimol> TACA> β-alanine. The I/V edit does not alter the potency of GABA compared to RDLbd. Docking calculations suggest that these agonists bind and activate RDLbdI/V through a similar binding mode. TACA and β-alanine are predicted to bind with lower affinity than GABA, potentially explaining their lower potency, whereas the lower potency of muscimol and isoguvacine cannot be explained structurally from the docking calculations. The A301S (resistance to dieldrin) mutation reduced the potency of antagonists picrotoxin, fipronil and pyrafluprole but the I/V edit had no measurable effect. Ivermectin suppressed responses to GABA of RDLbdI/V, RDLbd and RDLbdI/VA301S. The dieldrin resistant variant also showed reduced sensitivity to Ivermectin. This study of a highly abundant insect GABA receptor isoform will help the design of new insecticides. PMID:24823815

  1. Dodecyl Maltopyranoside Enabled Purification of Active Human GABA Type A Receptors for Deep and Direct Proteomic Sequencing*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Miller, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge in high-quality membrane proteomics is all about sample preparation prior to HPLC, and the cell-to-protein step poses a long-standing bottleneck. Traditional protein extraction methods apply ionic or poly-disperse detergents, harsh denaturation, and repeated protein/peptide precipitation/resolubilization afterward, but suffer low yield, low reproducibility, and low sequence coverage. Contrary to attempts to subdue, we resolved this challenge by providing proteins nature-and-activity-promoting conditions throughout preparation. Using 285-kDa hetero-pentameric human GABA type A receptor overexpressed in HEK293 as a model, we describe a n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (DDM/CHS)-based affinity purification method, that produced active receptors, supported protease activity, and allowed high performance with both in-gel and direct gel-free proteomic analyses—without detergent removal. Unlike conventional belief that detergents must be removed before HPLC MS, the high-purity low-dose nonionic detergent DDM did not interfere with peptides, and obviated removal or desalting. Sonication or dropwise addition of detergent robustly solubilized over 90% of membrane pellets. The purification conditions were comparable to those applied in successful crystallizations of most membrane proteins. These results enabled streamlined proteomics of human synaptic membrane proteins, and more importantly, allowed directly coupling proteomics with crystallography to characterize both static and dynamic structures of membrane proteins in crystallization pipelines. PMID:25473089

  2. Functional role of striatal A2A, D2, and mGlu5 receptor interactions in regulating striatopallidal GABA neuronal transmission.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel Oscar; Fuxe, Kjell; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Ferraro, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the functional role of individual striatal receptors for adenosine (A2AR), dopamine (D2R), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5R in regulating rat basal ganglia activity was characterized in vivo using dual-probe microdialysis in freely moving rats. In particular, intrastriatal perfusion with the D2R agonist quinpirole (10 μM, 60 min) decreased ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, whereas intrastriatal CGS21680 (A2AR agonist; 1 μM, 60 min) was ineffective on either pallidal GABA and glutamate levels or the quinpirole-induced effects. Intrastriatal perfusion with the mGlu5R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (600 μM, 60 min), by itself ineffective on pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, partially counteracted the effects of quinpirole. When combined with CGS21680 (1 μM, 60 min), (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG; 600 μM, 60 min) fully counteracted the quinpirole (10 μM, 60 min)-induced reduction in ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels. These effects were fully counteracted by local perfusion with the mGlu5R antagonist MPEP (300 μM) or the A2AR antagonist ZM 241385 (100 nM). These results suggest that A2ARs and mGlu5Rs interact synergistically in modulating the D2R-mediated control of striatopallidal GABA neurons. Using dual-probe microdialysis, we characterized the functional role of striatal adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) interactions in regulating rat basal ganglia activity. The results suggest the possible usefulness of using an A2AR antagonist and mGluR5 antagonist combination in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to increase the inhibitory D2 signaling on striatopallidal GABA neurons. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats

    " NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo.

    " The pattern evok...

  4. Superficial NK1 expressing spinal dorsal horn neurones modulate inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by spinal GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Wahida; Sikandar, Shafaq; Sikander, Shafaq; Suzuki, Rie; Hunt, Stephen P; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2007-06-04

    Lamina 1 projection neurones which express the NK1 receptor (NK1R+) drive a descending serotonergic pathway from the brainstem that enhances spinal dorsal horn neuronal activity via the facilitatory spinal 5-HT3 receptor. Selective destruction of these cells via lumbar injection of substance P-saporin (SP-SAP) attenuates pain behaviours, including mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity, which are mirrored by deficits in the evoked responses of lamina V-VI wide dynamic range (WDR) neurones to noxious stimuli. To assess whether removing the origin of this facilitatory spino-bulbo-spinal loop results in alterations in GABAergic spinal inhibitory systems, the effects of spinal bicuculline, a selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist, on the evoked neuronal responses to electrical (Abeta-, Adelta-, C-fibre, post-discharge and Input) and mechanical (brush, prod and von Frey (vF) 8 and 26 g) stimuli were measured in SAP and SP-SAP groups. In the SAP control group, bicuculline produced a significant dose related facilitation of the electrically evoked Adelta-, C-fibre, post-discharge and input neuronal responses. The evoked mechanical (prod, vF8 g and 26 g) responses were also significantly increased. Brush evoked neuronal responses in these animals were enhanced but did not reach significance. This facilitatory effect of bicuculline, however, was lost in the SP-SAP treated group. The generation of intrinsic GABAergic transmission in the spinal cord appears dependent on NK1 bearing neurons, yet despite the loss of GABAergic inhibitory controls after SP-SAP treatment, the net effect is a decrease in spinal cord excitability. Thus activation of these cells predominantly drives facilitation.

  5. Long-term administration with levonorgestrel decreases allopregnanolone levels and alters GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Sogliano, Cristiana; Santoru, Francesca; Berretti, Roberta; Concas, Alessandra

    2012-08-01

    Fluctuations in the concentrations of the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone are thought to influence γ-amino-butyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor gene expression and function. Long-term treatment with ethinyl estradiol (EE) plus levonorgestrel (LNG), two of the most widely used steroids in the hormonal contraceptive pill, decreases allopregnanolone levels in rat cerebral cortex and plasma, alters GABA(A) receptor expression and induces anxiety-like behavior. We evaluated which component of the hormonal contraceptive pill is responsible for the aforementioned changes. Female rats were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with EE (0.030 mg) or LNG (0.125 mg) once a day for 4 weeks. Compared to the respective vehicle-treated control groups, EE decreased cerebral cortical levels of allopregnanolone, progesterone and pregnenolone by 76, 72 and 33%, respectively and hippocampal levels by 52, 56 and 50%, respectively. Likewise, LNG decreased cerebral cortical levels of allopregnanolone, progesterone and pregnenolone by 75, 68 and 33%, respectively, and hippocampal levels by 55, 65 and 60%, respectively. Administration of LNG, but not EE, increased the abundance of the γ2 subunit peptide in cerebral cortex and hippocampus by 38 and 59%, respectively. Further, LNG, but not EE, decreased the time spent and the number of entries into the open arms of the elevated plus maze by 56 and 43%, respectively, an index of anxiety-like behavior. These results suggest that alterations in GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and anxiety-like behavior induced by long-term treatment with combined EE/LNG appear to be caused by LNG. Given that both EE and LNG decrease allopregnanolone levels in a similar manner, these results further suggest that changes in allopregnanolone levels are not associated with GABA(A) receptor expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing spinal 5-HT2A receptor responsiveness mediates anti-allodynic effect and potentiates fluoxetine efficacy in neuropathic rats. Evidence for GABA release.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Amandine; Wattiez, Anne-Sophie; Pinguet, Jérémy; Richard, Damien; Libert, Frédéric; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sion, Benoit; Ardid, Denis; Marin, Philippe; Eschalier, Alain; Courteix, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Antidepressants are one of the first line treatments for neuropathic pain but their use is limited by the incidence and severity of side effects of tricyclics and the weak effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin type 2A (5-HT 2A ) receptors interact with PDZ proteins that regulate their functionality and SSRI efficacy to alleviate pain. We investigated whether an interfering peptide (TAT-2ASCV) disrupting the interaction between 5-HT 2A receptors and associated PDZ proteins would improve the treatment of traumatic neuropathic allodynia. Tactile allodynia was assessed in spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain in rats using von Frey filaments after acute treatment with TAT-2ASCV and/or 5-HT 2A receptor agonist, alone or in combination with repeated treatment with fluoxetine. In vivo microdialysis was performed in order to examine the involvement of GABA in TAT-2ASCV/fluoxetine treatment-associated analgesia. TAT-2ASCV (100ng, single i.t. injection) improved SNL-induced tactile allodynia by increasing 5-HT 2A receptor responsiveness to endogenous 5-HT. Fluoxetine alone (10mg/kg, five i.p. injections) slightly increased tactile thresholds and its co-administration with TAT-2ASCV (100ng, single i.t. injection) further enhanced the anti-allodynic effect. This effect depends on the integrity of descending serotonergic bulbospinal pathways and spinal release of GABA. The anti-allodynic effect of fluoxetine can be enhanced by disrupting 5-HT 2A receptor-PDZ protein interactions. This enhancement depends on 5-HT 2A receptor activation, spinal GABA release and GABAA receptor activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of GABA receptor subunits in the hippocampus and thalamus after experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Drexel, Meinrad; Puhakka, Noora; Kirchmair, Elke; Hörtnagl, Heide; Pitkänen, Asla; Sperk, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and often associated with post-traumatic epilepsy. We recently demonstrated that TBI induces acquired GABAA receptors channelopathy that associates with hyperexcitability in granule cell layer (GCL). We now assessed the expression of GABAA and GABAB receptor subunit mRNAs between 6 h and 6 months post-TBI in the hippocampus and thalamus. The expression of major GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs (α1, α2, α5, β2, β3, γ2 and δ) was, often bilaterally, down-regulated in the GCL and in the CA3 pyramidal cells. Instead, expression of α4 (GCL, CA3, CA1), α5 (CA1) and γ2 (GCL, CA3, CA1) mRNA was up-regulated after 10 d and/or 4 months. Many of these changes were reversible. In the thalamus, we found decreases in α1, α4, β2, γ2 and δ mRNAs in the laterodorsal thalamus and in the area combining the posterior thalamic nuclear group, ventroposterolateral and ventroposteromedial complex at 6 h to 4 months post-TBI. Unlike in the hippocampus, thalamic subunit down-regulations were irreversible and limited to the ipsilateral side. However, contralaterally there was up-regulation of the subunits δ and α4 6 h and 4 months after TBI, respectively. PCR array analysis suggested a mild long-lasting GABAA receptor channelopathy in the GCL and thalamus after TBI. Whereas TBI induces transient changes in the expression of GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus (presumably representing compensatory mechanisms), alterations of GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs in the thalamus are long-lasting and related to degeneration of receptor-containing neurons in thalamo-cortical relay nuclei. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘GABAergic Signaling in Health and Disease’. PMID:25229716

  8. Expression of GABA receptor subunits in the hippocampus and thalamus after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Drexel, Meinrad; Puhakka, Noora; Kirchmair, Elke; Hörtnagl, Heide; Pitkänen, Asla; Sperk, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and often associated with post-traumatic epilepsy. We recently demonstrated that TBI induces acquired GABAA receptors channelopathy that associates with hyperexcitability in granule cell layer (GCL). We now assessed the expression of GABAA and GABAB receptor subunit mRNAs between 6 h and 6 months post-TBI in the hippocampus and thalamus. The expression of major GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs (α1, α2, α5, β2, β3, γ2 and δ) was, often bilaterally, down-regulated in the GCL and in the CA3 pyramidal cells. Instead, expression of α4 (GCL, CA3, CA1), α5 (CA1) and γ2 (GCL, CA3, CA1) mRNA was up-regulated after 10 d and/or 4 months. Many of these changes were reversible. In the thalamus, we found decreases in α1, α4, β2, γ2 and δ mRNAs in the laterodorsal thalamus and in the area combining the posterior thalamic nuclear group, ventroposterolateral and ventroposteromedial complex at 6 h to 4 months post-TBI. Unlike in the hippocampus, thalamic subunit down-regulations were irreversible and limited to the ipsilateral side. However, contralaterally there was up-regulation of the subunits δ and α4 6 h and 4 months after TBI, respectively. PCR array analysis suggested a mild long-lasting GABAA receptor channelopathy in the GCL and thalamus after TBI. Whereas TBI induces transient changes in the expression of GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus (presumably representing compensatory mechanisms), alterations of GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs in the thalamus are long-lasting and related to degeneration of receptor-containing neurons in thalamo-cortical relay nuclei. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between GABA-A receptor alpha 5 subunit gene locus and schizophrenia of a later age of onset.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, G; Dikeos, D; Daskalopoulou, E; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Contis, C; Stefanis, C

    2001-01-01

    Heritability is considered to be a major etiologic factor for schizophrenia. Among the genes considered as candidates for the disease, are those related to GABAergic neurotransmission. Our aim was to test for a genetic association between GABA-A receptor alpha 5 subunit gene locus (GABRA(5)) and schizophrenia. Genotyping of the GABRA(5) locus was performed by the use of a dinucleotide (CA) repeat marker in 46 schizophrenic patients and 50 healthy individuals, all unrelated Greeks. Eight alleles were identified, 276-290 bp long. A nonsignificant excess of the 282-bp allele, which was found in a previous study in a Greek population to be associated with bipolar affective disorder, was observed in schizophrenic patients (33.8 vs. 23.9% in the controls). The frequency of this allele was 43.3% among patients with a later age of onset (over 25 years), differing at a statistically significant level from the controls (p < 0.05). These results suggest that common pathophysiological mechanisms may possibly underlie affective disorders and schizophrenia, at least in a subgroup of patients. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Anxiolytic-like actions of the hexane extract from leaves of Annona cherimolia in two anxiety paradigms: possible involvement of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex.

    PubMed

    López-Rubalcava, C; Piña-Medina, B; Estrada-Reyes, R; Heinze, G; Martínez-Vázquez, M

    2006-01-11

    A hexane extract of leaves of Annona cherimolia produced anxiolytic-like actions when administered to mice and tested in two animal models of anxiety: the mouse avoidance exploratory behavior and the burying behavior tests. In order to discard unspecific drug-actions on general activity, all treatments studied in the anxiety paradigms were also analyzed in the open field test. Results showed that A. cherimolia induced anxiolytic-like actions at the doses of 6.25, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg. Picrotoxin (0.25 mg/kg), a GABA-gated chloride ion channel blocker, antagonized the anxiolytic-like actions of A. cherimolia, while a sub-effective dose of muscimol (0.5 mg/kg), a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, facilitated the effects of a sub-optimal dose of A. cherimolia (3.12 mg/kg). Thus, the involvement of the GABA(A) receptor complex in the anxiolytic-like actions of A. cherimolia hexane extract is suggested. In addition the extract was also able to enhance the duration of sodium pentobarbital induced sleeping time. Taken together, results indicate that the hexane extract of A. cherimolia has depressant activity on the Central Nervous System and could interact with the GABA(A) receptor complex. On the other hand, the chromatographic separation of this extract led to the isolation of palmitone, and beta-sitosterol as major constituents. In addition a GC-MS study of some fractions revealed the presence of several compounds such beta-cariophyllene, beta-selinene, alpha-cubebene, and linalool that have been reported to show effects on behavior that could explain some of the extract effects.

  11. Neuroendocrine response to GABA-B receptor agonism in alcohol-dependent individuals: Results from a combined outpatient and human laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Farokhnia, Mehdi; Sheskier, Mikela B; Lee, Mary R; Le, April N; Singley, Erick; Bouhlal, Sofia; Ton, Timmy; Zhao, Zhen; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2018-04-14

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, plays an important role in biobehavioral processes that regulate alcohol seeking, food intake, and stress response. The metabotropic GABA-B receptor has been investigated as a potential therapeutic target for alcohol use disorder, by using orthosteric agonists (e.g., baclofen) and positive allosteric modulators. Whether and how pharmacological manipulation of the GABA-B receptor, in combination with alcohol intake, may affect feeding- and stress-related neuroendocrine pathways remains unknown. In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, thirty-four alcohol-dependent individuals received baclofen (30 mg/day) or placebo in a naturalistic outpatient setting for one week, and then performed a controlled laboratory experiment which included alcohol cue-reactivity, fixed-dose priming, and self-administration procedures. Blood samples were collected, and the following neuroendocrine markers were measured: ghrelin, leptin, amylin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). During the outpatient phase, baclofen significantly increased blood concentrations of acyl-ghrelin (p = 0.01), leptin (p = 0.01), amylin (p = 0.004), and GLP-1 (p = 0.02). Significant drug × time-point interaction effects for amylin (p = 0.001) and insulin (p = 0.03), and trend-level interaction effects for GLP-1 (p = 0.06) and ACTH (p = 0.10) were found during the laboratory experiment. Baclofen, compared to placebo, had no effect on alcohol drinking in this study (p's ≥ 0.05). Together with previous studies, these findings shed light on the role of the GABAergic system and GABA-B receptors in the shared neurobiology of alcohol-, feeding-, and stress-related behaviors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. GABA(A) receptor blockade in dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus evokes panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour followed by innate fear-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibraim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2009-12-11

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been implicated in panic syndrome in humans. Furthermore, several studies have implicated the hypothalamus in the elaboration of pain modulation. Panic-prone states are able to be experimentally induced in laboratory animals to study this phenomenon. The aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of medial hypothalamic nuclei in the organization of panic-like behaviour and the innate fear-induced oscillations of nociceptive thresholds. The blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the neuronal substrates of the ventromedial or dorsomedial hypothalamus was followed by elaborated defensive panic-like reactions. Moreover, innate fear-induced antinociception was consistently elicited after the escape behaviour. The escape responses organized by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei were characteristically more elaborated, and a remarkable exploratory behaviour was recorded during GABA(A) receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus. The motor characteristic of the elaborated defensive escape behaviour and the patterns of defensive alertness and defensive immobility induced by microinjection of the bicuculline either into the dorsomedial or into the ventromedial hypothalamus were very similar. This was followed by the same pattern of innate fear-induced antinociceptive response that lasted approximately 40 min after the elaborated defensive escape reaction in both cases. These findings suggest that dysfunction of the GABA-mediated neuronal system in the medial hypothalamus causes panic-like responses in laboratory animals, and that the elaborated escape behaviour organized in both dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are followed by significant innate-fear-induced antinociception. Our findings indicate that the GABA(A) receptor of dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are critically involved in the modulation of panic-like behaviour.

  13. Dynamics of GnRH Neuron Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Synaptic Receptors Are Unchanged during Estrogen Positive and Negative Feedback in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhuai; Porteous, Robert; Herbison, Allan E

    2017-01-01

    Inputs from GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are suspected to play an important role in regulating the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The GnRH neurons exhibit marked plasticity to control the ovarian cycle with circulating estradiol concentrations having profound "feedback" effects on their activity. This includes "negative feedback" responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity and "positive feedback" that occurs at mid-cycle to activate the GnRH neurons to generate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. In the present study, we employed brain slice electrophysiology to question whether synaptic ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor signaling at the GnRH neuron changed at times of negative and positive feedback. We used a well characterized estradiol (E)-treated ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model to replicate negative and positive feedback. Miniature and spontaneous postsynaptic currents (mPSCs and sPSCs) attributable to GABA A and glutamatergic receptor signaling were recorded from GnRH neurons obtained from intact diestrous, OVX, OVX + E (negative feedback), and OVX + E+E (positive feedback) female mice. Approximately 90% of GnRH neurons exhibited spontaneous GABA A -mPSCs in all groups but no significant differences in the frequency or kinetics of mPSCs were found at the times of negative or positive feedback. Approximately 50% of GnRH neurons exhibited spontaneous glutamate mPSCs but again no differences were detected. The same was true for spontaneous PSCs in all cases. These observations indicate that the kinetics of ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor synaptic transmission to GnRH neurons remain stable across the different estrogen feedback states.

  14. The role of GABA-A and mitochondrial diazepam-binding inhibitor receptors on the effects of neurosteroids on food intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D S; Kulkarni, S K

    1998-06-01

    The present studies were undertaken to investigate the neuroactive steroidal modulation of feeding behavior and possible involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABA-A) and mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) receptors (MDR) in food-deprived male mice. Allopregnanolone (0.5-2 mg/kg), a neurosteroid, progesterone (1-10 mg/kg), a neurosteroid precursor, and 4'-chlordiazepam (0.25-1 mg/kg), a specific high affinity MDR agonist, produced a dose-dependent hyperphagic effects. In contrast, neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate (PS) (1-10 mg/kg) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (1-10 mg/kg) produced a hypophagic effect, in a dose-dependent manner. The allopregnanolone-, progesterone- and 4'-chlordiazepam-induced hyperphagic effect was blocked by picrotoxin (1 mg/kg), a GABA-A chloride channel antagonist, but not by flumazenil (2 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine (BZD) antagonist. The 4'-chlordiazepam-induced hyperphagic effect was prevented by pretreatment with PK11195 (2 mg/kg), a selective partial MDR antagonist. The hypophagic effect of DHEAS (10 mg/kg) was reversed by dizocilpine (10 microg/kg), an NMDA receptor antagonist, but resistant to muscimol (0.1 mg/kg), a selective GABA-A receptor agonist. In contrast, the PS (10 mg/kg)-induced hypophagic response was resistant to dizocilpine, but sensitive to muscimol (0.1 mg/kg). Both the sulfated neurosteroids PS and DHEAS also reversed the hyperphagic effect of allopregnanolone. In addition, the BZD agonist triazolam (0.05-0.25 mg/kg) also produced a flumazenil- and picrotoxin-sensitive hyperphagic effects, thereby suggesting the changes in feeding behavior by neurosteroids represent GABA-A receptor mediated hyperphagic action. Although the possible antistress or anxiolytic actions of neurosteroids may confound the hyperphagia, behavioral effects observed were specific to food because the mice were adopted to the test environment and diet, and of a possible variation between various neurosteroids in the

  15. Zolpidem, a clinical hypnotic that affects electronic transfer, alters synaptic activity through potential GABA receptors in the nervous system without significant free radical generation.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2009-01-01

    Zolpidem (trade name Ambien) has attracted much interest as a sleep-inducing agent and also in research. Attention has been centered mainly on receptor binding and electrochemistry in the central nervous system which are briefly addressed herein. A novel integrated approach to mode of action is presented. The pathways to be discussed involve basicity, reduction potential, electrostatics, cell signaling, GABA receptor binding, electron transfer (ET), pharmacodynamics, structure activity relationships (SAR) and side effects. The highly conjugated pyridinium salt formed by protonation of the amidine moiety is proposed to be the active form acting as an ET agent. Extrapolation of reduction potentials for related compounds supports the premise that zolpidem may act as an ET species in vivo. From recent literature reports, electrostatics is believed to play a significant role in drug action. The pyridinium cation displays molecular electrostatic potential which may well play a role energetically or as a bridging mechanism. An SAR analysis points to analogy with other physiologically active xenobiotics, namely benzodiazepines and paraquat in the conjugated iminium category. Inactivity of metabolites indicates that the parent is the active form of zolpidem. Absence of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress is in line with minor side effects. In contrast, generally, the prior literature contains essentially no discussion of these fundamental biochemical relationships. Pharmacodynamics may play an important role. Concerning behavior at the blood-brain barrier, useful insight can be gained from investigations of the related cationic anesthetics that are structurally related to acetyl choline. Evidently, the neutral form of the drug penetrates the neuronal membrane, with the salt form operating at the receptor. The pathways of zolpidem have several clinical implications since the agent affects sedation, electroencephalographic activity, oxidative metabolites and

  16. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    PubMed

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-03-14

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  17. An inversion inv(4)(p12-p15.3) in autistic siblings implicates the 4p GABA receptor gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Vincent, J B; Horike, S I; Choufani, S; Paterson, A D; Roberts, W; Szatmari, P; Weksberg, R; Fernandez, B; Scherer, S W

    2006-05-01

    We describe the case of two brothers diagnosed with autism who both carry a paracentic inversion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (46,XY, inv(4)(p12-p15.3)). We have determined that this inversion is inherited from an apparently unaffected mother and unaffected maternal grandfather. Methods/ Using fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis and Southern blot hybridisation we identified the breakpoints. The proximal breakpoint (4p12) maps to a region containing a cluster of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor genes, and directly interrupts the GABRG1 gene, the distal-most gene of the cluster. We also identified an insertion/deletion polymorphism for a approximately 2 kb LINE1 (L1) element that occurs within intron 7 of GABRG1. Our genotype analysis amongst autism families indicated that the L1 deletion allele did not show increased transmission to affected individuals. No linkage disequilibrium was evident between the L1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms in adjacent GABA(A) receptor genes on 4p, where a recent study has identified significant association with autism. Despite this, the identification of an inversion breakpoint disrupting GABRG1 provides solid support for the genetic involvement of the short arm of chromosome 4 in the genetic aetiology of autism, and for the hypothesis of disrupted GABA neurotransmission in autism.

  18. Neural Modulation of the Immune Response through the Benzodiazepine/GABA Receptor Chloride Ionophore Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-30

    dose of Alprazolam (a triaobenzodiazepine with high affinty for "central" but not "peripheral" benzodiazepine receptbr). These results suggest that...1987), provide additional support for the hypothesis that the "supramolecular complex" (in the CNS) regulates NK cell activity. 3). Effect of Alprazolam ...this study the effects of alprazolam (a triazolobenzodiazepine with high affinity for "central" but not "peripheral" benzodiazepine receptors) on

  19. Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Synthesis of 2-261, AVL-3288 & GRN-529. This task was accomplished in December, 2013. The task was accomplished one month later than predicted in the...approved SOW because of the need to synthesize some of the starting materials that were commercially unavailable for the synthesis of the compounds...Interestingly recent studies with the benzodiazepine agonist clonazepam , a non-selective GABAA receptor PAM, resulted in a bell-shaped dose response

  20. Ipsilateral feeding-specific circuits between the nucleus accumbens shell and the lateral hypothalamus: regulation by glutamate and GABA receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Urstadt, Kevin R; Kally, Peter; Zaidi, Sana F; Stanley, B Glenn

    2013-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are both involved in the control of food intake. Activation of GABA(A) receptors or blockade of AMPA and kainate receptors within the AcbSh induces feeding, as does blockade of GABA(A) receptors or activation of NMDA receptors in the LH. Further, evidence suggests that feeding induced via the AcbSh can be suppressed by LH inhibition. However, it is unclear if this suppression is specific to feeding. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with 3 intracranial guide cannulas, one unilaterally into the AcbSh and two bilaterally into the LH, were used to explore this issue. DNQX (1.25 μg) or muscimol (100 ng) infused into the AcbSh unilaterally elicited feeding, and this elicited intake was suppressed by bilateral LH injection of d-AP5 (2 μg) or muscimol (25 ng). The effectiveness of d-AP5 or muscimol infusion into either the LH site ipsilateral or contralateral to the AcbSh injection was compared. Ipsilateral LH injection of d-AP5 or muscimol was significantly more effective than contralateral injection in suppressing food intake initiated by AcbSh injection of DNQX or muscimol. These results add to the prior evidence that inhibition of the LH through pharmacological modulation of NMDA or GABA(A) receptors specifically suppresses feeding initiated by AcbSh inhibition, and that these two regions communicate via an ipsilateral circuit to specifically regulate feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. GABA receptor subunit distribution and FMRP-mGluR5 signaling abnormalities in the cerebellum of subjects with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABAergic receptor abnormalities have been documented in several major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism. Abnormal expression of mRNA and protein for multiple GABA receptors has also been observed in multiple brain regions leading to alterations in the balance between excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the brain with potential profound consequences for normal cognition and maintenance of mood and perception. Altered expression of GABAA receptor subunits has been documented in Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) knockout mice, suggesting that loss of its protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), impacts GABAA subunit expression. Recent postmortem studies from our laboratory have shown reduced expression of FMRP in brains of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and autism. FMRP acts as a translational repressor and, under normal conditions, inhibits metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling. In fragile X syndrome (FXS), absence of FMRP is hypothesized to lead to unregulated mGluR5 signaling, ultimately resulting in the behavioral and intellectual impairments associated with this disorder. Our laboratory has identified changes in mGluR5 expression in autism, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. In the current review article, we discuss our postmortem data on GABA receptors, FMRP, and mGluR5 levels and compare our results with other laboratories. Finally, we discuss the interactions between these molecules and the potential for new therapeutic interventions that target these interconnected signaling systems. PMID:25432637

  2. GABA receptor subunit distribution and FMRP-mGluR5 signaling abnormalities in the cerebellum of subjects with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABAergic receptor abnormalities have been documented in several major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism. Abnormal expression of mRNA and protein for multiple GABA receptors has also been observed in multiple brain regions leading to alterations in the balance between excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the brain with potential profound consequences for normal cognition and maintenance of mood and perception. Altered expression of GABAA receptor subunits has been documented in fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) knockout mice, suggesting that loss of its protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), impacts GABAA subunit expression. Recent postmortem studies from our laboratory have shown reduced expression of FMRP in the brains of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and autism. FMRP acts as a translational repressor and, under normal conditions, inhibits metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling. In fragile X syndrome (FXS), the absence of FMRP is hypothesized to lead to unregulated mGluR5 signaling, ultimately resulting in the behavioral and intellectual impairments associated with this disorder. Our laboratory has identified changes in mGluR5 expression in autism, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. In the current review article, we discuss our postmortem data on GABA receptors, FMRP, and mGluR5 levels and compare our results with other laboratories. Finally, we discuss the interactions between these molecules and the potential for new therapeutic interventions that target these interconnected signaling systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Negative Allosteric Modulator for α5 Subunit-Containing GABA Receptors Exerts a Rapid and Persistent Antidepressant-Like Action without the Side Effects of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Mackenzie E.; Krimmel, Samuel R.; Georgiou, Polymnia; Gould, Todd D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract New antidepressant pharmacotherapies that provide rapid relief of depressive symptoms are needed. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant actions in depressed patients but also side effects that complicate its clinical utility. Ketamine promotes excitatory synaptic strength, likely by producing high-frequency correlated activity in mood-relevant regions of the forebrain. Negative allosteric modulators of GABA-A receptors containing α5 subunits (α5 GABA-NAMs) should also promote high-frequency correlated electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and should therefore exert rapid antidepressant responses. Because α5 subunits display a restricted expression in the forebrain, we predicted that α5 GABA-NAMs would produce activation of principle neurons but exert fewer side effects than ketamine. We tested this hypothesis in male mice and observed that the α5 GABA-NAM MRK-016 exerted an antidepressant-like response in the forced swim test at 1 and 24 h after administration and an anti-anhedonic response after chronic stress in the female urine sniffing test (FUST). Like ketamine, MRK-016 produced a transient increase in EEG γ power, and both the increase in γ power and its antidepressant effects in the forced swim test were blocked by prior administration of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX). Unlike ketamine, however, MRK-016 produced no impairment of rota-rod performance, no reduction of prepulse inhibition (PPI), no conditioned-place preference (CPP), and no change in locomotion. α5 GABA-NAMs, thus reproduce the rapid antidepressant-like actions of ketamine, perhaps via an AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-dependent increase in coherent neuronal activity, but display fewer potential negative side effects. These compounds thus demonstrate promise as clinically useful fast-acting antidepressants. PMID:28275719

  4. Single channel analysis of the blocking actions of BIDN and fipronil on a Drosophila melanogaster GABA receptor (RDL) stably expressed in a Drosophila cell line

    PubMed Central

    Grolleau, Françoise; Sattelle, David B

    2000-01-01

    Single channel recordings were obtained from a Drosophila S2 cell line stably expressing the wild-type RDLac Drosophila melanogaster homomer-forming ionotropic GABA receptor subunit, a product of the resistance to dieldrin gene, Rdl. GABA (50 μM) was applied by pressure ejection to outside-out patches from S2-RDL cells at a holding potential of −60 mV. The resulting inward current was completely blocked by 100 μM picrotoxin (PTX). The unitary current-voltage relationship was linear at negative potentials but showed slight inward rectification at potentials more positive than 0 mV. The reversal potential of the current (EGABA=−1.4 mV) was close to the calculated chloride equilibrium potential. The single channel conductance elicited by GABA was 36 pS. A 71 pS conductance channel was also observed when the duration of the pulse, used to eject GABA, was longer than 80 ms. The mean open time distribution of the unitary events was fitted best by two exponential functions suggesting two open channel states. When either 1 μM fipronil or 1 μM BIDN was present in the external saline, the GABA-gated channels were completely blocked. When BIDN or fipronil was applied at a concentration close to the IC50 value for suppression of open probability (281 nM, BIDN; 240 nM, fipronil), the duration of channel openings was shortened. In addition, the blocking action of BIDN resulted in the appearance of a novel channel conductance (17 pS). The effects of co-application of BIDN and fipronil were examined. Co-application of BIDN (300 nM) with various concentrations (100–1000 nM) of fipronil resulted in an additional BIDN-induced dose-dependent reduction of the maximum Po value. Thus both BIDN and fipronil shorten the duration of wild-type RDLac GABA receptor channel openings but appear to act at distinct sites. PMID:10952672

  5. Functional reorganization of visual cortex maps after ischemic lesions is accompanied by changes in expression of cytoskeletal proteins and NMDA and GABA(A) receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Angelica; Sengpiel, Frank; Guagnelli, Miguel Angel; Vaca, Luis; Arias, Clorinda

    2004-02-25

    Reorganization of cortical representations after focal visual cortex lesions has been documented. It has been suggested that functional reorganization may rely on cellular mechanisms involving modifications in the excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission balance and on morphological changes of neurons peripheral to the lesion. We explored functional reorganization of cortical retinotopic maps after a focal ischemic lesion in primary visual cortex of kittens using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. After 1, 2, and 5 weeks postlesion (wPL), we addressed whether functional reorganization correlated in time with changes in the expression of MAP-2, GAP-43, GFAP, GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha1 (GABA(A)alpha1), subunit 1 of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR1), and in neurotransmitter levels at the border of the lesion. Our results show that: (1) retinotopic maps reorganize with time after an ischemic lesion; (2) MAP-2 levels increase gradually from 1wPL to 5wPL; (3) MAP-2 upregulation is associated with an increase in dendritic-like structures surrounding the lesion and a decrease in GFAP-positive cells; (4) GAP-43 levels reach the highest point at 2wPL; (5) NMDAR1 and glutamate contents increase in parallel from 1wPL to 5wPL; (6) GABA(A)alpha1 levels increase from 1wPL to 2wPL but do not change after this time point; and (7) GABA contents remain low from 1wPL to 5wPL. This is a comprehensive study showing for the first time that functional reorganization correlates in time with dendritic sprouting and with changes in the excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission systems previously proposed to participate in cortical remodeling and suggests mechanisms by which plasticity of cortical representations may occur.

  6. Magnolol, a major bioactive constituent of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, induces sleep via the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Rui; Zhou, Xu-Zhao; Luo, Yan-Jia; Huang, Zhi-Li; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-11-01

    Magnolol (6,6',7,12-tetramethoxy-2,2'-dimethyl-1-beta-berbaman, C(18)H(18)O(2)), an active ingredient of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to exert potent anti-epileptic effects via the GABA(A) receptor. The receptor also mediates sleep in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine whether magnolol could modulate sleep behaviors by recording EEG and electromyogram in mice. The results showed that magnolol administered i.p. at a dose of 5 or 25 mg/kg could significantly shorten the sleep latency, increase the amount of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep for 3 h after administration with an increase in the number of NREM and REM sleep episodes. Magnolol at doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg increased the number of bouts of wakefulness but decreased their duration. On the other hand, magnolol increased the number of state transitions from wakefulness to NREM sleep and subsequently from NREM sleep to wakefulness. Immunohistochemical study showed that magnolol increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of ventrolateral preoptic area, a sleep center in the anterior hypothalamus, and decreased c-Fos expression in the arousal tuberomammillary nucleus, which was located in the caudolateral hypothalamus. The sleep-promoting effects and changes in c-Fos induced by magnolol were reversed by flumazenil, an antagonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor. These results indicate that magnolol increased NREM and REM sleep via the GABA(A) receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of chronic intraperitoneal administration of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-09-28

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in male Wistar rats. In the 1st Experiment, the effects of daily administration of physiological saline and baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) for 27 days were investigated on food intake and body weight in non-deprived rats (n=6 in each group). Baclofen significantly (P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake each day over the treatment period during the 60 min measurement period following administration. Tolerance did not develop to the short-term hyperphagic effect of baclofen over the course of the experiment. In addition, treatment with baclofen did not alter body weight of the animals over the 27 day treatment period when compared with the saline control rats. In the 2nd Experiment, the effects of acute and chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) were investigated on 24 h food intake in rats. The rats were injected daily for 21 days with either saline (n=6) or baclofen (n=6). Food intake was measured in 30 min time bins for 24 h on treatment Days 1, 12 and 21 following injection. The results showed that while baclofen produced short-term increases in food consumption following injection on treatment Days 1, 12 and 21, the daily (24 h) food intake of the animals was not significantly different from those of control rats. Thus, these data reveal that while chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) produces short-term increases in feeding without the development of tolerance, daily (24 h) food consumption is not affected. These findings are consistent with the observation that chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) had no effect on the body weight of these animals.

  8. Negative perceived paternal parenting is associated with dopamine D2 receptor exon 8 and GABA(A) alpha 6 receptor variants: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Lucht, Michael; Barnow, Sven; Schroeder, Winnie; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Finckh, Ulrich; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J; Herrmann, Falko H

    2006-03-05

    Twin studies suggest a genetic influence upon perceived parenting. The D(2) dopaminergic receptor is involved in the modulation of social behaviors, and might influence parenting and its perception. A polymorphism (E8) in exon 8 of the D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) has been previously associated with alcoholism-related phenotypes. Similarly, the Pro385Ser variant of GABRA6, the polymorphic gene for GABA(A) receptor alpha6 subunit, has been associated with alcohol- and depression-related traits; and rat pups maintained a more immature GABAR phenotype after brief separation distress. The relationships among DRD2 (E8) and GABRA6 (Pro385Ser) polymorphisms, and perceived parenting were studied here. The association of DRD2 (E8) and GABRA6 (Pro385Ser) genotypes and perceived parental rearing behavior (short-EMBU; questionnaire concerning own memories concerning upbringing) were determined in 207 unrelated adults using multivariate analysis of variance. Temperaments (Temperament and Character Inventory; TCI) were included as covariates. Probands with DRD2 (E8) A/A genotype showed higher scores for father rejection (P = 0.011), parents overprotection (P = 0.021), and father overprotection (P = 0.016) in the total group. An interaction between DRD2 and GABRA6 genotypes on father rejection (P = 0.010) and parents rejection (P = 0.030) was also observed. Further analyses showed that these associations were restricted to the female subgroup only; however, secondary gender-specific analyses were not corrected for multiple testing. Our findings support a role for DRD2 (E8) and GABRA6 (Pro385Ser) in perceived parenting. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Differential antagonism of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced seizures by agents acting at NMDA and GABA{sub A} receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Shakarjian, Michael P., E-mail: michael_shakarjian@nymc.edu; Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Velíšková, Jana, E-mail: jana_veliskova@nymc.edu

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a highly lethal neuroactive rodenticide responsible for many accidental and intentional poisonings in mainland China. Ease of synthesis, water solubility, potency, and difficulty to treat make TMDT a potential weapon for terrorist activity. We characterized TMDT-induced convulsions and mortality in male C57BL/6 mice. TMDT (ip) produced a continuum of twitches, clonic, and tonic–clonic seizures decreasing in onset latency and increasing in severity with increasing dose; 0.4 mg/kg was 100% lethal. The NMDA antagonist, ketamine (35 mg/kg) injected ip immediately after the first TMDT-induced seizure, did not change number of tonic–clonic seizures or lethality, but increased the numbermore » of clonic seizures. Doubling the ketamine dose decreased tonic–clonic seizures and eliminated lethality through a 60 min observation period. Treating mice with another NMDA antagonist, MK-801, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg ip, showed similar effects as low and high doses of ketamine, respectively, and prevented lethality, converting status epilepticus EEG activity to isolated interictal discharges. Treatment with these agents 15 min prior to TMDT administration did not increase their effectiveness. Post-treatment with the GABA{sub A} receptor allosteric enhancer diazepam (5 mg/kg) greatly reduced seizure manifestations and prevented lethality 60 min post-TMDT, but ictal events were evident in EEG recordings and, hours post-treatment, mice experienced status epilepticus and died. Thus, TMDT is a highly potent and lethal convulsant for which single-dose benzodiazepine treatment is inadequate in managing electrographic seizures or lethality. Repeated benzodiazepine dosing or combined application of benzodiazepines and NMDA receptor antagonists is more likely to be effective in treating TMDT poisoning. -- Highlights: ► TMDT produces convulsions and lethality at low doses in mice. ► Diazepam pre- or post-treatments inhibit TMDT-induced convulsions

  10. Effects of GABA-B receptor positive modulator on ketamine-induced psychosis-relevant behaviors and hippocampal electrical activity in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyi; Stan Leung, L

    2017-10-01

    Decreased GABA B receptor function is proposed to mediate some symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the effect of CGP7930, a GABA B receptor positive allosteric modulator, on ketamine-induced psychosis-relevant behaviors and hippocampal electrical activity in behaving rats. Electrodes were bilaterally implanted into the hippocampus, and cannulae were placed into the lateral ventricles of Long-Evans rats. CGP7930 or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), alone or 15 min prior to ketamine (3 mg/kg, subcutaneous) injection. Paired click auditory evoked potentials in the hippocampus (AEP), prepulse inhibition (PPI), and locomotor activity were recorded before and after drug injection. CGP7930 at doses of 1 mg/kg (i.p.) prevented ketamine-induced deficit of PPI. CGP7930 (1 mg/kg i.p.) also prevented the decrease in gating of hippocampal AEP and the increase in hippocampal gamma (65-100 Hz) waves induced by ketamine. Unilateral i.c.v. infusion of CGP7930 (0.3 mM/1 μL) also prevented the decrease in gating of hippocampal AEP induced by ketamine. Ketamine-induced behavioral hyperlocomotion was suppressed by 5 mg/kg i.p. CGP7930. CGP7930 alone, without ketamine, did not significantly affect integrated PPI, locomotion, gating of hippocampal AEP, or gamma waves. CGP7930 (1 mg/kg i.p.) increased heterosynaptically mediated paired pulse depression in the hippocampus, a measure of GABA B receptor function in vivo. CGP7930 reduces the behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions induced by ketamine in animals, and the hippocampus may be one of the neural targets where CGP7930 exerts its actions.

  11. GABA-A receptor beta3 and alpha5 subunit gene cluster on chromosome 15q11-q13 and bipolar disorder: a genetic association study.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, G N; Dikeos, D G; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Daskalopoulou, E G; Stefanis, C N

    2001-05-08

    There is accumulated evidence that the genes coding for the receptor of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, may be involved in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. In a previous study, we have found a genetic association between the GABA-A receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) on chromosome 15q11-of 13 and bipolar affective disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine the same subjects to see if there exists a genetic association between bipolar affective disorder and the GABA receptor beta3 subunit gene (GABRB3), which is located within 100 kb from GABRA5. The sample consisted of 48 bipolar patients compared to 44 controls (blood donors). All subjects were Greek, unrelated, and personally interviewed. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The marker used was a dinucleotide (CA) repeat polymorphism with 12 alleles 179 to 201 bp long; genotyping was successful in all patients and 43 controls. The distribution of GABRB3 genotypes among the controls did not deviate significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No differences in allelic frequencies between bipolar patients and controls were found for GABRB3, while this locus and GABRA5 did not seem to be in significant linkage disequilibrium. In conclusion, the GABRB3 CA-repeat polymorphism we investigated does not present the observed association between bipolar affective illness and GABRA5. This could be due to higher mutation rate in the GABRB3 CA-repeat polymorphism, but it might also signify that GABRA5 is the gene actually associated with the disease. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The effect of age on the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol and its GABA(A) receptor mediation in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Helms, Christa M; Grant, Kathleen A

    2011-08-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is less common among aged compared to young adults, with aged adults showing greater sensitivity to many behavioral effects of ethanol. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in young and middle-aged adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and its γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor mediation. Two male and two female monkeys trained to discriminate ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.g.; 60-min pre-treatment interval) from water at 5-6 years of age (Grant et al. in Psychopharmacology 152:181-188, 2000) were re-trained in the current study more than a decade later (19.3 ± 1.0 years of age) for a within-subjects comparison. Also, four experimentally naïve middle-aged (mean ± SEM, 17.0 ± 1.5 years of age) female monkeys were trained to discriminate ethanol for between-subjects comparison with published data from young adult naïve monkeys. Two of the naïve middle-aged monkeys attained criterion performance, with weak stimulus control and few discrimination tests, despite greater blood-ethanol concentration 60 min after 1.0 g/kg ethanol in middle-aged compared to young adult female monkeys (Green et al. in Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:611-616, 1999). The efficacy of the GABA(A) receptor positive modulators pentobarbital, midazolam, allopregnanolone, pregnanolone, and androsterone to substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of 1.0 g/kg ethanol was maintained from young adulthood to middle age. The data suggest that 1.0 g/kg ethanol is a weak discriminative stimulus in naive middle-aged monkeys. Nevertheless, the GABA(A) receptor mechanisms mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, when learned as a young adult, appear stable across one third of the primate lifespan.

  13. Long-Range Regulatory Polymorphisms Affecting a GABA Receptor Constitute a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) for Social Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bendesky, Andres; Pitts, Jason; Rockman, Matthew V.; Chen, William C.; Tan, Man-Wah; Kruglyak, Leonid; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation is a social behavior that varies between and within species, providing a model to study the genetic basis of behavioral diversity. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, aggregation is regulated by environmental context and by two neuromodulatory pathways, one dependent on the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1 and one dependent on the TGF-β family protein DAF-7. To gain further insight into the genetic regulation of aggregation, we characterize natural variation underlying behavioral differences between two wild-type C. elegans strains, N2 and CB4856. Using quantitative genetic techniques, including a survey of chromosome substitution strains and QTL analysis of recombinant inbred lines, we identify three new QTLs affecting aggregation in addition to the two known N2 mutations in npr-1 and glb-5. Fine-mapping with near-isogenic lines localized one QTL, accounting for 5%–8% of the behavioral variance between N2 and CB4856, 3′ to the transcript of the GABA neurotransmitter receptor gene exp-1. Quantitative complementation tests demonstrated that this QTL affects exp-1, identifying exp-1 and GABA signaling as new regulators of aggregation. exp-1 interacts genetically with the daf-7 TGF-β pathway, which integrates food availability and population density, and exp-1 mutations affect the level of daf-7 expression. Our results add to growing evidence that genetic variation affecting neurotransmitter receptor genes is a source of natural behavioral variation. PMID:23284308

  14. Modulation of postsynaptic potentials in rat cortical neurons by valerian extracts macerated with different alcohols: involvement of adenosine A(1)- and GABA(A)-receptors.

    PubMed

    Sichardt, K; Vissiennon, Z; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2007-10-01

    Valeriana officinalis (valerian) is used traditionally as a mild sedative. Research into valerian is sparse, and studies differ greatly with respect to design, measures and preparations used. This study compares the action of a methanol (M-E), ethanol (E-E) and an extract macerated with ethylacetate (EA-E) from roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in cortical neurons. Intracellular recordings were performed in rat brain slice preparations containing pyramidal cells of the cingulate cortex. PSPs were induced by electrical field stimulation. The M-E induced strong inhibition in the concentration range 0.1-15 mg/mL, whereas the E-E (1-10 mg/mL) did not influence significantly the PSPs. The maximum inhibition induced by the M-E was completely antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microm), an antagonist on the adenosine A(1) receptor. Contrary to the M-E, the EA-E (10 mg/mL) induced an increase of the PSPs, which was completely blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin (100 microm). The data suggest that activation of adenosine A(1) and GABA(A) receptors is mediated by different components within the valerian extract. The two mechanisms may contribute independently to the sleep-inducing effect of valerian.

  15. GABA pharmacology: the search for analgesics.

    PubMed

    McCarson, Kenneth E; Enna, S J

    2014-10-01

    Decades of research have been devoted to defining the role of GABAergic transmission in nociceptive processing. Much of this work was performed using rigid, orthosteric GABA analogs created by Povl Krogsgaard-Larsen and his associates. A relationship between GABA and pain is suggested by the anatomical distribution of GABA receptors and the ability of some GABA agonists to alter nociceptive responsiveness. Outlined in this report are data supporting this proposition, with particular emphasis on the anatomical localization and function of GABA-containing neurons and the molecular and pharmacological properties of GABAA and GABAB receptor subtypes. Reference is made to changes in overall GABAergic tone, GABA receptor expression and activity as a function of the duration and intensity of a painful stimulus or exposure to GABAergic agents. Evidence is presented that the plasticity of this receptor system may be responsible for the variability in the antinociceptive effectiveness of compounds that influence GABA transmission. These findings demonstrate that at least some types of persistent pain are associated with a regionally selective decline in GABAergic tone, highlighting the need for agents that enhance GABA activity in the affected regions without compromising GABA function over the long-term. As subtype selective positive allosteric modulators may accomplish these goals, such compounds might represent a new class of analgesic drugs.

  16. Selectivity of antagonists for the Cys-loop native receptors for ACh, 5-HT and GABA in guinea-pig myenteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Juárez, E H; Ochoa-Cortés, F; Miranda-Morales, M; Espinosa-Luna, R; Montaño, L M; Barajas-López, C

    2014-01-01

    The three most common Cys-loop receptors expressed by myenteric neurons are nACh, 5-HT3 and GABAA . To investigate the function of these proteins researchers have used channel inhibitors such as hexamethonium (antagonist of nACh receptors), ondansetron (antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors), picrotoxin and bicuculline (both antagonists of GABAA receptors). The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of these inhibitors on Cys-loop receptors of primary cultured neurons obtained from the guinea-pig small intestine. The whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp techniques was used to record membrane currents induced by ACh (IACh ), 5-HT (I5-HT ) and GABA (IGABA ) in the absence and the presence of various concentrations of hexamethonium, ondansetron, picrotoxin or bicuculline. The three Cys-loop receptors present in enteric neurons are expressed independently and they do not cross-desensitized. Hexamethonium inhibited IACh without affecting I5-HT and IGABA . Ondansetron inhibited I5-HT and also IACh but did not affect IGABA . Picrotoxin and bicuculline inhibited I5-HT , IACh and IGABA with different potency, being the lowest potency on 5-HT3 receptors. All these inhibitory effects were concentration dependent and reversible. Our observations showed that except for hexamethonium, all other inhibitors used here show different degrees of selectivity, which has to be considered when these antagonists are used in experimental studies aimed to investigate the functions of these receptors. In particular, in tissues expressing nACh receptors because these are the targets of all other inhibitors used here. The low potency of picrotoxin and bicuculline to inhibit 5-HT3 receptors suggests that these receptors are heteromeric proteins. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Results Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but

  18. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; Ireland, Jacqueline H; Bekaert, Michaël; Burgess, Stewart Tg; Skuce, Philip J; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Gharbi, Karim; Sturm, Armin

    2013-06-18

    Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but toxic for S lice

  19. Improvement in verbal memory following SSRI augmentation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with changes in the expression of mRNA encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in PMC of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Mandiuk, Nina; Einoch, Reef; Susser, Ehud; Danovich, Lena; Bilker, Warren; Youdim, Moussa; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-05-01

    Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) systems. Recent evidence from animal and clinical studies that adding fluvoxamine to antipsychotics alters the expression of transcripts encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF led us to postulate that fluvoxamine augmentation may improve memory in schizophrenia. To test this, we examined the effect of add-on fluvoxamine on verbal memory and other cognitive functions and related it to the expression of mRNA coding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMC) of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients completed a 6-week study in which fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Verbal memory, abstraction working memory, object and face recognition, and psychomotor speed and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weeks 1, 3, and 6 and PMC was assayed for the GABA-A beta3 receptor and BDNF mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Associative and logical verbal memory improved significantly and showed a significant correlation with changes in PMC BDNF and GABA-A beta3 receptor mRNA, which increased during treatment. Abstraction and object recognition improved, but this did not correlate with PMC measures. Negative and positive symptoms improved significantly; the latter showed significant correlations with changes in PMC measures. Addition of fluvoxamine to antipsychotics improves verbal memory. It is postulated that the mechanism involves enhanced GABA-A receptor/BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  20. Chronic nicotine treatment differentially modifies acute nicotine and alcohol actions on GABA(A) and glutamate receptors in hippocampal brain slices.

    PubMed

    Proctor, William R; Dobelis, Peter; Moritz, Anna T; Wu, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are often co-abused producing interactive effects in the brain. Although nicotine enhances memory while ethanol impairs it, variable cognitive changes have been reported from concomitant use. This study was designed to determine how nicotine and alcohol interact at synaptic sites to modulate neuronal processes. Acute effects of nicotine, ethanol, and both drugs on synaptic excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic transmission were measured using whole-cell recording in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from brain slices of mice on control or nicotine-containing diets. Acute nicotine (50 nM) enhanced both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission; potentiated GABA(A) receptor currents via activation of α7* and α4β2* nAChRs, and increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor currents through α7* receptors. While ethanol (80 mM) also increased GABA(A) currents, it inhibited NMDA currents. Although ethanol had no effect on AMPA currents, it blocked nicotine-induced increases in NMDA and AMPA currents. Following chronic nicotine treatment, acute nicotine or ethanol did not affect NMDA currents, while the effects of GABAergic responses were not altered. Acute ethanol ingestion selectively attenuated nicotine enhancement of excitatory glutamatergic NMDA and AMPA receptor function, suggesting an overall reduction in excitatory output from the hippocampus. It also indicated that ethanol could decrease the beneficial effects of nicotine on memory performance. In addition, chronic nicotine treatment produced tolerance to the effects of nicotine and cross-tolerance to the effects of ethanol on glutamatergic activity, leading to a potential increase in the use of these drugs. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society. No claim to original US government works.

  1. Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporters Can Facilitate GABA Transport.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Kamran, Muhammad; Sullivan, Wendy; Chirkova, Larissa; Okamoto, Mamoru; Degryse, Fien; McLaughlin, Michael; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2018-05-01

    Plant aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) are currently classified as anion channels; they are also known to be regulated by diverse signals, leading to a range of physiological responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulation of anion flux through ALMT proteins requires a specific amino acid motif in ALMTs that shares similarity with a GABA binding site in mammalian GABA A receptors. Here, we explore why TaALMT1 activation leads to a negative correlation between malate efflux and endogenous GABA concentrations ([GABA] i ) in both wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) root tips and in heterologous expression systems. We show that TaALMT1 activation reduces [GABA] i because TaALMT1 facilitates GABA efflux but GABA does not complex Al 3+ TaALMT1 also leads to GABA transport into cells, demonstrated by a yeast complementation assay and via 14 C-GABA uptake into TaALMT1 -expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes; this was found to be a general feature of all ALMTs we examined. Mutation of the GABA motif (TaALMT1 F213C ) prevented both GABA influx and efflux, and resulted in no correlation between malate efflux and [GABA] i We conclude that ALMTs are likely to act as both GABA and anion transporters in planta. GABA and malate appear to interact with ALMTs in a complex manner to regulate each other's transport, suggestive of a role for ALMTs in communicating metabolic status. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Different in vitro and in vivo profiles of substituted 3-aminopropylphosphinate and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinate GABA(B) receptor agonists as inhibitors of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, A; Antonsson, M; Aurell-Holmberg, A; Blackshaw, L A; Brändén, L; Elebring, T; Jensen, J; Kärrberg, L; Mattsson, J P; Nilsson, K; Oja, S S; Saransaari, P; von Unge, S

    2012-03-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is predominantly caused by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR) and GABA(B) receptor stimulation inhibits TLOSR. Lesogaberan produces fewer CNS side effects than baclofen, which has been attributed to its affinity for the GABA transporter (GAT), the action of which limits stimulation of central GABA(B) receptors. To understand the structure-activity relationship for analogues of lesogaberan (3-aminopropylphosphinic acids), and corresponding 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids, we have compared representatives of these classes in different in vitro and in vivo models. The compounds were characterized in terms of GABA(B) agonism in vitro. Binding to GATs and cellular uptake was done using rat brain membranes and slices respectively. TLOSR was measured in dogs, and CNS side effects were evaluated as hypothermia in mice and rats. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acids inhibited TLOSR with a superior therapeutic index compared to 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids. This difference was most likely due to differential GAT-mediated uptake into brain cells of the former but not latter. In agreement, 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids were much more potent in producing hypothermia in rats even when administered i.c.v. An enhanced therapeutic window for 3-aminopropylphosphinic acids compared with 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids with respect to inhibition of TLOSR was observed and is probably mechanistically linked to neural cell uptake of the former but not latter group of compounds. These findings offer a platform for discovery of new GABA(B) receptor agonists for the treatment of reflux disease and other conditions where selective peripheral GABA(B) receptor agonism may afford therapeutic effects. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Gamma-vinyl GABA increases nonvesicular release of GABA and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens in rats via action on anion channels and GABA transporters

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiao-Qing; Gardner, Eliot L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) is a well-characterized inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, which may also stimulate nonvesicular release of other neurotransmitters under certain conditions. We have recently reported that γ-vinyl GABA (GVG), an irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, elevates extracellular GABA but fails to alter dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Objectives Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) by which GVG elevates extracellular GABA levels and whether GVG also alters glutamate release in the NAc. Materials and methods In vivo microdialysis was used to simultaneously measure extracellular NAc GABA and glutamate before and after GVG administration in freely moving rats. Results Systemic administration of GVG or intra-NAc local perfusion of GVG significantly increased extracellular NAc GABA and glutamate. GVG-enhanced GABA was completely blocked by intra-NAc local perfusion of 5-nitro-2, 3-(phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), a selective anion channel blocker and partially blocked by SKF89976A, a type 1 GABA transporter inhibitor. GVG-enhanced glutamate was completely blocked by NPPB or SKF89976A. Tetrodotoxin, a voltage-dependent Na+-channel blocker, failed to alter GVG-enhanced GABA and glutamate. Conclusions These data suggest that GVG-enhanced extracellular GABA and glutamate are mediated predominantly by the opening of anion channels and partially by the reversal of GABA transporters. Enhanced extracellular glutamate may functionally attenuate the pharmacological action of GABA and prevent enhanced GABA-induced excess inhibition. PMID:20033132

  4. The effects of intraperitoneal administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in CFLP and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Ivor S; Prabhaker, Monika

    2007-08-13

    The effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were investigated on food intake in non-deprived CFLP and C57BL/6 mice. In Experiment 1, baclofen (1-8 mg /kg) administered i.p. to CFLP mice, produced a dose-related increase in food intake. The 4 and 8 mg/kg doses produced significant increases in cumulative feeding when measure 120 min after administration (at least P < 0.05, in each case). In Experiment 2, baclofen (1-10 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to C57BL/6 mice, also produced a dose-related increase in food intake. The 4 mg/kg dose of baclofen significantly increased cumulative food intake at 60 min (P < 0.05), while the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased cumulative food intake at 120 min (P < 0.01, in each case). The 10mg/kg dose was without effect. These data show that systemic administration of the GABA(B) agonist baclofen produces an increase in food consumption in two different strains of mice and extend previous observations made in rat to another rodent species.

  5. Bidirectional control of spike timing by GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition during theta oscillation in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Jeehyun; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-08-26

    Precisely controlled spike times relative to theta-frequency network oscillations play an important role in hippocampal memory processing. Here we study how inhibitory synaptic input during theta oscillation contributes to the control of spike timing. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro with dynamic clamp to simulate theta-frequency oscillation (5 Hz), we show that gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) can not only delay but also advance the postsynaptic spike depending on the timing of the inhibition relative to the oscillation. Spike time advancement with IPSP was abolished by the h-channel blocker ZD7288 (10 microM), suggesting that IPSPs can interact with intrinsic membrane conductances to yield bidirectional control of spike timing.

  6. Plasticity of rat central inhibitory synapses through GABA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Dominique; Pahner, Ingrid; Schulze, Katrin; Frahm, Christiane; Jarry, Hubertus; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Draguhn, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The production of the central inhibitory transmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) varies in response to different patterns of activity. It therefore seems possible that GABA metabolism can determine inhibitory synaptic strength and that presynaptic GABA content is a regulated parameter for synaptic plasticity. We altered presynaptic GABA metabolism in cultured rat hippocampal slices using pharmacological tools. Degradation of GABA by GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) was blocked by γ-vinyl-GABA (GVG) and synthesis of GABA through glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was suppressed with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). We measured miniature GABAergic postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in CA3 pyramidal cells using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Elevated intra-synaptic GABA levels after block of GABA-T resulted in increased mIPSC amplitude and frequency. In addition, tonic GABAergic background noise was enhanced by GVG. Electron micrographs from inhibitory synapses identified by immunogold staining for GABA confirmed the enhanced GABA content but revealed no further morphological alterations. The suppression of GABA synthesis by MPA had opposite functional consequences: mIPSC amplitude and frequency decreased and current noise was reduced compared with control. However, we were unable to demonstrate the decreased GABA content in biochemical analyses of whole slices or in electron micrographs. We conclude that the transmitter content of GABAergic vesicles is variable and that postsynaptic receptors are usually not saturated, leaving room for up-regulation of inhibitory synaptic strength. Our data reveal a new mechanism of plasticity at central inhibitory synapses and provide a rationale for the activity-dependent regulation of GABA synthesis in mammals. PMID:11533137

  7. L-type Calcium Channel Blockers Enhance Trafficking and Function of Epilepsy-associated α1(D219N) Subunits of GABA(A) Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Yun; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Wang, Ya-Juan; Hatzoglou, Maria; Mu, Ting-Wei

    2015-09-18

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are the primary inhibitory ion channels in the mammalian central nervous system and play an essential role in regulating inhibition-excitation balance in neural circuits. The α1 subunit harboring the D219N mutation of GABAA receptors was reported to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and traffic inefficiently to the plasma membrane, leading to a loss of function of α1(D219N) subunits and thus idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). We present the use of small molecule proteostasis regulators to enhance the forward trafficking of α1(D219N) subunits to restore their function. We showed that treatment with verapamil (4 μM, 24 h), an L-type calcium channel blocker, substantially increases the α1(D219N) subunit cell surface level in both HEK293 cells and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells and remarkably restores the GABA-induced maximal chloride current in HEK293 cells expressing α1(D219N)β2γ2 receptors to a level that is comparable to wild type receptors. Our drug mechanism study revealed that verapamil treatment promotes the ER to Golgi trafficking of the α1(D219N) subunits post-translationally. To achieve that, verapamil treatment enhances the interaction between the α1(D219N) subunit and β2 subunit and prevents the aggregation of the mutant protein by shifting the protein from the detergent-insoluble fractions to detergent-soluble fractions. By combining (35)S pulse-chase labeling and MG-132 inhibition experiments, we demonstrated that verapamil treatment does not inhibit the ER-associated degradation of the α1(D219N) subunit. In addition, its effect does not involve a dynamin-1 dependent endocytosis. To gain further mechanistic insight, we showed that verapamil increases the interaction between the mutant protein and calnexin and calreticulin, two major lectin chaperones in the ER. Moreover, calnexin binding promotes the forward trafficking of the mutant subunit. Taken together, our data indicate that

  8. Effects of GF-015535-00, a novel α1 GABA A receptor ligand, on the sleep-wake cycle in mice, with reference to zolpidem.

    PubMed

    Anaclet, Christelle; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Chunmei; Buda, Colette; Seugnet, Laurent; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Novel, safe, and efficient hypnotic compounds capable of enhancing physiological sleep are still in great demand in the therapy of insomnia. This study compares the sleep-wake effects of a new α1 GABA(A) receptor subunit ligand, GF-015535-00, with those of zolpidem, the widely utilized hypnotic compound. Nine C57Bl6/J male mice were chronically implanted with electrodes for EEG and sleep-wake monitoring. Each mouse received 3 doses of GF-015535-00 and zolpidem. Time spent in sleep-wake states and cortical EEG power spectra were analyzed. Both zolpidem and GF-015535-00 prominently enhanced slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep in the mouse. However, as compared with zolpidem, GF-015535-00 showed several important differences: (1) a comparable sleep-enhancing effect was obtained with a 10 fold smaller dose; (2) the induced sleep was less fragmented; (3) the risk of subsequent wake rebound was less prominent; and (4) the cortical EEG power ratio between slow wave sleep and wake was similar to that of natural sleep and thus compatible with physiological sleep. The characteristics of the sleep-wake effects of GF-015535-00 in mice could be potentially beneficial for its use as a therapeutic compound in the treatment of insomnia. Further investigations are required to assess whether the same characteristics are conserved in other animal models and humans.

  9. Rapid PCR-mediated synthesis of competitor molecules for accurate quantification of beta(2) GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA.

    PubMed

    Vela, J; Vitorica, J; Ruano, D

    2001-12-01

    We describe a fast and easy method for the synthesis of competitor molecules based on non-specific conditions of PCR. RT-competitive PCR is a sensitive technique that allows quantification of very low quantities of mRNA molecules in small tissue samples. This technique is based on the competition established between the native and standard templates for nucleotides, primers or other factors during PCR. Thus, the most critical parameter is the use of good internal standards to generate a standard curve from which the amount of native sequences can be properly estimated. At the present time different types of internal standards and methods for their synthesis have been described. Normally, most of these methods are time-consuming and require the use of different sets of primers, different rounds of PCR or specific modifications, such as site-directed mutagenesis, that need subsequent analysis of the PCR products. Using our method, we obtained in a single round of PCR and with the same primer pair, competitor molecules that were successfully used in RT-competitive PCR experiments. The principal advantage of this method is high versatility and economy. Theoretically it is possible to synthesize a specific competitor molecule for each primer pair used. Finally, using this method we have been able to quantify the increase in the expression of the beta(2) GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA that occurs during rat hippocampus development.

  10. The GABA(B) receptor positive modulator BHF177 attenuated anxiety, but not conditioned fear, in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M G; Markou, Athina; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2015-10-01

    GABAB (γ-aminobutyric acid B) receptors may be a therapeutic target for anxiety disorders. Here we characterized the effects of the GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) BHF177 on conditioned and unconditioned physiological responses to threat in the light-enhanced startle (LES), stress-induced hyperthermia, and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) procedures in rats. The effects of BHF177 on LES were compared with those of the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and CGP44532, and the positive control buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist with anxiolytic activity in humans. Baclofen (0.4, 0.9 and 1.25 mg/kg) and CGP44532 (0.065, 0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) administration had significant sedative, but not anxiolytic, activity reflected in overall decrease in the startle response in the LES tests. BHF177 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) had no effect on LES, nor did it produce an overall sedative effect. Interesting, however, when rats were grouped by high and low LES responses, BHF177 had anxiolytic-like effects only on LES in high, but not low, LES responding rats. BHF177 also blocked stress-induced hyperthermia, but had no effect on conditioned fear responses in the FPS test. Buspirone (1 and 3 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic-like profile in both LES and FPS tests. These results indicate that BHF177 may specifically attenuate unconditioned anxiety in individuals that exhibit a high anxiety state, and has fewer sedative effects than direct agonists. Thus, BHF177 or other GABAB receptor PAMs may be promising compounds for alleviating increased anxiety seen in various psychiatric disorders with a superior side-effect profile compared to GABAB receptor agonists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Systematic Analysis of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism and Function in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuantai; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While GABA has been suggested to regulate spore encapsulation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, the metabolic profile and other potential functions of GABA during development remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the homeostasis of GABA metabolism by disrupting genes related to GABA metabolism and signaling. Extracellular levels of GABA are tightly regulated during early development, and GABA is generated by the glutamate decarboxylase, GadB, during growth and in early development. However, overexpression of the prespore-specific homologue, GadA, in the presence of GadB reduces production of extracellular GABA. Perturbation of extracellular GABA levels delays the process of aggregation. Cytosolic GABA is degraded by the GABA transaminase, GabT, in the mitochondria. Disruption of a putative vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) homologue DdvGAT reduces secreted GABA. We identified the GABAB receptor-like family member GrlB as the major GABA receptor during early development, and either disruption or overexpression of GrlB delays aggregation. This delay is likely the result of an abolished pre-starvation response and late expression of several “early” developmental genes. Distinct genes are employed for GABA generation during sporulation. During sporulation, GadA alone is required for generating GABA and DdvGAT is likely responsible for GABA secretion. GrlE but not GrlB is the GABA receptor during late development. PMID:23548898

  12. Regulation of /sup 3/H-dopamine release by presynaptic GABA and glutamate heteroreceptors in rat brain nucleus accumbens synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, G.I.; Hetey, L.

    1987-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was a neurochemical study of the effect of agonists of different types of GABA receptors - muscimol (type A receptor), baclofen (type B receptor), delta-aminolevulinic acid (DALA; GABA autoreceptor), and also of GABA itself - on tritium-labelled dopamine release, stimulated by potassium cations, from synaptosomes of the nuclei accumbenes of the rat brain.

  13. MEDU-05. THE ROLE OF GABA METABOLISM IN MEDULLOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Martirosian, Vahan; Deshpande, Krutika; Shackelford, Gregory; Julian, Alex; Lin, Michelle; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Chen, Thomas; Neman, Josh

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Brain tumors are the most common cause of childhood oncological death, and medulloblastoma (originating in the cerebellum) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. In the microenvironment of the brain, especially the cerebellum, variables related to GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, are particularly prominent. Abnormal GABAergic Receptor activation has been described in in aggressive MYC-driven Group 3 medulloblastoma. However these studies did not look at the metabolic contribution of GABA for the development of medulloblastomas. In addition to its role in neurotransmission through GABA receptor, GABA can act as a trophic factor during nervous system development to influence cellular events including proliferation, migration, differentiation, synapse maturation, and cell death. Under conditions that inhibit the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), impair respiration, and enhance the accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates, GABA can be used as an NADH energy source for growth through the GABA-shunt pathway regulators (ABAT, SSADH, GAT-1, GAT-3). Therefore, we hypothesize that blocking GABA-metabolic-shunt will lead to growth suppression and invasiveness of medulloblastoma in the cerebellar GABA-rich microenvironment. RESULTS: Our results show RNA microarray from patient medulloblastoma tissue have high expression of GABA-shunt regulators with ~3-fold increase in the expression of ABAT in MYC amplified versus non-amplified MYC tumors. When medulloblastomas were supplemented with GABA, there was a significant fold change in expression of GABA-shunt mediators and induction of large and stable tumor spheres with Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition gene expression signature. We next investigated whether a novel perrilyl alcohol-based small molecule NEO216 targeted the GABA-shunt metabolic pathway. NEO216 administration significantly reduced GABA-mediated NADH levels, reversed EMT-profiling, leading to loss

  14. Characterisation of the contribution of the GABA-benzodiazepine α1 receptor subtype to [11C]Ro15-4513 PET images

    PubMed Central

    Myers, James FM; Rosso, Lula; Watson, Ben J; Wilson, Sue J; Kalk, Nicola J; Clementi, Nicoletta; Brooks, David J; Nutt, David J; Turkheimer, Federico E; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2012-01-01

    This positron emission tomography (PET) study aimed to further define selectivity of [11C]Ro15-4513 binding to the GABARα5 relative to the GABARα1 benzodiazepine receptor subtype. The impact of zolpidem, a GABARα1-selective agonist, on [11C]Ro15-4513, which shows selectivity for GABARα5, and the nonselective benzodiazepine ligand [11C]flumazenil binding was assessed in humans. Compartmental modelling of the kinetics of [11C]Ro15-4513 time-activity curves was used to describe distribution volume (VT) differences in regions populated by different GABA receptor subtypes. Those with low α5 were best fitted by one-tissue compartment models; and those with high α5 required a more complex model. The heterogeneity between brain regions suggested spectral analysis as a more appropriate method to quantify binding as it does not a priori specify compartments. Spectral analysis revealed that zolpidem caused a significant VT decrease (∼10%) in [11C]flumazenil, but no decrease in [11C]Ro15-4513 binding. Further analysis of [11C]Ro15-4513 kinetics revealed additional frequency components present in regions containing both α1 and α5 subtypes compared with those containing only α1. Zolpidem reduced one component (mean±s.d.: 71%±41%), presumed to reflect α1-subtype binding, but not another (13%±22%), presumed to reflect α5. The proposed method for [11C]Ro15-4513 analysis may allow more accurate selective binding assays and estimation of drug occupancy for other nonselective ligands. PMID:22214903

  15. A type III effector antagonizes death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Kennedy, Catherine L; Kelly, Michelle; Robinson, Keith S; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Mansell, Ashley; Riedmaier, Patrice; Oates, Clare V L; Zaid, Ali; Mühlen, Sabrina; Crepin, Valerie F; Marches, Olivier; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Nachbur, Ueli; Infusini, Giuseppe; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2013-09-12

    Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonize the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) Escherichia coli use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonization and interfere with antimicrobial host responses. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death-domain-containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death-receptor-induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-acetylglucosamine transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg 117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing pathogens antagonize death-receptor-induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response.

  16. A type III effector antagonises death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Kennedy, Catherine L; Kelly, Michelle; Robinson, Keith S; Wong, Tania; Mansell, Ashley; Riedmaier, Patrice; Oates, Clare VL; Zaid, Ali; Mühlen, Sabrina; Crepin, Valerie F; Marches, Olivier; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A; O’Reilly, Lorraine A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Nachbur, Ueli; Infusini, Giuseppe; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonise the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC), utilise a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonisation and interfere with antimicrobial host responses 1-3. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death domain containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death receptor induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens antagonise death receptor induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response. PMID:24025841

  17. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Gilliham, Matthew; Xu, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a signal in animals has been documented for over 60 years. In contrast, evidence that GABA is a signal in plants has only emerged in the last 15 years, and it was not until last year that a mechanism by which this could occur was identified-a plant 'GABA receptor' that inhibits anion passage through the aluminium-activated malate transporter family of proteins (ALMTs). ALMTs are multigenic, expressed in different organs and present on different membranes. We propose GABA regulation of ALMT activity could function as a signal that modulates plant growth, development, and stress response. In this review, we compare and contrast the plant 'GABA receptor' with mammalian GABA A receptors in terms of their molecular identity, predicted topology, mode of action, and signalling roles. We also explore the implications of the discovery that GABA modulates anion flux in plants, its role in signal transduction for the regulation of plant physiology, and predict the possibility that there are other GABA interaction sites in the N termini of ALMT proteins through in silico evolutionary coupling analysis; we also explore the potential interactions between GABA and other signalling molecules.

  18. Homeostatic Changes in GABA and Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptors on GABAergic Neurons in the Mesencephalic Reticular Formation following Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABAA or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition. We found that a significantly greater proportion of the GABAergic neurons were positively stained for c-Fos after SD (∼27%) as compared to sleep control (SC; ∼1%) and sleep recovery (SR; ∼6%), suggesting that they were more active during waking with SD and less active or inactive during sleep with SC and SR. The density of GABAARs and AChM2Rs on the plasma membrane of the GABAergic neurons was significantly increased after SD and restored to control levels after SR. We conclude that the density of these receptors is increased on RFMes GABAergic neurons during presumed enhanced activity with SD and is restored to control levels during presumed lesser or inactivity with SR. Such increases in GABAAR and AChM2R with sleep deficits would be associated with increased susceptibility of the wake-active GABAergic neurons to inhibition from GABAergic and cholinergic sleep-active neurons and to thus permitting the onset of sleep and PS with muscle atonia. PMID:29302615

  19. The morphological and chemical characteristics of striatal neurons immunoreactive for the alpha1-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the rat.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, H J; Kubota, Y; Trevallyan, S C; Kawaguchi, Y; Fritschy, J M; Mohler, H; Faull, R L

    1997-10-01

    The distribution, morphology and chemical characteristics of neurons immunoreactive for the alpha1-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the striatum of the basal ganglia in the rat brain were investigated at the light, confocal and electron microscope levels using single, double and triple immunohistochemical labelling techniques. The results showed that alpha1-subunit immunoreactive neurons were sparsely distributed throughout the rat striatum. Double and triple labelling results showed that all the alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were positive for glutamate decarboxylase and immunoreactive for the beta2,3 and gamma2 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. Three types of alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the striatum on the basis of cellular morphology and chemical characteristics. The most numerous alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were medium-sized, aspiny neurons with a widely branching dendritic tree. They were parvalbumin-negative and were located mainly in the dorsolateral regions of the striatum. Electron microscopy showed that these neurons had an indented nuclear membrane, typical of striatal interneurons, and were surrounded by small numbers of axon terminals which established alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive synaptic contacts with the soma and dendrites. These cells were classified as type 1 alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons and comprised 75% of the total population of alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons in the striatum. The remaining alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons comprised of a heterogeneous population of large-sized neurons localized in the ventral and medial regions of the striatum. The most numerous large-sized cells were parvalbumin-negative, had two to three relatively short branching dendrites and were designated type 2 alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons. Electron microscopy showed that the type 2 neurons were characterized by a highly convoluted nuclear membrane and were sparsely covered with small axon

  20. Effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen administered orally on normal food intake and intraperitoneally on fat intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bains, Rasneer S; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-01-05

    It has been previously reported that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen decreases food intake after oral administration and fat intake after intraperitoneal administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of baclofen (1-4 mg/ kg) administered orally (Experiment 1) on food intake in non-deprived rats (n=6) and intraperitoneally (Experiment 2) on fat intake in non-deprived rats (n=8) that were naïve to baclofen (1st set of trials) and in the same group of rats after they were sub-chronically exposed to baclofen (2nd set of trials). The results from Experiment 1 show that baclofen had no effects on food intake during the 1st set of trials, but the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased food consumption during the 2nd set of trials. Baclofen produced sedation during the 1st set of trials, but tolerance occurred to this effect and was not apparent during the 2nd set of trials. These observations suggest that the motor effects may have competed with the hyperphagic effects of baclofen during the 1st set of trials. The data from Experiment 2 show that baclofen had no effects on fat intake during either the 1st or 2nd set of trials. The results of the study thus indicate that orally administrated baclofen increases food intake and intraperitoneal administration has no effect on fat intake in non-deprived rats under the conditions used in this study. These findings may have important implications for research on the use of baclofen in studies concerned with ingestive behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats measured under different feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Ivor S; Patel, Sunit M

    2011-02-25

    The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were assessed in rats under different feeding conditions. In Experiment 1, it was observed that baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly (at least, P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake in non-deprived rats during the 120 min measurement period during the early light phase of the light-dark cycle. By contrast, during the early dark phase of the light-dark cycle in non-deprived rats, the 1mg/kg doses of baclofen significantly increased cumulative feeding at 30, 60 and 120 min (at least P<0.05), the 2mg/kg dose significantly increased feeding at 30 and 60 min (at least P<0.05) and the 4 mg/kg dose had no effects on feeding. In Experiment 2, baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) was found to produce no significant effects on food intake in rats that were food-deprived for 22 h. In Experiment 3, the effects of baclofen were investigated on food intake in 16 h food-deprived rats that had received an oral preload for 2h prior to drug administration. Baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly increased cumulative food consumption (at least, P<0.05) only during the first 30 min after administration in these animals. The results of this study indicate that the effects of baclofen on food intake may be related to the state of hunger or satiety of the animals and the time during the light-dark cycle when the drug is administered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of cortical neuronal migration by glutamate and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Heiko J.; Fukuda, A.; Kilb, W.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal migration in the cortex is controlled by the paracrine action of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Glutamate controls radial migration of pyramidal neurons by acting primarily on NMDA receptors and regulates tangential migration of inhibitory interneurons by activating non-NMDA and NMDA receptors. GABA, acting on ionotropic GABAA-rho and GABAA receptors, has a dichotomic action on radially migrating neurons by acting as a GO signal in lower layers and as a STOP signal in upper cortical plate (CP), respectively. Metabotropic GABAB receptors promote radial migration into the CP and tangential migration of interneurons. Besides GABA, the endogenous GABAergic agonist taurine is a relevant agonist controlling radial migration. To a smaller extent glycine receptor activation can also influence radial and tangential migration. Activation of glutamate and GABA receptors causes increases in intracellular Ca2+ transients, which promote neuronal migration by acting on the cytoskeleton. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glutamate or GABA receptors during early corticogenesis induce heterotopic cell clusters in upper layers and loss of cortical lamination, i.e., neuronal migration disorders which can be associated with neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases. The pivotal role of NMDA and ionotropic GABA receptors in cortical neuronal migration is of major clinical relevance, since a number of drugs acting on these receptors (e.g., anti-epileptics, anesthetics, alcohol) may disturb the normal migration pattern when present during early corticogenesis. PMID:25688185

  3. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABAρ receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABAρ1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABAρ receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug-induced GABA transporter currents enhance GABA release to induce opioid withdrawal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Elena E; Hacker, Jennifer; Chefer, Vladimir I; Mallet, Christophe; McNally, Gavan P; Chieng, Billy C H; Perroud, Julie; Shippenberg, Toni S; Christie, MacDonald J

    2011-10-30

    Neurotransmitter transporters can affect neuronal excitability indirectly via modulation of neurotransmitter concentrations or directly via transporter currents. A physiological or pathophysiological role for transporter currents has not been described. We found that GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) cation currents directly increased GABAergic neuronal excitability and synaptic GABA release in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) during opioid withdrawal in rodents. In contrast, GAT-1 did not indirectly alter GABA receptor responses via modulation of extracellular GABA concentrations. Notably, we found that GAT-1-induced increases in GABAergic activity contributed to many PAG-mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. Together, these data support the hypothesis that GAT-1 activity directly produces opioid withdrawal signs through direct hyperexcitation of GABAergic PAG neurons and nerve terminals, which presumably enhances GABAergic inhibition of PAG output neurons. These data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence that dysregulation of a neurotransmitter transporter current is important for the maladaptive plasticity that underlies opiate withdrawal.

  5. GABA predicts visual intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cook, Emily; Hammett, Stephen T; Larsson, Jonas

    2016-10-06

    Early psychological researchers proposed a link between intelligence and low-level perceptual performance. It was recently suggested that this link is driven by individual variations in the ability to suppress irrelevant information, evidenced by the observation of strong correlations between perceptual surround suppression and cognitive performance. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a link remain unclear. A candidate mechanism is neural inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but direct experimental support for GABA-mediated inhibition underlying suppression is inconsistent. Here we report evidence consistent with a global suppressive mechanism involving GABA underlying the link between sensory performance and intelligence. We measured visual cortical GABA concentration, visuo-spatial intelligence and visual surround suppression in a group of healthy adults. Levels of GABA were strongly predictive of both intelligence and surround suppression, with higher levels of intelligence associated with higher levels of GABA and stronger surround suppression. These results indicate that GABA-mediated neural inhibition may be a key factor determining cognitive performance and suggests a physiological mechanism linking surround suppression and intelligence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Fast detection of extrasynaptic GABA with a whole-cell sniffer.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Rasmus K; Petersen, Anders V; Schmitt, Nicole; Perrier, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter of the brain. It operates by binding to specific receptors located both inside and outside synapses. The extrasynaptic receptors are activated by spillover from GABAergic synapses and by ambient GABA in the extracellular space. Ambient GABA is essential for adjusting the excitability of neurons. However, due to the lack of suitable methods, little is known about its dynamics. Here we describe a new technique that allows detection of GABA transients and measurement of the steady state GABA concentration with high spatial and temporal resolution. We used a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line that stably expresses GABAA receptors composed of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits. We recorded from such a HEK cell with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The presence of GABA near the HEK cell generated a measurable electric current whose magnitude increased with concentration. A fraction of the current did not inactivate during prolonged exposition to GABA. This technique, which we refer to as a "sniffer" allows the measurement of ambient GABA concentration inside nervous tissue with a resolution of few tens of nanomolars. In addition, the sniffer detects variations in the extrasynaptic GABA concentration with millisecond time resolution. Pilot experiments demonstrate that the sniffer is able to report spillover of GABA induced by synaptic activation in real time. This is the first report on a GABA sensor that combines the ability to detect fast transients and to measure steady concentrations.

  7. Fast detection of extrasynaptic GABA with a whole-cell sniffer

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Rasmus K.; Petersen, Anders V.; Schmitt, Nicole; Perrier, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter of the brain. It operates by binding to specific receptors located both inside and outside synapses. The extrasynaptic receptors are activated by spillover from GABAergic synapses and by ambient GABA in the extracellular space. Ambient GABA is essential for adjusting the excitability of neurons. However, due to the lack of suitable methods, little is known about its dynamics. Here we describe a new technique that allows detection of GABA transients and measurement of the steady state GABA concentration with high spatial and temporal resolution. We used a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line that stably expresses GABAA receptors composed of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits. We recorded from such a HEK cell with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The presence of GABA near the HEK cell generated a measurable electric current whose magnitude increased with concentration. A fraction of the current did not inactivate during prolonged exposition to GABA. This technique, which we refer to as a “sniffer” allows the measurement of ambient GABA concentration inside nervous tissue with a resolution of few tens of nanomolars. In addition, the sniffer detects variations in the extrasynaptic GABA concentration with millisecond time resolution. Pilot experiments demonstrate that the sniffer is able to report spillover of GABA induced by synaptic activation in real time. This is the first report on a GABA sensor that combines the ability to detect fast transients and to measure steady concentrations. PMID:24860433

  8. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors within the extended amygdala attenuates D(2) regulation of alcohol-motivated behaviors in the ventral tegmental area of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Eiler, William J A; June, Harry L

    2007-06-01

    The dopamine (DA) mesolimbic pathway, which originates from DA cell bodies within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been shown by various studies to play a role in the mediation of various drugs of abuse including alcohol (EtOH). It has been suggested that the VTA's control of EtOH reward is mediated in part by the D2 receptors within the VTA. These receptors may be under the regulation of reciprocal GABAergic inputs from forebrain components of the mesolimbic path such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a classic EtOH reward substrate, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a substrate recently implicated in EtOH reinforcement, forming a self-regulating feedback loop. To test this hypothesis, D2 regulation of EtOH self-administration (SA) was evaluated by the microinfusion of the D2 antagonist eticlopride into the VTA of P rats, which produced profound reductions in EtOH SA in the highest (20.0 and 40.0microg) doses tested in both BST/VTA and NAcc/VTA implanted P rats. To determine the role of GABA in the mediation of EtOH SA, a 32.0ng dose the non-selective GABA antagonist SR 95531 was microinfused into the BST producing no effect on responding for EtOH and into the NAcc which lead to a reduction in EtOH responding. Finally, the hypothesis that GABA innervation of the VTA from the mesolimbic forebrain may influence EtOH SA was examined by the simultaneous infusion of eticlopride (40.0microg) into the VTA and SR 95531 (32.0ng) into either the BST or NAcc. This combination infusion completely attenuated the reduction in EtOH SA observed with the 40.0microg dose of eticlopride alone in both groups of animals. These results suggest that while the D2 receptors within the VTA regulate EtOH-motivated behaviors, this is modulated by GABAergic input from the mesolimbic forebrain, specifically from the BST and NAcc.

  9. Allosteric modulation by benzodiazepines of GABA-gated chloride channels of an identified insect motor neurone.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Steven D; Higashino, Yoshiaki; Sattelle, David B

    2009-11-01

    The actions of benzodiazepines were studied on the responses to GABA of the fast coxal depressor (D(f)) motor neurone of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Ro5-4864, diazepam and clonazepam were investigated. Responses to GABA receptors were enhanced by both Ro5-4864 and diazepam, whereas clonazepam, a potent-positive allosteric modulator of human GABA(A) receptors, was ineffective on the native insect GABA receptors of the D(f) motor neurone. Thus, clear pharmacological differences exist between insect and mammalian native GABA-gated chloride channels with respect to the actions of benzodiazepines. The results enhance our understanding of invertebrate GABA-gated chloride channels which have recently proved important in (a) comparative studies aimed at identifying human allosteric drug-binding sites and (b) understanding the actions of compounds used to control ectoparasites and insect crop pests.

  10. Targeted deletion of the GABRA2 gene encoding alpha2-subunits of GABA(A) receptors facilitates performance of a conditioned emotional response, and abolishes anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and barbiturates.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C I; Rosahl, T W; Stephens, D N

    2008-07-01

    Mice with point-mutated alpha2 GABA(A) receptor subunits (rendering them diazepam insensitive) are resistant to the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) in the conditioned emotional response (CER) test, but show normal anxiolytic effects of a barbiturate. We investigated the consequence of deleting the alpha2-subunit on acquisition of the CER with increasing intensity of footshock, and on the anxiolytic efficacy of a benzodiazepine, diazepam, and a barbiturate, pentobarbital. alpha2 knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice were trained in a conditioned emotional response (CER) task, in which lever pressing for food on a variable interval (VI) schedule was suppressed during the presentation of a compound light/tone conditioned stimulus (CS+) that predicted footshock. The ability of diazepam and of pentobarbital to reduce suppression during the CS+ was interpreted as an anxiolytic response. There were no differences between the genotypes in shock sensitivity, as assessed by their flinch responses to increasing levels of shock. However, alpha2 KO mice showed a greater suppression of lever pressing than WT littermates in the presence of a compound cue signalling footshock. Diazepam (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) induced a dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effect in WT mice but no such effect was seen in KO mice. Similarly, although pentobarbital (20 mg/kg) reduced the ability of the CS+ to reduce lever pressing rates in WT mice, this effect was not seen in the KO. These findings suggest that alpha2-containing GABA(A) receptors mediate the anxiolytic effects of barbiturates, as well as benzodiazepines, and that they may be involved in neuronal circuits underlying conditioned anxiety.

  11. Astrocytic GABA transporter activity modulates excitatory neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Boddum, Kim; Jensen, Thomas P.; Magloire, Vincent; Kristiansen, Uffe; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are ideally placed to detect and respond to network activity. They express ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, and can release gliotransmitters. Astrocytes also express transporters that regulate the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters. Here we report a previously unrecognized role for the astrocytic GABA transporter, GAT-3. GAT-3 activity results in a rise in astrocytic Na+ concentrations and a consequent increase in astrocytic Ca2+ through Na+/Ca2+ exchange. This leads to the release of ATP/adenosine by astrocytes, which then diffusely inhibits neuronal glutamate release via activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors. Through this mechanism, increases in astrocytic GAT-3 activity due to GABA released from interneurons contribute to 'diffuse' heterosynaptic depression. This provides a mechanism for homeostatic regulation of excitatory transmission in the hippocampus. PMID:27886179

  12. Functional neuroanatomy of the ventral striopallidal GABA pathway. New sites of intervention in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, W T

    2001-08-15

    Microdialysis was employed to investigate the dopamine, cholecystokinin (CCK) and neurotensin receptor regulation of ventral striopallidal GABA transmission by intra-accumbens perfusion with selective receptor ligands and monitoring local or ipsilateral ventral pallidal GABA release. In the dual probe studies intra-accumbens perfusion with the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists SKF28293 and pergolide had no effect on ventral pallidal GABA, while both the D1 and D2 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and raclopride increased ventral pallidal GABA release. In contrast, intra-accumbens CCK decreased ventral pallidal GABA release and this was reversed by local perfusion with the CCK2 receptor antagonist PD134308 but not the CCK1 receptor antagonist L-364,718. In a single probe study intra-accumbens neurotensin increased local GABA release, which was strongly potentiated when the peptidase inhibitor phosphodiepryl 08 was perfused together with neurotensin. In addition, the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR48692 counteracted this phosphodiepryl 08 induced potentiated increased in GABA release. Taken together, these findings indicate that mesolimbic dopamine and CCK exert a respective tonic and phasic inhibition of ventral pallidal GABA release while the antipsychotic activity associated with D1 and D2 receptor antagonists may be explained by their ability to increase ventral striopallidal GABA transmission. Furthermore, the findings suggest that CCK2 receptor antagonists and neurotensin endopeptidase inhibitors may be useful antipsychotics.

  13. GABA from reactive astrocytes impairs memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seonmi; Yarishkin, Oleg; Hwang, Yu Jin; Chun, Ye Eun; Park, Mijeong; Woo, Dong Ho; Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Taekeun; Lee, Jaekwang; Chun, Heejung; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Da Yong; Hong, Jinpyo; Kim, Hye Yun; Oh, Soo-Jin; Park, Seung Ju; Lee, Hyo; Yoon, Bo-Eun; Kim, YoungSoo; Jeong, Yong; Shim, Insop; Bae, Yong Chul; Cho, Jeiwon; Kowall, Neil W; Ryu, Hoon; Hwang, Eunmi; Kim, Daesoo; Lee, C Justin

    2014-08-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), memory impairment is the most prominent feature that afflicts patients and their families. Although reactive astrocytes have been observed around amyloid plaques since the disease was first described, their role in memory impairment has been poorly understood. Here, we show that reactive astrocytes aberrantly and abundantly produce the inhibitory gliotransmitter GABA by monoamine oxidase-B (Maob) and abnormally release GABA through the bestrophin 1 channel. In the dentate gyrus of mouse models of AD, the released GABA reduces spike probability of granule cells by acting on presynaptic GABA receptors. Suppressing GABA production or release from reactive astrocytes fully restores the impaired spike probability, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory in the mice. In the postmortem brain of individuals with AD, astrocytic GABA and MAOB are significantly upregulated. We propose that selective inhibition of astrocytic GABA synthesis or release may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating memory impairment in AD.

  14. Hap1 and GABA: thinking about food intake.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2006-06-01

    GABA stimulation of hypothalamic GABAA receptors increases food intake and body weight. Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (Hap1), is highly expressed in the hypothalamus and increases activity at GABAA receptors; mice lacking Hap1 are hypophagic. A recent paper (Sheng et al.,2006) further explores the role of Hap1 in the control of food intake.

  15. The dynamics of GABA signaling: Revelations from the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Albers, H. Elliott; Walton, James C.; Gamble, Karen L.; McNeill, John K.; Hummer, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every neuron within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) communicates via GABAergic signaling. The extracellular levels of GABA within the SCN are determined by a complex interaction of synthesis and transport, as well as synaptic and non-synaptic release. The response to GABA is mediated by GABAA receptors that respond to both phasic and tonic GABA release and that can produce excitatory as well as inhibitory cellular responses. GABA also influences circadian control through the exclusively inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors. Both GABA and neuropeptide signaling occur within the SCN, although the functional consequences of the interactions of these signals are not well understood. This review considers the role of GABA in the circadian pacemaker, in the mechanisms responsible for the generation of circadian rhythms, in the ability of non-photic stimuli to reset the phase of the pacemaker, and in the ability of the day-night cycle to entrain the pacemaker. PMID:27894927

  16. Glutamate modulation of GABA transport in retinal horizontal cells of the skate

    PubMed Central

    Kreitzer, Matthew A; Andersen, Kristen A; Malchow, Robert Paul

    2003-01-01

    Transport of the amino acid GABA into neurons and glia plays a key role in regulating the effects of GABA in the vertebrate retina. We have examined the modulation of GABA-elicited transport currents of retinal horizontal cells by glutamate, the likely neurotransmitter of vertebrate photoreceptors. Enzymatically isolated external horizontal cells of skate were examined using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. GABA (1 mm) elicited an inward current that was completely suppressed by the GABA transport inhibitors tiagabine (10 μm) and SKF89976-A (100 μm), but was unaffected by 100 μm picrotoxin. Prior application of 100 μm glutamate significantly reduced the GABA-elicited current. Glutamate depressed the GABA dose-response curve without shifting the curve laterally or altering the voltage dependence of the current. The ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists kainate and AMPA also reduced the GABA-elicited current, and the effects of glutamate and kainate were abolished by the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline. NMDA neither elicited a current nor modified the GABA-induced current, and metabotropic glutamate analogues were also without effect. Inhibition of the GABA-elicited current by glutamate and kainate was reduced when extracellular calcium was removed and when recording pipettes contained high concentrations of the calcium chelator BAPTA. Caffeine (5 mm) and thapsigargin (2 nm), agents known to alter intracellular calcium levels, also reduced the GABA-elicited current, but increases in calcium induced by depolarization alone did not. Our data suggest that glutamate regulates GABA transport in retinal horizontal cells through a calcium-dependent process, and imply a close physical relationship between calcium-permeable glutamate receptors and GABA transporters in these cells. PMID:12562999

  17. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  18. Presynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Modulate [3H]GABA Release at StriatoPallidal Terminals via Activation of PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin and Inhibition of AC → cAMP → PKA Signaling Cascades.

    PubMed

    Jijón-Lorenzo, Rafael; Caballero-Florán, Isaac Hiram; Recillas-Morales, Sergio; Cortés, Hernán; Avalos-Fuentes, José Arturo; Paz-Bermúdez, Francisco Javier; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2018-02-21

    Striatal dopamine D2 receptors activate the PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin-signaling pathway to modulate the neural excitability of En+ Medium-sized Spiny GABAergic neurons (MSN) through the regulation of L-type Ca 2+ channels. Presynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors modulate GABA release at striatopallidal terminals through L-type Ca 2+ channels as well, but their signaling pathway is still undetermined. Since D2 receptors are Gi/o-coupled and negatively modulate adenylyl cyclase (AC), we investigated whether presynaptic D2 receptors modulate GABA release through the same signaling cascade that controls excitability in the striatum or by the inhibition of AC and decreased PKA activity. Activation of D2 receptors stimulated formation of [ 3 H]IP 1 and decreased Forskolin-stimulated [ 3 H]cAMP accumulation in synaptosomes from rat Globus Pallidus. D2 receptor activation with Quinpirole in the presence of L 745,870 decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, K + -induced [ 3 H]GABA release in pallidal slices. The effect was prevented by the pharmacological blockade of Gi/o βγ subunit effects with Gallein, PLC with U 73122, IP3 receptor activation with 4-APB, Calcineurin with FK506. In addition, when release was stimulated with Forskolin to activate AC, D2 receptors also decreased K + -induced [ 3 H]GABA release, an effect occluded with the effect of the blockade of PKA with H89 or stimulation of release with the cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP. These data indicate that D2 receptors modulate [ 3 H]GABA release at striatopallidal terminals by activating the PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin-signaling cascade, the same one that modulates excitability in soma. Additionally, D2 receptors inhibit release when AC is active. Both mechanisms appear to converge to regulate the activity of presynaptic L-type Ca 2+ channels. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Electrostatic Funnel in the GABA-Binding Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lightstone, Felice C.

    2016-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R) is a major inhibitory neuroreceptor that is activated by the binding of GABA. The structure of the GABAA-R is well characterized, and many of the binding site residues have been identified. However, most of these residues are obscured behind the C-loop that acts as a cover to the binding site. Thus, the mechanism by which the GABA molecule recognizes the binding site, and the pathway it takes to enter the binding site are both unclear. Through the completion and detailed analysis of 100 short, unbiased, independent molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated this phenomenon of GABA entering the binding site. In each system, GABA was placed quasi-randomly near the binding site of a GABAA-R homology model, and atomistic simulations were carried out to observe the behavior of the GABA molecules. GABA fully entered the binding site in 19 of the 100 simulations. The pathway taken by these molecules was consistent and non-random; the GABA molecules approach the binding site from below, before passing up behind the C-loop and into the binding site. This binding pathway is driven by long-range electrostatic interactions, whereby the electrostatic field acts as a ‘funnel’ that sweeps the GABA molecules towards the binding site, at which point more specific atomic interactions take over. These findings define a nuanced mechanism whereby the GABAA-R uses the general zwitterionic features of the GABA molecule to identify a potential ligand some 2 nm away from the binding site. PMID:27119953

  20. PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES AND THE GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (ALPHA) RECEPTOR COMPLEX: MOTOR ACTIVITY AND THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE IN THE RAT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two behavioral tests, locomotor activity and the acoustic startle response (ASR), were utilized to test for dose-addition of cismethrin, a Type I, or deltamethrin, a Type II pyrethroid, with compounds active to the gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor complex (picrotoxin, musc...

  1. GABA(A) and dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell differentially influence performance of a water-reinforced progressive ratio task.

    PubMed

    Covelo, Ignacio R; Wirtshafter, David; Stratford, Thomas R

    2012-03-01

    Several authors have shown that injections of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol into the medial shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) result in large increases in food, but not water, intake. In previous studies we demonstrated that intra-AcbSh injections of either muscimol or of the indirect dopamine agonist amphetamine increase response output on a food-reinforced progressive ratio schedule. In the current experiment we extended these observations by examining the effects of muscimol and amphetamine injections on the performance of a water-reinforced progressive ratio task in mildly deprived animals. We found that muscimol did not affect the number of responses made in the water-reinforced task, even though a marked increase in responding was observed after amphetamine. Muscimol did, however, significantly increase food intake in the same animals. The results suggest that the enhancing effects of intra-AcbSh muscimol differ from those of amphetamine in that they are selective for food-reinforced behaviors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Blocking GABA-A receptors in the Medial Septum Enhances Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release and Behavior in a Rat Model of Diencephalic Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Jessica J.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), a form of diencephalic amnesia caused by thiamine deficiency, results in severe anterograde memory loss. Pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD), an animal model of WKS, produces cholinergic abnormalities including decreased functional hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release and poor spatial memory. Increasing hippocampal ACh levels has increased performance in PTD animals. Intraseptal bicuculline (GABAA antagonist) augments hippocampal ACh release in normal animals and we found it (0.50μg/μl & 0.75μg/μl) also increased in-vivo hippocampal ACh release in PTD animals. However, the 0.75 μg/μl dose produced a greater change in hippocampal ACh release in control animals. The 0.50μg/μl dose of bicuculline was then selected to determine if it could enhance spontaneous alternation performance in PTD animals. This dose of bicuculline significantly increased hippocampal ACh levels above baseline in both PTD and control rats and resulted in complete behavioral recovery in PTD animals, without altering performance in control rats. This suggests that balancing ACh-GABA interactions in the septohippocampal circuit may be an effective therapeutic approach in certain amnestic syndromes. PMID:19463263

  3. Clobazam and its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam display significantly greater affinities for α₂- versus α₁-GABA(A)-receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA α₁-subunit-selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the α₂ subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of α (α₁, α₂, α₃, or α₅), β₂, and γ₂ subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for α₂- vs. α₁-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between α₂ and α₁ receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for α₁ receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB.

  4. The main source of ambient GABA responsible for tonic inhibition in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Glykys, Joseph; Mody, Istvan

    2007-08-01

    The extracellular space of the brain contains gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that activates extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors mediating tonic inhibition. The source of this GABA is uncertain: it could be overspill of vesicular release, non-vesicular leakage, reverse transport, dying cells or glia. Using a novel approach, we simultaneously measured phasic and tonic inhibitory currents and assessed their correlation. Enhancing or diminishing vesicular GABA release in hippocampal neurons caused highly correlated changes in the two inhibitions. During high-frequency phasic inhibitory bursts, tonic current was also enhanced as shown by simulating the summation of IPSCs and by recordings in knockout mice devoid of tonic inhibitory current. When vesicular release was reduced by blocking action potentials or the vesicular GABA transporter, phasic and tonic currents decreased in a correlated fashion. Our results are consistent with most of hippocampal tonic inhibitory current being mediated by GABA released from the very vesicles responsible for activating phasic inhibition.

  5. A multilevel prediction of physiological response to challenge: Interactions among child maltreatment, neighborhood crime, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS), and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6).

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to a variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins (i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment) and specific genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6). One hundred eighty-six children were recruited at age 4. The presence or absence of child maltreatment as well as the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year were determined at that time. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab, where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge (i.e., change in the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia) was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. The results confirmed that complex Gene × Gene, Environment × Environment, and Gene × Environment interactions were associated with different patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed.

  6. Proline antagonizes GABA-induced quenching of quorum-sensing in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Haudecoeur, E.; Planamente, S.; Cirou, A.; Tannières, M.; Shelp, B. J.; Moréra, S.; Faure, D.

    2009-01-01

    Plants accumulate free L-proline (Pro) in response to abiotic stresses (drought and salinity) and presence of bacterial pathogens, including the tumor-inducing bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, the function of Pro accumulation in host-pathogen interaction is still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that Pro antagonizes plant GABA-defense in the A. tumefaciens C58-induced tumor by interfering with the import of GABA and consequently the GABA-induced degradation of the bacterial quorum-sensing signal, 3-oxo-octanoylhomoserine lactone. We identified a bacterial receptor Atu2422, which is implicated in the uptake of GABA and Pro, suggesting that Pro acts as a natural antagonist of GABA-signaling. The Atu2422 amino acid sequence contains a Venus flytrap domain that is required for trapping GABA in human GABAB receptors. A constructed atu2422 mutant was more virulent than the wild type bacterium; moreover, transgenic plants with a low level of Pro exhibited less severe tumor symptoms than did their wild-type parents, revealing a crucial role for Venus flytrap GABA-receptor and relative abundance of GABA and Pro in host-pathogen interaction. PMID:19706545

  7. Role of ionotropic GABA, glutamate and glycine receptors in the tonic and reflex control of cardiac vagal outflow in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons (CVPN) are responsible for the tonic, reflex and respiratory modulation of heart rate (HR). Although CVPN receive GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs, likely involved in respiratory and reflex modulation of HR respectively, little else is known regarding the functions controlled by ionotropic inputs. Activation of g-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) alters these inputs, but the functional consequence is largely unknown. The present study aimed to delineate how ionotropic GABAergic, glycinergic and glutamatergic inputs contribute to the tonic and reflex control of HR and in particular determine which receptor subtypes were involved. Furthermore, we wished to establish how activation of the 5-HT1A GPCR affects tonic and reflex control of HR and what ionotropic interactions this might involve. Results Microinjection of the GABAA antagonist picrotoxin into CVPN decreased HR but did not affect baroreflex bradycardia. The glycine antagonist strychnine did not alter HR or baroreflex bradycardia. Combined microinjection of the NMDA antagonist, MK801, and AMPA antagonist, CNQX, into CVPN evoked a small bradycardia and abolished baroreflex bradycardia. MK801 attenuated whereas CNQX abolished baroreceptor bradycardia. Control intravenous injections of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT evoked a small bradycardia and potentiated baroreflex bradycardia. These effects were still observed following microinjection of picrotoxin but not strychnine into CVPN. Conclusions We conclude that activation of GABAA receptors set the level of HR whereas AMPA to a greater extent than NMDA receptors elicit baroreflex changes in HR. Furthermore, activation of 5-HT1A receptors evokes bradycardia and enhances baroreflex changes in HR due to interactions with glycinergic neurons involving strychnine receptors. This study provides reference for future studies investigating how diseases alter neurochemical inputs to CVPN. PMID:20939929

  8. [Effect of damage integrity rat brain synaptic membranes on the functional activity GABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-)-ionophore complex in the CNC].

    PubMed

    Rebrov, I G; Kalinina, M V

    2013-01-01

    Functional activity of the CGABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-) ionophore complex was investigated the muscimol-stimulated entry of the radioactive isotope 36Cl(-) in synaptoneurosomes in changing the structure and permeability of neuronal membranes. Integrity of the membranes was damaged by removal of Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) from the incubation medium and by the method of freezing-thawing synaptoneurosomes. In both cases, an increase in basal 36Cl(-) entry into synaptoneurosomes, indicating increased nonspecific permeability of neuronal membranes, and decreased activity the CABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-) ionophore complex. The conclusion about the relationship of processes damage neuronal membranes and reducing the inhibitory processes in the epileptic focus.

  9. α4βδ GABAA Receptors Reduce Dendritic Spine Density In CA1 Hippocampus And Impair Relearning Ability Of Adolescent Female Mice: Effects Of A GABA Agonist And A Stress Steroid

    PubMed Central

    Afroz, Sonia; Shen, Hui; Smith, Sheryl S.

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic pruning underlies the transition from an immature to an adult CNS through refinements of neuronal circuits. Our recent study indicates that pubertal synaptic pruning is triggered by the inhibition generated by extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs) which are increased for 10 d on dendritic spines of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty (PND 35–44) in the female mouse, suggesting α4βδ GABARs as a novel target for the regulation of adolescent synaptic pruning. In the present study we used a pharmacological approach to further examine the role of these receptors in altering spine density during puberty of female mice and the impact of these changes on spatial learning, assessed in adulthood. Two drugs were chronically administered during the pubertal period (PND 35–44): the GABA agonist gaboxadol (GBX, 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), to enhance current gated by α4βδ GABARs and the neurosteroid/stress steroid THP (3α-OH-5β-pregnan-20-one, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) to decrease expression of α4βδ. Spine density was determined on PND 56 with Golgi staining. Spatial learning and relearning were assessed using the multiple object relocation task (MPORT) and an active place avoidance task (APA) on PND 56. Pubertal GBX decreased spine density post-pubertally by 70% (P<0.05), while decreasing α4βδ expression with THP increased spine density by two-fold (P<0.05), in both cases, with greatest effects on the mushroom spines. Adult relearning ability was compromised in both hippocampus-dependent tasks after pubertal administration of either drug. These findings suggest that an optimal spine density produced by α4βδ GABARs is necessary for optimal cognition in adults. PMID:28189613

  10. Ventral tegmental area GABA neurons and opiate motivation

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Perez, Hector; Mabey, Jennifer K.; Shin, Samuel I.; Steffensen, Scott C.; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Rational Past research has demonstrated that when an animal changes from a previously drug-naive to an opiate-dependent and withdrawn state, morphine’s motivational effects are switched from a tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP)-dependent to a dopamine-dependent pathway. Interestingly, a corresponding change is observed in ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABAA receptors, which change from mediating hyperpolarization of VTA GABA neurons to mediating depolarization. Objectives The present study investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of VTA GABAA receptor activity could directly influence the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation. Results Using an unbiased place conditioning procedure, we demonstrated that in Wistar rats, intra-VTA administration of furosemide, a Cl− cotransporter inhibitor, was able to promote a switch in the mechanisms underlying morphine’s motivational properties, one which is normally observed only after chronic opiate exposure. This behavioral switch was prevented by intra-VTA administration of acetazolamide, an inhibitor of the bicarbonate ion-producing carbonic anhydrase enzyme. Electrophysiological recordings of mouse VTA showed that furosemide reduced the sensitivity of VTA GABA neurons to inhibition by the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol, instead increasing the firing rate of a significant subset of these GABA neurons. Conclusion Our results suggest that the carbonic anhydrase enzyme may constitute part of a common VTA GABA neuron-based biological pathway responsible for controlling the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation, supporting the hypothesis that VTA GABAA receptor hyperpolarization or depolarization is responsible for selecting TPP- or dopamine-dependent motivational outputs, respectively. PMID:23392354

  11. GABAB receptor attenuation of GABAA currents in neurons of the mammalian central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Nan, Changlong; Nelson, Peter T; Ripps, Harris; Slaughter, Malcolm M

    2017-03-01

    Ionotropic receptors are tightly regulated by second messenger systems and are often present along with their metabotropic counterparts on a neuron's plasma membrane. This leads to the hypothesis that the two receptor subtypes can interact, and indeed this has been observed in excitatory glutamate and inhibitory GABA receptors. In both systems the metabotropic pathway augments the ionotropic receptor response. However, we have found that the metabotropic GABA B receptor can suppress the ionotropic GABA A receptor current, in both the in vitro mouse retina and in human amygdala membrane fractions. Expression of amygdala membrane microdomains in Xenopus oocytes by microtransplantation produced functional ionotropic and metabotropic GABA receptors. Most GABA A receptors had properties of α -subunit containing receptors, with ~5% having ρ -subunit properties. Only GABA A receptors with α -subunit-like properties were regulated by GABA B receptors. In mouse retinal ganglion cells, where only α -subunit-containing GABA A receptors are expressed, GABA B receptors suppressed GABA A receptor currents. This suppression was blocked by GABA B receptor antagonists, G-protein inhibitors, and GABA B receptor antibodies. Based on the kinetic differences between metabotropic and ionotropic receptors, their interaction would suppress repeated, rapid GABAergic inhibition. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Axonal GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Marty, Alain; Stell, Brandon M

    2008-09-01

    Type A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are well established as the main inhibitory receptors in the mature mammalian forebrain. In recent years, evidence has accumulated showing that GABA(A)Rs are prevalent not only in the somatodendritic compartment of CNS neurons, but also in their axonal compartment. Evidence for axonal GABA(A)Rs includes new immunohistochemical and immunogold data: direct recording from single axonal terminals; and effects of local applications of GABA(A)R modulators on action potential generation, on axonal calcium signalling, and on neurotransmitter release. Strikingly, whereas presynaptic GABA(A)Rs have long been considered inhibitory, the new studies in the mammalian brain mostly indicate an excitatory action. Depending on the neuron that is under study, axonal GABA(A)Rs can be activated by ambient GABA, by GABA spillover, or by an autocrine action, to increase either action potential firing and/or transmitter release. In certain neurons, the excitatory effects of axonal GABA(A)Rs persist into adulthood. Altogether, axonal GABA(A)Rs appear as potent neuronal modulators of the mammalian CNS.

  13. Enhanced phasic GABA inhibition during the repair phase of stroke: a novel therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Hiu, Takeshi; Farzampour, Zoya; Paz, Jeanne T; Wang, Eric Hou Jen; Badgely, Corrine; Olson, Andrew; Micheva, Kristina D; Wang, Gordon; Lemmens, Robin; Tran, Kevin V; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Liang, Xibin; Hamilton, Scott A; O'Rourke, Nancy; Smith, Stephen J; Huguenard, John R; Bliss, Tonya M; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-02-01

    Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of severe long-term disability yet lacks drug therapies that promote the repair phase of recovery. This repair phase of stroke occurs days to months after stroke onset and involves brain remapping and plasticity within the peri-infarct zone. Elucidating mechanisms that promote this plasticity is critical for the development of new therapeutics with a broad treatment window. Inhibiting tonic (extrasynaptic) GABA signalling during the repair phase was reported to enhance functional recovery in mice suggesting that GABA plays an important function in modulating brain repair. While tonic GABA appears to suppress brain repair after stroke, less is known about the role of phasic (synaptic) GABA during the repair phase. We observed an increase in postsynaptic phasic GABA signalling in mice within the peri-infarct cortex specific to layer 5; we found increased numbers of α1 receptor subunit-containing GABAergic synapses detected using array tomography, and an associated increased efficacy of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that enhancing phasic GABA signalling using zolpidem, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved GABA-positive allosteric modulator, during the repair phase improved behavioural recovery. These data identify potentiation of phasic GABA signalling as a novel therapeutic strategy, indicate zolpidem's potential to improve recovery, and underscore the necessity to distinguish the role of tonic and phasic GABA signalling in stroke recovery. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  14. Enhanced phasic GABA inhibition during the repair phase of stroke: a novel therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Wang, Eric Hou Jen; Badgely, Corrine; Olson, Andrew; Micheva, Kristina D.; Wang, Gordon; Lemmens, Robin; Tran, Kevin V.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Liang, Xibin; Hamilton, Scott A.; O’Rourke, Nancy; Smith, Stephen J.; Huguenard, John R.; Bliss, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of severe long-term disability yet lacks drug therapies that promote the repair phase of recovery. This repair phase of stroke occurs days to months after stroke onset and involves brain remapping and plasticity within the peri-infarct zone. Elucidating mechanisms that promote this plasticity is critical for the development of new therapeutics with a broad treatment window. Inhibiting tonic (extrasynaptic) GABA signalling during the repair phase was reported to enhance functional recovery in mice suggesting that GABA plays an important function in modulating brain repair. While tonic GABA appears to suppress brain repair after stroke, less is known about the role of phasic (synaptic) GABA during the repair phase. We observed an increase in postsynaptic phasic GABA signalling in mice within the peri-infarct cortex specific to layer 5; we found increased numbers of α1 receptor subunit-containing GABAergic synapses detected using array tomography, and an associated increased efficacy of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that enhancing phasic GABA signalling using zolpidem, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved GABA-positive allosteric modulator, during the repair phase improved behavioural recovery. These data identify potentiation of phasic GABA signalling as a novel therapeutic strategy, indicate zolpidem’s potential to improve recovery, and underscore the necessity to distinguish the role of tonic and phasic GABA signalling in stroke recovery. PMID:26685158

  15. Prenatal Ontogeny as a Susceptibility Period for Cortical GABA Neuron Disturbances in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Volk, David W.; Lewis, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to disturbances in GABA neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, cognitive deficits in schizophrenia appear well before the onset of psychosis and have been reported to be present during early childhood and even during the first year of life. Taken together, these data raise the following question: Does the disease process that produces abnormalities in prefrontal GABA neurons in schizophrenia begin prenatally and disrupt the ontogeny of cortical GABA neurons? Here, we address this question through a consideration of evidence that genetic and/or environmental insults that occur during gestation initiate a pathogenetic process that alters cortical GABA neuron ontogeny and produces the pattern of GABA neuron abnormalities, and consequently cognitive difficulties, seen in schizophrenia. First, we review available evidence from postmortem human brain tissue studies characterizing alterations in certain subpopulations of prefrontal GABA neuron that provide clues to a prenatal origin in schizophrenia. Second, we review recent discoveries of transcription factors, cytokine receptors, and other developmental regulators that govern the birth, migration, specification, maturation, and survival of different subpopulations of prefrontal GABA neurons. Third, we discuss recent studies demonstrating altered expression of these ontogenetic factors in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Fourth, we discuss the potential role of disturbances in the maternal-fetal environment such as maternal immune activation in the development of GABA neuron dysfunction. Finally, we propose critical questions that need to be answered in future research to further investigate the role of altered GABA neuron ontogeny in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. PMID:23769891

  16. Cocaine Dysregulates Opioid Gating of GABA Neurotransmission in the Ventral Pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Scofield, Michael D.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Roques, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is a target of dense nucleus accumbens projections. Many of these projections coexpress GABA and the neuropeptide enkephalin, a δ and μ opioid receptor (MOR) ligand. Of these two, the MOR in the VP is known to be involved in reward-related behaviors, such as hedonic responses to palatable food, alcohol intake, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Stimulating MORs in the VP decreases extracellular GABA, indicating that the effects of MORs in the VP on cocaine seeking are via modulating GABA neurotransmission. Here, we use whole-cell patch-clamp on a rat model of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration to test the hypothesis that MORs presynaptically regulate GABA transmission in the VP and that cocaine withdrawal changes the interaction between MORs and GABA. We found that in cocaine-extinguished rats pharmacological activation of MORs no longer presynaptically inhibited GABA release, whereas blocking the MORs disinhibited GABA release. Moreover, MOR-dependent long-term depression of GABA neurotransmission in the VP was lost in cocaine-extinguished rats. Last, GABA neurotransmission was found to be tonically suppressed in cocaine-extinguished rats. These substantial synaptic changes indicated that cocaine was increasing tone on MOR receptors. Accordingly, increasing endogenous tone by blocking the enzymatic degradation of enkephalin inhibited GABA neurotransmission in yoked saline rats but not in cocaine-extinguished rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that following withdrawal from cocaine self-administration enkephalin levels in the VP are elevated and the opioid modulation of GABA neurotransmission is impaired. This may contribute to the difficulties withdrawn addicts experience when trying to resist relapse. PMID:24431463

  17. Quality components and antidepressant-like effects of GABA green tea.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jie; Zhou, Wen; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Wenfang; Huang, Yahui; Zhang, Xu

    2017-09-20

    Gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea, with high GABA content, is a kind of special green tea. The goals of this study are to analyze the changes in quality components of green tea during anaerobic treatment, and to investigate whether or not the extract of GABA present in green tea can prevent depression or improve the depressive state of animals. Results showed that GABA content in green tea had increased significantly after anaerobic treatment. The contents of tea polysaccharides, total free amino acids, and water extracts were also increased whereas tea polyphenols were reduced. More importantly, the extract of GABA green tea could alleviate mouse depression and stress from desperate environments through the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mRNA and protein expression levels of GABA A receptors. Therefore, these results indicate that GABA green tea may have a health effect on prevention and alleviation of depression, and it works on the GABAergic neurotransmission of mouse cerebral cortex via up-regulating expression of the GABA A receptor α1 subunit, thus ameliorating depression.

  18. [Expression of A-type atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in the kidneys of renovascular hypertension rats and its implication].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong-Tao; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Hui-Ling; Qiu, Dun-Guo; Yin, Hua-Hu; Wang, Zheng-Rong

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the expression of A-type atrial natriuretic peptide receptor (ANPR-A) in the kidneys of renovascular hypertension rats and evaluate the significance of the expression. The rat model of renovascular hypertension was produced by constricting one lateral renal artery. After the renal artery being constricted for 4 weeks and 8 weeks, the systolic BP of rats was measured with a manometer using the tail-cuff method. Then, the expression of ANPR-A was respectively detected by immunohistochemical technique in the kidneys of the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) rats, and the expression level of ANPR-A was semi-quantitatively measured by Mias-2000 computer image analyzer. At 4 weeks after the artery-constricted operation,the expression of ANPR-A increased significantly in 2K1C hypertensive rat glomeruli and decreased significantly in renal tubules, compared with control (P<0.01), but there was no marked change in medullar collecting tubules. At 8 weeks after the artery-constricted operation, the expression of ANPR-A decreased significantly in 2K1C hypertensive rat renal tubules and medullar collecting tubules, compared with control (P<0.01); however, there was weak expression in glomeruli, and no statistically significant difference was seen when compared with control (P>0.05). The expression of ANPR-A decreased significantly in kidney tissues of renovascular

  19. Decreased Phosphorylated Protein Kinase B (Akt) in Individuals with Autism Associated with High Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Low Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Russo, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway could contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders. In this study, phosphorylated Akt concentration was measured in 37 autistic children and 12, gender and age similar neurotypical, controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Akt levels were compared to biomarkers known to be associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor) pathways and severity levels of 19 autism-related symptoms. We found phosphorylated Akt levels significantly lower in autistic children and low Akt levels correlated with high EGFR and HGF and low gamma-aminobutyric acid, but not other biomarkers. Low Akt levels also correlated significantly with increased severity of receptive language, conversational language, hypotonia, rocking and pacing, and stimming, These results suggest a relationship between decreased phosphorylated Akt and selected symptom severity in autistic children and support the suggestion that the AKT pathways may be associated with the etiology of autism.

  20. Glutamate and GABA in lateral hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake.

    PubMed

    Stanley, B G; Urstadt, K R; Charles, J R; Kee, T

    2011-07-25

    By the 1990s a convergence of evidence had accumulated to suggest that neurons within the lateral hypothalamus (LH) play important roles in the stimulation of feeding behavior. However, there was little direct evidence demonstrating that neurotransmitters in the LH could, like electrical stimulation, elicit feeding in satiated animals. The present paper is a brief review in honor of Bartley Hoebel's scientific contributions, emphasizing the evidence from my lab that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the LH mediate feeding stimulation and feeding inhibition respectively. Specifically, we summarize evidence that LH injection of glutamate, or agonists of its N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors, elicits feeding in satiated rats, that NMDA receptor antagonists block the eating elicited by NMDA and, more importantly, that NMDA blockade suppresses natural feeding and can reduce body weight. Conversely, GABA(A) agonists injected into the LH suppress feeding and can also reduce body weight, while GABA(A) receptor antagonists actually elicit eating when injected into the LH of satiated rats. It is suggested that natural feeding may reflect the moment-to-moment balance in the activity of glutamate and GABA within the LH. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Repeated intermittent alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent increases expression of the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit in cerebellar granule neurons and delays motor development in rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Marvin R; Vollmer, Cyndel C; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula A; Vollmer, William; Blomquist, Samantha L; Morton, Russell A; Everett, Julie C; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Yu, Jieying; Orser, Beverley A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during fetal development can lead to long-lasting alterations, including deficits in fine motor skills and motor learning. Studies suggest that these are, in part, a consequence of cerebellar damage. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are the gateway of information into the cerebellar cortex. Functionally, CGNs are heavily regulated by phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition from Golgi cell interneurons; however, the effect of EtOH exposure on the development of GABAergic transmission in immature CGNs has not been investigated. To model EtOH exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy, neonatal pups were exposed intermittently to high levels of vaporized EtOH from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. This exposure gradually increased pup serum EtOH concentrations (SECs) to ∼60 mM (∼0.28 g/dl) during the 4 h of exposure. EtOH levels gradually decreased to baseline 8 h after the end of exposure. Surprisingly, basal tonic and phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs were not significantly affected by postnatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, PAE increased δ subunit expression at P28 as detected by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Also, electrophysiological studies with an agonist that is highly selective for δ-containing GABA(A) receptors, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP), showed an increase in THIP-induced tonic current. Behavioral studies of PAE rats did not reveal any deficits in motor coordination, except for a delay in the acquisition of the mid-air righting reflex that was apparent at P15 to P18. These findings demonstrate that repeated intermittent exposure to high levels of EtOH during the equivalent of the last trimester of human pregnancy has significant but relatively subtle effects on motor coordination and GABAergic transmission in CGNs in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Alison H., E-mail: ahharrill@uams.edu; The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709; Eaddy, John S.

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conductedmore » in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.« less

  3. Magnolol, a major bioactive constituent of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, exerts antiepileptic effects via the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, CR; Tan, R; Qu, WM; Wu, Z; Wang, Y; Urade, Y; Huang, ZL

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-convulsant effects of magnolol (6, 6′, 7, 12-tetramethoxy-2, 2′-dimethyl-1-β-berbaman, C18H18O2) and the mechanisms involved. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mice were treated with magnolol (20, 40 and 80 mg·kg−1) 30 min before injection with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 60 mg·kg−1, i.p.). The anti-seizure effects of magnolol were analysed using seizure models of behaviour, EEG and in vitro electrophysiology and c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and cortex. KEY RESULTS Magnolol at doses of 40 and 80 mg·kg−1 significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and generalized clonic seizures, and decreased the seizure stage and mortality compared with those of the vehicle-treated animals. EEG recordings showed that magnolol (40 and 80 mg·kg−1) prolonged the latency of seizure onset and decreased the number of seizure spikes. The anti-epileptic effect of magnolol was reversed by the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil. Pretreatment with flumazenil decreased the effects of magnolol on prolongation of seizure latency and decline of seizure stage. In a Mg2+-free model of epileptiform activity, using multi-electrode array recordings in mouse hippocampal slices, magnolol decreased spontaneous epileptiform discharges. Magnolol also significantly decreased seizure-induced Fos immunoreactivity in the piriform cortex, dentate gyrus and hippocampal area CA1. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with flumazenil. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings indicate that the inhibitory effects of magnolol on epileptiform activity were mediated by the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor complex. PMID:21518336

  4. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized bymore » atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.« less

  5. The main source of ambient GABA responsible for tonic inhibition in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Glykys, Joseph; Mody, Istvan

    2007-01-01

    The extracellular space of the brain contains γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that activates extrasynaptic GABAA receptors mediating tonic inhibition. The source of this GABA is uncertain: it could be overspill of vesicular release, non-vesicular leakage, reverse transport, dying cells or glia. Using a novel approach, we simultaneously measured phasic and tonic inhibitory currents and assessed their correlation. Enhancing or diminishing vesicular GABA release in hippocampal neurons caused highly correlated changes in the two inhibitions. During high-frequency phasic inhibitory bursts, tonic current was also enhanced as shown by simulating the summation of IPSCs and by recordings in knockout mice devoid of tonic inhibitory current. When vesicular release was reduced by blocking action potentials or the vesicular GABA transporter, phasic and tonic currents decreased in a correlated fashion. Our results are consistent with most of hippocampal tonic inhibitory current being mediated by GABA released from the very vesicles responsible for activating phasic inhibition. PMID:17525114

  6. Nonvesicular inhibitory neurotransmission via reversal of the GABA transporter GAT-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanming; Wang, Wengang; Díez-Sampedro, Ana; Richerson, George B.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY GABA transporters play an important but poorly understood role in neuronal inhibition. They can reverse, but this is widely thought to occur only under pathological conditions. Here we use a heterologous expression system to show that the reversal potential of GAT-1 under physiologically relevant conditions is near the normal resting potential of neurons, and that reversal can occur rapidly enough to release GABA during simulated action potentials. We then use paired recordings from cultured hippocampal neurons, and show that GABAergic transmission is not prevented by four methods widely used to block vesicular release. This nonvesicular neurotransmission was potently blocked by GAT-1 antagonists, and was enhanced as predicted by agents that increase cytosolic [GABA] or [Na+]. The results indicate that GAT-1 regulates tonic inhibition by clamping ambient [GABA] at a level high enough to activate high affinity GABAA receptors, and that transporter-mediated GABA release can contribute to phasic inhibition. PMID:18054861

  7. Altered cortical GABA neurotransmission in schizophrenia: insights into novel therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Stan, Ana D; Lewis, David A

    2012-06-01

    Altered markers of cortical GABA neurotransmission are among the most consistently observed abnormalities in postmortem studies of schizophrenia. The altered markers are particularly evident between the chandelier class of GABA neurons and their synaptic targets, the axon initial segment (AIS) of pyramidal neurons. For example, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia immunoreactivity for the GABA membrane transporter is decreased in presynaptic chandelier neuron axon terminals, whereas immunoreactivity for the GABAA receptor α2 subunit is increased in postsynaptic AIS. Both of these molecular changes appear to be compensatory responses to a presynaptic deficit in GABA synthesis, and thus could represent targets for novel therapeutic strategies intended to augment the brain's own compensatory mechanisms. Recent findings that GABA inputs from neocortical chandelier neurons can be powerfully excitatory provide new ideas about the role of these neurons in the pathophysiology of cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia, and consequently in the design of pharmacological interventions.

  8. Regulation of Local Ambient GABA Levels via Transporter-Mediated GABA Import and Export for Subliminal Learning.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Perception of supraliminal stimuli might in general be reflected in bursts of action potentials (spikes), and their memory traces could be formed through spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Memory traces for subliminal stimuli might be formed in a different manner, because subliminal stimulation evokes a fraction (but not a burst) of spikes. Simulations of a cortical neural network model showed that a subliminal stimulus that was too brief (10 msec) to perceive transiently (more than about 500 msec) depolarized stimulus-relevant principal cells and hyperpolarized stimulus-irrelevant principal cells in a subthreshold manner. This led to a small increase or decrease in ongoing-spontaneous spiking activity frequency (less than 1 Hz). Synaptic modification based on STDP during this period effectively enhanced relevant synaptic weights, by which subliminal learning was improved. GABA transporters on GABAergic interneurons modulated local levels of ambient GABA. Ambient GABA molecules acted on extrasynaptic receptors, provided principal cells with tonic inhibitory currents, and contributed to achieving the subthreshold neuronal state. We suggest that ongoing-spontaneous synaptic alteration through STDP following subliminal stimulation may be a possible neuronal mechanism for leaving its memory trace in cortical circuitry. Regulation of local ambient GABA levels by transporter-mediated GABA import and export may be crucial for subliminal learning.

  9. Conformational, vibrational and DFT studies of a newly synthesized arylpiperazine-based drug and evaluation of its reactivity towards the human GABA receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onawole, A. T.; Al-Ahmadi, A. F.; Mary, Y. S.; Panicker, C. Y.; Ullah, N.; Armaković, S.; Armaković, S. J.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Al-Saadi, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    This study reports a computational assessment of important biochemical properties and vibrational assignments for the synthesized 1-(4-(3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethanone (MNPE). MNPE is related to the commonly used arylpiperazine-based drugs that exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. The characterization of MNPE is based on the readily sighted 1363 cm-1 infrared band (associated with piperazine ring stretching), 1308 cm-1 Raman line (associated with the phenyl ring breathing), 1242 cm-1 Raman line and 1092 cm-1 infrared band (both associated with Csbnd N stretching) as key modes in its vibrational spectra. First principle calculations revealed that MNPE could exist in sixteen different plausible conformations, which were used as basis to understand the possible molecular docking mechanism of the molecule as an agonist in the human GABAA receptor. The best binding scenarios showed the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in MNPE and was comparable with the most stable configuration. It was further evaluated for its reactivity properties by utilizing the concepts of Average Local Ionization Energies (ALIE) and Fukui functions. The autoxidation and hydrolysis degradation likelihood of MNPE estimated from the computed bond dissociation energies and radial distribution functions predicted that MNPE is to be readily biodegradable in aqueous solutions.

  10. Effects of neurosteroid actions at N-methyl-D-aspartate and GABA A receptors in the midbrain ventral tegmental area for anxiety-like and mating behavior of female rats.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A; Paris, Jason J

    2011-01-01

    In the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA), actions of neurosteroids, such as the progesterone metabolite, 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP), can facilitate mating and influence stress-related processes. Some actions of 3α,5α-THP may occur via positive modulation of GABA(A) receptors (GBRs), or negative modulation of N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptors (NMDARs), to influence anxiety-like behavior; but this is not known. We aimed to assess the role that neurosteroids and stress factors play on intra-VTA NMDAR- and/or GBR-mediated anxiety-like and mating behavior. Estradiol-primed, ovariectomized rats, which were partially or completely adrenalectomized (ADX), received infusions of vehicle, an NMDAR blocker (MK-801; 200 ng), or a GBR antagonist (bicuculline, 100 ng) to the VTA. Rats then received intra-VTA vehicle or a neurosteroidogenesis enhancer (N,N-Dihexyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)indole-3-acetamide, FGIN 1-27, 5 μg) and anxiety-like and sexual behavior was assessed. Complete, compared to partial, ADX significantly reduced open arm exploration on an elevated plus maze, the proportion of females that engaged in mating, lordosis quotients, pacing of sexual contacts, and defensive aggression towards a sexually vigorous male. Intra-VTA MK-801 enhanced open arm investigation and the proportion of females that engaged in mating. Infusions of either, MK-801 or FGIN 1-27, enhanced lordosis and, when co-administered, FGIN 1-27 attenuated MK-801's lordosis-enhancing effects. Intra-VTA infusions of bicuculline, prior to FGIN 1-27, blocked FGIN 1-27's effects to enhance lordosis. Together, these data suggest that reduced NMDAR activity in the VTA may influence motivation to explore and engage in sexual behavior. These data suggest that neurosteroid actions at NMDARs and GBRs in the VTA are important for exploration and/or sexual behavior.

  11. GABA receptors in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus of rats regulate anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test. II. Physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, A; Sims, L S; Bowsher, R R

    1993-11-05

    In the previous report, we had shown that blockade and enhancement of GABAA receptors in the DMH of rats increased or decreased the level of anxiety, respectively, as measured by the elevated plus-maze test. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of enhancing GABAA neurotransmission in the DMH of rats on the physiological concomitants of anxiety such as increases in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels while the animals were placed on the elevated plus-maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were equipped with arterial and venous catheters and stereotaxically implanted with microinjection cannulae in the cardiostimulatory region of the DMH where injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) elicited increases in heart rate under anesthesia. After recovery, rats were injected with either saline or the GABAA agonist muscimol and their HR, BP and plasma NE responses were measured when confined in the open or the closed arm of the elevated plus-maze. Injection of muscimol into the DMH reduced the increases seen in HR, BP and plasma NE when the rats were confined to either the closed or the open arms in addition to decreasing 'anxiety' in the plus-maze. Injection of muscimol into the areas of the hypothalamus surrounding the DMH did not significantly affect the changes in HR, BP and plasma NE in the plus-maze. Blocking the changes in HR and BP elicited by microinjecting GABAergic drugs into the DMH of rats, with systemic injections of a combination of atropine and the beta-blocker atenolol, did not block the behavioral effects of the GABAergic drugs in the plus-maze test.

  12. Early life stress and later peer distress on depressive behavior in adolescent female rats: Effects of a novel intervention on GABA and D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Meda, Shirisha; Thompson, Britta S; Freund, Nadja; Andersen, Susan L

    2017-07-14

    Early life adversity (ELA) increases the risk of depression during adolescence that may result from a decline in parvalbumin (PVB) secondary to increased neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated depressive-like behavior following exposure to two different types of stressors that are relevant for their developmental period: 1) chronic ELA (maternal separation; MS) and 2) an acute emotional stressor during adolescence (witnessing their peers receive multiple shocks; WIT), and their interaction. We also determined whether reducing inflammation by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition would prevent the onset of depressive-like behavior. Female Sprague-Dawley rat pups underwent MS for four-hours/day or received typical care (CON) between postnatal days (P) 2 and P20. A COX-2 inhibitor (COX-2I) or vehicle was administered every other day between P30 and P38. Subjects were tested for learned helplessness to assess depressive-like behavior at P40 (adolescence). MS females demonstrated increased escape latency and decreased PVB in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal raphe that were attenuated by COX-2I intervention. Helplessness was also associated with an increase in D2 receptors in the accumbens. In contrast, WIT elevated escape latency in CON, but reduced latency in MS females. Furthermore, COX-2I intervention decreased escape latency in both CON and MS after WIT. WIT reduced PVB levels in the basolateral amygdala and increased PFC levels to CON levels. Our data suggest that decreased PVB in the PFC is important for the expression of depressive-like behavior and suggest that COX-2I intervention may provide a novel prevention for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Depolarizing actions of GABA in immature neurons depend neither on ketone bodies nor on pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Tyzio, Roman; Allene, Camille; Nardou, Romain; Picardo, Michel A; Yamamoto, Sumii; Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Caiati, Maddalena D; Rheims, Sylvain; Minlebaev, Marat; Milh, Mathieu; Ferré, Pascal; Khazipov, Rustem; Romette, Jean-Louis; Lorquin, Jean; Cossart, Rosa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Nehlig, Astrid; Cherubini, Enrico; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2011-01-05

    GABA depolarizes immature neurons because of a high [Cl(-)](i) and orchestrates giant depolarizing potential (GDP) generation. Zilberter and coworkers (Rheims et al., 2009; Holmgren et al., 2010) showed recently that the ketone body metabolite DL-3-hydroxybutyrate (DL-BHB) (4 mM), lactate (4 mM), or pyruvate (5 mM) shifted GABA actions to hyperpolarizing, suggesting that the depolarizing effects of GABA are attributable to inadequate energy supply when glucose is the sole energy source. We now report that, in rat pups (postnatal days 4-7), plasma D-BHB, lactate, and pyruvate levels are 0.9, 1.5, and 0.12 mM, respectively. Then, we show that DL-BHB (4 mM) and pyruvate (200 μM) do not affect (i) the driving force for GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents (DF(GABA)) in cell-attached single-channel recordings, (2) the resting membrane potential and reversal potential of synaptic GABA(A) receptor-mediated responses in perforated patch recordings, (3) the action potentials triggered by focal GABA applications, or (4) the GDPs determined with electrophysiological recordings and dynamic two-photon calcium imaging. Only very high nonphysiological concentrations of pyruvate (5 mM) reduced DF(GABA) and blocked GDPs. Therefore, DL-BHB does not alter GABA signals even at the high concentrations used by Zilberter and colleagues, whereas pyruvate requires exceedingly high nonphysiological concentrations to exert an effect. There is no need to alter conventional glucose enriched artificial CSF to investigate GABA signals in the developing brain.

  14. Neurochemical correlates of. gamma. -aminobutyrate (GABA) inhibition in cat visual cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Balcar, V.J.; Dreher, B.

    1990-01-01

    High affinity binding of ({sup 3}H){gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to neuronal membranes from different parts of cat visual cortex was tested for sensitivity to GABA{sub A} agonists isoguvacine and THIP, GABA{sub A} antagonist SR95531 and GABA{sub B} agonist baclofen. Some of the GABA{sub A}-binding sites were found to have a very low affinity for THIP, suggesting the presence and, possibly, uneven distribution of non-synaptic GABA{sub A} receptors in cat visual cortex. There were no differences in K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of high affinity uptake of GABA and in the potency of K{sup +}-stimulated release of GABA, between primary andmore » association cortices. Consequently, the present results indicate that despite the anatomical and physiological differences between the primary and association feline visual cortices the neurochemical characteristics of GABAergic inhibition are very similar in the two regions.« less

  15. GABAA receptor: Positive and negative allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Richard W

    2018-01-31

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission and the gene products involved were discovered during the mid-twentieth century. Historically, myriad existing nervous system drugs act as positive and negative allosteric modulators of these proteins, making GABA a major component of modern neuropharmacology, and suggesting that many potential drugs will be found that share these targets. Although some of these drugs act on proteins involved in synthesis, degradation, and membrane transport of GABA, the GABA receptors Type A (GABA A R) and Type B (GABA B R) are the targets of the great majority of GABAergic drugs. This discovery is due in no small part to Professor Norman Bowery. Whereas the topic of GABA B R is appropriately emphasized in this special issue, Norman Bowery also made many insights into GABA A R pharmacology, the topic of this article. GABA A R are members of the ligand-gated ion channel receptor superfamily, a chloride channel family of a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes containing 19 possible different subunits. These subtypes show different brain regional and subcellular localization, age-dependent expression, and potential for plastic changes with experience including drug exposure. Not only are GABA A R the targets of agonist depressants and antagonist convulsants, but most GABA A R drugs act at other (allosteric) binding sites on the GABA A R proteins. Some anxiolytic and sedative drugs, like benzodiazepine and related drugs, act on GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. General anesthetics including alcohols and neurosteroids act at GABA A R subunit-interface trans-membrane sites. Ethanol at high anesthetic doses acts on GABA A R subtype-dependent trans-membrane domain sites. Ethanol at low intoxicating doses acts at GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. Thus GABA A R subtypes possess pharmacologically specific receptor binding sites for a large group of different chemical classes of

  16. The effects of volatile anesthetics on the extracellular accumulation of [(3)H]GABA in rat brain cortical slices.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Paulo H C; Guatimosim, Cristina; Binda, Nancy S; Costa, Flávia L P; Gomez, Marcus V; Gomez, Renato S

    2014-01-01

    GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that appears to be associated with the action of volatile anesthetics. These anesthetics potentiate GABA-induced postsynaptic currents by synaptic GABAA receptors, although recent evidence suggests that these agents also significantly affect extrasynaptic GABA receptors. However, the effect of volatile anesthetics on the extracellular concentration of GABA in the central nervous system has not been fully established. In the present study, rat brain cortical slices loaded with [(3)H]GABA were used to investigate the effect of halothane and sevoflurane on the extracellular accumulation of this neurotransmitter. The accumulation of [(3)H]GABA was significantly increased by sevoflurane (0.058, 0.11, 0.23, 0.46, and 0.93 mM) and halothane (0.006, 0.012, 0.024, 0.048, 0072, and 0.096 mM) with an EC50 of 0.26 mM and 35 μM, respectively. TTX (blocker of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels), EGTA (an extracellular Ca(2+) chelator) and BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) did not interfere with the accumulation of [(3)H]GABA induced by 0.23 mM sevoflurane and 0.048 mM halothane. SKF 89976A, a GABA transporter type 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, reduced the sevoflurane- and halothane-induced increase in the accumulation of GABA by 57 and 63 %, respectively. Incubation of brain cortical slices at low temperature (17 °C), a condition that inhibits GAT function and reduces GABA release through reverse transport, reduced the sevoflurane- and halothane-induced increase in the accumulation of [(3)H]GABA by 82 and 75 %, respectively, relative to that at normal temperature (37 °C). Ouabain, a Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor, which is known to induce GABA release through reverse transport, abolished the sevoflurane and halothane effects on the accumulation of [(3)H]GABA. The effect of sevoflurane and halothane did not involve glial transporters because β-alanine, a blocker of GAT-2 and GAT-3, did not inhibit the effect of the anesthetics

  17. Genetics Home Reference: GABA-transaminase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chiriboga CA, Ichikawa K, Osaka H, Tsuji M, Gibson KM, Bonnen PE, Pearl PL. Phenotype of GABA- ... Meirleir L, Jaeken J, Jakobs C, Nyhan WL, Gibson KM. 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-transaminase) deficiency. J ...

  18. Low doses of alcohol potentiate GABA sub B inhibition of spontaneous activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Criado, J.R.; Thies, R.

    1991-03-11

    Low doses of alcohol facilitate firing of hippocampal neurons. Such doses also enhance the inhibitory actions of GABA. Alcohol is known to potentiate inhibition via GABA{sub A} receptors. However, the effects of alcohol on GABA{sub B} receptor function are not understood. Spontaneous activity of single units was recorded from CA1 neurons of male rats anesthetized with 1.0% halothane. Electrical recordings and local application of drugs were done with multi-barrel pipettes. CA1 pyramidal neurons fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. Acute alcohol decreased the interval between bursts, a mild excitatory action. Alcohol also more than doubled the period of complete inhibitionmore » produced by local application of both GABA and baclofen. These data suggest that GABA{sub B}-mediated inhibition is also potentiated by low doses of alcohol.« less

  19. Correlation between the enhancement of flunitrazepam binding by GABA and seizure susceptibility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, R.J.; Wehner, J.M.

    Various populations of mice exhibit differential sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents. The relationship of seizure susceptibility to alterations in the GABA receptor complex was investigated in six different populations of mice consisting of four inbred strains (C57BL, DBA, C3H, and BALB) and two selected lines (long sleep and short sleep). Seizure activity was induced by intraperitoneal administration of the GAD inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and latencies to seizure onset and tonus were measured. In naive mice of the same populations, GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding was measured in extensively washed whole brain membranes at several GABA concentrations. Both differential seizure sensitivity tomore » 3-mercaptopropionic acid and differential enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding by GABA were observed in these six populations of mice. Correlational analyses indicated a positive correlation between the degree of GABA enhancement of TH-flunitrazepam binding and resistance to the seizure-inducing properties of 3-mercaptopropionic acid. These data suggest that genetic differences in sensitivity to seizure-inducing agents that disrupt the GABAergic system may be related to differences in coupling between the various receptors associated with the GABA receptor complex.« less

  20. GABA abnormalities in schizophrenia: a methodological review of in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephan F; Tso, Ivy F

    2015-09-01

    Abnormalities of GABAergic interneurons are some of the most consistent findings from post-mortem studies of schizophrenia. However, linking these molecular deficits with in vivo observations in patients - a critical goal in order to evaluate interventions that would target GABAergic deficits - presents a challenge. Explanatory models have been developed based on animal work and the emerging experimental literature in schizophrenia patients. This literature includes: neuroimaging ligands to GABA receptors, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of GABA concentration, transcranial magnetic stimulation of cortical inhibitory circuits and pharmacologic probes of GABA receptors to dynamically challenge the GABA system, usually in combination with neuroimaging studies. Pharmacologic challenges have elicited behavioral changes, and preliminary studies of therapeutic GABAergic interventions have been conducted. This article critically reviews the evidence for GABAergic dysfunction from each of these areas. These methods remain indirect measures of GABAergic function, and a broad array of dysfunction is linked with the putative GABAergic measures, including positive symptoms, cognition, emotion, motor processing and sensory processing, covering diverse brain areas. Measures of receptor binding have not shown replicable group differences in binding, and MRS assays of GABA concentration have yielded equivocal evidence of large-scale alteration in GABA concentration. Overall, the experimental base remains sparse, and much remains to be learned about the role of GABAergic interneurons in healthy brains. Challenges with pharmacologic and functional probes show promise, and may yet enable a better characterization of GABAergic deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroimaging studies of GABA in schizophrenia: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Egerton, A; Modinos, G; Ferrera, D; McGuire, P

    2017-06-06

    Data from animal models and from postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with brain GABAergic dysfunction. The extent to which this is reflected in data from in vivo studies of GABA function in schizophrenia is unclear. The Medline database was searched to identify articles published until 21 October 2016. The search terms included GABA, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), schizophrenia and psychosis. Sixteen GABA 1 H-MRS studies (538 controls, 526 patients) and seven PET/SPECT studies of GABA A /benzodiazepine receptor (GABA A /BZR) availability (118 controls, 113 patients) were identified. Meta-analyses of 1 H-MRS GABA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal/occipital cortex (POC) and striatum did not show significant group differences (mFC: g=-0.3, 409 patients, 495 controls, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.6 to 0.1; POC: g=-0.3, 139 patients, 111 controls, 95% CI: -0.9 to 0.3; striatum: g=-0.004, 123 patients, 95 controls, 95% CI: -0.7 to 0.7). Heterogeneity across studies was high (I 2 >50%), and this was not explained by subsequent moderator or meta-regression analyses. There were insufficient PET/SPECT receptor availability studies for meta-analyses, but a systematic review did not suggest replicable group differences in regional GABA A /BZR availability. The current literature does not reveal consistent alterations in in vivo GABA neuroimaging measures in schizophrenia, as might be hypothesized from animal models and postmortem data. The analysis highlights the need for further GABA neuroimaging studies with improved methodology and addressing potential sources of heterogeneity.

  2. Adolescent female rats exhibiting activity-based anorexia express elevated levels of GABA(A) receptor α4 and δ subunits at the plasma membrane of hippocampal CA1 spines.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Chiye; Sabaliauskas, Nicole; Chowdhury, Tara; Min, Jung-Yun; Colacino, Anna Rita; Laurino, Kevin; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C

    2012-05-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model for anorexia nervosa that has revealed genetic links to anxiety traits and neurochemical characteristics within the hypothalamus. However, few studies have used this animal model to investigate the biological basis for vulnerability of pubertal and adolescent females to ABA, even though the great majority of the anorexia nervosa cases are females exhibiting the first symptoms during puberty. GABAergic inhibition of the hippocampus strongly regulates anxiety as well as plasticity throughout life. We recently showed that the hippocampal CA1 of female mice undergo a dramatic change at puberty onset--from expressing virtually none of the nonsynaptic α4βδ GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) prepubertally to expressing these GABARs at ~7% of the CA1 dendritic spine membranes at puberty onset. Furthermore, we showed that this change underlies the enhanced modulation of anxiety, neuronal excitability, and NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus by the stress neurosteroid, THP (3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone). Here, we used quantitative electron microscopy to determine whether ABA induction in female rats during adolescence also elevates the expression of α4 and δ subunits of α4βδ GABARs, as was observed at puberty onset for mice. Our analysis revealed that rats also exhibit a rise of α4 and δ subunits of α4βδ GABARs at puberty onset, in that these subunits are detectable at ~6% of the dendritic spine membranes of CA1 pyramidal cells at puberty onset (postnatal day 32-36; P32-36) but this drops to about 2% by P40-P44. The levels of α4 and δ subunits at the CA1 spines remained low following exposure of females to either of the two environmental factors needed to generate ABA--food restriction and access to a running wheel for 4 days--from P40 to P44. This pattern contrasted greatly from those of ABA animals, for which the two environmental factors were combined. Within the

  3. Modulation of GABA-stimulated chloride influx into membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex by triazolobenzodiazepines

    SciTech Connect

    Obata, T.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of triazolobenzodiazepines of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex were examined. Triazolam and alprazolam showed a significant enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake at 0.01-10 uM. On the other hand, adinazolam showed a small enhancement at 0.1-1 uM followed by a significant inhibition of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake at 100 uM. The enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by 1 uM alprazolam was antagonized by Ro15-1788, a benzodiazepine antagonist, but the inhibition of this response by 30 uM adinazolam was not antagonized by Ro15-1788. These results indicate that triazolobenzodiazepinesmore » enhanced GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake through benzodiazepine receptors. High concentrations of adinazolam inhibit GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake which may be due to the direct blockade of GABA-gated chloride channel. 23 references, 4 figures.« less

  4. New Pharmacotherapy Targeting Cognitive Dysfunction of Schizophrenia via Modulation of GABA Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Won Je; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive impairment is a core symptom in patients with the illness, and has been suggested a major predictor of functional outcomes. Reduction of parvalbumin (PV)-positive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons has been associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, in view of the link between the abnormality of GABA neurons and cognitive impairments of the disease. It is assumed that an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E-I) activity induced by low activity of glutamatergic projections and PV-positive GABA interneurons in the prefrontal cortex resulted in sustained neural firing and gamma oscillation, leading to impaired cognitive function. Therefore, it is important to develop novel pharmacotherapy targeting GABA neurons and their activities. Clinical evidence suggests serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor agonist improves cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia, consistent with results from preclinical studies, through mechanism that corrects E-I imbalance via the suppression of GABA neural function. On the other hand, T-817MA, a novel neurotrophic agent, ameliorated loss of PV-positive GABA neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and reduction of gamma-band activity, as well as cognitive dysfunction in animal model of schizophrenia. In conclusion, a pharmacotherapy to alleviate abnormalities in GABA neurons through 5-HT1A agonists and T-817MA is expected to prevent the onset and/or progression of schizophrenia. PMID:26630957

  5. New Pharmacotherapy Targeting Cognitive Dysfunction of Schizophrenia via Modulation of GABA Neuronal Function.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takashi; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive impairment is a core symptom in patients with the illness, and has been suggested a major predictor of functional outcomes. Reduction of parvalbumin (PV)-positive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons has been associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, in view of the link between the abnormality of GABA neurons and cognitive impairments of the disease. It is assumed that an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E-I) activity induced by low activity of glutamatergic projections and PV-positive GABA interneurons in the prefrontal cortex resulted in sustained neural firing and gamma oscillation, leading to impaired cognitive function. Therefore, it is important to develop novel pharmacotherapy targeting GABA neurons and their activities. Clinical evidence suggests serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor agonist improves cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia, consistent with results from preclinical studies, through mechanism that corrects E-I imbalance via the suppression of GABA neural function. On the other hand, T-817MA, a novel neurotrophic agent, ameliorated loss of PV-positive GABA neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and reduction of gamma-band activity, as well as cognitive dysfunction in animal model of schizophrenia. In conclusion, a pharmacotherapy to alleviate abnormalities in GABA neurons through 5-HT1A agonists and T-817MA is expected to prevent the onset and/or progression of schizophrenia.

  6. Isolation and chemical characterization of agelaiatoxin8 (AvTx8) from Agelaia vicina wasp venom and its biological effects on GABA neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Andrea B; Beleboni, Renê O; Gomes Carolino, Ruither O; de Oliveira, Luciana; Miranda, Antonio; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Fontana, Andréia C K; Dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    Arthropod venoms are sources of molecules that may be useful tools to investigate molecular mechanisms of putative new medicines and laboratory drugs. Here we show the effects of the compound agelaiatoxin-8 (AVTx8), isolated from Agelaia vicina venom, on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis reveals that AvTx8 is composed by 14 amino acid residues with a molecular weight (MW) of 1567 Da. AvTx8 increased GABA release and inhibited GABA uptake in synaptosomes from rat cerebral cortex. AvTx8 inhibited GABA uptake and increased GABA release in the presence of Ca + , Na + , and K + channel blockers, suggesting that it acts directly on GABA transporters. In addition, AvTx8 significantly decreases GABA binding in synaptic membranes from rat brain cortex, suggesting that it also modulates the activity of GABA receptors. Moreover, AvTx8 decreased GAT-1- and GAT-3-mediated GABA uptake in transfected COS-7 cells. Accordingly, we suggest that AvTx8 modulates GABA neurotransmission and might provide a novel entry point for identifying a new class of GABA-modulating neuroprotective drugs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Functional role of ambient GABA in refining neuronal circuits early in postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Early in development, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature brain, depolarizes and excites targeted neurons by an outwardly directed flux of chloride, resulting from the peculiar balance between the cation-chloride importer NKCC1 and the extruder KCC2. The low expression of KCC2 at birth leads to accumulation of chloride inside the cell and to the equilibrium potential for chloride positive respect to the resting membrane potential. GABA exerts its action via synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. Here, recent data on the contribution of “ambient” GABA to the refinement of neuronal circuits in the immature brain have been reviewed. In particular, we focus on the hippocampus, where, prior to the formation of conventional synapses, GABA released from growth cones and astrocytes in a calcium- and SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor)-independent way, diffuses away to activate in a paracrine fashion extrasynaptic receptors localized on distal neurons. The transient increase in intracellular calcium following the depolarizing action of GABA leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Tonic GABA exerts also a chemotropic action on cell migration. Later on, when synapses are formed, GABA spilled out from neighboring synapses, acting mainly on extrasynaptic α5, β2, β3, and γ containing GABAA receptor subunits, provides the membrane depolarization necessary for principal cells to reach the window where intrinsic bursts are generated. These are instrumental in triggering calcium transients associated with network-driven giant depolarizing potentials which act as coincident detector signals to enhance synaptic efficacy at emerging GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. PMID:23964205

  8. [Local GABA-ergic modulation of serotonergic neuron activity in the nucleus raphe magnus].

    PubMed

    Iniushkin, A N; Merkulova, N A; Orlova, A O; Iniushkina, E M

    2009-07-01

    In voltage-clamp experimental on slices of the rat brainstem the effects of 5-HT and GABA on serotonergic neurons of nucleus raphe magnus were investigated. Local applications of 5-HT induced an increase in IPCSs frequency and amplitude in 45% of serotonergic cells. The effect suppressed by the blocker of fast sodium channels tetradotoxin. Antagonist of GABA receptor gabazine blocked IPSCs in neurons both sensitive and non-sensitive to 5-HT action. Applications of GABA induced a membrane current (I(GABA)), which was completely blocked by gabazine. The data suggest self-control of the activity of serotonergic neurons in nucleus raphe magnus by negative feedback loop via local GABAergic interneurons.

  9. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Modulation of Spatial Reference and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Meagan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. Methods: We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates susceptibility to proactive interference. Male rats were well-trained to retrieve food from the same 4 arms of an 8-arm maze, receiving 5 trials/day (1–2min intervals). Results: Infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (12.5–50ng) markedly increased working and reference memory errors and response latencies. Similar treatments also impaired short-term memory on an 8-baited arm task. These effects did not appear to be due to increased susceptibility to proactive interference. In contrast, PFC inactivation via infusion of GABA agonists baclofen/muscimol did not affect reference/working memory. In comparison to the pronounced effects on the 8-arm maze tasks, PFC GABAA antagonism only causes a slight and transient decrease in accuracy on a 2-arm spatial discrimination. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that prefrontal GABA hypofunction severely disrupts spatial reference and short-term memory and that disinhibition of the PFC can, in some instances, perturb memory processes not normally dependent on the frontal lobes. Moreover, these impairments closely resemble those observed in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that perturbation in PFC GABA signaling may contribute to these types of cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. PMID:25552433

  10. Prefrontal cortical GABA modulation of spatial reference and working memory.

    PubMed

    Auger, Meagan L; Floresco, Stan B

    2014-10-31

    Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates susceptibility to proactive interference. Male rats were well-trained to retrieve food from the same 4 arms of an 8-arm maze, receiving 5 trials/day (1-2 min intervals). Infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) markedly increased working and reference memory errors and response latencies. Similar treatments also impaired short-term memory on an 8-baited arm task. These effects did not appear to be due to increased susceptibility to proactive interference. In contrast, PFC inactivation via infusion of GABA agonists baclofen/muscimol did not affect reference/working memory. In comparison to the pronounced effects on the 8-arm maze tasks, PFC GABAA antagonism only causes a slight and transient decrease in accuracy on a 2-arm spatial discrimination. These findings demonstrate that prefrontal GABA hypofunction severely disrupts spatial reference and short-term memory and that disinhibition of the PFC can, in some instances, perturb memory processes not normally dependent on the frontal lobes. Moreover, these impairments closely resemble those observed in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that perturbation in PFC GABA signaling may contribute to these types of cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  11. Is GABA neurotransmission enhanced in auditory thalamus relative to inferior colliculus?

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Rui; Kalappa, Bopanna I.; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Ling, Lynne L.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central auditory system. Sensory thalamic structures show high levels of non-desensitizing extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and a reduction in the redundancy of coded information. The present study compared the inhibitory potency of GABA acting at GABAARs between the inferior colliculus (IC) and the medial geniculate body (MGB) using quantitative in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo experimental approaches. In vivo single unit studies compared the ability of half maximal inhibitory concentrations of GABA to inhibit sound-evoked temporal responses, and found that GABA was two to three times (P < 0.01) more potent at suppressing MGB single unit responses than IC unit responses. In vitro whole cell patch-clamp slice recordings were used to demonstrate that gaboxadol, a δ-subunit selective GABAAR agonist, was significantly more potent at evoking tonic inhibitory currents from MGB neurons than IC neurons (P < 0.01). These electrophysiological findings were supported by an in vitro receptor binding assay which used the picrotoxin analog [3H]TBOB to assess binding in the GABAAR chloride channel. MGB GABAARs had significantly greater total open chloride channel capacity relative to GABAARs in IC (P < 0.05) as shown by increased total [3H]TBOB binding. Finally, a comparative ex vivo measurement compared endogenous GABA levels and suggested a trend towards higher GABA concentrations in MGB than in IC. Collectively, these studies suggest that, per unit GABA, high affinity extrasynaptic and synaptic GABAARs confer a significant inhibitory GABAAR advantage to MGB neurons relative to IC neurons. This increased GABA sensitivity likely underpins the vital filtering role of auditory thalamus. PMID:24155003

  12. Paracrine GABA and insulin regulate pancreatic alpha cell proliferation in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Allen L; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Gui, Le; Kaltsidis, Gesthika; Feng, Qingping; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of increased proliferation of alpha cells in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells express GAD and produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits alpha cell secretion of glucagon. We explored the roles of GABA in alpha cell proliferation in conditions corresponding to type 1 diabetes in a mouse model and in vitro. Type 1 diabetes was induced by injecting the mice with streptozotocin (STZ). Some of the STZ-injected mice were treated with GABA (10 mg/kg daily) for 12 days. Isolated pancreatic islets were treated with STZ or STZ together with GABA for 2 days. The effects of GABA treatment on STZ-induced alpha cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro were assessed. The effect of muscimol, a GABA receptor agonist, on αTC1-6 cell proliferation was also examined. STZ injection substantially decreased levels of GAD, GABA and insulin in pancreatic beta cells 12 h after injection; this was followed by an upsurge of phosphorylated mechanistic target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) in the alpha cells at day 1, and a significant increase in alpha cell mass at day 3. Treating STZ-injected mice with GABA largely restored the immunodetectable levels of insulin and GAD in the beta cells and significantly decreased the number of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3 (ALDH1a3)-positive cells, alpha cell mass and hyperglucagonaemia. STZ treatment also increased alpha cell proliferation in isolated islets, which was reversed by co-treatment with GABA. Muscimol, together with insulin, significantly lowered the level of cytosolic Ca 2+ and p-mTOR, and decreased the proliferation rate of αTC1-6 cells. GABA signalling critically controls the alpha cell population in pancreatic islets. Low intraislet GABA may contribute to alpha cell hyperplasia in early type 1 diabetes.

  13. Increased GABA(A) inhibition of the RVLM after hindlimb unloading in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, Julia A.; Heesch, Cheryl M.; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2002-01-01

    Attenuated baroreflex-mediated increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats apparently are due to changes within the central nervous system. We hypothesized that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is increased after hindlimb unloading. Responses to bilateral microinjection of the GABA(A) antagonist (-)-bicuculline methiodide (BIC) into the RVLM were examined before and during caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) inhibition in Inactin-anesthetized control and HU rats. Increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and RSNA in response to BIC in the RVLM were significantly enhanced in HU rats. Responses to bilateral CVLM blockade were not different. When remaining GABA(A) inhibition in the RVLM was blocked by BIC during CVLM inhibition, the additional increases in MAP and RSNA were significantly greater in HU rats. These data indicate that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons is augmented after hindlimb unloading. Effects of input from the CVLM were unaltered. Thus, after cardiovascular deconditioning in rodents, the attenuated increase in sympathetic nerve activity in response to hypotension is associated with greater GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons originating at least in part from sources other than the CVLM.

  14. Localization of a GABA transporter to glial cells in the developing and adult olfactory pathway of the moth Manduca sexta1

    PubMed Central

    Oland, Lynne A; Gibson, Nicholas J; Tolbert, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Glial cells have several critical roles in the developing and adult olfactory (antennal) lobe of the moth Manduca sexta. Early in development, glial cells occupy discrete regions of the developing olfactory pathway and processes of GABAergic neurons extend into some of these regions. Because GABA is known to have developmental effects in a variety of systems, we explored the possibility that the glial cells express a GABA transporter that could regulate GABA levels to which olfactory neurons and glial cells are exposed. Using an antibody raised against a characterized high-affinity M. sexta GABA transporter with high sequence homology to known mammalian GABA transporters (Mbungu et al., 1995; Umesh and Gill, 2002), we found that the GABA transporter is localized to subsets of centrally derived glial cells during metamorphic adult development. The transporter persists into adulthood in a subset of the neuropil-associated glial cells, but its distribution pattern as determined by light- and electron-microscopic-level immunocytochemistry indicates that it could not serve to regulate GABA concentration in the synaptic cleft. Rather its role is more likely to regulate extracellular GABA levels within the glomerular neuropil. Expression in the sorting zone glial cells disappears after the period of olfactory receptor axon ingrowth, but may be important during ingrowth if GABA regulates axon growth. Glial cells take up GABA, and that uptake can be blocked by DABA. This is the first molecular evidence that the central glial cell population in this pathway is heterogeneous. PMID:20058309

  15. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Tongjaroenbungam, Walaiporn; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Cunningham, Joanna; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Dodson, Hilary C; Forge, Andrew; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Casalotti, Stefano O

    2004-01-01

    Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a perfusion protocol we demonstrate that morphine can inhibit KCl-induced release of [3H]GABA from rat inferior colliculus slices. DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin) but not DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin or U69593 has the same effect as morphine indicating that μ rather than δ or κ opioid receptors mediate this action. [3H]GABA release was diminished by 16%, and this was not altered by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. Immunostaining of inferior colliculus cryosections shows extensive staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase, more limited staining for μ opiate receptors and relatively few neurons co-stained for both proteins. Conclusion The results suggest that μ-opioid receptor ligands can modify neurotransmitter release in a sub population of GABAergic neurons of the inferior colliculus. This could have important physiological implications in the processing of hearing information and/or other functions attributed to the inferior colliculus such as audiogenic seizures and aversive behaviour. PMID:15353008

  16. Optogenetic and pharmacological evidence that somatostatin‐GABA neurons are important regulators of parasympathetic outflow to the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Amanda E.; Vicini, Stefano; Richardson, Janell; Dretchen, Kenneth L.; Gillis, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) in the brainstem consists primarily of vagal preganglionic neurons that innervate postganglionic neurons of the upper gastrointestinal tract.The activity of the vagal preganglionic neurons is predominantly regulated by GABAergic transmission in the DMV.The present findings indicate that the overwhelming GABAergic drive present at the DMV is primarily from somatostatin positive GABA (Sst‐GABA) DMV neurons.Activation of both melanocortin and μ‐opioid receptors at the DMV inhibits Sst‐GABA DMV neurons.Sst‐GABA DMV neurons may serve as integrative targets for modulating vagal output activity to the stomach. Abstract We have previously shown that local GABA signalling in the brainstem is an important determinant of vagally‐mediated gastric activity. However, the neural identity of this GABA source is currently unknown. To determine this, we focused on the somatostatin positive GABA (Sst‐GABA) interneuron in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), a nucleus that is intimately involved in regulating gastric activity. Also of particular interest was the effect of melanocortin and μ‐opioid agonists on neural activity of Sst‐GABA DMV neurons because their in vivo administration in the DMV mimics GABA blockade in the nucleus. Experiments were conducted in brain slice preparation of transgenic adult Sst‐IRES‐Cre mice expressing tdTomato fluorescence, channelrhodopsin‐2, archaerhodopsin or GCaMP3. Electrophysiological recordings were obtained from Sst‐GABA DMV neurons or DiI labelled gastric‐antrum projecting DMV neurons. Our results show that optogenetic stimulation of Sst‐GABA neurons results in a robust inhibition of action potentials of labelled premotor DMV neurons to the gastric‐antrum through an increase in inhibitory post‐synaptic currents. The activity of the Sst‐GABA neurons in the DMV is inhibited by both melanocortin and μ‐opioid agonists. These agonists counteract the

  17. Optogenetic and pharmacological evidence that somatostatin-GABA neurons are important regulators of parasympathetic outflow to the stomach.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Amanda E; Vicini, Stefano; Richardson, Janell; Dretchen, Kenneth L; Gillis, Richard A; Sahibzada, Niaz

    2016-05-15

    The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) in the brainstem consists primarily of vagal preganglionic neurons that innervate postganglionic neurons of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The activity of the vagal preganglionic neurons is predominantly regulated by GABAergic transmission in the DMV. The present findings indicate that the overwhelming GABAergic drive present at the DMV is primarily from somatostatin positive GABA (Sst-GABA) DMV neurons. Activation of both melanocortin and μ-opioid receptors at the DMV inhibits Sst-GABA DMV neurons. Sst-GABA DMV neurons may serve as integrative targets for modulating vagal output activity to the stomach. We have previously shown that local GABA signalling in the brainstem is an important determinant of vagally-mediated gastric activity. However, the neural identity of this GABA source is currently unknown. To determine this, we focused on the somatostatin positive GABA (Sst-GABA) interneuron in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), a nucleus that is intimately involved in regulating gastric activity. Also of particular interest was the effect of melanocortin and μ-opioid agonists on neural activity of Sst-GABA DMV neurons because their in vivo administration in the DMV mimics GABA blockade in the nucleus. Experiments were conducted in brain slice preparation of transgenic adult Sst-IRES-Cre mice expressing tdTomato fluorescence, channelrhodopsin-2, archaerhodopsin or GCaMP3. Electrophysiological recordings were obtained from Sst-GABA DMV neurons or DiI labelled gastric-antrum projecting DMV neurons. Our results show that optogenetic stimulation of Sst-GABA neurons results in a robust inhibition of action potentials of labelled premotor DMV neurons to the gastric-antrum through an increase in inhibitory post-synaptic currents. The activity of the Sst-GABA neurons in the DMV is inhibited by both melanocortin and μ-opioid agonists. These agonists counteract the pronounced inhibitory effect of Sst-GABA neurons on

  18. Impaired long-term memory and NR2A-type NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in mice lacking c-Fos in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Alexander; Hvalby, Oivind; Jensen, Vidar; Strekalova, Tatyana; Zacher, Christiane; Layer, Liliana E; Kvello, Ane; Reschke, Markus; Spanagel, Rainer; Sprengel, Rolf; Wagner, Erwin F; Gass, Peter

    2003-10-08

    The immediate early gene c-fos is part of the activator protein-1 transcription factor and has been postulated to participate in the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated mice with a nervous system-specific c-fos knock-out using the Cre-loxP system. Adult mice lacking c-Fos in the CNS (c-fosDeltaCNS) showed normal general and emotional behavior but were specifically impaired in hippocampus-dependent spatial and associative learning tasks. These learning deficits correlated with a reduction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. The magnitude of LTP was restored by a repeated tetanization procedure, suggesting impaired LTP induction in c-fosDeltaCNS mice. This rescue was blocked by a selective inhibitor of NR2B-type NMDA receptors. This blockade was compensated in wild-type mice by NR2A-type NMDA receptor-activated signaling pathways, thus indicating that these pathways are compromised in c-fosDeltaCNS mice. In summary, our data suggest a role for c-Fos in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory as well as in NMDA receptor-dependent LTP formation.

  19. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Transmission Modulates Discrimination and Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Fear: Relevance for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Piantadosi, Patrick T; Floresco, Stan B

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates numerous functions, and perturbations in GABAergic transmission within this region have been proposed to contribute to some of the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities associated with disorders such as schizophrenia. These abnormalities include deficits in emotional regulation and aberrant attributions of affective salience. Yet, how PFC GABA regulates these types of emotional processes are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the contribution of PFC GABA transmission to different aspects of Pavlovian emotional learning in rats using translational discriminative fear conditioning and latent inhibition (LI) assays. Reducing prelimbic PFC GABAA transmission via infusions of the antagonist bicuculline before the acquisition or expression of fear conditioning eliminated the ability to discriminate between an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS+) paired with footshock vs a neutral CS–, resembling similar deficits observed in schizophrenic patients. In a separate experiment, blockade of PFC GABAA receptors before CS preexposure (PE) and conditioning did not affect subsequent expression of LI, but did enhance fear in rats that were not preexposed to the CS. In contrast, PFC GABA-blockade before a fear expression test disrupted the recall of learned irrelevance and abolished LI. These data suggest that normal PFC GABA transmission is critical for regulating and mitigating multiple aspects of aversive learning, including discrimination between fear vs safety signals and recall of information about the irrelevance of stimuli. Furthermore, they suggest that similar deficits in emotional regulation observed in schizophrenia may be driven in part by deficient PFC GABA activity. PMID:24784549

  20. Prefrontal cortical GABA transmission modulates discrimination and latent inhibition of conditioned fear: relevance for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Patrick T; Floresco, Stan B

    2014-09-01

    Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates numerous functions, and perturbations in GABAergic transmission within this region have been proposed to contribute to some of the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities associated with disorders such as schizophrenia. These abnormalities include deficits in emotional regulation and aberrant attributions of affective salience. Yet, how PFC GABA regulates these types of emotional processes are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the contribution of PFC GABA transmission to different aspects of Pavlovian emotional learning in rats using translational discriminative fear conditioning and latent inhibition (LI) assays. Reducing prelimbic PFC GABAA transmission via infusions of the antagonist bicuculline before the acquisition or expression of fear conditioning eliminated the ability to discriminate between an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS+) paired with footshock vs a neutral CS-, resembling similar deficits observed in schizophrenic patients. In a separate experiment, blockade of PFC GABAA receptors before CS preexposure (PE) and conditioning did not affect subsequent expression of LI, but did enhance fear in rats that were not preexposed to the CS. In contrast, PFC GABA-blockade before a fear expression test disrupted the recall of learned irrelevance and abolished LI. These data suggest that normal PFC GABA transmission is critical for regulating and mitigating multiple aspects of aversive learning, including discrimination between fear vs safety signals and recall of information about the irrelevance of stimuli. Furthermore, they suggest that similar deficits in emotional regulation observed in schizophrenia may be driven in part by deficient PFC GABA activity.

  1. GABA Levels Are Decreased After Stroke and GABA Changes During Rehabilitation Correlate With Motor Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Blicher, Jakob Udby; Near, Jamie; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Østergaard, Leif; Ho, Yi-Ching Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the dominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is important in motor learning. We aimed to measure GABA content in primary motor cortex poststroke (using GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS]) and in relation to motor recovery during 2 weeks of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). Methods Twenty-one patients (3-12 months poststroke) and 20 healthy subjects were recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging structural T1 and GABA-edited MRS were performed at baseline and after CIMT, and once in healthy subjects. GABA:creatine (GABA:Cr) ratio was measured by GABA-edited MRS. Motor function was measured using Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Results Baseline comparison between stroke patients (n = 19) and healthy subjects showed a significantly lower GABA:Cr ratio in stroke patients (P < .001) even after correcting for gray matter content in the voxel (P < .01) and when expressing GABA relative to N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA; P = .03). After 2 weeks of CIMT patients improved significantly on WMFT, but no consistent change across the group was observed for the GABA:Cr ratio (n = 17). However, the extent of improvement on WMFT correlated significantly with the magnitude of GABA:Cr changes (P < .01), with decreases in GABA:Cr ratio being associated with better improvements in motor function. Conclusions In patients 3 to 12 months poststroke, GABA levels are lower in the primary motor cortex than in healthy subjects. The observed association between GABA and recovery warrants further studies on the potential use of GABA MRS as a biomarker in poststroke recovery. PMID:25055837

  2. Alterations in food intake elicited by GABA and opioid agonists and antagonists administered into the ventral tegmental area region of rats.

    PubMed

    Echo, Joyce A; Lamonte, Nicole; Ackerman, Tsippa F; Bodnar, Richard J

    2002-05-01

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of mu-selective opioid agonists into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) region acting through multiple local opioid receptor subtypes. Since GABA receptor agonists in the VTA region are capable of eliciting feeding, the present study investigated whether feeding elicited by the mu-selective opioid agonist [D-Ala(2), NMe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO) in the VTA region was altered by pretreatment into the same site with equimolar doses of either GABA(A) (bicuculline) or GABA(B) (saclofen) antagonists, and further, whether pretreatment with either general opioid or selective GABA receptor antagonists decreased feeding elicited by GABA(A) (muscimol) or GABA(B) (baclofen) agonists in the VTA region. DAMGO-induced feeding in the VTA region was dose-dependently decreased following pretreatment with either GABA(A) or GABA(B) antagonists in the absence of significant alterations in food intake by the antagonists per se. However, the presence of short-lived seizures following bicuculline in the VTA region suggests that this ingestive effect was caused by nonspecific actions. In contrast, GABA(B) receptors are involved in the full expression of mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding in this region since saclofen failed to elicit either seizure activity or a conditioned taste aversion. Pretreatment with naltrexone in the VTA region reduced intake elicited by baclofen, but not muscimol. Finally, baclofen-induced feeding was significantly reduced by saclofen, but not bicuculline, pretreatment in the VTA region. Therefore, possible coregulation between GABA(B) and opioid receptors in the VTA region, as suggested by immunocytochemical evidence, is supported by these behavioral effects upon ingestion.

  3. Zolpidem modulation of phasic and tonic GABA currents in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Smith, Bret N.

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a widely prescribed sleep aid with relative selectivity for GABAA receptors containing α1–3 subunits. We examined the effects of zolpidem on the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptors using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from DMV neurons in transverse brainstem slices from rat. Zolpidem prolonged the decay time of mIPSCs and of muscimol-evoked whole-cell GABAergic currents, and it occasionally enhanced the amplitude of mIPSCs. The effects were blocked by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist. Zolpidem also hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, with a concomitant decrease in input resistance and action potential firing activity in a subset of cells. Zolpidem did not clearly alter the GABAA receptor-mediated tonic current (Itonic) under baseline conditions, but after elevating extracellular GABA concentration with nipecotic acid, a non-selective GABA transporter blocker, zolpidem consistently and significantly increased the tonic GABA current. This increase was suppressed by flumazenil and gabazine. These results suggest that α1–3 subunits are expressed in synaptic GABAA receptors on DMV neurons. The baseline tonic GABA current is likely not mediated by these same low affinity, zolpidem-sensitive GABAA receptors. However, when the extracellular GABA concentration is increased, zolpidem-sensitive extrasynaptic GABAA receptors containing α1–3 subunits contribute to the Itonic. PMID:20226798

  4. Temperature dependence and GABA modulation of (TH)triazolam binding in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, M.E.; Concas, A.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1987-07-27

    The hypnotic triazolam (TZ), a triazolobenzodiazepine displays a short physiological half life and has been used for the treatment of insomnia related to anxiety states. The authors major objectives were the direct measurement of the temperature dependence and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) effect of (TH)TZ binding in the rat brain. Saturation studies showed a shift to lower affinity with increasing temperatures (K/sub d/ = 0.27 +/- 08 nM at 0C; K/sub d/ = 1.96 +/- 0.85 nM at 37C) while the B/sub max/ values remained unchanged (1220 +/- 176 fmoles/mg protein at 0C and 1160 +/- 383 fmoles/mg protein atmore » 37C). Saturation studies of (TH)TZ binding in the presence or absence of GABA (100 M) showed a GABA-shift. At 0C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.16 +/- 0.04/+GABA) and at 37C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 1.84 +/- 0.44 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.95 +/- 0.29 nM/+GABA). In contrast to reported literature, the authors findings show that TZ interacts with benzodiazepine receptors with a temperature dependence and GABA-shift consistent with predicted behavior for benzodiazepine agonists. 20 references, 3 tables.« less

  5. Endogenous concentrations, pharmacokinetics, and selected pharmacodynamic effects of a single dose of exogenous GABA in horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Steinmetz, S J; McKemie, D S

    2015-04-01

    The anti-anxiety and calming effects following activation of the GABA receptor have been exploited in performance horses by administering products containing GABA. The primary goal of the study reported here was to describe endogenous concentrations of GABA in horses and the pharmacokinetics, selected pharmacodynamic effects, and CSF concentrations following administration of a GABA-containing product. The mean (±SD) endogenous GABA level was 36.4 ± 12.5 ng/mL (n = 147). Sixteen of these horses received a single intravenous and oral dose of GABA (1650 mg). Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (n = 2) samples were collected at time 0 and at various times for up to 48 h and analyzed using LC-MS. Plasma clearance and volume of distribution was 155.6 and 147.6 L/h and 0.154 and 7.39 L for the central and peripheral compartments, respectively. Terminal elimination half-life was 22.1 (intravenous) and 25.1 (oral) min. Oral bioavailability was 9.81%. Urine GABA concentrations peaked rapidly returning to baseline levels by 3 h. Horses appeared behaviorally unaffected following oral administration, while sedative-like changes following intravenous administration were transient. Heart rate was increased for 1 h postintravenous administration, and gastrointestinal sounds decreased for approximately 30 min following both intravenous and oral administration. Based on a limited number of horses and time points, exogenously administered GABA does not appear to enter the CSF to an appreciable extent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Putative subunits of the rat mesangial KATP: a type 2B sulfonylurea receptor and an inwardly rectifying K+ channel.

    PubMed

    Szamosfalvi, Balázs; Cortes, Pedro; Alviani, Rebecca; Asano, Kenichiro; Riser, Bruce L; Zasuwa, Gary; Yee, Jerry

    2002-05-01

    Sulfonylurea agents exert their physiological effects in many cell types via binding to specific sulfonylurea receptors (SUR). SUR couple to inwardly-rectifying K+ channel (Kir6.x) to form tetradimeric ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP). The SUR subunits confer ATP-sensitivity on KATP and also provide the binding sites for sulfonylureas and other pharmacological agents. Our previous work demonstrated that the exposure of mesangial cells (MC) to sulfonylureas generated profound effects on MC glucose uptake and matrix metabolism and induced heightened cell contractility in association with Ca2+ transients. Because these responses likely resulted from the binding of sulfonylurea to a mesangial SUR2, we subsequently documented [3H]-glibenclamide binding to MC and the gene expression of several mesangial SUR2 transcripts. From these data, we inferred that MC expressed the components of a mesangial KATP and sought to establish their presence in primary MC. To obtain mesangial SUR2 cDNA sequences, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was utilized. DNA sequences were established by the fluorescent dye termination method. Gene expression of mesangial SUR2 and Kir6.1/2 was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern analysis. SUR2 proteins were identified by immunoblotting of mesangial proteins from membrane-enriched fractions with polyclonal antiserum directed against SUR2. RACE cloning yielded two mesangial SUR2 cDNAs of 4.8 and 6.7 kbp whose open reading frames translated proteins of 964 and 1535 aa, respectively. Using probes specific to each cDNA, the presence of a unique, 5.5 kbp serum-regulated mesangial SUR2 splice variant was established. The sequence of this mesangial SUR2 (mcSUR2B) shares identity with the recently cloned rat SUR2B (rSUR2B), but, in comparison to rSUR2B, is truncated by 12 exons at the N-terminus where it contains a unique insert of 16 aa. Immunoblotting studies with anti-SUR2 antiserum demonstrated SUR2

  7. Baclofen and phaclofen modulate GABA release from slices of rat cerebral cortex and spinal cord but not from retina.

    PubMed Central

    Neal, M. J.; Shah, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of (-)-baclofen, muscimol and phaclofen on endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from rat cortical slices, spinal cord slices and entire retinas were studied. 2. The spontaneous resting release of GABA from the three tissues was 3 to 6 pmol mg-1 wet wt 10 min-1. Depolarization of cortical slices with KCl (50 mM) (high-K) produced an 8 fold increase in GABA release but high-K did not evoke an increased release of GABA from spinal slices or retinas. 3. When rats were injected with gamma-vinyl-GABA (250 mg kg-1 i.p.) (GVG) 18 h before death, the tissue GABA stores were increased 3 to 6 fold and high-K then evoked striking Ca-dependent releases of GABA from all three tissues. Thus, in subsequent experiments, unless otherwise stated, the nervous tissues were taken from GVG-treated rats. 4. (-)-Baclofen (10 microM) significantly reduced the K-evoked release of GABA from cortical and spinal slices but retinal release was not affected, even at a concentration of (+/-)-baclofen of 1 mM. For cortical slices, the IC50 for baclofen was approximately 5.2 microM. The inhibitory effect of baclofen on GABA release from cortical slices also occurred in slices prepared from saline-injected rats, indicating that GVG treatment did not qualitatively affect the results. 5. The inhibitory effect of (-)-baclofen on the K-evoked release of GABA from cortical and spinal slices was antagonised by phaclofen (500 microM), confirming that baclofen was producing its effects by acting at the GABAB-receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2804540

  8. GABA-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition Is Required for Precision of Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Patrick K.; Dulka, Brooke N.; Ortiz, Samantha; Riccio, David C.; Jasnow, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of contextual memories, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of memory precision. Here, we demonstrate a rapid time-dependent decline in memory precision in GABA [subscript B(1a)] receptor knockout mice. First, we…

  9. Effect of chronic treatment with the GABA transaminase inhibitors gamma-vinyl GABA and ethanolamine O-sulphate on the in vitro GABA release from rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Qume, M; Fowler, L J

    1997-10-01

    1. The effects of 2, 8 and 21 day oral treatment with the specific gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) inhibitors gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG) and ethanolamine O-sulphate (EOS) on brain GABA levels, GABA-T activity, and basal and stimulated GABA release from rat cross-chopped brain hippocampal slices was investigated. 2. Treatment with GABA-T inhibitors lead to a reduction in brain GABA-T activity by 65-80% compared with control values, with a concomitant increase in brain GABA content of 40-100%. 3. Basal hippocampal GABA release was increased to 250-450% of control levels following inhibition of GABA-T activity. No Ca2+ dependence was observed in either control or treated tissues. 4. GVG and EOS administration led to a significant elevation in the potassium stimulated release of GABA from cross-chopped hippocampal slices compared with that of controls. Although stimulated GABA release from control tissues was decreased in the presence of a low Ca2+ medium, GVG and EOS treatment abolished this Ca2+ dependency. 5. GABA compartmentalization, Na+ and Cl- coupled GABA uptake carriers and glial release may provide explanations for the loss of the Ca2+ dependency of stimulated GABA release observed following GVG and EOS treatment. 6. Administration of GABA-T inhibitors led to increases in both basal and stimulated hippocampal GABA release. However, it is not clear which is the most important factor in the anticonvulsant activity of these drugs, the increased GABA content 'leaking' out of neurones and glia leading to widespread inhibition, or the increase in stimulated GABA release which may occur following depolarization caused by an epileptic discharge.

  10. Effect of chronic treatment with the GABA transaminase inhibitors γ-vinyl GABA and ethanolamine O-sulphate on the in vitro GABA release from rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Qume, M; Fowler, L J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of 2, 8 and 21 day oral treatment with the specific γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) inhibitors γ-vinyl GABA (GVG) and ethanolamine O-sulphate (EOS) on brain GABA levels, GABA-T activity, and basal and stimulated GABA release from rat cross-chopped brain hippocampal slices was investigated. Treatment with GABA-T inhibitors lead to a reduction in brain GABA-T activity by 65–80% compared with control values, with a concomitant increase in brain GABA content of 40–100%. Basal hippocampal GABA release was increased to 250–450% of control levels following inhibition of GABA-T activity. No Ca2+ dependence was observed in either control or treated tissues. GVG and EOS administration led to a significant elevation in the potassium stimulated release of GABA from cross-chopped hippocampal slices compared with that of controls. Although stimulated GABA release from control tissues was decreased in the presence of a low Ca2+ medium, GVG and EOS treatment abolished this Ca2+ dependency. GABA compartmentalization, Na+ and Cl− coupled GABA uptake carriers and glial release may provide explanations for the loss of the Ca2+ dependency of stimulated GABA release observed following GVG and EOS treatment. Administration of GABA-T inhibitors led to increases in both basal and stimulated hippocampal GABA release. However, it is not clear which is the most important factor in the anticonvulsant activity of these drugs, the increased GABA content ‘leaking' out of neurones and glia leading to widespread inhibition, or the increase in stimulated GABA release which may occur following depolarization caused by an epileptic discharge. PMID:9351512

  11. The PLC/IP3R/PKC Pathway is Required for Ethanol-enhanced GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, M. Katherine; Weinberg, Richard J.; Criswell, Hugh E.; Breese, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Research on the actions of ethanol at the GABAergic synapse has traditionally focused on postsynaptic mechanisms, but recent data demonstrate that ethanol also increases both evoked and spontaneous GABA release in many brain regions. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we previously showed that ethanol increases spontaneous GABA release at the rat interneuron-Purkinje cell synapse. This presynaptic ethanol effect is dependent on calcium release from internal stores, possibly through activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). After confirming that ethanol targets vesicular GABA release, in the present study we used electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that IP3Rs are located in presynaptic terminals of cerebellar interneurons. Activation of IP3Rs requires binding of IP3, generated through activation of phospholipase C (PLC). We find that the PLC antagonist edelfosine prevents ethanol from increasing spontaneous GABA release. Diacylglycerol generated by PLC and calcium released by activation of the IP3R activate protein kinase C (PKC). Ethanol-enhanced GABA release was blocked by two PKC antagonists, chelerythrine and calphostin C. When a membrane impermeable PKC antagonist, PKC (19-36), was delivered intracellularly to the postsynaptic neuron, ethanol continued to increase spontaneous GABA release. Overall, these results suggest that activation of the PLC/IP3R/PKC pathway is necessary for ethanol to increase spontaneous GABA release from presynaptic terminals onto Purkinje cells. PMID:20206640

  12. GABA concentration in superior temporal sulcus predicts gamma power and perception in the sound-induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Balz, Johanna; Keil, Julian; Roa Romero, Yadira; Mekle, Ralf; Schubert, Florian; Aydin, Semiha; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In everyday life we are confronted with inputs of multisensory stimuli that need to be integrated across our senses. Individuals vary considerably in how they integrate multisensory information, yet the neurochemical foundations underlying this variability are not well understood. Neural oscillations, especially in the gamma band (>30Hz) play an important role in multisensory processing. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission contributes to the generation of gamma band oscillations (GBO), which can be sustained by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Hence, differences in the GABA and glutamate systems might contribute to individual differences in multisensory processing. In this combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electroencephalography study, we examined the relationships between GABA and glutamate concentrations in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), source localized GBO, and illusion rate in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In 39 human volunteers we found robust relationships between GABA concentration, GBO power, and the SIFI perception rate (r-values=0.44 to 0.53). The correlation between GBO power and SIFI perception rate was about twofold higher when the modulating influence of the GABA level was included in the analysis as compared to when it was excluded. No significant effects were obtained for glutamate concentration. Our study suggests that the GABA level shapes individual differences in audiovisual perception through its modulating influence on GBO. GABA neurotransmission could be a promising target for treatment interventions of multisensory processing deficits in clinical populations, such as schizophrenia or autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Glycation of a food allergen by the Maillard reaction enhances its T-cell immunogenicity: role of macrophage scavenger receptor class A type I and II.

    PubMed

    Ilchmann, Anne; Burgdorf, Sven; Scheurer, Stephan; Waibler, Zoe; Nagai, Ryoji; Wellner, Anne; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Henle, Thomas; Kurts, Christian; Kalinke, Ulrich; Vieths, Stefan; Toda, Masako

    2010-01-01

    The Maillard reaction occurs between reducing sugars and proteins during thermal processing of foods. It produces chemically glycated proteins termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The glycation structures of AGEs are suggested to function as pathogenesis-related immune epitopes in food allergy. This study aimed at defining the T-cell immunogenicity of food AGEs by using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen. AGE-OVA was prepared by means of thermal processing of OVA in the presence of glucose. Activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was evaluated in cocultures with bone marrow-derived murine myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) as antigen-presenting cells. The uptake mechanisms of mDCs for AGE-OVA were investigated by using inhibitors of putative cell-surface receptors for AGEs, as well as mDCs deficient for these receptors. Compared with the controls (native OVA and OVA thermally processed without glucose), AGE-OVA enhanced the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells on coculture with mDCs, indicating that the glycation of OVA enhanced the T-cell immunogenicity of the allergen. The mDC uptake of AGE-OVA was significantly higher than that of the controls. We identified scavenger receptor class A type I and II (SR-AI/II) as a mediator of the AGE-OVA uptake, whereas the receptor for AGEs and galectin-3 were not responsible. Importantly, the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was attenuated on coculture with SR-AI/II-deficient mDCs. SR-AI/II targets AGE-OVA to the MHC class II loading pathway in mDCs, leading to an enhanced CD4(+) T-cell activation. The Maillard reaction might thus play an important role in the T-cell immunogenicity of food allergens. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Verification of γ-Amino-Butyric Acid (GABA) Signaling System Components in Periodontal Ligament Cells In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Konermann, Anna; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Wilbert, Steven; Van Dyke, Thomas; Jäger, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    CNS key neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and its signaling components are likewise detectable in non-neuronal tissues displaying inter alia immunomodulatory functions. This study aimed at identifying potential glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GABA receptor expression in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vivo and in vitro, with particular regard to inflammation and mechanical loading. Gene expression was analyzed in human PDL cells at rest or in response to IL-1ß (5 ng/ml) or TNFα (5 ng/ml) challenge via qRT-PCR. Western blot determined constitutive receptor expression, and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy visualized expression changes induced by inflammation. ELISA quantified GAD65 release. Immunocytochemistry was performed for GABA component detection in vitro on mechanically loaded PDL cells, and in vivo on rat upper jaw biopsies with mechanically induced root resorptions. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. GABA B1 , GABA B2 , GABA A1 , and GABA A3 were ubiquitously expressed both on gene and protein level. GABA A2 and GAD65 were undetectable in resting cells, but induced by inflammation. GABA B1 exhibited the highest basal gene expression (6.97 % ± 0.16). IL-1ß markedly increased GABA B2 on a transcriptional (57.28-fold ± 12.40) and protein level seen via fluorescence microscopy. TNFα-stimulated PDL cells released GAD65 (3.68 pg/ml ± 0.17 after 24 h, 5.77 pg/ml ± 0.65 after 48 h). Immunocytochemistry revealed GAD65 expression in mechanically loaded PDL cells. In vivo, GABA components were varyingly expressed in an inflammatory periodontal environment. PDL cells differentially express GABA signaling components and secrete GAD65. Inflammation and mechanical loading regulate these neurotransmitter molecules, which are also detectable in vivo and are potentially involved in periodontal pathophysiology.

  15. Improvement in daytime sleepiness with clarithromycin in patients with GABA-related hypersomnia: Clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Trotti, Lynn Marie; Saini, Prabhjyot; Freeman, Amanda A; Bliwise, Donald L; García, Paul S; Jenkins, Andrew; Rye, David B

    2014-07-01

    The macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin can enhance central nervous system excitability, possibly by antagonism of GABA-A receptors. Enhancement of GABA signaling has recently been demonstrated in a significant proportion of patients with central nervous system hypersomnias, so we sought to determine whether clarithromycin might provide symptomatic benefit in these patients. We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated with clarithromycin for hypersomnia, in whom cerebrospinal fluid enhanced GABA-A receptor activity in vitro in excess of controls, excluding those with hypocretin deficiency or definite cataplexy. Subjective reports of benefit and objective measures of psychomotor vigilance were collected to assess clarithromycin's effects. Clinical and demographic characteristics were compared in responders and non-responders. In total, 53 patients (38 women, mean age 35.2 (SD 12.8 years)) were prescribed clarithromycin. Of these, 34 (64%) reported improvement in daytime sleepiness, while 10 (19%) did not tolerate its side effects, and nine (17%) found it tolerable but without symptomatic benefit. In those who reported subjective benefit, objective corroboration of improved vigilance was evident on the psychomotor vigilance task. Twenty patients (38%) elected to continue clarithromycin therapy. Clarithromycin responders were significantly younger than non-responders. Clarithromycin may be useful in the treatment of hypersomnia associated with enhancement of GABA-A receptor function. Further evaluation of this novel therapy is needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Opposing roles for GABAA and GABAC receptors in short-term memory formation in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, M E; Johnston, G A R

    2005-01-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA has both inhibitory and enhancing effects on short-term memory for a bead discrimination task in the young chick. Low doses of GABA (1-3 pmol/hemisphere) injected into the multimodal association area of the chick forebrain, inhibit strongly reinforced memory, whereas higher doses (30-100 pmol/hemisphere) enhance weakly reinforced memory. The effect of both high and low doses of GABA is clearly on short-term memory in terms of both the time of injection and in the time that the memory loss occurs. We argue on the basis of relative sensitivities to GABA and to selective GABA receptor antagonists that low doses of GABA act at GABAC receptors (EC50 approximately 1 microM) and the higher doses of GABA act via GABAA receptors (EC50 approximately 10 microM). The selective GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline inhibited strongly reinforced memory in a dose and time dependent manner, whereas the selective GABAC receptor antagonists TPMPA and P4MPA enhanced weakly reinforced in a dose and time dependent manner. Confirmation that different levels of GABA affect different receptor subtypes was demonstrated by the shift in the GABA dose-response curves to the selective antagonists. It is clear that GABA is involved in the control of short-term memory formation and its action, enhancing or inhibiting, depends on the level of GABA released at the time of learning.

  17. Meroterpenoid Chrodrimanins Are Selective and Potent Blockers of Insect GABA-Gated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, Makoto; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Kai, Kenji; Hayashi, Hideo; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Meroterpenoid chrodrimanins, produced from Talaromyces sp. YO-2, are known to paralyze silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae, but their target is unknown. We have investigated the actions of chrodrimanin B on ligand-gated ion channels of silkworm larval neurons using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B had no effect on membrane currents when tested alone at 1 μM. However, it completely blocked the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced current and showed less pronounced actions on acetylcholine- and L-glutamate-induced currents, when delivered at 1 μM for 1 min prior to co-application with transmitter GABA. Thus, chrodrimanins were also tested on a wild-type isoform of the B. mori GABA receptor (GABAR) RDL using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B attenuated the peak current amplitude of the GABA response of RDL with an IC50 of 1.66 nM. The order of the GABAR-blocking potency of chrodrimanins B > D > A was in accordance with their reported insecticidal potency. Chrodrimanin B had no open channel blocking action when tested at 3 nM on the GABA response of RDL. Co-application with 3 nM chrodrimanin B shifted the GABA concentration response curve to a higher concentration and further increase of chrodrimanin B concentration to10 nM; it reduced maximum current amplitude of the GABA response, pointing to a high-affinity competitive action and a lower affinity non-competitive action. The A282S;T286V double mutation of RDL, which impairs the actions of fipronil, hardly affected the blocking action of chrodrimanin B, indicating a binding site of chrodrimanin B distinct from that of fipronil. Chrodrimanin B showed approximately 1,000-fold lower blocking action on human α1β2γ2 GABAR compared to RDL and thus is a selective blocker of insect GABARs. PMID:25902139

  18. Endothelial cell-derived GABA signaling modulates neuronal migration and postnatal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suyan; Kumar T, Peeyush; Joshee, Sampada; Kirschstein, Timo; Subburaju, Sivan; Khalili, Jahan S; Kloepper, Jonas; Du, Chuang; Elkhal, Abdallah; Szabó, Gábor; Jain, Rakesh K; Köhling, Rüdiger; Vasudevan, Anju

    2018-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is essential for integration and processing of information that is required for most behaviors. The exquisitely precise laminar organization of the cerebral cortex arises during embryonic development when neurons migrate successively from ventricular zones to coalesce into specific cortical layers. While radial glia act as guide rails for projection neuron migration, pre-formed vascular networks provide support and guidance cues for GABAergic interneuron migration. This study provides novel conceptual and mechanistic insights into this paradigm of vascular-neuronal interactions, revealing new mechanisms of GABA and its receptor-mediated signaling via embryonic forebrain endothelial cells. With the use of two new endothelial cell specific conditional mouse models of the GABA pathway (Gabrb3ΔTie2-Cre and VgatΔTie2-Cre), we show that partial or complete loss of GABA release from endothelial cells during embryogenesis results in vascular defects and impairs long-distance migration and positioning of cortical interneurons. The downstream effects of perturbed endothelial cell-derived GABA signaling are critical, leading to lasting changes to cortical circuits and persistent behavioral deficits. Furthermore, we illustrate new mechanisms of activation of GABA signaling in forebrain endothelial cells that promotes their migration, angiogenesis and acquisition of blood-brain barrier properties. Our findings uncover and elucidate a novel endothelial GABA signaling pathway in the CNS that is distinct from the classical neuronal GABA signaling pathway and shed new light on the etiology and pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. PMID:29086765

  19. In Vivo Measurement of GABA Transmission in Healthy Subjects and Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankle, W. Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y.; Prasad, Konasale M.; Mason, N. Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A.; Narendran, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. Method The binding of [11C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [11C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). Results [11C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [11C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [11C] flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [11C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. Conclusions This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition. PMID:26133962

  20. In vivo measurement of GABA transmission in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Frankle, W Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y; Prasad, Konasale M; Mason, N Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A; Narendran, Rajesh

    2015-11-01

    Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. The binding of [(11)C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [(11)C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). [(11)C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [(11)C]flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition.

  1. Olfactory bulb short axon cell release of GABA and dopamine produces a temporally biphasic inhibition-excitation response in external tufted cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Plachez, Celine; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T

    2013-02-13

    Evidence for coexpression of two or more classic neurotransmitters in neurons has increased, but less is known about cotransmission. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons corelease dopamine (DA), the excitatory transmitter glutamate, and the inhibitory transmitter GABA onto target cells in the striatum. Olfactory bulb (OB) short axon cells (SACs) form interglomerular connections and coexpress markers for DA and GABA. Using an optogenetic approach, we provide evidence that mouse OB SACs release both GABA and DA onto external tufted cells (ETCs) in other glomeruli. Optical activation of channelrhodopsin specifically expressed in DAergic SACs produced a GABA(A) receptor-mediated monosynaptic inhibitory response, followed by DA-D(1)-like receptor-mediated excitatory response in ETCs. The GABA(A) receptor-mediated hyperpolarization activates I(h) current in ETCs; synaptically released DA increases I(h), which enhances postinhibitory rebound spiking. Thus, the opposing actions of synaptically released GABA and DA are functionally integrated by I(h) to generate an inhibition-to-excitation "switch" in ETCs. Consistent with the established role of I(h) in ETC burst firing, we show that endogenous DA release increases ETC spontaneous bursting frequency. ETCs transmit sensory signals to mitral/tufted output neurons and drive intraglomerular inhibition to shape glomerulus output to downstream olfactory networks. GABA and DA cotransmission from SACs to ETCs may play a key role in regulating output coding across the glomerular array.

  2. Decreased GABA-A binding on FMZ-PET in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pearl, P L; Gibson, K M; Quezado, Z; Dustin, I; Taylor, J; Trzcinski, S; Schreiber, J; Forester, K; Reeves-Tyer, P; Liew, C; Shamim, S; Herscovitch, P; Carson, R; Butman, J; Jakobs, C; Theodore, W

    2009-08-11

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of GABA metabolism characterized by elevated levels of GABA and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Clinical findings include intellectual impairment, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, hallucinations, autistic behaviors, and seizures. Autoradiographic labeling and slice electrophysiology studies in the murine model demonstrate use-dependent downregulation of GABA(A) receptors. We studied GABA(A) receptor activity in human SSADH deficiency utilizing [(11)C]-flumazenil (FMZ)-PET. FMZ binding was measured in 7 patients, 10 unaffected parents, and 8 healthy controls. Data analysis was performed using a reference region compartmental model, with time-activity curve from pons as the input function. Relative parametric binding potential (BP(ND)) was derived, with MRI-based pixel by pixel partial volume correction, in regions of interest drawn on coregistered MRI. In amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellar vermis, frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex, patients with SSADH deficiency had significant reductions in FMZ BP(ND) compared to parents and controls. Mean cortical values were 6.96 +/- 0.79 (controls), 6.89 +/- 0.71 (parents), and 4.88 +/- 0.77 (patients) (F ratio 16.1; p < 0.001). There were no differences between controls and parents in any cortical region. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficient patients show widespread reduction in BZPR binding on [(11)C]-flumazenil-PET. Our results suggest that high endogenous brain GABA levels in SSADH deficiency downregulate GABA(A)-BZPR binding site availability. This finding suggests a potential mechanism for neurologic dysfunction in a serious neurodevelopmental disorder, and suggests that PET may be useful to translate studies in animal models to human disease.

  3. Neuroimaging studies of GABA in schizophrenia: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Egerton, A; Modinos, G; Ferrera, D; McGuire, P

    2017-01-01

    Data from animal models and from postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with brain GABAergic dysfunction. The extent to which this is reflected in data from in vivo studies of GABA function in schizophrenia is unclear. The Medline database was searched to identify articles published until 21 October 2016. The search terms included GABA, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), schizophrenia and psychosis. Sixteen GABA 1H-MRS studies (538 controls, 526 patients) and seven PET/SPECT studies of GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor (GABAA/BZR) availability (118 controls, 113 patients) were identified. Meta-analyses of 1H-MRS GABA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal/occipital cortex (POC) and striatum did not show significant group differences (mFC: g=−0.3, 409 patients, 495 controls, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.6 to 0.1; POC: g=−0.3, 139 patients, 111 controls, 95% CI: −0.9 to 0.3; striatum: g=−0.004, 123 patients, 95 controls, 95% CI: −0.7 to 0.7). Heterogeneity across studies was high (I2>50%), and this was not explained by subsequent moderator or meta-regression analyses. There were insufficient PET/SPECT receptor availability studies for meta-analyses, but a systematic review did not suggest replicable group differences in regional GABAA/BZR availability. The current literature does not reveal consistent alterations in in vivo GABA neuroimaging measures in schizophrenia, as might be hypothesized from animal models and postmortem data. The analysis highlights the need for further GABA neuroimaging studies with improved methodology and addressing potential sources of heterogeneity. PMID:28585933

  4. Role of GABAA receptors in the physiology and pharmacology of sleep.

    PubMed

    Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaëlle

    2009-05-01

    Most sedative-hypnotics used in insomnia treatment target the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. A vast repertoire of GABA(A) receptor subtypes has been identified and displays specific electrophysiological and functional properties. GABA(A)-mediated inhibition traditionally refers to 'phasic' inhibition, arising from synaptic GABA(A) receptors which transiently inhibit neurons. However, there is growing evidence that peri- or extra-synaptic GABA(A) receptors are continuously activated by low GABA concentrations and mediate a 'tonic' conductance. This slower type of signaling appears to play a key role in controlling cell excitability. This review aims at summarizing recent knowledge on GABA transmission, including the emergence of tonic conductance, and highlighting the importance of GABA(A) receptor heterogeneity. The mechanism of action of sedative-hypnotic drugs and their effects on sleep and the electroencephalogram will be reported. Furthermore, studies using genetically engineered mice will be emphasized, providing insights into the role of GABA(A) receptors in mechanisms underlying physiological and pharmacological sleep. Finally, we will address the potential of GABA(A) receptor pharmacology for the treatment of insomnia.

  5. Monoamine Transporters as Ionotropic Receptors.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Louis J

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that glutamate and GABA signal through both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Conversely, it is thought that, with one exception, monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) signal via metabotropic receptors. Given their capacity to generate fast-acting currents, I suggest that the monoamine transporters should be considered as ionotropic receptors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. GABA dramatically improves glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Nepton

    2018-05-05

    Skeletal muscle, hepatic insulin resistance, and beta cell dysfunction are the characteristic pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GABA has an important role in pancreatic islet cells. The present study attempted to clarify the possible mechanism of GABA to improve glucose tolerance in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: NDC that was fed the normal diet, CD which received a high-fat diet with streptozotocin, CD-GABA animals that received GABA via intraperitoneal injection, plus CD-Ins1 and CD-Ins2 groups which were treated with low and high doses of insulin, respectively. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), urine volume, amount of water drinking, and food intake assessments were performed monthly. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was done for assessing insulin resistance. Plasma insulin and glucagon were measured. Abdominal fat was measured. Glucagon receptor, Glucose 6 phosphatase, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes expression were evaluated in liver and Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes expression and protein translocation were evaluated in the muscle. GABA or insulin therapy improved blood glucose, insulin level, IPGTT, ITT, gluconeogenesis pathway, Glucagon receptor, body weight and body fat in diabetic rats. GLUT4 gene and protein expression increased. GABA whose beneficial effect was comparable to that of insulin, also increased glucose infusion rate during an euglycemic clamp. GABA could improve insulin resistance via rising GLUT4 and also decreasing the gluconeogenesis pathway and Glucagon receptor gene expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Presynaptic gain control by endogenous cotransmission of dopamine and GABA in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Vaaga, Christopher E; Yorgason, Jordan T; Williams, John T; Westbrook, Gary L

    2017-03-01

    In the olfactory bulb, lateral inhibition mediated by local juxtaglomerular interneurons has been proposed as a gain control mechanism, important for decorrelating odorant responses. Among juxtaglomerular interneurons, short axon cells are unique as dual-transmitter neurons that release dopamine and GABA. To examine their intraglomerular function, we expressed channelrhodopsin under control of the DAT-cre promoter and activated olfactory afferents within individual glomeruli. Optical stimulation of labeled cells triggered endogenous dopamine release as measured by cyclic voltammetry and GABA release as measured by whole cell GABA A receptor currents. Activation of short axon cells reduced the afferent presynaptic release probability via D 2 and GABA B receptor activation, resulting in reduced spiking in both mitral and external tufted cells. Our results suggest that short axon cells influence glomerular activity not only by direct inhibition of external tufted cells but also by inhibition of afferent inputs to external tufted and mitral cells. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Sensory systems, including the olfactory system, encode information across a large dynamic range, making synaptic mechanisms of gain control critical to proper function. Here we demonstrate that a dual-transmitter interneuron in the olfactory bulb controls the gain of intraglomerular afferent input via two distinct mechanisms, presynaptic inhibition as well as inhibition of a principal neuron subtype, and thereby potently controls the synaptic gain of afferent inputs. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Gaba mediated long-term depression (LTD) in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    PubMed

    Grassi, S; Della Torre, G; Zampolini, M; Pettorossi, V E

    1995-01-01

    As previously demonstrated, high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents always induces a clear, long lasting depression of the polysynaptic (N2) component of the field potentials recorded in the dorsal portion of the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN). The induction of the HFS effect was mediated by the activation of glutamate NMDA receptors, since it was blocked by AP5. The mechanisms at the basis of such a depression were studied. Our results demonstrate that Gaba, acting on both GabaA and GabaB receptors, is involved in mediating this phenomenon. In fact, HFS applied during Bicuculline and Saclofen perfusion, was no longer able to induce an N2 depression, but provoked a slight potentiation. However, the N2 depression clearly emerged after drug wash-out. Furthermore, Bicuculline and Saclofen fully abolished the N2 depression and highlighted the potentiation, when administered after HFS. The possibility that the N2 depression is the result of a homosynaptic LTD can be excluded on the basis of our results. On the contrary, our findings suggest that the depression is due to an enhancement of the Gaba inhibitory effect due to an HFS dependent increase in gabaergic interneuron activity, which resets vestibular neuron excitability at a lower level.

  9. GABAA receptor subtype involvement in addictive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Stephens, D N; King, S L; Lambert, J J; Belelli, D; Duka, T

    2017-01-01

    GABA A receptors form the major class of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain. This review sets out to summarize the evidence that variations in genes encoding GABA A receptor isoforms are associated with aspects of addictive behaviour in humans, while animal models of addictive behaviour also implicate certain subtypes of GABA A receptor. In addition to outlining the evidence for the involvement of specific subtypes in addiction, we summarize the particular contributions of these isoforms in control over the functioning of brain circuits, especially the mesolimbic system, and make a first attempt to bring together evidence from several fields to understanding potential involvement of GABA A receptor subtypes in addictive behaviour. While the weight of the published literature is on alcohol dependency, the underlying principles outlined are relevant across a number of different aspects of addictive behaviour. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. Scavenger receptor class A type I/II determines matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage destruction and chondrocyte death in antigen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Lent, P L E M; Hofkens, W; Blom, A B; Grevers, L; Sloetjes, A; Takahashi, N; van Tits, L J; Vogl, T; Roth, J; de Winther, M P; van den Berg, W B

    2009-10-01

    Scavenger receptor class A type I (SR-AI) and SR-AII are expressed by macrophages in particular and bind and internalize a broad range of molecules (including endotoxins, apoptotic bodies, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein). This study was undertaken to investigate the role of SR-AI/II in mediating severe cartilage destruction in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). AIA was induced in the knee joints of SR-AI/II(-/-) mice and wild-type (WT) controls. Joint inflammation and cartilage destruction (chondrocyte death) were measured by examining the histology of total knee joints. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated neoepitopes were measured by immunolocalization using anti-VDIPEN antibodies and chondrocyte activation with anti-S100A8 antibodies. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined in inflamed synovium using microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In synovial washouts, cytokines (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and S100A8/S100A9 were measured using Luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of SR-AI/II mRNA were strongly elevated in inflamed synovium in AIA. On days 2, 8, and 14 after AIA induction, joint inflammation (exudates/infiltrate) was similar between the 2 groups. In WT mice, severe cartilage destruction was found in multiple cartilage surfaces of the inflamed knee joint on day 14 after AIA induction. MMP-mediated matrix destruction ranged between 40% and 60%, and chondrocyte death was prominent in 40-75% of the cartilage surfaces. In striking contrast, in SR-AI/II(-/-) mice, despite comparable joint inflammation, pronounced cartilage destruction was almost completely absent. Levels of IL-1beta and S100A8/S100A9 were significantly lower on days 7 and 14 after AIA induction, but levels of mRNA for various MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13) were comparable. Our findings indicate that SR-AI and SR-AII are crucial receptors involved in mediating severe

  11. Zinc ion enhances GABA tea-mediated oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Show-Mei; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Hsiao, Ching-Chuan; Cherng, Shur-Hueih

    2012-02-15

    GABA tea is a tea product that contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous study has demonstrated a synergistic effect of GABA tea and copper ions on DNA breakage. This study further explored whether zinc (Zn), a nonredox metal, modulated DNA cleavage induced by GABA tea extract. In a cell-free system, Zn(2+) significantly enhanced GABA tea extract and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)- or H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage at 24 h of incubation. Additionally, low dosages of GABA tea extract (1-10 μg/mL) possessed pro-oxidant activity to increase H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+)-induced DNA cleavage in a dose-dependent profile. By use of various reactive oxygen scavengers, it was observed that glutathione, catalase, and potassium iodide effectively inhibited DNA degradation caused by the GABA tea extract/H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+) system. Moreover, the data showed that the GABA tea extract itself (0.5-5 mg/mL) could induce DNA cleavage in a long-term exposure (48 h). EGCG, but not the GABA tea extract, enhanced H(2)O(2)-induced DNA cleavage. In contrast, GABA decreased H(2)O(2)- and EGCG-induced DNA cleavage, suggesting that GABA might contribute the major effect on the antioxidant activity of GABA tea extract. Furthermore, a comet assay revealed that GABA tea extract (0.25 mg/mL) and GABA had antioxidant activity on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA breakage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that GABA tea has the potential of both pro-oxidant and antioxidant. It is proposed that a balance between EGCG-induced pro-oxidation and GABA-mediated antioxidation may occur in a complex mixture of GABA tea extract.

  12. Production of gaba (γ - Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods.

  13. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone regulate recognition memory following subchronic phencyclidine: Evidence for hippocampal GABA action.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Alexander J; Schaler, Ari W; Fried, Jenny; Paine, Tracie A; Thornton, Janice E

    2018-05-01

    The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Estrogens may mitigate these symptoms via unknown mechanisms. To examine these mechanisms, we tested whether increasing estradiol (E) or decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) could mitigate short-term episodic memory loss in a phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. We then assessed whether changes in cortical or hippocampal GABA may underlie these effects. Female rats were ovariectomized and injected subchronically with PCP. To modulate E and LH, animals received estradiol capsules or Antide injections. Short-term episodic memory was assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT). Brain expression of GAD67 was analyzed via western blot, and parvalbumin-containing cells were counted using immunohistochemistry. Some rats received hippocampal infusions of a GABA A agonist, GABA A antagonist, or GAD inhibitor before behavioral testing. We found that PCP reduced hippocampal GAD67 and abolished recognition memory. Antide restored hippocampal GAD67 and rescued recognition memory in PCP-treated animals. Estradiol prevented PCP's amnesic effect in NORT but failed to restore hippocampal GAD67. PCP did not cause significant differences in number of parvalbumin-expressing cells or cortical expression of GAD67. Hippocampal infusions of a GABA A agonist restored recognition memory in PCP-treated rats. Blocking hippocampal GAD or GABA A receptors in ovx animals reproduced recognition memory loss similar to PCP and inhibited estradiol's protection of recognition memory in PCP-treated animals. In summary, decreasing LH or increasing E can lessen short-term episodic memory loss, as measured by novel object recognition, in a PCP model of schizophrenia. Alterations in hippocampal GABA may contribute to both PCP's effects on recognition memory and the hormones' ability to prevent or reverse them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreasing GABA function within the medial prefrontal cortex or basolateral amygdala decreases sociability.

    PubMed

    Paine, Tracie A; Swedlow, Nathan; Swetschinski, Lucien

    2017-01-15

    Decreased sociability is a symptom of psychiatric conditions including autism-spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Both of these conditions are associated with decreases in GABA function, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA); structures that are components of the social brain. Here, we determined if decreasing GABA transmission within either the PFC or the BLA decreases social behavior. Rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at either the medial PFC or the BLA and then were tested on up to 4 behavioral tests following bilateral infusions of 0.5μl bicuculline methiodide (BMI, a GABA A receptor antagonist) at doses of 0, 25, or 50ng/μl. Rats were tested in the social interaction test, the social preference test, the sucrose preference test and for locomotor activity (BLA infusions only). Intra-BLA or PFC BMI infusions decreased the amount of time and the number of social interactions in the social interaction test. Further, in the social preference test, rats infused with 50ng BMI no longer exhibited a preference to explore a social over a non-social stimulus. The change in sociability was not due to a change in reward processing or locomotor behavior. Decreasing GABA transmission in either the medial PFC or BLA decreased sociability. Thus, changes in GABA signaling observed in conditions such as autism or schizophrenia may mediate the social withdrawal characteristic of these conditions. Moreover, they suggest that social withdrawal may be treated by drugs that potentiate GABA transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Jen; Lee, Kuan H; Murphy, Lauren; Garraway, Sandra M; Grau, James W

    2016-11-01

    Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect. In spinally transected rats, noxious electrical stimulation and inflammation induce enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR), a behavioral index of nociceptive sensitization. Pretreatment with the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline blocked these effects. Peripheral application of an irritant (capsaicin) also induced EMR. Both the induction and maintenance of this effect were blocked by bicuculline. Cellular indices of central sensitization [c-fos expression and ERK phosphorylation (pERK)] were also attenuated. In intact (sham operated) rats, bicuculline had the opposite effect. Pretreatment with a GABA agonist (muscimol) attenuated nociceptive sensitization in intact, but not spinally injured, rats. The effect of SCI on GABA function was linked to a reduction in the Cl - transporter, KCC2, leading to a reduction in intracellular Cl - that would attenuate GABA-mediated inhibition. Pharmacologically blocking the KCC2 channel (with i.t. DIOA) in intact rats mimicked the effect of SCI. Conversely, a pharmacological treatment (bumetanide) that should increase intracellular Cl - levels blocked the effect of SCI. The results suggest that GABAergic neurons drive, rather than inhibit, the development of nociceptive sensitization after spinal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GABA and glutamate in schizophrenia: a 7 T ¹H-MRS study.

    PubMed

    Marsman, Anouk; Mandl, René C W; Klomp, Dennis W J; Bohlken, Marc M; Boer, Vincent O; Andreychenko, Anna; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Luijten, Peter R; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by loss of brain volume, which may represent an ongoing pathophysiological process. This loss of brain volume may be explained by reduced neuropil rather than neuronal loss, suggesting abnormal synaptic plasticity and cortical microcircuitry. A possible mechanism is hypofunction of the NMDA-type of glutamate receptor, which reduces the excitation of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, resulting in a disinhibition of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons. Disinhibition of pyramidal cells may result in excessive stimulation by glutamate, which in turn could cause neuronal damage or death through excitotoxicity. In this study, GABA/creatine ratios, and glutamate, NAA, creatine and choline concentrations in the prefrontal and parieto-occipital cortices were measured in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at an ultra-high magnetic field strength of 7 T. Significantly lower GABA/Cr ratios were found in patients with schizophrenia in the prefrontal cortex as compared to healthy controls, with GABA/Cr ratios inversely correlated with cognitive functioning in the patients. No significant change in the GABA/Cr ratio was found between patients and controls in the parieto-occipital cortex, nor were levels of glutamate, NAA, creatine, and choline differed in patients and controls in the prefrontal and parieto-occipital cortices. Our findings support a mechanism involving altered GABA levels distinguished from glutamate levels in the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, particularly in high functioning patients. A (compensatory) role for GABA through altered inhibitory neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex may be ongoing in (higher functioning) patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Conserved regional patterns of GABA-related transcript expression in the neocortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Bazmi, H Holly; Mirnics, Karoly; Wu, Qiang; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2008-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in a number of cognitive, affective, sensory, and motor functions that depend on the circuitry of different cortical areas. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related genes. Consequently, the authors sought to determine whether this pattern of altered gene expression is restricted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or could also contribute to the dysfunction of other cortical areas in subjects with schizophrenia. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of eight GABA-related transcripts in four cortical areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary motor and primary visual cortices) of subjects (N=12) with schizophrenia and matched normal comparison subjects. Expression levels of seven transcripts were lower in subjects with schizophrenia, with the magnitude of reduction for each transcript comparable across the four areas. The largest reductions were detected for mRNA encoding somatostatin and parvalbumin, followed by moderate decreases in mRNA expression for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the GABA membrane transporter GAT-1, and the alpha 1 and delta subunits of GABA(A) receptors. In contrast, the expression of calretinin mRNA did not differ between the subject groups in any of the four areas. Because the areas examined represent the major functional domains (e.g., association, limbic, motor, and sensory) of the cerebral cortex, our findings suggest that a conserved set of molecular alterations affecting GABA neurotransmission contribute to the pathophysiology of different clinical features of schizophrenia.

  18. Ionic plasticity and pain: The loss of descending serotonergic fibers after spinal cord injury transforms how GABA affects pain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Jen; Grau, James W

    2018-05-02

    Activation of pain (nociceptive) fibers can sensitize neural circuits within the spinal cord, inducing an increase in excitability (central sensitization) that can foster chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. In adult animals, the co-transporter KCC2 maintains a low intracellular concentration of the anion Cl - . As a result, when the GABA-A receptor is engaged, Cl - flows in the neuron which has a hyperpolarizing (inhibitory) effect. Spinal cord injury (SCI) can down-regulate KCC2 and reverse the flow of Cl - . Under these conditions, engaging the GABA-A receptor can have a depolarizing (excitatory) effect that fosters the development of nociceptive sensitization. The present paper explores how SCI alters GABA function and provides evidence that the loss of descending fibers alters pain transmission to the brain. Prior work has shown that, after SCI, administration of a GABA-A antagonist blocks the development of capsaicin-induced nociceptive sensitization, implying that GABA release plays an essential role. This excitatory effect is linked to serotonergic (5HT) fibers that descend through the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) and impact spinal function via the 5HT-1A receptor. Supporting this, blocking the 5HT-1A receptor, or lesioning the DLF, emulated the effect of SCI. Conversely, spinal application of a 5HT-1A agonist up-regulated KCC2 and reversed the effect of bicuculline treatment. Finally, lesioning the DLF reversed how a GABA-A antagonist affects a capsaicin-induced aversion in a place conditioning task; in sham operated animals, bicuculline enhanced aversion whereas in DLF-lesioned rats biciculline had an antinociceptive effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep-promoting effects of a GABA/5-HTP mixture: Behavioral changes and neuromodulation in an invertebrate model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-04-01

    This study was to investigate the sleep promoting effects of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), by examining neuronal processes governing mRNA level alterations, as well as assessing neuromodulator concentrations, in a fruit fly model. Behavioral assays were applied to investigate subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and total duration of subjective nighttime sleep of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture with caffeine treated flies. Also, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. Subjective nighttime activity and sleep patterns of individual flies significantly decreased with 1% GABA treatment in conjunction with 0.1% 5-HTP treatment (p<0.001). Furthermore, GABA/5-HTP mixture resulted in significant differences between groups related to sleep patterns (40%, p<0.017) and significantly induced subjective nighttime sleep in the awake model (p<0.003). These results related to transcript levels of the GABAB receptor (GABAB-R1) and serotonin receptor (5-HT1A), compared to the control group. In addition, GABA/5-HTP mixture significantly increased GABA levels 1h and 12h following treatment (2.1 fold and 1.2 fold higher than the control, respectively) and also increased 5-HTP levels (0 h: 1.01 μg/protein, 12h: 3.45 μg/protein). In this regard, we successfully demonstrated that using a GABA/5-HTP mixture modulates subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and total duration of subjective nighttime sleep to a greater extent than single administration of each amino acid, and that this modulation occurs via GABAergic and serotonergic signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Activates Motor Cortex Pyramidal Tract Neurons by a Process Involving Local Glutamate, GABA and Dopamine Receptors in Hemi-Parkinsonian Rats.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chi-Fen; Wu, Chen-Wei; Weng, Ying; Hu, Pei-San; Yeh, Shin-Rung; Chang, Yen-Chung

    2018-04-30

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we investigated how DBS applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) influenced the neural activity in the motor cortex. Rats, which had the midbrain dopaminergic neurons partially depleted unilaterally, called the hemi-Parkinsonian rats, were used as a study model. c-Fos expression in the neurons was used as an indicator of neural activity. Application of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) upon the STN was used to mimic the DBS treatment. The motor cortices in the two hemispheres of hemi-Parkinsonian rats were found to contain unequal densities of c-Fos-positive (Fos+) cells, and STN-HFS rectified this bilateral imbalance. In addition, STN-HFS led to the intense c-Fos expression in a group of motor cortical neurons which exhibited biochemical and anatomical characteristics resembling those of the pyramidal tract (PT) neurons sending efferent projections to the STN. The number of PT neurons expressing high levels of c-Fos was significantly reduced by local application of the antagonists of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) glutamate receptors, gammaaminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors and dopamine receptors in the upper layers of the motor cortex. The results indicate that the coincident activations of synapses and dopamine receptors in the motor cortex during STN-HFS trigger the intense expression of c-Fos of the PT neurons. The implications of the results on the cellular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of STN-DBS on the movement disorders of PD are also discussed.

  1. [GABA-NO interaction in the N. Accumbens during danger-induced inhibition of exploratory behavior].

    PubMed

    Saul'skaia, N V; Terekhova, E A

    2013-01-01

    In Sprague-Dawley rats by means of in vivo microdialysis combined with HPLC analysis, it was shown that presentation to rats during exploratory activity of a tone previously pared with footshock inhibited the exploration and prevented the exploration-induced increase in extracellular levels of citrulline (an NO co-product) in the medial n. accumbens. Intra-accumbal infusions of 20 μM bicuculline, a GABA(A)-receptor antagonist, firstly, partially restored the exploration-induced increase of extracellular citrulline levels in this brain area, which was inhibited by presentation of the tone, previously paired with foot-shock and, secondly, prevented the inhibition of exploratory behavior produced by this sound signal of danger. The data obtained indicate for the first time that signals of danger inhibit exploratory behavior and exploration-induced activation of the accumbal nitrergic system via GABA(A)-receptor mechanisms.

  2. The effects of elevated endogenous GABA levels on movement-related network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaraswamy, S D; Myers, J F M; Wilson, S J; Nutt, D J; Lingford-Hughes, A; Singh, K D; Hamandi, K

    2013-02-01

    The EEG/MEG signal is generated primarily by the summation of the post-synaptic potentials of cortical principal cells. At a microcircuit level, these glutamatergic principal cells are reciprocally connected to GABAergic interneurons and cortical oscillations are thought to be dependent on the balance of excitation and inhibition between these cell types. To investigate the dependence of movement-related cortical oscillations on excitation-inhibition balance, we pharmacologically manipulated the GABA system using tiagabine, which blocks GABA Transporter 1(GAT-1), the GABA uptake transporter and increases endogenous GABA activity. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, in 15 healthy participants we administered either 15mg of tiagabine or a placebo. We recorded whole-head magnetoencephalograms, while the participants performed a movement task, prior to, one hour post, three hour post and five hour post tiagabine ingestion. Using time-frequency analysis of beamformer source reconstructions, we quantified the baseline level of beta activity (15-30Hz), the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR), beta event-related desynchronisation (beta-ERD) and movement-related gamma synchronisation (MRGS) (60-90Hz). Our results demonstrated that tiagabine, and hence elevated endogenous GABA levels causes, an elevation of baseline beta power, enhanced beta-ERD and reduced PMBR, but no modulation of MRGS. Comparing our results to recent literature (Hall et al., 2011) we suggest that beta-ERD may be a GABAA receptor mediated process while PMBR may be GABAB receptor mediated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cocaine disinhibits dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area via use-dependent blockade of GABA neuron voltage-sensitive sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Steffensen, Scott C.; Taylor, Seth R.; Horton, Malia L.; Barber, Elise N.; Lyle, Laura T.; Stobbs, Sarah H.; Allison, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cocaine on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Utilizing single-unit recordings in vivo, microelectrophoretic administration of DA enhanced the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons via D2/D3 DA receptor activation. Lower doses of intravenous cocaine (0.25–0.5 mg/kg), or the DA transporter (DAT) blocker methamphetamine, enhanced VTA GABA neuron firing rate via D2/D3 receptor activation. Higher doses of cocaine (1.0–2.0 mg/kg) inhibited their firing rate, which was not sensitive to the D2/D3 antagonist eticlopride. The voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) blocker lidocaine inhibited the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons at all doses tested (0.25–2.0 mg/kg). Cocaine or lidocaine reduced VTA GABA neuron spike discharges induced by stimulation of the internal capsule (ICPSDs) at dose levels 0.25–2 mg/kg (IC50 1.2 mg/kg). There was no effect of DA or methamphetamine on ICPSDs, or of DA antagonists on cocaine inhibition of ICPSDs. In VTA GABA neurons in vitro, cocaine reduced (IC50 13 μm) current-evoked spikes and TTX-sensitive sodium currents in a use-dependent manner. In VTA DA neurons, cocaine reduced IPSCs (IC50 13 μm), increased IPSC paired-pulse facilitation and decreased spontaneous IPSC frequency, without affecting miniature IPSC frequency or amplitude. These findings suggest that cocaine acts on GABA neurons to reduce activity-dependent GABA release on DA neurons in the VTA, and that cocaine's use-dependent blockade of VTA GABA neuron VSSCs may synergize with its DAT inhibiting properties to enhance mesolimbic DA transmission implicated in cocaine reinforcement. PMID:19046384

  4. Three-Step Test System for the Identification of Novel GABAA Receptor Modulating Food Plants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Sümeyye; Eulenburg, Volker; Kreis, Wolfgang; Villmann, Carmen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Potentiation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-induced GABA A receptor (GABA A R) activation is a common pathway to achieve sedative, sleep-enhancing, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Presently, a three-component test system was established for the identification of novel GABA A R modulating food plants. In the first step, potentiation of GABA-induced response of the GABA A R was analysed by two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) for activity on human α1β2-GABA A R expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Positively tested food plants were then subjected to quantification of GABA content by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) to exclude test foods, which evoke a TEVC-response by endogenous GABA. In the third step, specificity of GABA A -modulating activity was assessed by TEVC analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the homologous glycine receptor (GlyR). The three-component test was then applied to screen 10 aqueous extracts of food plants for their GABA A R activity. Thus, hop cones (Humulus lupulus) and Sideritis sipylea were identified as the most potent specific GABA A R modulators eliciting significant potentiation of the current by 182 ± 27 and 172 ± 19 %, respectively, at the lowest concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The extracts can now be further evaluated by in vivo studies and by structural evaluation of the active components.

  5. Regulated lysosomal trafficking as a mechanism for regulating GABAA receptor abundance at synapses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathleen M; Sturt, Brianne L; Friedmann, Andrew J; Richmond, Janet E; Bessereau, Jean-Louis; Grant, Barth D; Bamber, Bruce A

    2010-08-01

    GABA(A) receptor plasticity is important for both normal brain function and disease progression. We are studying GABA(A) receptor plasticity in Caenorhabditis elegans using a genetic approach. Acute exposure of worms to the GABA(A) agonist muscimol hyperpolarizes postsynaptic cells, causing paralysis. Worms adapt after several hours, but show uncoordinated locomotion consistent with decreased GABA signaling. Using patch-clamp and immunofluorescence approaches, we show that GABA(A) receptors are selectively removed from synapses during adaptation. Subunit mRNA levels were unchanged, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism. Mutants with defective lysosome function (cup-5) show elevated GABA(A) receptor levels at synapses prior to muscimol exposure. During adaptation, these receptors are removed more slowly, and accumulate in intracellular organelles positive for the late endosome marker GFP-RAB-7. These findings suggest that chronic agonist exposure increases endocytosis and lysosomal trafficking of GABA(A) receptors, leading to reduced levels of synaptic GABA(A) receptors and reduced postsynaptic GABA sensitivity.

  6. Endogenous GABA and glutamate finely tune the bursting of olfactory bulb external tufted cells.

    PubMed

    Hayar, Abdallah; Ennis, Matthew

    2007-08-01

    In rat olfactory bulb slices, external tufted (ET) cells spontaneously generate spike bursts. Although ET cell bursting is intrinsically generated, its strength and precise timing may be regulated by synaptic input. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing whether the burst properties are modulated by activation of ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors. Blocking GABA(A) receptors increased--whereas blocking ionotropic glutamate receptors decreased--the number of spikes/burst without changing the interburst frequency. The GABA(A) agonist (isoguvacine, 10 microM) completely inhibited bursting or reduced the number of spikes/burst, suggesting a shunting effect. These findings indicate that the properties of ET cell spontaneous bursting are differentially controlled by GABAergic and glutamatergic fast synaptic transmission. We suggest that ET cell excitatory and inhibitory inputs may be encoded as a change in the pattern of spike bursting in ET cells, which together with mitral/tufted cells constitute the output circuit of the olfactory bulb.

  7. Synergistic GABA-Enhancing Therapy against Seizures in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, John C.; Cho, Alvin R.; Cheah, Christine S.; Scheuer, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Seizures remain uncontrolled in 30% of patients with epilepsy, even with concurrent use of multiple drugs, and uncontrolled seizures result in increased morbidity and mortality. An extreme example is Dravet syndrome (DS), an infantile-onset severe epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Studies in Scn1a heterozygous knockout mice demonstrate reduced excitability of GABAergic interneurons, suggesting that enhancement of GABA signaling may improve seizure control and comorbidities. We studied the efficacy of two GABA-enhancing drugs, clonazepam and tiagabine, alone and in combination, against thermally evoked myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Clonazepam, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors, protected against myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Tiagabine, a presynaptic GABA reuptake inhibitor, was protective against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but only minimally protective against myoclonic seizures and enhanced myoclonic seizure susceptibility at high doses. Combined therapy with clonazepam and tiagabine was synergistic against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but was additive against myoclonic seizures. Toxicity determined by rotorod testing was additive for combination therapy. The synergistic actions of clonazepam and tiagabine gave enhanced seizure protection and reduced toxicity, suggesting that combination therapy may be well tolerated and effective for seizures in DS. PMID:23424217

  8. Analgesia and hyperalgesia from GABA-mediated modulation of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, Luc; Rabkin, Samuel D; Granato, Alberto; Boudah, Abdennacer; Ohara, Peter T

    2003-07-17

    It is known that pain perception can be altered by mood, attention and cognition, or by direct stimulation of the cerebral cortex, but we know little of the neural mechanisms underlying the cortical modulation of pain. One of the few cortical areas consistently activated by painful stimuli is the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) where, as in other parts of the cortex, the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) robustly inhibits neuronal activity. Here we show that changes in GABA neurotransmission in the RAIC can raise or lower the pain threshold--producing analgesia or hyperalgesia, respectively--in freely moving rats. Locally increasing GABA, by using an enzyme inhibitor or gene transfer mediated by a viral vector, produces lasting analgesia by enhancing the descending inhibition of spinal nociceptive neurons. Selectively activating GABA(B)-receptor-bearing RAIC neurons produces hyperalgesia through projections to the amygdala, an area involved in pain and fear. Whereas most studies focus on the role of the cerebral cortex as the end point of nociceptive processing, we suggest that cerebral cortex activity can change the set-point of pain threshold in a top-down manner.

  9. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S.

    2013-12-15

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shiftmore » in GABA reversal potential (E{sub GABA}). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (g{sub GABA-extra}) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in g{sub GABA-extra} and E{sub GABA} influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40–100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30–40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing g{sub GABA-extra} reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when E{sub GABA} was shunting (−74 mV), but failed to alter

  10. Acute effects of sodium valproate and gamma-vinyl GABA on regional amino acid metabolism in the rat brain: incorporation of 2-[14C]glucose into amino acids.

    PubMed

    Chapman, A G; Riley, K; Evans, M C; Meldrum, B S

    1982-09-01

    Amino acid concentrations have been determined in rat brain regions (cortex, striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus) by HPLC after administration of acute anticonvulsant doses of sodium valproate (400 mg/kg, i.p.) and gamma-vinyl-GABA (1 g/kg, i.p.). After valproate administration the GABA level increases only in the cortex; aspartic acid concentration decreases in the cortex and hippocampus, and glutamic acid decreases in the hippocampus and striatum and increases in the cortex and cerebellum. There are no changes in the concentrations of glutamine, taurine, glycine, serine, and alanine following valproate administration. Only the GABA level increases in all the regions after gamma-vinyl-GABA administration. Cortical analyses 2, 4 and 10 minutes after pulse labeling with 2-[14C]glucose, i.v., show no change in the rate of cortical glucose utilization in the valproate treated group. The rate of labeling of glutamic acid is also unchanged, but the rate of labeling of GABA is reduced following valproate administration. After gamma-vinyl-GABA administration there is no change in the rate of labeling of GABA. These biochemical findings can be interpreted in terms of a primary anticonvulsant action of valproate on membrane receptors with secondary effects on the metabolism of amino acid neurotransmitters. This contrasts with the primary action of gamma-vinyl-GABA on GABA-transaminase activity.

  11. The Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor in Depression and Reward.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Laura H; Vlachou, Styliani; Slattery, David A; Li, Xia; Cryan, John F

    2018-06-01

    The metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA B ) receptor was the first described obligate G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer and continues to set the stage for discoveries in G protein-coupled receptor signaling complexity. In this review, dedicated to the life and work of Athina Markou, we explore the role of GABA B receptors in depression, reward, and the convergence of these domains in anhedonia, a shared symptom of major depressive disorder and withdrawal from drugs of abuse. GABA B receptor expression and function are enhanced by antidepressants and reduced in animal models of depression. Generally, GABA B receptor antagonists are antidepressant-like and agonists are pro-depressive. Exceptions to this rule likely reflect the differential influence of GABA B1 isoforms in depression-related behavior and neurobiology, including the anhedonic effects of social stress. A wealth of data implicate GABA B receptors in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. We focus on nicotine as an example. GABA B receptor activation attenuates, and deactivation enhances, nicotine reward and associated neurobiological changes. In nicotine withdrawal, however, GABA B receptor agonists, antagonists, and positive allosteric modulators enhance anhedonia, perhaps owing to differential effects of GABA B1 isoforms on the dopaminergic system. Nicotine cue-induced reinstatement is more reliably attenuated by GABA B receptor activation. Separation of desirable and undesirable side effects of agonists is achievable with positive allosteric modulators, which are poised to enter clinical studies for drug abuse. GABA B1 isoforms are key to understanding the neurobiology of anhedonia, whereas allosteric modulators may offer a mechanism for targeting specific brain regions and processes associated with reward and depression. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of VTA GABA neurons disrupts reward consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Zessen, Ruud; Phillips, Jana L.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Stuber, Garret D.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons promotes behavioral responses to rewards and environmental stimuli that predict them. VTA GABA inputs synapse directly onto DA neurons and may regulate DA neuronal activity to alter reward-related behaviors, however, the functional consequences of selective activation of VTA GABA neurons remains unknown. Here, we show that in vivo optogenetic activation of VTA GABA neurons disrupts reward consummatory behavior, but not conditioned anticipatory behavior in response to reward-predictive cues. In addition, direct activation of VTA GABA projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) resulted in detectable GABA release, but did not alter reward consumption. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of VTA GABA neurons directly suppressed the activity and excitability of neighboring DA neurons, as well as the release of DA in the NAc, suggesting that the dynamic interplay between VTA DA and GABA neurons can control the initiation and termination of reward-related behaviors. PMID:22445345

  13. Inhibition of GABA-gated chloride channels by 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, R A; Lees, G; Zheng, J; Verdon, B

    1999-03-01

    1. 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (12,14-Cl2DHA) reduced GABA-stimulated uptake of 36Cl- into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes suggesting inhibition of mammalian GABA(A) receptor function. 2. 12,14-Cl2DHA did not affect the binding of [3H]-muscimol to brain membranes but displaced specifically bound [3H]-EBOB. The inhibitory effect on [3H]-EBOB binding was not reversible. 12,14-Cl2DHA reduced the availability of [3H]-EBOB binding sites (Bmax) without changing the KD of the radioligand for remaining sites. 12,14-Cl2DHA did not affect the rate of association of [3H]-EBOB with its chloride channel receptor, but increased the initial rate of [3H]-EBOB dissociation. 3. 12,14-Cl2DHA enhanced the incidence of EPSCs when rapidly applied to cultured rat cortical neurones. Longer exposures produced block of IPSCs with marked increases in the frequency of EPSCs and min EPSCs. 12,14-Cl2DHA also irreversibly suppressed chloride currents evoked by pulses of exogenous GABA in these cells. 4. Ultimately, 12,14-Cl2DHA inhibited all synaptic traffic and action currents in current clamped cells indicating that, in contrast to picrotoxinin (which causes paroxysmal bursting), it is not fully selective for the GABA(A) receptor-chloride channel complex. 5. The depolarizing block seen with 12,14-Cl2DHA in amphotericin-perforated preparations implicates loss of Ca2+ buffering in the polarity change and this may account for inhibition of spontaneous action potentials. 6. Our investigation demonstrates that 12,14-Cl2DHA blocks GABA-dependent chloride entry in mammalian brain and operates as a non-competitive insurmountable GABA(A) antagonist. The mechanism likely involves either irreversible binding of 12,14-Cl2DHA to the trioxabicyclooctane recognition site or a site that is allosterically coupled to it. We cannot exclude, however, the possibility that 12,14-Cl2DHA causes localized proteolysis or more extensive conformational change within a critical subunit of the chloride channel.

  14. The role of GABA in NMDA-dependent long term depression (LTD) of rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    PubMed

    Grassi, S; Della Torre, G; Capocchi, G; Zampolini, M; Pettorossi, V E

    1995-11-20

    The role of GABA in NMDA-dependent long term depression (LTD) in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) was studied on rat brainstem slices. High frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents induces a long lasting reduction of the polysynaptic (N2) component of the field potentials recorded in the dorsal portion of the MVN. The induction but not the maintenance of this depression was abolished by AP5, a specific blocking agent for glutamate NMDA receptors. The involvement of GABA in mediating the depression was checked by applying the GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists, bicuculline and saclofen, before and after HFS. Under bicuculline and saclofen perfusion, HFS provoked a slight potentiation of the N2 wave, while the N2 depression clearly emerged after drug wash-out. This indicates that GABA is not involved in inducing the long term effect, but it is necessary for its expression. Similarly, the LTD reversed and a slight potentiation appeared when both drugs were administered after its induction. Most of these effects were due to the bicuculline, suggesting that GABAA receptors contribute to LTD more than GABAB do. According to our results, it is unlikely that the long lasting vestibular depression is the result of a homosynaptic LTD. On the contrary, our findings suggest that the depression is due to an enhancement of the GABA inhibitory effect, caused by an HFS dependent increase in gabaergic interneuron activity, which resets vestibular neuron excitability at a lower level.

  15. The Relevance of AgRP Neuron-Derived GABA Inputs to POMC Neurons Differs for Spontaneous and Evoked Release

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-dependent vesicle fusion. Additionally, there was no difference in the ability of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists to inhibit sIPSCs in POMC neurons when MORs were deleted from AgRP neurons, and activation of the inhibitory designer receptor hM4Di on AgRP neurons did not affect sIPSCs recorded from POMC neurons. These approaches collectively indicate that AgRP neurons do not significantly contribute to the strong spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Despite these observations, optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons reliably produced evoked IPSCs in POMC neurons, leading to the inhibition of POMC neuron firing. Thus, AgRP neurons can potently affect POMC neuron function without contributing a significant source of spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Together, these results indicate that the relevance of GABAergic inputs from AgRP to POMC neurons is state dependent and highlight the need to consider different types of transmitter release in circuit mapping and physiologic regulation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play an important role in driving food intake, while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Despite the importance of these two well characterized neuron types in maintaining metabolic homeostasis, communication between these

  16. The Relevance of AgRP Neuron-Derived GABA Inputs to POMC Neurons Differs for Spontaneous and Evoked Release.

    PubMed

    Rau, Andrew R; Hentges, Shane T

    2017-08-02

    Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-dependent vesicle fusion. Additionally, there was no difference in the ability of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists to inhibit sIPSCs in POMC neurons when MORs were deleted from AgRP neurons, and activation of the inhibitory designer receptor hM4Di on AgRP neurons did not affect sIPSCs recorded from POMC neurons. These approaches collectively indicate that AgRP neurons do not significantly contribute to the strong spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Despite these observations, optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons reliably produced evoked IPSCs in POMC neurons, leading to the inhibition of POMC neuron firing. Thus, AgRP neurons can potently affect POMC neuron function without contributing a significant source of spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Together, these results indicate that the relevance of GABAergic inputs from AgRP to POMC neurons is state dependent and highlight the need to consider different types of transmitter release in circuit mapping and physiologic regulation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play an important role in driving food intake, while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Despite the importance of these two well characterized neuron types in maintaining metabolic homeostasis, communication between these

  17. Impact of exogenous GABA treatments on endogenous GABA metabolism in anthurium cut flowers in response to postharvest chilling temperature.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Naderi, Roohangiz; Jannatizadeh, Abbasali; Babalar, Mesbah; Sarcheshmeh, Mohammad Ali Askari; Faradonbe, Mojtaba Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Anthurium flowers are susceptible to chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5-20 °C. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway may alleviate chilling stress in horticultural commodities by providing energy (ATP), reducing molecules (NADH), and minimizing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this experiment, the impact of a preharvest spray treatment with 1 mM GABA and postharvest treatment of 5 mM GABA stem-end dipping on GABA shunt pathway activity of anthurium cut flowers (cv. Sirion) in response to cold storage (4 °C for 21 days) was investigated. GABA treatments resulted in lower glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and higher GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities in flowers during cold storage, which was associated with lower GABA content and coincided with higher ATP content. GABA treatments also enhanced accumulation of endogenous glycine betaine (GB) in flowers during cold storage, as well as higher spathe relative water content (RWC). These findings suggest that GABA treatments may alleviate chilling injury of anthurium cut flowers by enhancing GABA shunt pathway activity leading to provide sufficient ATP and promoting endogenous GB accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Alteration of glutamate/GABA balance during acute alcohol intoxication in rats: effect of Xingnaojing injection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingjing; Yao, Limei; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Shi, Si; Cai, Qingyan; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong; Wang, Qi

    2015-05-26

    Xingnaojing Injection (XNJI) is a modern Chinese formula came from famous Chinese medicine An Gong Niu Huang Pill. XNJI has been used for treatment of cerebral diseases and stroke in China, and is approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China for the treatment of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). XNJI belongs to the ethnopharmacological family of medicines. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the XNJI effect on AAI. To investigate the effects of XNJI on glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and related receptor in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of AAI rat. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with microdialysis probes in LHA. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, 1.36mg/kg XNJI, 0.68mg/kg XNJI and 0.34mg/kg XNJI groups. During microdialysis, baseline samples were collected from 1h to 2.5h; thereafter, the rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of 52% ethanol, 5.2g/kg, or saline for control group. Twenty minutes later, three doses of XNJI was given by unilateral injection respectively, while saline for control and model groups, and samples were collected for the next 4h. The extracellular glutamate and GABA levels were measured in the LHA by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLU). The expression levels of related receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NR) subunit NR2A, NR2B and GABAA were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ethanol (5.2g/kg) significantly decreased the extracellular levels of glutamate and increased extracellular GABA in LHA. On the other hand ethanol significantly decreased NR2A and NR2B mRNAs expression, and increase GABAA mRNA expression. XNJI could increase the extracellular level of glutamate and decrease that of GABA; moreover, induced an increase in NR2A and NR2B mRNA expression, and a decrease in GABAA mRNA expression in LHA. The current changes in glutamate, GABA and mRNA expressions of related

  19. Altered cortical expression of GABA-related genes in schizophrenia: illness progression vs developmental disturbance.

    PubMed

    Hoftman, Gil D; Volk, David W; Bazmi, H Holly; Li, Siyu; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with altered expression of GABA-related genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether these gene expression abnormalities reflect disturbances in postnatal developmental processes before clinical onset or arise as a consequence of clinical illness remains unclear. Expression levels for 7 GABA-related transcripts (vesicular GABA transporter [vGAT], GABA membrane transporter [GAT1], GABAA receptor subunit α1 [GABRA1] [novel in human and monkey cohorts], glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 [GAD67], parvalbumin, calretinin, and somatostatin [previously reported in human cohort, but not in monkey cohort]) were quantified in the PFC from 42 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects and from 49 rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 1 week postnatal to adulthood. Levels of vGAT and GABRA1, but not of GAT1, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were lower in the PFC of the schizophrenia subjects. As previously reported, levels of GAD67, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, but not of calretinin, mRNAs were also lower in these subjects. Neither illness duration nor age accounted for the levels of the transcripts with altered expression in schizophrenia. In monkey PFC, developmental changes in expression levels of many of these transcripts were in the opposite direction of the changes observed in schizophrenia. For example, mRNA levels for vGAT, GABRA1, GAD67, and parvalbumin all increased with age. Together with published reports, these findings support the interpretation that the altered expression of GABA-related transcripts in schizophrenia reflects a blunting of normal postnatal development changes, but they cannot exclude a decline during the early stages of clinical illness. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Role of GABA Deficit in Sensitivity to the Psychotomimetic Effects of Amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyung-Heup; Sewell, Andrew; Elander, Jacqueline; Pittman, Brian; Ranganathan, Mohini; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Krystal, John; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-11-01

    Some schizophrenia patients are more sensitive to amphetamine (AMPH)-induced exacerbations in psychosis-an effect that correlates with higher striatal dopamine release. This enhanced vulnerability may be related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits observed in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that a pharmacologically induced GABA deficit would create vulnerability to the psychotomimetic effects to the 'subthreshold' dose of AMPH in healthy subjects, which by itself would not induce clinically significant increase in positive symptoms. To test this hypothesis, a GABA deficit was induced by intravenous infusion of iomazenil (IOM; 3.7 μg/kg), an antagonist and partial inverse agonist of benzodiazepine receptor. A subthreshold dose of AMPH (0.1 mg/kg) was administered by intravenous infusion. Healthy subjects received placebo IOM followed by placebo AMPH, active IOM followed by placebo AMPH, placebo IOM followed by active AMPH, and active IOM followed by active AMPH in a randomized, double-blind crossover design over 4 test days. Twelve healthy subjects who had a subclinical response to active AMPH alone were included in the analysis. Psychotomimetic effects (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)), perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)), and subjective effects (visual analog scale) were captured before and after the administration of drugs. IOM significantly augmented AMPH-induced peak changes in PANSS positive symptom subscale and both subjective and objective CADSS scores. There were no pharmacokinetic interactions. In conclusion, GABA deficits increased vulnerability to amphetamine-induced psychosis-relevant effects in healthy subjects, suggesting that pre-existing GABA deficits may explain why a subgroup of schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to AMPH.

  1. Dependence-induced ethanol drinking and GABA neurotransmission are altered in Alk deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Paul; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Varodayan, Florence P.; Nadav, Tali; Roberto, Marisa; Lasek, Amy W.; Roberts, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is expressed in the brain and implicated in alcohol abuse in humans and behavioral responses to ethanol in mice. Previous studies have shown an association of human ALK with acute responses to alcohol and alcohol dependence. In addition, Alk knockout (Alk −/−) mice consume more ethanol in a binge-drinking test and show increased sensitivity to ethanol sedation. However, the function of ALK in excessive drinking following the establishment of ethanol dependence has not been examined. In this study, we tested Alk −/− mice for dependence-induced drinking using the chronic intermittent ethanol-two bottle choice drinking (CIE-2BC) protocol. We found that Alk −/− mice initially consume more ethanol prior to CIE exposure, but do not escalate ethanol consumption after exposure, suggesting that ALK may promote the escalation of drinking after ethanol dependence. To determine the mechanism(s) responsible for this behavioral phenotype we used an electrophysiological approach to examine GABA neurotransmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a brain region that regulates alcohol consumption and shows increased GABA signaling after chronic ethanol exposure. GABA transmission in ethanol-naïve Alk −/− mice was enhanced at baseline and potentiated in response to acute ethanol application when compared to wild-type (Alk +/+) mice. Moreover, basal GABA transmission was not elevated by CIE exposure in Alk −/− mice as it was in Alk +/+ mice. These data suggest that ALK plays a role in dependence-induced drinking and the regulation of presynaptic GABA release in the CeA. PMID:26946429

  2. The depolarizing action of GABA in cultured hippocampal neurons is not due to the absence of ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Kim, Jimok; Alger, Bradley E; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Two recent reports propose that the depolarizing action of GABA in the immature brain is an artifact of in vitro preparations in which glucose is the only energy source. The authors argue that this does not mimic the physiological environment because the suckling rats use ketone bodies and pyruvate as major sources of metabolic energy. Here, we show that availability of physiologically relevant levels of ketone bodies has no impact on the excitatory action of GABA in immature cultured hippocampal neurons. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), the primary ketone body in the neonate rat, affected neither intracellular calcium elevation nor membrane depolarizations induced by the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, when assessed with calcium imaging or perforated patch-clamp recording, respectively. These results confirm that the addition of ketone bodies to the extracellular environment to mimic conditions in the neonatal brain does not reverse the chloride gradient and therefore render GABA hyperpolarizing. Our data are consistent with the existence of a genuine "developmental switch" mechanism in which GABA goes from having a predominantly excitatory role in immature cells to a predominantly inhibitory one in adults.

  3. CB1-Dependent Long-Term Depression in Ventral Tegmental Area GABA Neurons: A Novel Target for Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Lindsey; Sandoval, Philip; Nufer, Teresa; Ostlund, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    The VTA is necessary for reward behavior with dopamine cells critically involved in reward signaling. Dopamine cells in turn are innervated and regulated by neighboring inhibitory GABA cells. Using whole-cell electrophysiology in juvenile-adolescent GAD67-GFP male mice, we examined excitatory plasticity in fluorescent VTA GABA cells. A novel CB1-dependent LTD was induced in GABA cells that was dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). LTD was absent in CB1 knock-out mice but preserved in heterozygous littermates. Bath applied Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol depressed GABA cell activity, therefore downstream dopamine cells will be disinhibited; and thus, this could potentially result in increased reward. Chronic injections of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol occluded LTD compared with vehicle injections; however, a single exposure was insufficient to do so. As synaptic modifications by drugs of abuse are often tied to addiction, these data suggest a possible mechanism for the addictive effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in juvenile-adolescents, by potentially altering reward behavioral outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study identifies a novel form of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in VTA GABA neurons, a currently understudied cell type that is critical for the brain's reward circuit, and how Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol occludes this plasticity. This study specifically addresses a potential unifying mechanism whereby marijuana could exert rewarding and addictive/withdrawal effects. Marijuana use and legalization are a pressing issue for many states in the United States. Although marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug, the implications of legalized, widespread, or continued usage are speculative. This study in juvenile-adolescent aged mice identifies a novel form of synaptic plasticity in VTA GABA cells, and the synaptic remodeling that can occur after Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol use. PMID:29038246

  4. Effects of disrupting medial prefrontal cortex GABA transmission on decision-making in a rodent gambling task.

    PubMed

    Paine, T A; O'Hara, A; Plaut, B; Lowes, D C

    2015-05-01

    Decision-making is a complex cognitive process that is mediated, in part, by subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Decision-making is impaired in a number of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia. Notably, people with schizophrenia exhibit reductions in GABA function in the same PFC areas that are implicated in decision-making. For example, expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 is reduced in the dorsolateral PFC of people with schizophrenia. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether disrupting cortical GABA transmission impairs decision-making using a rodent gambling task (rGT). Rats were trained on the rGT until they reached stable performance and then were implanted with guide cannulae aimed at the medial PFC. Following recovery, the effects of intra-PFC infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or the GABA synthesis inhibitor L-allylglycine (LAG) on performance on the rGT were assessed. Intracortical infusions of BMI (25 ng/μl/side), but not LAG (10 μg/μl/side), altered decision-making. Following BMI infusions, rats made fewer advantageous choices. Follow-up experiments suggested that the change in decision-making was due to a change in the sensitivity to the punishments, rather than a change in the sensitivity to reward magnitudes, associated with each outcome. LAG infusions increased premature responding, a measure of response inhibition, but did not affect decision-making. Blocking GABAA receptors, but not inhibiting cortical GABA synthesis, within the medial PFC affects decision-making in the rGT. These data provide proof-of-concept evidence that disruptions in GABA transmission can contribute to the decision-making deficits in schizophrenia.

  5. A therapeutic dose of zolpidem reduces thalamic GABA in healthy volunteers: a proton MRS study at 4 T.

    PubMed

    Licata, Stephanie C; Jensen, J Eric; Penetar, David M; Prescot, Andrew P; Lukas, Scott E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2009-05-01

    Zolpidem is a nonbenzodiazepine sedative/hypnotic that acts at GABA(A) receptors to influence inhibitory neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system. A great deal is known about the behavioral effects of this drug in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about zolpidem's specific effects on neurochemistry in vivo. We evaluated how acute administration of zolpidem affected levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and other brain metabolites. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 4 T was employed to measure the effects of zolpidem on brain chemistry in 19 healthy volunteers. Participants underwent scanning following acute oral administration of a therapeutic dose of zolpidem (10 mg) in a within-subject, single-blind, placebo-controlled, single-visit study. In addition to neurochemical measurements from single voxels within the anterior cingulate (ACC) and thalamus, a series of questionnaires were administered periodically throughout the experimental session to assess subjective mood states. Zolpidem reduced GABA levels in the thalamus, but not the ACC. There were no treatment effects with respect to other metabolite levels. Self-reported ratings of "dizzy," "nauseous," "confused," and "bad effects" were increased relative to placebo, as were ratings on the sedation/intoxication (PCAG) and psychotomimetic/dysphoria (LSD) scales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the decrease in GABA and "dizzy." Zolpidem engendered primarily dysphoric-like effects and the correlation between reduced thalamic GABA and "dizzy" may be a function of zolpidem's interaction with alpha1GABA(A) receptors in the cerebellum, projecting through the vestibular system to the thalamus.

  6. CB1-Dependent Long-Term Depression in Ventral Tegmental Area GABA Neurons: A Novel Target for Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Friend, Lindsey; Weed, Jared; Sandoval, Philip; Nufer, Teresa; Ostlund, Isaac; Edwards, Jeffrey G

    2017-11-08

    The VTA is necessary for reward behavior with dopamine cells critically involved in reward signaling. Dopamine cells in turn are innervated and regulated by neighboring inhibitory GABA cells. Using whole-cell electrophysiology in juvenile-adolescent GAD67-GFP male mice, we examined excitatory plasticity in fluorescent VTA GABA cells. A novel CB1-dependent LTD was induced in GABA cells that was dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). LTD was absent in CB1 knock-out mice but preserved in heterozygous littermates. Bath applied Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol depressed GABA cell activity, therefore downstream dopamine cells will be disinhibited; and thus, this could potentially result in increased reward. Chronic injections of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol occluded LTD compared with vehicle injections; however, a single exposure was insufficient to do so. As synaptic modifications by drugs of abuse are often tied to addiction, these data suggest a possible mechanism for the addictive effects of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol in juvenile-adolescents, by potentially altering reward behavioral outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study identifies a novel form of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in VTA GABA neurons, a currently understudied cell type that is critical for the brain's reward circuit, and how Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol occludes this plasticity. This study specifically addresses a potential unifying mechanism whereby marijuana could exert rewarding and addictive/withdrawal effects. Marijuana use and legalization are a pressing issue for many states in the United States. Although marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug, the implications of legalized, widespread, or continued usage are speculative. This study in juvenile-adolescent aged mice identifies a novel form of synaptic plasticity in VTA GABA cells, and the synaptic remodeling that can occur after Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol use. Copyright © 2017 the

  7. The GABA Hypothesis in Essential Tremor: Lights and Shadows.

    PubMed

    Gironell, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypothesis in essential tremor (ET) implies a disturbance of the GABAergic system, especially involving the cerebellum. This review examines the evidence of the GABA hypothesis. The review is based on published data about GABA dysfunction in ET, taking into account studies on cerebrospinal fluid, pathology, electrophysiology, genetics, neuroimaging, experimental animal models, and human drug therapies. Findings from several studies support the GABA hypothesis in ET. The hypothesis follows four steps: 1) cerebellar neurodegeneration with Purkinje cell loss; 2) a decrease in GABA system activity in deep cerebellar neurons; 3) disinhibition in output deep cerebellar neurons with pacemaker activity; and 4) an increase in rhythmic activity of the thalamus and thalamo-cortical circuit, contributing to the generation of tremor. Doubts have been cast on this hypothesis, however, by the fact that it is based on relatively few works, controversial post-mortem findings, and negative genetic studies on the GABA system. Furthermore, GABAergic drug efficacy is low and some GABAergic drugs do not have antitremoric efficacy. The GABA hypothesis continues to be the most robust pathophysiological hypothesis to explain ET. There is light in all GABA hypothesis steps, but a number of shadows cannot be overlooked. We need more studies to clarify the neurodegenerative nature of the disease, to confirm the decrease of GABA activity in the cerebellum, and to test more therapies that enhance the GABA transmission specifically in the cerebellum area.

  8. Design and Mechanism of Tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA Aminotransferase Inactivators

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hoang V.; Hawker, Dustin D.; Wu, Rui; Doud, Emma; Widom, Julia; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Liu, Dali; Kelleher, Neil L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of two major neurotransmitters that regulate brain neuronal activity, are associated with many neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and cocaine addiction. One of the main methods to raise the GABA level in human brain is to use small molecules that cross the blood-brain barrier and inhibit the activity of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme that degrades GABA. We have designed a series of conformationally-restricted, tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA analogs with a properly-positioned leaving group that could facilitate a ring-opening mechanism, leading to inactivation of GABA-AT. One compound in the series is eight times more efficient an inactivator of GABA-AT than vigabatrin, the only FDA-approved inactivator of GABA-AT. Our mechanistic studies show that the compound inactivates GABA-AT by a new mechanism. The metabolite resulting from inactivation does not covalently bind to amino acid residues of GABA-AT but stays in the active site via H-bond interactions with Arg-192, a π-π interaction with Phe-189, and a weak nonbonded S···O=C interaction with Glu-270, thereby inactivating the enzyme. PMID:25781189

  9. Big GABA: Edited MR spectroscopy at 24 research sites.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Mark; Barker, Peter B; Bhattacharyya, Pallab K; Brix, Maiken K; Buur, Pieter F; Cecil, Kim M; Chan, Kimberly L; Chen, David Y-T; Craven, Alexander R; Cuypers, Koen; Dacko, Michael; Duncan, Niall W; Dydak, Ulrike; Edmondson, David A; Ende, Gabriele; Ersland, Lars; Gao, Fei; Greenhouse, Ian; Harris, Ashley D; He, Naying; Heba, Stefanie; Hoggard, Nigel; Hsu, Tun-Wei; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Kangarlu, Alayar; Lange, Thomas; Lebel, R Marc; Li, Yan; Lin, Chien-Yuan E; Liou, Jy-Kang; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Liu, Feng; Ma, Ruoyun; Maes, Celine; Moreno-Ortega, Marta; Murray, Scott O; Noah, Sean; Noeske, Ralph; Noseworthy, Michael D; Oeltzschner, Georg; Prisciandaro, James J; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Roberts, Timothy P L; Sack, Markus; Sailasuta, Napapon; Saleh, Muhammad G; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Simard, Nicholas; Swinnen, Stephan P; Tegenthoff, Martin; Truong, Peter; Wang, Guangbin; Wilkinson, Iain D; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Xu, Hongmin; Yan, Fuhua; Zhang, Chencheng; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Zöllner, Helge J; Edden, Richard A E

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the only biomedical imaging method that can noninvasively detect endogenous signals from the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the human brain. Its increasing popularity has been aided by improvements in scanner hardware and acquisition methodology, as well as by broader access to pulse sequences that can selectively detect GABA, in particular J-difference spectral editing sequences. Nevertheless, implementations of GABA-edited MRS remain diverse across research sites, making comparisons between studies challenging. This large-scale multi-vendor, multi-site study seeks to better understand the factors that impact measurement outcomes of GABA-edited MRS. An international consortium of 24 research sites was formed. Data from 272 healthy adults were acquired on scanners from the three major MRI vendors and analyzed using the Gannet processing pipeline. MRS data were acquired in the medial parietal lobe with standard GABA+ and macromolecule- (MM-) suppressed GABA editing. The coefficient of variation across the entire cohort was 12% for GABA+ measurements and 28% for MM-suppressed GABA measurements. A multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance (72%) in the GABA+ data was accounted for by differences between participants within-site, while site-level differences accounted for comparatively more variance (20%) than vendor-level differences (8%). For MM-suppressed GABA data, the variance was distributed equally between site- (50%) and participant-level (50%) differences. The findings show that GABA+ measurements exhibit strong agreement when implemented with a standard protocol. There is, however, increased variability for MM-suppressed GABA measurements that is attributed in part to differences in site-to-site data acquisition. This study's protocol establishes a framework for future methodological standardization of GABA-edited MRS, while the results provide valuable benchmarks for the MRS community

  10. Serotonin type-1D receptor stimulation of A-type K(+) channel decreases membrane excitability through the protein kinase A- and B-Raf-dependent p38 MAPK pathways in mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianyang; Zhang, Yuan; Qin, Wenjuan; Cao, Junping; Zhang, Yi; Ni, Jianqiang; Sun, Yangang; Jiang, Xinghong; Tao, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Although recent studies have implicated serotonin 5-HT1B/D receptors in the nociceptive sensitivity of primary afferent neurons, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel functional role of the 5-HT1D receptor subtype in regulating A-type potassium (K(+)) currents (IA) as well as membrane excitability in small trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. We found that the selective activation of 5-HT1D, rather than 5-HT1B, receptors reversibly increased IA, while the sustained delayed rectifier K(+) current was unaffected. The 5-HT1D-mediated IA increase was associated with a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation. Blocking G-protein signaling with pertussis toxin or by intracellular application of a selective antibody raised against Gαo or Gβ abolished the 5-HT1D effect on IA. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), but not of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or protein kinase C, abolished the 5-HT1D-mediated IA increase. Analysis of phospho-p38 (p-p38) revealed that activation of 5-HT1D, but not 5-HT1B, receptors significantly activated p38, while p-ERK and p-JNK were unaffected. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not its inactive analogue SB202474, and inhibition of B-Raf blocked the 5-HT1D-mediated IA response. Functionally, we observed a significantly decreased action potential firing rate induced by the 5-HT1D receptors; pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine abolished this effect. Taken together, these results suggest that the activation of 5-HT1D receptors selectively enhanced IA via the Gβγ of the Go-protein, PKA, and the sequential B-Raf-dependent p38 MAPK signaling cascade. This 5-HT1D receptor effect may contribute to neuronal hypoexcitability in small TG neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary GABA and food selection by rats.

    PubMed

    Tews, J K; Repa, J J; Harper, A E

    1986-01-01

    To obtain further information pertaining to amino acid-induced alterations in feeding behavior, studies were performed to examine the food choices made by rats fed low protein diets made more or less aversive by the addition of various amino acids. When rats were allowed to choose between two diets, they preferred a low protein control, threonine-imbalanced or nonprotein diet to one containing 2.5% gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Acceptance increased when GABA content was lowered to 1.5%; rats preferred this diet when the alternative diet was made sufficiently aversive. There were large individual differences among rats selecting from pairs of unacceptable diets. Avoidance of, or preference for, a given diet is clearly affected by the relative aversive qualities of the offered pair of diets.

  12. Differential association of GABAB receptors with their effector ion channels in Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Luján, Rafael; Aguado, Carolina; Ciruela, Francisco; Cózar, Javier; Kleindienst, David; de la Ossa, Luis; Bettler, Bernhard; Wickman, Kevin; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yugo

    2018-04-01

    Metabotropic GABA B receptors mediate slow inhibitory effects presynaptically and postsynaptically through the modulation of different effector signalling pathways. Here, we analysed the distribution of GABA B receptors using highly sensitive SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labelling in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. Immunoreactivity for GABA B1 was observed on presynaptic and, more abundantly, on postsynaptic compartments, showing both scattered and clustered distribution patterns. Quantitative analysis of immunoparticles revealed a somato-dendritic gradient, with the density of immunoparticles increasing 26-fold from somata to dendritic spines. To understand the spatial relationship of GABA B receptors with two key effector ion channels, the G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K + (GIRK/Kir3) channel and the voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channel, biochemical and immunohistochemical approaches were performed. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that GABA B receptors co-assembled with GIRK and Ca V 2.1 channels in the cerebellum. Using double-labelling immunoelectron microscopic techniques, co-clustering between GABA B1 and GIRK2 was detected in dendritic spines, whereas they were mainly segregated in the dendritic shafts. In contrast, co-clustering of GABA B1 and Ca V 2.1 was detected in dendritic shafts but not spines. Presynaptically, although no significant co-clustering of GABA B1 and GIRK2 or Ca V 2.1 channels was detected, inter-cluster distance for GABA B1 and GIRK2 was significantly smaller in the active zone than in the dendritic shafts, and that for GABA B1 and Ca V 2.1 was significantly smaller in the active zone than in the dendritic shafts and spines. Thus, GABA B receptors are associated with GIRK and Ca V 2.1 channels in different subcellular compartments. These data provide a better framework for understanding the different roles played by GABA B receptors and their effector ion channels in the cerebellar network.

  13. Opiate alkaloids antagonize postsynaptic glycine and GABA responses: correlation with convulsant action.

    PubMed

    Werz, M A; Macdonald, R L

    1982-03-18

    Opiate alkaloid and opioid peptide actions on spontaneous neuronal activity and postsynaptic amino acid responsiveness were assessed using intracellular recording techniques applied to murine spinal cord neurons in primary dissociated cell culture. Application of opiates was by superfusion and amino acids by iontophoresis. Glycine and GABA but not glutamate responses were antagonized by the opiate alkaloids. Since opiate effects on glycine and GABA responses were not naloxone-reversible, only weakly stereospecific, and not produced by the opioid peptide [D-Ala2]-Met-enkephalinamide, it is unlikely that these effects were mediated by opiate receptors. Opiate depression of glycine inhibition was correlated with the induction of paroxysmal depolarizations in cultured spinal cord neurons, suggesting that antagonism of inhibitory amino acid transmission may underlie the convulsant actions of high concentrations of the opiate alkaloids.

  14. Olfactory bulb short axon cell release of GABA and dopamine produces a temporally biphasic inhibition-excitation response in external tufted cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaolin; Plachez, Celine; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for co-expression of two or more classic neurotransmitters in neurons has increased but less is known about co-transmission. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, co-release dopamine (DA), the excitatory transmitter glutamate and the inhibitory transmitter GABA onto target cells in the striatum. Olfactory bulb (OB) short axon cells (SACs) form interglomerular connections and co-express markers for dopamine (DA) and GABA. Using an optogenetic approach we provide evidence that mouse OB SACs release both GABA and DA onto external tufted cells (ETCs) in other glomeruli. Optical activation of channelrhodopsin specifically expressed in DAergic SACs produced a GABAA receptor-mediated monosynaptic inhibitory response followed by DA-D1-like receptor-mediated excitatory response in ETCs. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization activates Ih current in ETCs; synaptically released DA increases Ih, which enhances post-inhibitory rebound spiking. Thus, the opposing actions of synaptically released GABA and DA are functionally integrated by Ih to generate an inhibition-to-excitation “switch” in ETCs. Consistent with the established role of Ih in ETC burst firing, we show that endogenous DA release increases ETC spontaneous bursting frequency. ETCs transmit sensory signals to mitral/tufted output neurons and drive intraglomerular inhibition to shape glomerulus output to downstream olfactory networks. GABA and DA co-transmission from SACs to ETCs may play a key role in regulating output coding across the glomerular array. PMID:23407950

  15. Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) abnormalities in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Roscoe O; McCarthy, Julie M; Prescot, Andrew P; Jensen, J Eric; Cooper, Alissa J; Cohen, Bruce M; Renshaw, Perry F; Ongür, Dost

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) abnormalities have been implicated in bipolar disorder. However, due to discrepant studies measuring postmortem, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and in vivo brain levels of GABA, the nature of these abnormalities is unclear. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated tissue levels of GABA in the anterior cingulate cortex and parieto-occipital cortex of participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Methods Fourteen stably medicated euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder type I (mean age 32.6 years, eight male) and 14 healthy control participants (mean age 36.9 years, 10 male) completed a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan at 4-Tesla after providing informed consent. We collected data from two 16.7-mL voxels using MEGAPRESS, and they were analyzed using LCModel. Results GABA/creatine ratios were elevated in bipolar disorder participants compared to healthy controls [F(1,21) = 4.4, p = 0.048] in the anterior cingulate cortex (25.1% elevation) and the parieto-occipital cortex (14.6% elevation). Bipolar disorder participants not taking GABA-modulating medications demonstrated greater GABA/creatine elevations than patients taking GABA-modulating medications. Conclusions We found higher GABA/creatine levels in euthymic bipolar disorder outpatients compared to healthy controls, and the extent of this elevation may be affected by the use of GABA-modulating medications. Our findings suggest that elevated brain GABA levels in bipolar disorder may be associated with GABAergic dysfunction and that GABA-modulating medications reduce GABA levels in this condition. PMID:23634979

  16. l-Proline, GABA Synthesis and Gamma Oscillations in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Volk, David W; Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Lewis, David A

    2016-12-01

    Altered inhibition from parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons is thought to contribute to impaired gamma frequency oscillations and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Crabtree and colleagues report that proline dehydrogenase deficits produce excessive cytosolic levels of the GABA-mimetic l-proline which impairs GABA synthesis and gamma oscillations in a manner that mimics schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) associated with isolation-induced abnormal responses to social stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryota; Hiraki, Yosuke; Nishida, Shoji; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Yabe, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    In isolation-reared mice, social encounter stimulation induces locomotor hyperactivity and activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), suggesting that dysregulation of dorsal raphe function may be involved in abnormal behaviors. In this study, we examined the involvement of dorsal raphe GABAergic dysregulation in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice. We also studied an epigenetic mechanism underlying abnormalities of the dorsal raphe GABAergic system. Both mRNA and protein levels of GABA(B1a), a GABA(B) receptor subunit, were increased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice, compared with these levels in group-reared mice. In contrast, mRNA levels for other GABAergic system-related genes (GABA(A) receptor α1, β2 and γ2 subunits, GABA(B) receptor 1b and 2 subunits, and glutamate decarboxylase 67 and 65) were unchanged. Intra-DRN microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) exacerbated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior, while microinjection of 0.3 nmol phaclofen (a GABA(B) receptor antagonist) attenuated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen elicited encounter-induced hyperactivity in group-reared mice. Neither baclofen nor phaclofen affected immobility time in the forced swim test and hyperactivity in a novel environment of isolation reared mice. Bisulfite sequence analyses revealed that the DNA methylation level of the CpG island around the transcription start site (TSS) of GABA(B1a) was decreased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that histone H3 was hyperacetylated around the TSS of GABA(B1a) in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. These findings indicate that an increase in dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) expression via epigenetic regulation is associated with abnormal responses to social stimulation such as encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation

  18. Glial GABA, synthesized by monoamine oxidase B, mediates tonic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Bo-Eun; Woo, Junsung; Chun, Ye-Eun; Chun, Heejung; Jo, Seonmi; Bae, Jin Young; An, Heeyoung; Min, Joo Ok; Oh, Soo-Jin; Han, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Taekeun; Kim, Young Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Lee, C Justin

    2014-01-01

    GABA is the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain and is released not only from a subset of neurons but also from glia. Although neuronal GABA is well known to be synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the source of glial GABA is unknown. After estimating the concentration of GABA in Bergmann glia to be around 5–10 mm by immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that GABA production in glia requires MAOB, a key enzyme in the putrescine degradation pathway. In cultured cerebellar glia, both Ca2+-induced and tonic GABA release are significantly reduced by both gene silencing of MAOB and the MAOB inhibitor selegiline. In the cerebellum and striatum of adult mice, general gene silencing, knock out of MAOB or selegiline treatment resulted in elimination of tonic GABA currents recorded from granule neurons and medium spiny neurons. Glial-specific rescue of MAOB resulted in complete rescue of tonic GABA currents. Our results identify MAOB as a key synthesizing enzyme of glial GABA, which is released via bestrophin 1 (Best1) channel to mediate tonic inhibition in the brain. PMID:25239459

  19. Occipital GABA correlates with cognitive failures in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Kristian; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Dong, Mia Yuan; Rees, Geraint; Near, Jamie; Kanai, Ryota

    2014-02-15

    The brain has limited capacity, and so selective attention enhances relevant incoming information while suppressing irrelevant information. This process is not always successful, and the frequency of such cognitive failures varies to a large extent between individuals. Here we hypothesised that individual differences in cognitive failures might be reflected in inhibitory processing in the sensory cortex. To test this hypothesis, we measured GABA in human visual cortex using MR spectroscopy and found a negative correlation between occipital GABA (GABA+/Cr ratio) and cognitive failures as measured by an established cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ). For a second site in parietal cortex, no correlation between CFQ score and GABA+/Cr ratio was found, thus establishing the regional specificity of the link between occipital GABA and cognitive failures. We further found that grey matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) correlated with cognitive failures independently from the impact of occipital GABA and together, occipital GABA and SPL grey matter volume statistically explained around 50% of the individual variability in daily cognitive failures. We speculate that the amount of GABA in sensory areas may reflect the potential capacity to selectively suppress irrelevant information already at the sensory level, or alternatively that GABA influences the specificity of neural representations in visual cortex thus improving the effectiveness of successful attentional modulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stimulation of accumbal GABAA receptors inhibits delta2-, but not delta1-, opioid receptor-mediated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Aono, Yuri; Kiguchi, Yuri; Watanabe, Yuriko; Waddington, John L; Saigusa, Tadashi

    2017-11-15

    The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABA A receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Drugs were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 25-50min infusions. The delta2-opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II (25.0nmol)- and delta1-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced increases in dopamine efflux were inhibited by the delta2-opioid receptor antagonist naltriben (1.5nmol) and the delta1-opioid receptor antagonist BNTX (150.0pmol), respectively. Muscimol (250.0pmol) inhibited deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (50.0pmol), which failed to affect deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux, counteracted the inhibitory effect of muscimol on deltorphin II-induced dopamine efflux. Neither muscimol (250.0pmol) nor bicuculline (50.0 and 500.0pmol) altered DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The present results show that reduction in accumbal GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic activity is necessary to produce delta2-opioid receptor-induced increase in accumbal dopamine efflux. This study indicates that activation of delta2- but not delta1-opioid receptors on the cell bodies and/or terminals of accumbal GABAergic interneurons inhibits GABA release and, accordingly, decreases GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic terminals, resulting in enhanced accumbal dopamine efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianying; Kumada, Tatsuro; Morishima, Toshitaka; Iwata, Satomi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Yoshida, Sachiko; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2014-04-01

    Although focal cortical malformations are considered neuronal migration disorders, their formation mechanisms remain unknown. We addressed how the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system affects the GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal migration underlying such malformations. A focal freeze-lesion (FFL) of the postnatal day zero (P0) glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in mouse neocortex produced a 3- or 4-layered microgyrus at P7. GABAergic interneurons accumulated around the necrosis including the superficial region during microgyrus formation at P4, whereas E17.5-born, Cux1-positive pyramidal neurons outlined the GABAergic neurons and were absent from the superficial layer, forming cell-dense areas in layer 2 of the P7 microgyrus. GABA imaging showed that an extracellular GABA level temporally increased in the GABAergic neuron-positive area, including the necrotic center, at P4. The expression of the Cl(-) transporter KCC2 was downregulated in the microgyrus-forming GABAergic and E17.5-born glutamatergic neurons at P4; these cells may need a high intracellular Cl(-) concentration to induce depolarizing GABA effects. Bicuculline decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in these microgyrus-forming cells. Thus, neonatal FFL causes specific neuronal accumulation, preceded by an increase in ambient GABA during microgyrus formation. This GABA increase induces GABAA receptor-mediated Ca(2+) oscillation in KCC2-downregulated microgyrus-forming cells, as seen in migrating cells during early neocortical development.

  2. Selective GABA(A) α5 positive allosteric modulators improve cognitive function in aged rats with memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer's disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABA(A) α5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABA(A) α5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABA(A) α5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of γ-aminobutyric acid at GABA(A) α5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 μg) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GABAA Receptors, Anesthetics and Anticonvulsants in Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Henschel, Oliver; Gipson, Keith E.; Bordey, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    GABA, acting via GABAA receptors, is well-accepted as the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mature brain, where it dampens neuronal excitability. The receptor's properties have been studied extensively, yielding important information about its structure, pharmacology, and regulation that are summarized in this review. Several GABAergic drugs have been commonly used as anesthetics, sedatives, and anticonvulsants for decades. However, findings that GABA has critical functions in brain development, in particular during the late embryonic and neonatal period, raise worthwhile questions regarding the side effects of GABAergic drugs that may lead to long-term cognitive deficits. Here, we will review some of these drugs in parallel with the control of CNS development that GABA exerts via activation of GABAA receptors. This review aims to provide a basic science and clinical perspective on the function of GABA and related pharmaceuticals acting at GABAA receptors. PMID:18537647

  4. Structure-activity relationships of seco-prezizaane and picrotoxane/picrodendrane terpenoids by Quasar receptor-surface modeling.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas J; Gurrath, Marion; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2004-08-01

    The seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes pseudoanisatin and parviflorolide from Illicium are noncompetitive antagonists at housefly (Musca domestica) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. They show selectivity toward the insect receptor and thus represent new leads toward selective insecticides. Based on the binding data for 13 seco-prezizaane terpenoids and 17 picrotoxane and picrodendrane-type terpenoids to housefly and rat GABA receptors, a QSAR study was conducted by quasi-atomistic receptor-surface modeling (Quasar). The resulting models provide insight into the structural basis of selectivity and properties of the binding sites at GABA receptor-coupled chloride channels of insects and mammals.

  5. Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus induces apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells by a type II death receptor mechanism and induces cell death and tumor clearance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cary, Zachary D; Willingham, Mark C; Lyles, Douglas S

    2011-06-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a potential oncolytic virus for treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor. M