Science.gov

Sample records for a-type intercalated cells

  1. Collecting Duct Intercalated Cell Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ankita; Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.

    2015-01-01

    Intercalated cells are kidney tubule epithelial cells with important roles in the regulation of acid-base homeostasis. However, in recent years the understanding of the function of the intercalated cell has become greatly enhanced and has shaped a new model for how the distal segments of the kidney tubule integrate salt and water reabsorption, potassium homeostasis, and acid-base status. These cells appear in the late distal convoluted tubule or in the connecting segment, depending on the species. They are most abundant in the collecting duct, where they can be detected all the way from the cortex to the initial part of the inner medulla. Intercalated cells are interspersed among the more numerous segment-specific principal cells. There are three types of intercalated cells, each having distinct structures and expressing different ensembles of transport proteins that translate into very different functions in the processing of the urine. This review includes recent findings on how intercalated cells regulate their intracellular milieu and contribute to acid-base regulation and sodium, chloride, and potassium homeostasis, thus highlighting their potential role as targets for the treatment of hypertension. Their novel regulation by paracrine signals in the collecting duct is also discussed. Finally, this article addresses their role as part of the innate immune system of the kidney tubule. PMID:25632105

  2. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl− absorption and HCO3− secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl−/HCO3− exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO3 administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO3− secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl− absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)-mediated Na+ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure. PMID:29285423

  3. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Wall, Susan M

    2017-12-01

    Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl - absorption and HCO 3 - secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO 3 administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO 3 - secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl - absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na + channel (ENaC)-mediated Na + absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.

  4. Novel Proinflammatory Function of Renal Intercalated Cells.

    PubMed

    Breton, Sylvie; Brown, Dennis

    2018-01-01

    Serious and often fatal acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently seen after major surgery, local and remote organ damage, and sepsis. It is associated with uncontrolled inflammation, and is usually diagnosed only after the kidneys have gone through significant and often irreversible damage. During our work involving another type of kidney disease that leads to acid-base disorders of the blood, we unexpectedly found high levels of a protein called the P2Y14 "purinergic" receptor, in specialized kidney epithelial cells called intercalated cells (ICs). These cells are responsible for maintaining whole body acid-base balance by regulating the secretion of excess protons into the urine, which normalizes blood pH. However, it turns out that the P2Y14 receptor in these cells responds to a molecule called uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose, which is a danger signal released by damaged cells anywhere in the body. When UDP-glucose reaches the kidney, it stimulates ICs to produce chemoattractant cytokines; this results in renal inflammation and contributes to the onset of AKI. Key Message: Thus, our work now points to ICs as key mediators of renal inflammation and AKI, following surgery and/or damage to remote organs, sepsis, and also local insults to the kidney itself. The link between the proton secreting ICs of the kidney and AKI is an example of how a fundamental research project with a defined aim, in this case understanding acid-base homeostasis, can lead to a novel observation that has unexpected but major implications in another area of human health. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cell migration, intercalation and growth regulate mammalian cochlear extension.

    PubMed

    Driver, Elizabeth Carroll; Northrop, Amy; Kelley, Matthew W

    2017-10-15

    Developmental remodeling of the sensory epithelium of the cochlea is required for the formation of an elongated, tonotopically organized auditory organ, but the cellular processes that mediate these events are largely unknown. We used both morphological assessments of cellular rearrangements and time-lapse imaging to visualize cochlear remodeling in mouse. Analysis of cell redistribution showed that the cochlea extends through a combination of radial intercalation and cell growth. Live imaging demonstrated that concomitant cellular intercalation results in a brief period of epithelial convergence, although subsequent changes in cell size lead to medial-lateral spreading. Supporting cells, which retain contact with the basement membrane, exhibit biased protrusive activity and directed movement along the axis of extension. By contrast, hair cells lose contact with the basement membrane, but contribute to continued outgrowth through increased cell size. Regulation of cellular protrusions, movement and intercalation within the cochlea all require myosin II. These results establish, for the first time, many of the cellular processes that drive the distribution of sensory cells along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. NLP-1: a DNA intercalating hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and cytotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Panicucci, R.; Heal, R.; Laderoute, K.

    The 2-nitroimidazole linked phenanthridine, NLP-1 (5-(3-(2-nitro-1-imidazoyl)-propyl)-phenanthridinium bromide), was synthesized with the rationale of targeting the nitroimidazole to DNA via the phenanthridine ring. The drug is soluble in aqueous solution (greater than 25 mM) and stable at room temperature. It binds to DNA with a binding constant 1/30 that of ethidium bromide. At a concentration of 0.5 mM, NLP-1 is 8 times more toxic to hypoxic than aerobic cells at 37 degrees C. This concentration is 40 times less than the concentration of misonidazole, a non-intercalating 2-nitroimidazole, required for the same degree of hypoxic cell toxicity. The toxicity of NLP-1 ismore » reduced at least 10-fold at 0 degrees C. Its ability to radiosensitize hypoxic cells is similar to misonidazole at 0 degrees C. Thus the putative targeting of the 2-nitroimidazole, NLP-1, to DNA, via its phenanthridine group, enhances its hypoxic toxicity, but not its radiosensitizing ability under the present test conditions. NLP-1 represents a lead compound for intercalating 2-nitroimidazoles with selective toxicity for hypoxic cells.« less

  7. Low cost iodine intercalated graphene for fuel cells electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinoiu, Adriana; Raceanu, Mircea; Carcadea, Elena; Varlam, Mihai; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2017-12-01

    On the theoretical predictions, we report the synthesis of iodine intercalated graphene for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) applications. The structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, specific surface area by BET method, Raman investigations. The presence of elemental iodine in the form of triiodide and pentaiodide was validated, suggesting that iodine was trapped between graphene layers, leading to interactions with C atoms. The electrochemical performances of iodinated graphenes were tested and compared with a typical PEMFC configuration, containing different Pt/C loading (0.4 and 0.2 mg cm-2). If iodinated graphene is included as microporous layer, the electrochemical performances of the fuel cell are higher in terms of power density than the typical fuel cell. Iodine-doped graphenes have been successfully obtained by simple and cost effective synthetic strategy and demonstrated new insights for designing of a high performance metal-free ORR catalyst by a scalable technique.

  8. CDC-42 Orients Cell Migration during Epithelial Intercalation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Walck-Shannon, Elise; Lucas, Bethany; Chin-Sang, Ian; Reiner, David; Kumfer, Kraig; Cochran, Hunter; Bothfeld, William; Hardin, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Cell intercalation is a highly directed cell rearrangement that is essential for animal morphogenesis. As such, intercalation requires orchestration of cell polarity across the plane of the tissue. CDC-42 is a Rho family GTPase with key functions in cell polarity, yet its role during epithelial intercalation has not been established because its roles early in embryogenesis have historically made it difficult to study. To circumvent these early requirements, in this paper we use tissue-specific and conditional loss-of-function approaches to identify a role for CDC-42 during intercalation of the Caenorhabditis elegans dorsal embryonic epidermis. CDC-42 activity is enriched in the medial tips of intercalating cells, which extend as cells migrate past one another. Moreover, CDC-42 is involved in both the efficient formation and orientation of cell tips during cell rearrangement. Using conditional loss-of-function we also show that the PAR complex functions in tip formation and orientation. Additionally, we find that the sole C. elegans Eph receptor, VAB-1, functions during this process in an Ephrin-independent manner. Using epistasis analysis, we find that vab-1 lies in the same genetic pathway as cdc-42 and is responsible for polarizing CDC-42 activity to the medial tip. Together, these data establish a previously uncharacterized role for polarized CDC-42, in conjunction with PAR-6, PAR-3 and an Eph receptor, during epithelial intercalation.

  9. CDC-42 Orients Cell Migration during Epithelial Intercalation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Bethany; Chin-Sang, Ian; Reiner, David; Kumfer, Kraig

    2016-01-01

    Cell intercalation is a highly directed cell rearrangement that is essential for animal morphogenesis. As such, intercalation requires orchestration of cell polarity across the plane of the tissue. CDC-42 is a Rho family GTPase with key functions in cell polarity, yet its role during epithelial intercalation has not been established because its roles early in embryogenesis have historically made it difficult to study. To circumvent these early requirements, in this paper we use tissue-specific and conditional loss-of-function approaches to identify a role for CDC-42 during intercalation of the Caenorhabditis elegans dorsal embryonic epidermis. CDC-42 activity is enriched in the medial tips of intercalating cells, which extend as cells migrate past one another. Moreover, CDC-42 is involved in both the efficient formation and orientation of cell tips during cell rearrangement. Using conditional loss-of-function we also show that the PAR complex functions in tip formation and orientation. Additionally, we find that the sole C. elegans Eph receptor, VAB-1, functions during this process in an Ephrin-independent manner. Using epistasis analysis, we find that vab-1 lies in the same genetic pathway as cdc-42 and is responsible for polarizing CDC-42 activity to the medial tip. Together, these data establish a previously uncharacterized role for polarized CDC-42, in conjunction with PAR-6, PAR-3 and an Eph receptor, during epithelial intercalation. PMID:27861585

  10. Intercalated cell-specific Rh B glycoprotein deletion diminishes renal ammonia excretion response to hypokalemia

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jesse M.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Handlogten, Mary E.; Han, Ki-Hwan; Verlander, Jill W.

    2013-01-01

    The ammonia transporter family member, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg), is an ammonia-specific transporter heavily expressed in the kidney and is necessary for the normal increase in ammonia excretion in response to metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia is a common clinical condition in which there is increased renal ammonia excretion despite the absence of metabolic acidosis. The purpose of this study was to examine Rhbg's role in this response through the use of mice with intercalated cell-specific Rhbg deletion (IC-Rhbg-KO). Hypokalemia induced by feeding a K+-free diet increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. In mice with intact Rhbg expression, hypokalemia increased Rhbg protein expression in intercalated cells in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and in the outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD). Deletion of Rhbg from intercalated cells inhibited hypokalemia-induced changes in urinary total ammonia excretion significantly and completely prevented hypokalemia-induced increases in urinary ammonia concentration, but did not alter urinary pH. We conclude that hypokalemia increases Rhbg expression in intercalated cells in the cortex and outer medulla and that intercalated cell Rhbg expression is necessary for the normal increase in renal ammonia excretion in response to hypokalemia. PMID:23220726

  11. Forces Generated by Cell Intercalation Tow Epidermal Sheets in Mammalian Tissue Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Evan; Kumar, K. Vijay; Grill, Stephan W.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Summary While gastrulation movements offer mechanistic paradigms for how collective cellular movements shape developing embryos, far less is known about coordinated cellular movements that occur later in development. Studying eyelid closure, we explore a case where an epithelium locally reshapes, expands, and moves over another epithelium. Live imaging, gene targeting and cell cycle inhibitors reveal that closure does not require overlying periderm, proliferation or supracellular actin cable assembly. Laser ablation and quantitative analyses of tissue deformations further distinguish the mechanism from wound-repair and dorsal closure. Rather, cell intercalations parallel to the tissue front locally compress it perpendicularly, pulling the surrounding epidermis along the closure axis. Functional analyses in vivo show that the mechanism requires localized myosin-IIA and α5β1-fibronectin-mediated migration, and E-cadherin downregulation likely stimulated by Wnt signaling. These studies uncover a mode of epithelial closure in which forces generated by cell intercalation are leveraged to tow the surrounding tissue. PMID:24697897

  12. Resistance to hypertension mediated by intercalated cells of the collecting duct

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daian; Herrera, Marcela; Sparks, Matthew A.; Gurley, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    The renal collecting duct (CD), as the terminal segment of the nephron, is responsible for the final adjustments to the amount of sodium excreted in urine. While angiotensin II modulates reabsorptive functions of the CD, the contribution of these actions to physiological homeostasis is not clear. To examine this question, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors from the CD. Elimination of AT1A receptors from both principal and intercalated cells (CDKO mice) had no effect on blood pressures at baseline or during successive feeding of low- or high-salt diets. In contrast, the severity of hypertension caused by chronic infusion of angiotensin II was paradoxically exaggerated in CDKO mice compared with controls. In wild-type mice, angiotensin II induced robust expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in renal medulla, primarily localized to intercalated cells. Upregulation of COX-2 was diminished in CDKO mice, resulting in reduced generation of vasodilator prostanoids. This impaired expression of COX-2 has physiological consequences, since administration of a specific COX-2 inhibitor to CDKO and control mice during angiotensin II infusion equalized their blood pressures. Stimulation of COX-2 was also triggered by exposure of isolated preparations of medullary CDs to angiotensin II. Deletion of AT1A receptors from principal cells alone did not affect angiotensin II–dependent COX2 stimulation, implicating intercalated cells as the main source of COX2 in this setting. These findings suggest a novel paracrine role for the intercalated cell to attenuate the severity of hypertension. Strategies for preserving or augmenting this pathway may have value for improving the management of hypertension. PMID:28405625

  13. Renal Type A Intercalated Cells Contain Albumin in Organelles with Aldosterone-Regulated Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells. PMID:25874770

  14. Wnt5 is required for notochord cell intercalation in the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi.

    PubMed

    Niwano, Tomoko; Takatori, Naohito; Kumano, Gaku; Nishida, Hiroki

    2009-08-25

    In the embryos of various animals, the body elongates after gastrulation by morphogenetic movements involving convergent extension. The Wnt/PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays roles in this process, particularly mediolateral polarization and intercalation of the embryonic cells. In ascidians, several factors in this pathway, including Wnt5, have been identified and found to be involved in the intercalation process of notochord cells. In the present study, the role of the Wnt5 genes, Hr-Wnt5alpha (Halocynthia roretzi Wnt5alpha) and Hr-Wnt5beta, in convergent extension was investigated in the ascidian H. roretzi by injecting antisense oligonucleotides and mRNAs into single precursor blastomeres of various tissues, including notochord, at the 64-cell stage. Hr-Wnt5alpha is expressed in developing notochord and was essential for notochord morphogenesis. Precise quantitative control of its expression level was crucial for proper cell intercalation. Overexpression of Wnt5 proteins in notochord and other tissues that surround the notochord indicated that Wnt5alpha plays a role within the notochord, and is unlikely to be the source of polarizing cues arising outside the notochord. Detailed mosaic analysis of the behaviour of individual notochord cells overexpressing Wnt5alpha indicated that a Wnt5alpha-manipulated cell does not affect the behaviour of neighbouring notochord cells, suggesting that Wnt5alpha works in a cell-autonomous manner. This is further supported by comparison of the results of Wnt5alpha and Dsh (Dishevelled) knockdown experiments. In addition, our results suggest that the Wnt/PCP pathway is also involved in mediolateral intercalation of cells of the ventral row of the nerve cord (floor plate) and the endodermal strand. The present study highlights the role of the Wnt5alpha signal in notochord convergent extension movements in ascidian embryos. Our results raise the novel possibility that Wnt5alpha functions in a cell-autonomous manner in

  15. Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Simoes, Sérgio de Matos; Röper, Jens-Christian; Eaton, Suzanne; Zallen, Jennifer A

    2009-11-01

    Axis elongation in Drosophila occurs through polarized cell rearrangements driven by actomyosin contractility. Myosin II promotes neighbor exchange through the contraction of single cell boundaries, while the contraction of myosin II structures spanning multiple pairs of cells leads to rosette formation. Here we show that multicellular actomyosin cables form at a higher frequency than expected by chance, indicating that cable assembly is an active process. Multicellular cables are sites of increased mechanical tension as measured by laser ablation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments show that myosin II is stabilized at the cortex in regions of increased tension. Myosin II is recruited in response to an ectopic force and relieving tension leads to a rapid loss of myosin, indicating that tension is necessary and sufficient for cortical myosin localization. These results demonstrate that myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in a positive feedback loop that leads to multicellular actomyosin cable formation and efficient tissue elongation.

  16. Cell vertices as independent actors during cell intercalation in epithelial morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loerke, Dinah

    Epithelial sheets form the lining of organ surfaces and body cavities, and it is now appreciated that these sheets are dynamic structures that can undergo significant reorganizing events, e.g. during wound healing or morphogenesis. One of the key morphogenetic mechanisms that is utilized during development is tissue elongation, which is driven by oriented cell intercalation. In the Drosophila embryonic epithelium, this occurs through the contraction of vertical T1 interfaces and the subsequent resolution of horizontal T3 interfaces (analogous to so-called T1 transitions in soap foams), where the symmetry breaking behaviors are created by a system of planar polarity of actomyosin and adhesion complexes within the cell layer. The dominant physical model for this process posits that the anisotropy of line tension directs T1 contraction. However, this model is inconsistent with the in vivo observation that cell vertices of T1 interfaces lack physical coupling, and instead show independent movements. Thus, we propose that a more useful explanation of intercalary behaviors will be possible through a description of the radially-directed and adhesion-coupled force events that lead to vertex movements and produce subsequent dependent changes in interface lengths. This work is supported by NIH R15 GM117463-01 and by a Research Corporation for Science Advancement (RCSA) Cottrell Scholar Award.

  17. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Low Cost, High Capacity Non- Intercalation Chemistry Automotive Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Berdichevsky, Gene

    Commercial Li-ion batteries typically use Ni- and Co-based intercalation cathodes. As the demand for improved performance from batteries increases, these cathode materials will no longer be able to provide the desired energy storage characteristics since they are currently approaching their theoretical limits. Conversion cathode materials are prime candidates for improvement of Li-ion batteries. On both a volumetric and gravimetric basis they have higher theoretical capacity than intercalation cathode materials. Metal fluoride (MFx) cathodes offer higher specific energy density and dramatically higher volumetric energy density. Challenges associated with metal fluoride cathodes were addressed through nanostructured material design and synthesis. A majormore » goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate Li-ion cells based on Si-comprising anodes and metal fluoride (MFx) comprising cathodes. Pairing the high-capacity MFx cathode with a high-capacity anode, such as an alloying Si anode, allows for the highest possible energy density on a cell level. After facing and overcoming multiple material synthesis and electrochemical instability challenges, we succeeded in fabrication of MFx half cells with cycle stability in excess of 500 cycles (to 20% or smaller degradation) and full cells with MFx-based cathodes and Si-based anodes with cycle stability in excess of 200 cycles (to 20% or smaller degradation).« less

  18. Adam10 Mediates the Choice between Principal Cells and Intercalated Cells in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiusha; Wang, Yinqiu; Tripathi, Piyush; Manda, Kalyan R.; Mukherjee, Malini; Chaklader, Malay; Austin, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (Adam10), a member of the ADAM family of cell membrane–anchored proteins, has been linked to the regulation of the Notch, EGF, E-cadherin, and other signaling pathways. However, it is unclear what role Adam10 has in the kidney in vivo. In this study, we showed that Adam10 deficiency in ureteric bud (UB) derivatives leads to a decrease in urinary concentrating ability, polyuria, and hydronephrosis in mice. Furthermore, Adam10 deficiency led to a reduction in the percentage of aquaporin 2 (Aqp2)+ principal cells (PCs) in the collecting ducts that was accompanied by a proportional increase in the percentage of intercalated cells (ICs). This increase was more prominent in type A ICs than in type B ICs. Foxi1, a transcription factor important for the differentiation of ICs, was upregulated in the Adam10 mutants. The observed reduction of Notch activity in Adam10 mutant collecting duct epithelium and the similar reduction of PC/IC ratios in the collecting ducts in mice deficient for mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, a key regulator of the Notch and Wnt/receptor-like tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, suggest that Adam10 regulates cell fate determination through the activation of Notch signaling, probably through the regulation of Foxi1 expression. However, phenotypic differences between the Adam10 mutants, the Mib1 mutants, and the Foxi1 mutants suggest that the functions of Adam10 in determining the fate of collecting duct cells are more complex than those of a simple upstream factor in a linear pathway involving Notch and Foxi1. PMID:24904084

  19. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2015-10-27

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqeuous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  20. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound.

    PubMed

    Abdul Latip, Ahmad Faiz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, Charng Choon; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the drug anions were successfully intercalated in the interlayer space of LZH. Specific surface area of the obtained compound was increased compared to that of the host due to the different pore textures between the two materials. CFX anions were slowly released over 80 hours in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution due to strong interactions that occurred between the intercalated anions and the host lattices. The intercalation compound demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative effects towards A549 cancer cells compared to the toxicity of CFX alone. Strong host-guest interactions between the LZH lattice and the CFX anion give rise to a new intercalation compound that demonstrates sustained release mode and enhanced toxicity effects towards A549 cell lines. These findings should serve as foundations towards further developments of the brucite-like host material in drug delivery systems.

  1. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Results Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the drug anions were successfully intercalated in the interlayer space of LZH. Specific surface area of the obtained compound was increased compared to that of the host due to the different pore textures between the two materials. CFX anions were slowly released over 80 hours in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution due to strong interactions that occurred between the intercalated anions and the host lattices. The intercalation compound demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative effects towards A549 cancer cells compared to the toxicity of CFX alone. Conclusions Strong host-guest interactions between the LZH lattice and the CFX anion give rise to a new intercalation compound that demonstrates sustained release mode and enhanced toxicity effects towards A549 cell lines. These findings should serve as foundations towards further developments of the brucite-like host material in drug delivery systems. PMID:23849189

  2. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, Robert E.; Downie, Craig M.; Fischer, Christopher

    2016-01-19

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negativemore » electrode active material is described.« less

  3. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher

    2016-07-26

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negativemore » electrode active material is described.« less

  4. Axial elongation in mouse embryos involves mediolateral cell intercalation behavior in the paraxial mesoderm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, WeiWei; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sutherland, Ann E.

    2006-02-01

    The cell mechanical and signaling pathways involved in gastrulation have been studied extensively in invertebrates and amphibians, such as Xenopus, and more recently in non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chick. However, because culturing mouse embryos extra-utero is very difficult, this fundamental process has been least characterized in the mouse. As the primary mammalian model for genetics, biochemistry, and the study of human disease and birth defects, it is important to investigate how gastrulation proceeds in murine embryos. We have developed a method of using 4D multiphoton excitation microscopy and extra-utero culture to visualize and characterize the morphogenetic movements in mouse embryos dissected at 8.5 days of gestation. Cells are labeled by expression of an X chromosome-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. This method has provided a unique approach, where, for the first time, patterns of cell behavior in the notochord and surrounding paraxial mesoderm can be visualized and traced quantitatively. Our observations of mouse embryos reveal both distinct differences as well as striking similarities in patterned cell motility relative to other vertebrate models such as Xenopus, where axial extension is driven primarily by mediolateral oriented cell behaviors in the notochord and paraxial somitic mesoderm. Unlike Xenopus, the width of the mouse notochord remains the same between 4-somite stage and 8-somite stage embryos. This implies the mouse notochord plays a lesser role in driving axial extension compared to Xenopus, although intercalation may occur where the anterior region of the node becomes notochordal plate. In contrast, the width of mouse paraxial mesoderm narrows significantly during this period and cells within the paraxial mesoderm are both elongated and aligned perpendicular to the midline. In addition, these cells are observed to intercalate, consistent with a role for paraxial mesoderm in driving convergence

  5. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gill, Martin R; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A

    2016-08-25

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)](2+) (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)](2+) before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing.

  6. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Martin R.; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2016-08-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing.

  7. DNA mismatch-specific targeting and hypersensitivity of mismatch-repair-deficient cells to bulky rhodium(III) intercalators

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jonathan R.; Glebov, Oleg; Ernst, Russell J.; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2006-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is critical to maintaining the integrity of the genome, and deficiencies in MMR are correlated with cancerous transformations. Bulky rhodium intercalators target DNA base mismatches with high specificity. Here we describe the application of bulky rhodium intercalators to inhibit cellular proliferation differentially in MMR-deficient cells compared with cells that are MMR-proficient. Preferential inhibition by the rhodium complexes associated with MMR deficiency is seen both in a human colon cancer cell line and in normal mouse fibroblast cells; the inhibition of cellular proliferation depends strictly on the MMR deficiency of the cell. Furthermore, our assay of cellular proliferation is found to correlate with DNA mismatch targeting by the bulky metallointercalators. It is the Δ-isomer that is active both in targeting base mismatches and in inhibiting DNA synthesis. Additionally, the rhodium intercalators promote strand cleavage at the mismatch site with photoactivation, and we observe that the cellular response is enhanced with photoactivation. Targeting DNA mismatches may therefore provide a cell-selective strategy for chemotherapeutic design. PMID:17030786

  8. α-Intercalated cells defend the urinary system from bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Paragas, Neal; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Werth, Max; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M; Forster, Catherine; Deng, Rong; Zhang, Qingyin; Singer, Eugenia; Klose, Alexander D; Shen, Tian Huai; Francis, Kevin P; Ray, Sunetra; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Seward, Samuel; Bovino, Mary E; Xu, Katherine; Takabe, Yared; Amaral, Fábio E; Mohan, Sumit; Wax, Rebecca; Corbin, Kaitlyn; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mori, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Lynne; Nickolas, Thomas; D'Agati, Vivette; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Qiu, Andong; Al-Awqati, Qais; Ratner, Adam J; Barasch, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    α-Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic E. coli and responded by acidifying the urine and secreting the bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL). A-IC-dependent LCN2 secretion required TLR4, as mice expressing an LPS-insensitive form of TLR4 expressed reduced levels of LCN2. The presence of LCN2 in urine was both necessary and sufficient to control the urinary tract infection through iron sequestration, even in the harsh condition of urine acidification. In mice lacking A-ICs, both urinary LCN2 and urinary acidification were reduced, and consequently bacterial clearance was limited. Together these results indicate that A-ICs, which are known to regulate acid-base metabolism, are also critical for urinary defense against pathogenic bacteria. They respond to both cystitis and pyelonephritis by delivering bacteriostatic chemical agents to the lower urinary system.

  9. α–Intercalated cells defend the urinary system from bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Paragas, Neal; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Werth, Max; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M.; Forster, Catherine; Deng, Rong; Zhang, Qingyin; Singer, Eugenia; Klose, Alexander D.; Shen, Tian Huai; Francis, Kevin P.; Ray, Sunetra; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Seward, Samuel; Bovino, Mary E.; Xu, Katherine; Takabe, Yared; Amaral, Fábio E.; Mohan, Sumit; Wax, Rebecca; Corbin, Kaitlyn; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mori, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Lynne; Nickolas, Thomas; D’Agati, Vivette; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Qiu, Andong; Al-Awqati, Qais; Ratner, Adam J.; Barasch, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    α–Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic E. coli and responded by acidifying the urine and secreting the bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL). A-IC–dependent LCN2 secretion required TLR4, as mice expressing an LPS-insensitive form of TLR4 expressed reduced levels of LCN2. The presence of LCN2 in urine was both necessary and sufficient to control the urinary tract infection through iron sequestration, even in the harsh condition of urine acidification. In mice lacking A-ICs, both urinary LCN2 and urinary acidification were reduced, and consequently bacterial clearance was limited. Together these results indicate that A-ICs, which are known to regulate acid-base metabolism, are also critical for urinary defense against pathogenic bacteria. They respond to both cystitis and pyelonephritis by delivering bacteriostatic chemical agents to the lower urinary system. PMID:24937428

  10. Unipolar distributions of junctional Myosin II identify cell stripe boundaries that drive cell intercalation throughout Drosophila axis extension

    PubMed Central

    Tetley, Robert J; Blanchard, Guy B; Fletcher, Alexander G; Adams, Richard J; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Convergence and extension movements elongate tissues during development. Drosophila germ-band extension (GBE) is one example, which requires active cell rearrangements driven by Myosin II planar polarisation. Here, we develop novel computational methods to analyse the spatiotemporal dynamics of Myosin II during GBE, at the scale of the tissue. We show that initial Myosin II bipolar cell polarization gives way to unipolar enrichment at parasegmental boundaries and two further boundaries within each parasegment, concomitant with a doubling of cell number as the tissue elongates. These boundaries are the primary sites of cell intercalation, behaving as mechanical barriers and providing a mechanism for how cells remain ordered during GBE. Enrichment at parasegment boundaries during GBE is independent of Wingless signaling, suggesting pair-rule gene control. Our results are consistent with recent work showing that a combinatorial code of Toll-like receptors downstream of pair-rule genes contributes to Myosin II polarization via local cell-cell interactions. We propose an updated cell-cell interaction model for Myosin II polarization that we tested in a vertex-based simulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12094.001 PMID:27183005

  11. Molecular packing and electronic processes in amorphous-like polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with fullerene intercalation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ting; Xu, Haihua; Grancini, Giulia; Mai, Jiangquan; Petrozza, Annamaria; Jeng, U-Ser; Wang, Yan; Xin, Xin; Lu, Yong; Choon, Ng Siu; Xiao, Hu; Ong, Beng S; Lu, Xinhui; Zhao, Ni

    2014-06-09

    The interpenetrating morphology formed by the electron donor and acceptor materials is critical for the performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic (PV) cells. In this work we carried out a systematic investigation on a high PV efficiency (>6%) BHJ system consisting of a newly developed 5,6-difluorobenzo[c] thiadiazole-based copolymer, PFBT-T20TT, and a fullerene derivative. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering measurements reveal the lower-ordered nature of the BHJ system as well as an intermixing morphology with intercalation of fullerene molecules between the PFBT-T20TT lamella. Steady-state and transient photo-induced absorption spectroscopy reveal ultrafast charge transfer (CT) at the PFBT-T20TT/fullerene interface, indicating that the CT process is no longer limited by exciton diffusion. Furthermore, we extracted the hole mobility based on the space limited current (SCLC) model and found that more efficient hole transport is achieved in the PFBT-T20TT:fullerene BHJ as compared to pure PFBT-T20TT, showing a different trend as compared to the previously reported highly crystalline polymer:fullerene blend with a similar intercalation manner. Our study correlates the fullerene intercalated polymer lamella morphology with device performance and provides a coherent model to interpret the high photovoltaic performance of some of the recently developed weakly-ordered BHJ systems based on conjugated polymers with branched side-chain.

  12. Bimolecular crystals with an intercalated structure improve poly(p-phenylenevinylene)-based organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyung-Geun; Park, Jun-Mo; Mangold, Hannah; Laquai, Frédéric; Choi, Tae-Lim; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The exciton dissociation, recombination, and charge transport of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) is influenced strongly by the nanomorphology of the blend, such as the grain size and the molecular packing. Although it is well known that polymers based on amorphous poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) have a fundamental limit to their efficiency because of low carrier mobility, which leads to increased recombination and unbalanced charge extraction, herein, we demonstrate that the issue can be overcome by forming bimolecular crystals of an amorphous PPV-based polymer:phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) intercalated structure. We used amorphous poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene-alt-2',5'-thienylene vinylene) (PPVTV), which has a simple chemical structure. A reasonably high power conversion efficiency (∼3.5 %) was obtained, although the material has an intrinsically amorphous structure and a relatively large band gap (2.0 eV). We demonstrate a correlation between a well-ordered bimolecular crystal of PPVTV:PCBM and an improved hole mobility of a PPVTV:PCBM film compared to a pristine PPVTV film by using 2 D grazing incidence XRD and space-charge-limited current measurements. Furthermore, we show that the bimolecular crystal structure in high-performance OPVs is related to an optimum molecular packing, which is influenced by the PPVTV:PCBM blending ratio, side-chain length, and molecular weight of the PPVTV polymer. Improved charge transport in PPVTV:PCBM bimolecular crystals leads to a fast sweep out of charges and thus suppression of nongeminate recombination under the operating conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Characterization of synthesis and storage of TGF-alpha in rat parotid acinar and intercalated duct cells.

    PubMed

    Login, G R; Yang, J; Bryan, K P; Digenis, E C; McBride, J; Elovic, A; Quissell, D O; Dvorak, A M; Wong, D T

    1997-03-01

    Although the expression and biological role of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) have been explored in a variety of normal cells in mammalian species, little is known about the storage of TGF-alpha in secretory cells of exocrine organs. Parotid glands from four rats were homogenized for RNA isolation followed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of TGF-alpha message. In situ hybridization using a hamster-specific TGF-alpha riboprobe was done on paraffin sections. Parotid gland and isolated acinar cells were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and postembedding immunogold labeled for TGF-alpha. Gold particles were counted on approximately 200 granules in 10 acinar cells and in 10 intercalated duct cells. Labeling density was calculated as the number of gold particles per square micrometer +/- SD. Statistical significance was calculated using one-way analysis of variance. Using multiple technologies, we have established that rat parotid acinar and intercalated duct cells synthesize TGF-alpha and store the precursor form of this cytokine in their secretory granules.

  14. Ciona intestinalis Noto4 contains a phosphotyrosine interaction domain and is involved in the midline intercalation of notochord cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigehiro; Ueno, Naoto; Satoh, Nori; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Brachyury plays a pivotal role in the notochord formation in ascidian embryos. Ciona intestinalis Noto4 (Ci-Noto4) was isolated as a gene downstream of Ci-Bra. This gene encodes a 307 amino-acid protein with a C-terminal phosphotyrosine interaction domain (PTB/PID). Expression of Ci-Noto4 commences at the neural plate stage and is specific to notochord cells. Suppression of Ci-Noto4 levels with specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in the formation of two rows of notochord cells owing to a lack of midline intercalation between the bilateral populations of progenitor cells. In contrast, overexpression of Ci-Noto4 by injection of a Ci-Bra(promoter):Ci-Noto4-EGFP construct into fertilized eggs disrupted the localization of notochord cells. Ci-Noto4 overexpression did not affect cellular differentiation in the notochord, muscle, mesenchyme, or nervous system. Analysis of Ci-Noto4 regions that are responsible for its function suggested significant roles for the PTB/PID and a central region, an area with no obvious sequence similarity to other known proteins. These results suggested that PTB/PID-containing Ci-Noto4 is essential for midline intercalation of notochord cells in chordate embryos.

  15. In vitro reestablishment of cell-cell contacts in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Functional role of transmembrane components in the formation of new intercalated disk-like cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Eppenberger, H M; Zuppinger, C

    1999-01-01

    Primary adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC)in culture are shown to be a model system for cardiac cell hypertrophy in vitro. ARC undergo a process of morphological transformation and grow only by increase in cell size, however, without loss of the cardiac phenotype. The isolated cells spread and establish new cell-cell contacts, eventually forming a two-dimensional heart tissue-like synchronously beating cell sheet. The reformation of specific cell contacts (intercalated disks) is shown also between ventricular and atrial cardiomyocytes by using antibodies against the gap junction protein connexin-43 and after microinjection into ARC of N-cadherin cDNA fused to reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA. The expressed fusion protein allowed the study of live cell cultures and of the dynamics of the adherens junction protein N-cadherin during the formation of new cell-cell contacts. The possible use of the formed ARC cell-sheet cells under microgravity conditions as a test system for the reformation of the cytoskeleton of heart muscle cells is proposed.

  16. Direct physical contact between intercalated cells in the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent arteriole in mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hao; Liu, Ning-Yu; Andreasen, Arne; Thomsen, Jesper S; Cao, Liu; Christensen, Erik I; Zhai, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Recent physiological studies in the kidney proposed the existence of a secondary feedback mechanism termed 'crosstalk' localized after the macula densa. This newly discovered crosstalk contact between the nephron tubule and its own afferent arteriole may potentially revolutionize our understanding of renal vascular resistance and electrolyte regulation. However, the nature of such a crosstalk mechanism is still debated due to a lack of direct and comprehensive morphological evidence. Its exact location along the nephron, its prevalence among the different types of nephrons, and the type of cells involved are yet unknown. To address these issues, computer assisted 3-dimensional nephron tracing was applied in combination with direct immunohistochemistry on plastic sections and electron microscopy. 'Random' contacts in the cortex were identified by the tracing and excluded. We investigated a total of 168 nephrons from all cortical regions. The results demonstrated that the crosstalk contact existed, and that it was only present in certain nephrons (90% of the short-looped and 75% of the long-looped nephrons). The crosstalk contacts always occurred at a specific position--the last 10% of the distal convoluted tubule. Importantly, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the cells found in the tubule wall at the contact site were always type nonA-nonB intercalated cells. In conclusion, the present work confirmed the existence of a post macula densa physical crosstalk contact.

  17. A local difference in Hedgehog signal transduction increases mechanical cell bond tension and biases cell intercalations along the Drosophila anteroposterior compartment boundary.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Katrin; Umetsu, Daiki; Aliee, Maryam; Sui, Liyuan; Jülicher, Frank; Dahmann, Christian

    2015-11-15

    Tissue organization requires the interplay between biochemical signaling and cellular force generation. The formation of straight boundaries separating cells with different fates into compartments is important for growth and patterning during tissue development. In the developing Drosophila wing disc, maintenance of the straight anteroposterior (AP) compartment boundary involves a local increase in mechanical tension at cell bonds along the boundary. The biochemical signals that regulate mechanical tension along the AP boundary, however, remain unknown. Here, we show that a local difference in Hedgehog signal transduction activity between anterior and posterior cells is necessary and sufficient to increase mechanical tension along the AP boundary. This difference in Hedgehog signal transduction is also required to bias cell rearrangements during cell intercalations to keep the characteristic straight shape of the AP boundary. Moreover, severing cell bonds along the AP boundary does not reduce tension at neighboring bonds, implying that active mechanical tension is upregulated, cell bond by cell bond. Finally, differences in the expression of the homeodomain-containing protein Engrailed also contribute to the straight shape of the AP boundary, independently of Hedgehog signal transduction and without modulating cell bond tension. Our data reveal a novel link between local differences in Hedgehog signal transduction and a local increase in active mechanical tension of cell bonds that biases junctional rearrangements. The large-scale shape of the AP boundary thus emerges from biochemical signals inducing patterns of active tension on cell bonds. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required for tube closure, cell intercalation, and biased apical expansion during epithelial tubulogenesis in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nathaniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Most metazoans are able to grow beyond a few hundred cells and to support differentiated tissues because they elaborate multicellular, epithelial tubes that are indispensable for nutrient and gas exchange. To identify and characterize the cellular behaviors and molecular mechanisms required for the morphogenesis of epithelial tubes (i.e., tubulogenesis), we have turned to the D. melanogaster ovary. Here, epithelia surrounding the developing egg chambers first pattern, then form and extend a set of simple, paired, epithelial tubes, the dorsal appendage (DA) tubes, and they create these structures in the absence of cell division or cell death. This genetically tractable system lets us assess the relative contributions that coordinated changes in cell shape, adhesion, orientation, and migration make to basic epithelial tubulogenesis. We find that Dynamin, a conserved regulator of endocytosis and the cytoskeleton, serves a key role in DA tubulogenesis. We demonstrate that Dynamin is required for distinct aspects of DA tubulogenesis: DA-tube closure, DA-tube-cell intercalation, and biased apical-luminal cell expansion. We provide evidence that Dynamin promotes these processes by facilitating endocytosis of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion complexes, and we find that precise levels and sub-cellular distribution of E-Cadherin and specific Integrin subunits impact DA tubulogenesis. Thus, our studies identify novel morphogenetic roles (i.e., tube closure and biased apical expansion), and expand upon established roles (i.e., cell intercalation and adhesion remodeling), for Dynamin in tubulogenesis. PMID:26542010

  19. Metal complexes as DNA intercalators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Ke; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-05-17

    DNA has a strong affinity for many heterocyclic aromatic dyes, such as acridine and its derivatives. Lerman in 1961 first proposed intercalation as the source of this affinity, and this mode of DNA binding has since attracted considerable research scrutiny. Organic intercalators can inhibit nucleic acid synthesis in vivo, and they are now common anticancer drugs in clinical therapy. The covalent attachment of organic intercalators to transition metal coordination complexes, yielding metallointercalators, can lead to novel DNA interactions that influence biological activity. Metal complexes with σ-bonded aromatic side arms can act as dual-function complexes: they bind to DNA both by metal coordination and through intercalation of the attached aromatic ligand. These aromatic side arms introduce new modes of DNA binding, involving mutual interactions of functional groups held in close proximity. The biological activity of both cis- and trans-diamine Pt(II) complexes is dramatically enhanced by the addition of σ-bonded intercalators. We have explored a new class of organometallic "piano-stool" Ru(II) and Os(II) arene anticancer complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru/Os(XY)Cl](+). Here XY is, for example, ethylenediamine (en), and the arene ligand can take many forms, including tetrahydroanthracene, biphenyl, or p-cymene. Arene-nucleobase stacking interactions can have a significant influence on both the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA binding. In particular, the cytotoxic activity, conformational distortions, recognition by DNA-binding proteins, and repair mechanisms are dependent on the arene. A major difficulty in developing anticancer drugs is cross-resistance, a phenomenon whereby a cell that is resistant to one drug is also resistant to another drug in the same class. These new complexes are non-cross-resistant with cisplatin towards cancer cells: they constitute a new class of anticancer agents, with a mechanism of action that differs from the anticancer

  20. The Role of Intercalated Cell Nedd4-2 in BP Regulation, Ion Transport, and Transporter Expression.

    PubMed

    Nanami, Masayoshi; Pham, Truyen D; Kim, Young Hee; Yang, Baoli; Sutliff, Roy L; Staub, Olivier; Klein, Janet D; Lopez-Cayuqueo, Karen I; Chambrey, Regine; Park, Annie Y; Wang, Xiaonan; Pech, Vladimir; Verlander, Jill W; Wall, Susan M

    2018-06-01

    Background Nedd4-2 is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that associates with transport proteins, causing their ubiquitylation, and then internalization and degradation. Previous research has suggested a correlation between Nedd4-2 and BP. In this study, we explored the effect of intercalated cell (IC) Nedd4-2 gene ablation on IC transporter abundance and function and on BP. Methods We generated IC Nedd4-2 knockout mice using Cre-lox technology and produced global pendrin/ Nedd4-2 null mice by breeding global Nedd4-2 null ( Nedd4-2 -/- ) mice with global pendrin null ( Slc26a4 -/- ) mice. Mice ate a diet with 1%-4% NaCl; BP was measured by tail cuff and radiotelemetry. We measured transepithelial transport of Cl - and total CO 2 and transepithelial voltage in cortical collecting ducts perfused in vitro Transporter abundance was detected with immunoblots, immunohistochemistry, and immunogold cytochemistry. Results IC Nedd4-2 gene ablation markedly increased electroneutral Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange in the cortical collecting duct, although benzamil-, thiazide-, and bafilomycin-sensitive ion flux changed very little. IC Nedd4-2 gene ablation did not increase the abundance of type B IC transporters, such as AE4 ( Slc4a9 ), H + -ATPase, barttin, or the Na + -dependent Cl - /HCO 3 - exchanger ( Slc4a8 ). However, IC Nedd4-2 gene ablation increased CIC-5 total protein abundance, apical plasma membrane pendrin abundance, and the ratio of pendrin expression on the apical membrane to the cytoplasm. IC Nedd4-2 gene ablation increased BP by approximately 10 mm Hg. Moreover, pendrin gene ablation eliminated the increase in BP observed in global Nedd4-2 knockout mice. Conclusions IC Nedd4-2 regulates Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange in ICs., Nedd4-2 gene ablation increases BP in part through its action in these cells. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Ultraviolet-induced sister chromatid exchanges in V-79 cells with normal and BrdUrd-substituted DNA and the influence of intercalating substances and cysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Speit, G.; Mehnert, K.; Wolf, M.

    1982-06-01

    The influence of intercalating substances (proflavine, ethidium bromide) and of an SH compound (L-cysteine) on uv-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was investigated in V-79 cells with normal and BrdUrd-substituted DNA. The results are discussed in relation to the primary damages leading to SCE induction produced by uv irradiation. The data indicate that neither the pyrimidine dimers nor DNA single-strand breaks are the primary cause of SCE induction, and that the damages leading to SCEs by uv irradiation differ from those which cause chromosome aberrations.

  2. Aldosterone stimulates vacuolar H+-ATPase activity in renal acid-secretory intercalated cells mainly via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Christian; Kampik, Nicole B.; Vedovelli, Luca; Rothenberger, Florina; Păunescu, Teodor G.; Stehberger, Paul A.; Brown, Dennis; John, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Urinary acidification in the collecting duct is mediated by the activity of H+-ATPases and is stimulated by various factors including angiotensin II and aldosterone. Classically, aldosterone effects are mediated via the mineralocorticoid receptor. Recently, we demonstrated a nongenomic stimulatory effect of aldosterone on H+-ATPase activity in acid-secretory intercalated cells of isolated mouse outer medullary collecting ducts (OMCD). Here we investigated the intracellular signaling cascade mediating this stimulatory effect. Aldosterone stimulated H+-ATPase activity in isolated mouse and human OMCDs. This effect was blocked by suramin, a general G protein inhibitor, and GP-2A, a specific Gαq inhibitor, whereas pertussis toxin was without effect. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U-73122, chelation of intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA, and blockade of protein kinase C prevented the stimulation of H+-ATPases. Stimulation of PKC by DOG mimicked the effect of aldosterone on H+-ATPase activity. Similarly, aldosterone and DOG induced a rapid translocation of H+-ATPases to the luminal side of OMCD cells in vivo. In addition, PD098059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation, blocked the aldosterone and DOG effects. Inhibition of PKA with H89 or KT2750 prevented and incubation with 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP mildly increased H+-ATPase activity. Thus, the nongenomic modulation of H+-ATPase activity in OMCD-intercalated cells by aldosterone involves several intracellular pathways and may be mediated by a Gαq protein-coupled receptor and PKC. PKA and cAMP appear to have a modulatory effect. The rapid nongenomic action of aldosterone may participate in the regulation of H+-ATPase activity and contribute to final urinary acidification. PMID:21832245

  3. Graphite fiber intercalation: Dynamics of the bromine intercalation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Zinolabedini, R.

    1985-01-01

    The resistance of pitch-based graphite fibers was monitored, in situ, during a series of bromine intercalation experiments. The threshold pressure for the bromine intercalation of pitch-based fibers was estimated to be 102 torr. When the bromine atmosphere was removed from the reaction chamber, the resistivity of the intercalated graphite fibers increased consistently. This increase was attributed to loss of bromine from the perimeter of the fiber. The loss was confirmed by mapping the bromine concentration across the diameter of single intercalated fibers with either energy dispersive spectroscopy or scanning Auger microscopy. A statistical study comparing fibers intercalated in bromine vapor with fibers intercalated in bromine liquid showed that similar products were obtained with both methods of intercalation.

  4. Label-free electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of telomerase activity in HeLa cells based on extension reaction and intercalation of Ru(phen)3 (2.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Yang, Linlin; Yue, Guiyin; Chen, Lifen; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-10-01

    Telomerase is one of the most common markers of human malignant tumors, such as uterine, stomach, esophageal, breast, colorectal, laryngeal squamous cell, thyroid, bladder, and so on. It is necessary to develop some sensitive but convenient detection methods for telomerase activity determination. In this study, a label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been fabricated to detect the activity of telomerase extracted from HeLa cells. Thiolated telomerase substrate (TS) primer was immobilized on the gold electrode surface through gold-sulfur (Au-S) interaction and then elongated by telomerase specifically. Then, it was hybridized with complementary DNA to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments on the electrode surface, and Ru(phen)3 (2+) has been intercalated into the dsDNA grooves to act as the ECL probe. The enhanced ECL intensity has a linear relationship with the number of HeLa cells in the range of 5∼5000 and with a detection limit of 2 HeLa cells. The proposed ECL biosensor has high specificity to telomerase in the presence of common interferents. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <5 % at 100 HeLa cells. The proposed method provides a convenient approach for telomerase-related cancer screening or diagnosis.

  5. Chitosan-Intercalated Montmorillonite/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanofibers as a Platform to Guide Neuronlike Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Hatef; Rezvani, Zahra; Nazm Bojnordi, Maryam; Shirinzadeh, Haji; Seifalian, Alexander M; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Razaghpour, Mojgan; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Yazdanpanah, Abolfazl; Salimi, Maryam; Mozafari, Masoud; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Reis, Rui L; Kundu, Subhas C; Gholipourmalekabadi, Mazaher

    2017-04-05

    In this study, we present a novel chitosan-intercalated montmorillonite/poly(vinyl alcohol) (OMMT/PVA) nanofibrous mesh as a microenvironment for guiding differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) toward neuronlike cells. The OMMT was prepared through ion exchange reaction between the montmorillonite (MMT) and chitosan. The PVA solutions containing various concentrations of OMMT were electrospun to form 3D OMMT-PVA nanofibrous meshes. The biomechanical and biological characteristics of the nanofibrous meshes were evaluated by ATR-FTIR, XRD, SEM, MTT, and LDH specific activity, contact angle, and DAPI staining. They were carried out for mechanical properties, overall viability, and toxicity of the cells. The hDPSCs were seeded on the prepared scaffolds and induced with neuronal specific differentiation media at two differentiation stages (2 days at preinduction stage and 6 days at induction stage). The neural differentiation of the cells cultured on the meshes was evaluated by determining the expression of Oct-4, Nestin, NF-M, NF-H, MAP2, and βIII-tubulin in the cells after preinduction, at induction stages by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunostaining. All the synthesized nanofibers exhibited a homogeneous morphology with a favorable mechanical behavior. The population of the cells differentiated into neuronlike cells in all the experimental groups was significantly higher than that in control group. The expression level of the neuronal specific markers in the cells cultured on 5% OMMT/PVA meshes was significantly higher than the other groups. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the OMMT/PVA artificial nerve graft cultured with hDPSCs for regeneration of damaged neural tissues. These fabricated matrices may have a potential in neural tissue engineering applications.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium nanoparticles intercalated nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide and their electrocatalytic activity for direct-ethanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; da Silva, Everson T S G; Singh, Rajesh K; Savu, Raluca; Alaferdov, Andrei V; Fonseca, Leandro C; Carossi, Lory C; Singh, Arvind; Khandka, Sarita; Kar, Kamal K; Alves, Oswaldo L; Kubota, Lauro T; Moshkalev, Stanislav A

    2018-04-01

    Palladium nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pd-rGO) and palladium nanoparticles intercalated inside nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide (Pd-NrGO) hybrids have been synthesized by applying a very simple, fast and economic route using microwave-assisted in-situ reduction and exfoliation method. The Pd-NrGO hybrids materials show good activity as catalyst for ethanol electro oxidation for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) as compared to Pd-rGO hybrids. The enhanced direct ethanol fuel cell can serve as alternative to fossil fuels because it is renewable and environmentally-friendly with a high energy conversion efficiency and low pollutant emission. As proof of concept, the electrocatalytic activity of Pd-NrGO hybrid material was accessed by cyclic voltammetry in presence of ethanol to evaluate its applicability in direct-ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). The Pd-NrGO catalyst presented higher electro active surface area (∼6.3 m 2  g -1 ) for ethanol electro-oxidation when compared to Pd-rGO hybrids (∼3.7 m 2  g -1 ). Despite the smaller catalytic activity of Pd-NrGO, which was attributed to the lower exfoliation rate of this material in relation to the Pd-rGO, Pd-NrGO showed to be very promising and its catalytic activity can be further improved by tuning the synthesis parameters to increase the exfoliation rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced bifunctional electrocatalyst generated through cobalt phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate intercalated Ni2Fe-layered double hydroxides for a laminar flow unitized regenerative micro-cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Haihong; Tian, Ran; Gong, Xiaoman; Li, Dianqing; Tang, Pinggui; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas; Feng, Yongjun

    2017-09-01

    We fabricated a NiFeOx/CoNy-C nanocomposite derived from CoPcTs-intercalated Ni2Fe-layered double hydroxides (Ni2Fe-CoPcTs-LDH), which served as high-efficiency, low-cost, and long-durability bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst in half-cell, and a H2-O2 laminar flow unitized regenerative micro-cell (LFURMC) in alkaline media. Based on the synergistic effect between Co-Ny and NiFeOx centers, the non-noble hybrid catalyst NiFeOx/CoNy-C achieves a ΔE (η@jOER,10 - η@jORR,-3) = 0.84 V in alkaline solution, outperforming the commercial Pt/C, and very close to that of IrOx/C. In the fuel cell mode, the performance of NiFeOx/CoNy-C with the maximum power density of 56 mW cm-2 is similar to that of Pt/C (63 mW cm-2) and IrOx/C (58 mW cm-2); in the electrolysis mode, the calculated maximum electrical power consumed on NiFeOx/CoNy-C (237 mW cm-2) is more than 3 times that on Pt/C (73 mW cm-2), similar with that of IrOx/C. More importantly, the NiFeOx/CoNy-C shows a remarkable stability in alternating modes in a LFURMC system.

  8. Stacking interactions and DNA intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dr. Shen; Cooper, Valentino R; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between stacking interactions and the intercalation of proflavine and ellipticine within DNA is investigated using a nonempirical van der Waals density functional for the correlation energy. Our results, employing a binary stack model, highlight fundamental, qualitative differences between base-pair base-pair interactions and that of the stacked intercalator base pair system. Most notable result is the paucity of torque which so distinctively defines the Twist of DNA. Surprisingly, this model, when combined with a constraint on the twist of the surrounding base-pair steps to match the observed unwinding of the sugar-phosphate backbone, was sufficient for explaining the experimentally observedmore » proflavine intercalator configuration. Our extensive mapping of the potential energy surface of base-pair intercalator interactions can provide valuable information for future nonempirical studies of DNA intercalation dynamics.« less

  9. CsI Pre-Intercalation in the Inorganic Framework for Efficient and Stable FA1-x Csx PbI3 (Cl) Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ning; Shen, Yiheng; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Ziqi; Zheng, Guanhaojie; Li, Liang; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Huanping

    2017-06-01

    Engineering the chemical composition of organic and inorganic hybrid perovskite materials is one of the most feasible methods to boost the efficiency of perovskite solar cells with improved device stability. Among the diverse hybrid perovskite family of ABX 3 , formamidinium (FA)-based mixed perovskite (e.g., FA 1- x Cs x PbI 3 ) possesses optimum bandgaps, superior optoelectronic property, as well as thermal- and photostability, which is proven to be the most promising candidate for advanced solar cell. Here, FA 0.9 Cs 0.1 PbI 3 (Cl) is implemented as the light-harvesting layer in planar devices, whereas a low temperature, two-step solution deposition method is employed for the first time in this materials system. This paper comprehensively exploits the role of Cs + in the FA 0.9 Cs 0.1 PbI 3 (Cl) perovskite that affects the precursor chemistry, film nucleation and grain growth, and defect property via pre-intercalation of CsI in the inorganic framework. In addition, the resultant FA 0.9 Cs 0.1 PbI 3 (Cl) films are demonstrated to exhibit an improved optoelectronic property with an elevated device power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.6%, as well as a stable phase with substantial enhancement in humidity and thermal stability, as compared to that of FAPbI 3 (Cl). The present method is able to be further extended to a more complicated (FA,MA,Cs)PbX 3 material system by delivering a PCE of 19.8%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Quantitative Measurement of Cationic Polymer Vector and Polymer-pDNA Polyplex Intercalation into the Cell Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Anderson, Kevin B; Merzel, Rachel L; Jacobovitz, Binyamin; Kaushik, Milan P; Kelly, Christina N; van Dongen, Mallory A; Dougherty, Casey A; Orr, Bradford G; Banaszak Holl, Mark M

    2015-06-23

    Cationic gene delivery agents (vectors) are important for delivering nucleotides, but are also responsible for cytotoxicity. Cationic polymers (L-PEI, jetPEI, and G5 PAMAM) at 1× to 100× the concentrations required for translational activity (protein expression) induced the same increase in plasma membrane current of HEK 293A cells (30-50 nA) as measured by whole cell patch-clamp. This indicates saturation of the cell membrane by the cationic polymers. The increased currents induced by the polymers are not reversible for over 15 min. Irreversibility on this time scale is consistent with a polymer-supported pore or carpet model and indicates that the cell is unable to clear the polymer from the membrane. For polyplexes, although the charge concentration was the same (at N/P ratio of 10:1), G5 PAMAM and jetPEI polyplexes induced a much larger current increase (40-50 nA) than L-PEI polyplexes (<20 nA). Both free cationic lipid and lipid polyplexes induced a lower increase in current than cationic polymers (<20 nA). To quantify the membrane bound material, partition constants were measured for both free vectors and polyplexes into the HEK 293A cell membrane using a dye influx assay. The partition constants of free vectors increased with charge density of the vectors. Polyplex partition constants did not show such a trend. The long lasting cell plasma permeability induced by exposure to the polymer vectors or the polyplexes provides a plausible mechanism for the toxicity and inflammatory response induced by exposure to these materials.

  11. Enhanced effects of low molecular weight heparin intercalated with layered double hydroxide nanoparticles on rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zi; Rolfe, Barbara E; Xu, Zhi P; Thomas, Anita C; Campbell, Julie H; Lu, Gao Q M

    2010-07-01

    Surgical procedures to remove atherosclerotic lesions and restore blood flow also injure the artery wall, promoting vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic change, migration, proliferation, matrix production and ultimately, restenosis of the artery. Hence identification of effective anti-restenotic strategies is a high priority in cardiovascular research, and SMCs are a key target for intervention. This paper presents the in vitro study of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as drug delivery system for an anti-restenotic drug (low molecular weight heparin, LMWH). The cytotoxicity tests showed that LDH itself had very limited toxicity at concentrations below 50 microg/mL over 6-day incubation. LDH nanoparticles loaded with LMWH (LMWH-LDHs) were prepared and tested on rat vascular SMCs. When conjugated to LDH particles, LMWH enhanced its ability to inhibit SMC proliferation and migration, with greater than above 60% reduction compared with the control (growth medium) over 3 or 7-day incubation. Cellular uptake studies showed that compared with LMWH alone, LMWH-LDH hybrids were internalized by SMCs more rapidly, and uptake was sustained over a longer time, possibly revealing the mechanisms underlying the enhanced biological function of LMWH-LDH. The results suggest the potential of LMWH-LDH as an efficient anti-restenotic drug for clinical application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transition metal intercalated bilayer silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Dhanshree; Kamal, C.; Chakrabarti, Aparna

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of Mn, Fe and Co-intercalated silicene bilayer with AA and AB stacking by using spin polarized density functional theory. The intercalation of Mn increases the gap between the two layers of silicene due to the larger atomic radii of Mn as compared to Fe and Co. Bader charge analysis has been performed to understand the bonding between the TM and Si atoms. This also helps in explaining the magnetic moment possessed by the composite systems after intercalating TM in between the layers of bilayer silicene system. This study reveals that a significant net magnetic moment is observed in cases of Mn-intercalated silicene bilayers, whereas Fe has a very small moment of 0.78 µB in the case of AA stacking configuration only. Co intercalation leads to net zero magnetic moment. Further, we find that Fe and Co marginally favor the AB stacking whereas Mn has a slight preference of the AA over the AB configuration. The composite systems, specifically when intercalated with Fe and Co atoms, favor a hybridization which is far away from sp3-like hybridization along the plane of Si atoms in bilayer silicene.

  13. Tumor marker analyses from the phase III, placebo-controlled, FASTACT-2 study of intercalated erlotinib with gemcitabine/platinum in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tony; Ladrera, Guia; Srimuninnimit, Vichien; Sriuranpong, Virote; Yu, Chong-Jen; Thongprasert, Sumitra; Sandoval-Tan, Jennifer; Lee, Jin Soo; Fuerte, Fatima; Shames, David S; Klughammer, Barbara; Truman, Matt; Perez-Moreno, Pablo; Wu, Yi-Long

    2016-08-01

    The FASTACT-2 study of intercalated erlotinib with chemotherapy in Asian patients found that EGFR mutations were the main driver behind the significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit noted in the overall population. Further exploratory biomarker analyses were conducted to provide additional insight. This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III study investigated intercalated first-line erlotinib or placebo with gemcitabine/platinum, followed by maintenance erlotinib or placebo, for patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Provision of samples for biomarker analysis was encouraged but not mandatory. The following biomarkers were analyzed (in order of priority): EGFR mutation by cobas(®) test, KRAS mutation by cobas(®)KRAS test, HER2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), HER3 by IHC, ERCC1 by IHC, EGFR gene copy number by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and EGFR by IHC. All subgroups were assessed for PFS (primary endpoint), overall survival (OS), non-progression rate and objective response rate. Overall, 256 patients provided samples for analysis. Considerable overlap was noted among biomarkers, except for EGFR and KRAS mutations, which are mutually exclusive. Other than EGFR mutations (p<0.0001), no other biomarkers were significantly predictive of outcomes in a treatment-by-biomarker interaction test, although ERCC1 IHC-positive status was predictive of improved OS for the erlotinib arm versus placebo in EGFR wild-type patients (median 18.4 vs 9.5 months; hazard ratio [HR] HR=0.32, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.14-0.69, p=0.0024). Activating EGFR mutations were predictive for improved treatment outcomes with a first-line intercalated regimen of chemotherapy and erlotinib in NSCLC. ERCC1 status may have some predictive value in EGFR wild-type disease, but requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Graphite fiber intercalation: Basic properties of copper chloride intercalated fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Miller, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In situ resistance measurements were used to follow the intercalation of copper chloride in pitch-based fibers. Subsequent single fiber resistivity measurements reveal a large range of resistivities, from 13 to 160 micro-ohms cm. Additional density measurements reveal a bimodal distribution of mass densities. The dense fibers have lower resistivities and correspond to the stage III compound identified by X-ray diffraction. Neither resistivity nor density correlate with diameter. Both energy dispersive spectroscopy and mass density data suggest that excess chlorine resides in the intercalated fiber, resulting in a stoichiometry of C4.9n CuCl2.5 (where n is the stage number) for the denser fibers. Finally, thermogravimetric analysis shows a 33 percent loss in mass upon heating to 700C. This loss in mass is attributed to loss of both chlorine and carbon.

  15. Highly Conductive and Transparent Large-Area Bilayer Graphene Realized by MoCl5 Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroki; Jeon, Il; Maruyama, Mina; Kawahara, Kenji; Terao, Yuri; Ding, Dong; Matsumoto, Rika; Matsuo, Yutaka; Okada, Susumu; Ago, Hiroki

    2017-11-01

    Bilayer graphene (BLG) comprises a 2D nanospace sandwiched by two parallel graphene sheets that can be used to intercalate molecules or ions for attaining novel functionalities. However, intercalation is mostly demonstrated with small, exfoliated graphene flakes. This study demonstrates intercalation of molybdenum chloride (MoCl 5 ) into a large-area, uniform BLG sheet, which is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This study reveals that the degree of MoCl 5 intercalation strongly depends on the stacking order of the graphene; twist-stacked graphene shows a much higher degree of intercalation than AB-stacked. Density functional theory calculations suggest that weak interlayer coupling in the twist-stacked graphene contributes to the effective intercalation. By selectively synthesizing twist-rich BLG films through control of the CVD conditions, low sheet resistance (83 Ω ▫ -1 ) is realized after MoCl 5 intercalation, while maintaining high optical transmittance (≈95%). The low sheet resistance state is relatively stable in air for more than three months. Furthermore, the intercalated BLG film is applied to organic solar cells, realizing a high power conversion efficiency. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Intercalation and de-intercalation pathway of proflavine through the minor and major grooves of DNA: roles of water and entropy.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2013-05-07

    DNA intercalation is a clinically relevant biophysical process due to its potential to inhibit the growth and survival of tumor cells and microbes through the arrest of the transcription and replication processes. Extensive kinetic and thermodynamic studies have followed since the discovery of the intercalative binding mode. However, the molecular mechanism and the origin of the thermodynamic and kinetic profile of the process are still not clear. Here we have constructed the free energy landscape of intercalation, de-intercalation and dissociation from both the major and minor grooves of DNA using extensive all-atom metadynamics simulations, capturing both the free energy barriers and stability in close agreement with fluorescence kinetic experiments. In the intercalated state, an alternate orientation of proflavine is found with an almost equal stability compared to the crystal orientation, however, separated by a 5.0 kcal mol(-1) barrier that decreases as the drug approaches the groove edges. This study provides a comprehensive picture in comparison with experiments, which indicates that the intercalation and de-intercalation of proflavine happen through the major groove side, although the effective intercalation barrier increases because the path of intercalation goes through the stable (abortive) minor groove bound state, making the process a millisecond long one in excellent agreement with the experiments. The molecular origin of the higher barrier for the intercalation from the minor groove side is attributed to the desolvation energy of DNA and the loss of entropy, while the barrier from the major groove, in the absence of desolvation energy, is primarily entropic.

  17. Alkali metal intercalates of molybdenum disulfide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Study of some of the physicochemical properties of compounds obtained by subjecting natural molybdenite and single crystals of molybdenum disulfide grown by chemical vapor transport to intercalation with the alkali group of metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Reported data and results include: (1) the intercalation of the entire alkali metal group, (2) stoichiometries and X-ray data on all of the compounds, and (3) superconductivity data for all the intercalation compounds.

  18. The alkaline earth intercalates of molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Samson, S.; Woollam, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide has been intercalated with calcium and strontium by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Chemical, X-ray, and superconductivity data are presented. The X-ray data reveal a lowering of crystal symmetry and increase of complexity of the structure upon intercalation with the alkaline earth metals. The Ca and Sr intercalates start to superconduct at 4 and 5.6 K, respectively, and show considerable anisotropy regarding the critical magnetic field.

  19. Dynamics of DNA/intercalator complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, J. M.; Wu, Pengguang; Fujimoto, Bryant S.

    1990-05-01

    Complexes of linear and supercoiled DNAs with different intercalating dyes are studied by time-resolved fluorescence polarization anisotropy using intercalated ethidium as the probe. Existing theory is generalized to take account of excitation transfer between intercalated ethidiums, and Forster theory is shown to be valid in this context. The effects of intercalated ethidium, 9-aminoacridine, and proflavine on the torsional rigidity of linear and supercoiled DNAs are studied up to rather high binding ratios. Evidence is presented that metastable secondary structure persists in dye-relaxed supercoiled DNAs, which contradicts the standard model of supercoiled DNAs.

  20. Roles of endothelial A-type lamins in migration of T cells on and under endothelial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Park, Hyoungjun; Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jeehun; Kwon, Keon Woo; Doh, Junsang

    2016-03-01

    Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as “duro-repulsive” cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei.

  1. Environmental stability of intercalated graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, J. R.; Jaworske, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite fibers intercalated with bromine, iodine monochloride, ferric chloride, and cupric chloride were subjected to stability tests under four environments which are encountered by engineering materials in the aerospace industry: ambient laboratory conditions, as would be experienced during handling operations and terrestrial applications; high vacuum, as would be experienced in space applications; high humidity, as would be experienced in marine applications; and high temperature, as would be experienced in some processing steps and applications. Monitoring the resistance of the fibers at ambient laboratory conditions revealed that only the ferric chloride intercalated fibers were unstable, due to absorption of water from the air. All four types of intercalated fibers were unstable, due to absorption of water from the air. All four types of intercalated fibers were stable for long periods under high vacuum. Ferric chloride, cupric chloride, and iodine monochloride intercalated fibers were sensitive to high humidity conditions. All intercalated fibers began to degrade above 250 C. The order of their thermal stability, from lowest to highest, was cupric chloride, iodine monochloride, bromine, and ferric chloride. Of the four types of intercalated fibers tested, the bromine intercalated fibers appear to have the most potential for application, based on environmental stability.

  2. Strong DNA deformation required for extremely slow DNA threading intercalation by a binuclear ruthenium complex

    PubMed Central

    Almaqwashi, Ali A.; Paramanathan, Thayaparan; Lincoln, Per; Rouzina, Ioulia; Westerlund, Fredrik; Williams, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    DNA intercalation by threading is expected to yield high affinity and slow dissociation, properties desirable for DNA-targeted therapeutics. To measure these properties, we utilize single molecule DNA stretching to quantify both the binding affinity and the force-dependent threading intercalation kinetics of the binuclear ruthenium complex Δ,Δ-[μ‐bidppz‐(phen)4Ru2]4+ (Δ,Δ-P). We measure the DNA elongation at a range of constant stretching forces using optical tweezers, allowing direct characterization of the intercalation kinetics as well as the amount intercalated at equilibrium. Higher forces exponentially facilitate the intercalative binding, leading to a profound decrease in the binding site size that results in one ligand intercalated at almost every DNA base stack. The zero force Δ,Δ-P intercalation Kd is 44 nM, 25-fold stronger than the analogous mono-nuclear ligand (Δ-P). The force-dependent kinetics analysis reveals a mechanism that requires DNA elongation of 0.33 nm for association, relaxation to an equilibrium elongation of 0.19 nm, and an additional elongation of 0.14 nm from the equilibrium state for dissociation. In cells, a molecule with binding properties similar to Δ,Δ-P may rapidly bind DNA destabilized by enzymes during replication or transcription, but upon enzyme dissociation it is predicted to remain intercalated for several hours, thereby interfering with essential biological processes. PMID:25245944

  3. An advanced model framework for solid electrolyte intercalation batteries.

    PubMed

    Landstorfer, Manuel; Funken, Stefan; Jacob, Timo

    2011-07-28

    Recent developments of solid electrolytes, especially lithium ion conductors, led to all solid state batteries for various applications. In addition, mathematical models sprout for different electrode materials and battery types, but are missing for solid electrolyte cells. We present a mathematical model for ion flux in solid electrolytes, based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics and functional derivatives. Intercalated ion diffusion within the electrodes is further considered, allowing the computation of the ion concentration at the electrode/electrolyte interface. A generalized Frumkin-Butler-Volmer equation describes the kinetics of (de-)intercalation reactions and is here extended to non-blocking electrodes. Using this approach, numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the space charge region at the interface. Finally, discharge simulations were performed to study different limitations of an all solid state battery cell. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  4. Graphite intercalation compound with iodine as the major intercalate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Kucera, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Halogenated graphite CBr(x)I(y) (I less than y/x less than 10) was made by exposing graphite materials to either pure Br2 or an I2/Br2/HBr mixture to initiate the reaction, and then to iodine vapor containing a small amount of Br2/HBr/IBr to complete the intercalation reaction. Wetting of the graphite materials by the I2/Br2/HBr mixture is needed to start the reaction, and a small amount of Br2/HBr/IBr is needed to complete the charge transfer between iodine and carbon. The interplanar spacings for the graphite materials need to be in the 3.35 to 3.41 A range. The X-ray diffraction data obtained from the halogenated HOPG indicate that the distance between the two carbon layers containing intercalate is 7.25 A. Electrical resistivity of the fiber product is from 3 to 6.5 times the pristine value, The presence of a small amount of isoprene rubber in the reaction significantly increased the iodine-to-bromine ratio in the product. In this reaction, rubber is known to generate HBr and to slowly remove bromine from the vapor. The halogenation generally caused a 22 percent to 25 percent weight increase. The halogens were found uniformly distributed in the product interior. However, although the surface contains very little iodine, it has high concentrations of bromine and oxygen. It is believed that the high concentrations of bromine and oxygen in this surface cause the halogenated fiber to be more resistant to structural damage during subsequent fluorination to fabricate graphite fluoride fibers.

  5. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; ...

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC₆ and YbC₆ in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic statesmore » and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less

  6. Intercalation Pseudocapacitance of Exfoliated Molybdenum Disulfide for Ultrafast Energy Storage

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Li, Yifei; Liang, Yanliang; ...

    2016-05-23

    In this study, we report intercalation pseudocapacitance of 250 F g -1 for exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2) in non-aqueous electrolytes that contain lithium ions. The exfoliated MoS 2 shows surface-limited reaction kinetics with high rate capability up to 3 min of charge or discharge. The intercalation pseudocapacitance originates from the extremely fast kinetics due to the enhanced ionic and electronic transport enabled by the slightly expanded layer structure as well as the metallic 1T-phase. The exfoliated MoS 2 could be also used in a Li-Mg-ion hybrid capacitor, which shows full cell specific capacitance of 240 F g -1.

  7. Reversible Intercalation of Fluoride-Anion Receptor Complexes in Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William C.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Leifer, Nicole; Greenbaum, Steve; Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Blanco, Mario; Narayanan, S. R.

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated a route to reversibly intercalate fluoride-anion receptor complexes in graphite via a nonaqueous electrochemical process. This approach may find application for a rechargeable lithium-fluoride dual-ion intercalating battery with high specific energy. The cell chemistry presented here uses graphite cathodes with LiF dissolved in a nonaqueous solvent through the aid of anion receptors. Cells have been demonstrated with reversible cathode specific capacity of approximately 80 mAh/g at discharge plateaus of upward of 4.8 V, with graphite staging of the intercalant observed via in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during charging. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and B-11 nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest that cointercalation of the anion receptor with the fluoride occurs during charging, which likely limits the cathode specific capacity. The anion receptor type dictates the extent of graphite fluorination, and must be further optimized to realize high theoretical fluorination levels. To find these optimal anion receptors, we have designed an ab initio calculations-based scheme aimed at identifying receptors with favorable fluoride binding and release properties.

  8. A method to remove intercalates from bromine and iodine intercalated carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1993-01-01

    Upon exposure to room-temperature fluorine, intercalated carbon fibers (containing either bromine alone or iodine and bromine together) become heavier and less stable. For Amoco P-100 graphitized carbon fibers which were intercalated with 18 percent bromine by weight, 1 hr of fluorine exposure results in a large weight increase, but causes only a small decrease in thermal stability. More than l hr of fluorine exposure time results in small additional increases in fiber weight, but significant further decreases in fiber thermal stability. Such phenomena do not occur if the fluorine exposure is at 250 C. These observations suggest the mechanism that at room temperature, fluorine is absorbed quickly by the intercalated fibers and intercalated slowly into the fibers. Most of the original intercalates are replaced by fluorine in the process of fluorine intercalation. Under an inert environment, the bromine intercalated fibers are much more thermally stable. After 800 C vacuum heating for two weeks, the brominated fibers lost about 45 percent of their bromine, and their resistivity increased from 64 omega-cm to a range of 95 to 170 micro omega-cm. This is still much lower than the 300 micro omega-cm value for pristine P-100. For practical purposes, in order to preserve their thermal stability, brominated fibers need to be protected from exposure to fluorine at room temperature, or to any intercalate at a temperature where, upon direct contact to graphite, an intercalation compound can easily be formed.

  9. Intercalation chemistry of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav; Melánová, Klára; Beneš, Ludvík; Trchová, Miroslava

    2013-12-01

    Zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate is a layered material which can be employed as a host for the intercalation reactions with basic molecules. A wide range of organic compounds were chosen to represent intercalation ability of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate. These were a series of alkylamines from methylamine to dodecylamine, 1,4-phenylenediamine, p-toluidine, 1,8-diaminonaphthalene, 1-aminopyrene, imidazole, pyridine, 4,4‧-bipyridine, poly(ethylene imine), and a series of amino acids from glycine to 6-aminocaproic acid. The prepared compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis and IR spectroscopy and probable arrangement of the guest molecules in the interlayer space of the host is proposed based on the interlayer distance of the prepared intercalates and amount of the intercalated guest molecules.

  10. Synthesis and electrical characterization of magnetic bilayer graphene intercalate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namdong; Kim, Kwang S; Jung, Naeyoung; Brus, Louis; Kim, Philip

    2011-02-09

    We report synthesis and transport properties of the minimal graphite intercalation compound, a ferric chloride (FeCl(3))(n) island monolayer inside bilayer graphene. Chemical doping by the intercalant is simultaneously probed by micro-Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. Quantum oscillations of conductivity originate from microscopic domains of intercalated and unintercalated regions. A slight upturn in resistance related to magnetic transition is observed. Two-dimensional intercalation in bilayer graphene opens new possibilities to engineer two-dimensional properties of intercalates.

  11. Direct intercalation of cisplatin into zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets for potential cancer nanotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Agustín; González, Millie L.; Pérez, Riviam J.; David, Amanda; Mukherjee, Atashi; Báez, Adriana; Clearfield, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets (ZrP) for the encapsulation of the anticancer drug cisplatin and its delivery to tumor cells. Cisplatin was intercalated into ZrP by direct-ion exchange and was tested in-vitro for cytotoxicity in the human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. The structural characterization of the intercalated cisplatin in ZrP suggests that during the intercalation process, the chloride ligands of the cisplatin complex were substituted by phosphate groups within the layers. Consequently, a new phosphate phase with the platinum complex directly bound to ZrP (cisPt@ZrP) is produced with an interlayer distance of 9.3 Å. The in-vitro release profile of the intercalated drug by pH stimulus shows that at low pH under lysosomal conditions the platinum complex is released with simultaneous hydrolysis of the zirconium phosphate material, while at higher pH the complex is not released. Experiments with the MCF-7 cell line show that cisPt@ZrP reduced the cell viability up to 40%. The cisPt@ZrP intercalation product is envisioned as a future nanotherapy agent for cancer. Taking advantage of the shape and sizes of the ZrP particles and controlled release of the drug at low pH, it is intended to exploit the enhanced permeability and retention effect of tumors, as well as their intrinsic acidity, for the destruction of malignant cells. PMID:24072038

  12. Modelling of adsorption and intercalation of hydrogen on/into tungsten disulphide multilayers and multiwall nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José I; Laikhtman, Alex; Moon, Hoi Ri; Zak, Alla; Alonso, Julio A

    2018-05-07

    Understanding the interaction of hydrogen with layered materials is crucial in the fields of sensors, catalysis, fuel cells and hydrogen storage, among others. Density functional theory, improved by the introduction of van der Waals dispersion forces, provides an efficient and practical workbench to investigate the interaction of molecular and atomic hydrogen with WS 2 multilayers and nanotubes. We find that H 2 physisorbs on the surface of those materials on top of W atoms, while atomic H chemisorbs on top of S atoms. In the case of nanotubes, the chemisorption strength is sensitive to the nanotube diameter. Diffusion of H 2 on the surface of WS 2 encounters quite small activation barriers whose magnitude helps to explain previous and new experimental results for the observed dependence of the hydrogen concentration with temperature. Intercalation of H 2 between adjacent planar WS 2 layers reveals an endothermic character. Intercalating H atoms is energetically favorable, but the intercalation energy does not compensate for the cost of dissociating the molecules. When H 2 molecules are intercalated between the walls of a double wall nanotube, the rigid confinement induces the dissociation of the confined molecules. A remarkable result is that the presence of a full H 2 monolayer adsorbed on top of the first WS 2 layer of a WS 2 multilayer system strongly facilitates the intercalation of H 2 between WS 2 layers underneath. This opens up an additional gate to intercalation processes.

  13. Synthesis of (cinnamate-zinc layered hydroxide) intercalation compound for sunscreen application

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) intercalated with cinnamate, an anionic form of cinnamic acid (CA), an efficient UVA and UVB absorber, have been synthesized by direct method using zinc oxide (ZnO) and cinnamic acid as the precursor. Results The resulting obtained intercalation compound, ZCA, showed a basal spacing of 23.9 Å as a result of cinnamate intercalated in a bilayer arrangement between the interlayer spaces of ZLH with estimated percentage loading of cinnamate of about 40.4 % w/w. The UV–vis absorption spectrum of the intercalation compound showed excellent UVA and UVB absorption ability. Retention of cinnamate in ZLH interlayers was tested against media usually came across with sunscreen usage to show low release over an extended period of time. MTT assay of the intercalation compound on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells showed cytotoxicity of ZCA to be concentration dependent and is overall less toxic than its precursor, ZnO. Conclusions (Cinnamate-zinc layered hydroxide) intercalation compound is suitable to be used as a safe and effective sunscreen with long UV protection effect. PMID:23383738

  14. Surface tension and modeling of cellular intercalation during zebrafish gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Calmelet, Colette; Sepich, Diane

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we discuss a model of zebrafish embryo notochord development based on the effect of surface tension of cells at the boundaries. We study the process of interaction of mesodermal cells at the boundaries due to adhesion and cortical tension, resulting in cellular intercalation. From in vivo experiments, we obtain cell outlines of time-lapse images of cell movements during zebrafish embryo development. Using Cellular Potts Model, we calculate the total surface energy of the system of cells at different time intervals at cell contacts. We analyze the variations of total energy depending on nature of cell contacts. We demonstrate that our model can be viable by calculating the total surface energy value for experimentally observed configurations of cells and showing that in our model these configurations correspond to a decrease in total energy values in both two and three dimensions.

  15. MAZ-binding G4-decoy with locked nucleic acid and twisted intercalating nucleic acid modifications suppresses KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells and delays tumor growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cogoi, Susanna; Zorzet, Sonia; Rapozzi, Valentina; Géci, Imrich; Pedersen, Erik B.; Xodo, Luigi E.

    2013-01-01

    KRAS mutations are primary genetic lesions leading to pancreatic cancer. The promoter of human KRAS contains a nuclease-hypersensitive element (NHE) that can fold in G4-DNA structures binding to nuclear proteins, including MAZ (myc-associated zinc-finger). Here, we report that MAZ activates KRAS transcription. To knockdown oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells, we designed oligonucleotides that mimic one of the G-quadruplexes formed by NHE (G4-decoys). To increase their nuclease resistance, two locked nucleic acid (LNA) modifications were introduced at the 3′-end, whereas to enhance the folding and stability, two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon units (TINA or AMANY) were inserted internally, to cap the quadruplex. The most active G4-decoy (2998), which had two para-TINAs, strongly suppressed KRAS expression in Panc-1 cells. It also repressed their metabolic activity (IC50 = 520 nM), and it inhibited cell growth and colony formation by activating apoptosis. We finally injected 2998 and control oligonucleotides 5153, 5154 (2 nmol/mouse) intratumorally in SCID mice bearing a Panc-1 xenograft. After three treatments, 2998 reduced tumor xenograft growth by 64% compared with control and increased the Kaplan–Meier median survival time by 70%. Together, our data show that MAZ-specific G4-decoys mimicking a KRAS quadruplex are promising for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:23471001

  16. Mechanisms of nanoclay-enhanced plastic foaming processes: effects of nanoclay intercalation and exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Anson; Wijnands, Stephan F. L.; Kuboki, Takashi; Park, Chul B.

    2013-08-01

    The foaming behaviors of high-density polypropylene-nanoclay composites with intercalated and exfoliated nanoclay particles blown with carbon dioxide were examined via in situ observation of the foaming processes in a high-temperature/high-pressure view-cell. The intercalated nanoclay particles were 300-600 nm in length and 50-200 nm in thickness, while the exfoliated nanoclay particles were 100-200 nm in length and 1 nm in thickness. Contrary to common belief, it was discovered that intercalated nanoclay yielded higher cell density than exfoliated nanoclay despite its lower particle density. This was attributed to the higher tensile stresses generated around the larger and stiffer intercalated nanoclay particles, which led to increase in supersaturation level for cell nucleation. Also, the coupling agent used to exfoliate nanoclay would increase the affinity between polymer and surface of nanoclay particles. Consequently, the critical work needed for cell nucleation would be increased; pre-existing microvoids, which could act as seeds for cell nucleation, were also less likely to exist. Meanwhile, exfoliated nanoclay had better cell stabilization ability to prevent cell coalescence and cell coarsening. This investigation clarifies the roles of nanoclay in plastic foaming processes and provides guidance for the advancement of polymer nanocomposite foaming technology.

  17. Polarized targeting of a shaker-like (A-type) K(+)-channel in the polarized epithelial cell line MDCK.

    PubMed

    Le Maout, S; Sewing, S; Coudrier, E; Elalouf, J M; Pongs, O; Merot, J

    1996-01-01

    Functional Kv 1-4 channels were stably expressed in filter-grown MDCK cells which form a polarized epithelium with two distinct plasma membrane domains: a basolateral and an apical cell surface. The Shaker-related Kv 1-4 channels mediated in MDCK cells fast transient (A-type) voltage-activated outward currents having similar properties to the ones reported for Kv 1-4 in the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Immunoblot analysis with specific anti-Kv 1-4 antibodies showed that two Kv 1-4 protein forms are expressed in MDCK cells which most likely represent the glycosylated and non-glycosylated Kv 1-4 protein, respectively. Using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy we showed that the Kv 1-4 channels are specifically localized in the basolateral membranes of MDCK cells. Thus, the MDCK cells may provide an important model system to analyse the polarized transport of ion channels such as Kv 1-4, which are distinctly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system.

  18. Feasibility of intercalated graphite railgun armatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Gooden, Clarence E.; Yashan, Doreen; Naud, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Graphite intercalation compounds may provide an excellent material for the fabrication of electro-magnetic railgun armatures. As a pulse of power is fed into the armature the intercalate could be excited into the plasma state around the edges of the armature, while the bulk of the current would be carried through the graphite block. Such an armature would have the desirable characteristics of both diffuse plasma armatures and bulk conduction armatures. In addition, the highly anisotropic nature of these materials could enable the electrical and thermal conductivity to be tailored to meet the specific requirements of electromagnetic railgun armatures. Preliminary investigations were performed in an attempt to determine the feasibility of using graphite intercalation compounds as railgun armatures. Issues of fabrication, resistivity, stability, and electrical current spreading are addressed for the case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate podocyte injury and proteinuria in a type 1 diabetic nephropathy rat model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jinghong; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) attenuate albuminuria and preserve normal renal histology in diabetic mice. However, the effects of MSC on glomerular podocyte injury remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MSC on podocyte injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty days after diabetes induction by STZ injection (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in Sprague-Dawley rats, the diabetic rats received medium or 2 × 10(6) enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled MSC via the renal artery. In vivo tracking of MSC was followed by immunofluorescence analysis. Diabetes-related physical and biochemical parameters were measured on day 60 after the MSC infusion. The expression of podocyte markers (nephrin and podocin), podocyte survival factors (VEGF and BMP-7), and the ultrastructural pathology of podocytes were also assessed. MSC were only detected in the glomeruli from the left kidney receiving MSC infusion. Compared with medium-treated diabetic rats, rats treated with MSC showed a suppressed increase in kidney weight, kidney to body weight index, creatinine clearance rate, and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; however, the treatment had no effect on blood glucose or body weight levels. Furthermore, the MSC treatment reduced the loss of podocytes, effacement of foot processes, widening of foot processes, thickening of glomerular basal membrane (GBM), and loss of glomerular nephrin and podocin. Most important, MSC-injected kidneys expressed higher levels of BMP-7 but not of VEGF. Our results clearly demonstrated that intra-arterial administration of MSC prevented the development of albuminuria as well as any damage to or loss of podocytes, though there was no improvement in blood sugar levels. The protective effects of MSC may be mediated in part by increasing BMP-7 secretion. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Superlattice Effects in Graphite Intercalation Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-15

    away from ;le[ Isy.st,.mns (r lin( nl :; atars ) and look for nonlinear dynamical effects -. m,,5,: U~ i,: ,1 : s y’t, rns, a3iioh m i Josephson...Intercalation Coaanm, Chemistry Dept., Northeast(.rn,, February 25, 1935. ( iv) "Giant Magnetic Interaction and Domain Dynamics in Twe -. "Dimensions," hoston

  1. Intercalation of Li Ions into a Graphite Anode Material: Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Hamad, Ibrahim; Novotny, Mark

    2008-03-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of the anode half-cell of a lithium-ion battery are presented. The model system is composed of an anode represented by a stack of graphite sheets, an electrolyte of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate molecules, and lithium and hexafluorophosphate ions. The simulations are done in the NVT ensemble and at room temperature. One charging scheme explored is normal charging in which intercalation is enhanced by electric charges on the graphitic sheets. The second charging mechanism has an external applied oscillatory electric field of amplitude A and frequency f. The simulations were performed on 2.6 GHz Opteron processors, using 160 processors at a time. Our simulation results show an improvement in the intercalation time of the lithium ions for the second charging mechanism. The dependence of the intercalation time on A and f will be discussed.

  2. Onset of superconductivity in sodium and potassium intercalated molybdenum disulphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Rembaum, A.

    1971-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide in the form of natural crystals or powder has been intercalated at -65 to -70 C with sodium and potassium using the liquid ammonia technique. All intercalated samples were found to show a superconducting transition. A plot of the percent of diamagnetic throw versus temperature indicates the possible existence of two phases in the potassium intercalated molybdenum disulfide. The onset of superconductivity in potassium and sodium intercalated molybdenite powder was found to be approximately 6.2 and approximately 4.5 K, respectively. The observed superconductivity is believed to be due to an increase in electron density as a result of intercalation.

  3. Scaling Relations for Intercalation Induced Damage in Electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Chien-Fan; Barai, Pallab; Smith, Kandler; ...

    2016-04-02

    Mechanical degradation, owing to intercalation induced stress and microcrack formation, is a key contributor to the electrode performance decay in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The stress generation and formation of microcracks are caused by the solid state diffusion of lithium in the active particles. Here in this work, scaling relations are constructed for diffusion induced damage in intercalation electrodes based on an extensive set of numerical experiments with a particle-level description of microcrack formation under disparate operating and cycling conditions, such as temperature, particle size, C-rate, and drive cycle. The microcrack formation and evolution in active particles is simulated based onmore » a stochastic methodology. A reduced order scaling law is constructed based on an extensive set of data from the numerical experiments. The scaling relations include combinatorial constructs of concentration gradient, cumulative strain energy, and microcrack formation. Lastly, the reduced order relations are further employed to study the influence of mechanical degradation on cell performance and validated against the high order model for the case of damage evolution during variable current vehicle drive cycle profiles.« less

  4. Distribution of cardiac sodium channels in clusters potentiates ephaptic interactions in the intercalated disc.

    PubMed

    Hichri, Echrak; Abriel, Hugues; Kucera, Jan P

    2018-02-15

    It has been proposed that ephaptic conduction, relying on interactions between the sodium (Na + ) current and the extracellular potential in intercalated discs, might contribute to cardiac conduction when gap junctional coupling is reduced, but this mechanism is still controversial. In intercalated discs, Na + channels form clusters near gap junction plaques, but the functional significance of these clusters has never been evaluated. In HEK cells expressing cardiac Na + channels, we show that restricting the extracellular space modulates the Na + current, as predicted by corresponding simulations accounting for ephaptic effects. In a high-resolution model of the intercalated disc, clusters of Na + channels that face each other across the intercellular cleft facilitate ephaptic impulse transmission when gap junctional coupling is reduced. Thus, our simulations reveal a functional role for the clustering of Na + channels in intercalated discs, and suggest that rearrangement of these clusters in disease may influence cardiac conduction. It has been proposed that ephaptic interactions in intercalated discs, mediated by extracellular potentials, contribute to cardiac impulse propagation when gap junctional coupling is reduced. However, experiments demonstrating ephaptic effects on the cardiac Na + current (I Na ) are scarce. Furthermore, Na + channels form clusters around gap junction plaques, but the electrophysiological significance of these clusters has never been investigated. In patch clamp experiments with HEK cells stably expressing human Na v 1.5 channels, we examined how restricting the extracellular space modulates I Na elicited by an activation protocol. In parallel, we developed a high-resolution computer model of the intercalated disc to investigate how the distribution of Na + channels influences ephaptic interactions. Approaching the HEK cells to a non-conducting obstacle always increased peak I Na at step potentials near the threshold of I Na activation

  5. Superconducting Continuous Graphene Fibers via Calcium Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjun; Liang, Hui; Xu, Zhen; Xi, Jiabin; Chen, Genfu; Gao, Weiwei; Xue, Mianqi; Gao, Chao

    2017-04-25

    Superconductors are important materials in the field of low-temperature magnet applications and long-distance electrical power transmission systems. Besides metal-based superconducting materials, carbon-based superconductors have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Up to now, five allotropes of carbon, including diamond, graphite, C 60 , CNTs, and graphene, have been reported to show superconducting behavior. However, most of the carbon-based superconductors are limited to small size and discontinuous phases, which inevitably hinders further application in macroscopic form. Therefore, it raises a question of whether continuously carbon-based superconducting wires could be accessed, which is of vital importance from viewpoints of fundamental research and practical application. Here, inspired by superconducting graphene, we successfully fabricated flexible graphene-based superconducting fibers via a well-established calcium (Ca) intercalation strategy. The resultant Ca-intercalated graphene fiber (Ca-GF) shows a superconducting transition at ∼11 K, which is almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of early reported alkali metal intercalated graphite and comparable to that of commercial superconducting NbTi wire. The combination of lightness and easy scalability makes Ca-GF highly promising as a lightweight superconducting wire.

  6. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-05-09

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  7. Intercalation compounds and electrodes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Sadoway, Donald R.; Jang, Young-Il; Huang, Biyan

    2004-09-07

    This invention concerns intercalation compounds and in particular lithium intercalation compounds which have improved properties for use in batteries. Compositions of the invention include particulate metal oxide material having particles of multicomponent metal oxide, each including an oxide core of at least first and second metals in a first ratio, and each including a surface coating of metal oxide or hydroxide that does not include the first and second metals in the first ratio formed by segregation of at least one of the first and second metals from the core. The core may preferably comprise Li.sub.x M.sub.y N.sub.z O.sub.2 wherein M and N are metal atom or main group elements, x, y and z are numbers from about 0 to about 1 and y and z are such that a formal charge on M.sub.y N.sub.z portion of the compound is (4-x), and having a charging voltage of at least about 2.5V. The invention may also be characterized as a multicomponent oxide microstructure usable as a lithium intercalation material including a multiphase oxide core and a surface layer of one material, which is a component of the multiphase oxide core, that protects the underlying intercalation material from chemical dissolution or reaction. In a particular preferred example the multicomponent oxide may be an aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide composition. Such aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide compositions, having an orthorhombic structure, also form a part of the invention. In addition, the invention includes articles, particularly electrodes, for batteries formed from the compositions of the invention, and batteries including such electrodes. The invention further relates to a composite intercalation material comprising at least two compounds in which at least one compound has an orthorhombic structure Li.sub.x Al.sub.y Mn.sub.1-y O.sub.2, where y is nonzero, or a mixture of orthorhombic and monoclinic Li.sub.x Al.sub.y Mn.sub.1-y O.sub.2.

  8. Physics and chemistry of MoS2 intercalation compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Somoano, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation is made of the physics and chemistry of MoS2 intercalation compounds. These compounds may be separated into two groups according to their stoichiometry, structure and superconducting properties. The first group consists of Na, Ca, and Sr intercalates, and the second group consists of K, Rb, and Cs intercalates. Particular attention is given to the structure of the electronic energy band and to the normal state and superconducting properties of these compounds.

  9. The intercalation chemistry of layered iron chalcogenide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Vivanco, Hector K.; Rodriguez, Efrain E., E-mail: efrain@umd.edu

    The iron chalcogenides FeSe and FeS are superconductors composed of two-dimensional sheets held together by van der Waals interactions, which makes them prime candidates for the intercalation of various guest species. We review the intercalation chemistry of FeSe and FeS superconductors and discuss their synthesis, structure, and physical properties. Before we review the latest work in this area, we provide a brief background on the intercalation chemistry of other inorganic materials that exhibit enhanced superconducting properties upon intercalation, which include the transition metal dichalcogenides, fullerenes, and layered cobalt oxides. From past studies of these intercalated superconductors, we discuss the rolemore » of the intercalates in terms of charge doping, structural distortions, and Fermi surface reconstruction. We also briefly review the physical and chemical properties of the host materials—mackinawite-type FeS and β-FeSe. The three types of intercalates for the iron chalcogenides can be placed in three categories: 1.) alkali and alkaline earth cations intercalated through the liquid ammonia technique; 2.) cations intercalated with organic amines such as ethylenediamine; and 3.) layered hydroxides intercalated during hydrothermal conditions. A recurring theme in these studies is the role of the intercalated guest in electron doping the chalcogenide host and in enhancing the two-dimensionality of the electronic structure by spacing the FeSe layers apart. We end this review discussing possible new avenues in the intercalation chemistry of transition metal monochalcogenides, and the promise of these materials as a unique set of new inorganic two-dimensional systems.« less

  10. Design of copper DNA intercalators with leishmanicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maribel; Cisneros-Fajardo, Efrén José; Sierralta, Aníbal; Fernández-Mestre, Mercedes; Silva, Pedro; Arrieche, Dwight; Marchán, Edgar

    2003-04-01

    The complexes [Cu(dppz)(NO(3))]NO(3) (1), [Cu(dppz)(2)(NO(3))]NO(3) (2), [Cu(dpq)(NO(3))]NO(3) (3), and [Cu(dpq)(2)(NO(3))]NO(3) (4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FAB-mass spectrometry, EPR, UV, and IR spectroscopies, and molar conductivity. DNA interaction studies showed that intercalation is an important way of interacting with DNA for these complexes. The biological activity of these copper complexes was evaluated on Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, and the results showed leishmanicidal activity. Preliminary ultrastructural studies with the most active complex (2) at 1 h revealed parasite swelling and binucleated cells. This finding suggests that the leishmanicidal activity of the copper complexes could be associated with their interaction with the parasitic DNA.

  11. First-Principles evaluation of the Chevrel phase intercalated with Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juran, Taylor; Smeu, Manuel

    Li ion batteries are extremely useful when an item requires portability and compactness, such as laptops and cell phones; due to the lightweight/compact nature of Li ion batteries. The lightweight and compact nature of Li ion batteries comes at a high cost. It is sensible to consider Li ion battery alternatives, which are more cost effective and useable when portability is not a priority. An option for a less expensive battery source is the Ca ion battery. The Ca ion battery is interesting as many researchers overlook the potential battery source due to the perplexity of finding suitable anode materials and electrolytes. In order for this technology to work, cathodes that allow for the reversible intercalation of Ca2+ ions and also provide a preferred voltage must be identified. We investigate the Chevrel phase compounds of Mo6X8 (X = S, Se, Te) which can intercalate various ions. The concentration of the ion intercalated with the Chevrel cathode is studied. We consider doped versions of the Chevrel phase, using various dopants to substitute Mo. We use density functional theory to calculate the voltage of several intercalation ions with the Chevrel material. The resulting electronic properties of the aforementioned materials will be investigated.

  12. Synthesis and investigation of proton conductivity for intercalated kaolinite with 4-amidinopyridinium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Li-Te; College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009; Li, Xiao-Pei

    2015-12-15

    The proton-conducting materials have potential application in devices such as fuel cells. In this study, a mineral kaolinite-based proton conducting material, kaolinite-4-amidinopyridinium hydrochloride (K-4-APy–HCl), was synthesized by the intercalated compound kaolinite-4-amidinopyridine (K-4-APy) adsorbing volatilizing HCl. The thermogravimetric analysis (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and IR spectrum confirmed the HCl successfully inserting into the interlayer space of kaolinite and the 4-aminopyridine being protonated. The intercalation efficiency is estimated to be ca. 85.6%. With respect to K-4-APy, the interlayer space expends by 1.53 Å. The thermal decomposition mechanism was studied by PXRD and TG techniques. The K-4-APy–HCl shows proton conductivity with σ=3.379×10{supmore » −8} S cm{sup −1} at 373 K and E{sub a}=1.159 eV in the anhydrous condition, which are comparable to MOFs-based proton conducting materials. - Graphical abstract: The intercalated hybrid of mineral kaolinite with 4-amidinopyridinium hydrochloride is prepared to use as proton conducting material. - Highlights: • A new strategy is proposed for preparation of kaolinite-based proton conductor. • Intercalatied hybrid was prepared by sequentially inserting 4-amidinopyridine and adsorbing HCl. • The proton conductivity of intercalated hybrid is comparable to MOFs-based proton-conductors.« less

  13. Transient analysis of intercalation electrodes for parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devan, Sheba

    An essential part of integrating batteries as power sources in any application, be it a large scale automotive application or a small scale portable application, is an efficient Battery Management System (BMS). The combination of a battery with the microprocessor based BMS (called "smart battery") helps prolong the life of the battery by operating in the optimal regime and provides accurate information regarding the battery to the end user. The main purposes of BMS are cell protection, monitoring and control, and communication between different components. These purposes are fulfilled by tracking the change in the parameters of the intercalation electrodes in the batteries. Consequently, the functions of the BMS should be prompt, which requires the methodology of extracting the parameters to be efficient in time. The traditional transient techniques applied so far may not be suitable due to reasons such as the inability to apply these techniques when the battery is under operation, long experimental time, etc. The primary aim of this research work is to design a fast, accurate and reliable technique that can be used to extract parameter values of the intercalation electrodes. A methodology based on analysis of the short time response to a sinusoidal input perturbation, in the time domain is demonstrated using a porous electrode model for an intercalation electrode. It is shown that the parameters associated with the interfacial processes occurring in the electrode can be determined rapidly, within a few milliseconds, by measuring the response in the transient region. The short time analysis in the time domain is then extended to a single particle model that involves bulk diffusion in the solid phase in addition to interfacial processes. A systematic procedure for sequential parameter estimation using sensitivity analysis is described. Further, the short time response and the input perturbation are transformed into the frequency domain using Fast Fourier Transform

  14. The dynamics of copper intercalated molybdenum ditelluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onofrio, Nicolas; Guzman, David; Strachan, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as key materials in nanoelectronics and energy applications. Predictive models to understand their growth, thermomechanical properties, and interaction with metals are needed in order to accelerate their incorporation into commercial products. Interatomic potentials enable large-scale atomistic simulations connecting first principle methods and devices. We present a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe molybdenum ditelluride and its interactions with copper. We optimized the force field parameters to describe the energetics, atomic charges, and mechanical properties of (i) layered MoTe2, Mo, and Cu in various phases, (ii) the intercalation of Cu atoms and small clusters within the van der Waals gap of MoTe2, and (iii) bond dissociation curves. The training set consists of an extensive set of first principles calculations computed using density functional theory (DFT). We validate the force field via the prediction of the adhesion of a single layer MoTe2 on a Cu(111) surface and find good agreement with DFT results not used in the training set. We characterized the mobility of the Cu ions intercalated into MoTe2 under the presence of an external electric field via finite temperature molecular dynamics simulations. The results show a significant increase in drift velocity for electric fields of approximately 0.4 V/Å and that mobility increases with Cu ion concentration.

  15. Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides for metal capture applications

    DOEpatents

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Ma, Shulan

    2017-04-04

    Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides and methods for their use in vapor and liquid-phase metal capture applications are provided. The layered double hydroxides comprise a plurality of positively charged host layers of mixed metal hydroxides separated by interlayer spaces. Polysulfide anions are intercalated in the interlayer spaces.

  16. On lunisolar calendars and intercalation schemes in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gislén, Lars

    2018-04-01

    This is a survey of different calendar intercalation schemes, mainly in Southeast Asia. The Thai and Burmese Calendars, superficially very similar, are shown to have quite different and interesting intercalation schemes. We also investigate similarities between the original Burmese Calendar and the Romakasiddhânta from India.

  17. Solution structure and thermodynamics of 2',5' RNA intercalation.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Eric D; Lilavivat, Seth; Holladay, Benjamin W; Germann, Markus W; Hud, Nicholas V

    2009-04-29

    As a means to explore the influence of the nucleic acid backbone on the intercalative binding of ligands to DNA and RNA, we have determined the solution structure of a proflavine-bound 2',5'-linked octamer duplex with the sequence GCCGCGGC. This structure represents the first NMR structure of an intercalated RNA duplex, of either backbone structural isomer. By comparison with X-ray crystal structures, we have identified similarities and differences between intercalated 3',5' and 2',5'-linked RNA duplexes. First, the two forms of RNA have different sugar pucker geometries at the intercalated nucleotide steps, yet have the same interphosphate distances. Second, as in intercalated 3',5' RNA, the phosphate backbone angle zeta at the 2',5' RNA intercalation site prefers to be in the trans conformation, whereas unintercalated 2',5' and 3',5' RNA prefer the -gauche conformation. These observations provide new insights regarding the transitions required for intercalation of a phosphodiester-ribose backbone and suggest a possible contribution of the backbone to the origin of the nearest-neighbor exclusion principle. Thermodynamic studies presented for intercalation of both structural RNA isomers also reveal a surprising sensitivity of intercalator binding enthalpy and entropy to the details of RNA backbone structure.

  18. Delayed Rectifier and A-Type Potassium Channels Associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 Expression in Embryonic Rat Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dean O.; Rosenheimer, Julie L.; Kalil, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Because of the importance of voltage-activated K+ channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and βIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K+ currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells. PMID:18270591

  19. Delayed rectifier and A-type potassium channels associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 expression in embryonic rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean O; Rosenheimer, Julie L; Kalil, Ronald E

    2008-02-13

    Because of the importance of voltage-activated K(+) channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and betaIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K(+) currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells.

  20. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn5(OH)8Cl2·2H2O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C.

  1. Manipulation of Dirac cones in intercalated epitaxial graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Minsung; Tringides, Michael C.; Hershberger, Matthew T.; ...

    2017-07-12

    Graphene is an intriguing material in view of its unique Dirac quasi-particles, and the manipulation of its electronic structure is important in material design and applications. Here, we theoretically investigate the electronic band structure of epitaxial graphene on SiC with intercalation of rare earth metal ions (e.g., Yb and Dy) using first-principles calculations. We can use the intercalation to control the coupling of the constituent components (buffer layer, graphene, and substrate), resulting in strong modification of the graphene band structure. We also demonstrate that the metal-intercalated epitaxial graphene has tunable band structures by controlling the energies of Dirac cones asmore » well as the linear and quadratic band dispersion depending on the intercalation layer and density. Thus, the metal intercalation is a viable method to manipulate the electronic band structure of the epitaxial graphene, which can enhance the functional utility and controllability of the material.« less

  2. Manipulation of Dirac cones in intercalated epitaxial graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minsung; Tringides, Michael C.; Hershberger, Matthew T.

    Graphene is an intriguing material in view of its unique Dirac quasi-particles, and the manipulation of its electronic structure is important in material design and applications. Here, we theoretically investigate the electronic band structure of epitaxial graphene on SiC with intercalation of rare earth metal ions (e.g., Yb and Dy) using first-principles calculations. We can use the intercalation to control the coupling of the constituent components (buffer layer, graphene, and substrate), resulting in strong modification of the graphene band structure. We also demonstrate that the metal-intercalated epitaxial graphene has tunable band structures by controlling the energies of Dirac cones asmore » well as the linear and quadratic band dispersion depending on the intercalation layer and density. Thus, the metal intercalation is a viable method to manipulate the electronic band structure of the epitaxial graphene, which can enhance the functional utility and controllability of the material.« less

  3. Metal intercalation-induced selective adatom mass transport on graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Hupalo, Myron; ...

    2016-03-29

    Recent experiments indicate that metal intercalation is a very effective method to manipulate the graphene-adatom interaction and control metal nanostructure formation on graphene. A key question is mass transport, i.e., how atoms deposited uniformly on graphene populate different areas depending on the local intercalation. Using first-principles calculations, we show that partially intercalated graphene, with a mixture of intercalated and pristine areas, can induce an alternating electric field because of the spatial variations in electron doping, and thus, an oscillatory electrostatic potential. As a result, this alternating field can change normal stochastic adatom diffusion to biased diffusion, leading to selective massmore » transport and consequent nucleation, on either the intercalated or pristine areas, depending on the charge state of the adatoms.« less

  4. Trafficking Highways to the Intercalated Disc: New Insights Unlocking the Specificity of Connexin 43 Localization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shan-Shan; Shaw, Robin M.

    2016-01-01

    With each heartbeat, billions of cardiomyocytes work in concert to propagate the electrical excitation needed to effectively circulate blood. Regulated expression and timely delivery of connexin proteins to form gap junctions at the specialized cellcell contact region, known as the intercalated disc, is essential to ventricular cardiomyocyte coupling. We focus this review on several regulatory mechanisms that have been recently found to govern the lifecycle of connexin 43 (Cx43), the short-lived and most abundantly expressed connexin in cardiac ventricular muscle. The Cx43 lifecycle begins with gene expression, followed by oligomerization into hexameric channels, and then cytoskeletal-based transport toward the disc region. Once delivered, hemichannels interact with resident disc proteins and are organized to effect intercellular coupling. We highlight recent studies exploring regulation of Cx43 localization to the intercalated disc, with emphasis on alternatively translated Cx43 isoforms and cytoskeletal transport machinery that together regulate Cx43 gap junction coupling between cardiomyocytes. PMID:24460200

  5. Studies of hexafluorophosphate, tetrafluoroborate, and perchlorate electro-intercalation into graphitic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seel, Jennifer Ann

    There has been some interest in using carbon materials as both working electrodes in electrochemical cells and rechargeable batteries [1--6]. This would result in the intercalation of not only of lithium ions into one carbon electrode but the anion component of the lithium salt, such as PF 6-, into the other carbon electrode. The intercalation of the anion component of the salt into carbon electrodes has not been studied extensively and it is not completely understood. The work presented here will expand on this rarely touched subject through electrochemical cycling as well as in-situ and ex-situ X-ray diffraction experiments. The anions that will be studied are: PF6- , BF4- and ClO4 -. It will be shown that anion intercalation occurs for various types of soft carbons and that the process can be greatly affected by the amount of turbostratic disorder present in the carbon material as well as by the specific anion used. It was discovered that using ethyl methyl sulfone, EMS, as the solvent component of the electrolyte resulted in more stable electrochemical cells than ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate, a more common solvent, at the high potentials required for anion intercalation. It was also discovered that PF 6 and BF4 formed staged phases during electrochemical cycling whereas ClO4 did not. The amount of disorder present in the carbon electrode did affect the intercalation of the anion. The samples with a greater amount of disorder present had a larger amount of capacity loss between charge and discharge capacities. It was also found that purer and more distinct staged phases occurred in the more ordered carbon samples. The turbostratically disordered carbon layers may rotate to accommodate PF6 and therefore become slightly more ordered. X-ray diffraction evidence suggests that intercalated PF6 molecules may be free-rotating between the carbon layers. However, the orientation of BF4 molecules between the carbon layers could not be determined. There may also be

  6. Morphology and Structure of Amino-fatty Acid Intercalated Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Larry; Sumera, Florentino

    2015-04-01

    amino fatty acid, but decreased with increasing surfactant loading. This suggested that the amino fatty acid may be tethered to the clay structure via ionic interaction and/or ion-dipole attraction. Significant changes in the clay morphology, particle size and surface charge were observed after organo-modification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the organo-clays have a disordered and flaky morphology, while the unmodified MMT appeared to be dispersed spherical grains. The effective (Z) diameter of Na+-MMT was found to be ~520 nm, but increased up to ~937 nm upon intercalation of 12-ALA. The zeta potential (ξ) of the clay materials, on the other hand, ranged from -33 mV for undmodified MMT to -16 mv (200CEC-AMMT clay). The possible occupational hazards of working with nanoclays should also be explored. Presently, the MTT-dye reduction assay was performed to determine cell viability of mouse monocyte-macrophages (J774A.1) after direct exposure to the clays. The cytotoxicity of the clays exhibited a chemistry and dose dependent response, with unmodified Na+-MMT as the most cytotoxic while the organo-clays exhibited low toxicity. These results demonstrated the successful intercalation of the surfactant for the production of organophilic clay materials for a wide range of applications.

  7. Intercalated layered clay composites and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phukan, Anjali

    Supported inorganic reagents are rapidly emerging as new and environmentally acceptable reagents and catalysts. The smectite group of layered clay minerals, such as, Montmorillonite, provides promising character for adsorption, catalytic activity, supports etc. for their large surface area, swelling behavior and ion exchange properties. Aromatic compounds intercalated in layered clays are useful in optical molecular devices. Clay is a unique material for adsorption of heavy metals and various toxic substances. Clay surfaces are known to be catalytically active due to their surface acidity. Acid activated clays possess much improved surface areas and acidities and have higher pore volumes so that can absorb large molecules in the pores. The exchangeable cations in clay minerals play a key role in controlling surface acidity and catalytic activity. Recently, optically active metal-complex-Montmorillonite composites are reported to be active in antiracemization purposes. In view of the above, a research work, relating to the preparation of different modified clay composites and their catalytic applications were carried out. The different aspects and results of the present work have been reported in four major chapters. Chapter I: This is an introductory chapter, which contains a review of the literature regarding clay-based materials. Clay minerals are phyllosilicates with layer structure. Montmorillonite, a member of smectite group of clay, is 2:1 phyllosilicate, where a layer is composed of an octahedral sheet sandwiched by two tetrahedral sheets. Such clay shows cation exchange capacity (CEC) and is expressed in milli-equivalents per 100 gm of dry clay. Clays can be modified by interaction with metal ion, metal complexes, metal cluster and organic cations for various applications. Clays are also modified by treating with acid followed by impregnation with metal salts or ions. Montmorillonite can intercalate suitable metal complexes in excess of CEC to form double

  8. Intercalation and controlled release properties of vitamin C intercalated layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xiaorui, E-mail: gxr_1320@sina.com; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189; Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA

    Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination–rehydration (reconstruction) method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a successful intercalation of VC into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solutions imply that Mg{sub 3}Al–VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg{sub 3}Fe–VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and amore » diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution. - Graphical abstract: Vitamin C anions have been intercalated in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide and released in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution and deionised water. - Highlights: • Vitamin C intercalated Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides were prepared. • Release property of vitamin C in aqueous CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution is better. • Avrami-Erofe’ev and first-order models provide better fit for release results. • Diffusion-controlled and ion exchange processes occur in deionised water. • An ion exchange process occurs in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution.« less

  9. Tuning Fullerene Intercalation in a Poly (thiophene) derivative by Controlling the Polymer Degree of Self-Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paternò, G. M.; Skoda, M. W. A.; Dalgliesh, Robert; Cacialli, F.; Sakai, V. García

    2016-10-01

    Controlling the nanoscale arrangement in polymer-fullerene organic solar cells is of paramount importance to boost the performance of such promising class of photovoltaic diodes. In this work, we use a pseudo-bilayer system made of poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PBTTT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), to acquire a more complete understanding of the diffusion and intercalation of the fullerene-derivative within the polymer layer. By exploiting morphological and structural characterisation techniques, we observe that if we increase the film solidification time the polymer develops a higher crystalline order, and, as a result, it does not allow fullerene molecules to intercalate between the polymer side-chains. Gaining insight into the detailed fullerene intercalation mechanism is important for the development of organic photovoltaic diodes (PVDs).

  10. Tuning Fullerene Intercalation in a Poly (thiophene) derivative by Controlling the Polymer Degree of Self-Organisation.

    PubMed

    Paternò, G M; Skoda, M W A; Dalgliesh, Robert; Cacialli, F; Sakai, V García

    2016-10-04

    Controlling the nanoscale arrangement in polymer-fullerene organic solar cells is of paramount importance to boost the performance of such promising class of photovoltaic diodes. In this work, we use a pseudo-bilayer system made of poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PBTTT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), to acquire a more complete understanding of the diffusion and intercalation of the fullerene-derivative within the polymer layer. By exploiting morphological and structural characterisation techniques, we observe that if we increase the film solidification time the polymer develops a higher crystalline order, and, as a result, it does not allow fullerene molecules to intercalate between the polymer side-chains. Gaining insight into the detailed fullerene intercalation mechanism is important for the development of organic photovoltaic diodes (PVDs).

  11. Tuning Fullerene Intercalation in a Poly (thiophene) derivative by Controlling the Polymer Degree of Self-Organisation

    PubMed Central

    Paternò, G. M.; Skoda, M. W. A.; Dalgliesh, Robert; Cacialli, F.; Sakai, V. García

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the nanoscale arrangement in polymer-fullerene organic solar cells is of paramount importance to boost the performance of such promising class of photovoltaic diodes. In this work, we use a pseudo-bilayer system made of poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PBTTT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), to acquire a more complete understanding of the diffusion and intercalation of the fullerene-derivative within the polymer layer. By exploiting morphological and structural characterisation techniques, we observe that if we increase the film solidification time the polymer develops a higher crystalline order, and, as a result, it does not allow fullerene molecules to intercalate between the polymer side-chains. Gaining insight into the detailed fullerene intercalation mechanism is important for the development of organic photovoltaic diodes (PVDs). PMID:27698410

  12. Resolving DNA-ligand intercalation in the entropic stretching regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaqwashi, Ali A.

    Single molecule studies of DNA intercalation are typically conducted by applying stretching forces to obtain force-dependent DNA elongation measurements. The zero-force properties of DNA intercalation are determined by equilibrium and kinetic force-analysis. However, the applied stretching forces that are above the entropic regime (>5 pN) prevent DNA-DNA contact which may eliminate competitive DNA-ligand interactions. In particular, it is noted that cationic mono-intercalators investigated by single molecule force spectroscopy are mostly found to intercalate DNA with single rate, while bulk studies reported additional slower rates. Here, a proposed framework quantifies DNA intercalation by cationic ligands in competition with relatively rapid kinetic DNA-ligand aggregation. At a constant applied force in the entropic stretching regime, the analysis illustrates that DNA intercalation would be measurably optimized only within a narrow range of low ligand concentrations. As DNA intercalators are considered for potential DNA-targeted therapeutics, this analysis provides insights in tuning ligand concertation to maximize therapeutics efficiency.

  13. Visualization of phage DNA degradation by a type I CRISPR-Cas system at the single-cell level.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jingwen; Shi, Xu; Burgos, Roberto; Zeng, Lanying

    2017-03-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is a widespread prokaryotic defense system which targets and cleaves invasive nucleic acids, such as plasmids or viruses. So far, a great number of studies have focused on the components and mechanisms of this system, however, a direct visualization of CRISPR-Cas degrading invading DNA in real-time has not yet been studied at the single-cell level. In this study, we fluorescently label phage lambda DNA in vivo , and track the labeled DNA over time to characterize DNA degradation at the single-cell level. At the bulk level, the lysogenization frequency of cells harboring CRISPR plasmids decreases significantly compared to cells with a non-CRISPR control. At the single-cell level, host cells with CRISPR activity are unperturbed by phage infection, maintaining normal growth like uninfected cells, where the efficiency of our anti-lambda CRISPR system is around 26%. During the course of time-lapse movies, the average fluorescence of invasive phage DNA in cells with CRISPR activity, decays more rapidly compared to cells without, and phage DNA is fully degraded by around 44 minutes on average. Moreover, the degradation appears to be independent of cell size or the phage DNA ejection site suggesting that Cas proteins are dispersed in sufficient quantities throughout the cell. With the CRISPR-Cas visualization system we developed, we are able to examine and characterize how a CRISPR system degrades invading phage DNA at the single-cell level. This work provides direct evidence and improves the current understanding on how CRISPR breaks down invading DNA.

  14. Dissecting the Dynamic Pathways of Stereoselective DNA Threading Intercalation

    PubMed Central

    Almaqwashi, Ali A.; Andersson, Johanna; Lincoln, Per; Rouzina, Ioulia; Westerlund, Fredrik; Williams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    DNA intercalators that have high affinity and slow kinetics are developed for potential DNA-targeted therapeutics. Although many natural intercalators contain multiple chiral subunits, only intercalators with a single chiral unit have been quantitatively probed. Dumbbell-shaped DNA threading intercalators represent the next order of structural complexity relative to simple intercalators, and can provide significant insights into the stereoselectivity of DNA-ligand intercalation. We investigated DNA threading intercalation by binuclear ruthenium complex [μ-dppzip(phen)4Ru2]4+ (Piz). Four Piz stereoisomers are defined by the chirality of the intercalating subunit (Ru(phen)2dppz) and the distal subunit (Ru(phen)2ip), respectively, each of which can be either right-handed (Δ) or left-handed (Λ). We used optical tweezers to measure single DNA molecule elongation due to threading intercalation, revealing force-dependent DNA intercalation rates and equilibrium dissociation constants. The force spectroscopy analysis provided the zero-force DNA binding affinity, the equilibrium DNA-ligand elongation Δxeq, and the dynamic DNA structural deformations during ligand association xon and dissociation xoff. We found that Piz stereoisomers exhibit over 20-fold differences in DNA binding affinity, from a Kd of 27 ± 3 nM for (Δ,Λ)-Piz to a Kd of 622 ± 55 nM for (Λ,Δ)-Piz. The striking affinity decrease is correlated with increasing Δxeq from 0.30 ± 0.02 to 0.48 ± 0.02 nm and xon from 0.25 ± 0.01 to 0.46 ± 0.02 nm, but limited xoff changes. Notably, the affinity and threading kinetics is 10-fold enhanced for right-handed intercalating subunits, and 2- to 5-fold enhanced for left-handed distal subunits. These findings demonstrate sterically dispersed transition pathways and robust DNA structural recognition of chiral intercalators, which are critical for optimizing DNA binding affinity and kinetics. PMID:27028636

  15. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1995-08-22

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  16. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  17. Calcium intercalation into layered fluorinated sodium iron phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, Albert L.; Kim, Soojeong; Pan, Baofei

    Here, the energy density and cost of battery systems could be improved by moving to alternative battery chemistries such as Ca-ion. However, in order to switch chemistries many problems need to be solved including the identification of cathode materials with high energy density, and electrolytes that can plate and strip calcium metal. Herein, the feasibility and cycling performance of Ca 2+ intercalation into a desodiated layered Na 2FePO 4F host is described. This is the first demonstration of Ca 2+ intercalation into a polyanionic framework, which implies that other polyanionic framework materials may be active for Ca 2+ intercalation. Althoughmore » substantial effort is still needed to identify a high energy density cathode material, this study and others demonstrate the feasibility of Ca 2+ intercalation into multiple materials making it more probable that such a cathode material can be found.« less

  18. Calcium intercalation into layered fluorinated sodium iron phosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Lipson, Albert L.; Kim, Soojeong; Pan, Baofei; ...

    2017-10-09

    Here, the energy density and cost of battery systems could be improved by moving to alternative battery chemistries such as Ca-ion. However, in order to switch chemistries many problems need to be solved including the identification of cathode materials with high energy density, and electrolytes that can plate and strip calcium metal. Herein, the feasibility and cycling performance of Ca 2+ intercalation into a desodiated layered Na 2FePO 4F host is described. This is the first demonstration of Ca 2+ intercalation into a polyanionic framework, which implies that other polyanionic framework materials may be active for Ca 2+ intercalation. Althoughmore » substantial effort is still needed to identify a high energy density cathode material, this study and others demonstrate the feasibility of Ca 2+ intercalation into multiple materials making it more probable that such a cathode material can be found.« less

  19. Ultrastructural and biochemical localization of N-RAP at the interface between myofibrils and intercalated disks in the mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J Q; Elzey, B; Williams, G; Lu, S; Law, D J; Horowits, R

    2001-12-11

    N-RAP is a recently discovered muscle-specific protein found at cardiac intercalated disks. Double immunogold labeling of mouse cardiac muscle reveals that vinculin is located immediately adjacent to the fascia adherens region of the intercalated disk membrane, while N-RAP extends approximately 100 nm further toward the interior of the cell. We partially purified cardiac intercalated disks using low- and high-salt extractions followed by density gradient centrifugation. Immunoblots show that this preparation is highly enriched in desmin and junctional proteins, including N-RAP, talin, vinculin, beta1-integrin, N-cadherin, and connexin 43. Electron microscopy and immunolabeling demonstrate that N-RAP and vinculin are associated with the large fragments of intercalated disks that are present in this preparation, which also contains numerous membrane vesicles. Detergent treatment of the partially purified intercalated disks removed the membrane vesicles and extracted vinculin and beta1-integrin. Further separation on a sucrose gradient removed residual actin and myosin and yielded a fraction morphologically similar to fasciae adherentes that was highly enriched in N-RAP, N-cadherin, connexin 43, talin, desmin, and alpha-actinin. The finding that N-RAP copurifies with detergent-extracted intercalated disk fragments even though beta-integrin and vinculin have been completely removed suggests that N-RAP association with the adherens junction region is mediated by the cadherin system. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that recombinant N-RAP fragments bind alpha-actinin in a gel overlay assay. In addition, immunofluorescence shows that N-RAP remains bound at the ends of isolated, detergent-treated cardiac myofibrils. These results demonstrate that N-RAP remains tightly bound to myofibrils and fasciae adherentes during biochemical purification and may be a key constituent in the mechanical link between these two structures.

  20. A molecular model for proflavine-DNA intercalation.

    PubMed Central

    Neidle, S; Pearl, L H; Herzyk, P; Berman, H M

    1988-01-01

    A molecular model has been derived for the intercalation of proflavine into the CpG site of the decamer duplex of d(GATACGATAC). The starting geometry of the intercalation site was taken from previous crystallographic studies on the d(CpG)-proflavine complex, and molecular mechanics used to obtain a stereochemically acceptable structure. This has widened grooves compared to standard A- or B- double helices, as well as distinct conformational, roll, twist and tilt features. PMID:3174439

  1. Electronic properties of carbon fibers intercalated with copper chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshima, H.; Natarajan, V.; Woollam, J. A.; Yavrouian, A.; Haugland, E. J.; Tsuzuku, T.

    1984-01-01

    Copper chloride intercalated pitch-based carbon fibers are found to have electrical resistivities as low as 12.9 micro-ohm-cm, and are air- and thermally-stable at and above room temperature. This is therefore a good candidate system for conductor application. In addition, Shubnikov-deHaas quantum oscillatory effects were found, and electronic properties of the intercalated fiber are studied using magnetic fields to 20 tesla.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Intercalated Graphite Bisulfate.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Marcella; Carotenuto, Gianfranco; De Nicola, Sergio; Camerlingo, Carlo; Ambrogi, Veronica; Carfagna, Cosimo

    2017-12-01

    Different chemical formulations for the synthesis of highly intercalated graphite bisulfate have been tested. In particular, nitric acid, potassium nitrate, potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate, sodium periodate, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide have been used in this synthesis scheme as the auxiliary reagent (oxidizing agent). In order to evaluate the presence of delamination, and pre-expansion phenomena, and the achieved intercalation degree in the prepared samples, the obtained graphite intercalation compounds have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS), and thermal analysis (TGA). Delamination and pre-expansion phenomena were observed only for nitric acid, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide, while the presence of strong oxidizers (KMnO 4 , K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) led to stable graphite intercalation compounds. The largest content of intercalated bisulfate is achieved in the intercalated compounds obtained from NaIO 4 and NaClO 3 .

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Intercalated Graphite Bisulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, Marcella; Carotenuto, Gianfranco; De Nicola, Sergio; Camerlingo, Carlo; Ambrogi, Veronica; Carfagna, Cosimo

    2017-03-01

    Different chemical formulations for the synthesis of highly intercalated graphite bisulfate have been tested. In particular, nitric acid, potassium nitrate, potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate, sodium periodate, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide have been used in this synthesis scheme as the auxiliary reagent (oxidizing agent). In order to evaluate the presence of delamination, and pre-expansion phenomena, and the achieved intercalation degree in the prepared samples, the obtained graphite intercalation compounds have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), micro-Raman spectroscopy ( μ-RS), and thermal analysis (TGA). Delamination and pre-expansion phenomena were observed only for nitric acid, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide, while the presence of strong oxidizers (KMnO4, K2Cr2O7) led to stable graphite intercalation compounds. The largest content of intercalated bisulfate is achieved in the intercalated compounds obtained from NaIO4 and NaClO3.

  4. Regenerable Cu-intercalated MnO2 layered cathode for highly cyclable energy dense batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Gautam G.; Gallaway, Joshua W.; Turney, Damon E.

    2017-03-06

    Manganese dioxide cathodes are inexpensive and have high theoretical capacity (based on two electrons) of 617 mAh g-1, making them attractive for low-cost, energy-dense batteries. They are used in non-rechargeable batteries with anodes like zinc. Only ~10% of the theoretical capacity is currently accessible in rechargeable alkaline systems. Attempts to access the full capacity using additives have been unsuccessful. We report a class of Bi-birnessite (a layered manganese oxide polymorph mixed with bismuth oxide (Bi2O3)) cathodes intercalated with Cu2+ that deliver near-full two-electron capacity reversibly for >6,000 cycles. The key to rechargeability lies in exploiting the redox potentials of Cumore » to reversibly intercalate into the Bi-birnessite-layered structure during its dissolution and precipitation process for stabilizing and enhancing its charge transfer characteristics. This process holds promise for other applications like catalysis and intercalation of metal ions into layered structures. A large prismatic rechargeable Zn-birnessite cell delivering ~140 Wh l-1 is shown.« less

  5. Discriminating Intercalative Effects of Threading Intercalator Nogalamycin, from Classical Intercalator Daunomycin, Using Single Molecule Atomic Force Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T; Banerjee, S; Sett, S; Ghosh, S; Rakshit, T; Mukhopadhyay, R

    2016-01-01

    DNA threading intercalators are a unique class of intercalating agents, albeit little biophysical information is available on their intercalative actions. Herein, the intercalative effects of nogalamycin, which is a naturally-occurring DNA threading intercalator, have been investigated by high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy (AFS). The results have been compared with those of the well-known chemotherapeutic drug daunomycin, which is a non-threading classical intercalator bearing structural similarity to nogalamycin. A comparative AFM assessment revealed a greater increase in DNA contour length over the entire incubation period of 48 h for nogalamycin treatment, whereas the contour length increase manifested faster in case of daunomycin. The elastic response of single DNA molecules to an externally applied force was investigated by the single molecule AFS approach. Characteristic mechanical fingerprints in the overstretching behaviour clearly distinguished the nogalamycin/daunomycin-treated dsDNA from untreated dsDNA-the former appearing less elastic than the latter, and the nogalamycin-treated DNA distinguished from the daunomycin-treated DNA-the classically intercalated dsDNA appearing the least elastic. A single molecule AFS-based discrimination of threading intercalation from the classical type is being reported for the first time.

  6. Discriminating Intercalative Effects of Threading Intercalator Nogalamycin, from Classical Intercalator Daunomycin, Using Single Molecule Atomic Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sett, S.; Ghosh, S.; Rakshit, T.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2016-01-01

    DNA threading intercalators are a unique class of intercalating agents, albeit little biophysical information is available on their intercalative actions. Herein, the intercalative effects of nogalamycin, which is a naturally-occurring DNA threading intercalator, have been investigated by high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy (AFS). The results have been compared with those of the well-known chemotherapeutic drug daunomycin, which is a non-threading classical intercalator bearing structural similarity to nogalamycin. A comparative AFM assessment revealed a greater increase in DNA contour length over the entire incubation period of 48 h for nogalamycin treatment, whereas the contour length increase manifested faster in case of daunomycin. The elastic response of single DNA molecules to an externally applied force was investigated by the single molecule AFS approach. Characteristic mechanical fingerprints in the overstretching behaviour clearly distinguished the nogalamycin/daunomycin-treated dsDNA from untreated dsDNA—the former appearing less elastic than the latter, and the nogalamycin-treated DNA distinguished from the daunomycin-treated DNA—the classically intercalated dsDNA appearing the least elastic. A single molecule AFS-based discrimination of threading intercalation from the classical type is being reported for the first time. PMID:27183010

  7. Comparison of fluoride intercalation/de-intercalation processes on graphite electrodes in aqueous and aqueous methanolic HF media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, M.; Santhanam, R.; Francisca Flora, M.

    The solvent can play a major role in the intercalation/de-intercalation process and the stability of graphite substrates towards this process. This fact is established in the present work that involves fluoride intercalation/de-intercatlation on graphite electrodes in aqueous and aqueous methanolic HF solutions where the HF concentration is varied between 1.0 and 18.0 M. In addition to cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic polarization, open-circuit potential decay measurements, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements have been employed. In general, addition of methanol and increasing concentration of HF raise the overall intercalation/de-intercalation efficiency. Methanol is adsorbed preferentially on the graphite lattice and, hence, suppresses both oxygen evolution and the formation of passive graphite oxides. In 15.0 M HF, the optimum methanol concentration is 5 vol.%. This suggests that, in addition to the adsorption effect, there is some weakening of the structured water molecules that facilitates the solvated fluoride ions for efficient intercalation.

  8. Identification of a conserved B-cell epitope on duck hepatitis A type 1 virus VP1 protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoying; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qingshan; Wulin, Shaozhou; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Yue; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in ducks; however, B-cell epitopes on the VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A genotype 1 virus (DHAV-1) have not been characterized. To characterize B-cell epitopes on VP1, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2D10 against Escherichia coli-expressed VP1 of DHAV-1. In vitro, mAb 2D10 neutralized DHAV-1 virus. By using an array of overlapping 12-mer peptides, we found that mAb 2D10 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif LPAPTS. Sequence alignment showed that the epitope 173LPAPTS178 is highly conserved among the DHAV-1 genotypes. Moreover, the six amino acid peptide LPAPTS was proven to be the minimal unit of the epitope with maximal binding activity to mAb 2D10. DHAV-1-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope in dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of the six amino acids of the epitope for antibody-epitope binding. Competitive inhibition assays of mAb 2D10 binding to synthetic LPAPTS peptides and truncated VP1 protein fragments, detected by Western blotting, also verify that LPAPTS was the VP1 epitope. We identified LPAPTS as a VP1-specific linear B-cell epitope recognized by the neutralizing mAb 2D10. Our findings have potential applications in the development of diagnostic techniques and epitope-based marker vaccines against DHAV-1.

  9. Direct Investigation of Mg Intercalation into the Orthorhombic V 2O 5 Cathode Using Atomic-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy [Direct Investigation of Mg intercalation into orthorhombic V 2O 5 cathode using Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy Methods

    DOE PAGES

    Mukherjee, Arijita; Sa, Niya; Phillips, Patrick J.; ...

    2017-02-13

    Batteries based on Mg metal anode can promise much higher specific volumetric capacity and energy density compared to Li-ion systems and are, at the same time, safer and more cost-effective. While previous experimental reports have claimed reversible Mg intercalation into beyond Chevrel phase cathodes, they provide limited evidence of true Mg intercalation other than electrochemical data. Transmission electron microscopy techniques provide unique capabilities to directly image Mg intercalation and quantify the redox reaction within the cathode material. Here, we present a systematic study of Mg insertion into orthorhombic V 2O 5, combining aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging, electronmore » energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. We compare the results from an electrochemically cycled V 2O 5 cathode in a prospective full cell with Mg metal anode with a chemically synthesized MgV 2O 5 sample. Results suggest that the electrochemically cycled orthorhombic V 2O 5 cathode shows a local formation of the theoretically predicted ϵ-Mg0.5V2O5 phase; however, the intercalation levels of Mg are lower than predicted. Lastly, this phase is different from the chemically synthesized sample, which is found to represent the δ-MgV 2O 5 phase.« less

  10. Pemetrexed-carboplatin with intercalated icotinib in the treatment of patient with advanced EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tongpeng; Wu, Hao; Jin, Shidai; Min, Huang; Zhang, Zhihong; Shu, Yongqian; Wen, Wei; Guo, Renhua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are known to have greater efficacy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, about 10% of EGFR wild-type (wt) patients respond to TKIs. Patient concerns: Several strategies to increase the efficacy of TKIs in wt NSCLC are the subjects of ongoing investigations. One of them is combining EGFR TKI with intercalated chemotherapy. Diagnoses: We describe a patient with EGFR wt NSCLC, who was found with ovarian and lung metastasis, was treated with pemetrexed and intercalated icotinib. Interventions: In this case, we reported the successful long-term maintenance treatment of a patient with EGFR wt NSCLC with pemetrexed and Icotinib. The patient (40-year-old female) was found with ovarian masses and lung masses. Pathological, immunohistochemical, and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) assay examinations of ovarian specimen suggested the expression of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with wt EGFR. After failure treatment with paclitaxel-carboplatin, the patient received 4 cycles of pemetrexed plus platinum with intercalated icotinib and then remained on pemetrexed and icotinib. Outcomes: A partial response was achieved after the treatment. The patient's condition had remained stable on pemetrexed and icotinib for more than 20 months, with no evidence of progression. Lessons: To our knowledge, this is the first report using the long-term maintenance treatment with pemetrexed and intercalated icotinib in EGFR wt patient. The therapeutic strategies warrant further exploration in selected populations of NSCLC. PMID:28816950

  11. Manipulation of Dirac cones in metal-intercalated epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Kim, Minsung; Tringides, Michael; Ho, Kai-Ming

    Graphene is one of the most attractive materials from both fundamental and practical points of view due to its characteristic Dirac cones. The electronic property of graphene can be modified through the interaction with substrate or another graphene layer as illustrated in few-layer epitaxial graphene. Recently, metal intercalation became an effective method to manipulate the electronic structure of graphene by modifying the coupling between the constituent layers. In this work, we show that the Dirac cones of epitaxial graphene can be manipulated by intercalating rare-earth metals. We demonstrate that rare-earth metal intercalated epitaxial graphene has tunable band structures and the energy levels of Dirac cones as well as the linear or quadratic band dispersion can be controlled depending on the location of the intercalation layer and density. Our results could be important for applications and characterizations of the intercalated epitaxial graphene. Supported by the U.S. DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  12. Decreasing the electronic confinement in layered perovskites through intercalation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew D; Pedesseau, Laurent; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Smith, Ian C; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2017-03-01

    We show that post-synthetic small-molecule intercalation can significantly reduce the electronic confinement of 2D hybrid perovskites. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we explain structural, optical, and electronic effects of intercalating highly polarizable molecules in layered perovskites designed to stabilize the intercalants. Polarizable molecules in the organic layers substantially alter the optical and electronic properties of the inorganic layers. By calculating the spatially resolved dielectric profiles of the organic and inorganic layers within the hybrid structure, we show that the intercalants afford organic layers that are more polarizable than the inorganic layers. This strategy reduces the confinement of excitons generated in the inorganic layers and affords the lowest exciton binding energy for an n = 1 perovskite of which we are aware. We also demonstrate a method for computationally evaluating the exciton's binding energy by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the exciton, which includes an ab initio determination of the material's dielectric profile across organic and inorganic layers. This new semi-empirical method goes beyond the imprecise phenomenological approximation of abrupt dielectric-constant changes at the organic-inorganic interfaces. This work shows that incorporation of polarizable molecules in the organic layers, through intercalation or covalent attachment, is a viable strategy for tuning 2D perovskites towards mimicking the reduced electronic confinement and isotropic light absorption of 3D perovskites while maintaining the greater synthetic tunability of the layered architecture.

  13. Investigating the Intercalation Chemistry of Alkali Ions in Fluoride Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Tanghong; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Lei

    Reversible intercalation reactions provide the basis for modern battery electrodes. In spite of the decades of exploration of electrode materials, the potential for materials in the nonoxide chemical space with regards to intercalation chemistry is vast and rather untested. Transition metal fluorides stand out as an obvious target. To this end, we report herein a new family of iron fluoride-based perovskite cathode materials A xK 1–xFeF 3 (A = Li, Na). By starting with KFeF 3, approximately 75% of K+ ions were subsequently replaced by Li + and Na + through electrochemical means. X-ray diffraction and Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopymore » confirmed the existence of intercalation of alkali metal ions in the perovskite structure, which is associated with the Fe 2+/3+ redox couple. A computational study by density functional theory showed agreement with the structural and electrochemical data obtained experimentally, which suggested the possibility of fluoride-based materials as potential intercalation electrodes. Our study increases our understanding of the intercalation chemistry of ternary fluorides, which could inform efforts toward the exploration of new electrode materials.« less

  14. Investigating the Intercalation Chemistry of Alkali Ions in Fluoride Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Tanghong; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Lei

    Reversible intercalation reactions provide the basis for modern battery electrodes. Despite decades of exploration of electrode materials, the potential for materials in the nonoxide chemical space with regards to intercalation chemistry is vast and rather untested. Transition metal fluorides stand out as an obvious target. To this end, we report herein a new family of iron fluoride-based perovskite cathode materials A xK 1–xFeF 3 (A = Li, Na). By starting with KFeF 3, approximately 75% of K + ions were subsequently replaced by Li + and Na + through electrochemical means. X-ray diffraction and Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed themore » existence of intercalation of alkali metal ions in the perovskite structure, which is associated with the Fe 2+/3+ redox couple. A computational study by density functional theory showed agreement with the structural and electrochemical data obtained experimentally, which suggested the possibility of fluoride-based materials as potential intercalation electrodes. This study increases our understanding of the intercalation chemistry of ternary fluorides, which could inform efforts toward the exploration of new electrode materials.« less

  15. Durability of Intercalated Graphite Epoxy Composites in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Davidson, Michelle L.; Shively, Rhonda

    1996-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of graphite epoxy composites can be substantially increased by intercalating (inserting guest atoms or molecules between the graphene planes) the graphite fibers before composite formation. The resulting high strength, low density, electrically conducting composites have been proposed for EMI shielding in spacecraft. Questions have been raised, however, about their durability in the space environment, especially with respect to outgassing of the intercalates, which are corrosive species such as bromine. To answer those concerns, six samples of bromine intercalated graphite epoxy composites were included in the third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) experiment flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-46). Changes in electrical conductivity, optical reflectance, surface texture, and mass loss for SiO2 protected and unprotected samples were measured after being exposed to the LEO environment for 42 hours. SiO2 protected samples showed no degradation, verifying conventional protection strategies are applicable to bromine intercalated composites. The unprotected samples showed that bromine intercalation does not alter the degradation of graphite-epoxy composites. No bromine was detected to have been released by the fibers allaying fears that outgassing could be disruptive to the sensitive electronics the EMI shield is meant to protect.

  16. Investigating the Intercalation Chemistry of Alkali Ions in Fluoride Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, Tanghong; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Lei; ...

    2017-01-20

    Reversible intercalation reactions provide the basis for modern battery electrodes. In spite of the decades of exploration of electrode materials, the potential for materials in the nonoxide chemical space with regards to intercalation chemistry is vast and rather untested. Transition metal fluorides stand out as an obvious target. To this end, we report herein a new family of iron fluoride-based perovskite cathode materials A xK 1–xFeF 3 (A = Li, Na). By starting with KFeF 3, approximately 75% of K+ ions were subsequently replaced by Li + and Na + through electrochemical means. X-ray diffraction and Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopymore » confirmed the existence of intercalation of alkali metal ions in the perovskite structure, which is associated with the Fe 2+/3+ redox couple. A computational study by density functional theory showed agreement with the structural and electrochemical data obtained experimentally, which suggested the possibility of fluoride-based materials as potential intercalation electrodes. Our study increases our understanding of the intercalation chemistry of ternary fluorides, which could inform efforts toward the exploration of new electrode materials.« less

  17. Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yingwen; Luo, Langli; Zhong, Li

    We demonstrate the application of the Chevrel phase Mo6S8 nanocubes as the anode material for rechargeable Zn-ion batteries. Mo6S8 can host Zn2+ ions reversibility both in aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes with specific capacities around 90 mAh/g and exhibited remarkable intercalation kinetics as well as stability. Furthermore, we assembled full cells by integrating Mo6S8 anode with zinc-polyiodide (I-/I3-) based catholytes, and demonstrated that such fuel cells was also able to deliver outstanding rate performance and cyclic stability. This first demonstration of zinc intercalating anode could inspire the design of advanced Zn ion batteries.

  18. Tunable thermal expansion in framework materials through redox intercalation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Gao, Qilong; Sanson, Andrea; Jiang, Xingxing; Huang, Qingzhen; Carnera, Alberto; Rodriguez, Clara Guglieri; Olivi, Luca; Wang, Lei; Hu, Lei; Lin, Kun; Ren, Yang; Lin, Zheshuai; Wang, Cong; Gu, Lin; Deng, Jinxia; Attfield, J. Paul; Xing, Xianran

    2017-01-01

    Thermal expansion properties of solids are of fundamental interest and control of thermal expansion is important for practical applications but can be difficult to achieve. Many framework-type materials show negative thermal expansion when internal cages are empty but positive thermal expansion when additional atoms or molecules fill internal voids present. Here we show that redox intercalation offers an effective method to control thermal expansion from positive to zero to negative by insertion of Li ions into the simple negative thermal expansion framework material ScF3, doped with 10% Fe to enable reduction. The small concentration of intercalated Li ions has a strong influence through steric hindrance of transverse fluoride ion vibrations, which directly controls the thermal expansion. Redox intercalation of guest ions is thus likely to be a general and effective method for controlling thermal expansion in the many known framework materials with phonon-driven negative thermal expansion. PMID:28181576

  19. Electrochemical oxygen intercalation into Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchter, L.; Brouet, V.; Colson, D.; Moussy, J.-B.; Forget, A.; Li, Z. Z.

    2018-01-01

    Oxygen was electrochemically intercalated into Sr2IrO4 sintered samples, single crystals and a thin film. We estimate the diffusion length to a few μm and the concentration of the intercalated oxygen to δ ≃ 0.01. The latter is thus much smaller than for the cuprate and nickelate parent compounds, for which δ > 0.1 is obtained, which could be a consequence of larger steric effects. The influence of the oxygen doping state on resistivity is small, indicating also a poor charge transfer to the conduction band. It is shown that electrochemical intercalation of oxygen may also contribute to doping, when gating thin films with ionic liquid in the presence of water.

  20. Intercalated europium metal in epitaxial graphene on SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Nathaniel; Hupalo, Myron; Keavney, David; ...

    2017-10-25

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) reveals the magnetic properties of intercalated europium metal under graphene on SiC(0001). Intercalation of Eu nanoclusters (average size 2.5 nm) between graphene and SiC substate are formed by deposition of Eu on epitaxially grown graphene that is subsequently annealed at various temperatures while keeping the integrity of the graphene layer. Using sum-rules analysis of the XMCD of Eu M 4,5 edges at T = 15 K, our samples show paramagnetic-like behavior with distinct anomaly at T ≈ 90 K, which may be related to the Nèel transition, T N = 91 K, of bulk metalmore » Eu. Here, we find no evidence of ferromagnetism due to EuO or antiferromagnetism due to Eu 2 O 3, indicating that the graphene layer protects the intercalated metallic Eu against oxidation over months of exposure to atmospheric environment.« less

  1. Tunable thermal expansion in framework materials through redox intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Gao, Qilong; Sanson, Andrea; Jiang, Xingxing; Huang, Qingzhen; Carnera, Alberto; Rodriguez, Clara Guglieri; Olivi, Luca; Wang, Lei; Hu, Lei; Lin, Kun; Ren, Yang; Lin, Zheshuai; Wang, Cong; Gu, Lin; Deng, Jinxia; Attfield, J. Paul; Xing, Xianran

    2017-02-01

    Thermal expansion properties of solids are of fundamental interest and control of thermal expansion is important for practical applications but can be difficult to achieve. Many framework-type materials show negative thermal expansion when internal cages are empty but positive thermal expansion when additional atoms or molecules fill internal voids present. Here we show that redox intercalation offers an effective method to control thermal expansion from positive to zero to negative by insertion of Li ions into the simple negative thermal expansion framework material ScF3, doped with 10% Fe to enable reduction. The small concentration of intercalated Li ions has a strong influence through steric hindrance of transverse fluoride ion vibrations, which directly controls the thermal expansion. Redox intercalation of guest ions is thus likely to be a general and effective method for controlling thermal expansion in the many known framework materials with phonon-driven negative thermal expansion.

  2. Intercalated europium metal in epitaxial graphene on SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Nathaniel; Hupalo, Myron; Keavney, David

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) reveals the magnetic properties of intercalated europium metal under graphene on SiC(0001). Intercalation of Eu nanoclusters (average size 2.5 nm) between graphene and SiC substate are formed by deposition of Eu on epitaxially grown graphene that is subsequently annealed at various temperatures while keeping the integrity of the graphene layer. Using sum-rules analysis of the XMCD of Eu M 4,5 edges at T = 15 K, our samples show paramagnetic-like behavior with distinct anomaly at T ≈ 90 K, which may be related to the Nèel transition, T N = 91 K, of bulk metalmore » Eu. Here, we find no evidence of ferromagnetism due to EuO or antiferromagnetism due to Eu 2 O 3, indicating that the graphene layer protects the intercalated metallic Eu against oxidation over months of exposure to atmospheric environment.« less

  3. Real-time electrochemical LAMP: a rational comparative study of different DNA intercalating and non-intercalating redox probes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alexandra; Bouffier, Laurent; Grant, Kathryn B; Limoges, Benoît; Marchal, Damien

    2016-06-20

    We present a comparative study of ten redox-active probes for use in real-time electrochemical loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Our main objectives were to establish the criteria that need to be fulfilled for minimizing some of the current limitations of the technique and to provide future guidelines in the search for ideal redox reporters. To ensure a reliable comparative study, each redox probe was tested under similar conditions using the same LAMP reaction and the same entirely automatized custom-made real-time electrochemical device (designed for electrochemically monitoring in real-time and in parallel up to 48 LAMP samples). Electrochemical melt curve analyses were recorded immediately at the end of each LAMP reaction. Our results show that there are a number of intercalating and non-intercalating redox compounds suitable for real-time electrochemical LAMP and that the best candidates are those able to intercalate strongly into ds-DNA but not too much to avoid inhibition of the LAMP reaction. The strongest intercalating redox probes were finally shown to provide higher LAMP sensitivity, speed, greater signal amplitude, and cleaner-cut DNA melting curves than the non-intercalating molecules.

  4. Antiproliferative, DNA intercalation and redox cycling activities of dioxonaphtho[2,3-d]imidazolium analogs of YM155: A structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Si-Han Sherman; Sim, Mei-Yi; Yee, Wei-Loong Sherman; Yang, Tianming; Yuen, Shyi-Peng John; Go, Mei-Lin

    2015-11-02

    The anticancer agent YM155 is widely investigated as a specific survivin suppressant. More recently, YM155 was found to induce DNA damage and this has raised doubts as to whether survivin is its primary target. In an effort to assess the contribution of DNA damage to the anticancer activity of YM155, several analogs were prepared and evaluated for antiproliferative activity on malignant cells, participation in DNA intercalation and free radical generation by redox cycling. The intact positively charged scaffold was found to be essential for antiproliferative activity and intercalation but was less critical for redox cycling where the minimal requirement was a pared down bicyclic quinone. Side chain requirements at the N(1) and N(3) positions of the scaffold were more alike for redox cycling and intercalation than antiproliferative activity, underscoring yet again, the limited structural overlaps for these activities. Furthermore, antiproliferative activities were poorly correlated to DNA intercalation and redox cycling. Potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 9-23 nM), exceeding that of YM155, was found for a minimally substituted methyl analog AB7. Like YM155 and other dioxonaphthoimidazoliums, AB7 was a modest DNA intercalator but with weak redox cycling activity. Thus, the capacity of this scaffold to inflict direct DNA damage leading to cell death may not be significant and YM155 should not be routinely classified as a DNA damaging agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of graphite intercalation compounds containing oligo and polyethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanyang; Lerner, Michael M.

    2016-02-01

    Layered host-polymer nanocomposites comprising polymeric guests between inorganic sheets have been prepared with many inorganic hosts, but there is limited evidence for the incorporation of polymeric guests into graphite. Here we report for the first time the preparation, and structural and compositional characterization of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) containing polyether bilayers. The new GICs are obtained by either (1) reductive intercalation of graphite with an alkali metal in the presence of an oligo or polyether and an electrocatalyst, or (2) co-intercalate exchange of an amine for an oligo or polyether in a donor-type GIC. Structural characterization of products using powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analyses supports the formation of well-ordered, first-stage GICs containing alkali metal cations and oligo or polyether bilayers between reduced graphene sheets.Layered host-polymer nanocomposites comprising polymeric guests between inorganic sheets have been prepared with many inorganic hosts, but there is limited evidence for the incorporation of polymeric guests into graphite. Here we report for the first time the preparation, and structural and compositional characterization of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) containing polyether bilayers. The new GICs are obtained by either (1) reductive intercalation of graphite with an alkali metal in the presence of an oligo or polyether and an electrocatalyst, or (2) co-intercalate exchange of an amine for an oligo or polyether in a donor-type GIC. Structural characterization of products using powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analyses supports the formation of well-ordered, first-stage GICs containing alkali metal cations and oligo or polyether bilayers between reduced graphene sheets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Domain size, additional Raman spectra info, compositional calculation, and packing fractions. See DOI: 10.1039/c5

  6. Intercalation of paracetamol into the hydrotalcite-like host

    SciTech Connect

    Kovanda, Frantisek, E-mail: Frantisek.Kovanda@vscht.cz; Maryskova, Zuzana; Kovar, Petr

    2011-12-15

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are often used as host structures for intercalation of various anionic species. The product intercalated with the nonionic, water-soluble pharmaceuticals paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, was prepared by rehydration of the Mg-Al mixed oxide obtained by calcination of hydrotalcite-like precursor at 500 Degree-Sign C. The successful intercalation of paracetamol molecules into the interlayer space was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy measurements. Molecular simulations showed that the phenolic hydroxyl groups of paracetamol interact with hydroxide sheets of the host via the hydroxyl groups of the positively charged sites of Al-containing octahedra; the interlayer water molecules are located mostly nearmore » the hydroxide sheets. The arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer is rather disordered and interactions between neighboring molecules cause their tilting towards the hydroxide sheets. Dissolution tests in various media showed slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host in comparison with tablets containing the powdered pharmaceuticals. - Graphical abstract: Molecular simulations showed disordered arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer; most of the interlayer water molecules are located near the hydroxide sheets. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paracetamol was intercalated in Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like host by rehydration/reconstruction procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paracetamol phenolic groups interact with positively charged sites in hydroxide sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular simulations showed disordered arrangement of guest molecules in the interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host was observed.« less

  7. Electronic and Structural Studies of Intercalated Graphite and Buckminsterfullerene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelty, Stephen Paul

    Under the direction of Prof. C. M. Lieber, the surface electronic and structural properties of binary MC_{rm x} and ternary rm MM^' C_{x } donor graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) were investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and other surface sensitive techniques. The STM images revealed previously unobserved superstructures in the local density of states contours. These new superstructures include a commensurate 4.9 A periodicity (MC_8, where M = Li, K, Rb, Cs, KHg, rm K_2Hg_2 and rm K_2Tl _3). This superstructure has been interpreted as a modulation of the surface density of states due to the underlying commensurate intercalate lattice. Other GICs exhibit longer wavelength incommensurate superstructures, including: 19 A rm (KH_{0.8}C _8), 12 A rm (KH_{0.8 }C_4), 8.9 A rm (KHgC _4) and 7.5 A rm (KTl_ {1.5}C_8) periodicities. The direct -space wavelength of these incommensurate superstructures was found to scale inversely with the amount of charge transferred from the intercalate to the graphite layers. Such a correlation is consistent with the wavelength dependence on Fermi surface expansion of a charge density wave (CDW) state. STM investigations of adsorbed films of colloidal BiI_3, prepared by a solution-phase method, revealed the presence of mono-disperse 10-50 A single-layer particles with atomic resolution. This investigation demonstrated both the validity of the preparative method for the BiI_3 particles and the capability of the STM to atomically resolve small semiconducting particles. The structural and superconducting properties of alkali metal intercalated Buckminsterfullerene (C _{60}) were also investigated. A new preparatory method was developed using heavy metal alloys instead of pure alkali metal. Using these alloys, it was discovered that high superconducting fraction intercalation compounds could be prepared under milder conditions than by using the pure alkali metal. In addition, intercalation of Hg, Tl and Bi alloys of Cs

  8. STM/STS studies of Ca-intercalated bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Ryota; Sugawara, Katsuaki; Kanetani, Kohei; Iwaya, Katsuya; Sato, Takafumi; Takahashi, Takashi; Hitosugi, Taro

    2013-03-01

    We have performed low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements on a two-dimensional Ca-intercalated bilayer graphene epitaxially grown on a 6H-SiC(0001) substrate. The STM topographic images clearly resolve each intercalated Ca atom with graphene-based honeycomb lattice. Furthermore, we found a clear ×2.5 modulation in the topography, implying charge density wave or Moiré pattern originated from the interaction with the SiC substrate. Comparison with ARPES measurements provided us of further insight into the Fermi surface deduced from STS.

  9. Stereochemical model for proflavin intercalation in A-DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Alden, C J; Arnott, S

    1977-01-01

    Linked-atom molecular modelling was employed to determine the steric and torsional requirements for intercalation of proflavine into a double-stranded region of DNA compatible with adjacent regions of cohelical A-DNA. The optimum intercalation conformation is characterized by the dihedral angles xi and psi becoming trans, with all sugars retaining the characteristics C3'-endo pucker. This extended conformation results in virtually no helical unwinding, suggesting it may be an appropriate model for an intercalative intermediary in mutagenesis by virtue of its similarity to standard helical DNA. PMID:593890

  10. Glycation of a food allergen by the Maillard reaction enhances its T-cell immunogenicity: role of macrophage scavenger receptor class A type I and II.

    PubMed

    Ilchmann, Anne; Burgdorf, Sven; Scheurer, Stephan; Waibler, Zoe; Nagai, Ryoji; Wellner, Anne; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Henle, Thomas; Kurts, Christian; Kalinke, Ulrich; Vieths, Stefan; Toda, Masako

    2010-01-01

    The Maillard reaction occurs between reducing sugars and proteins during thermal processing of foods. It produces chemically glycated proteins termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The glycation structures of AGEs are suggested to function as pathogenesis-related immune epitopes in food allergy. This study aimed at defining the T-cell immunogenicity of food AGEs by using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen. AGE-OVA was prepared by means of thermal processing of OVA in the presence of glucose. Activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was evaluated in cocultures with bone marrow-derived murine myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) as antigen-presenting cells. The uptake mechanisms of mDCs for AGE-OVA were investigated by using inhibitors of putative cell-surface receptors for AGEs, as well as mDCs deficient for these receptors. Compared with the controls (native OVA and OVA thermally processed without glucose), AGE-OVA enhanced the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells on coculture with mDCs, indicating that the glycation of OVA enhanced the T-cell immunogenicity of the allergen. The mDC uptake of AGE-OVA was significantly higher than that of the controls. We identified scavenger receptor class A type I and II (SR-AI/II) as a mediator of the AGE-OVA uptake, whereas the receptor for AGEs and galectin-3 were not responsible. Importantly, the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was attenuated on coculture with SR-AI/II-deficient mDCs. SR-AI/II targets AGE-OVA to the MHC class II loading pathway in mDCs, leading to an enhanced CD4(+) T-cell activation. The Maillard reaction might thus play an important role in the T-cell immunogenicity of food allergens. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of proximal-distal intercalation during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Cummings, Gillian M C; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M

    2010-12-01

    Intercalation is the process whereby cells located at the boundary of a wound interact to stimulate proliferation and the restoration of the structures between the boundaries that were lost during wounding. Thus, intercalation is widely considered to be the mechanism of regeneration. When a salamander limb is amputated, the entire cascade of regeneration events is activated, and the missing limb segments and their boundaries (joints) as well as the structures within each segment are regenerated. Therefore, in an amputated limb it is not possible to distinguish between intersegmental regeneration (formation of new segments/joints) and intrasegmental regeneration (formation of structures within a given segment), and it is not possible to study the differential regulation of these two processes. We have used two models for regeneration that allow us to study these two processes independently, and report that inter- and intrasegmental regeneration are different processes regulated by different signaling pathways. New limb segments/joints can be regenerated from cells that dedifferentiate to form blastema cells in response to signaling that is mediated in part by fibroblast growth factor. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  12. Layered Compounds and Intercalation Chemistry: An Example of Chemistry and Diffusion in Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, M. Stanley; Chianelli, Russell R.

    1980-01-01

    Considers a few areas of oxide/sulfide and intercalation-type chemistry. Discusses synthesis of the disulfides of the metals of group IVB, VB, and VIB; the intercalation reaction between lithium and titanium disulfide; other intercalates; and sulfide catalysts. (CS)

  13. Synthesis of an A-D-A type of molecule used as electron acceptor for improving charge transfer in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Shu-Duo; Shen, Dan; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Mingdao

    2016-08-01

    Electron-accepting molecules play an important role in developing organic solar cells. A new type of A-D-A molecule, 3,6-di([7-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocin-3-yl]thiophen-2-yl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole, was synthesized. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels are -3.55 and -5.85 eV, respectively. Therefore, the A-D-A type of compound could be used as electron acceptor for fabricating organic solar cell with a high open circuit voltage. Gibbs free energy (-49.2 kJ/mol) reveals that the process of A-D-A acceptor accepting an electron from poly(3-hexylthiophene) at excited state is spontaneous. The value of entropy (118 J/mol) in the process of an electron transferring from P3HT to the A-D-A acceptor at organic interface suggests that electrons generated from separation of electron-hole pairs at donor/acceptor interface would be delocalized efficiently. Therefore, the A-D-A molecule would be a potential acceptor for efficient organic BHJ solar cells.

  14. Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus induces apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells by a type II death receptor mechanism and induces cell death and tumor clearance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cary, Zachary D; Willingham, Mark C; Lyles, Douglas S

    2011-06-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a potential oncolytic virus for treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor. Matrix (M) protein mutants of VSV have shown greater selectivity for killing GBM cells versus normal brain cells than VSV with wild-type M protein. The goal of this research was to determine the contribution of death receptor and mitochondrial pathways to apoptosis induced by an M protein mutant (M51R) VSV in U87 human GBM tumor cells. Compared to controls, U87 cells expressing a dominant negative form of Fas (dnFas) or overexpressing Bcl-X(L) had reduced caspase-3 activation following infection with M51R VSV, indicating that both the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathways are important for M51R VSV-induced apoptosis. Death receptor signaling has been classified as type I or type II, depending on whether signaling is independent (type I) or dependent on the mitochondrial pathway (type II). Bcl-X(L) overexpression inhibited caspase activation in response to a Fas-inducing antibody, similar to the inhibition in response to M51R VSV infection, indicating that U87 cells behave as type II cells. Inhibition of apoptosis in vitro delayed, but did not prevent, virus-induced cell death. Murine xenografts of U87 cells that overexpress Bcl-X(L) regressed with a time course similar to that of control cells following treatment with M51R VSV, and tumors were not detectable at 21 days postinoculation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated similar levels of viral antigen expression but reduced activation of caspase-3 following virus treatment of Bcl-X(L)-overexpressing tumors compared to controls. Further, the pathological changes in tumors following treatment with virus were quite different in the presence versus the absence of Bcl-X(L) overexpression. These results demonstrate that M51R VSV efficiently induces oncolysis in GBM tumor cells despite deregulation of apoptotic pathways, underscoring its potential use as a treatment for

  15. Iodine Intercalation of Bundles of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorian, L.; Fang, S. L.; Williams, K. A.; Sumanasekera, G. U.; Dickey, E. C.; Eklund, P. C.; Pennycock, S.; Rinzler, A. G.; Smalley, R. E.

    1998-03-01

    We have been able to intercalate iodine into the interstitial channels within the rope lattice by direct contact of SWNT mats with molten iodine. These continuously filled channels were observed by Z-contrast STEM imaging. The intercalated iodine atoms provide a ``chemical wedge'' which expands the rope lattice as found from x-ray powder diffraction. At low doping level, Raman-active modes and photoluminescence were used to identify the intercalated species as (I_3)^-I2 linear polyiodide chains. The observed upshift of the high-frequency tangential Raman mode, as well as decreased values of four-probe electrical resistance and thermopower are all consistent with electron transfer from SWNT to iodine. At higher doping level, another iodine-SWNT compound was formed as evidenced by a different x-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectrum. This new compound exhibits a number of new Raman lines, apparently unrelated to the intercalated iodine, in addition to the usual SWNT Raman modes. We discuss possible mechanisms responsible for activating new Raman modes in SWNT.

  16. Calcium intercalation into layered fluorinated sodium iron phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, Albert L.; Kim, Soojeong; Pan, Baofei; Liao, Chen; Fister, Timothy T.; Ingram, Brian J.

    2017-11-01

    The energy density and cost of battery systems, relative to the current state-of-the art, can be improved by developing alternative chemistries utilizing multivalent working ions such as calcium. Many challenges must be overcome, such as the identification of cathode materials with high energy density and an electrolyte with a wide electrochemical stability window that can plate and strip calcium metal, before market implementation. Herein, the feasibility and cycling performance of Ca2+ intercalation into a desodiated layered Na2FePO4F host is described. This is the first demonstration of Ca2+ intercalation into a polyanionic framework, which implies that other polyanionic framework materials may be active for Ca2+ intercalation. Although substantial effort is expected in order to develop a high energy density cathode material, this study demonstrates the feasibility of Ca2+ intercalation into multiple host structures types, thereby extending opportunities for development of Ca insertion host structures, suggesting such a cathode material can be identified and developed.

  17. Capacitive Sensing of Intercalated H2O Molecules Using Graphene.

    PubMed

    Olson, Eric J; Ma, Rui; Sun, Tao; Ebrish, Mona A; Haratipour, Nazila; Min, Kyoungmin; Aluru, Narayana R; Koester, Steven J

    2015-11-25

    Understanding the interactions of ambient molecules with graphene and adjacent dielectrics is of fundamental importance for a range of graphene-based devices, particularly sensors, where such interactions could influence the operation of the device. It is well-known that water can be trapped underneath graphene and its host substrate; however, the electrical effect of water beneath graphene and the dynamics of how the interfacial water changes with different ambient conditions has not been quantified. Here, using a metal-oxide-graphene variable-capacitor (varactor) structure, we show that graphene can be used to capacitively sense the intercalation of water between graphene and HfO2 and that this process is reversible on a fast time scale. Atomic force microscopy is used to confirm the intercalation and quantify the displacement of graphene as a function of humidity. Density functional theory simulations are used to quantify the displacement of graphene induced by intercalated water and also explain the observed Dirac point shifts as being due to the combined effect of water and oxygen on the carrier concentration in the graphene. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations indicate that a likely mechanism for the intercalation involves adsorption and lateral diffusion of water molecules beneath the graphene.

  18. Localized concentration reversal of lithium during intercalation into nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hui-Chia; Wu, Lijun; Liu, Hao; Abdellahi, Aziz; Qiu, Bao; Bai, Jianming; Orvananos, Bernardo; Strobridge, Fiona C.; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping; Ceder, Gerbrand; Zhu, Yimei; Thornton, Katsuyo; Grey, Clare P.; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticulate electrodes, such as LixFePO4, have unique advantages over their microparticulate counterparts for the applications in Li-ion batteries because of the shortened diffusion path and access to nonequilibrium routes for fast Li incorporation, thus radically boosting power density of the electrodes. However, how Li intercalation occurs locally in a single nanoparticle of such materials remains unresolved because real-time observation at such a fine scale is still lacking. We report visualization of local Li intercalation via solid-solution transformation in individual LixFePO4 nanoparticles, enabled by probing sub-angstrom changes in the lattice spacing in situ. The real-time observation reveals inhomogeneous intercalation, accompanied with an unexpected reversal of Li concentration at the nanometer scale. The origin of the reversal phenomenon is elucidated through phase-field simulations, and it is attributed to the presence of structurally different regions that have distinct chemical potential functions. The findings from this study provide a new perspective on the local intercalation dynamics in battery electrodes. PMID:29340302

  19. Intercalation of paracetamol into the hydrotalcite-like host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovanda, František; Maryšková, Zuzana; Kovář, Petr

    2011-12-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are often used as host structures for intercalation of various anionic species. The product intercalated with the nonionic, water-soluble pharmaceuticals paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, was prepared by rehydration of the Mg-Al mixed oxide obtained by calcination of hydrotalcite-like precursor at 500 °C. The successful intercalation of paracetamol molecules into the interlayer space was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy measurements. Molecular simulations showed that the phenolic hydroxyl groups of paracetamol interact with hydroxide sheets of the host via the hydroxyl groups of the positively charged sites of Al-containing octahedra; the interlayer water molecules are located mostly near the hydroxide sheets. The arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer is rather disordered and interactions between neighboring molecules cause their tilting towards the hydroxide sheets. Dissolution tests in various media showed slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host in comparison with tablets containing the powdered pharmaceuticals.

  20. Localized concentration reversal of lithium during intercalation into nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hui -Chia; Wu, Lijun; ...

    2018-01-12

    Nanoparticulate electrodes, such as Li xFePO 4, have unique advantages over their microparticulate counterparts for the applications in Li-ion batteries because of the shortened diffusion path and access to nonequilibrium routes for fast Li incorporation, thus radically boosting power density of the electrodes. However, how Li intercalation occurs locally in a single nanoparticle of such materials remains unresolved because real-time observation at such a fine scale is still lacking. We report visualization of local Li intercalation via solid-solution transformation in individual Li xFePO 4 nanoparticles, enabled by probing sub-angstrom changes in the lattice spacing in situ. The real-time observation revealsmore » inhomogeneous intercalation, accompanied with an unexpected reversal of Li concentration at the nanometer scale. The origin of the reversal phenomenon is elucidated through phase-field simulations, and it is attributed to the presence of structurally different regions that have distinct chemical potential functions. Furthermore, the findings from this study provide a new perspective on the local intercalation dynamics in battery electrodes.« less

  1. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram

    2011-09-15

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 A in pristine LDH to 21.3 A in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug moleculemore » in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion. - Graphical abstract: ZnAl-layered double hydroxide intercalated with methotrexate ({approx}34% loading) promises the possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in controlled delivery. Highlights: > ZnAl-layered double hydroxide methotrexate nanohybrid has been synthesized. > XRD and TEM studies on nanohybrid revealed successful intercalation of methotrexate. > TG and CHN analyses showed {approx}34 wt% of methotrexate loading into the nanohybrid. > Possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in delivery.« less

  2. Exfoliation of Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Ferric Chloride Intercalation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana; Rogers, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as an activation agent to successfully intercalate ferric chloride (FeCl3) into hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). This reaction caused the hBN mass to increase by approx.100 percent, the lattice parameter c to decrease from 6.6585 to between 6.6565 and 6.6569 ?, the x-ray diffraction (XRD) (002) peak to widen from 0.01deg to 0.05deg of the full width half maximum value, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum's broad band (1277/cm peak) to change shape, and new FTIR bands to emerge at 3700 to 2700 and 1600/cm. This indicates hBN's structural and chemical properties are significantly changed. The intercalated product was hygroscopic and interacted with moisture in the air to cause further structural and chemical changes (from XRD and FTIR). During a 24-h hold at room temperature in air with 100 percent relative humidity, the mass increased another 141 percent. The intercalated product, hydrated or not, can be heated to 750 C in air to cause exfoliation. Exfoliation becomes significant after two intercalation-air heating cycles, when 20-nm nanosheets are commonly found. Structural and chemical changes indicated by XRD and FTIR data were nearly reversed after the product was placed in hydrochloric acid (HCl), resulting in purified, exfoliated, thin hBN products.

  3. Coordination of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling and Interfacial Tension Dynamics Drives Radial Intercalation and Tube Elongation. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    We sought to understand how cells collectively elongate epithelial tubes. We first used 3D culture and biosensor imaging to demonstrate that epithelial cells enrich Ras activity, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), and F-actin to their leading edges during migration within tissues. PIP3 enrichment coincided with, and could enrich despite inhibition of, F-actin dynamics, revealing a conserved migratory logic compared with single cells. We discovered that migratory cells can intercalate into the basal tissue surface and contribute to tube elongation.

  4. Intercalation of the layered solid acid HCa/sub 2/Nb/sub 3/O/sub 10/ by organic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.J.; Johnson, J.W.; Lewandowski, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Layered compounds of formula C/sub n/H/sub 2n+1/NH/sub 3/Ca/sub 2/Nb/sub 3/O/sub 10/ are formed by reaction of n-alkylamines with the solid acid HCa/sub 2/Nb/sub 3/O/sub 10/. Other organic bases such as pyridine can also be intercalated. The lattice constants of the new compounds have been determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The unit cells are tetragonal with a axes that are unchanged with variation of the intercalated amine. The c axes lengths (layer spacings) vary systematically with the hydrocarbon chain length of the alkylamine.

  5. Nanoporous-carbon as a potential host material for reversible Mg ion intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Siegal, Michael P.; Yelton, W. Graham; Perdue, Brian R.

    Here, we study nanoporous-carbon (NPC) grown via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) as an electrically conductive anode host material for Mg 2+ intercalation. NPC has high surface area, and an open, accessible pore structure tunable via mass density that can improve diffusion. We fabricate 2032 coin cells using NPC coated stainless-steel disk anodes, metallic Mg cathodes, and a Grignard-based electrolyte. NPC mass density is controlled during growth, ranging from 0.06–1.3 g/cm 3. The specific surface area of NPC increases linearly from 1,000 to 1,700 m 2/g as mass density decreases from 1.3 to 0.26 g/cm 3, however, the surface area fallsmore » off dramatically at lower mass densities, implying a lack of mechanical integrity in such nanostructures. These structural characterizations correlate directly with coin cell electrochemical measurements. In particular, cyclic voltammetry (CV) scans for NPC with density ~0.5 g/cm 3 and BET surface area ~1500 m 2/g infer the possibility of reversible Mg-ion intercalation. Higher density NPC yields capacitive behavior, most likely resulting from the smaller interplanar spacings between graphene sheet fragments and tighter domain boundaries; lower density NPC results in asymmetrical CV scans, consistent with the likely structural degradation resulting from mass transport through soft, low-density carbon materials.« less

  6. Nanoporous-carbon as a potential host material for reversible Mg ion intercalation

    DOE PAGES

    Siegal, Michael P.; Yelton, W. Graham; Perdue, Brian R.; ...

    2016-03-25

    Here, we study nanoporous-carbon (NPC) grown via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) as an electrically conductive anode host material for Mg 2+ intercalation. NPC has high surface area, and an open, accessible pore structure tunable via mass density that can improve diffusion. We fabricate 2032 coin cells using NPC coated stainless-steel disk anodes, metallic Mg cathodes, and a Grignard-based electrolyte. NPC mass density is controlled during growth, ranging from 0.06–1.3 g/cm 3. The specific surface area of NPC increases linearly from 1,000 to 1,700 m 2/g as mass density decreases from 1.3 to 0.26 g/cm 3, however, the surface area fallsmore » off dramatically at lower mass densities, implying a lack of mechanical integrity in such nanostructures. These structural characterizations correlate directly with coin cell electrochemical measurements. In particular, cyclic voltammetry (CV) scans for NPC with density ~0.5 g/cm 3 and BET surface area ~1500 m 2/g infer the possibility of reversible Mg-ion intercalation. Higher density NPC yields capacitive behavior, most likely resulting from the smaller interplanar spacings between graphene sheet fragments and tighter domain boundaries; lower density NPC results in asymmetrical CV scans, consistent with the likely structural degradation resulting from mass transport through soft, low-density carbon materials.« less

  7. Tuning the electronic structure of graphene through alkali metal and halogen atom intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Miró, Pere; Audiffred, Martha; Heine, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The deposition, intercalation and co-intercalation of heavy alkali metals and light halogens atoms in graphene mono- and bilayers have been studied using first principles density-functional calculations. Both the deposition and the intercalation of alkali metals gives rise to n-type doping due to the formation of M+-C- pairs. The co-intercalation of a 1:1 ratio of alkali metals and halogens derives into the formation of ionic pairs among the intercalated species, unaltering the electronic structure of the layered material.

  8. Formation of intercalation compound of kaolinite-glycine via displacing guest water by glycine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wan; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Zhenqian; Chen, Likun; Zhang, Zhongfei; Li, Yong; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2014-10-15

    The kaolinite-glycine intercalation compound was successfully formed by displacing intercalated guest water molecules in kaolinite hydrate as a precursor. The microstructure of the compound was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope. Results show that glycine can only be intercalated into hydrated kaolinite to form glycine-kaolinite by utilizing water molecules as a transition phase. The intercalated glycine molecules were squeezed partially into the ditrigonal holes in the silicate layer, resulting in the interlayer distance of kaolinite reaching 1.03nm. The proper intercalation temperature range was between 20°C and 80°C. An intercalation time of 24h or above was necessary to ensure the complete formation of kaolinite-glycine. The highest intercalation degree of about 84% appeared when the system was reacted at the temperature of 80°C for 48h. There were two activation energies for the intercalation of glycine into kaolinite, one being 21kJ/mol within the temperature range of 20-65°C and the other 5.8kJ/mol between 65°C and 80°C. The intercalation degree (N) and intercalation velocity (v) of as a function of intercalation time (t) can be empirically expressed as N=-79.35e(-)(t)(/14.8)+80.1 and v=5.37e(-)(t)(/14.8), respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics of graphite fiber intercalation: In situ resistivity measurements with a four point probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamics of ferric chloride intercalation of single graphite fibers were studied, in situ, using a four point dc bridge. Measurements before, during and after the intercalation showed that the intercalation occurred within minutes at 200 C. Changes in fiber resistivity after exposure to air suggested hydration of the graphite intercalation compound. Deintercalation of the ferric chloride was initiated at temperatures in excess of 400 C. cycling the intercalant into and out of the graphite fiber gave no improvements in fiber resistivity. The activation energy of the ferric chloride intercalation reaction was found to be 17 + or - 4 kcal/mol 1 consistent with the concept of a preliminary nucleation step in the intercalation reaction.

  10. Identification of a New Modulator of the Intercalated Disc in a Zebrafish Model of Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Asimaki, Angeliki; Kapoor, Sudhir; Plovie, Eva; Arndt, Anne Karin; Adams, Edward; Liu, ZhenZhen; James, Cynthia A.; Judge, Daniel P.; Calkins, Hugh; Churko, Jared; Wu, Joseph C.; MacRae, Calum A.; Kléber, André G.; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is characterized by frequent cardiac arrhythmias. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms and discover potential chemical modifiers, we created a zebrafish model of ACM with cardiac myocyte–specific expression of the human 2057del2 mutation in the gene encoding plakoglobin. A high-throughput screen identified SB216763 as a suppressor of the disease phenotype. Early SB216763 therapy prevented heart failure and reduced mortality in the fish model. Zebrafish ventricular myocytes that expressed 2057del2 plakoglobin exhibited 70 to 80% reductions in INa and IK1 current densities, which were normalized by SB216763. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes that expressed 2057del2 plakoglobin recapitulated pathobiological features seen in patients with ACM, all of which were reversed or prevented by SB216763. The reverse remodeling observed with SB216763 involved marked subcellular redistribution of plakoglobin, connexin 43, and Nav1.5, but without changes in their total cellular content, implicating a defect in protein trafficking to intercalated discs. In further support of this mechanism, we observed SB216763-reversible, abnormal subcellular distribution of SAP97 (a protein known to mediate forward trafficking of Nav1.5 and Kir2.1) in rat cardiac myocytes expressing 2057del2 plakoglobin and in cardiac myocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from two ACM probands with plakophilin-2 mutations. These observations pinpoint aberrant trafficking of intercalated disc proteins as a central mechanism in ACM myocyte injury and electrical abnormalities. PMID:24920660

  11. Piezo-Electrochemical Energy Harvesting with Lithium-Intercalating Carbon Fibers.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Eric; Lindbergh, Göran; Zenkert, Dan; Leijonmarck, Simon; Kjell, Maria Hellqvist

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical and electrochemical properties are coupled through a piezo-electrochemical effect in Li-intercalated carbon fibers. It is demonstrated that this piezo-electrochemical effect makes it possible to harvest electrical energy from mechanical work. Continuous polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers that can work both as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and structural reinforcement for composites materials are used in this study. Applying a tensile force to carbon fiber bundles used as Li-intercalating electrodes results in a response of the electrode potential of a few millivolts which allows, at low current densities, lithiation at higher electrode potential than delithiation. More electrical energy is thereby released from the cell at discharge than provided at charge, harvesting energy from the mechanical work of the applied force. The measured harvested specific electrical power is in the order of 1 μW/g for current densities in the order of 1 mA/g, but this has a potential of being increased significantly.

  12. Technological hurdles to the application of intercalated graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Before intercalated graphite fibers can be developed as an effective power material, there are several technological hurdles which must be overcome. These include the environmental stability, homogeneity and bulk properties, connection procedures, and costs. Strides were made within the last several years in stability and homogeneity of intercalated graphite fibers. Bulk properties and connection procedures are areas of active research now. Costs are still prohibitive for all but the most demanding applications. None of these problems, however, appear to be unsolvable, and their solution may result in wide spread GOC application. The development of a relatively simple technology application, such as EMI shielding, would stimulate the solution of scale-up problems. Once this technology is developed, then more demanding applications, such as power bus bars, may be possible.

  13. Electrochemical Doping of Halide Perovskites with Ion Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qinglong; Chen, Mingming; Li, Junqiang; Wang, Mingchao; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Besara, Tiglet; Lu, Jun; Xin, Yan; Shan, Xin; Pan, Bicai; Wang, Changchun; Lin, Shangchao; Siegrist, Theo; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-01-24

    Halide perovskites have recently been investigated for various solution-processed optoelectronic devices. The majority of studies have focused on using intrinsic halide perovskites, and the intentional incoporation of dopants has not been well explored. In this work, we discovered that small alkali ions, including lithium and sodium ions, could be electrochemically intercalated into a variety of halide and pseudohalide perovskites. The ion intercalation caused a lattice expansion of the perovskite crystals and resulted in an n-type doping of the perovskites. Such electrochemical doping improved the conductivity and changed the color of the perovskites, leading to an electrochromism with more than 40% reduction of transmittance in the 450-850 nm wavelength range. The doped perovskites exhibited improved electron injection efficiency into the pristine perovskite crystals, resulting in bright light-emitting diodes with a low turn-on voltage.

  14. Intercalated graphite fiber composites as EMI shields in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The requirements for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding in aerospace structures are complicated over that of ground structures by their weight limitations. As a result, the best EMI shielding materials must blend low density, high strength, and high elastic modulus with high shielding ability. In addition, fabrication considerations including penetrations and joints play a major role. The EMI shielding properties are calculated for shields formed from pristine and intercalated graphite fiber/epoxy composites and compared to preliminary experimental results and to shields made from aluminum. Calculations indicate that EMI shields could be fabricated from intercalated graphite composites which would have less than 12 percent of the mass of conventional aluminum shields, based on mechanical properties and shielding properties alone.

  15. Intercalation of P atoms in Fullerene-like CP x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueorguiev, G. K.; Czigány, Zs.; Furlan, A.; Stafström, S.; Hultman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The energy cost for P atom intercalation and corresponding structural implications during formation of Fullerene-like Phosphorus carbide (FL-CPx) were evaluated within the framework of Density Functional Theory. Single P atom interstitial defects in FL-CPx are energetically feasible and exhibit energy cost of 0.93-1.21 eV, which is comparable to the energy cost for experimentally confirmed tetragon defects and dangling bonds in CPx. A single P atom intercalation event in FL-CPx can increase the inter-sheet distance from 3.39-3.62 Å to 5.81-7.04 Å. These theoretical results are corroborated by Selected Area Electron Diffraction characterization of FL-CPx samples.

  16. Interaction of the scorpion toxin discrepin with Kv4.3 channels and A-type K(+) channels in cerebellum granular cells.

    PubMed

    Picco, Cristiana; Corzo, Gerardo; Possani, Lourival D; Prestipino, Gianfranco

    2014-09-01

    The peptide discrepin from the α-KTx15 subfamily of scorpion toxins preferentially affects transient A-type potassium currents, which regulate many aspects of neuronal function in the central nervous system. However, the specific Kv channel targeted by discrepin and the molecular mechanism of interaction are still unknown. Different variant peptides of discrepin were chemically synthesized and their effects were studied using patch clamp technique on rat cerebellum granular cells (CGC) and HEK cells transiently expressing Kv4.3 channels. Functional analysis indicated that nanomolar concentrations of native discrepin blocked Kv4.3 expressed channels, as previously observed in CGC. Similarly, the apparent affinities of all mutated peptides for Kv4.3 expressed channels were analogous to those found in CGC. In particular, in the double variant [V6K, D20K] the apparent affinity increased about 10-fold, whereas in variants carrying a deletion (ΔK13) or substitution (K13A) at position K13, the blockage was removed and the apparent affinity decreased more than 20-fold. These results indicate that Kv4.3 is likely the target of discrepin and highlight the importance of the basic residue K13, located in the α-helix of the toxin, for current blockage. We report the first example of a Kv4 subfamily potassium channel blocked by discrepin and identify the amino acid residues responsible for the blockage. The availability of discrepin variant peptides stimulates further research on the functions and pharmacology of neuronal Kv4 channels and on their possible roles in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Activity-Dependent Gating of Calcium Spikes by A-type K+ Channels Controls Climbing Fiber Signaling in Purkinje Cell Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Otsu, Yo; Marcaggi, Païkan; Feltz, Anne; Isope, Philippe; Kollo, Mihaly; Nusser, Zoltan; Mathieu, Benjamin; Kano, Masanobu; Tsujita, Mika; Sakimura, Kenji; Dieudonné, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Summary In cerebellar Purkinje cell dendrites, heterosynaptic calcium signaling induced by the proximal climbing fiber (CF) input controls plasticity at distal parallel fiber (PF) synapses. The substrate and regulation of this long-range dendritic calcium signaling are poorly understood. Using high-speed calcium imaging, we examine the role of active dendritic conductances. Under basal conditions, CF stimulation evokes T-type calcium signaling displaying sharp proximodistal decrement. Combined mGluR1 receptor activation and depolarization, two activity-dependent signals, unlock P/Q calcium spikes initiation and propagation, mediating efficient CF signaling at distal sites. These spikes are initiated in proximal smooth dendrites, independently from somatic sodium action potentials, and evoke high-frequency bursts of all-or-none fast-rising calcium transients in PF spines. Gradual calcium spike burst unlocking arises from increasing inactivation of mGluR1-modulated low-threshold A-type potassium channels located in distal dendrites. Evidence for graded activity-dependent CF calcium signaling at PF synapses refines current views on cerebellar supervised learning rules. PMID:25220810

  18. Activity-dependent gating of calcium spikes by A-type K+ channels controls climbing fiber signaling in Purkinje cell dendrites.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Yo; Marcaggi, Païkan; Feltz, Anne; Isope, Philippe; Kollo, Mihaly; Nusser, Zoltan; Mathieu, Benjamin; Kano, Masanobu; Tsujita, Mika; Sakimura, Kenji; Dieudonné, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    In cerebellar Purkinje cell dendrites, heterosynaptic calcium signaling induced by the proximal climbing fiber (CF) input controls plasticity at distal parallel fiber (PF) synapses. The substrate and regulation of this long-range dendritic calcium signaling are poorly understood. Using high-speed calcium imaging, we examine the role of active dendritic conductances. Under basal conditions, CF stimulation evokes T-type calcium signaling displaying sharp proximodistal decrement. Combined mGluR1 receptor activation and depolarization, two activity-dependent signals, unlock P/Q calcium spikes initiation and propagation, mediating efficient CF signaling at distal sites. These spikes are initiated in proximal smooth dendrites, independently from somatic sodium action potentials, and evoke high-frequency bursts of all-or-none fast-rising calcium transients in PF spines. Gradual calcium spike burst unlocking arises from increasing inactivation of mGluR1-modulated low-threshold A-type potassium channels located in distal dendrites. Evidence for graded activity-dependent CF calcium signaling at PF synapses refines current views on cerebellar supervised learning rules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incommensurate Graphene Foam as a High Capacity Lithium Intercalation Anode

    PubMed Central

    Paronyan, Tereza M.; Thapa, Arjun Kumar; Sherehiy, Andriy; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Jangam, John Samuel Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Graphite’s capacity of intercalating lithium in rechargeable batteries is limited (theoretically, 372 mAh g−1) due to low diffusion within commensurately-stacked graphene layers. Graphene foam with highly enriched incommensurately-stacked layers was grown and applied as an active electrode in rechargeable batteries. A 93% incommensurate graphene foam demonstrated a reversible specific capacity of 1,540 mAh g−1 with a 75% coulombic efficiency, and an 86% incommensurate sample achieves above 99% coulombic efficiency exhibiting 930 mAh g−1 specific capacity. The structural and binding analysis of graphene show that lithium atoms highly intercalate within weakly interacting incommensurately-stacked graphene network, followed by a further flexible rearrangement of layers for a long-term stable cycling. We consider lithium intercalation model for multilayer graphene where capacity varies with N number of layers resulting LiN+1C2N stoichiometry. The effective capacity of commonly used carbon-based rechargeable batteries can be significantly improved using incommensurate graphene as an anode material. PMID:28059110

  20. Redox-controlled potassium intercalation into two polyaromatic hydrocarbon solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, F. Denis; Pitcher, M. J.; Hiley, C. I.; Whitehead, G. F. S.; Kar, S.; Ganin, A. Y.; Antypov, D.; Collins, C.; Dyer, M. S.; Klupp, G.; Colman, R. H.; Prassides, K.; Rosseinsky, M. J.

    2017-07-01

    Alkali metal intercalation into polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied intensely after reports of superconductivity in a number of potassium- and rubidium-intercalated materials. There are, however, no reported crystal structures to inform our understanding of the chemistry and physics because of the complex reactivity of PAHs with strong reducing agents at high temperature. Here we present the synthesis of crystalline K2Pentacene and K2Picene by a solid-solid insertion protocol that uses potassium hydride as a redox-controlled reducing agent to access the PAH dianions, and so enables the determination of their crystal structures. In both cases, the inserted cations expand the parent herringbone packings by reorienting the molecular anions to create multiple potassium sites within initially dense molecular layers, and thus interact with the PAH anion π systems. The synthetic and crystal chemistry of alkali metal intercalation into PAHs differs from that into fullerenes and graphite, in which the cation sites are pre-defined by the host structure.

  1. Tunable thermal expansion in framework materials through redox intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jun; Gao, Qilong; Sanson, Andrea

    Thermal expansion properties of solids are of fundamental interest and control of thermal expansion is important for practical applications but can be difficult to achieve. Many framework type materials show negative thermal expansion when internal cages are empty but positive thermal expansion when additional atoms or molecules fill internal voids present, offering a potential route for control. Here we show that redox intercalation offers an effective method to control thermal expansion from positive to zero to negative by insertion of Li ions into the simple negative thermal expansion framework material ScF 3, doped with 10% Fe to enable reduction. Themore » small concentration of intercalated Li ions has a strong influence through steric hindrance of transverse fluoride ion vibrations, which directly controls the thermal expansion. As a result, redox intercalation of guest ions is thus likely to be a general and effective method for controlling thermal expansion in the many known framework materials with phonon-driven negative thermal expansion.« less

  2. Synthesis and characterization of intercalated few-layer graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shogo; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Iwata, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Toward achieving room-temperature superconductivity, FeCl3-intercalated few-layer graphenes (FeCl3-FLGs) and Ca-intercalated few-layer graphenes (Ca-FLGs) were synthesized. FeCl3-FLGs were synthesized by the two-zone method and Ca-FLGs were synthesized using Ca-Li alloy. The Raman spectra of the FeCl3-FLGs showed a lower-intensity peak at 1607 cm-1 than that of the corresponding bare G. The peak at 1607 cm-1 suggested that the sample was stage 4-5 FeCl3-FLGs. The room-temperature electrical resistivity of FeCl3-FLGs was 2.65 × 10-5 Ω·m, which linearly decreased with decreasing temperature with a marked change occurring at approximately 200 K. From a XRD pattern of Ca-FLGs, we concluded that Ca is intercalated in FLGs. The room-temperature resistivity of Ca-FLGs was 3.45 × 10-5 Ω·m, which increased with decreasing temperature.

  3. Towards efficient solar hydrogen production by intercalated carbon nitride photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Gao, Honglin; Yan, Shicheng; Wang, Jiajia; Huang, Yu An; Wang, Peng; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-11-07

    The development of efficient photocatalytic material for converting solar energy to hydrogen energy as viable alternatives to fossil-fuel technologies is expected to revolutionize energy shortage and environment issues. However, to date, the low quantum yield for solar hydrogen production over photocatalysts has hindered advances in the practical applications of photocatalysis. Here, we show that a carbon nitride intercalation compound (CNIC) synthesized by a simple molten salt route is an efficient polymer photocatalyst with a high quantum yield. We found that coordinating the alkali metals into the C-N plane of carbon nitride will induce the un-uniform spatial charge distribution. The electrons are confined in the intercalated region while the holes are in the far intercalated region, which promoted efficient separation of photogenerated carriers. The donor-type alkali metal ions coordinating into the nitrogen pots of carbon nitrides increase the free carrier concentration and lead to the formation of novel nonradiative paths. This should favor improved transport of the photogenerated electron and hole and decrease the electron-hole recombination rate. As a result, the CNIC exhibits a quantum yield as high as 21.2% under 420 nm light irradiation for solar hydrogen production. Such high quantum yield opens up new opportunities for using cheap semiconducting polymers as energy transducers.

  4. Tunable thermal expansion in framework materials through redox intercalation

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Jun; Gao, Qilong; Sanson, Andrea; ...

    2017-02-09

    Thermal expansion properties of solids are of fundamental interest and control of thermal expansion is important for practical applications but can be difficult to achieve. Many framework type materials show negative thermal expansion when internal cages are empty but positive thermal expansion when additional atoms or molecules fill internal voids present, offering a potential route for control. Here we show that redox intercalation offers an effective method to control thermal expansion from positive to zero to negative by insertion of Li ions into the simple negative thermal expansion framework material ScF 3, doped with 10% Fe to enable reduction. Themore » small concentration of intercalated Li ions has a strong influence through steric hindrance of transverse fluoride ion vibrations, which directly controls the thermal expansion. As a result, redox intercalation of guest ions is thus likely to be a general and effective method for controlling thermal expansion in the many known framework materials with phonon-driven negative thermal expansion.« less

  5. Ferrix Chloride-Graphite Intercalation Compounds Prepared From Graphite Flouride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1995-01-01

    The reaction between graphite fluoride and ferric chloride was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 400 C. The graphite fluorides used for this reaction have an sp(sup 3) electronic structure and are electrical insulators. They can be made by fluorinating either carbon fibers or powder having various degrees of graphitization. Reaction is fast and spontaneous and can occur in the presence of air. The ferric chloride does not have to be predried. The products have an sp(sup 2) electronic structure and are electrical conductors. They contain first-stage FeCl3 intercalated graphite. Some of the products contain FeCl2 (center dot) 2H2O, others contain FeF3, in concentrations that depend on the intercalation condition. The graphite intercalated compounds (GIC) deintercalated slowly in air at room temperature, but deintercalated quickly and completely at 370 C. Deintercalation is accompanied by the disappearance of iron halides and the formation of rust (hematite) distributed unevenly on the fiber surface. When heated to 400 C in pure N2 (99.99 vol%), this new GIC deintercalates without losing its molecular structure. However, when the compounds are exposed to 800 C N2, in a quartz tube, they lost most of their halogen atoms and formed iron oxides (other than hematite), distributed evenly in or on the fiber.

  6. Ferric chloride graphite intercalation compounds prepared from graphite fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1994-01-01

    The reaction between graphite fluoride and ferric chloride was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 400 C. The graphite fluorides used for this reaction have an sp3 electronic structure and are electrical insulators. They can be made by fluorinating either carbon fibers or powder having various degrees of graphitization. Reaction is fast and spontaneous and can occur in the presence of air. The ferric chloride does not have to be predried. The products have an sp2 electronic structure and are electrical conductors. They contain first stage FeCl3 intercalated graphite. Some of the products contain FeCl2*2H2O, others contain FeF3 in concentrations that depend on the intercalation condition. The graphite intercalated compounds (GIC) deintercalated slowly in air at room temperature, but deintercalated quickly and completely at 370 C. Deintercalation is accompanied by the disappearing of iron halides and the formation of rust (hematite) distributed unevenly on the fiber surface. When heated to 400 C in pure N2 (99.99 vol %), this new GIC deintercalates without losing its molecular structure. However, when the compounds are heated to 800 C in quartz tube, they lost most of its halogen atoms and formed iron oxides (other than hematite), distributed evenly in or on the fiber. This iron-oxide-covered fiber may be useful in making carbon-fiber/ceramic-matrix composites with strong bonding at the fiber-ceramic interface.

  7. Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Tri D.; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2000-01-01

    A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

  8. Targeting radiosensitizers to DNA by attachment of an intercalating group: Nitroimidazole-linked phenanthridines

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, D.S.; Panicucci, R.; McClelland, R.A.

    The nitroimidazole-linked phenanthridine series of compounds (NLP-1, 2, and 3) were synthesized under the assumption that it should be possible to enhance the molar efficiency of 2-nitroimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins by targeting them to their likely site of action, DNA. The targeting group chosen was the phenanthridine moiety, the major component of the classical DNA intercalating compound, ethidium bromide. The sole difference between the compounds is the length of the hydrocarbon chain linking the nitroimidazole to the phenanthridine. The phenanthridine group with a three-carbon side chain, P-1, was also synthesized to allow studies on the effect ofmore » the targeting group by itself. The ability of the compounds to bind to DNA is inversely proportional to their linker chain length with binding constant values ranging from approximately 1 {times} 10(5) mol-1 for NLP-2 to 6 {times} 10(5) mol-1 for NLP-3. The NLP compounds show selective toxicity to hypoxic cells at 37 degrees C at external drug concentrations 10-40 times lower than would be required for untargeted 2-nitroimidazoles such as misonidazole in vitro. Toxicity to both hypoxic and aerobic cells is dependent on the linker chain: the shorter the chain, the greater the toxicity. In addition, the NLP compounds radiosensitize hypoxic cells at external drug concentrations as low as 0.05 mM with almost the full oxygen effect being observed at a concentration of 0.5 mM. These concentrations are 10-100 times lower than would be required for similar radiosensitization using misonidazole. Radiosensitizing ability is independent of linker chain length. The present compounds represent prototypes for further studies of the efficacy and mechanism of action of 2-nitroimidazoles targeted to DNA by linkage to an intercalating group.« less

  9. Functional intercalated nanocomposites with chitosan-glutathione-glycylsarcosine and layered double hydroxides for topical ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Xu, Xiaoyue; Gu, Yan; Fang, Lei; Cao, Feng

    2018-01-01

    To enhance ocular bioavailability, the traditional strategies have focused on prolonging precorneal retention and improving corneal permeability by nano-carriers with positive charge, thiolated polymer, absorption enhancer and so on. Glycylsarcosine (GS) as an active target ligand of the peptide tranpsporter-1 (PepT-1), could specific interact with the PepT-1 on the cornea and guide the nanoparticles to the treating site. The objective of the study was to explore the active targeting intercalated nanocomposites based on chitosan-glutathione-glycylsarcosine (CG-GS) and layered double hydroxides (LDH) as novel carriers for the treatment of mid-posterior diseases. CG-GS-LDH intercalated nanocomposites were prepared by the coprecipitation hydrothermal method. In vivo precorneal retention study, ex vivo fluorescence images, in vivo experiment for distribution and irritation were studied in rabbits. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake were studied in human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEpiC). CG-GS-LDH nanocomposites were prepared successfully and characterized by FTIR and XRD. Experiments with rabbits showed longer precorneal retention and higher distribution of fluorescence probe/model drug. In vitro cytological study, CG-GS-LDH nanocomposites exhibited enhanced cellular uptake compared to pure drug solution. Furthermore, the investigation of cellular uptake mechanisms demonstrated that both the active transport by PepT-1 and clathrin-mediated endocytosis were involved in the internalization of CG-GS-LDH intercalated nanocomposites. An ocular irritation study and a cytotoxicity test indicated that these nanocomposites produced no significant irritant effects. The active targeting intercalated nanocomposites could have great potential for topical ocular drug delivery due to the capacity for prolonging the retention on the ocular surface, enhancing the drug permeability through the cornea, and efficiently delivering the drug to the targeted site.

  10. Functional intercalated nanocomposites with chitosan-glutathione-glycylsarcosine and layered double hydroxides for topical ocular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Background To enhance ocular bioavailability, the traditional strategies have focused on prolonging precorneal retention and improving corneal permeability by nano-carriers with positive charge, thiolated polymer, absorption enhancer and so on. Glycylsarcosine (GS) as an active target ligand of the peptide tranpsporter-1 (PepT-1), could specific interact with the PepT-1 on the cornea and guide the nanoparticles to the treating site. Purpose The objective of the study was to explore the active targeting intercalated nanocomposites based on chitosan-glutathione-glycylsarcosine (CG-GS) and layered double hydroxides (LDH) as novel carriers for the treatment of mid-posterior diseases. Materials and methods CG-GS-LDH intercalated nanocomposites were prepared by the coprecipitation hydrothermal method. In vivo precorneal retention study, ex vivo fluorescence images, in vivo experiment for distribution and irritation were studied in rabbits. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake were studied in human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEpiC). Results CG-GS-LDH nanocomposites were prepared successfully and characterized by FTIR and XRD. Experiments with rabbits showed longer precorneal retention and higher distribution of fluorescence probe/model drug. In vitro cytological study, CG-GS-LDH nanocomposites exhibited enhanced cellular uptake compared to pure drug solution. Furthermore, the investigation of cellular uptake mechanisms demonstrated that both the active transport by PepT-1 and clathrin-mediated endocytosis were involved in the internalization of CG-GS-LDH intercalated nanocomposites. An ocular irritation study and a cytotoxicity test indicated that these nanocomposites produced no significant irritant effects. Conclusions The active targeting intercalated nanocomposites could have great potential for topical ocular drug delivery due to the capacity for prolonging the retention on the ocular surface, enhancing the drug permeability through the cornea, and

  11. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  12. Kinetics of intercalation of lithium into NbSe3 and TiS2 cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Di Stefano, S.; Bankston, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    Titanium disulfide and niobium triselenide are two well-studied candidate materials for positive electrodes in rechargeable lithium cells. A comparative study of the kinetics of intercalation of lithium in both the cathodes is made here based on various electrochemical techniques, i.e., linear polarization, potentiodynamic polarization, and ac impedance under different experimental conditions such as prismatic or disk configuration of fresh, partially discharged, or cycled electrode. Further, the diffusion coefficients of lithium ions in these cathodes are estimated under these conditions using conventional techniques, i.e., ac impedance, chronocoulometry, chronoamperometry, and current pulse relaxation. Based on the values of the diffusion coefficients, the applicability of these methods for the determination of diffusion coefficients is discussed.

  13. Intercalated water layers promote thermal dissipation at bio-nano interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlei; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J; Xu, Zhiping

    2016-09-23

    The increasing interest in developing nanodevices for biophysical and biomedical applications results in concerns about thermal management at interfaces between tissues and electronic devices. However, there is neither sufficient knowledge nor suitable tools for the characterization of thermal properties at interfaces between materials of contrasting mechanics, which are essential for design with reliability. Here we use computational simulations to quantify thermal transfer across the cell membrane-graphene interface. We find that the intercalated water displays a layered order below a critical value of ∼1 nm nanoconfinement, mediating the interfacial thermal coupling, and efficiently enhancing the thermal dissipation. We thereafter develop an analytical model to evaluate the critical value for power generation in graphene before significant heat is accumulated to disturb living tissues. These findings may provide a basis for the rational design of wearable and implantable nanodevices in biosensing and thermotherapic treatments where thermal dissipation and transport processes are crucial.

  14. Pemetrexed-carboplatin with intercalated icotinib in the treatment of patient with advanced EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongpeng; Wu, Hao; Jin, Shidai; Min, Huang; Zhang, Zhihong; Shu, Yongqian; Wen, Wei; Guo, Renhua

    2017-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are known to have greater efficacy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, about 10% of EGFR wild-type (wt) patients respond to TKIs. Several strategies to increase the efficacy of TKIs in wt NSCLC are the subjects of ongoing investigations. One of them is combining EGFR TKI with intercalated chemotherapy. We describe a patient with EGFR wt NSCLC, who was found with ovarian and lung metastasis, was treated with pemetrexed and intercalated icotinib. In this case, we reported the successful long-term maintenance treatment of a patient with EGFR wt NSCLC with pemetrexed and Icotinib. The patient (40-year-old female) was found with ovarian masses and lung masses. Pathological, immunohistochemical, and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) assay examinations of ovarian specimen suggested the expression of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with wt EGFR. After failure treatment with paclitaxel-carboplatin, the patient received 4 cycles of pemetrexed plus platinum with intercalated icotinib and then remained on pemetrexed and icotinib. A partial response was achieved after the treatment. The patient's condition had remained stable on pemetrexed and icotinib for more than 20 months, with no evidence of progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report using the long-term maintenance treatment with pemetrexed and intercalated icotinib in EGFR wt patient. The therapeutic strategies warrant further exploration in selected populations of NSCLC.

  15. High-Temperature Intercalated Graphite Fiber Conductors Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Composites of intercalated graphite fibers show promise to significantly reduce the weight of electromagnetic interference shielding in spacecraft and aircraft. Bromine intercalated pitch-based fibers have been among the most heavily studied systems because of their attractive electrical and thermal conductivities and their stability over a wide range of environmental conditions. Previous studies found that the resistivity of bromineintercalated graphite fibers began to increase when the fibers were exposed to temperatures in excess of about 200 C in air for long periods of time. If the temperature was as high as 450 C, the resistivity increased dramatically within a few hours. It remained unclear, however, whether the increase was due to deintercalation of the bromine or to air oxidation of the fibers. Studies were initially directed toward determining the temperature at which bromine would deintercalate from the fibers, and perhaps become a hazard to both personnel and equipment. So the mass of bromine-intercalated graphite fibers was carefully monitored as it was heated in an inert atmosphere, since the fibers are known to oxidize at a lower temperature than they deintercalate. What was found was that the fibers, which are about 18-wt% bromine, did not lose any appreciable mass even at temperatures approaching 1000 C. X-ray diffraction studies showed that there were also no changes in the overall structure of the compound. Resistivity measurements indicated that there is some slight degradation in the electronic structure, in that the resistivity increased by a few percent. Overall, the results show that these materials may be suitable for applications at temperatures at least this high, provided oxygen is excluded. This may enable their use in carbon-ceramic, and perhaps even carbon-carbon composites.

  16. Staging properties of potassium-ammonia ternary graphite intercalation compounds at high ammonia pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, X. W.; Solin, S. A.

    1989-04-01

    The pressure dependence of the (00l) x-ray diffraction patterns of the ternary graphite intercalation compound K(NH3)xC24 has been studied in the range 0.5-11 kbar (for which x~4.5) using a diamond anvil cell. A special apparatus for loading the cell with liquid ammonia at room temperature has been constructed and is briefly described. In these experiments, the pressure-transmitting fluid was also an intercalant, namely ammonia. Therefore, the chemical potential of this species was linearly coupled to the applied pressure in contrast to the usual case where the pressure-transmitting fluid is chemically passive. The pressure dependences of the basal spacings and of the relative intensities of key reflections have been measured, as have the compressibilities of the stage-1 and stage-2 components of the two-phase system. Basal-spacing anomalies and anomalies in the relative intensities occur at pressures of ~3.5 and 8.0 kbar and are tentatively attributed to in-plane coordination changes in the potassium-ammonia ratio. Using thermodynamic arguments and Le Chatelier's principle we show quantitatively that a staging phase transition from pure stage-1 phase to an admixture of stage-1 and stage-2 is expected with increased pressure above 10 bar in agreement with experiment. The saturation ammonia compositions (x values) of the admixed stages are found to be 4.5 and 5.4 for the stage-1 and -2 components, respectively. This result is interpreted as evidence that the composition is not sterically limited but is determined by the binding energy of ammonia for potassium and by the perturbation to this energy from the guest-host interaction.

  17. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance in graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Resing, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of graphite intercalation compounds were calculated. For acceptor types, the shifts come mainly from the paramagnetic (Ramsey) intra-atomic terms. They are related to the gross features of the two-dimensional band structures. The calculated anisotropy is about -140 ppm and is independent of the finer details such as charge transfer. For donor types, the carbon 2p pi orbitals are spin-polarized because of mixing with metal conduction electrons, thus there is an additional dipolar contribution which may be correlated with the electronic specific heat. The general agreement with experimental data is satisfactory.

  18. The electronic properties of SWNTs intercalated by electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, M. V.; Kiseleva, E. A.; Verbitskii, N. I.; Eliseev, A. A.; Lukashin, A. V.; Tretyakov, Yu. D.; Savilov, S. V.; Kiselev, N. A.; Zhigalina, O. M.; Kumskov, A. S.; Krestinin, A. V.; Hutchison, J. L.

    2008-05-01

    Here we report synthesis of Chal@SWNT nanocomposites (where Chal=S, Se and Te) and the impact of the intercalated electron-acceptor compounds on the electronic properties of SWNTs. The chalcogens were introduced to the channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes by molten media technique via impregnation of pre-opened SWNTs with melted guest compounds in vacuum. HRTEM imaging confirms the filling of nanotube channels by continuous nanostructures of corresponding chalcogens. The strong influence of incorporated matter on the electronic properties of the SWNTs was detected by Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Structural and Kinetic Properties of Graphite Intercalation Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-21

    the case of FeCI3 , and Dowel2 for Br2, HNO3 and PdC 2 have investigated rates of intercalation to determine diffusion coefficients. Bardhan et al.18...Chim. 21, 1312 (1954). 17. T. Sasa, Y. Takahashi and T. Mukaibo, Carbon 9, 407 (1971). 18. K. K. Bardhan and D. D. L. Chung, Carbon 18, 313 (1980). 19...S. H. Anderson and D. D. L. Chung, Ext. Abst. Program -- Bienn. Conf. Carbon 15, 361 (1981). 20. K. K. Bardhan and D. D. L. Chung, Carbon 18, 303

  20. C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance in graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Resing, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    The C-13 NMR chemical shifts of graphite intercalation compounds have been calculated. For acceptor types, the shifts come mainly from the paramagnetic (Ramsey) intra-atomic terms. They are related to the gross features of the two-dimensional band structures. The calculated anisotropy is about - 140 ppm and is independent of the finer details such as charge transfer. For donor types, the carbon 2p pi orbitals are spin-polarized because of mixing with metal-conduction electrons, thus there is an additional dipolar contribution which may be correlated with the electronic specific heat. The general agreement with experimental data is satisfactory.

  1. Three-Dimensional Intercalated Porous Graphene on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Trung T.; Sporken, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional intercalated porous graphene has been formed on Si(111) by electron beam evaporation under appropriate conditions and its structural and electronic properties investigated in detail by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. The results show that the crystalline quality of the porous graphene depended not only on the substrate temperature but also on the SiC layer thickness during carbon atom deposition.

  2. Electron Beam Irradiated Intercalated CNT Yarns For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Deborah L.; Gaier, James R.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Lopez Calero, Johnny E.; Ramirez, Christopher; Meador, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-walled CNT yarns have been experimentally and commercially created to yield lightweight, high conductivity fibers with good tensile properties for application as electrical wiring and multifunctional tendons. Multifunctional tendons are needed as the cable structures in tensegrity robots for use in planetary exploration. These lightweight robust tendons can provide mechanical strength for movement of the robot in addition to power distribution and data transmission. In aerospace vehicles, such as Orion, electrical wiring and harnessing mass can approach half of the avionics mass. Use of CNT yarns as electrical power and data cables could reduce mass of the wiring by thirty to seventy percent. These fibers have been intercalated with mixed halogens to increase their specific electrical conductivity to that near copper. This conductivity, combined with the superior strength and fatigue resistance makes it an attractive alternative to copper for wiring and multifunctional tendon applications. Electron beam irradiation has been shown to increase mechanical strength in pristine CNT fibers through increased cross-linking. Both pristine and intercalated CNT yarns have been irradiated using a 5-megavolt electron beam for various durations and the conductivities and tensile properties will be discussed. Structural information obtained using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy will correlate microstructural details with bulk properties.

  3. Transition Metal Intercalators as Anticancer Agents—Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Krishant M.; Pages, Benjamin J.; Ang, Dale L.; Gordon, Christopher P.; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R.

    2016-01-01

    The diverse anticancer utility of cisplatin has stimulated significant interest in the development of additional platinum-based therapies, resulting in several analogues receiving clinical approval worldwide. However, due to structural and mechanistic similarities, the effectiveness of platinum-based therapies is countered by severe side-effects, narrow spectrum of activity and the development of resistance. Nonetheless, metal complexes offer unique characteristics and exceptional versatility, with the ability to alter their pharmacology through facile modifications of geometry and coordination number. This has prompted the search for metal-based complexes with distinctly different structural motifs and non-covalent modes of binding with a primary aim of circumventing current clinical limitations. This review discusses recent advances in platinum and other transition metal-based complexes with mechanisms of action involving intercalation. This mode of DNA binding is distinct from cisplatin and its derivatives. The metals focused on in this review include Pt, Ru and Cu along with examples of Au, Ni, Zn and Fe complexes; these complexes are capable of DNA intercalation and are highly biologically active. PMID:27809241

  4. An intercalation-locked parallel-stranded DNA tetraplex

    DOE PAGES

    Tripathi, S.; Zhang, D.; Paukstelis, P. J.

    2015-01-27

    DNA has proved to be an excellent material for nanoscale construction because complementary DNA duplexes are programmable and structurally predictable. However, in the absence of Watson–Crick pairings, DNA can be structurally more diverse. Here, we describe the crystal structures of d(ACTCGGATGAT) and the brominated derivative, d(AC BrUCGGA BrUGAT). These oligonucleotides form parallel-stranded duplexes with a crystallographically equivalent strand, resulting in the first examples of DNA crystal structures that contains four different symmetric homo base pairs. Two of the parallel-stranded duplexes are coaxially stacked in opposite directions and locked together to form a tetraplex through intercalation of the 5'-most A–A basemore » pairs between adjacent G–G pairs in the partner duplex. The intercalation region is a new type of DNA tertiary structural motif with similarities to the i-motif. 1H– 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and native gel electrophoresis confirmed the formation of a parallel-stranded duplex in solution. Finally, we modified specific nucleotide positions and added d(GAY) motifs to oligonucleotides and were readily able to obtain similar crystals. This suggests that this parallel-stranded DNA structure may be useful in the rational design of DNA crystals and nanostructures.« less

  5. Spin orbit coupling in graphene through gold intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Paromita; O'Farrell, Eoin; Tan, Jun You; Yeo, Yuting; Koon, G. K. W.; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    Graphene has a very low value of spin orbit coupling. There have been several efforts to enhance the spin orbit interaction in graphene. Our previous work has provided clear evidence that spin orbit coupling can be induced in graphene through Rashba interaction with intercalated gold. By applying an additional electric field, this splitting can be increased or decreased depending on its relative direction with the internal electric field induced by gold in graphene. A large negative magnetoresistance due to an in-plane magnetic field has been observed which can be attributed to the fact that a magnetic moment is induced in gold due to spin-orbit coupling. Anomalous Hall Effect which decreases with an in-plane magnetic field further suggests the formation of a collective magnetic phase. We would like to further elaborate on the spin-orbit coupling in graphene using non local measurements. Hence, by intercalating graphene with gold, we can have a direct electric manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom and lead to its much awaited applications in spintronics, quantum computing. National University of Singapore, Singapore.

  6. Controlling the photoconductivity: Graphene oxide and polyaniline self assembled intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Vempati, Sesha, E-mail: svempati01@qub.ac.uk; Ozcan, Sefika; Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800

    2015-02-02

    We report on controlling the optoelectronic properties of self-assembled intercalating compound of graphene oxide (GO) and HCl doped polyaniline (PANI). Optical emission and X-ray diffraction studies revealed a secondary doping phenomenon of PANI with –OH and –COOH groups of GO, which essentially arbitrate the intercalation. A control on the polarity and the magnitude of the photoresponse (PR) is harnessed by manipulating the weight ratios of PANI to GO (viz., 1:1.5 and 1:2.2 are abbreviated as PG1.5 and PG2.2, respectively), where ±PR = 100(R{sub Dark} – R{sub UV-Vis})/R{sub Dark} and R corresponds to the resistance of the device in dark or UV-Vis illumination.more » To be precise, the PR from GO, PANI, PG1.5, and PG2.2 are +34%, −111%, −51%, and +58%, respectively.« less

  7. Intercalation of cellulase enzyme into a hydrotalcite layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, N.; Plank, J.

    2015-01-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material whereby cellulase enzyme is incorporated into a hydrotalcite type layered double hydroxide (LDH) structure is reported. The Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH was synthesized via co-precipitation from Mg/Al nitrate at pH=9.6. Characterization was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). From XRD and SAXS measurements, a d-value of ~5.0 nm was identified for the basal spacing of the Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH. Consequently, the cellulase enzyme (hydrodynamic diameter ~6.6 nm) attains a slightly compressed conformation when intercalated. Formation of the LDH hybrid was also confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH phases appear as ~20 nm thin foils which are intergrown to flower-like aggregates. Activity of the enzyme was retained after deintercalation from the Mg2Al-LDH framework using anion exchange. Accordingly, cellulase is not denatured during the intercalation process, and LDH presents a suitable host structure for time-controlled release of the biomolecule.

  8. Atomic intercalation to measure adhesion of graphene on graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Sorescu, Dan C.; Jeon, Seokmin

    The interest in mechanical properties of layered and 2D materials has reemerged in light of device concepts that take advantage of flexing, adhesion and friction in such systems. Here we provide an effective measurement of the nanoscale elastic adhesion of a graphene sheet atop highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) based on the analysis of atomic intercalates in graphite. Atomic intercalation is carried out using conventional ion sputtering, creating blisters in the top-most layer of the HOPG surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy coupled with image analysis and density functional theory are used to reconstruct the atomic positions and the strain map withinmore » the deformed graphene sheet, as well as to demonstrate subsurface diffusion of the ions creating such blisters. To estimate the adhesion energy we invoke an analytical model originally devised for macroscopic deformations of graphene. This model yields a value of 0.221 ± 0.011 J/m -2 for the adhesion energy of graphite, which is in surprisingly good agreement with reported experimental and theoretical values. This implies that macroscopic mechanical properties of graphene scale down to at least a few nanometers length. The simplicity of our method, compared to the macroscale characterization, enables analysis of elastic mechanical properties in two-dimensional layered materials and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the local variability of mechanical properties on the nanoscale.« less

  9. Atomic intercalation to measure adhesion of graphene on graphite

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jun; Sorescu, Dan C.; Jeon, Seokmin; ...

    2016-10-31

    The interest in mechanical properties of layered and 2D materials has reemerged in light of device concepts that take advantage of flexing, adhesion and friction in such systems. Here we provide an effective measurement of the nanoscale elastic adhesion of a graphene sheet atop highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) based on the analysis of atomic intercalates in graphite. Atomic intercalation is carried out using conventional ion sputtering, creating blisters in the top-most layer of the HOPG surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy coupled with image analysis and density functional theory are used to reconstruct the atomic positions and the strain map withinmore » the deformed graphene sheet, as well as to demonstrate subsurface diffusion of the ions creating such blisters. To estimate the adhesion energy we invoke an analytical model originally devised for macroscopic deformations of graphene. This model yields a value of 0.221 ± 0.011 J/m -2 for the adhesion energy of graphite, which is in surprisingly good agreement with reported experimental and theoretical values. This implies that macroscopic mechanical properties of graphene scale down to at least a few nanometers length. The simplicity of our method, compared to the macroscale characterization, enables analysis of elastic mechanical properties in two-dimensional layered materials and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the local variability of mechanical properties on the nanoscale.« less

  10. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Chakraborty, Jui; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mitra, Manoj K.; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-09-01

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 Å in pristine LDH to 21.3 Å in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion.

  11. Acceptor-type hydroxide graphite intercalation compounds electrochemically formed in high ionic strength solutions.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kohei; Iizuka, Asuka; Mikata, Koji; Fukutsuka, Tomokazu; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-09-05

    The intercalation of hydroxide ions (OH - ) into graphite formed graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) in high ionic strength solutions. GICs of solvated OH - anions with two water molecules (OH - ·2H 2 O) in alkaline aqueous solutions and GICs of only OH - anions in a molten NaOH-KOH salt solution were electrochemically synthesized.

  12. Optical determination of the electronic coupling and intercalation geometry of thiazole orange homodimer in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Paul D.; Bricker, William P.; Díaz, Sebastián A.; Medintz, Igor L.; Bathe, Mark; Melinger, Joseph S.

    2017-08-01

    Sequence-selective bis-intercalating dyes exhibit large increases in fluorescence in the presence of specific DNA sequences. This property makes this class of fluorophore of particular importance to biosensing and super-resolution imaging. Here we report ultrafast transient anisotropy measurements of resonance energy transfer (RET) between thiazole orange (TO) molecules in a complex formed between the homodimer TOTO and double-stranded (ds) DNA. Biexponential homo-RET dynamics suggest two subpopulations within the ensemble: 80% intercalated and 20% non-intercalated. Based on the application of the transition density cube method to describe the electronic coupling and Monte Carlo simulations of the TOTO/dsDNA geometry, the dihedral angle between intercalated TO molecules is estimated to be 81° ± 5°, corresponding to a coupling strength of 45 ± 22 cm-1. Dye intercalation with this geometry is found to occur independently of the underlying DNA sequence, despite the known preference of TOTO for the nucleobase sequence CTAG. The non-intercalated subpopulation is inferred to have a mean inter-dye separation distance of 19 Å, corresponding to coupling strengths between 0 and 25 cm-1. This information is important to enable the rational design of energy transfer systems that utilize TOTO as a relay dye. The approach used here is generally applicable to determining the electronic coupling strength and intercalation configuration of other dimeric bis-intercalators.

  13. Synthesis and Catalytic Performance of Gold Intercalated in the Walls of Mesoporous Silica.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yazhou; Caskey, Christopher; Richards, Ryan M

    2015-07-09

    As a promising catalytically active nano reactor, gold nanoparticles intercalated in mesoporous silica (GMS) were successfully synthesized and properties of the materials were investigated. We used a one pot sol-gel approach to intercalate gold nano particles in the walls of mesoporous silica. To start with the synthesis, P123 was used as template to form micelles. Then TESPTS was used as a surface modification agent to intercalate gold nano particles. Following this process, TEOS was added in as a silica source which underwent a polymerization process in acid environment. After hydrothermal processing and calcination, the final product was acquired. Several techniques were utilized to characterize the porosity, morphology and structure of the gold intercalated mesoporous silica. The results showed a stable structure of mesoporous silica after gold intercalation. Through the oxidation of benzyl alcohol as a benchmark reaction, the GMS materials showed high selectivity and recyclability.

  14. Synthesis and Catalytic Performance of Gold Intercalated in the Walls of Mesoporous Silica

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yazhou; Caskey, Christopher; Richards, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    As a promising catalytically active nano reactor, gold nanoparticles intercalated in mesoporous silica (GMS) were successfully synthesized and properties of the materials were investigated. We used a one pot sol-gel approach to intercalate gold nano particles in the walls of mesoporous silica. To start with the synthesis, P123 was used as template to form micelles. Then TESPTS was used as a surface modification agent to intercalate gold nano particles. Following this process, TEOS was added in as a silica source which underwent a polymerization process in acid environment. After hydrothermal processing and calcination, the final product was acquired. Several techniques were utilized to characterize the porosity, morphology and structure of the gold intercalated mesoporous silica. The results showed a stable structure of mesoporous silica after gold intercalation. Through the oxidation of benzyl alcohol as a benchmark reaction, the GMS materials showed high selectivity and recyclability. PMID:26274058

  15. Ab initio density functional theory investigation of Li-intercalated silicon carbide nanotube bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradian, Rostam; Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad

    2009-06-01

    We present the results of ab initio density functional theory calculations on the energetic, and geometric and electronic structure of Li-intercalated ( 6,6) silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) bundles. Our results show that intercalation of lithium leads to the significant changes in the geometrical structure. The most prominent effect of Li intercalation on the electronic band structure is a shift of the Fermi energy which occurs as a result of charge transfer from lithium to the SiCNTs. All the Li-intercalated ( 6,6) SiCNT bundles are predicted to be metallic representing a substantial change in electronic properties relative to the undoped bundle, which is a wide band gap semiconductor. Both inside of the nanotube and the interstitial space are susceptible for intercalation. The present calculations suggest that the SiCNT bundle is a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications.

  16. Effectiveness of Co intercalation between Graphene and Ir(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlomagno, I.; Drnec, J.; Scaparro, A. M.; Cicia, S.; Mobilio, S.; Felici, R.; Meneghini, C.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene can be used to avoid the oxidation of metallic films. This work explores the effectiveness of such stabilizing effect on Cobalt (Co) films intercalated between Graphene and Ir(1 1 1). After intercalation at 300 °C, two Co films are exposed to ambient pressure and investigated using Co-K edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. The formation of a disordered oxide phase is observed, and associated to the presence of some non-intercalated Co. Further annealing at 500 °C causes the oxide reduction to metallic Co which further intercalates below the Graphene. Once the intercalation is completed, Graphene prevents the Co from oxidation under ambient pressure conditions.

  17. Reshaping the Energy Landscape Transforms the Mechanism and Binding Kinetics of DNA Threading Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew G; Naufer, M Nabuan; Westerlund, Fredrik; Lincoln, Per; Rouzina, Ioulia; Paramanathan, Thayaparan; Williams, Mark C

    2018-02-06

    Molecules that bind DNA via threading intercalation show high binding affinity as well as slow dissociation kinetics, properties ideal for the development of anticancer drugs. To this end, it is critical to identify the specific molecular characteristics of threading intercalators that result in optimal DNA interactions. Using single-molecule techniques, we quantify the binding of a small metal-organic ruthenium threading intercalator (Δ,Δ-B) and compare its binding characteristics to a similar molecule with significantly larger threading moieties (Δ,Δ-P). The binding affinities of the two molecules are the same, while comparison of the binding kinetics reveals significantly faster kinetics for Δ,Δ-B. However, the kinetics is still much slower than that observed for conventional intercalators. Comparison of the two threading intercalators shows that the binding affinity is modulated independently by the intercalating section and the binding kinetics is modulated by the threading moiety. In order to thread DNA, Δ,Δ-P requires a "lock mechanism", in which a large length increase of the DNA duplex is required for both association and dissociation. In contrast, measurements of the force-dependent binding kinetics show that Δ,Δ-B requires a large DNA length increase for association but no length increase for dissociation from DNA. This contrasts strongly with conventional intercalators, for which almost no DNA length change is required for association but a large DNA length change must occur for dissociation. This result illustrates the fundamentally different mechanism of threading intercalation compared with conventional intercalation and will pave the way for the rational design of therapeutic drugs based on DNA threading intercalation.

  18. Asymmetric supercapacitors based on electrospun carbon nanofiber/sodium-pre-intercalated manganese oxide electrodes with high power and energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sheng-Chi; Lu, Yi-Ting; Chien, Yu-An; Wang, Jeng-An; Chen, Po-Yu; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2018-07-01

    The sodium-pre-intercalated δ-MnO2 is in-situ grown on carbon nanofiber via a simple, one-step method for the application of asymmetric supercapacitors. The pre-intercalation of Na ions into the layered structure of δ-MnO2 reduces the crystallinity, beneficial to Na+ diffusion into/out the interlayer structure and pseudocapacitive utilization of MnO2. This NaxMnO2@CNF nanocomposite with desirable pseudo-capacitance from δ-NaxMnO2 and high electric conductivity from CNF network shows a high specific capacitance of 321 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 with ca. 75.2% capacitance retention from 1 to 32 A g-1. An ASC cell consisting of this nanocomposite and activated carbon as the positive and negative electrodes can be reversibly charged and discharged to a cell voltage of 2.0 V in 1 M Na2SO4 and 4 mM NaHCO3 with specific energy and power of 21 Wh kg-1 and 1 kW kg-1, respectively. This ASC also shows excellent cell capacitance retention (7% decay) in the 2 V, 10,000-cycle stability test, revealing superior performance.

  19. Toxicity, mutagenicity and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of three popular DNA intercalating fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Sayas, Enric; García-López, Federico; Serrano, Ramón

    2015-09-01

    We have compared the toxicity, mutagenicity and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of three DNA-intercalating fluorescent dyes widely used to stain DNA in gels. Safety data about ethidium bromide (EtBr) are contradictory, and two compounds of undisclosed structure (Redsafe and Gelred) have been proposed as safe alternatives. Our results indicate that all three compounds inhibit yeast growth, with Gelred being the most inhibitory and also the only one causing cell death. EtBr and Gelred, but not Redsafe, induce massive formation of petite (non-respiratory) mutants, but only EtBr induces massive loss of mitochondrial DNA. All three compounds increase reversion of a chromosomal point mutation (lys2-801(amber) ), with Gelred being the most mutagenic and Redsafe the least. These dyes are all cationic and are probably taken by cells through non-selective cation channels. We could measure the glucose-energized transport of EtBr and Gelred inside the cells, while uptake of Redsafe was below our detection limit. We conclude that although all three compounds are toxic and mutagenic in the yeast system, Redsafe is the safest for yeast, probably because of very limited uptake by these cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Spermine Attenuates the Action of the DNA Intercalator, Actinomycin D, on DNA Binding and the Inhibition of Transcription and DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Wu, Wen-Lin; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P.; Su, Wang-Lin; Chuang, Show-Mei; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion. PMID:23144800

  1. Spermine attenuates the action of the DNA intercalator, actinomycin D, on DNA binding and the inhibition of transcription and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Yu; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Lee, Yueh-Luen; Lai, Yi-Hua; Chen, Jeremy J W; Wu, Wen-Lin; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Su, Wang-Lin; Chuang, Show-Mei; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion.

  2. Gas insulated transmission line having low inductance intercalated sheath

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1978-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line including an outer sheath, an inner conductor disposed within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. The outer sheath comprises an insulating tube having first and second ends, and having interior and exterior surfaces. A first electrically conducting foil is secured to the interior surface of the insulating tube, is spirally wound from one tube end to the second tube end, and has a plurality of overlapping turns. A second electrically conducting foil is secured to the exterior surface of the insulating tube, and is spirally wound in the opposite direction from the first electrically conducting foil. By winding the foils in opposite directions, the inductances within the intercalated sheath will cancel each other out.

  3. An enhanced hydrogen adsorption enthalpy for fluoride intercalated graphite compounds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hansong; Sha, Xianwei; Chen, Liang; Cooper, Alan C; Foo, Maw-Lin; Lau, Garret C; Bailey, Wade H; Pez, Guido P

    2009-12-16

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study on H(2) physisorption in partially fluorinated graphite. This material, first predicted computationally using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and subsequently synthesized and characterized experimentally, represents a novel class of "acceptor type" graphite intercalated compounds that exhibit significantly higher isosteric heat of adsorption for H(2) at near ambient temperatures than previously demonstrated for commonly available porous carbon-based materials. The unusually strong interaction arises from the semi-ionic nature of the C-F bonds. Although a high H(2) storage capacity (>4 wt %) at room temperature is predicted not to be feasible due to the low heat of adsorption, enhanced storage properties can be envisaged by doping the graphitic host with appropriate species to promote higher levels of charge transfer from graphene to F(-) anions.

  4. Gaussian approximation potential modeling of lithium intercalation in carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikake, So; Deringer, Volker L.; Lee, Tae Hoon; Krynski, Marcin; Elliott, Stephen R.; Csányi, Gábor

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate how machine-learning based interatomic potentials can be used to model guest atoms in host structures. Specifically, we generate Gaussian approximation potential (GAP) models for the interaction of lithium atoms with graphene, graphite, and disordered carbon nanostructures, based on reference density functional theory data. Rather than treating the full Li-C system, we demonstrate how the energy and force differences arising from Li intercalation can be modeled and then added to a (prexisting and unmodified) GAP model of pure elemental carbon. Furthermore, we show the benefit of using an explicit pair potential fit to capture "effective" Li-Li interactions and to improve the performance of the GAP model. This provides proof-of-concept for modeling guest atoms in host frameworks with machine-learning based potentials and in the longer run is promising for carrying out detailed atomistic studies of battery materials.

  5. A Brief Review on Multivalent Intercalation Batteries with Aqueous Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Guduru, Ramesh K.; Icaza, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for high energy density rechargeable batteries has driven the research toward developing new chemistries and battery systems beyond Li-ion batteries. Due to the advantages of delivering more than one electron and giving more charge capacity, the multivalent systems have gained considerable attention. At the same time, affordability, ease of fabrication and safety aspects have also directed researchers to focus on aqueous electrolyte based multivalent intercalation batteries. There have been a decent number of publications disclosing capabilities and challenges of several multivalent battery systems in aqueous electrolytes, and while considering an increasing interest in this area, here, we present a brief overview of their recent progress, including electrode chemistries, functionalities and challenges. PMID:28344298

  6. A Brief Review on Multivalent Intercalation Batteries with Aqueous Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Guduru, Ramesh K; Icaza, Juan C

    2016-02-26

    Rapidly growing global demand for high energy density rechargeable batteries has driven the research toward developing new chemistries and battery systems beyond Li-ion batteries. Due to the advantages of delivering more than one electron and giving more charge capacity, the multivalent systems have gained considerable attention. At the same time, affordability, ease of fabrication and safety aspects have also directed researchers to focus on aqueous electrolyte based multivalent intercalation batteries. There have been a decent number of publications disclosing capabilities and challenges of several multivalent battery systems in aqueous electrolytes, and while considering an increasing interest in this area, here, we present a brief overview of their recent progress, including electrode chemistries, functionalities and challenges.

  7. Tuning thermal conductivity in molybdenum disulfide by electrochemical intercalation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Gaohua; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qiye; Zhang, Ruigang; Li, Dongyao; Banerjee, Debasish; Cahill, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) materials is of interest for energy storage, nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Here, we report that the thermal conductivity of molybdenum disulfide can be modified by electrochemical intercalation. We observe distinct behaviour for thin films with vertically aligned basal planes and natural bulk crystals with basal planes aligned parallel to the surface. The thermal conductivity is measured as a function of the degree of lithiation, using time-domain thermoreflectance. The change of thermal conductivity correlates with the lithiation-induced structural and compositional disorder. We further show that the ratio of the in-plane to through-plane thermal conductivity of bulk crystal is enhanced by the disorder. These results suggest that stacking disorder and mixture of phases is an effective mechanism to modify the anisotropic thermal conductivity of 2D materials. PMID:27767030

  8. Advantages of GPU technology in DFT calculations of intercalated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešić, J.; Gajić, R.

    2014-09-01

    Over the past few years, the expansion of general-purpose graphic-processing unit (GPGPU) technology has had a great impact on computational science. GPGPU is the utilization of a graphics-processing unit (GPU) to perform calculations in applications usually handled by the central processing unit (CPU). Use of GPGPUs as a way to increase computational power in the material sciences has significantly decreased computational costs in already highly demanding calculations. A level of the acceleration and parallelization depends on the problem itself. Some problems can benefit from GPU acceleration and parallelization, such as the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FTDT) and density-functional theory (DFT), while others cannot take advantage of these modern technologies. A number of GPU-supported applications had emerged in the past several years (www.nvidia.com/object/gpu-applications.html). Quantum Espresso (QE) is reported as an integrated suite of open source computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling at the nano-scale. It is based on DFT, the use of a plane-waves basis and a pseudopotential approach. Since the QE 5.0 version, it has been implemented as a plug-in component for standard QE packages that allows exploiting the capabilities of Nvidia GPU graphic cards (www.qe-forge.org/gf/proj). In this study, we have examined the impact of the usage of GPU acceleration and parallelization on the numerical performance of DFT calculations. Graphene has been attracting attention worldwide and has already shown some remarkable properties. We have studied an intercalated graphene, using the QE package PHonon, which employs GPU. The term ‘intercalation’ refers to a process whereby foreign adatoms are inserted onto a graphene lattice. In addition, by intercalating different atoms between graphene layers, it is possible to tune their physical properties. Our experiments have shown there are benefits from using GPUs, and we reached an

  9. First-principles theory of cation- and intercalation-ordering in Li_xCoO_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, C.; Zunger, Alex

    1998-03-01

    Using a combination of first-principles total energies, a cluster expansion technique, and Monte Carlo simulations, we present a first-principles theory which can predict both cation- and intercalation-ordering patterns at both zero and finite temperatures, and can provide first-principles predictions of battery voltages of Li_xCoO_2/Li cells. The classes of ordering problems that we study are the following: (i) The LiMO2 oxides (M=3d metal) form a series of structures based on an octahedrally-coordinated network with anions (O) on one fcc sublattice and cations (Li and M) on the other, leading to Li/Co ordering in LiCoO2 (x=1). We find the ground state is the CuPt or (111)-layered cation arrangment, in agreement with the observed structure. (ii) In battery applications, Li is (de)intercalated from the compound, creating a vacancy (denoted Box) that can be positioned in different lattice locations; Thus, Box/Co ordering in BoxCoO2 (x=0) is also of interest. We find the ground state for BoxCoO2 is also a (111)-layered structure, although a different stacking sequence (AAA) of close-packed layers is preferred. (iii) The vacancies left behind by Li extraction can form ordered vacancy compounds in partially de-lithiated Li_xCoO_2, leading to a Box/Li ordering problem (0<=x<=1). Our calculations agree with the observed voltage profiles in these systems, and predict the existence of new intercalation-ordered compounds. Supported by BES/OER/DMS under contract DE-AC36-83CH10093.

  10. Biopolymer-modified graphite oxide nanocomposite films based on benzalkonium chloride-heparin intercalated in graphite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Na; Zhang, Shuang-Quan; Zhou, Ning-Lin; Shen, Jian

    2010-05-01

    Heparin is a potent anticoagulant agent that interacts strongly with antithrombin III to prevent the formation of fibrin clots. In the present work, poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS)/graphite oxide-benzalkonium chloride-heparin (PDMS/modified graphite oxide) nanocomposite films were obtained by the solution intercalation technique as a possible drug delivery system. The heparin-benzalkonium chloride (BAC-HEP) was intercalated into graphite oxide (GO) layers to form GO-BAC-HEP (modified graphite oxide). Nanocomposite films were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, ATR-FTIR and TGA. The modified graphite oxide was observed to be homogeneously dispersed throughout the PDMS matrix. The effect of modified graphite oxide on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite film was investigated. When the modified graphite oxide content was lower than 0.2 wt%, the nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. Furthermore, nanocomposite films become delivery systems that release heparin slowly to make the nanocomposite films blood compatible. The in vitro studies included hemocompatibility testing for effects on platelet adhesion, platelet activation, plasma recalcification profiles, and hemolysis. Results from these studies showed that the anticoagulation properties of PDMS/GO-BCA-HEP nanocomposite films were greatly superior to those for no treated PDMS. Cell culture assay indicated that PDMS/GO-BCA-HEP nanocomposite films showed enhanced cell adhesion.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of montmorillonite clay intercalated with molecular magnetic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Marcel G.; Martins, Daniel O.T.A.; Carvalho, Beatriz L.C. de

    2015-08-15

    In this work montmorillonite (MMT) clay, whose matrix was modified with an ammonium salt (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide – CTAB), was employed as an inorganic host for the intercalation of three different molecular magnetic compounds through ion exchange: a nitronyl nitroxide derivative 2-[4-(N-ethyl)-pyridinium]-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (p-EtRad{sup +}) and two binuclear coordination compounds, [Ni(valpn)Ln]{sup 3+}, where H{sub 2}valpn stands for 1,3-propanediyl-bis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxy-phenol), and Ln=Gd{sup III}; Dy{sup III}. The pristine MMT and the intercalated materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and magnetic measurements. The X-ray diffraction data analysis showed an increase of the interlamellar spacemore » of the intercalated MMT, indicating the intercalation of the magnetic compounds. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the hybrid compounds were investigated, showing similar behavior as the pure magnetic guest species. - Graphical abstract: Montmorillonite clay was employed as inorganic host for the intercalation of three different molecular magnetic compounds through ion exchange - Highlights: • Montmorillonite was employed as a host material. • Three molecular magnetic compounds were intercalated through ion exchange. • The compounds were successful intercalated maintaining the layered structure. • The hybrid materials exhibited similar magnetic behavior as the pure magnetic guest.« less

  12. Nano-scaled top-down of bismuth chalcogenides based on electrochemical lithium intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jikun; Zhu, Yingjie; Chen, Nuofu; Liu, Xinling; Sun, Zhengliang; Huang, Zhenghong; Kang, Feiyu; Gao, Qiuming; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Lidong

    2011-12-01

    A two-step method has been used to fabricate nano-particles of layer-structured bismuth chalcogenide compounds, including Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Bi2Se0.3Te2.7, through a nano-scaled top-down route. In the first step, lithium (Li) atoms are intercalated between the van der Waals bonded quintuple layers of bismuth chalcogenide compounds by controllable electrochemical process inside self-designed lithium ion batteries. And in the second step, the Li intercalated bismuth chalcogenides are subsequently exposed to ethanol, in which process the intercalated Li atoms would explode like atom-scaled bombs to exfoliate original microscaled powder into nano-scaled particles with size around 10 nm. The influence of lithium intercalation speed and amount to three types of bismuth chalcogenide compounds are compared and the optimized intercalation conditions are explored. As to maintain the phase purity of the final nano-particle product, the intercalation lithium amount should be well controlled in Se contained bismuth chalcogenide compounds. Besides, compared with binary bismuth chalcogenide compound, lower lithium intercalation speed should be applied in ternary bismuth chalcogenide compound.

  13. Carbon dioxide intercalation in Na-fluorohectorite clay at near-ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Jon Otto; Hemmen, Henrik; Rolseth, Erlend G.; Fonseca, Davi; Lindbo Hansen, Elisabeth; Plivelic, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    A molecular dynamics study by Cygan et al.[1] shows the possibility of intercalation and retention of CO2 in smectite clays at 37 ^oC and 200 bar, which suggests that clay minerals may prove suitable for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. In this work we show from x-ray diffraction measurements that gaseous CO2 intercalates into the interlayer space of the synthetic smectite clay Na-fluorohectorite. The mean interlayer distance of the clay when CO2 is intercalated is 12.5 å at -20 C and 15 bar. The magnitude of the expansion of the interlayer upon intercalation is indistinguishable from that of the dehydrated-monohydrated intercalation of H2O, but this possibility is ruled out by careful repeating the measurements exposing the clay to nitrogen gas. The dynamics of the CO2 intercalation process displays a higher intercalation rate at increased pressure, and the rate is several orders of magnitude slower than that of water or vapor at ambient pressure and temperature.[4pt] [1] Cygan, R. T.; Romanov, V. N.; Myshakin, E. M. Natural materials for carbon capture; Techincal report SAND2010-7217; Sandia National Laboratories: Albuquerque, New Mexico, November, 2010.

  14. Alkali metal intercalated fullerene-like MS(2) (M = W, Mo) nanoparticles and their properties.

    PubMed

    Zak, Alla; Feldman, Yishay; Lyakhovitskaya, Vera; Leitus, Gregory; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Wachtel, Ellen; Cohen, Hagai; Reich, Shimon; Tenne, Reshef

    2002-05-01

    Layered metal disulfides-MS(2) (M = Mo, W) in the form of fullerene-like nanoparticles and in the form of platelets (crystallites of the 2H polytype) have been intercalated by exposure to alkali metal (potassium and sodium) vapor using a two-zone transport method. The composition of the intercalated systems was established using X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The alkali metal concentration in the host lattice was found to depend on the kind of sample and the experimental conditions. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity of the intercalated samples was observed. The product consisted of both nonintercalated and intercalated phases. X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy of the samples, which were not exposed to the ambient atmosphere, showed that they suffered little change in their lattice parameters. On the other hand, after exposure to ambient atmosphere, substantial increase in the interplanar spacing (3-5 A) was observed for the intercalated phases. Insertion of one to two water molecules per intercalated metal atom was suggested as a possible explanation for this large expansion along the c-axis. Deintercalation of the hydrated alkali atoms and restacking of the MS(2) layers was observed in all the samples after prolonged exposure to the atmosphere. Electric field induced deintercalation of the alkali metal atoms from the host lattice was also observed by means of the XPS technique. Magnetic moment measurements for all the samples indicate a diamagnetic to paramagnetic transition after intercalation. Measurements of the transport properties reveal a semiconductor to metal transition for the heavily K intercalated 2H-MoS(2). Other samples show several orders of magnitude decrease in resistivity and two- to five-fold decrease in activation energies upon intercalation. These modifications are believed to occur via charge transfer from the alkali metal to the conduction band of the host lattice

  15. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide intercalated ZnO quantum dots nanoballs for selective biosensing detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Zhao, Minggang; Li, Yingchun; Fan, Sisi; Ding, Longjiang; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Shougang

    2016-07-01

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are always used in sensors due to their excellent electrochemical characteristics. In this work, ZnO QDs were intercalated by rGO sheets with cross-linked MWCNTs to construct intercalation nanoballs. A MWCNTs/rGO/ZnO QDs 3D hierarchical architecture was fabricated on supporting Ni foam, which exhibited excellent mechanical, kinetic and electrochemical properties. The intercalation construction can introduce strong interfacial effects to improve the surface electronic state. The selectively determinate of uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid by an electrode material using distinct applied potentials was realized.

  16. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Mario (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  17. Intercalated degrees, learning styles, and career preferences: prospective longitudinal study of UK medical students

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I C; Richards, P; Winder, B C

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of taking an intercalated degree (BSc) on the study habits and learning styles of medical students and on their interest in a career in medical research. Design Longitudinal questionnaire study of medical students at application to medical school and in their final year. Setting All UK medical schools. Participants 6901 medical school applicants for admission in 1991 were studied in the autumn of 1990. 3333 entered medical school in 1991 or 1992, and 2695 who were due to qualify in 1996 or 1997 were studied 3 months before the end of their clinical course. Response rates were 92% for applicants and 56% for final year students. Main outcome measures Study habits (surface, deep, and strategic learning style) and interest in different medical careers, including medical research. Identical questions were used at time of application and in final year. Results Students who had taken an intercalated degree had higher deep and strategic learning scores than at application to medical school. Those with highest degree classes had higher strategic and deep learning scores and lower surface learning scores. Students taking intercalated degrees showed greater interest in careers in medical research and laboratory medicine and less interest in general practice than their peers. The effects of the course on interest in medical research and learning styles were independent. The effect of the intercalated degree was greatest in schools where relatively few students took intercalated degrees. Conclusions Intercalated degrees result in a greater interest in research careers and higher deep and strategic learning scores. However, the effects are much reduced in schools where most students intercalate a degree. Introduction of intercalated degrees for all medical students without sufficient resources may not therefore achieve its expected effects. Key messagesAlthough intercalated degrees are well established, little is known about their effect on

  18. Graphite intercalation with fluoroanions by chemical and electrochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozmen-Monkul, Bahar

    New acceptor-type graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) containing perfluoroalkyl anions have been synthesized by using both chemical and electrochemical methods and characterized by elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Investigation into these graphite intercalation compounds can provide novel materials and a detailed understanding of their properties. GICs of composition Cx[FB(C2F 5)3]·deltaF are prepared for the first time by the intercalation of fluoro-tris(pentafluoroethyl)borate anion, [FB(C2F 5)3]-, under ambient conditions in aqueous (48%) hydrofluoric acid containing the oxidant K2[MnF6]. Powder-XRD data indicate that products are pure stage 2 and physical mixture of stage 2 and stage 3 after 1 h to 20 h reaction times. The calculated basal repeat distance, Ic, is 1.20 nm for stage 2 and 1.54-1.56 nm for stage 3 GICs, corresponding to gallery heights of di = 0.86-0.89 nm. In addition, stage 2 GIC of C x[FB(C2F5)3]·deltaCH 3NO2 having di = 0.84 nm is prepared by electrochemical oxidation of graphite in a nitromethane electrolyte. The elemental analyses of these complex GICs required that a new sample digestion protocol be developed. After digestion, the fluoride amounts in these GIC samples were analyzed by using ion-selective fluoride combination electrode. The method developed is able to provide fluoride anion content in GICs without interference from the decomposition products of [FB(C 2F5)3]- anion. For the boron analyses the same digestion procedure above is used and the B contents were determined by ICP-AES. For Cx[FB(C2F 5)3]·deltaF, both compositional parameters x and delta are obtained from the results of elemental B and F analyses. For the chemically prepared GICs at 1 h to 20 h, calculated x values were in the range of 51-56 and the calculated delta values increased with reaction time from approx. 0-2. Combining B analysis and TGA mass loss gives a composition of x = 44 and delta = 0.37 for the electrochemically prepared GIC of Cx[FB(C2

  19. Activation of cGAS-dependent antiviral responses by DNA intercalating agents

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Thomas, Belinda J.; Ferrand, Jonathan; McArthur, Kate; Bardin, Philip G.; Williams, Bryan R.G.; Gantier, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Acridine dyes, including proflavine and acriflavine, were commonly used as antiseptics before the advent of penicillins in the mid-1940s. While their mode of action on pathogens was originally attributed to their DNA intercalating activity, work in the early 1970s suggested involvement of the host immune responses, characterized by induction of interferon (IFN)-like activities through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate here that sub-toxic concentrations of a mixture of acriflavine and proflavine instigate a cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)-dependent type-I IFN antiviral response. This pertains to the capacity of these compounds to induce low level DNA damage and cytoplasmic DNA leakage, resulting in cGAS-dependent cGAMP-like activity. Critically, acriflavine:proflavine pre-treatment of human primary bronchial epithelial cells significantly reduced rhinovirus infection. Collectively, our findings constitute the first evidence that non-toxic DNA binding agents have the capacity to act as indirect agonists of cGAS, to exert potent antiviral effects in mammalian cells. PMID:27694309

  20. Activation of cGAS-dependent antiviral responses by DNA intercalating agents.

    PubMed

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Thomas, Belinda J; Ferrand, Jonathan; McArthur, Kate; Bardin, Philip G; Williams, Bryan R G; Gantier, Michael P

    2017-01-09

    Acridine dyes, including proflavine and acriflavine, were commonly used as antiseptics before the advent of penicillins in the mid-1940s. While their mode of action on pathogens was originally attributed to their DNA intercalating activity, work in the early 1970s suggested involvement of the host immune responses, characterized by induction of interferon (IFN)-like activities through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate here that sub-toxic concentrations of a mixture of acriflavine and proflavine instigate a cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)-dependent type-I IFN antiviral response. This pertains to the capacity of these compounds to induce low level DNA damage and cytoplasmic DNA leakage, resulting in cGAS-dependent cGAMP-like activity. Critically, acriflavine:proflavine pre-treatment of human primary bronchial epithelial cells significantly reduced rhinovirus infection. Collectively, our findings constitute the first evidence that non-toxic DNA binding agents have the capacity to act as indirect agonists of cGAS, to exert potent antiviral effects in mammalian cells. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Bioaccumulation of nickel by intercalation into polycrystalline hydrogen uranyl phosphate deposited via an enzymatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bonthrone, K M; Basnakova, G; Lin, F; Macaskie, L E

    1996-05-01

    A Citrobacter sp. accumulates uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) as crystalline HUO2PO4.4H2O (HUP), using enzymatically generated inorganic phosphate. Ni was not removed by this mechanism, but cells already loaded with HUP removed Ni2+ by intercalative ion-exchange, forming Ni(UO2PO4)2.7H2O, as concluded by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analyses. The loaded biomass became saturated with Ni rapidly, with a molar ratio of Ni:U in the cellbound deposit of approx. 1:6; Ni penetration was probably surface-localized. Cochallenge of the cells with Ni2+ and UO2(2+), and glycerol 2-phosphate (phosphate donor for phosphate release and metal bioprecipitation) gave sustained removal of both metals in a flow through bioreactor, with more extensively accumulated Ni. We propose 'Microbially Enhanced Chemisorption of Heavy Metals' (MECHM) to describe this hybrid mechanism of metal bioaccumulation via intercalation into preformed, biogenic crystals, and note also that MECHM can promote the removal of the transuranic radionuclide neptunium, which is difficult to achieve by conventional methods.

  2. Acrylate intercalation and in situ polymerization in iron-, cobalt-, or manganese-substituted nickel hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Vaysse, C; Guerlou-Demourgues, L; Duguet, E; Delmas, C

    2003-07-28

    A chimie douce route based on successive redox and exchange reactions has allowed us to prepare new hybrid organic-inorganic materials, composed of polyacrylate macromolecules intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), deriving from Ni(OH)(2). Monomer intercalation and in situ polymerization mechanisms have appeared to be strongly dependent upon the nature of the substituting cation in the slabs. In the case of iron-based LDHs, a phase containing acrylate monomeric intercalates has been isolated and identified by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Second, interslab free-radical polymerization of acrylate anions has been successfully initiated using potassium persulfate. In cobalt- or manganese-based LDHs, one-step polymerization has been observed, leading directly to a material containing polyacrylate intercalate.

  3. A micrographic and gravimetric study of intercalation and deintercalation of graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Intercalation and deintercalation of Union Carbide P-100 graphite fibers with liquid and vaporous bromine was studied gravimetrically and microscopically. The mass of the bromine intercalated fibers was found to be 17 to 20 percent greater than their pristine counterpart. This variation decreased to 17 to 18 percent after heating in air for 3 days at 200 C and to 14.5 to 18 percent after 6 days of 260 C heating. The fiber length did not change throughout the experiment. The fiber diameter increased during intercalation and decreased slightly upon deintercalation but was not affected by heating to 260 C for 3 days in air. Comparing the mass and volume data to those with highly oriented pyrolitic graphite or natural single crystal graphite suggested the possibility that the intercalated P-100 fibers could be mostly stage 4.

  4. Intercalating dyes for enhanced contrast in second-harmonic generation imaging of protein crystals

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Justin A.; Scarborough, Nicole M.; Pogranichniy, Nicholas R.; Shrestha, Rashmi K.; Closser, Richard G.; Das, Chittaranjan; Simpson, Garth J.

    2015-01-01

    The second-harmonic generation (SHG) activity of protein crystals was found to be enhanced by up to ∼1000-fold by the intercalation of SHG phores within the crystal lattice. Unlike the intercalation of fluorophores, the SHG phores produced no significant background SHG from solvated dye or from dye intercalated into amorphous aggregates. The polarization-dependent SHG is consistent with the chromophores adopting the symmetry of the crystal lattice. In addition, the degree of enhancement for different symmetries of dyes is consistent with theoretical predictions based on the molecular nonlinear optical response. Kinetics studies indicate that intercalation arises over a timeframe of several minutes in lysozyme, with detectable enhancements within seconds. These results provide a potential means to increase the overall diversity of protein crystals and crystal sizes amenable to characterization by SHG microscopy. PMID:26143918

  5. XRD, SEM and infrared study into the intercalation of sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS) into hydrocalumite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Tianqi; Zhang, Longlong; Wu, Daishe; Frost, Ray L

    2015-12-05

    Hydrocalumite (CaAl-LDH-Cl) interacted with a natural anionic surfactant, sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS), was performed using an intercalation method. To understand the intercalation behavior and characterize the resulting products, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique were used. The XRD analysis indicated that SHS was intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl successfully, resulting in an expansion of the interlayer (from 0.78 nm to 2.74 nm). The bands of C-H stretching vibrations of SHS were observed in the near-infrared spectra, which indicated that the resulting products were indeed CaAl-LDH-SHS. In addition, the bands of water stretching vibrations and OH groups shifted to higher wavenumbers when SHS was intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl interlayer space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of new oligothiophene derivatives and their intercalation compounds: Orientation effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Lee, B.-G.; Park, N.-G.; Pugh, J.R.; Eberl, D.D.; Frank, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The orientation dependence of intercalated oligothiophene derivatives in vermiculite and metal disulfides MS2 (M = Mo, Ti and Zr) on the pendant group on the thiophene ring and the host material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Amino and nitro derivatives of bi-, ter- and quarter-thiophenes were synthesized for the first time. The amino-oligothiophenes were intercalated into vermiculite by an exchange reaction with previously intercalated octadecylammonium vermiculite and into MS2 by the intercalation-exfoliation technique. Analysis of the XRD data indicates that a monolayer of amino-oligothiophene orients perpendicularly to the silicate surface in vermiculite and lies flat in the van der Waals gap of MS2.

  7. Supramolecular polymer formation by cyclic dinucleotides and intercalators affects dinucleotide enzymatic processing

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Shizuka; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Yue; Szmacinski, Henryk; Sintim, Herman O

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyclic dinucleotides form supramolecular aggregates with intercalators, and this property could be utilized in nanotechnology and medicine. Methods & results: Atomic force microscopy and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to show that cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) forms G-wires in the presence of intercalators. The average fluorescence lifetime of thiazole orange, when bound to c-di-GMP was greater than when bound to DNA G-quadruplexes or dsDNA. The stability of c-di-GMP supramolecular polymers is dependent on both the nature of the cation present and the intercalator. C-di-GMP or cyclic diadenylic acid/intercalator complexes are more resistant to cleavage by YybT, a phosphodiesterase, than the uncomplexed nucleotides. Conclusion: Cleavage of bacterial cyclic dinucleotides could be slowed down via complexation with small molecules and that this could be utilized for diverse applications in nanotechnology and medicine. PMID:28031943

  8. In Vivo Expansion of Activated Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells and Establishment of a Type 2 Immune Response upon IL-33 Treatment Protect against Experimental Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Biton, Jérôme; Khaleghparast Athari, Sara; Thiolat, Allan; Santinon, François; Lemeiter, Delphine; Hervé, Roxane; Delavallée, Laure; Levescot, Anais; Roga, Stéphane; Decker, Patrice; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Herbelin, André; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Bessis, Natacha

    2016-09-01

    IL-33 is strongly involved in several inflammatory and autoimmune disorders with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its contribution to chronic autoimmune inflammation, such as rheumatoid arthritis, is ill defined and probably requires tight regulation. In this study, we aimed at deciphering the complex role of IL-33 in a model of rheumatoid arthritis, namely, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We report that repeated injections of IL-33 during induction (early) and during development (late) of CIA strongly suppressed clinical and histological signs of arthritis. In contrast, a late IL-33 injection had no effect. The cellular mechanism involved in protection was related to an enhanced type 2 immune response, including the expansion of eosinophils, Th2 cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells, associated with an increase in type 2 cytokine levels in the serum of IL-33-treated mice. Moreover, our work strongly highlights the interplay between IL-33 and regulatory T cells (Tregs), demonstrated by the dramatic in vivo increase in Treg frequencies after IL-33 treatment of CIA. More importantly, Tregs from IL-33-treated mice displayed enhanced capacities to suppress IFN-γ production by effector T cells, suggesting that IL-33 not only favors Treg proliferation but also enhances their immunosuppressive properties. In concordance with these observations, we found that IL-33 induced the emergence of a CD39(high) Treg population in a ST2L-dependent manner. Our findings reveal a powerful anti-inflammatory mechanism by which IL-33 administration inhibits arthritis development. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Superconductivity in Li-intercalated bilayer arsenene and hole-doped monolayer arsenene: a first-principles prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyong; Ge, Yanfeng; Zhou, Wenzhe; Peng, Mengqi; Pan, Jiangling; Ouyang, Fangping

    2018-06-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we find Li-intercalated bilayer arsenene with AB stacking is dynamically stable, which is different from pristine bilayer with AA stacking. Electron–phonon coupling of the stable Li-intercalated bilayer arsenene are dominated by the low frequency vibrational modes (E″(1), (1), E‧(1) and acoustic modes) and lead to an superconductivity with T c  =  8.68 K with isotropical Eliashberg function. Small biaxial tensile strain (2%) can improve T c to 11.22 K due to the increase of DOS and phonon softening. By considering the fully anisotropic Migdal–Eliashberg theory, T c are found to be enhanced by 50% and exhibits a single anisotropic gap nature. In addition, considering its nearly flat top valence band which is favorable for high temperature superconductivity, we also explore the superconducting properties of hole-doped monolayer arsenene under different strains. the unstrained monolayer arsenene superconducts at T c  =  0.22 K with 0.1 hole/cell doping. By applying 3% biaxial strain, T c can be lifted up strikingly to 6.69 K due to a strong Fermi nesting of the nearly flat band. Then T c decreases slowly with strain. Our findings provide another insight to realize 2D superconductivity and suggest that the strain is crucial to further enhance the transition temperature.

  10. Effect of π-bridge units on properties of A-π-D-π-A-type nonfullerene acceptors for organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Quan-Song; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2018-05-15

    Acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor (A-π-D-π-A)-types of small molecules are very promising nonfullerene acceptors to overcome the drawbacks of fullerene derivatives such as the weak absorption ability and electronic adjustability. However, only few attempts have been made to develop π-bridge units to construct highly efficient acceptors in OSCs. Herein, taking the reported acceptor P1 as a reference, five small-structured acceptors (P2, P3, P4, P5, and P6) have been designed via the replacement of the π-bridge unit. A combination of quantum chemistry and Marcus theory approaches is employed to investigate the effect of different π-bridge units on the optical, electronic, and charge transport properties of P1-P6. The calculation results show that the designed molecules P2 and P5 can become potential acceptor replacements of P1 due to their red-shifted absorption bands, appropriate energy levels, low exciton binding energy, and high electron affinity and electron mobility. Additionally, compared with P3HT/P1, P3HT/P2 and P3HT/P5 exhibit stronger and wider absorption peaks, larger electron transfer distances (DCT), greater transferred charge amounts (Δq), and smaller overlaps (Λ), which shows that P2 and P5 have more significant electron transfer characteristics and favorable exciton dissociation capabilities for enhancing the short-circuit current density (JSC) and thus, they are potential acceptors in OSCs.

  11. Organo-Soluble Porphyrin Mixed Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-16

    Mixed Monolayer- Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes Chenming Xue, Yongqian Xu, Yi Pang, Dingshan Yu, Liming Dai, Min Gao, Augustine...Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... Fullerenes Chenming Xue, † Yongqian Xu, ‡ Yi Pang, ‡ Dingshan Yu, § Liming Dai, § Min Gao, † Augustine Urbas ± and Quan

  12. Mechanochemical synthesis and intercalation of Ca(II)Fe(III)-layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, Zs.; Szabados, M.; Varga, G.

    2016-01-15

    A mechanochemical method (grinding the components without added water – dry grinding, followed by further grinding in the presence of minute amount of water or NaOH solution – wet grinding) was used in this work for the preparation and intercalation of CaFe-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Both the pristine LDHs and the amino acid anion (cystinate and tyrosinate) intercalated varieties were prepared by the two-step grinding procedure in a mixer mill. By systematically changing the conditions of the preparation method, a set of parameters could be determined, which led to the formation of close to phase-pure LDH. The optimisation procedure wasmore » also applied for the intercalation processes of the amino acid anions. The resulting materials were structurally characterised by a range of methods (X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray absorption and infra-red spectroscopies). It was proven that this simple mechanochemical procedure was able to produce complex organic–inorganic nanocomposites: LDHs intercalated with amino acid anions. - Graphical abstract: Amino acid anion-Ca(II)Fe(III)-LDHs were successfully prepared by a two-step milling procedure. - Highlights: • Synthesis of pristine and amino acid intercalated CaFe-LDHs by two-step milling. • Identifying the optimum synthesis and intercalation parameters. • Characterisation of the samples with a range of instrumental methods.« less

  13. Simulation assisted characterization of kaolinite-methanol intercalation complexes synthesized using cost-efficient homogenization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makó, Éva; Kovács, András; Ható, Zoltán; Kristóf, Tamás

    2015-12-01

    Recent experimental and simulation findings with kaolinite-methanol intercalation complexes raised the question of the existence of more stable structures in wet and dry state, which has not been fully cleared up yet. Experimental and molecular simulation analyses were used to investigate different types of kaolinite-methanol complexes, revealing their real structures. Cost-efficient homogenization methods were applied to synthesize the kaolinite-dimethyl sulfoxide and kaolinite-urea pre-intercalation complexes of the kaolinite-methanol ones. The tested homogenization method required an order of magnitude lower amount of reagents than the generally applied solution method. The influence of the type of pre-intercalated molecules and of the wetting or drying (at room temperature and at 150 °C) procedure on the intercalation was characterized experimentally by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Consistent with the suggestion from the present simulations, 1.12-nm and 0.83-nm stable kaolinite-methanol complexes were identified. For these complexes, our molecular simulations predict either single-layered structures of mobile methanol/water molecules or non-intercalated structures of methoxy-functionalized kaolinite. We found that the methoxy-modified kaolinite can easily be intercalated by liquid methanol.

  14. A rechargeable iodine-carbon battery that exploits ion intercalation and iodine redox chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ke; Hu, Ziyu; Ma, Jizhen; Ma, Houyi; Dai, Liming; Zhang, Jintao

    2017-09-13

    Graphitic carbons have been used as conductive supports for developing rechargeable batteries. However, the classic ion intercalation in graphitic carbon has yet to be coupled with extrinsic redox reactions to develop rechargeable batteries. Herein, we demonstrate the preparation of a free-standing, flexible nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped hierarchically porous graphitic carbon for iodine loading by pyrolysis of polyaniline coated cellulose wiper. We find that heteroatoms could provide additional defect sites for encapsulating iodine while the porous carbon skeleton facilitates redox reactions of iodine and ion intercalation. The combination of ion intercalation with redox reactions of iodine allows for developing rechargeable iodine-carbon batteries free from the unsafe lithium/sodium metals, and hence eliminates the long-standing safety issue. The unique architecture of the hierarchically porous graphitic carbon with heteroatom doping not only provides suitable spaces for both iodine encapsulation and cation intercalation but also generates efficient electronic and ionic transport pathways, thus leading to enhanced performance.Carbon-based electrodes able to intercalate Li + and Na + ions have been exploited for high performing energy storage devices. Here, the authors combine the ion intercalation properties of porous graphitic carbons with the redox chemistry of iodine to produce iodine-carbon batteries with high reversible capacities.

  15. Torsional mechanics of DNA are regulated by small-molecule intercalation.

    PubMed

    Celedon, Alfredo; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean

    2010-12-23

    Whether the bend and twist mechanics of DNA molecules are coupled is unclear. Here, we report the direct measurement of the resistive torque of single DNA molecules to study the effect of ethidium bromide (EtBr) intercalation and pulling force on DNA twist mechanics. DNA molecules were overwound and unwound using recently developed magnetic tweezers where the molecular resistive torque was obtained from Brownian angular fluctuations. The effect of EtBr intercalation on the twist stiffness was found to be significantly different from the effect on the bend persistence length. The twist stiffness of DNA was dramatically reduced at low intercalator concentration (<10 nM); however, it did not decrease further when the intercalator concentration was increased by 3 orders of magnitude. We also determined the dependence of EtBr intercalation on the torque applied to DNA. We propose a model for the elasticity of DNA base pairs with intercalated EtBr molecules to explain the abrupt decrease of twist stiffness at low EtBr concentration. These results indicate that the bend and twist stiffnesses of DNA are independent and can be differently affected by small-molecule binding.

  16. Intercalation of acrylic acid and sodium acrylate into kaolinite and their in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yanfeng; Pan, Xiaobing; Jia, Xin; Wang, Xiaolong

    2007-02-01

    Novel nano-composites of poly (acrylic acid)-kaolinite were prepared, and intercalation and in situ polymerization were used in this process. The nano-composites were obtained by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium acrylate (AANa) intercalated into organo-kaolinite, which was obtained by refining and chemically modifying with solution intercalation step in order to increase the basal plane distance of the original clay. The modification was completed by using dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO)/methanol and potassium acetate (KAc)/water systems step by step. The materials were characterized with the help of XRD, FT-IR and TEM; the results confirmed that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) were intercalated into the interlamellar spaces of kaolinite, the resulting copolymer composites (CC0 : copolymer crude kaolinite composite, CC1 : copolymer DMSO kaolinite composite, CC2 : copolymer KAc kaolinite composite) of CC2 exhibited a lamellar nano-composite with a mixed nano-morphology, and partial exfoliation of the intercalating clay platelets should be the main morphology. Finally, the effect of neutralization degree on the intercalation behavior was also investigated.

  17. An intercalated BSc degree is associated with higher marks in subsequent medical school examinations.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Milne, Andrew; Sinclair, Hazel; Lee, Amanda J

    2009-05-19

    To compare medical students on a modern MBChB programme who did an optional intercalated degree with their peers who did not intercalate; in particular, to monitor performance in subsequent undergraduate degree exams. This was a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of medical student assessment outcomes. Data were accessed for graduates, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Scotland, UK, from the years 2003 to 2007 (n = 861). The main outcome measure was marks for summative degree assessments taken after intercalating. Of 861 medical students, 154 (17.9%) students did an intercalated degree. After adjustment for cohort, maturity, gender and baseline (3rd year) performance in matching exam type, having done an IC degree was significantly associated with attaining high (18-20) common assessment scale (CAS) marks in three of the six degree assessments occurring after the IC students rejoined the course: the 4th year written exam (p < 0.001), 4th year OSCE (p = 0.001) and the 5th year Elective project (p = 0.010). Intercalating was associated with improved performance in Years 4 and 5 of the MBChB. This improved performance will further contribute to higher academic ranking for Foundation Year posts. Long-term follow-up is required to identify if doing an optional intercalated degree as part of a modern medical degree is associated with following a career in academic medicine.

  18. An intercalated BSc degree is associated with higher marks in subsequent medical school examinations

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Milne, Andrew; Sinclair, Hazel; Lee, Amanda J

    2009-01-01

    Background To compare medical students on a modern MBChB programme who did an optional intercalated degree with their peers who did not intercalate; in particular, to monitor performance in subsequent undergraduate degree exams. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of medical student assessment outcomes. Data were accessed for graduates, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Scotland, UK, from the years 2003 to 2007 (n = 861). The main outcome measure was marks for summative degree assessments taken after intercalating. Results Of 861 medical students, 154 (17.9%) students did an intercalated degree. After adjustment for cohort, maturity, gender and baseline (3rd year) performance in matching exam type, having done an IC degree was significantly associated with attaining high (18–20) common assessment scale (CAS) marks in three of the six degree assessments occurring after the IC students rejoined the course: the 4th year written exam (p < 0.001), 4th year OSCE (p = 0.001) and the 5th year Elective project (p = 0.010). Conclusion Intercalating was associated with improved performance in Years 4 and 5 of the MBChB. This improved performance will further contribute to higher academic ranking for Foundation Year posts. Long-term follow-up is required to identify if doing an optional intercalated degree as part of a modern medical degree is associated with following a career in academic medicine. PMID:19454007

  19. Electrochemical Control of Copper Intercalation into Nanoscale Bi 2Se 3

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jinsong; Sun, Jie; Li, Yanbin; ...

    2017-02-20

    Intercalation of exotic atoms or molecules into the layered materials remains an extensively investigated subject in current physics and chemistry. However, traditionally melt-growth and chemical interaction strategies are either limited by insufficiency of intercalant concentrations or destitute of accurate controllability. Here, we have developed a general electrochemical intercalation method to efficaciously regulate the concentration of zerovalent copper atoms into layered Bi 2Se 3, followed by comprehensive experimental characterization and analyses. Up to 57% copper atoms (Cu 6.7Bi 2Se 3) can be intercalated with no disruption to the host lattice. Meanwhile the unconventional resistance dip accompanied by a hysteresis loop belowmore » 40 K, as well as the emergence of new Raman peak in Cu xBi 2Se 3, is a distinct manifestation of the interplay between intercalated Cu atoms with Bi 2Se 3 host. Furthermore, our work demonstrates a new methodology to study fundamentally new and unexpected physical behaviors in intercalated metastable materials.« less

  20. Solid-state chelation of metal ions by ethylenediaminetetraacetate intercalated in a layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Konstantin A; O'Hare, Dermot; Isupov, Vitaly P

    2003-03-24

    The solid-state chelation of transition metal ions (Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+)) from aqueous solutions into the lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide ([LiAl(2)(OH)(6)]Cl x 0.5H(2)O or LDH) which has been pre-intercalated with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) ligand has been investigated. The intercalated metal cations form [M(edta)](2)(-) complexes between the LDH layers as indicated by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. If metal chloride or nitrate salts are used in the reaction with the LDH then co-intercalation of either the Cl(-) or NO(3)(-) anions is observed. In the case of metal acetate salts the cations intercalate without the accompanying anion. This can be explained by the different intercalation selectivity of the anions in relation to the LDH. In the latter case the introduction of the positive charge into LDH structure was compensated for by the release from the solid of the equivalent quantity of lithium and hydrogen cations. Time-resolved in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed that the chelation/intercalation reactions proceed very quickly. The rate of the reaction found for nickel acetate depends on concentration as approximately k[Ni(Ac)(2)](3).

  1. Room-Temperature Fluorine-Induced Decrease in the Stability of Bromine and Iodine Intercalated Carbon Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1995-01-01

    Upon exposure to room-temperature fluorine, intercalated carbon fibers (containing either bromine alone or iodine and bromine together) become heavier and less stable. For Amoco P-100 graphitized carbon fibers, which were intercalated with 18 wt percent bromine, 1 hour of fluorine exposure resulted in a large weight increase but caused only a small decrease in thermal stability. An additional 89 hours of fluorine exposure time resulted in small additional increases in fiber weight, but significant further decreases in fiber thermal stability. Such phenomena of weight increase and stability decrease do not occur if the intercalated fibers are exposed to 250 C fluorine. These observations suggest that, at room temperature, fluorine is absorbed quickly by the intercalated fibers and is intercalated slowly into the fibers. Most of the original intercalates are replaced by fluorine in the process of fluorine intercalation. In an inert environment, the bromine intercalated fibers are much more thermally stable. After 800 C vacuum heating for 2 weeks, the brominated fibers lost about 45% of their bromine, and their resistivity increased from 64 mu(Omega)-cm to a range of 95-170 mu(Omega)-cm. This is still much lower than the value of 300 mu(Omega)-cm for pristine P-100. For practical purposes, to preserve their thermal stability, brominated fibers need to be protected from exposure to fluorine at room temperature or to any intercalate at a temperature where, upon direct contact with graphite, an intercalation compound can easily be formed.

  2. Liquid-like thermal conduction in intercalated layered crystalline solids

    DOE PAGES

    Li, B.; Wang, H.; Kawakita, Y.; ...

    2018-01-15

    As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here in this work, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe 2. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive,more » and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. Finally, these microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.« less

  3. Magnetization and Magnetoresistance in Iron Intercalated Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Jesse

    The understanding of magnetism in strongly correlated electronic systems is a vital area of research. Not only is it linked to other phenomena like high temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and iron pnictides, but magnetic materials have been used in electronics since before the computer. As it becomes harder to prop up Moore's law by increasing the density of transistors, mankind must look towards new methods to improve technology or risk stagnation. Research into alternative materials for technology, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, is a promising direction of research to maintain the rate of technological improvement. Our work focuses on the effect of iron intercalation in TiS2. Single crystals of FexTiS 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were grown using vapor transport. Anisotropic susceptibility and magnetization measurements of the samples were measured, showing ferromagnetism and sharp switching behavior in the magnetization. Finally electrical transport measurements were taken, both with and without field. Measurements of magnetoresistance for x = 0.2 and 0.3 show large magnetoresistance (up to ˜ 60%) and an atypical 'bowtie' shape.

  4. Liquid-like thermal conduction in intercalated layered crystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Wang, H.; Kawakita, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Feygenson, M.; Yu, H. L.; Wu, D.; Ohara, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Shibata, K.; Yamada, T.; Ning, X. K.; Chen, Y.; He, J. Q.; Vaknin, D.; Wu, R. Q.; Nakajima, K.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles1. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations2,3. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe2. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive, and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. These microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.

  5. Liquid-like thermal conduction in intercalated layered crystalline solids

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Wang, H.; Kawakita, Y.

    As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here in this work, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe 2. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive,more » and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. Finally, these microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.« less

  6. Atomic intercalation to measure adhesion of graphene on graphite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Sorescu, Dan C.; Jeon, Seokmin; Belianinov, Alexei; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-01-01

    The interest in mechanical properties of two-dimensional materials has emerged in light of new device concepts taking advantage of flexing, adhesion and friction. Here we demonstrate an effective method to measure adhesion of graphene atop highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, utilizing atomic-scale ‘blisters' created in the top layer by neon atom intercalates. Detailed analysis of scanning tunnelling microscopy images is used to reconstruct atomic positions and the strain map within the deformed graphene layer, and demonstrate the tip-induced subsurface translation of neon atoms. We invoke an analytical model, originally devised for graphene macroscopic deformations, to determine the graphite adhesion energy of 0.221±0.011 J m−2. This value is in excellent agreement with reported macroscopic values and our atomistic simulations. This implies mechanical properties of graphene scale down to a few-nanometre length. The simplicity of our method provides a unique opportunity to investigate the local variability of nanomechanical properties in layered materials. PMID:27796294

  7. Intercalation of Lithium in Pitch-Based Graphitized Carbon Fibers Chemically Modified by Fluorine: Soft Carbon With or Without an Oxide Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Chen; Prisko, Aniko

    1999-01-01

    The effects of carbon structure and surface oxygen on the carbon's performance as the anode in lithium-ion battery were studied. Two carbon materials were used for the electrochemical tests: soft carbon made from defluorination of graphite fluoride, and the carbon precursor from which the graphite fluoride was made. In this research the precursor was graphitized carbon fiber P-100. It was first fluorinated to form CF(0.68), then defluorinated slowly at 350 to 450 C in bromoform, and finally heated in 1000 C nitrogen before exposed to room temperature air, producing disordered soft carbon having basic surface oxides. This process caused very little carbon loss. The electrochemical test involved cycles of lithium intercalation and deintercalation using C/saturated LiI-50/50 (vol %) EC and DMC/Li half cell. The cycling test had four major results. (1) The presence of a basic oxide surface may prevent solvent from entering the carbon structure and therefore prolong the carbon's cycle life for lithium intercalation-deintercalation. (2) The disordered soft carbon can store lithium through two different mechanisms. One of them is lithium intercalation. which gives the disordered carbon an electrochemical behavior similar to its more ordered graphitic precursor. The other is unknown in its chemistry, but is responsible for the high-N,oltage portion (less than 0.3V) of the charge-discharge curve. (3) Under certain conditions, the disordered carbon can store more lithium than its precursor. (4) These sample and its precursor can intercalate at 200 mA/g. and deintercalate at a rate of 2000 mA/g without significant capacity loss.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of thermomechanical properties of montmorillonite crystal. 3. montmorillonite crystals with PEO oligomer intercalates.

    PubMed

    Mazo, Mikhail A; Manevitch, Leonid I; Gusarova, Elena B; Shamaev, Mikhail Yu; Berlin, Alexander A; Balabaev, Nikolay K; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2008-03-27

    We present the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the structure and thermomechanical behavior of Wyoming-type Na+-montmorillonite (MMT) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) oligomer intercalates. Periodic boundary conditions in all three directions and simulation cells containing two MMT lamellae [Si248Al8][Al112Mg16]O640[OH]128 oriented parallel to the XY-plane were used. The interlamellar space, or gallery, between neighboring MMT lamellae was populated by 24 Na+ counterions and PEO macromolecules of different lengths, ranging from 2 up to 240 repeat units. We considered three different loadings of PEO within the gallery: 80, 160, and 240 repeat units, corresponding to 13, 23, and 31 wt % PEO based on total mass of the nanocomposite, respectively. In the cases of 13 and 23 wt %, the polymer chains formed one or two well-defined amorphous layers with interlayer distances of 1.35 and 1.8 nm, respectively. We have observed also formation of a wider monolayer gallery with interlayer distances of 1.6 nm. Three-layer PEO films formed in the case of 31 wt % loading. The thermal properties were analyzed over the range 300-400 K, and the isothermal linear compressibility, transversal moduli, and shear moduli were calculated at 300 K. These properties are compared with the results of our simulation of thermal and mechanical properties of MMT crystal with galleries filled by one or two water layers as well as with those of an isolated clay nanoplate.

  9. First-principles theory of cation and intercalation ordering in Li xCoO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, C.; Zunger, Alex

    Several types of cation- and vacancy-ordering are of interest in the Li xCoO 2 battery cathode material since they can have a profound effect on the battery voltage. We present a first-principles theoretical approach which can be used to calculate both cation- and vacancy-ordering patterns at both zero and finite temperatures. This theory also provides quantum-mechanical predictions (i.e., without the use of any experimental input) of battery voltages of both ordered and disordered Li xCoO 2/Li cells from the energetics of the Li intercalation reactions. Our calculations allow us to search the entire configurational space to predict the lowest-energy ground-state structures, search for large voltage cathodes, explore metastable low-energy states, and extend our calculations to finite temperatures, thereby searching for order-disorder transitions and states of partial disorder. We present the first prediction of the stable spinel structure LiCo 2O 4 for the 50% delithiated Li 0.5CoO 2.

  10. Functional selection of a type IV pili-binding peptide that specifically inhibits Salmonella Typhi adhesion to/invasion of human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Lian; Pan, Qin; Wu, Jianguo

    2005-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is an important pathogen which infects humans exclusively and causes typhoid or enteric fever. Recently it has been discovered that type IVB pili, encoded by the S. Typhi pil operon located in the major pathogenicity island, may be important in the pathogenesis of epidemic enteric fever. To further investigate the roles of type IVB pili of S. Typhi, a 12-mer peptide (RQERSSLSKPVV), binding to the structural protein PilS of the type IVB pili of S. Typhi, was isolated with a ribosome display system. This peptide was designated as peptide R. We found that peptide R inhibited adhesion to/invasion of human monocytic THP-1 cells by piliated S. Typhi bacteria, but had no effects on nonpiliated S. Typhi bacteria. A random 12-mer peptide, of size and solubility equal to peptide R, served as a control on the specificity of peptide R. The specific interaction and binding equilibrium between the 12-mer peptide R and PilS protein was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a binding constant Ka determined to be between 0.4 x 10(5) and 2.2 x 10(5)L mol(-1). Our findings suggest that the type IV pili-binding peptide R holds potential as an antibacterial peptide effective against S. Typhi infections, both in terms of prevention and therapeutic treatment. The data further provide insights into the understanding of the pathogenic roles of the type IVB pili of S. Typhi.

  11. New cancer-treatment model of photodynamic therapy combined with a type I topoisomerase inhibitor, CPT-11, against HeLa cell tumors in nude mice used by OPO parametric tunable laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takato O.; Matsuzawa, Eiji; Matsuo, Tetsumichi; Koide, Yukio; Terakawa, Susumu; Yokokura, Teruo; Hirano, Toru

    1995-03-01

    A new cancer-treatment model, photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with a type I topoisomerase inhibitor, camptothecin derivative (CPT-11), against HeLa cell tumors in BALB/c nude mice has been developed using a wide-band tunable coherent light source operated on optical parametric oscillation (OPO parametric tunable laser). The Photosan-3 PDT and CPT-11 combined therapy was remarkably effective, that is the inhibition rate (I.R.) 40 - 80%, as compared to PDT only in vivo. The analysis of HpD (Photosan-3) and CPT-11 effects on cultured HeLa cells in vitro has been studied by a video-enhanced contrast differential interference contrast microscope (VEC-DIC). Photosan-3 with 600 nm light killed cells by mitochondrial damage within 50 min, but not with 700 nm light. CPT-11 with 700 - 400 nm light killed cells within 50 min after nucleolus damage appeared after around 30 min. The localization of CPT-11 in cells was observed as fluorescence images in the nucleus, particularly the nucleoral area produced clear images using an Argus 100.

  12. Todorokite-type manganese oxide nanowires as an intercalation cathode for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Byles, B. W.; West, P.; Cullen, D. A.; ...

    2015-12-03

    Extended hydrothermal treatment at an elevated temperature of 220 °C allowed high yield synthesis of manganese oxide nanowires with a todorokite crystal structure suitable for ions intercalation. The flexible, high aspect ratio nanowires are 50–100 nm in diameter and up to several microns long, with 3 × 3 structural tunnels running parallel to the nanowire longitudinal axis. Moreover, the tunnels are occupied by magnesium ions and water molecules, with the chemical composition found to be Mg 0.2MnO 2·0.5H 2O. The todorokite nanowires were, for the first time, electrochemically tested in both Li-ion and Na-ion cells. A first discharge capacity ofmore » 158 mA h g -1 was achieved in a Na-ion system, which was found to be greater than the first discharge capacity in a Li-ion system (133 mA h g -1). In spite of the large structural tunnel dimensions, todorokite showed a significant first cycle capacity loss in a Na-ion battery. After 20 cycles, the capacity was found to stabilize around 50 mA h g -1 and remained at this level for 100 cycles. In a Li-ion system, todorokite nanowires showed significantly better capacity retention with 78% of its initial capacity remaining after 100 cycles. Rate capability tests also showed superior performance of todorokite nanowires in Li-ion cells compared to Na-ion cells at higher current rates. Finally, these results highlight the difference in electrochemical cycling behavior of Li-ion and Na-ion batteries for a host material with spacious 3 × 3 tunnels tailored for large Na + ion intercalation.« less

  13. Improved DNA hybridization parameters by Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acid (TINA).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Uffe Vest

    2012-01-01

    This thesis establishes oligonucleotide design rules and applications of a novel group of DNA stabilizing molecules collectively called Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acid - TINA. Three peer-reviewed publications form the basis for the thesis. One publication describes an improved and rapid method for determination of DNA melting points and two publications describe the effects of positioning TINA molecules in parallel triplex helix and antiparallel duplex helix forming DNA structures. The third publication establishes that TINA molecules containing oligonucleotides improve an antiparallel duplex hybridization based capture assay's analytical sensitivity compared to conventionel DNA oligonucleotides. Clinical microbiology is traditionally based on pathogenic microorganisms' culture and serological tests. The introduction of DNA target amplification methods like PCR has improved the analytical sensitivity and total turn around time involved in clinical diagnostics of infections. Due to the relatively weak hybridization between the two strands of double stranded DNA, a number of nucleic acid stabilizing molecules have been developed to improve the sensitivity of DNA based diagnostics through superior binding properties. A short introduction is given to Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen based DNA binding and the derived DNA structures. A number of other nucleic acid stabilizing molecules are described. The stabilizing effect of TINA molecules on different DNA structures is discussed and considered in relation to other nucleic acid stabilizing molecules and in relation to future use of TINA containing oligonucleotides in clinical diagnostics and therapy. In conclusion, design of TINA modified oligonucleotides for antiparallel duplex helixes and parallel triplex helixes follows simple purpose dependent rules. TINA molecules are well suited for improving multiplex PCR assays and can be used as part of novel technologies. Future research should test whether combinations of TINA

  14. Cobalt intercalation at the graphene/iridium(111) interface: Influence of rotational domains, wrinkles, and atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Vlaic, S.; Kimouche, A.; Coraux, J.

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we study Co intercalation under graphene grown on Ir(111). Depending on the rotational domain of graphene on which it is deposited, Co is found intercalated at different locations. While intercalated Co is observed preferentially at the substrate step edges below certain rotational domains, it is mostly found close to wrinkles below other domains. These results indicate that curved regions (near substrate atomic steps and wrinkles) of the graphene sheet facilitate Co intercalation and suggest that the strength of the graphene/Ir interaction determines which pathway is energetically more favorable.

  15. Multiply Intercalator-Substituted Cu(II) Cyclen Complexes as DNA Condensers and DNA/RNA Synthesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hormann, Jan; Malina, Jaroslav; Lemke, Oliver; Hülsey, Max J; Wedepohl, Stefanie; Potthoff, Jan; Schmidt, Claudia; Ott, Ingo; Keller, Bettina G; Brabec, Viktor; Kulak, Nora

    2018-05-07

    Many drugs that are applied in anticancer therapy such as the anthracycline doxorubicin contain DNA-intercalating 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) moieties. When Cu(II) cyclen complexes were functionalized with up to three (2-anthraquinonyl)methyl substituents, they efficiently inhibited DNA and RNA synthesis resulting in high cytotoxicity (selective for cancer cells) accompanied by DNA condensation/aggregation phenomena. Molecular modeling suggests an unusual bisintercalation mode with only one base pair between the two AQ moieties and the metal complex as a linker. A regioisomer, in which the AQ moieties point in directions unfavorable for such an interaction, had a much weaker biological activity. The ligands alone and corresponding Zn(II) complexes (used as redox inert control compounds) also exhibited lower activity.

  16. Is it intelligent to intercalate? A two centre cross-sectional study exploring the value of intercalated degrees, and the possible effects of the recent tuition fee rise in England.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Timothy Alan; Lightman, Elewys G; Mathieson, Peter

    2013-01-24

    To explore the value of intercalated degrees, including student perceptions and academic sequelae. To gauge the likely effect of the recent tuition fee rise and to identify any differences in intercalated degrees between Bristol and Sheffield universities. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires. Bristol and Sheffield Medical Schools, UK. 1484 medical students in their clinical years were e-mailed the questionnaire. 578 students responded: 291 from Bristol and 287 from Sheffield (n=578; mean age=22.41; SD 1.944; 38.9% male; 61.1% female). The response rate from previous intercalators was 52.5% from Bristol and 58.7% from Sheffield, while for non-intercalators it was 27.7% and 34.6%, respectively. (1) Student preconceptions, opinions, results and academic sequelae from intercalated degrees at both centres. (2) Students' attitudes concerning the effect of the increase in tuition fees. Those with clinical academic supervisors gained significantly more posters (p=0.0002) and publications (p<0.0001), and also showed a trend to gain more first class honours (p=0.055). Students at Sheffield had a significantly greater proportion of clinical academic supervisors than students at Bristol (p<0.0001). 89.2% said that an intercalated degree was the right decision for them; however, only 27.4% stated they would have intercalated if fees had been £9000 per annum. Students clearly value intercalated degrees, feel they gained a substantial advantage over their peers as well as skills helpful for their future careers. The rise in tuition fees is likely to reduce the number of medical students opting to undertake an intercalated degree, and could result in a further reduction in numbers following an academic path. Sheffield University have more intercalating students supervised by clinical academics. Clinical academics appear more effective as supervisors for medical students undertaking an intercalated degree in terms of results and additional academic sequelae.

  17. Self-Activating, Capacitive Anion Intercalation Enables High-Power Graphite Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Yu, Minghao; Wang, Jungang; Li, Debao; Tan, Deming; Löffler, Markus; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Müllen, Klaus; Feng, Xinliang

    2018-05-01

    Developing high-power cathodes is crucial to construct next-generation quick-charge batteries for electric transportation and grid applications. However, this mainly relies on nanoengineering strategies at the expense of low scalability and high battery cost. Another option is provided herein to build high-power cathodes by exploiting inexpensive bulk graphite as the active electrode material, where anion intercalation is involved. With the assistance of a strong alginate binder, the disintegration problem of graphite cathodes due to the large volume variation of >130% is well suppressed, making it possible to investigate the intrinsic electrochemical behavior and to elucidate the charge storage kinetics of graphite cathodes. Ultrahigh power capability up to 42.9 kW kg -1 at the energy density of >300 Wh kg -1 (based on graphite mass) and long cycling life over 10 000 cycles are achieved, much higher than those of conventional cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. A self-activating and capacitive anion intercalation into graphite is discovered for the first time, making graphite a new intrinsic intercalation-pseudocapacitance cathode material. The finding highlights the kinetical difference of anion intercalation (as cathode) from cation intercalation (as anode) into graphitic carbon materials, and new high-power energy storage devices will be inspired. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Influence of metal ions intercalation on the vibrational dynamics of water confined between MXene layers

    DOE PAGES

    Osti, Naresh C.; Naguib, Michael; Ganeshan, Karthik; ...

    2017-11-21

    Two-dimensional carbides and nitrides of early transition metals (MXenes) combine high conductivity with hydrophilic surfaces, which make them promising for energy storage, electrocatalysis, and water desalination. Effects of intercalated metal ions on the vibrational states of water confined in Ti 3C 2T x MXenes have been explored using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and molecular dynamics simulations to better understand the mechanisms that control MXenes’ behavior in aqueous electrolytes, water purification and other important applications. Here, we observe INS signal from water in all samples, pristine and with lithium, sodium or potassium ions intercalated between the 2D Ti 3C 2T xmore » layers. However, only a small amount of water is found to reside in Ti 3C 2T x intercalated with metal ions. Water in pristine Ti 3C 2T x is more disordered, with bulk-like characteristics, in contrast to intercalated Ti 3C 2T x, where water is more ordered, irrespective of the metal ions used for intercalation. The ordering of the confined water increases with the ion size. Lastly, this finding is further confirmed from molecular dynamics simulation which showed an increase in interference of water molecules with increasing ion size resulting in a concomitant decrease in water mobility, therefore, providing a guidance to tailor MXene properties for energy and environmental applications.« less

  19. Effect of humidity and water intercalation on the tribological behavior of graphene and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Arif, Taib; Colas, Guillaume; Filleter, Tobin

    2018-06-12

    In this work, the effect of humidity and water intercalation on the friction and wear behavior of few-layers of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) was studied using friction force microscopy. Thickness measurements demonstrated significant water intercalation within GO affecting its surface topography (roughness and protrusions), whereas negligible water intercalation of graphene was observed. It was found that water intercalation in GO contributed to wearing of layers at a relative humidity as low as ~30%. The influence of surface wettability and water adsorption was also studied by comparing the sliding behavior of SiO2/GO, SiO2/Graphene, and SiO2/SiO2 interfaces. Friction for the SiO2/GO interface increased with relative humidity due to water intercalation and condensation of water. In contrast, it was observed that adsorption of water molecules lubricated the SiO2/SiO2 interface due to easy shearing of water on the hydrophobic surface, particularly once the adsorbed water layers had transitioned from "ice-like water" to "liquid-like water" structures. Lastly, an opposite friction trend was observed for the graphene/SiO2 interface with water molecules failing to lubricate the interface as compared to the dry graphene/SiO2 contact.

  20. Kaolinite Nanocomposite Platelets Synthesized by Intercalation and Imidization of Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)

    PubMed Central

    Samyn, Pieter; Schoukens, Gustaaf; Stanssens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis route is presented for the subsequent intercalation, exfoliation and surface modification of kaolinite (Kln) by an imidization reaction of high-molecular weight poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) or SMA in the presence of ammonium hydroxide. In a first step, the intercalation of ammonolyzed SMA by guest displacement of intercalated dimethylsulfoxide has been proven. In a second step, the imidization of ammonolyzed SMA at 160 °C results in exfoliation of the kaolinite layers and deposition of poly(styrene-co-maleimide) or SMI nanoparticles onto the kaolinite surfaces. Compared with a physical mixture of Kln/SMI, the chemically reacted Kln/SMI provides more efficient exfoliation and hydrogen bonding between the nanoparticles and the kaolinite. The kaolinite nanocomposite particles are synthesized in aqueous dispersion with solid content of 65 wt %. The intercalation and exfoliation are optimized for a concentration ratio of Kln/SMI = 70:30, resulting in maximum intercalation and interlayer distance in combination with highest imide content. After thermal curing at 135 °C, the imidization proceeds towards a maximum conversion of the intermediate amic acid moieties. The changes in O–H stretching and kaolinite lattice vibrations have been illustrated by infrared and FT-Raman spectroscopy, which allow for a good quantification of concentration and imidization effects. PMID:28793445

  1. Preparation, quantitative surface analysis, intercalation characteristics and industrial implications of low temperature expandable graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tiefeng; Liu, Bin; Gao, Xuechao; Luo, Liqun; Sun, Hongjuan

    2018-06-01

    Expandable graphite is widely used as a new functional carbon material, especially as fire-retardant; however, its practical application is limited due to the high expansion temperature. In this work, preparation process of low temperature and highly expandable graphite was studied, using natural flake graphite as raw material and KMnO4/HClO4/NH4NO3 as oxidative intercalations. The structure, morphology, functional groups and thermal properties were characterized during expanding process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra, thermo-gravimetry differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis showed that by oxidation intercalation, some oxygen-containing groups were grafted on the edge and within the graphite layer. The intercalation reagent entered the graphite layer to increase the interlayer spacing. After expansion, the original flaky expandable graphite was completely transformed into worm-like expanded graphite. The order of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) was proposed and determined to be 3 for the prepared expandable graphite, based on quantitative XRD peak analysis. Meanwhile, the detailed intercalation mechanisms were also proposed. The comprehensive investigation paved a benchmark for the industrial application of such sulfur-free expanded graphite.

  2. Influence of metal ions intercalation on the vibrational dynamics of water confined between MXene layers

    SciTech Connect

    Osti, Naresh C.; Naguib, Michael; Ganeshan, Karthik

    Two-dimensional carbides and nitrides of early transition metals (MXenes) combine high conductivity with hydrophilic surfaces, which make them promising for energy storage, electrocatalysis, and water desalination. Effects of intercalated metal ions on the vibrational states of water confined in Ti 3C 2T x MXenes have been explored using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and molecular dynamics simulations to better understand the mechanisms that control MXenes’ behavior in aqueous electrolytes, water purification and other important applications. Here, we observe INS signal from water in all samples, pristine and with lithium, sodium or potassium ions intercalated between the 2D Ti 3C 2T xmore » layers. However, only a small amount of water is found to reside in Ti 3C 2T x intercalated with metal ions. Water in pristine Ti 3C 2T x is more disordered, with bulk-like characteristics, in contrast to intercalated Ti 3C 2T x, where water is more ordered, irrespective of the metal ions used for intercalation. The ordering of the confined water increases with the ion size. Lastly, this finding is further confirmed from molecular dynamics simulation which showed an increase in interference of water molecules with increasing ion size resulting in a concomitant decrease in water mobility, therefore, providing a guidance to tailor MXene properties for energy and environmental applications.« less

  3. A trap potential model investigation of the optical activity induced in dye-DNA intercalation complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Mamoru

    1988-02-01

    The fundamental features of the optical activity induced in dye-DNA intercalation complexes are studied by application of the trap potential model which is useful to evaluate the induced rotational strength without reference to detailed geometrical information about the intercalation complexes. The specific effect of the potential depth upon the induced optical activity is explained in terms of the relative magnitudes of the wave-phase and helix-phase variations in the path of an electron moving on a restricted helical segment just like an exciton trapped around the dye intercalation site. The parallel and perpendicular components of the induced rotational strength well reflect basic properties of the helicity effects about the longitudinal and tangential axes of the DNA helical cylinder. The trap potential model is applied to optimize the potential parameters so as to reproduce the ionic strength effect upon the optical activity induced to proflavine-DNA intercalation complexes. From relationships between the optimized potential parameters and ionic strengths, it is inferred that increase in the ionic strength contributes to the optical activity induced by the nearest-neighbour interaction between intercalated proflavine and DNA base pairs.

  4. Physical nature of ethidium and proflavine interactions with nucleic acid bases in the intercalation plane.

    PubMed

    Langner, Karol M; Kedzierski, Pawel; Sokalski, W Andrzej; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2006-05-18

    On the basis of the crystallographic structures of three nucleic acid intercalation complexes involving ethidium and proflavine, we have analyzed the interaction energies between intercalator chromophores and their four nearest bases, using a hybrid variation-perturbation method at the second-order Møller-Plesset theory level (MP2) with a 6-31G(d,p) basis set. A total MP2 interaction energy minimum precisely reproduces the crystallographic position of the ethidium chromophore in the intercalation plane between UA/AU bases. The electrostatic component constitutes the same fraction of the total energy for all three studied structures. The multipole electrostatic interaction energy, calculated from cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMMs), was found to converge only after including components above the fifth order. CAMM interaction surfaces, calculated on grids in the intercalation planes of these structures, reasonably reproduce the alignment of intercalators in crystal structures; they exhibit additional minima in the direction of the DNA grooves, however, which also need to be examined at higher theory levels if no crystallographic data are given.

  5. Li intercalation in graphite: A van der Waals density-functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazrati, E.; de Wijs, G. A.; Brocks, G.

    2014-10-01

    Modeling layered intercalation compounds from first principles poses a problem, as many of their properties are determined by a subtle balance between van der Waals interactions and chemical or Madelung terms, and a good description of van der Waals interactions is often lacking. Using van der Waals density functionals we study the structures, phonons and energetics of the archetype layered intercalation compound Li-graphite. Intercalation of Li in graphite leads to stable systems with calculated intercalation energies of -0.2 to -0.3 eV/Li atom, (referred to bulk graphite and Li metal). The fully loaded stage 1 and stage 2 compounds LiC6 and Li1 /2C6 are stable, corresponding to two-dimensional √{3 }×√{3 } lattices of Li atoms intercalated between two graphene planes. Stage N >2 structures are unstable compared to dilute stage 2 compounds with the same concentration. At elevated temperatures dilute stage 2 compounds easily become disordered, but the structure of Li3 /16C6 is relatively stable, corresponding to a √{7 }×√{7 } in-plane packing of Li atoms. First-principles calculations, along with a Bethe-Peierls model of finite temperature effects, allow for a microscopic description of the observed voltage profiles.

  6. Mechanism Responsible for Intercalation of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Kaolinite: Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Qinfu; Cheng, Hongfei; Gao, Feng; Liu, Cun; Teppen, Brian J

    2018-01-01

    Intercalation is the promising strategy to expand the interlayer region of kaolinite for their further applications. Herein, the adaptive biasing force (ABF) accelerated molecular dynamics simulations were performed to calculate the free energies involved in the kaolinite intercalation by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Additionally, the classical all atom molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to calculate the interfacial interactions between kaolinite interlayer surfaces and DMSO with the aim at exploring the underlying force that drives the DMSO to enter the interlayer space. The results showed that the favorable interaction of DMSO with both kaolinite interlayer octahedral surface and tetrahedral surface can help in introducing DMSO enter kaolinite interlayer. The hydroxyl groups on octahedral surface functioned as H-donors attracting the S=O groups of DMSO through hydrogen bonding interaction. The tetrahedral surface featuring hydrophobic property attracted the methyl groups of DMSO through hydrophobic interaction. The results provided a detailed picture of the energetics and interlayer structure of kaolinite-DMSO intercalate.

  7. Potassium-intercalated H2Pc films: Alkali-induced electronic and geometrical modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, K.; Åhlund, J.; Shariati, M.-N.; Schiessling, J.; Palmgren, P.; Brena, B.; Göthelid, E.; Hennies, F.; Huismans, Y.; Evangelista, F.; Rudolf, P.; Göthelid, M.; Mârtensson, N.; Puglia, C.

    2012-07-01

    X-ray spectroscopy studies of potassium intercalated metal-free phthalocyanine multilayers adsorbed on Al(110) have been undertaken. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show the presence of several charge states of the molecules upon K intercalation, due to a charge transfer from the alkali. In addition, the comparison of valence band photoemission spectra with the density functional theory calculations of the density of states of the H2Pc- anion indicates a filling of the formerly lowest unoccupied molecular orbital by charge transfer from the alkali. This is further confirmed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies, which show a decreased density of unoccupied states. XAS measurements in different experimental geometries reveal that the molecules in the pristine film are standing upright on the surface or are only slightly tilted away from the surface normal but upon K intercalation, the molecular orientation is changed in that the tilt angle of the molecules increases.

  8. X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging as Multiscale Probes of Intercalation Phenomena in Cathode Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrocks, Gregory A.; De Jesus, Luis R.; Andrews, Justin L.; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2017-09-01

    Intercalation phenomena are at the heart of modern electrochemical energy storage. Nevertheless, as out-of-equilibrium processes involving concomitant mass and charge transport, such phenomena can be difficult to engineer in a predictive manner. The rational design of electrode architectures requires mechanistic understanding of physical phenomena spanning multiple length scales, from atomistic distortions and electron localization at individual transition metal centers to phase inhomogeneities and intercalation gradients in individual particles and concentration variances across ensembles of particles. In this review article, we discuss the importance of the electronic structure in mediating electrochemical storage and mesoscale heterogeneity. In particular, we discuss x-ray spectroscopy and imaging probes of electronic and atomistic structure as well as statistical regression methods that allow for monitoring of the evolution of the electronic structure as a function of intercalation. The layered α-phase of V2O5 is used as a model system to develop fundamental ideas on the origins of mesoscale heterogeneity.

  9. Electron doping through lithium intercalation to interstitial channels in tetrahedrally bonded SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yuki; Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712; Oshiyama, Atsushi

    2015-11-07

    We report on first-principles calculations that clarify the effect of lithium atom intercalation into zinc blende 3C-silicon carbide (3C-SiC) on electronic and structural properties. Lithium atoms inside 3C-SiC are found to donate electrons to 3C-SiC that is an indication of a new way of electron doping through the intercalation. The electrons doped into the conduction band interact with lithium cations and reduce the band spacing between the original valence and conduction bands. We have also found that a silicon monovacancy in 3C-SiC promotes the lithium intercalation, showing that the vacancy generation makes SiC as a possible anode material for lithium-ionmore » battery.« less

  10. Formation Dynamics of Potassium-Based Graphite Intercalation Compounds: An Ab Initio Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiankai; Song, Bo; Tománek, David

    2018-04-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. We use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to study the microscopic dynamics of potassium intercalation in graphite. Upon adsorbing on graphite from the vapor phase, K atoms transfer their valence charge to the substrate. K atoms adsorbed on the surface diffuse rapidly along the graphene basal plane and eventually enter the interlayer region following a "U -turn" across the edge, gaining additional energy. This process is promoted at higher coverages associated with higher K pressure, leading to the formation of a stable intercalation compound. We find that the functionalization of graphene edges is an essential prerequisite for intercalation since bare edges reconstruct and reconnect, closing off the entry channels for the atoms.

  11. H-1 NMR study of ternary ammonia-alkali metal-graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Fronko, R. M.; Resing, H. A.; Qian, X. W.; Solin, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    For the first-stage ternary ammonia-alkali metal-graphite intercalation compounds M(NH3)(x)C24(x of about 4, M = K, Rb, Cs), three sets of triplet H-1 NMR spectral lines have been observed at various temperatures and orientations due to the H-1 - H-1 and N-14 - H-1 dipolar interactions. The structures of these compounds have been inferred as mobile (liquid-like) intercalant layers of planar M(NH3)4 ions in between the carbon layers. For the intercalated ammonia molecules, the potential barrier is about 0.2 eV and the molecular geometry is very close to the free NH3 in gas phase.

  12. Intercalation complex of proflavine with DNA: Structure and dynamics by solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Pei; Juang, Chilong; Harbison, G.S.

    1990-07-06

    The structure of the complex formed between the intercalating agent proflavine and fibrous native DNA was studied by one- and two-dimensional high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Carbon-13-labeled proflavine was used to show that the drug is stacked with the aromatic ring plane perpendicular to the fiber axis and that it is essentially immobile. Natural abundance carbon-13 NMR of the DNA itself shows that proflavine binding does not change the puckering of the deoxyribose ring. However, phosphorus-31 NMR spectra show profound changes in the orientation of the phosphodiester grouping on proflavine binding, with some of the phosphodiesters tilting almost parallelmore » to the helix axis, and a second set almost perpendicular. The first group to the phosphodiesters probably spans the intercalation sites, whereas the tilting of the second set likely compensates for the unwinding of the DNA by the intercalator.« less

  13. Hydroxy double salts intercalated with Mn(II) complexes as potential contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Miao; Li, Wanjing; Spillane, Dominic E. M.; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Williams, Gareth R.; Bligh, S. W. Annie

    2016-03-01

    A series of Mn(II) aminophosphonate complexes were successfully synthesized and intercalated into the hydroxy double salt [Zn5(OH)8]Cl2·yH2O. Complex incorporation led to an increase in the interlayer spacing from 7.8 to 10-12 Å. Infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of the characteristic vibration peaks of the Mn(II) complexes in the intercalates' spectra, indicating successful incorporation. The complex-loaded composites had somewhat lower proton relaxivities than the pure complexes. Nevertheless, these intercalates may have use as MRI contrast agents for patients with poor kidney function, where traditional Gd(III)-based contrast agents cause severe renal failure.

  14. Effect of lightning strike on bromine intercalated graphite fiber/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Slabe, Melissa E.; Brink, Norman O.

    1991-01-01

    Laminar composites were fabricated from pristine and bromine intercalated pitch based graphite fibers. It was found that laminar composites could be fabricated using either pristine or intercalated graphite fibers using standard fabrication techniques. The intercalated graphite fiber composites had electrical properties which were markedly improved over both the corresponding pitch based and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based composites. Despite composites resistivities more than an order of magnitude lower for pitch based fiber composites, the lightning strike resistance was poorer than that of the Pan based fiber composites. This leads to the conclusion that the mechanical properties of the pitch fibers are more important than electrical or thermal properties in determining the lightning strike resistance. Based on indicated lightning strike tolerance for high elongation to failure materials, the use of vapor grown, rather than pitch based graphite fibers appears promising.

  15. Intercalating cobalt between graphene and iridium (111): Spatially dependent kinetics from the edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaic, Sergio; Rougemaille, Nicolas; Kimouche, Amina; Burgos, Benito Santos; Locatelli, Andrea; Coraux, Johann

    2017-10-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we image in real time the intercalation of a cobalt monolayer between graphene and the (111) surface of iridium. Our measurements reveal that the edges of a graphene flake represent an energy barrier to intercalation. Based on a simple description of the growth kinetics, we estimate this energy barrier and find small, but substantial, local variations. These local variations suggest a possible influence of the graphene orientation with respect to its substrate and of the graphene edge termination on the energy value of the barrier height. Besides, our measurements show that intercalated cobalt is energetically more favorable than cobalt on bare iridium, indicating a surfactant role of graphene.

  16. Enhancing the efficiency of lithium intercalation in carbon nanotube bundles using surface functional groups.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shiyan; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Liping; Liang, Haojun

    2014-08-14

    The effect of surface functionalization on the ability and kinetics of lithium intercalation in carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles has been studied by comparing the dynamical behaviors of lithium (Li) ions in pristine and -NH2 functionalized CNTs via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It was observed that lithium intercalation has been achieved quickly for both the pristine and surface functionalized CNT bundle. Our calculations demonstrated for the first time that CNT functionalization improved the efficiency of lithium intercalation significantly at both low and high Li ion density. Moreover, we found that keeping the nanotubes apart with an appropriate distance and charging the battery at a rational rate were beneficial to achieve a high rate of lithium intercalation. Besides, the calculated adsorption energy curves indicated that the potential wells in the system of -NH2 functionalized CNT were deeper than that of the pristine CNT bundle by 0.74 eV, and a third energy minimum with a value of 2.64 eV existed at the midpoint of the central axis of the nanotube. Thus, it would be more difficult to remove Li ions from the nanotube interior after surface functionalization. The barrier for lithium diffusion in the interior of the nanotube is greatly decreased because of the surface functional groups. Based on these results, we would suggest to "damage" the nanotube by introducing defects at its sidewall in order to improve not only the capacity of surface functionalized CNTs but also the efficiency of lithium intercalation and deintercalation processes. Our results presented here are helpful in understanding the mechanism of lithium intercalation into nanotube bundles, which may potentially be applied in the development of CNT based electrodes.

  17. Zerovalent Copper Intercalated Birnessite as a Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries: Extending Cycle Life

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yue Ru; Poyraz, Altug S.; Hu, Xiaobing; ...

    2017-01-01

    Birnessite type layered manganese dioxides (δ-MnO 2) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as 2D intercalation cathodes for rechargeable Li +, Na +, and Mg 2+ batteries due to fast ion diffusion through their negatively charged δ-MnO 2 sheets separated by interlayer cations and a stable Mn 3+/4+ redox couple. Here we report the preparation and electrochemistry of zero and divalent copper co-intercalated birnessite type manganese dioxide (Cu 0 0.03Cu 2+ 0.21Na 0.12MnO 2·0.9H 2O). The copper intercalated birnessite materials were fully characterized utilizing powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM).more » The mixed valent nature of intercalated Cu 0 and Cu 2+ was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Electrochemical evaluation results show that zero valent copper intercalated birnessite exhibits higher discharge capability, improved cyclability, and lower impedance compared to the Cu 2+ only intercalated (Cu 0.26MnO 2·1.0H 2O) and Cu free Na birnessite (Na 0.40MnO 2·1.0H 2O) materials. Remarkably, zero valent copper birnessite shows almost no fade after 10 cycles at 0.1 mV/s. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that charge transfer resistivity of Cu 0 modified samples was much lower than that of Cu 2+ and Cu free birnessite, indicating that the presence of a small amount of Cu 0 improves the conductivity of birnessite and results in better electrochemical cyclability, rate capability, and lower impedance.« less

  18. Probing the role of intercalating protein sidechains for kink formation in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sandmann, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Protein binding can induce DNA kinks, which are for example important to enhance the specificity of the interaction and to facilitate the assembly of multi protein complexes. The respective proteins frequently exhibit amino acid sidechains that intercalate between the DNA base steps at the site of the kink. However, on a molecular level there is only little information available about the role of individual sidechains for kink formation. To unravel structural principles of protein-induced DNA kinking we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of five complexes that varied in their architecture, function, and identity of intercalated residues. Simulations were performed for the DNA complexes of wildtype proteins (Sac7d, Sox-4, CcpA, TFAM, TBP) and for mutants, in which the intercalating residues were individually or combined replaced by alanine. The work revealed that for systems with multiple intercalated residues, not all of them are necessarily required for kink formation. In some complexes (Sox-4, TBP), one of the residues proved to be essential for kink formation, whereas the second residue has only a very small effect on the magnitude of the kink. In other systems (e.g. Sac7d) each of the intercalated residues proved to be individually capable of conferring a strong kink suggesting a partially redundant role of the intercalating residues. Mutation of the key residues responsible for kinking either resulted in stable complexes with reduced kink angles or caused conformational instability as evidenced by a shift of the kink to an adjacent base step. Thus, MD simulations can help to identify the role of individual inserted residues for kinking, which is not readily apparent from an inspection of the static structures. This information might be helpful for understanding protein-DNA interactions in more detail and for designing proteins with altered DNA binding properties in the future. PMID:29432448

  19. Probing the role of intercalating protein sidechains for kink formation in DNA.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Achim; Sticht, Heinrich

    2018-01-01

    Protein binding can induce DNA kinks, which are for example important to enhance the specificity of the interaction and to facilitate the assembly of multi protein complexes. The respective proteins frequently exhibit amino acid sidechains that intercalate between the DNA base steps at the site of the kink. However, on a molecular level there is only little information available about the role of individual sidechains for kink formation. To unravel structural principles of protein-induced DNA kinking we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of five complexes that varied in their architecture, function, and identity of intercalated residues. Simulations were performed for the DNA complexes of wildtype proteins (Sac7d, Sox-4, CcpA, TFAM, TBP) and for mutants, in which the intercalating residues were individually or combined replaced by alanine. The work revealed that for systems with multiple intercalated residues, not all of them are necessarily required for kink formation. In some complexes (Sox-4, TBP), one of the residues proved to be essential for kink formation, whereas the second residue has only a very small effect on the magnitude of the kink. In other systems (e.g. Sac7d) each of the intercalated residues proved to be individually capable of conferring a strong kink suggesting a partially redundant role of the intercalating residues. Mutation of the key residues responsible for kinking either resulted in stable complexes with reduced kink angles or caused conformational instability as evidenced by a shift of the kink to an adjacent base step. Thus, MD simulations can help to identify the role of individual inserted residues for kinking, which is not readily apparent from an inspection of the static structures. This information might be helpful for understanding protein-DNA interactions in more detail and for designing proteins with altered DNA binding properties in the future.

  20. Toxicity and Metabolism of Layered Double Hydroxide Intercalated with Levodopa in a Parkinson’s Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Ain, Nooraini Mohd; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Layered hydroxide nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, and less toxic than most inorganic nanoparticles, making them an acceptable alternative drug delivery system. Due to growing concern over animal welfare and the expense of in vivo experiments both the public and the government are interested to find alternatives to animal testing. The toxicity potential of zinc aluminum layered hydroxide (ZAL) nanocomposite containing anti-Parkinsonian agent may be determined using a PC 12 cell model. ZAL nanocomposite demonstrated a decreased cytotoxic effect when compared to levodopa on PC12 cells with more than 80% cell viability at 100 μg/mL compared to less than 20% cell viability in a direct levodopa exposure. Neither levodopa-loaded nanocomposite nor the un-intercalated nanocomposite disturbed the cytoskeletal structure of the neurogenic cells at their IC50 concentration. Levodopa metabolite (HVA) released from the nanocomposite demonstrated the slow sustained and controlled release character of layered hydroxide nanoparticles unlike the burst uptake and release system shown with pure levodopa treatment. PMID:24722565

  1. The effect of hydrazine intercalation on the structure and capacitance of 2D titanium carbide (MXene)

    DOE PAGES

    Mashtalir, O.; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; ...

    2016-03-25

    Herein we show that hydrazine intercalation into 2D titanium carbide (Ti 3C 2-based MXene) results in changes in its surface chemistry by decreasing the amounts of fluorine, OH surface groups and intercalated water. It also creates a pillaring effect between Ti 3C 2T x layers pre-opening the structure and improving the accessability to active sites. Furthermore, the hydrazine treated material has demonstrated a greatly improved capacitance of 250 F g –1 in acidic electrolytes with an excellent cycling ability for electrodes as thick as 75 μm.

  2. Coverage dependent work function of graphene on a Cu(111) substrate with intercalated alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Brandon G.; Russakoff, Arthur; Varga, Kalman

    2015-05-26

    Using first-principles calculations, it is shown that the work function of graphene on copper can be adjusted by varying the concentration of intercalated alkali metals. Using density functional theory, we calculate the modulation of work function when Li, Na, or K are intercalated between graphene and a Cu(111) surface. Furthermore, the physical origins of the change in work function are explained in terms of phenomenological models accounting for the formation and depolarization of interfacial dipoles and the shift in the Fermi-level induced via charge transfer.

  3. Isolation of high quality graphene from Ru by solution phase intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, E.; Sutter, E.; Bliznakov, S.; Ivars-Barcelo, F.; Sutter, P.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a method for isolating graphene grown on epitaxial Ru(0001)/α-Al2O3. The strong graphene/Ru(0001) coupling is weakened by electrochemically driven intercalation of hydrogen underpotentially deposited in aqueous KOH solution, which allows the penetration of water molecules at the graphene/Ru(0001) interface. Following these electrochemically driven processes, the graphene can be isolated by electrochemical hydrogen evolution and transferred to arbitrary supports. Raman and transport measurements demonstrate the high quality of the transferred graphene. Our results show that intercalation, typically carried out in vacuum, can be extended to solution environments for graphene processing under ambient conditions.

  4. Hydroxy double salts loaded with bioactive ions: Synthesis, intercalation mechanisms, and functional performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaassis, Abdessamad Y.A.; Xu, Si-Min; Guan, Shanyue

    The intercalation of the anions of diclofenac (Dic), naproxen (Nap), and valproic acid (Val) into three hydroxy double salts (HDSs) has been explored in this work. Experiments were performed with [Co{sub 1.2}Zn{sub 3.8}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (CoZn-NO{sub 3}), [Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (NiZn-NO{sub 3}) and [Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (Zn-NO{sub 3}). It proved possible to intercalate diclofenac and naproxen into all three HDSs. In contrast, Val could be intercalated into CoZn-NO{sub 3} but when it was reacted with Zn-NO{sub 3} the HDS structure was destroyed, and the product comprised ZnO. Successful intercalation was verifiedmore » by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the Dic and Nap ions to arrange themselves in an “X” shape in the interlayer space, forming a bilayer. Val was found to adopt a position with its aliphatic groups parallel to the HDS layer, again in a bilayer. In situ time resolved X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that intercalation of Dic and Nap into CoZn-NO{sub 3} and Zn-NO{sub 3} is mechanistically complex, with a number of intermediate phases observed. In contrast, the intercalation of all three guests into NiZn-NO{sub 3} and of Val into CoZn-NO{sub 3} are simple one step reactions proceeding directly from the starting material to the product. The HDS-drug composites were found to have sustained release profiles. - Graphical abstract: Seven new drug intercalates of hydroxy double salts (HDSs) have been prepared and characterised. The intercalation mechanisms have been explored, and the drug release properties of the HDS/drug composites quantified. Display Omitted.« less

  5. Metallic conductivity and air stability in copper chloride intercalated carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, H.; Woollam, J. A.; Yavrouian, A.

    1982-12-01

    Carbon-copper chloride intercalation compounds have been obtained by using variously graphitized carbon fibers as host materials. The resultant conductors are air stable, thermally stable to 450 K, have electrical resistivities as low as 12.9 microohm cm at room temperature, and have metallic conductivity temperature dependencies. These intercalated fibers have tensile strengths of 160000 psi, and Young's moduli of 25 x 10 to the 6th psi. For aerospace use, 1/(resistivity x density) is a figure of merit. On this basis, a reduction in resistivity by a factor of two will make this conductor competitive with copper.

  6. First-principles study of Ti intercalation between graphene and Au surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, T.; Imamura, H.

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the effects of Ti intercalation between graphene and Au surface on binding energy and charge doping by using the first-principles calculations. We show that the largest binding energy is realized by the intercalation of single mono-layer of Ti. We also show that electronic structure is very sensitive to the arrangement of metal atoms at the interface. If the composition of the interface layer is Ti0.33Au0.67 and the Ti is located at the top site, the Fermi level lies closely at the Dirac point, i.e., the Dirac cone of the ideal free-standing graphene is recovered.

  7. Plasma synthesis of lithium based intercalation powders for solid polymer electrolyte batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Pink, Robert J [Pocatello, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID

    2005-01-04

    The invention relates to a process for preparing lithium intercalation compounds by plasma reaction comprising the steps of: forming a feed solution by mixing lithium nitrate or lithium hydroxide or lithium oxide and the required metal nitrate or metal hydroxide or metal oxide and between 10-50% alcohol by weight; mixing the feed solution with O.sub.2 gas wherein the O.sub.2 gas atomizes the feed solution into fine reactant droplets, inserting the atomized feed solution into a plasma reactor to form an intercalation powder; and if desired, heating the resulting powder to from a very pure single phase product.

  8. Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yongchun; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Xiaobo; Liang, Jianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2014-01-01

    Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds (FeCl3 -GICs) with stage 1 and stage 2 structures were synthesized by reacting FeCl3 and expanded graphite (EG) in air in a stainless-steel autoclave. As rechargeable Li-ion batteries, these FeCl3 -GICs exhibit high capacity, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability, which could be attributed to their unique intercalation features. This work may enable new possibilities for the fabrication of Li-ion batteries. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Evaluation and optimization of the conditions for an improved ferulic acid intercalation into a synthetic lamellar anionic clay.

    PubMed

    Schoubben, Aurélie; Blasi, Paolo; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Nocchetti, Morena; Ricci, Maurizio; Perioli, Luana; Rossi, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study is to optimize the intercalation conditions of ferulic acid (FERH), an antioxidant compound, into Mg-Al-hydrotalcite for a safe skin photoprotection. The intercalation products were prepared incubating hydrotalcite (HTlc) in aqueous solutions of FERH sodium salt at different temperatures over 4 and 8 days. Quantitative determination of intercalated FERH was performed by thermogravimetric analysis and morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FERH stability study was carried out at different pHs and temperatures. FERH was analyzed by reversed phase-high-performance liquid chromatography. Response surface methods (RSMs) were used to assess optimal intercalation conditions and FERH stability. In all intercalation products, FERH content was found to be about 48% w/w except when the intercalation process was carried out at 52 degrees C for 8 days and at 60 degrees C for both 4 and 8 days, which resulted to be 40.39, 39.99, and 34.99%, respectively. The RSM designs showed that intercalation improvement can be achieved by working at pH 6, at temperatures below 40 degrees C, and over 4 days of incubation. The optimal conditions for a proper FERH intercalation were assessed. The development of a new optimized protocol may improve HTlc-FER complex performances and safety by augmenting dosage and reducing the presence of harmful reactive species in the final formulation.

  10. Intercalated organic-inorganic perovskites stabilized by fluoroaryl-aryl interactions.

    PubMed

    Mitzi, David B; Medeiros, David R; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2002-04-22

    Crystals of several new hybrid tin(II) iodide-based perovskites, involving 2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorophenethylammonium or phenethylammonium cation bilayers and intercalated aryl or perfluoroaryl molecules, were grown by slow evaporation of a methanol solution containing the hybrid perovskite and the intercalating species. The (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) structure was solved at -75 degrees C in a monoclinic C2/c subcell [a = 41.089(12) A, b = 6.134(2) A, c = 12.245(3) A, beta = 94.021(5) degrees, Z = 4] and consists of sheets of corner-sharing distorted SnI(6) octahedra separated by bilayers of pentafluorophenethylammonium cations. The intercalated benzene molecules form a single well-ordered layer interposed between adjacent fluoroaryl cation layers. The corresponding hybrid with an unfluorinated organic cation and fluorinated intercalating molecule, (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)), is isostructural [a = 40.685(4) A, b = 6.0804(6) A, c = 12.163(1) A, beta = 93.136(2) degrees, Z = 4]. For each intercalated system, close C...C contacts (3.44-3.50 A) between the aromatic cation and the intercalated molecule are indicative of a significant face-to-face interaction, similar to that found in the complex C(6)H(6).C(6)F(6). Crystal growth runs with the organic cation and prospective intercalating molecule either both fluorinated or both unfluorinated did not yield stable intercalated compounds, demonstrating the significance of fluoroaryl-aryl interactions in the current intercalated structures. Thermal analysis of (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) and (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)) crystals yields, in addition to the characteristic transitions of the parent perovskite, endothermic transitions [12.6(5) and 32.1(8) kJ/mol, respectively] with an onset at 145 degrees C and a weight loss corresponding to the complete loss of the intercalated molecule. The relatively high deintercalation temperature (well above the boiling point of

  11. [Analysis of Relationship between Serum Total Light Chain κ/λ Ratio and Proportion of Bone Marrow Plasma Cells in Patients with IgG type and IgA type Multiple Myeloma].

    PubMed

    Zhu, An-You; Zhu, Fang-Bing; Wang, Feng-Chao; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Ma, Yue; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2017-10-01

    To explore the relationship between serum total light chain κ/λ ratio (sTLC-κ/λ) and proportion of bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) in patients with IgG type and IgA type multiple myeloma (MM) and its clinical significance. The levels of serum IgG, IgA, κ type and λ type total light chain were detected in 79 newly diagnosed patients with IgG type (n=52) and IgA type (n=27) MM by immuno-nephelometric assay and the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was calculated. The proportion of BMPC was determined by bone marrow smears in the corresponding period, and the changes in sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC were observed in 19 patients with IgG type(n=16) and IgA type (n=3) MM undergoing treatment, 26 cases of non-phasmocytic proliferative diseases were enrolled in control group. In MM patients with IgGκ type and IgAκ type, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01), while in MM patients with IgGλ type and IgAλ type, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). In MM patients with IgGκ, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly higher than that in MM patients with IgAκ(P<0.01), while the sTLC-κ/λ ratio in MM patients with IgGλ was significantly lower than that in MM patients with IgAλ. The sTLC-κ/λ ratios in MM patients with IgGκ and IgAκ were positively correlated with the concentrations of IgG (r=0.778,P=0.000) and IgA (r=0.601,P=0.039), while the sTLC-κ/λ ratios of patients with IgGλ and IgAλ were negativily correlated with the IgG(r=-0.586,P=0.01) and IgA level(r=-0.718,P=0.003). In addition, a correlation between each type MM was not found except the IgGκ type MM which had a positive correlation between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC (r=0.579,P=0.002). Nonetheless, 18 of 19 patients with IgG type and IgA type MM undergoing treatment showed concordance between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC change. There is a lower correlation between the s

  12. Local corrugation and persistent charge density wave in ZrTe 3 with Ni intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganose, Alex M.; Gannon, Liam; Fabrizi, Federica; Nowell, Hariott; Barnett, Sarah A.; Lei, Hechang; Zhu, Xiangde; Petrovic, Cedomir; Scanlon, David O.; Hoesch, Moritz

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of emergent bulk superconductivity in transition-metal intercalated ZrTe3 is investigated by studying the effect of Ni doping on the band structure and charge density wave (CDW). The study reports theoretical and experimental results in the range of Ni0.01ZrTe3 to Ni0.05ZrTe3 . In the highest doped samples, bulk superconductivity with Tcintercalation in the van der Waals gap. Analysis of the structural and electronic effects of intercalation indicate buckling of the Te sheets adjacent to the Ni site akin to a locally stabilized CDW-like lattice distortion. In contrast to the changes of TCDW observed in resistivity, experiments with low-temperature x-ray diffraction, angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy, as well as temperature-dependent resistivity reveal the nearly unchanged persistence of the CDW into the regime of bulk superconductivity. The CDW gap is found to be unchanged in its extent in momentum space, with the gap size also unchanged or possibly slightly reduced upon Ni intercalation. Both experimental observations suggest that superconductivity coexists with the CDW in NixZrTe3 .

  13. Highly Efficient Iodine Capture by Layered Double Hydroxides Intercalated with Polysulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Shulan; Islam, Saiful M.; Shim, Yurina

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate strong iodine (I-2) vapor adsorption using Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) nanocomposites intercalated with polysulfide (S-x(2-)) groups (S-x-LDH, x = 2, 4, 6). The as-prepared LDH/polysulfide hybrid materials display highly efficient iodine capture resulting from the reducing property of the intercalated polysulfides. During adsorption, the I-2 molecules are reduced to I-3(-) anions by the intercalated [S-x](2-) groups that simultaneously are oxidized to form S8. In addition to the chemical adsorption, additional molecular I-2 is physically captured by the LDH composites. As a result of these parallel processes, and despite their very low BET surface areas, the iodine capturemore » capacities of S-2-LDH, S-4-LDH, and S-6-LDH are similar to 1.32, 1.52, and 1.43 g/g, respectively, with a maximum adsorption of 152% (wt %). Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and temperature-variable powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show the resulting I-3(-) ions that intercalated into the LDH gallery have high thermal stability (>= 350 degrees C). The excellent iodine adsorption performance combined with the facile preparation points to the S-x-LDH systems as potential superior materials for adsorption of radioactive iodine, a waste product of the nuclear power industry.« less

  14. Chemical Intercalation of Topological Insulator Grid Nanostructures for High-Performance Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunfan; Zhou, Jinyuan; Liu, Yujing; Zhou, Xu; Yao, Fengrui; Tan, Congwei; Wu, Jinxiong; Lin, Li; Liu, Kaihui; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2017-11-01

    2D layered nanomaterials with strong covalent bonding within layers and weak van der Waals' interactions between layers have attracted tremendous interest in recent years. Layered Bi 2 Se 3 is a representative topological insulator material in this family, which holds promise for exploration of the fundamental physics and practical applications such as transparent electrode. Here, a simultaneous enhancement of optical transmittancy and electrical conductivity in Bi 2 Se 3 grid electrodes by copper-atom intercalation is presented. These Cu-intercalated 2D Bi 2 Se 3 electrodes exhibit high uniformity over large area and excellent stabilities to environmental perturbations, such as UV light, thermal fluctuation, and mechanical distortion. Remarkably, by intercalating a high density of copper atoms, the electrical and optical performance of Bi 2 Se 3 grid electrodes is greatly improved from 900 Ω sq -1 , 68% to 300 Ω sq -1 , 82% in the visible range; with better performance of 300 Ω sq -1 , 91% achieved in the near-infrared region. These unique properties of Cu-intercalated topological insulator grid nanostructures may boost their potential applications in high-performance optoelectronics, especially for infrared optoelectronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Atomic-scale recognition of surface structure and intercalation mechanism of Ti3C2X.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Shen, Xi; Gao, Yurui; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yu, Richeng; Chen, Liquan

    2015-02-25

    MXenes represent a large family of functionalized two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal carbides and carbonitrides. However, most of the understanding on their unique structures and applications stops at the theoretical suggestion and lack of experimental support. Herein, the surface structure and intercalation chemistry of Ti3C2X are clarified at the atomic scale by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The STEM studies show that the functional groups (e.g., OH(-), F(-), O(-)) and the intercalated sodium (Na) ions prefer to stay on the top sites of the centro-Ti atoms and the C atoms of the Ti3C2 monolayer, respectively. Double Na-atomic layers are found within the Ti3C2X interlayer upon extensive Na intercalation via two-phase transition and solid-solution reactions. In addition, aluminum (Al)-ion intercalation leads to horizontal sliding of the Ti3C2X monolayer. On the basis of these observations, the previous monolayer surface model of Ti3C2X is modified. DFT calculations using the new modeling help to understand more about their physical and chemical properties. These findings enrich the understanding of the MXenes and shed light on future material design and applications. Moreover, the Ti3C2X exhibits prominent rate performance and long-term cycling stability as an anode material for Na-ion batteries.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release antibacterial behavior of antibiotic intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Dun, E-mail: zhangdun@qdio.ac.cn

    Graphical abstract: The antibiotic anion released from Mg–Al LDHs provides a controlled release antibacterial activity against the growth of Micrococcus lysodeikticus in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: ► Antibiotic anion intercalated LDHs were synthesized and characterized. ► The ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process. ► The diffusion through particle is the release rate limiting step. ► LDHs loaded with antibiotic anion have high antibacterial capabilities. -- Abstract: Antibiotic–inorganic clay composites including four antibiotic anions, namely, benzoate (BZ), succinate (SU), benzylpenicillin (BP), and ticarcillin (TC) anions, intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized via ion-exchange. Powder X-ray diffraction andmore » Fourier transform infrared spectrum analyses showed the successful intercalation of antibiotic anion into the LDH interlayer. BZ and BP anions were accommodated in the interlayer region as a bilayer, whereas SU and TC anions were intercalated in a monolayer arrangement. Kinetic simulation of the release data indicated that ion-exchange was responsible for the release process, and the diffusion through the particles was the rate-limiting step. The antibacterial capabilities of LDHs loaded with antibiotic anion toward Micrococcus lysodeikticus growth were analyzed using a turbidimetric method. Significant high inhibition rate was observed when LDH nanohybrid was introduced in 3.5% NaCl solution. Therefore, this hybrid material may be applied as nanocontainer in active antifouling coating for marine equipment.« less

  17. Effect of friction on oxidative graphite intercalation and high-quality graphene formation.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Steffen; Halbig, Christian E; Grote, Fabian; Rietsch, Philipp; Börrnert, Felix; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Bernd; Eigler, Siegfried

    2018-02-26

    Oxidative wet-chemical delamination of graphene from graphite is expected to become a scalable production method. However, the formation process of the intermediate stage-1 graphite sulfate by sulfuric acid intercalation and its subsequent oxidation are poorly understood and lattice defect formation must be avoided. Here, we demonstrate film formation of micrometer-sized graphene flakes with lattice defects down to 0.02% and visualize the carbon lattice by transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution. Interestingly, we find that only well-ordered, highly crystalline graphite delaminates into oxo-functionalized graphene, whereas other graphite grades do not form a proper stage-1 intercalate and revert back to graphite upon hydrolysis. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that ideal stacking and electronic oxidation of the graphite layers significantly reduce the friction of the moving sulfuric acid molecules, thereby facilitating intercalation. Furthermore, the evaluation of the stability of oxo-species in graphite sulfate supports an oxidation mechanism that obviates intercalation of the oxidant.

  18. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom

    2016-01-01

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. PMID:27369379

  19. Temperature dependent local atomic displacements in ammonia intercalated iron selenide superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, E.; Simonelli, L.; Wakita, T.; Marini, C.; Lee, J.-H.; Olszewski, W.; Terashima, K.; Kakuto, T.; Nishimoto, N.; Kimura, T.; Kudo, K.; Kambe, T.; Nohara, M.; Yokoya, T.; Saini, N. L.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, ammonia-thermal reaction has been used for molecular intercalation in layered FeSe, resulting a new Lix(NH3)yFe2Se2 superconductor with Tc ~ 45 K. Here, we have used temperature dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to investigate local atomic displacements in single crystals of this new superconductor. Using polarized EXAFS at Fe K-edge we have obtained direct information on the local Fe-Se and Fe-Fe bondlengths and corresponding mean square relative displacements (MSRD). We find that the Se-height in the intercalated system is lower than the one in the binary FeSe, suggesting compressed FeSe4 tetrahedron in the title system. Incidentally, there is hardly any effect of the intercalation on the bondlengths characteristics, revealed by the Einstein temperatures, that are similar to those found in the binary FeSe. Therefore, the molecular intercalation induces an effective compression and decouples the FeSe slabs. Furthermore, the results reveal an anomalous change in the atomic correlations across Tc, appearing as a clear decrease in the MSRD, indicating hardening of the local lattice mode. Similar response of the local lattice has been found in other families of superconductors, e.g., A15-type and cuprates superconductors. This observation suggests that local atomic correlations should have some direct correlation with the superconductivity.

  20. Spatially controlled doping of two-dimensional SnS 2 through intercalation for electronics

    DOE PAGES

    Gong, Yongji; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Chun-Lan; ...

    2018-02-26

    Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices. In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development10. Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturallymore » grown n-type S-vacancy SnS 2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS 2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of ~40 cm 2 V -1 s -1, and the obtained Co-SnS 2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene. Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p–n–metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.« less

  1. Structural consequences of hydrogen intercalation of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Jonathan D., E-mail: jdemery@anl.gov, E-mail: bedzyk@northwestern.edu; Johns, James E.; McBriarty, Martin E.

    2014-10-20

    The intercalation of various atomic species, such as hydrogen, to the interface between epitaxial graphene (EG) and its SiC substrate is known to significantly influence the electronic properties of the graphene overlayers. Here, we use high-resolution X-ray reflectivity to investigate the structural consequences of the hydrogen intercalation process used in the formation of quasi-free-standing (QFS) EG/SiC(0001). We confirm that the interfacial layer is converted to a layer structurally indistinguishable from that of the overlying graphene layers. This newly formed graphene layer becomes decoupled from the SiC substrate and, along with the other graphene layers within the film, is vertically displacedmore » by ∼2.1 Å. The number of total carbon layers is conserved during the process, and we observe no other structural changes such as interlayer intercalation or expansion of the graphene d-spacing. These results clarify the under-determined structure of hydrogen intercalated QFS-EG/SiC(0001) and provide a precise model to inform further fundamental and practical understanding of the system.« less

  2. Two-dimensional triangular lattice and its application to lithium-intercalated layered compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decerqueira, R. O.

    1982-08-01

    Good rechargeable batteries are being searched for use in electric vehicles and in energy storage during off-peak consumption periods and from solar sources. The interest in lithium intercalation compounds has been recently enhanced by the search for such batteries. The process of intercalation of lithium in several transition metal dichalcogenides can provide an emf of several volts. The progress achieved in the last decade in the investigation of these intercalates has been facilitated by the availability of the dichalcogenides as single crystals and by their chemical stability. The transition-metal dichalcogenides and their Li-intercalates are studied, with emphasis on the Li/su xTa/sub yTi/sub l-y/S2 series. The interactions between the Li atoms and the applicability of a lattice gas model to the problem of ordering of these atoms is discussed. A formulation is presented of the cluster-variation aproximation to the lattice gas problem. The single-site and the nearest-neighbor triangle basic clusters are considered as models for Li/sub x TiS2. Also a theory is presented for the effects of a random distribution of different species of host atoms, as in Ta/sub y/Ti/sub l-y/S2.

  3. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Kostadinova, Dessislava; Cenacchi Pereira, Ana; Lansalot, Muriel; D'Agosto, Franck; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Leroux, Fabrice; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Cadars, Sylvian; Prevot, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH)-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA) and n -butyl acrylate (BA) with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol -1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II) and aluminium(III) intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO 3 LDH). At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents) carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO 3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA), the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid-state 13 C, 1 H and 27 Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  4. Impact of Infralimbic Inputs on Intercalated Amygdale Neurons: A Biophysical Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guoshi; Amano, Taiju; Pare, Denis; Nair, Satish S.

    2011-01-01

    Intercalated (ITC) amygdala neurons regulate fear expression by controlling impulse traffic between the input (basolateral amygdala; BLA) and output (central nucleus; Ce) stations of the amygdala for conditioned fear responses. Previously, stimulation of the infralimbic (IL) cortex was found to reduce fear expression and the responsiveness of Ce…

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis and intercalation of Ca(II)Fe(III)-layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferencz, Zs.; Szabados, M.; Varga, G.; Csendes, Z.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.; Carlson, S.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanochemical method (grinding the components without added water - dry grinding, followed by further grinding in the presence of minute amount of water or NaOH solution - wet grinding) was used in this work for the preparation and intercalation of CaFe-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Both the pristine LDHs and the amino acid anion (cystinate and tyrosinate) intercalated varieties were prepared by the two-step grinding procedure in a mixer mill. By systematically changing the conditions of the preparation method, a set of parameters could be determined, which led to the formation of close to phase-pure LDH. The optimisation procedure was also applied for the intercalation processes of the amino acid anions. The resulting materials were structurally characterised by a range of methods (X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray absorption and infra-red spectroscopies). It was proven that this simple mechanochemical procedure was able to produce complex organic-inorganic nanocomposites: LDHs intercalated with amino acid anions.

  6. Copper intercalation at the interface of graphene and Ir(111) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicot, M.; Fagot-Revurat, Y.; Kierren, B.; Vasseur, G.; Malterre, D.

    2014-11-01

    We report on the intercalation of a submonolayer of copper at 775 K underneath graphene epitaxially grown on Ir(111) studied by means of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 77 K. Nucleation and growth dynamics of Cu below graphene have been investigated, and, most importantly, the intercalation mechanism has been identified. First, LEED patterns reveal the pseudomorphic growth of Cu on Ir under the topmost graphene layer resulting in a large Cu in-plane lattice parameter expansion of about 6% compared to Cu(111). Second, large-scale STM topographs as a function of Cu coverage show that Cu diffusion on Ir below graphene exhibits a low energy barrier resulting in Cu accumulation at Ir step edges. As a result, the graphene sheet undergoes a strong edges reshaping. Finally, atomically-resolved STM images reveal a damaged graphene sheet at the atomic scale after metal intercalation. Point defects in graphene were shown to be carbon vacancies. According to these results, a Cu penetration path beneath graphene is proposed to occur via metal aided defect formation with no or poor self healing of the graphene sheet. This work illustrates the fact that Cu intercalation is harmful for graphene grown on Ir(111) at the atomic scale.

  7. Structure, molecular simulation, and release of aspirin from intercalated Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zilin; Li, Xiaowei; Lv, Fengzhu; Zhang, Qian; Chu, Paul K; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-11-01

    Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (AA), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is intercalated into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) by co-precipitation and reconstruction methods. The composition, structure, and morphology of the intercalated products as well as their release behavior are determined experimentally and theoretically by Material Studio 5.5. Experimental results disclose the strong interaction between the LDHs sheets and AA in the intercalated ZnAl-LDHs produced by co-precipitation and slow release of AA from the intercalated ZnAl-LDHs in both phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and borate buffered saline (BBS) solutions. The percentage of AA released from the ZnAl-LDHs prepared by both methods in PBS (96.87% and 98.12%) are much more than those in BBS (68.59% and 81.22%) implying that both H4BO4(-) and H2PO4(-) can exchange with AA in the ZnAl-LDHs. After AA is released to PBS, ZnAl-LDHs break into small pieces. The experimental results are explained theoretically based on the calculation of the bonding energy between the anions and LDHs sheets as well as the AlO bond length change in the LDHs sheets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatially controlled doping of two-dimensional SnS 2 through intercalation for electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yongji; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Chun-Lan

    Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices. In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development10. Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturallymore » grown n-type S-vacancy SnS 2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS 2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of ~40 cm 2 V -1 s -1, and the obtained Co-SnS 2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene. Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p–n–metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.« less

  9. Spatially controlled doping of two-dimensional SnS2 through intercalation for electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yongji; Yuan, Hongtao; Wu, Chun-Lan; Tang, Peizhe; Yang, Shi-Ze; Yang, Ankun; Li, Guodong; Liu, Bofei; van de Groep, Jorik; Brongersma, Mark L.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Zhou, Wu; Cui, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices1. In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface2,3. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits4-9. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development10. Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturally grown n-type S-vacancy SnS2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of 40 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the obtained Co-SnS2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene5. Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p-n-metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.

  10. Incorporation of DPP6a and DPP6K variants in ternary Kv4 channel complex reconstitutes properties of A-type K current in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Henry H; Pfaffinger, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6) proteins co-assemble with Kv4 channel α-subunits and Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) to form channel protein complexes underlying neuronal somatodendritic A-type potassium current (I(SA)). DPP6 proteins are expressed as N-terminal variants (DPP6a, DPP6K, DPP6S, DPP6L) that result from alternative mRNA initiation and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. Here, we study the role DPP6 variants play in shaping the functional properties of I(SA) found in cerebellar granule (CG) cells using quantitative RT-PCR and voltage-clamp recordings of whole-cell currents from reconstituted channel complexes and native I(SA) channels. Differential expression of DPP6 variants was detected in rat CG cells, with DPP6K (41 ± 3%)>DPP6a (33 ± 3%)>DPP6S (18 ± 2%)>DPP6L (8 ± 3%). To better understand how DPP6 variants shape native neuronal I(SA), we focused on studying interactions between the two dominant variants, DPP6K and DPP6a. Although previous studies did not identify unique functional effects of DPP6K, we find that the unique N-terminus of DPP6K modulates the effects of KChIP proteins, slowing recovery and producing a negative shift in the steady-state inactivation curve. By contrast, DPP6a uses its distinct N-terminus to directly confer rapid N-type inactivation independently of KChIP3a. When DPP6a and DPP6K are co-expressed in ratios similar to those found in CG cells, their distinct effects compete in modulating channel function. The more rapid inactivation from DPP6a dominates during strong depolarization; however, DPP6K produces a negative shift in the steady-state inactivation curve and introduces a slow phase of recovery from inactivation. A direct comparison to the native CG cell I(SA) shows that these mixed effects are present in the native channels. Our results support the hypothesis that the precise expression and co-assembly of different auxiliary subunit variants are important factors in shaping the I

  11. Composition driven monolayer to bilayer transformation in a surfactant intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Naik, Vikrant V; Chalasani, Rajesh; Vasudevan, S

    2011-03-15

    The structure and organization of dodecyl sulfate (DDS) surfactant chains intercalated in an Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), Mg(1-x)Alx(OH)2, with differing Al/Mg ratios has been investigated. The Mg-Al LDHs can be prepared over a range of compositions with x varying from 0.167 to 0.37 and therefore provides a simple system to study how the organization of the alkyl chains of the intercalated DDS anions change with packing density; the Al/Mg ratio or x providing a convenient handle to do so. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements showed that at high packing densities (x ≥ 0.3) the alkyl chains of the intercalated dodecyl sulfate ions are anchored on opposing LDH sheets and arranged as bilayers with an interlayer spacing of ∼27 Å. At lower packing densities (x < 0.2) the surfactant chains form a monolayer with the alkyl chains oriented flat in the galleries with an interlayer spacing of ∼8 Å. For the in between compositions, 0.2 ≤ x < 0.3, the material is biphasic. MD simulations were performed to understand how the anchoring density of the intercalated surfactant chains in the Mg-Al LDH-DDS affects the organization of the chains and the interlayer spacing. The simulations are able to reproduce the composition driven monolayer to bilayer transformation in the arrangement of the intercalated surfactant chains and in addition provide insights into the factors that decide the arrangement of the surfactant chains in the two situations. In the bilayer arrangement, it is the dispersive van der Waals interactions between chains in opposing layers of the anchored bilayer that is responsible for the cohesive energy of the solid whereas at lower packing densities, where a monolayer arrangement is favored, Coulomb interactions between the positively charged Mg-Al LDH sheets and the negatively charged headgroup of the DDS anion dominate.

  12. Whole-organ cell shape analysis reveals the developmental basis of ascidian notochord taper

    PubMed Central

    Veeman, Michael T.; Smith, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Here we use in toto imaging together with computational segmentation and analysis methods to quantify the shape of every cell at multiple stages in the development of a simple organ: the notochord of the ascidian Ciona savignyi. We find that cell shape in the intercalated notochord depends strongly on anterior-posterior (AP) position, with cells in the middle of the notochord consistently wider than cells at the anterior or posterior. This morphological feature of having a tapered notochord is present in many chordates. We find that ascidian notochord taper involves three main mechanisms: Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway-independent sibling cell volume asymmetries that precede notochord cell intercalation; the developmental timing of intercalation, which proceeds from the anterior and posterior towards the middle; and the differential rates of notochord cell narrowing after intercalation. A quantitative model shows how the morphology of an entire developing organ can be controlled by this small set of cellular mechanisms. PMID:23165294

  13. Intercalation of XR5944 with the estrogen response element is modulated by the tri-nucleotide spacer sequence between half-sites

    PubMed Central

    Sidell, Neil; Mathad, Raveendra I.; Shu, Feng-jue; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Kallen, Caleb B.; Yang, Danzhou

    2011-01-01

    DNA-intercalating molecules can impair DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene transcription. We previously demonstrated that XR5944, a DNA bis-intercalator, specifically blocks binding of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) to the consensus estrogen response element (ERE). The consensus ERE sequence is AGGTCAnnnTGACCT, where nnn is known as the tri-nucleotide spacer. Recent work has shown that the tri-nucleotide spacer can modulate ERα-ERE binding affinity and ligand-mediated transcriptional responses. To further understand the mechanism by which XR5944 inhibits ERα-ERE binding, we tested its ability to interact with consensus EREs with variable tri-nucleotide spacer sequences and with natural but non-consensus ERE sequences using one dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D 1H NMR) titration studies. We found that the tri-nucleotide spacer sequence significantly modulates the binding of XR5944 to EREs. Of the sequences that were tested, EREs with CGG and AGG spacers showed the best binding specificity with XR5944, while those spaced with TTT demonstrated the least specific binding. The binding stoichiometry of XR5944 with EREs was 2:1, which can explain why the spacer influences the drug-DNA interaction; each XR5944 spans four nucleotides (including portions of the spacer) when intercalating with DNA. To validate our NMR results, we conducted functional studies using reporter constructs containing consensus EREs with tri-nucleotide spacers CGG, CTG, and TTT. Results of reporter assays in MCF-7 cells indicated that XR5944 was significantly more potent in inhibiting the activity of CGG- than TTT-spaced EREs, consistent with our NMR results. Taken together, these findings predict that the anti-estrogenic effects of XR5944 will depend not only on ERE half-site composition but also on the tri-nucleotide spacer sequence of EREs located in the promoters of estrogen-responsive genes. PMID:21333738

  14. Observation of Image Potential State in Oxygen Intercalated Graphene on Iridium by Two-Photon-Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Li, Yunzhe; Sadowski, Jerzy; Dadap, Jerry; Jin, Wencan; Osgood, Richard

    In this talk, we report our experimental results on the first direct observation of image potential state (IPS) in oxygen-intercalated graphene on iridium by two-photo-photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate how oxygen intercalation influences the IPS in Gr/Ir and decouples the interlayer interaction. We present measurements of the electronic dispersion and work function in pristine Gr/Ir, oxygen-intercalated Gr/O/Ir, and deintercalated Gr/Ir. LEED patterns are measured during the pristine, oxygen-intercalated, and deintercalated phases of the Gr/Ir sample. Based on these measurements, relative to the pristine case, the work function and the energy location of n =1 IPS relative to the Fermi level increases by 0.39 eV and 0.3 eV, respectively, due to oxygen intercalation, whereas the effective mass of n =1 IPS is hardly influenced by the intercalation process. Moreover, we achieve the quenching and restoration of the resonance from Ir Rashba states to n =1 IPS in Gr/Ir by oxygen intercalation and deintercalation. This work was supported by the DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of MSE under Contract No. DE-FG 02-04-ER-46157. This research used resources of the CFN, which is the U.S. DOE Office of Science User Facility, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  15. New X-ray insight into oxygen intercalation in epitaxial graphene grown on 4H-SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, G., E-mail: kowal@fuw.edu.pl; Tokarczyk, M.; Dąbrowski, P.

    Efficient control of intercalation of epitaxial graphene by specific elements is a way to change properties of the graphene. Results of several experimental techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman mapping, reflectivity, attenuated total reflection, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry, gave a new insight into the intercalation of oxygen in the epitaxial graphene grown on 4H-SiC(0001). These results confirmed that oxygen intercalation decouples the graphene buffer layer from the 4H-SiC surface and converts it into the graphene layer. However, in contrast to the hydrogen intercalation, oxygen does not intercalate between carbon planes (in the case of few layer graphene) andmore » the interlayer spacing stays constant at the level of 3.35–3.32 Å. Moreover, X-ray reflectometry showed the presence of an oxide layer having the thickness of about 0.8 Å underneath the graphene layers. Apart from the formation of the nonuniform thin oxide layer, generation of defects in graphene caused by oxygen was also evidenced. Last but not least, water islands underneath defected graphene regions in both intercalated and non-intercalated samples were most probably revealed. These water islands are formed in the case of all the samples stored under ambient laboratory conditions. Water islands can be removed from underneath the few layer graphene stacks by relevant thermal treatment or by UV illumination.« less

  16. A-type potassium currents in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Gregory C; Koh, Sang Don; Imaizumi, Yuji; Ohya, Susumu; Sanders, Kenton M

    2003-03-01

    A-type currents are voltage-gated, calcium-independent potassium (Kv) currents that undergo rapid activation and inactivation. Commonly associated with neuronal and cardiac cell-types, A-type currents have also been identified and characterized in vascular, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. This review examines the molecular identity, biophysical properties, pharmacology, regulation, and physiological function of smooth muscle A-type currents. In general, this review is intended to facilitate the comparison of A-type currents present in different smooth muscles by providing a comprehensive report of the literature to date. This approach should also aid in the identification of areas of research requiring further attention.

  17. Controlled release formulation of an anti-depression drug based on a L-phenylalanate-zinc layered hydroxide intercalation compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Norhayati; Sharif, Sharifah Norain Mohd; Isa, Illyas Md; Hamid, Shahidah Abdul; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Bakar, Suriani Abu; Mamat, Mazidah

    2017-06-01

    The intercalation of L-phenylalanate (LP) into the interlayer gallery of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) has been successfully executed using a simple direct reaction method. The synthesised intercalation compound, zinc layered hydroxide-L-phenylalanate (ZLH-LP), was characterised using PXRD, FTIR, CHNS, ICP-OES, TGA/DTG, FESEM and TEM. The PXRD patterns of the intercalation compound demonstrate an intense and symmetrical peak, indicating a well-ordered crystalline layered structure. The appearance of an intercalation peak at a low angle of 2θ with a basal spacing of 16.3 Å, signifies the successful intercalation of the L-phenylalanate anion into the interlayer gallery of the host. The intercalation is also validated by FTIR spectroscopy and CHNS elemental analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the ZLH-LP intercalation compound has higher thermal stability than the pristine L-phenylalanine. The observed percentage of L-phenylalanate accumulated release varies in each release media, with 84.5%, 79.8%, 63.8% and 61.8% release in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at pH 4.8, deionised water, PBS solution at pH 7.4 and NaCl solution, respectively. The release behaviour of LP from its intercalation compounds in deionised water and PBS solution at pH 4.8 follows pseudo second order, whereas in NaCl solution and PBS solution at pH 7.4, it follows the parabolic diffusion model. This study shows that the synthesised ZLH-LP intercalation compound can be used for the formation of a new generation of materials for targeted drug release with controlled release properties.

  18. The staging mechanism of AlCl4 intercalation in a graphite electrode for an aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Bhauriyal, Preeti; Mahata, Arup; Pathak, Biswarup

    2017-03-15

    Identifying a suitable electrode material with desirable electrochemical properties remains a primary challenge for rechargeable Al-ion batteries. Recently an ultrafast rechargeable Al-ion battery was reported with high charge/discharge rate, (relatively) high discharge voltage and high capacity that uses a graphite-based cathode. Using calculations from first-principles, we have investigated the staging mechanism of AlCl 4 intercalation into bulk graphite and evaluated the stability, specific capacity and voltage profile of AlCl 4 intercalated compounds. Ab initio molecular dynamics is performed to investigate the thermal stability of AlCl 4 intercalated graphite structures. Our voltage profiles show that the first AlCl 4 intercalation step could be a more sluggish step than the successive intercalation steps. However, the diffusion of AlCl 4 is very fast in the expanded graphite host layers with a diffusion barrier of ∼0.01 eV, which justifies the ultrafast charging rate of a graphite based Al-ion battery. And such an AlCl 4 intercalated battery provides an average voltage of 2.01-2.3 V with a maximum specific capacity of 69.62 mA h g -1 , which is excellent for anion intercalated batteries. Our density of states and Bader charge analysis shows that the AlCl 4 intercalation into the bulk graphite is a charging process. Hence, we believe that our present study will be helpful in understanding the staging mechanism of AlCl 4 intercalation into graphite-like layered electrodes for Al-ion batteries, thus encouraging further experimental work.

  19. Central infusion of leptin improves insulin resistance and suppresses beta-cell function, but not beta-cell mass, primarily through the sympathetic nervous system in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Il Sung; Kim, Da Sol

    2010-06-05

    We investigated whether hypothalamic leptin alters beta-cell function and mass directly via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or indirectly as the result of altered insulin resistant states. The 90% pancreatectomized male Sprague Dawley rats had sympathectomy into the pancreas by applying phenol into the descending aorta (SNSX) or its sham operation (Sham). Each group was divided into two sections, receiving either leptin at 300ng/kgbw/h or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) via intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion for 3h as a short-term study. After finishing the infusion study, ICV leptin (3mug/kg bw/day) or ICV aCSF (control) was infused in rats fed 30 energy % fat diets by osmotic pump for 4weeks. At the end of the long-term study, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet morphometry were analyzed. Acute ICV leptin administration in Sham rats, but not in SNSX rats, suppressed the first- and second-phase insulin secretion at hyperglycemic clamp by about 48% compared to the control. Regardless of SNSX, the 4-week administration of ICV leptin improved glucose tolerance during oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin sensitivity at hyperglycemic clamp, compared to the control, while it suppressed second-phase insulin secretion in Sham rats but not in SNSX rats. However, the pancreatic beta-cell area and mass were not affected by leptin and SNSX, though ICV leptin decreased individual beta-cell size and concomitantly increased beta-cell apoptosis in Sham rats. Leptin directly decreases insulin secretion capacity mainly through the activation of SNS without modulating pancreatic beta-cell mass.

  20. IR study of dickite-formamide intercalate, Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 4-H 2NCOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamama, M.; Knidiri, Mohamed

    2000-05-01

    Direct intercalation of formamide (FAM) in dickite occurs spontaneously when samples are treated by ultrason. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that this intercalation increases the d 001 spacing from 7.19 to 10.77 Å. It is concluded from infrared studies that hydrogen bonds are formed between CO groups of formamide and inner surface hydroxyls of dickite, indicated by the shift of the hydroxyl bands from 3708, 3654 cm -1 and 3622 for natural dickite to 3575, 3520, 3450 and 3612 cm -1 for FAM-intercalated dickite.

  1. IR study of dickite-formamide intercalate, Al2Si2O5(OH)4-H2NCOH.

    PubMed

    Zamama, M; Knidiri, M

    2000-05-01

    Direct intercalation of formamide (FAM) in dickite occurs spontaneously when samples are treated by ultrason. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that this intercalation increases the d001 spacing from 7.19 to 10.77 A. It is concluded from infrared studies that hydrogen bonds are formed between C=O groups of formamide and inner surface hydroxyls of dickite, indicated by the shift of the hydroxyl bands from 3708, 3654 cm(-1) and 3622 for natural dickite to 3575, 3520, 3450 and 3612 cm(-1) for FAM-intercalated dickite.

  2. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  3. A comparative study of graphite electrodes using the co-intercalation phenomenon for rechargeable Li, Na and K batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haegyeom; Yoon, Gabin; Lim, Kyungmi; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-10-18

    Here, we demonstrate that graphite can serve as a versatile electrode for various rechargeable battery types by reversibly accommodating solvated alkali ions (such as K, Na, and Li) through co-intercalation in its galleries. The co-intercalation of alkali ions is observed to occur via staging reactions. Notably, their insertion behaviors, including their specific capacity, are remarkably similar regardless of the alkali ion species despite the different solubility limits of K, Na, and Li ions in graphite. Nevertheless, the insertion potentials of the solvated alkali ions differ from each other and are observed to be correlated with the interlayer distance in the intercalated graphite gallery.

  4. Is it intelligent to intercalate? A two centre cross-sectional study exploring the value of intercalated degrees, and the possible effects of the recent tuition fee rise in England

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Timothy Alan; Lightman, Elewys G; Mathieson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aims and objectives To explore the value of intercalated degrees, including student perceptions and academic sequelae. To gauge the likely effect of the recent tuition fee rise and to identify any differences in intercalated degrees between Bristol and Sheffield universities. Design Cross-sectional study using questionnaires. Setting Bristol and Sheffield Medical Schools, UK. Participants 1484 medical students in their clinical years were e-mailed the questionnaire. 578 students responded: 291 from Bristol and 287 from Sheffield (n=578; mean age=22.41; SD 1.944; 38.9% male; 61.1% female). The response rate from previous intercalators was 52.5% from Bristol and 58.7% from Sheffield, while for non-intercalators it was 27.7% and 34.6%, respectively. Main outcome measures (1) Student preconceptions, opinions, results and academic sequelae from intercalated degrees at both centres. (2) Students’ attitudes concerning the effect of the increase in tuition fees. Results Those with clinical academic supervisors gained significantly more posters (p=0.0002) and publications (p<0.0001), and also showed a trend to gain more first class honours (p=0.055). Students at Sheffield had a significantly greater proportion of clinical academic supervisors than students at Bristol (p<0.0001). 89.2% said that an intercalated degree was the right decision for them; however, only 27.4% stated they would have intercalated if fees had been £9000 per annum. Conclusions Students clearly value intercalated degrees, feel they gained a substantial advantage over their peers as well as skills helpful for their future careers. The rise in tuition fees is likely to reduce the number of medical students opting to undertake an intercalated degree, and could result in a further reduction in numbers following an academic path. Sheffield University have more intercalating students supervised by clinical academics. Clinical academics appear more effective as supervisors for medical students undertaking

  5. Unified picture of the doping dependence of superconducting transition temperatures in alkali metal/ammonia intercalated FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald; Hirschfeld, Peter; Valenti, Roser

    2015-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of alkali metal/ammonia intercalated iron selenide. Using ab-initio density functional theory we unravel how charge doping and dimensionality of the electronic structure can be controlled through the chemical composition of the intercalated molecules. Within random phase approximation spin fluctuation theory we analyze the impact of intercalation on the superconducting pairing strength. We find that high Tc is to be expected away from perfect nesting. While experimental studies have focused on the intercalation of larger molecules in the spacer layer so far, we argue that no higher Tc can be achieved this way. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SPP 1458, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY11-25915 and the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER46236.

  6. Effect of adsorbed/intercalated anionic dyes into the mechanical properties of PVA: layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Mikowski, Alexandre; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-11-15

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was adsorbed with anions of blue dyes (Chicago sky blue, CSB; Evans blue, EB; and Niagara blue, NB) and intercalated with anions of orange dyes (Orange G, OG; Orange II, OII; methyl orange, MO). Transparent, homogeneous and colored nanocomposite films were obtained by casting after dispersing the pigments (dye-intercalated/adsorbed into LHSs) into commercial poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. The mechanical properties of the PVA compounded with the dye-intercalated/adsorbed ZHN were evaluated, and reasonable increases in Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength were observed, depending on the amount and choice of layered filler. These results demonstrate the possibility of using a new class of layered hydroxide salts intercalated and adsorbed with anionic dyes to prepare multifunctional polymer nanocomposite materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional metal-intercalated covalent organic frameworks for near-ambient energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Ding, Zijing; Meng, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A new form of nanoporous material, metal intercalated covalent organic framework (MCOF) is proposed and its energy storage property revealed. Employing density functional and thermodynamical analysis, we find that stable, chemically active, porous materials could form by stacking covalent organic framework (COF) layers with metals as a gluing agent. Metal acts as active sites, while its aggregation is suppressed by a binding energy significantly larger than the corresponding cohesive energy of bulk metals. Two important parameters, metal binding and metal-metal separation, are tuned by selecting suitable building blocks and linkers when constructing COF layers. Systematic searches among a variety of elements and organic molecules identify Ca-intercalated COF with diphenylethyne units as optimal material for H2 storage, reaching a striking gravimetric density ~ 5 wt% at near-ambient conditions (300 K, 20 bar), in comparison to < 0.1 wt% for bare COF-1 under the same condition. PMID:23698018

  8. Synthesis and characterization of intercalated polyaniline-clay nanocomposite using supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelraheem, A.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.

    2018-05-01

    Lately, supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) have been getting great interest. It can be used in numerous applications because it is environmentally friendly, safe, comparatively low cost, and nonflammable. One of its applications is being a solvent in the synthesis of polymeric-clay nanocomposite. In this paper, intercalated polyaniline-clay nanocomposite (PANC) was prepared using SCCO2. The intercalation structure of polyaniline chains between clay layers was verified by various characterization techniques. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope (SEM-TEM) were used to show the morphology of the synthesized nanocomposite. The molecular structure of PANC nanocomposite was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The BET surface area and the conductivity of the nanocomposite were determined.

  9. Gate-independent energy gap in noncovalently intercalated bilayer graphene on SiC(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanchang

    2016-12-01

    Our first-principles calculations show that an energy gap around 0.12-0.25 eV can be engineered in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) through the noncovalent intercalation of transition or alkali metals but originated from the distinct mechanisms. The former is attributed to the combined effects of a metal-induced perpendicular electric field and interaction, while the latter is solely attributed to the built-in electric field. A great advantage of this scheme is that the gap size is almost independent of the gate voltage up to 1 V/nm, thus reserving the electric means to tune the Fermi level of graphene when configured as field-effect transistors. Given the recent progress in experimental techniques for intercalated graphene, our findings provide a practical way to incorporate graphene in the current semiconductor industry.

  10. Interface confined hydrogen evolution reaction in zero valent metal nanoparticles-intercalated molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongxin; Leng, Kai; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Malkhandi, Souradip; Tang, Wei; Tian, Bingbing; Dong, Lei; Zheng, Lirong; Lin, Ming; Yeo, Boon Siang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2017-01-01

    Interface confined reactions, which can modulate the bonding of reactants with catalytic centres and influence the rate of the mass transport from bulk solution, have emerged as a viable strategy for achieving highly stable and selective catalysis. Here we demonstrate that 1T′-enriched lithiated molybdenum disulfide is a highly powerful reducing agent, which can be exploited for the in-situ reduction of metal ions within the inner planes of lithiated molybdenum disulfide to form a zero valent metal-intercalated molybdenum disulfide. The confinement of platinum nanoparticles within the molybdenum disulfide layered structure leads to enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction activity and stability compared to catalysts dispersed on carbon support. In particular, the inner platinum surface is accessible to charged species like proton and metal ions, while blocking poisoning by larger sized pollutants or neutral molecules. This points a way forward for using bulk intercalated compounds for energy related applications. PMID:28230105

  11. Hybrid magnetic materials formed by ferritin intercalated into a layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Primo, Vicent; Ribera, Antonio; Soriano-Portillo, Alejandra

    2008-12-01

    A hybrid magnetic material formed by ferritin intercalated into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Mg and Al (Mg/Al molar ratio 2) is prepared and characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). One observes an enhancement in the thermal stability of the ferritin molecules when they are inserted in the layered material. Magnetic measurements of the hybrid material exhibit the typical superparamagnetic behaviour of the ferritin molecule. On the other hand, the intercalation of ferritin into the LDH guarantees a homogeneous dispersion of the ferritin molecules, which do not aggregate even after calcination of the sample. This feature allows obtaining well-dispersed magnetic metal oxide nanoparticles upon calcination of the hybrid material.

  12. Probing the recognition surface of a DNA triplex: binding studies with intercalator-neomycin conjugates.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang; Xi, Hongjuan; Kumar, Sunil; Gray, David; Davis, Erik; Hamilton, Paris; Skriba, Michael; Arya, Dev P

    2010-07-06

    Thermodynamic studies on the interactions between intercalator-neomycin conjugates and a DNA polynucleotide triplex [poly(dA).2poly(dT)] were conducted. To draw a complete picture of such interactions, naphthalene diimide-neomycin (3) and anthraquinone-neomycin (4) conjugates were synthesized and used together with two other analogues, previously synthesized pyrene-neomycin (1) and BQQ-neomycin (2) conjugates, in our investigations. A combination of experiments, including UV denaturation, circular dichroism (CD) titration, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), revealed that all four conjugates (1-4) stabilized poly(dA).2poly(dT) much more than its parent compound, neomycin. UV melting experiments clearly showed that the temperature (T(m3-->2)) at which poly(dA).2poly(dT) dissociated into poly(dA).poly(dT) and poly(dT) increased dramatically (>12 degrees C) in the presence of intercalator-neomycin conjugates (1-4) even at a very low concentration (2 muM). In contrast to intercalator-neomycin conjugates, the increment of T(m3-->2) of poly(dA).2poly(dT) induced by neomycin was negligible under the same conditions. The binding preference of intercalator-neomycin conjugates (1-4) to poly(dA).2poly(dT) was also confirmed by competition dialysis and a fluorescent intercalator displacement assay. Circular dichroism titration studies revealed that compounds 1-4 had slightly larger binding site size ( approximately 7-7.5) with poly(dA).2poly(dT) as compared to neomycin ( approximately 6.5). The thermodynamic parameters of these intercalator-neomycin conjugates with poly(dA).2poly(dT) were derived from an integrated van't Hoff equation using the T(m3-->2) values, the binding site size numbers, and other parameters obtained from DSC and ITC. The binding affinity of all tested ligands with poly(dA).2poly(dT) increased in the following order: neomycin < 1 < 3 < 4 < 2. Among them, the binding constant [(2.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(8) M(-1)] of

  13. Modification and intercalation of layered zirconium phosphates: a solid-state NMR monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bakhmutov, Vladimir I; Kan, Yuwei; Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; González-Villegas, Julissa; Colón, Jorge L; Clearfield, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    Several layered zirconium phosphates treated with Zr(IV) ions, modified by monomethoxy-polyethyleneglycol-monophosphate and intercalated with doxorubicin hydrochloride have been studied by solid-state MAS NMR techniques. The organic components of the phosphates have been characterized by the 13 C{ 1 H} CP MAS NMR spectra compared with those of initial compounds. The multinuclear NMR monitoring has provided to establish structure and covalent attachment of organic/inorganic moieties to the surface and interlayer spaces of the phosphates. The MAS NMR experiments including kinetics of proton-phosphorus cross polarization have resulted in an unusual structure of zirconium phosphate 6 combining decoration of the phosphate surface by polymer units and their partial intercalation into the interlayer space. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Indirect measurement of N-14 quadrupolar coupling for NH3 intercalated in potassium graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Fronko, R. M.; Resing, H. A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for indirect measurement of the nuclear quadrupolar coupling was developed and applied to NH3 molecules in the graphite intercalation compound K(NH3)4.3C24, which has a layered structure with alternating carbon and intercalant layers. Three triplets were observed in the H-1 NMR spectra of the compound. The value of the N-14 quadrupolar coupling constant of NH3 (3.7 MHz), determined indirectly from the H-1 NMR spectra, was intermediate between the gas value of 4.1 MHz and the solid-state value of 3.2 MHz. The method was also used to deduce the (H-1)-(H-1) and (N-14)-(H-1) dipolar interactions, the H-1 chemical shifts, and the molecular orientations and motions of NH3.

  15. Strong-coupling superconductivity induced by calcium intercalation in bilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczȩśniak, R.; Durajski, A. P.; Jarosik, M. W.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the possibility of achieving a superconducting state in transition-metal dichalcogenide bilayers through intercalation, a process previously and widely used to achieve metallization and superconducting states in novel superconductors. For the Ca-intercalated bilayers MoS2 and WS2, we find that the superconducting state is characterized by an electron-phonon coupling constant larger than 1.0 and a superconducting critical temperature of 13.3 and 9.3 K, respectively. These results are superior to other predicted or experimentally observed two-dimensional conventional superconductors and suggest that the investigated materials may be good candidates for nanoscale superconductors. More interestingly, we proved that the obtained thermodynamic properties go beyond the predictions of the mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer approximation and that the calculations conducted within the framework of the strong-coupling Eliashberg theory should be treated as those that yield quantitative results.

  16. Electrostatic Estimation of Intercalant Jump-Diffusion Barriers Using Finite-Size Ion Models.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Nils E R; Hannah, Daniel C; Rong, Ziqin; Liu, Miao; Ceder, Gerbrand; Haranczyk, Maciej; Persson, Kristin A

    2018-02-01

    We report on a scheme for estimating intercalant jump-diffusion barriers that are typically obtained from demanding density functional theory-nudged elastic band calculations. The key idea is to relax a chain of states in the field of the electrostatic potential that is averaged over a spherical volume using different finite-size ion models. For magnesium migrating in typical intercalation materials such as transition-metal oxides, we find that the optimal model is a relatively large shell. This data-driven result parallels typical assumptions made in models based on Onsager's reaction field theory to quantitatively estimate electrostatic solvent effects. Because of its efficiency, our potential of electrostatics-finite ion size (PfEFIS) barrier estimation scheme will enable rapid identification of materials with good ionic mobility.

  17. Metallization and superconductivity in Ca-intercalated bilayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczȱśniak, R.; Durajski, A. P.; Jarosik, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    A two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted significant interest recently due to its outstanding physical, chemical and optoelectronic properties. In this paper, using the first-principles calculations, the dynamical stability, electronic structure and superconducting properties of Ca-intercalated bilayer MoS2 are investigated. The calculated electron-phonon coupling constant implies that the stable form of investigated system is a strong-coupling superconductor (λ = 1.05) with a low value of critical temperature (TC = 13.3 K). Moreover, results obtained within the framework of the isotropic Migdal-Eliashberg formalism proved that Ca-intercalated bilayer MoS2 exhibits behavior that goes beyond the scope of the conventional BCS theory.

  18. Observation of Landau levels in potassium-intercalated graphite under a zero magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Donghui; Kondo, Takahiro; Machida, Takahiro; Iwatake, Keigo; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The charge carriers in graphene are massless Dirac fermions and exhibit a relativistic Landau-level quantization in a magnetic field. Recently, it has been reported that, without any external magnetic field, quantized energy levels have been also observed from strained graphene nanobubbles on a platinum surface, which were attributed to the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions in graphene formed by a strain-induced pseudomagnetic field. Here we show the generation of the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions on a partially potassium-intercalated graphite surface without applying external magnetic field. Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions indicate the graphene character in partially potassium-intercalated graphite. The generation of the Landau levels is ascribed to a vector potential induced by the perturbation of nearest-neighbour hopping, which may originate from a strain or a gradient of on-site potentials at the perimeters of potassium-free domains. PMID:22990864

  19. Rechargeable LiNiO2/carbon cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahn, J. R.; von Sacken, U.; Juzkow, M. W.; Al-Janaby, H.

    1991-08-01

    Rechargeable cells can be made using two different intercalation compounds, in which the chemical potential of the intercalant differs by several eV, for the electrodes. The factors that play a role in the selection of appropriate lithium intercalation compounds for such cells are discussed. For the ease of cell assembly, the cathode should be stable in air when it is fully intercalated, like LiNiO2. For the anode, the chemical potential of the intercalated Li should be close to that of Li metal, like it is in Li(x)C6. The intercalation of Li in LiNiO2 is discussed, and then in petroleum coke. Then, it is shown that LiNiO2/coke cells have high energy density, long cycle life, excellent high-temperature performance, low self-discharge rates, can be repeatedly discharged to zero volts without damage, and are easily fabricated. It is considered that this type of cell shows far more promise for widespread applications than traditional secondary Li cells using metallic Li anodes.

  20. Electrochemical potassium-ion intercalation in NaxCoO2: a novel cathode material for potassium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sada, Krishnakanth; Senthilkumar, Baskar; Barpanda, Prabeer

    2017-07-27

    Reversible electrochemical potassium-ion intercalation in P2-type Na x CoO 2 was examined for the first time. Hexagonal Na 0.84 CoO 2 platelets prepared by a solution combustion synthesis technique were found to work as an efficient host for K + intercalation. They deliver a high reversible capacity of 82 mA h g -1 , good rate capability and excellent cycling performance up to 50 cycles.

  1. Electronic characterization of silicon intercalated chevron graphene nanoribbons on Au(111)

    DOE PAGES

    Deniz, O.; Sánchez-Sánchez, C.; Jaafar, R.; ...

    2018-01-08

    Electronic and thermal properties of chevron-type graphene nanoribbons can be widely tuned, making them interesting candidates for electronic and thermoelectric applications. In this paper, we use post-growth silicon intercalation to unambiguously access nanoribbons’ energy position of their electronic frontier states. These are otherwise obscured by substrate effects when investigated directly on the growth substrate. Finally, in agreement with first-principles calculations we find a band gap of 2.4 eV.

  2. Retention of contaminants Cd and Hg adsorbed and intercalated in aluminosilicate clays: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crasto de Lima, F. D.; Miwa, R. H.; Miranda, Caetano R.

    2017-11-01

    Layered clay materials have been used to incorporate transition metal (TM) contaminants. Based on first-principles calculations, we have examined the energetic stability and the electronic properties due to the incorporation of Cd and Hg in layered clay materials, kaolinite (KAO) and pyrophyllite (PYR). The TM can be (i) adsorbed on the clay surface as well as (ii) intercalated between the clay layers. For the intercalated case, the contaminant incorporation rate can be optimized by controlling the interlayer spacing of the clay, namely, pillared clays. Our total energy results reveal that the incorporation of the TMs can be maximized through a suitable tuning of vertical distance between the clay layers. Based on the calculated TM/clay binding energies and the Langmuir absorption model, we estimate the concentrations of the TMs. Further kinetic properties have been examined by calculating the activation energies, where we found energy barriers of ˜20 and ˜130 meV for adsorbed and intercalated cases, respectively. The adsorption and intercalation of ionized TM adatoms were also considered within the deprotonated KAO surface. This also leads to an optimal interlayer distance which maximizes the TM incorporation rate. By mapping the total charge transfers at the TM/clay interface, we identify a net electronic charge transfer from the TM adatoms to the topmost clay surface layer. The effect of such a charge transfer on the electronic structure of the clay (host) has been examined through a set of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) simulations, characterizing the changes of the XANES spectra upon the presence of the contaminants. Finally, for the pillared clays, we quantify the Cd and Hg K-edge energy shifts of the TMs as a function of the interlayer distance between the clay layers and the Al K-edge spectra for the pristine and pillared clays.

  3. Electronic characterization of silicon intercalated chevron graphene nanoribbons on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Deniz, O; Sánchez-Sánchez, C; Jaafar, R; Kharche, N; Liang, L; Meunier, V; Feng, X; Müllen, K; Fasel, R; Ruffieux, P

    2018-02-08

    Electronic and thermal properties of chevron-type graphene nanoribbons can be widely tuned, making them interesting candidates for electronic and thermoelectric applications. Here, we use post-growth silicon intercalation to unambiguously access nanoribbons' energy position of their electronic frontier states. These are otherwise obscured by substrate effects when investigated directly on the growth substrate. In agreement with first-principles calculations we find a band gap of 2.4 eV.

  4. Intermolecular interactions between imidazole derivatives intercalated in layered solids. Substituent group effect

    SciTech Connect

    González, M.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, J.

    2013-08-15

    This study sheds light on the intermolecular interactions between imidazole derive molecules (2-methyl-imidazole, 2-ethyl-imidazole and benzimidazole) intercalated in T[Ni(CN){sub 4}] layers to form a solid of formula unit T(ImD){sub 2}[Ni(CN){sub 4}]. These hybrid inorganic–organic solids were prepared by soft chemical routes and their crystal structures solved and refined from X-ray powder diffraction data. The involved imidazole derivative molecules were found coordinated through the pyridinic N atom to the axial positions for the metal T in the T[Ni(CN){sub 4}] layer. In the interlayers region ligand molecules from neighboring layers remain stacked in a face-to-face configuration through dipole–dipole and quadrupole–quadrupole interactions. Thesemore » intermolecular interactions show a pronounced dependence on the substituent group and are responsible for an ImD-pillaring concatenation of adjacent layers. This is supported by the structural information and the recorded magnetic data in the 2–300 K temperature range. The samples containing Co and Ni are characterized by presence of spin–orbit coupling and pronounced temperature dependence for the effective magnetic moment except for 2-ethyl-imidazole related to the local distortion for the metal coordination environment. For this last one ligand a weak ferromagnetic ordering ascribed to a super-exchange interaction between T metals from neighboring layers through the ligands π–π interaction was detected. - Graphical abstract: In the interlayers region imidazole derivative molecules are oriented according to their dipolar and quadrupolar interactions and minimizing the steric impediment. Highlights: • Imidazole derivatives intercalation compounds. • Intermolecular interaction between intercalated imidazole derivatives. • Hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Pi–pi interactions and ferromagnetic coupling. • Dipolar and quadrupolar interactions between intercalated imidazole derivatives.« less

  5. High performance Li-ion sulfur batteries enabled by intercalation chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dongping; Yan, Pengfei; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Qiuyan; Ferrara, Seth; Pan, Huilin; Graff, Gordon L; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-09-11

    The unstable interface of lithium metal in high energy density Li sulfur (Li-S) batteries raises concerns of poor cycling, low efficiency and safety issues, which may be addressed by using intercalation types of anode. Herein, a new prototype of Li-ion sulfur battery with high performance has been demonstrated by coupling a graphite anode with a sulfur cathode (2 mA h cm(-2)) after successfully addressing the interface issue of graphite in an ether based electrolyte.

  6. Noble-metal intercalation process leading to a protected adatom in a graphene hollow site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan Nair, M.; Cranney, M.; Jiang, T.; Hajjar-Garreau, S.; Aubel, D.; Vonau, F.; Florentin, A.; Denys, E.; Bocquet, M.-L.; Simon, L.

    2016-08-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that gold deposited on a monolayer (ML) of graphene on SiC(0001) is intercalated below the ML after an annealing procedure and affects the band structure of graphene. Here we prove experimentally and theoretically that some of the gold forms a dispersed phase composed of single adatoms, being intercalated between the ML and the buffer layer and in a hollow position with respect to C atoms of the ML on top. They are freestanding and negatively charged, due to the partial screening of the electron transfer between SiC and the ML, without changing the intrinsic n-type doping of the ML. As these single atoms decouple the ML from the buffer layer, the quasiparticles of graphene are less perturbed, thus increasing their Fermi velocity. Moreover, the hollow position of the intercalated single Au atoms might lead to spin-orbit coupling in the graphene layer covering IC domains. This effect of spin-orbit coupling has been recently observed experimentally in Au-intercalated graphene on SiC(0001) [D. Marchenko, A. Varykhalov, J. Sánchez-Barriga, Th. Seyller, and O. Rader, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 172405 (2016), 10.1063/1.4947286] and has been theoretically predicted for heavy atoms, like thallium, in a hollow position on graphene [C. Weeks, J. Hu, J. Alicea, M. Franz, and R. Wu, Phys. Rev. X 1, 021001 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevX.1.021001; A. Cresti, D. V. Tuan, D. Soriano, A. W. Cummings, and S. Roche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 246603 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.246603].

  7. Superconductivity in Li{sub 3}Ca{sub 2}C{sub 6} intercalated graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Nicolas; Herold, Claire; Mareche, Jean-Francois

    2006-04-15

    In this paper, we report the discovery of superconductivity in Li{sub 3}Ca{sub 2}C{sub 6}. Several graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) with electron donors, are well known as superconductors [T. Enoki, S. Masatsugu, E. Morinobu, Graphite Intercalation Compounds and Applications, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003]. It is probably not astonishing, since it is generally admitted that low dimensionality promotes high superconducting transition temperatures. Superconductivity is lacking in pristine graphite, but after charging the graphene planes by intercalation, its electronic properties change considerably and superconducting behaviour can appear. Li{sub 3}Ca{sub 2}C{sub 6} is a ternary GIC [S. Pruvost, C. Herold, A. Herold, P.more » Lagrange, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 8 (2004) 1661-1667], for which the intercalated sheets are very thick and poly layered (five lithium layers and two calcium ones). It contains a great amount of metal (five metallic atoms for six carbon ones). Its critical temperature of 11.15 K is very close to that of CaC{sub 6} GIC [T.E. Weller, M. Ellerby, S.S. Saxena, R.P. Smith, N.T. Skipper, Nat. Phys. 1 (2005) 39-41; N. Emery, C. Herold, M. d'Astuto, V. Garcia, Ch. Bellin, J.F. Mareche, P. Lagrange, G. Loupias, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 087003] (11.5 K). Both CaC{sub 6} and Li{sub 3}Ca{sub 2}C{sub 6} GICs possess currently the highest transition temperatures among all the GICs.« less

  8. Thin-walled nanoscrolls by multi-step intercalation from tubular halloysite-10 Å and its rearrangement upon peroxide treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsirka, Balázs; Horváth, Erzsébet; Szabó, Péter; Juzsakova, Tatjána; Szilágyi, Róbert K.; Fertig, Dávid; Makó, Éva; Varga, Tamás; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kristóf, János

    2017-03-01

    Surface modification of the halloysite-10 Å mineral with tubular morphology can be achieved by slightly modified procedures developed for the delamination of kaolinite minerals. The resulting delaminated halloysite nanoparticles have unexpected surface/morphological properties that display, new potentials in catalyst development. In this work, a four-step intercalation/delamination procedure is described for the preparation of thin-walled nanoscrolls from the multi-layered hydrated halloysite mineral that consists of (1) intercalation of halloysite with potassium acetate, (2) replacement intercalation with ethylene glycol, (3) replacement intercalation with hexylamine, and (4) delamination with toluene. The intercalation steps were followed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, thermogravimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. Delamination eliminated the crystalline order and the crystallite size along the 'c'-axis, increased the specific surface area, greatly decreased the thickness of the mineral tubes to a monolayer, and shifted the pore diameter toward the micropore region. Unexpectedly, the removal of residual organics from intercalation steps adsorbed at the nanoscroll surface with a peroxide treatment resulted in partial recovery of crystallinity and increase of crystallite size along the 'c'-crystal direction. The d(001) value showed a diffuse pattern at 7.4-7.7 Å due to the rearrangement of the thin-walled nanoscrolls toward the initial tubular morphology of the dehydrated halloysite-7 Å mineral.

  9. Intercalating graphene with clusters of Fe3O4 nanocrystals for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qingqing; Tang, Chunhua; Liu, Yanqiong; Liu, Huajun; Wang, John

    2014-04-01

    A hierarchical nanostructure consisting of graphene sheets intercalated by clusters of Fe3O4 nanocystals is developed for high-performance supercapacitor electrode. Here we show that the negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) and positively charged Fe3O4 clusters enable a strong electrostatic interaction, generating a hierarchical 3D nanostructure, which gives rise to the intercalated composites through a rational hydrothermal process. The electrocapacitive behavior of the resultant composites is systematically investigated by cyclic voltammeter and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques, where a positive synergistic effect between graphene and Fe3O4 clusters is identified. A maximum specific capacitance of 169 F g-1 is achieved in the Fe3O4 clusters decorated with effectively reduced graphene oxide (Fe3O4-rGO-12h), which is much higher than those of rGO (101 F g-1) and Fe3O4 (68 F g-1) at the current density of 1 Ag-1. Moreover, this intercalated hierarchical nanostructure demonstrates a good capacitance retention, retaining over 88% of the initial capacity after 1000 cycles.

  10. Multistage Mechanism of Lithium Intercalation into Graphite Anodes in the Presence of the Solid Electrolyte Interface.

    PubMed

    Dinkelacker, Franz; Marzak, Philipp; Yun, Jeongsik; Liang, Yunchang; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S

    2018-04-25

    A so-called solid electrolyte interface (SEI) in a lithium-ion battery largely determines the performance of the whole system. However, it is one of the least understood objects in these types of batteries. SEIs are formed during the initial charge-discharge cycles, prevent the organic electrolytes from further decomposition, and at the same time govern lithium intercalation into the graphite anodes. In this work, we use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy to investigate the properties of a SEI film and an electrified "graphite/SEI/electrolyte interface". We reveal a multistage mechanism of lithium intercalation and de-intercalation in the case of graphite anodes covered by SEI. On the basis of this mechanism, we propose a relatively simple model, which perfectly explains the impedance response of the "graphite/SEI/electrolyte" interface at different temperatures and states of charge. From the whole data obtained in this work, it is suggested that not only Li + but also negatively charged species, such as anions from the electrolyte or functional groups of the SEI, likely interact with the surface of the graphite anode.

  11. Molecular Simulation Models of Carbon Dioxide Intercalation in Hydrated Sodium Montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Myshakin, Evgeniy; Saidi, Wissam; Romanov, Vyacheslav

    2016-11-22

    In this study, classical molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics are used to elucidate the process of CO 2 intercalation into hydrated Na-montmorillonite at P-T conditions relevant to geological formations suitable for CO 2 storage. Of particular interest are the structural and transport properties of interlayer species after CO 2 intercalation. The conducted simulations allowed the research team to quantify expansion/contraction of smectite as a function of CO 2 and H 2O compositions. The resulting swelling curves can be used to gauge the amount of stored CO 2, compare it to the experiment, and estimate changesmore » in geomechanical properties of the storage formation. The obtained results showed that the infrared signal of the asymmetric stretch vibration of CO 2 molecule is extremely sensitive to the solvent environment. The extent of the frequency shift relative to the gas-phase value can be used to probe hydration level in the interlayer with intercalated CO 2. Interaction of supercritical CO 2 with brine in deep geological formations promotes an increase of hydrophobicity of clay surfaces. As a result of wettability alteration, estimated diffusion constants of CO 2 and H 2O increase with the increased CO 2 load; this can contribute to faster migration of CO 2 throughout the formation.« less

  12. Na-Ion Intercalation and Charge Storage Mechanism in 2D Vanadium Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Seong-Min; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Wanli

    Two-dimensional vanadium carbide MXene containing surface functional groups (denoted as V2CTx, where Tx are surface functional groups) was synthesized and studied as anode material for Na-ion batteries. V2CTx anode exhibits reversible charge storage with good cycling stability and high rate capability through electrochemical test. The charge storage mechanism of V2CTx material during Na+ intercalation/deintercalation and the redox reaction of vanadium were studied using a combination of synchrotron based X-ray diffraction (XRD), hard X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). Experimental evidence of a major contribution of redox reaction of vanadium to the charge storage andmore » the reversible capacity of V2CTx during sodiation/desodiation process have been provided through V K-edge XANES and V L2,3-edge sXAS results. A correlation between the CO32- content and Na+ intercalation/deintercalation states in the V2CTx electrode observed from C and O K-edge in sXAS results imply that some additional charge storage reactions may take place between the Na+-intercalated V2CTx and the carbonate based non-aqueous electrolyte. The results of this study will provide valuable information for the further studies on V2CTx as anode material for Na-ion batteries and capacitors.« less

  13. Magnetic ordering of nickel hydroxide layers 30 Å apart obtained by intercalating dodecyl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehra, M. S.; Singh, V.

    2013-09-01

    The nature of magnetic ordering in quasi-2D layered hydroxide of Ni (LH-Ni-DS) with hexagonal structure and synthesized by intercalating dodecyl sulfate (DS) ligand, (C12H25OSO3)-, between the layers using a hydrothermal technique is investigated. The observation of (00l) peaks up to l = 8 in x-ray diffraction on the sample yields an interlayer spacing c ≃ 30.5 Å and a crystallite size ≃ 16 nm. Assignment of the lines observed in the FTIR spectra to the various groups of the DS ligand confirms the intercalation. From the analysis of detailed investigations of the temperature dependence of the magnetization M at different magnetic fields, ac susceptibilities at frequencies from 0.1 to 1 kHz, and electron magnetic resonance spectra at 9.28 GHz, it is concluded that LH-Ni-DS orders ferromagnetically at TC ≃ 23 K. This TC is about 45% higher than TC ≃ 16 K reported for LH-Ni-Ac with c ≃ 8.6 Å obtained by intercalating an acetate ligand between the layers. The roles of the interlayer dipolar interaction, magnetic anisotropy and exchange interactions in determining TC in LH-Ni-L systems for several ligands L yielding different c-axes are discussed.

  14. Synthesis and reversible hydration behavior of the thiosulfate intercalated layered double hydroxide of Zn and Al

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, S.; Milius, Wolfgang; Breu, Josef, E-mail: josef.breu@uni-bayreuth.de

    2013-08-15

    The thiosulfate-intercalated layered double hydroxide of Zn and Al undergoes reversible hydration with a variation in the relative humidity of the ambient. The hydrated and dehydrated phases, which represent the end members of the hydration cycle, both adopt the structure of the 3R{sub 1} polytype. In the intermediate range of relative humidity values (40–60%), the hydrated and dehydrated phases coexist. The end members of the hydration cycle adopt the structure of the same polytype, and vary only in their basal spacings. This points to the possibility that all the intermediate phases have a kinetic origin. - Graphical abstract: Basal spacingmore » evolution of the thiosulfate ion intercalated [Zn–Al] LDH during one complete hydration–dehydration cycle as a function of relative humidity. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Thiosulfate intercalated [Zn–Al] LDHs were synthesized by co-precipitation. • The LDH exhibits reversible hydration with variation in humidity. • Both the end members of the hydration cycle adopt the same polytype structure. • The interstratified intermediates observed are kinetic in origin.« less

  15. 1,8-Naphthalimide: A Potent DNA Intercalator and Target for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Runjhun; Luxami, Vijay; Kaur, Harsovin; Tandon, Nitin; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2017-10-01

    The poor pharmacokinetics, side effects and particularly the rapid emergence of drug resistance compromise the efficiency of clinically used anticancer drugs. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective drugs is still an extremely primary mission. Naphthalimide family is one of the highly active anticancer drug based upon effective intercalator with DNA. In this article, we review the discovery and development of 1,8-naphthalimide moiety, and, especially, pay much attention to the structural modifications and structure activity relationships. The review demonstrates how modulation of the moiety affecting naphthalimide compound for DNA binding that is achieved to afford a profile of antitumor activity. The DNA binding of imide and ring substitution at naphthalimide, bisnaphthalimide, naphthalimide-metal complexes is achieved by molecular recognition through intercalation mode. Thus, this synthetic/natural small molecule can act as a drug when activation or inhibition of DNA function, is required to cure or control the cancer disease. The present study is a review of the advances in 1,8-naphthalimide-related research, with a focus on how such derivatives are intercalated into DNA for their anticancer activities. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Na-Ion Intercalation and Charge Storage Mechanism in Two-Dimensional Vanadium Carbide

    DOE PAGES

    Bak, Seong -Min; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, W.; ...

    2017-07-14

    We synthesized two-dimensional vanadium carbide MXene containing surface functional groups (denoted as V 2CT x, where T x are surface functional groups) and studied as anode material for Na-ion batteries. V 2CT x anode exhibits reversible charge storage with good cycling stability and high rate capability through electrochemical test. Furthermore, the charge storage mechanism of V 2CT x material during Na + intercalation/deintercalation and the redox reaction of vanadium were studied using a combination of synchrotron based X-ray diffraction (XRD), hard X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). Experimental evidence of a major contribution ofmore » redox reaction of vanadium to the charge storage and the reversible capacity of V 2CT x during sodiation/desodiation process have been provided through V K-edge XANES and V L2,3-edge sXAS results. A correlation between the CO 3 2- content and Na + intercalation/deintercalation states in the V 2CT x electrode observed from C and O K-edge in sXAS results imply that some additional charge storage reactions may take place between the Na +-intercalated V 2CT x and the carbonate based non-aqueous electrolyte. Our results of this study will provide valuable information for the further studies on V 2CT x as anode material for Na-ion batteries and capacitors.« less

  17. Anion-intercalated layered double hydroxides modified test strips for detection of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Sun, Jianchao; Fan, Hai; Ai, Shiyun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel approach for facile and rapid detection of heavy metal ions using anion-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified test strips is demonstrated. By intercalating Fe(CN)6(4-) or S(2-) anions into the interlayers of LDHs on the filter paper, various heavy metal ions can be easily detected based on the color change before and after reaction between the anions and the heavy metal ions. Upon the dropping of heavy metal ions solutions to the test strips, the colors of the test strips changed instantly, which can be easily observed by naked eyes. With the decrease of the concentration, the color depth changed obviously. The lowest detection concentration can be up to 1×10(-6) mol L(-1). Due to the easily intercalation of anions into the interlayer of the LDHs on test trips, this procedure provides a general method for the construction of LDHs modified test strips for detection of heavy metal ions. The stability of the prepared test strips is investigated. Furthermore, all the results were highly reproducible. The test strips may have potential applications in environmental monitoring fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Local corrugation and persistent charge density wave in ZrTe 3 with Ni intercalation

    DOE PAGES

    Ganose, Alex M.; Gannon, Liam; Fabrizi, Federica; ...

    2018-04-03

    Here, the mechanism of emergent bulk superconductivity in transition-metal intercalated ZrTe 3 is investigated by studying the effect of Ni doping on the band structure and charge density wave (CDW). The study reports theoretical and experimental results in the range of Ni 0.01ZrTe 3 to Ni 0.05ZrTe 3. In the highest doped samples, bulk superconductivity with T c < T CDW is observed, with a reduced T CDW compared with pure ZrTe 3. Relativistic ab initio calculations reveal that Ni incorporation occurs preferentially through intercalation in the van der Waals gap. Analysis of the structural and electronic effects of intercalationmore » indicate buckling of the Te sheets adjacent to the Ni site akin to a locally stabilized CDW-like lattice distortion. In contrast to the changes of T CDW observed in resistivity, experiments with low-temperature x-ray diffraction, angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy, as well as temperature-dependent resistivity reveal the nearly unchanged persistence of the CDW into the regime of bulk superconductivity. The CDW gap is found to be unchanged in its extent in momentum space, with the gap size also unchanged or possibly slightly reduced upon Ni intercalation. Both experimental observations suggest that superconductivity coexists with the CDW in Ni xZrTe 3.« less

  19. Controlling the actuation properties of MXene paper electrodes upon cation intercalation

    DOE PAGES

    Come, Jeremy E.; Black, Jennifer M.; Naguib, Michael; ...

    2015-08-05

    Atomic force microscopy was used to monitor the macroscopic deformation in a delaminated Ti₃C₂ paper electrode in-situ, during charge/discharge in a variety of aqueous electrolytes to examine the effect of the cation intercalation on the electrochemical behavior and mechanical response. The results show a strong dependence of the electrode deformation on cation size and charge. The electrode undergoes a large contraction during Li⁺, Na⁺ or Mg²⁺ intercalation, differentiating the Ti₃C₂ paper from conventional electrodes where redox intercalation of ions (e.g. Li⁺) into the bulk phase (e.g. graphite, silicon) results in volumetric expansion. This feature may explain the excellent rate performancemore » and cyclability reported for MXenes. We also demonstrated that the variation of the electromechanical contraction can be easily adjusted by electrolyte exchange, and shows interesting characteristics for the design of actuators based on 2D metal carbides.« less

  20. Na-Ion Intercalation and Charge Storage Mechanism in Two-Dimensional Vanadium Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Seong -Min; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, W.

    We synthesized two-dimensional vanadium carbide MXene containing surface functional groups (denoted as V 2CT x, where T x are surface functional groups) and studied as anode material for Na-ion batteries. V 2CT x anode exhibits reversible charge storage with good cycling stability and high rate capability through electrochemical test. Furthermore, the charge storage mechanism of V 2CT x material during Na + intercalation/deintercalation and the redox reaction of vanadium were studied using a combination of synchrotron based X-ray diffraction (XRD), hard X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). Experimental evidence of a major contribution ofmore » redox reaction of vanadium to the charge storage and the reversible capacity of V 2CT x during sodiation/desodiation process have been provided through V K-edge XANES and V L2,3-edge sXAS results. A correlation between the CO 3 2- content and Na + intercalation/deintercalation states in the V 2CT x electrode observed from C and O K-edge in sXAS results imply that some additional charge storage reactions may take place between the Na +-intercalated V 2CT x and the carbonate based non-aqueous electrolyte. Our results of this study will provide valuable information for the further studies on V 2CT x as anode material for Na-ion batteries and capacitors.« less

  1. Local corrugation and persistent charge density wave in ZrTe 3 with Ni intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Ganose, Alex M.; Gannon, Liam; Fabrizi, Federica

    Here, the mechanism of emergent bulk superconductivity in transition-metal intercalated ZrTe 3 is investigated by studying the effect of Ni doping on the band structure and charge density wave (CDW). The study reports theoretical and experimental results in the range of Ni 0.01ZrTe 3 to Ni 0.05ZrTe 3. In the highest doped samples, bulk superconductivity with T c < T CDW is observed, with a reduced T CDW compared with pure ZrTe 3. Relativistic ab initio calculations reveal that Ni incorporation occurs preferentially through intercalation in the van der Waals gap. Analysis of the structural and electronic effects of intercalationmore » indicate buckling of the Te sheets adjacent to the Ni site akin to a locally stabilized CDW-like lattice distortion. In contrast to the changes of T CDW observed in resistivity, experiments with low-temperature x-ray diffraction, angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy, as well as temperature-dependent resistivity reveal the nearly unchanged persistence of the CDW into the regime of bulk superconductivity. The CDW gap is found to be unchanged in its extent in momentum space, with the gap size also unchanged or possibly slightly reduced upon Ni intercalation. Both experimental observations suggest that superconductivity coexists with the CDW in Ni xZrTe 3.« less

  2. Thermally Induced Lateral Motion of α-Zirconium Phosphate Layers Intercalated with Hexadecylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Kookheon

    2005-03-01

    Well-defined intercalated structure, either interdigitated layers or bilayers, of hexadecylamines (HDAs) in a confined space of a highly-functionalized layered material, α- zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP), was prepared and these two distinct intercalated structures can serve as model systems to investigate the interaction of the two monolayers whose amphiphilic tails are adjacent to each other. Acidic functional groups (-POH) on the α-ZrP are in well-ordered array and the number of functional group is quite high (i.e., cationic exchange capacity (CEC) = 664 mmole/100 g, area per one charge site = 0.24 nm^2) enough to realize the bilayers (i.e., discrete two monolayers) of HDAs within the α-ZrP interlayer. We employed the two-step intercalation mechanism for the preparation of well- ordered interdigitated layers as well as the bilayers of alkyl chains attached to both sides of the α-ZrP intergallery. An intriguing lateral motion of the α-ZrP sheets was observed with in-situ SAXS measurements for the interdigitated layer during heating and cooling cycle and verified with TEM. This lateral motion is believed to be due to the transition from the tilted to the untilted conformation of the interdigitated HDA chains and this transition is found to be thermally reversible.

  3. Preparation and enhanced properties of polyaniline/grafted intercalated ZnAl-LDH nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinlong; Gan, Mengyu; Ma, Li; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Shuang; Xu, Fenfang; Shen, JiYue Zheng Xiaoyu; Yin, Hui

    2015-02-01

    The polymeric nanocomposites (PANI/AD-LDH) were prepared by in situ polymerization based on polyaniline (PANI) and decavanadate-intercalated and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS)-grafted ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (AD-LDH). FTIR and XRD studies confirm the grafting of APTS with decavanadate-intercalated LDH (D-LDH). The extent of grafting (wt%) has also been estimated on the basis of the residue left in nitrogen atmosphere at 800 °C in TGA. SEM and XPS studies show the partial exfoliation of grafted LDH in the PANI matrix and the interfacial interaction between PANI and grafted LDH, respectively. The grafted intercalated layered double hydroxide in reinforcing the properties of the PANI nanocomposites has also been investigated by open circuit potential (OCP), tafel polarization curves (TAF), electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS), salt spray test and TGA-DTA. The experimental results indicate that the PANI/AD-LDH has a higher thermal stability and anticorrosion properties relative to the PANI.

  4. Intercalation of IR absorber into layered double hydroxides: Preparation, thermal stability and selective IR absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Haifeng; Tang, Pinggui; Feng, Yongjun, E-mail: yjfeng@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMIDA anions were intercalated into Mg{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDH by anion-exchange method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared material has highly selective IR absorption property in 9-11 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained material has practical applications as heat-retaining additive. -- Abstract: N-phosphonomethyl aminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) was intercalated into the interlayer spacing of layered double hydroxides (LDH) by an anion-exchange method. The intercalated LDHs were characterized by various techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and simultaneous thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry (TG-MS) in details. The results show the formation of Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH based on the expansion of d-spacingmore » from 0.89 nm to 1.22 nm and the disappearance of the characteristic IR absorption band at 1384 cm{sup -1} for NO{sub 3}{sup -} anions. The incorporation of Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH into the low density polyethylene (LDPE) as an additive enhances the selectivity of IR absorption in the main wavelength region 9-11 {mu}m for radiant heat loss at night. Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH as a heat-retaining additive has practical application in agricultural plastic films.« less

  5. Intercalated Water and Organic Molecules for Electrode Materials of Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Shin, Jaeho; Choi, Jang Wook

    2018-03-24

    The intrinsic limitations of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with regard to safety, cost, and the availability of raw materials have promoted research on so-called "post-LIBs". The recent intense research of post-LIBs provides an invaluable lesson that existing electrode materials used in LIBs may not perform as well in post-LIBs, calling for new material designs compliant with emerging batteries based on new chemistries. One promising approach in this direction is the development of materials with intercalated water or organic molecules, as these materials demonstrate superior electrochemical performance in emerging battery systems. The enlarged ionic channel dimensions and effective shielding of the electrostatic interaction between carrier ions and the lattice host are the origins of the observed electrochemical performance. Moreover, these intercalants serve as interlayer pillars to sustain the framework for prolonged cycles. Representative examples of such intercalated materials applied to batteries based on Li + , Na + , Mg 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions and supercapacitors are considered, along with their impact in materials research. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Intercalation of a Zn(II) complex containing ciprofloxacin drug between DNA base pairs.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Asadian, Ali Ashraf; Mahdavi, Mryam

    2017-11-02

    In this study, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of a Zn(II) complex containing an antibiotic drug, ciprofloxacin, with calf thymus DNA using spectroscopic methods. It was found that Zn(II) complex could bind with DNA via intercalation mode as evidenced by: hyperchromism in UV-Vis spectrum; these spectral characteristics suggest that the Zn(II) complex interacts with DNA most likely through a mode that involves a stacking interaction between the aromatic chromophore and the base pairs of DNA. DNA binding constant (K b = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1 ) from spectrophotometric studies of the interaction of Zn(II) complex with DNA is comparable to those of some DNA intercalative polypyridyl Ru(II) complexes 1.0 -4.8 × 10 4 M -1 . CD study showed stabilization of the right-handed B form of DNA in the presence of Zn(II) complex as observed for the classical intercalator methylene blue. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH < 0 and ΔS < 0) indicated that hydrogen bond and Van der Waals play main roles in this binding prose. Competitive fluorimetric studies with methylene blue (MB) dye have shown that Zn(II) complex exhibits the ability of this complex to displace with DNA-MB, indicating that it binds to DNA in strong competition with MB for the intercalation.

  7. Formation of mixed-layer structures in smectites intercalated with tryptone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, K. A.; Trusiak, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Katz, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Alimova, A.

    2012-12-01

    Stable clay-protein complexes are fundamental to studies of the critical zone, terrestrial ecosystems, pharmacology, and industrial applications such as bioremediation. Two sets of montmorillonite clays were purified and made homoionic for Na and Mg. Mg-montmorillonite and Na-montmorillonite were mixed with tryptone (casein digest) in a 9:1 and 18:1 clay:tryptone ratio, resulting in the formation of reversible intercalated structures. X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein-clay complexes produced profiles consisting of two peaks associated with the smectite 001 reflection and a related tryptone-packet peak similar to that produced by a mixed layer clay structure. Shifts in the 002, 003, and 004 diffraction maxima are attributed to disorder caused by the interaction with the protein. Line broadening in the smectite-tryptone XRD spectra is interpreted to be the result of interlayer absorption. Adsorption produces coherent crystalline packets of regularly interbedded tryptone and smectite platelets. SEM images reveal clay platelets with upwardly rolled edges that tend toward cylindrical structures with the production of occasional tubes in the smaller platelet size range as noted for organic compound-kaolinite intercalation reported by Fenoll Hach-Ali and Weiss (1969). Reference: Fenoll Hach-Ali, P.F., Weiss, A., 1969. Estudio de la reaccion de caolinita y N-metilform- amida. Quimica LXV, 769-790. Scanning electron micrograph of tryptone-intercalated clay platelets exhibiting rolled edge structure.

  8. Effect of length of chopped pristine and intercalated graphite fibers on the resistivity of fiber networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Stahl, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Samples of Amoco P-100 fibers were chopped to lengths of 3.14, 2.53, 1.90, 1.27, 0.66 mm, or milled for 2 hours. The two-point resistivity of compacts of these fibers were measured as a function of pressure from 34 kPa to 143 MPa. Samples of each fiber length were intercalated with bromine at room temperature and similarly measured. The low pressure resistivity of the compacts decreased with increasing fiber length. Intercalation lowered the resistivity of each of the chopped length compacts, but raised the resistivity of the milled fiber compacts. Bulk resistivity of all samples decreased with increasing pressure at similar rates. Even though fiber volumes were as low as 5 percent, all measurements exhibited measurable resistivity. A greater change with pressure in the resistance was observed for shorter fibers than for longer, probably an indication of tighter fiber packing. Intercalation appeared to have no effect on the fiber to fiber contact resistance.

  9. Herbicide-Intercalated Zinc Layered Hydroxide Nanohybrid for a Dual-Guest Controlled Release Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Rahman, Nor Shazlirah Shazlyn Abdul; Sarijo, Siti H.; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    Herbicides, namely 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyrate (DPBA) and 2-(3-chlorophenoxy) propionate (CPPA), were intercalated simultaneously into the interlayers of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) by direct reaction of zinc oxide with both anions under aqueous environment to form a new nanohybrid containing both herbicides labeled as ZCDX. Successful intercalation of both anions simultaneously into the interlayer gallery space of ZLH was studied by PXRD, with basal spacing of 28.7 Å and supported by FTIR, TGA/DTG and UV-visible studies. Simultaneous release of both CPPA and DPBA anions into the release media was found to be governed by a pseudo second-order equation. The loading and percentage release of the DPBA is higher than the CPPA anion, which indicates that the DPBA anion was preferentially intercalated into and released from the ZLH interlayer galleries. This work shows that layered single metal hydroxide, particularly ZLH, is a suitable host for the controlled release formulation of two herbicides simultaneously. PMID:22837696

  10. Intercalation of amino acids and oligopeptides into Zn Al layered double hydroxide by coprecipitation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisawa, Sumio; Sasaki, Shuji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Nakayama, Hirokazu; Narita, Eiichi

    2006-05-01

    The coprecipitation of amino acids and oligopeptides with the Zn Al LDH was investigated using phenylalanine (Phe), phenylalanyl-phenylalanine (Phe-Phe), glycyl-phenylalanine (Gly Phe), glycine (Gly), glycyl-glycine (Gly Gly), glycyl-glycyl-glycine (Gly Gly Gly) and N-(N-γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl)-glycine (GSH) as guest species. The coprecipitation behavior of amino acids and oligopeptides was found to be influenced by the solution pH and the kind of their side chain groups, and reached the maximum at pH 8 or 9. The basal spacing, d003, of the Phe, Phe-Phe and GSH/LDH was 1.81, 2.41 and 1.64 nm, supporting that guests were arranged vertical to the LDH basal layer. Acceding to the basal spacing of the Gly, Gly Gly and Gly Gly Gly/LDH (d003=0.84 0.88 nm), these guests were oriented horizontal to the LDH basal layer with the co-intercalated NO3-. Moreover, the amount of Phe-Phe, Gly Gly and Gly Gly Gly intercalated was almost the same as that of Phe and Gly despite increasing the number peptide bond and the molecular size. GSH was intercalated into the LDH interlayer space as GSH oxidized form with bridged LDH layers by their carboxylate groups.

  11. Interplay between intercalated oxygen superstructures and monolayer h -BN on Cu(100)

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Chuanxu; Park, Jewook; Liu, Lei; ...

    2016-08-18

    The confinement effect of intercalated atoms in van der Waals heterostructures can lead to interesting interactions between the confined atoms or molecules and the overlaying two-dimensional (2D) materials. In this paper, we report the formation of ordered Cu(100) p(2×2) oxygen superstructures by oxygen intercalation under the monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on Cu after annealing. By using scanning tunneling microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we identify the superstructure and reveal its roles in passivating the exposed Cu surfaces, decoupling h-BN and Cu, and disintegrating h-BN monolayers. The oxygen superstructure appears as a 2D pattern on the exposed Cu surface ormore » quasi-1D stripes of paired oxygen intercalated in the interface of h-BN and Cu predominantly oriented along the moiré modulations. The oxygen superstructure is shown to etch the overlaying h-BN monolayer in a thermal annealing process. After extended annealing, the h-BN monolayer disintegrates into nanoislands with zigzag edges. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings on the stability and oxidation resistance of h-BN and relate them to challenges in process integration and 2D heterostructures.« less

  12. The Use of Pristine and Intercalated Graphite Fiber Composites as Buss Bars in Lead-Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opaluch, Amanda M.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of the Firefly Energy Space Act Agreement project to investigate the possible use of composite materials in lead acid batteries. Specifically, it examined the use of intercalated graphite composites as buss bars. Currently, buss bars of these batteries are made of lead, a material that is problematic for several reasons. Over time, the lead is subject to both corrosion at the positive plate and sulfation at the negative plate, resulting in decreased battery life. In addition, the weight and size of the lead buss bars make for a heavy and cumbersome battery that is undesirable. Functionality and practicality of lead buss bars is adequate at best; consequently, investigation of more efficient composite materials would be advantageous. Practically speaking, graphite composites have a low density that is nearly one fourth that of its lead counterpart. A battery made of less dense materials would be more attractive to the consumer and the producer because it would be light and convenient. More importantly, low weight would be especially beneficial because it would result in greater overall power density of the battery. In addition to power density, use of graphite composite materials can also increase the life of the battery. From a functional standpoint, corrosion and sulfation at the positive and negative plates are major obstacles when considering how to extend battery life. Neither of these reactions are a factor when graphite composites replace lead parts because graphite is chemically non-reactive with the electrolyte within the battery. Without the problem of corrosion or sulfation, battery life expectancy can be almost doubled. The replacement of lead battery parts with composite materials is also more environmentally favorable because of easy disposal of organic materials. For this study, both pristine and bromine intercalated single-ply graphite fiber composites were created. The composites were fabricated in such a way as to

  13. Multiple modes of a-type potassium current regulation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shi-Qing; Li, Wenchao; Sesti, Federico

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-dependent potassium (K+) channels (Kv) regulate cell excitability by controlling the movement of K+ ions across the membrane in response to changes in the cell voltage. The Kv family, which includes A-type channels, constitute the largest group of K+ channel genes within the superfamily of Na+, Ca2+ and K+ voltage-gated channels. The name "A-type" stems from the typical profile of these currents that results form the opposing effects of fast activation and inactivation. In neuronal cells, A-type currents (I(A)), determine the interval between two consecutive action potentials during repetitive firing. In cardiac muscle, A-type currents (I(to)), control the initial repolarization of the myocardium. Structurally, A-type channels are tetramers of alpha-subunits each containing six putative transmembrane domains including a voltage-sensor. A-type channels can be modulated by means of protein-protein interactions with so-called beta-subunits that control inactivation voltage sensitivity and other properties, and by post-transcriptional modifications such as phosphorylation or oxidation. Recently a new mode of A-type regulation has been discovered in the form of a class of hybrid beta-subunits that posses their own enzymatic activity. Here, we review the biophysical and physiological properties of these multiple modes of A-type channel regulation.

  14. Comparative analysis of topoisomerase IB inhibition and DNA intercalation by flavonoids and similar compounds: structural determinates of activity

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds have been shown to inhibit human topoisomerase IB (topo I) through both inhibition of relaxation activity and through stabilization of the cleavable complex (poisoning). Some flavonoids have also been shown to intercalate DNA, and an association of topoisomerase inhibition with intercalation has been noted. We surveyed 34 polyphenolic compounds, primarily flavonoid glycones and aglycones, for their ability to inhibit topo I and to intercalate DNA using an in vitro gel electrophoresis method. We show that the most potent topo I poisons are the flavones and flavonols, and that these generally, but not always, are found to be DNA intercalators. There was no clear correlation, however, of topo-I-poisoning activity with the degree of DNA unwinding. Surprisingly, both DNA intercalation and topo I poisoning were shown to occur with some flavone glycones, including the C-glycosylflavone orientin. Inhibition of relaxation activity by flavonoids was found to be difficult to quantify and was most likely to be due to non-specific inhibition through flavonoid aggregation. As part of a structure–activity analysis, we also investigated the acid–base chemistry of flavonoids and determined that many flavonoids show acid–base activity with a pKa in the physiological pH region. For this reason, subtle pH changes can have significant effects on solution activity of flavonoids and their concomitant biological activity. In addition, these effects may be complicated by pH-dependent aggregation and oxidative degradation. Finally, we develop a simple model for the intercalation of flavonoids into DNA and discuss possible consequences of intercalation and topoisomerase inhibition on a number of cellular processes. PMID:15312049

  15. Lithium ion intercalation in thin crystals of hexagonal TaSe2 gated by a polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yueshen; Lian, Hailong; He, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyu; Wang, Shun; Xing, Hui; Mao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Ionic liquid gating has been used to modify the properties of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), including two-dimensional (2D) crystals of TMDCs used extensively recently in the device work, which has led to observations of properties not seen in the bulk. The main effect comes from the electrostatic gating due to the strong electric field at the interface. In addition, ionic liquid gating also leads to ion intercalation when the ion size of the gate electrolyte is small compared to the interlayer spacing of TMDCs. However, the microscopic processes of ion intercalation have rarely been explored in layered TMDCs. Here, we employed a technique combining photolithography device fabrication and electrical transport measurements on the thin crystals of hexagonal TaSe2 using multiple channel devices gated by a polymer electrolyte LiClO4/Polyethylene oxide (PEO). The gate voltage and time dependent source-drain resistances of these thin crystals were used to obtain information on the intercalation process, the effect of ion intercalation, and the correlation between the ion occupation of allowed interstitial sites and the device characteristics. We found a gate voltage controlled modulation of the charge density waves and a scattering rate of charge carriers. Our work suggests that ion intercalation can be a useful tool for layered materials engineering and 2D crystal device design.

  16. Structural Analysis of HMGD-DNA Complexes Reveal Influence of Intercalation on Sequence Selectivity and DNA Bending

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Mair E.A.; Klass, Janet; Zoetewey, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitous eukaryotic High-Mobility-Group-Box (HMGB) chromosomal proteins promote many chromatin-mediated cellular activities through their non-sequence-specific binding and bending of DNA. Minor groove DNA binding by the HMG box results in substantial DNA bending toward the major groove owing to electrostatic interactions, shape complementarity and DNA intercalation that occurs at two sites. Here, the structures of the complexes formed with DNA by a partially DNA intercalation-deficient mutant of Drosophila melanogaster HMGD have been determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 2.85 Å. The six proteins and fifty base pairs of DNA in the crystal structure revealed a variety of bound conformations. All of the proteins bound in the minor groove, bridging DNA molecules, presumably because these DNA regions are easily deformed. The loss of the primary site of DNA intercalation decreased overall DNA bending and shape complementarity. However, DNA bending at the secondary site of intercalation was retained and most protein-DNA contacts were preserved. The mode of binding resembles the HMGB1-boxA-cisplatin-DNA complex, which also lacks a primary intercalating residue. This study provides new insights into the binding mechanisms used by HMG boxes to recognize varied DNA structures and sequences as well as modulate DNA structure and DNA bending. PMID:20800069

  17. Stability of bromine, iodine monochloride, copper (II) chloride, and nickel (II) chloride intercalated pitch-based graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Slabe, Melissa E.; Shaffer, Nanette

    1987-01-01

    Four different grades of pitch-based graphite fibers (Amoco P-55, P-75, P-100. and P-120) were intercalated with each of four different intercalates: bromine (Br2), iodine monochloride (ICl), copper (II) chloride (CuCl2), and nickel (II) chloride (NiCl2). The P-55 fibers did not react with Br2 or NiCl2, and the P-75 did not react with NiCl2. The stability of the electrical resistance of the intercalated fibers was monitored over long periods of time in ambient, high humidity (100 percent at 60 C), vacuum (10 to the -6 torr), and high temperature (up to 400 C) conditions. Fibers with lower graphitization form graphite intercalation compounds (GIC's) which are more stable than those with higher graphitization (i.e., P-55 (most stable) greater than P-75 greater than P-100 greater than P-120 (least stable). Br2 formed the most stable GIC's followed in order of decreasing stability by ICl, CuCl2, and NiCl2. While Br2 GIC's had the most stability, ICl had the advantages of forming GIC's with slightly greater reduction in resistance (by about 10%) than Br2, and the ability to intercalate P-55 fiber. Transition metal chlorides are susceptible to water vapor and high temperature. The stability of fibers in composites differs.

  18. Bonding between graphene and MoS 2 monolayers without and with Li intercalation

    DOE PAGES

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Modine, N. A.; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2015-07-27

    We performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a bi-layered heterostructure combining a graphene layer with a MoS 2 layer with and without intercalated Li atoms. Our calculations demonstrate the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interaction, which is crucial for forming stable bonding between the layers. Our DFT calculation correctly reproduces the linear dispersion, or Dirac cone, feature at the Fermi energy for the isolated graphene monolayer and the band gap for the MoS 2 monolayer. For the combined graphene/MoS 2 bi-layer, we observe interesting electronic structure and density of states (DOS) characteristics near the Fermi energy, showingmore » both the gap like features of the MoS 2 layer and in-gap states with linear dispersion contributed mostly by the graphene layer. Our calculated total DOS in this vdW heterostructure reveals that the graphene layer significantly contributes to pinning the Fermi energy at the center of the band gap of MoS 2. We also find that intercalating Li ions in between the layers of the graphene/MoS2 heterostructure enhances the binding energy through orbital hybridizations between cations (Li adatoms) and anions (graphene and MoS 2 monolayers). Moreover, we calculate the dielectric function of the Li intercalated graphene/MoS 2 heterostructure, the imaginary component of which can be directly compared with experimental measurements of optical conductivity in order to validate our theoretical prediction. We observe sharp features in the imaginary component of the dielectric function, which shows the presence of a Drude peak in the optical conductivity, and therefore metallicity in the lithiated graphene/MoS 2 heterostructure.« less

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release anticorrosion behavior of benzoate intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Dun, E-mail: zhangdun@qdio.ac.cn

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The benzoate anion released from Zn-Al LDHs provides a more effective long-term protection against corrosion of Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: {yields} A benzoate anion corrosion inhibitor intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been assembled by coprecipitation method. {yields} The kinetic simulation indicates that the ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process and the diffusion through particle is the rate limiting step. {yields} A significant reduction of the corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive media. -- Abstract: Corrosion inhibitor-inorganic clay composite including benzoate anion intercalated Zn-Almore » layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are assembled by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum analyses indicate that the benzoate anion is successfully intercalated into the LDH interlayer and the benzene planes are vertically bilayer-positioned as a quasi-guest ion-pair form in the gallery space. Kinetic simulation for the release data, XRD and FT-IR analyses of samples recovered from the release medium indicate that ion-exchange is responsible for the release process and diffusion through the particle is also indicated to be the rate-limiting step. The anticorrosion capabilities of LDHs loaded with corrosion inhibitor toward Q235 carbon steel are analyzed by polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Significant reduction of corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive medium. This hybrid material may potentially be applied as a nanocontainer in self-healing coatings.« less

  20. Intercalated Nanocomposites Based on High-Temperature Superconducting Ceramics and Their Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tonoyan, Anahit; Schiсk, Christoph; Davtyan, Sevan

    2009-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (SC) nanocomposites based on SC ceramics and various polymeric binders were prepared. Regardless of the size of the ceramics’ grains, the increase of their amount leads to an increase of resistance to rupture and modulus and a decrease in limiting deformation, whereas an increase in the average ceramic grain size worsens resistance properties. The SC, thermo-chemical, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties of the samples were investigated. Superconducting properties of the polymer ceramic nanocomposites are explained by intercalation of macromolecule fragments into the interstitial layer of the ceramics’ grains. This phenomenon leads to a change in the morphological structure of the superconducting nanocomposites.

  1. Viral persistence in surface and drinking water: Suitability of PCR pre-treatment with intercalating dyes.

    PubMed

    Prevost, B; Goulet, M; Lucas, F S; Joyeux, M; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2016-03-15

    After many outbreaks of enteric virus associated with consumption of drinking water, the study of enteric viruses in water has increased significantly in recent years. In order to better understand the dynamics of enteric viruses in environmental water and the associated viral risk, it is necessary to estimate viral persistence in different conditions. In this study, two representative models of human enteric viruses, adenovirus 41 (AdV 41) and coxsackievirus B2 (CV-B2), were used to evaluate the persistence of enteric viruses in environmental water. The persistence of infectious particles, encapsidated genomes and free nucleic acids of AdV 41 and CV-B2 was evaluated in drinking water and surface water at different temperatures (4 °C, 20 °C and 37 °C). The infectivity of AdV 41 and CV-B2 persisted for at least 25 days, whatever the water temperature, and for more than 70 days at 4 °C and 20 °C, in both drinking and surface water. Encapsidated genomes persisted beyond 70 days, whatever the water temperature. Free nucleic acids (i.e. without capsid) also were able to persist for at least 16 days in drinking and surface water. The usefulness of a detection method based on an intercalating dye pre-treatment, which specifically targets preserved particles, was investigated for the discrimination of free and encapsidated genomes and it was compared to virus infectivity. Further, the resistance of AdV 41 and CV-B2 against two major disinfection treatments applied in drinking water plants (UV and chlorination) was evaluated. Even after the application of UV rays and chlorine at high doses (400 mJ/cm(2) and 10 mg.min/L, respectively), viral genomes were still detected with molecular biology methods. Although the intercalating dye pre-treatment had little use for the detection of the effects of UV treatment, it was useful in the case of treatment by chlorination and less than 1 log10 difference in the results was found as compared to the infectivity measurements

  2. Crystal structure of a four-stranded intercalated DNA: d(C4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L.; Cai, L.; Zhang, X.; Rich, A.

    1994-01-01

    The crystal structure of d(C4) solved at 2.3-A resolution reveals a four-stranded molecule composed of two interdigitated or intercalated duplexes. The duplexes are held together by hemiprotonated cytosine-cytosine base pairs and are parallel stranded, but the two duplexes point in opposite directions. The molecule has a slow right-handed twist of 12.4 degrees between covalently linked cytosine base pairs, and the base stacking distance is 3.1 A. This is in general agreement with the NMR studies. A biological role for DNA in this conformation is suggested.

  3. Hexagonal boron nitride intercalated multi-layer graphene: a possible ultimate solution to ultra-scaled interconnect technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Jun; Sun, Qing-Qing; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Peng-Fei; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2012-03-01

    We proposed intercalation of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in multilayer graphene to improve its performance in ultra-scaled interconnects for integrated circuit. The effect of intercalated hBN layer in bilayer graphene is investigated using non-equilibrium Green's functions. We find the hBN intercalated bilayer graphene exhibit enhanced transport properties compared with pristine bilayer ones, and the improvement is attributed to suppression of interlayer scattering and good planar bonding condition of inbetween hBN layer. Based on these results, we proposed a via structure that not only benefits from suppressed interlayer scattering between multilayer graphene, but also sustains the unique electrical properties of graphene when many graphene layers are stacking together. The ideal current density across the structure can be as high as 4.6×109 A/cm2 at 1V, which is very promising for the future high-performance interconnect.

  4. Direct observation of strain-induced orbital valence band splitting in HfSe2 by sodium intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eknapakul, T.; Fongkaew, I.; Siriroj, S.; Jindata, W.; Chaiyachad, S.; Mo, S.-K.; Thakur, S.; Petaccia, L.; Takagi, H.; Limpijumnong, S.; Meevasana, W.

    2018-05-01

    By using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the variation of the electronic structure of HfSe2 has been studied as a function of sodium intercalation. We observe how this drives a band splitting of the p -orbital valence bands and a simultaneous reduction of the indirect band gap by values of up to 400 and 280 meV, respectively. Our calculations indicate that such behavior is driven by the band deformation potential, which is a result of our observed strain induced by sodium intercalation. The applied uniaxial strain calculations based on density functional theory agree strongly with the experimental ARPES data. These findings should assist in studying the physical relationship between intercalation and strain, as well as for large-scale two-dimensional straintronics.

  5. Molecular mechanism of direct proflavine-DNA intercalation: evidence for drug-induced minimum base-stacking penalty pathway.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2012-10-11

    DNA intercalation, a biophysical process of enormous clinical significance, has surprisingly eluded molecular understanding for several decades. With appropriate configurational restraint (to prevent dissociation) in all-atom metadynamics simulations, we capture the free energy surface of direct intercalation from minor groove-bound state for the first time using an anticancer agent proflavine. Mechanism along the minimum free energy path reveals that intercalation happens through a minimum base stacking penalty pathway where nonstacking parameters (Twist→Slide/Shift) change first, followed by base stacking parameters (Buckle/Roll→Rise). This mechanism defies the natural fluctuation hypothesis and provides molecular evidence for the drug-induced cavity formation hypothesis. The thermodynamic origin of the barrier is found to be a combination of entropy and desolvation energy.

  6. Effect of metal ion intercalation on the structure of MXene and water dynamics on its internal surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Osti, Naresh C.; Naguib, Michael; Ostadhossein, Alireza; ...

    2016-03-24

    MXenes are a recently discovered class of 2D materials with an excellent potential for energy storage applications. Because MXene surfaces are hydrophilic and attractive interaction forces between the layers are relatively weak, water molecules can spontaneously intercalate at ambient humidity and significantly influence the key properties of this 2D material. Using complementary X-ray and neutron scattering techniques, we demonstrate that intercalation with potassium cations significantly improves structural homogeneity and water stability in MXenes. Furthermore, in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, intercalated potassium ions reduce the water self-diffusion coefficient by 2 orders of magnitude, suggesting greater stability of hydrated MXene againstmore » changing environmental conditions.« less

  7. Stable loop in the crystal structure of the intercalated four-stranded cytosine-rich metazoan telomere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C.; Berger, I.; Lockshin, C.; Ratliff, R.; Moyzis, R.; Rich, A.

    1995-01-01

    In most metazoans, the telomeric cytosine-rich strand repeating sequence is d(TAACCC). The crystal structure of this sequence was solved to 1.9-A resolution. Four strands associate via the cytosine-containing parts to form a four-stranded intercalated structure held together by C.C+ hydrogen bonds. The base-paired strands are parallel to each other, and the two duplexes are intercalated into each other in opposite orientations. One TAA end forms a highly stabilized loop with the 5' thymine Hoogsteen-base-paired to the third adenine. The 5' end of this loop is in close proximity to the 3' end of one of the other intercalated cytosine strands. Instead of being entirely in a DNA duplex, this structure suggests the possibility of an alternative conformation for the cytosine-rich telomere strands.

  8. Evaluation of Carbon Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C-K.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both liquid phase intercalation technique and electrochemical intercalation technique were examined for the Li-carbon material preparation. The electrochemical techniques include a intermittent discharge method and a two step method. These two electrochemical techniques can ensure to achieve the maximum reversible Li capacity for common commercially available carbon materials. The carbon materials evaluated by the intercalacation method includes: pitch coke, petroleum cole, PAN fiber and graphite materials. Their reversible Li capacity were determined and compared. In this paper, we also demonstrate the importance of EPDM binder composition in the carbon electrode. Our results indicated that it can impact the Li intercalation and de-intercalation capacity in carbon materials. Finally, two possibilities that may help explain the capacity degradation during practical cell cycling were proposed.

  9. Two-Step Electrochemical Intercalation and Oxidation of Graphite for the Mass Production of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianyun; He, Pei; Mohammed, Mahdi A; Zhao, Xin; Young, Robert J; Derby, Brian; Kinloch, Ian A; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2017-12-06

    Conventional chemical oxidation routes for the production of graphene oxide (GO), such as the Hummers' method, suffer from environmental and safety issues due to their use of hazardous and explosive chemicals. These issues are addressed by electrochemical oxidation methods, but such approaches typically have a low yield due to inhomogeneous oxidation. Herein we report a two-step electrochemical intercalation and oxidation approach to produce GO on the large laboratory scale (tens of grams) comprising (1) forming a stage 1 graphite intercalation compound (GIC) in concentrated sulfuric acid and (2) oxidizing and exfoliating the stage 1 GIC in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M ammonium sulfate. This two-step approach leads to GO with a high yield (>70 wt %), good quality (>90%, monolayer), and reasonable oxygen content (17.7 at. %). Moreover, the as-produced GO can be subsequently deeply reduced (3.2 at. % oxygen; C/O ratio 30.2) to yield highly conductive (54 600 S m -1 ) reduced GO. Electrochemical capacitors based on the reduced GO showed an ultrahigh rate capability of up to 10 V s -1 due to this high conductivity.

  10. In Situ Molecular Spectroscopic Evidence for CO2 Intercalation into Montmorillonite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Loring, John S.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Turcu, Romulus VF

    2012-04-25

    The interaction of anhydrous supercritical CO2 (scCO2) with both kaolinite and ~1W (i.e. close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 °C and 90 bar). The CO2 molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. We report the first direct evidence that the expansion of montmorillonite under scCO2 conditions is due to CO2 migration into the interlayer. Intercalated CO2 molecules are rotationally constrained and do notmore » appear to react with waters to form bicarbonate or carbonic acid. In contrast, CO2 does not intercalate into kaolinite. The findings show that predicting the seal integrity of caprock will have complex dependence on clay mineralogy and hydration state.« less

  11. Electron Transfer Governed Crystal Transformation of Tungsten Trioxide upon Li Ions Intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; He, Yang; Gu, Meng

    2016-09-21

    Reversible insertion/extraction of ions into a host lattice constitutes the fundamental operating principle of rechargeable battery and electrochromic materials. It is far more commonly observed that insertion of ions into a host lattice can lead to structural evolution of the host lattice, and for the most cases such a lattice evolution is subtle. However, it has never been clear as what kind of factors to control such a lattice structural evolution. Based on tungsten trioxide (WO3) model crystal, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and first principles calculation to explore the nature of Li ions intercalation induced crystalmore » symmetry evolution of WO3. We discovered that Li insertion into the octahedral cavity of WO3 lattice will lead to a low to high symmetry transition, featuring a sequential monoclinic→tetragonal→cubic phase transition. The first principle calculation reveals that the phase transition is essentially governed by the electron transfer from Li to the WO6 octahedrons, which effectively leads to the weakening the W-O bond and modifying system band structure, resulting in an insulator to metal transition. The observation of the electronic effect on crystal symmetry and conductivity is significant, providing deep insights on the intercalation reactions in secondary rechargeable ion batteries and the approach for tailoring the functionalities of material based on insertion of ions in the lattice.« less

  12. Design of Perovskite Oxides as Anion-Intercalation-Type Electrodes for Supercapacitors: Cation Leaching Effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Dinh, Jim; Tade, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2016-09-14

    Oxygen ions can be exploited as a charge carrier to effectively realize a new type of anion-intercalation supercapacitor. In this study, to get some useful guidelines for future materials development, we comparatively studied SrCoO3-δ (SC), Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF), and Co3O4 as electrodes in supercapacitors with aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The effect of interaction between the electrode materials with the alkaline solution was focused on the structure and specific surface area of the electrode material, and ultimately the electrochemical performance was emphasized. Both BSCF and SC were found to experience cation leaching in alkaline solution, resulting in an increase in the specific surface area of the material, but overleaching caused the damage of perovskite structure of BSCF. Barium leaching was more serious than strontium, and the cation leaching was component dependent. Although high initial capacitance was achieved for BSCF, it was not a good candidate as intercalation-type electrode for supercapacitor because of poor cycling stability from serious Ba(2+) and Sr(2+) leaching. Instead, SC was a favorable electrode candidate for practical use in supercapacitors due to its high capacity and proper cation leaching capacity, which brought beneficial effect on cycling stability. It is suggested that cation leaching effect should be seriously considered in the development of new perovskite materials as electrodes for supercapacitors.

  13. Photoelectron Holographic Atomic Arrangement Imaging of Cleaved Bimetal-intercalated Graphite Superconductor Surface

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Nishiyama, Saki; Izumi, Masanari; Uesugi, Eri; Goto, Hidenori; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Sugita, Kenji; Daimon, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Yuji; Hamada, Ikutaro; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    From the C 1s and K 2p photoelectron holograms, we directly reconstructed atomic images of the cleaved surface of a bimetal-intercalated graphite superconductor, (Ca, K)C8, which differed substantially from the expected bulk crystal structure based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Graphene atomic images were collected in the in-plane cross sections of the layers 3.3 Å and 5.7 Å above the photoelectron emitter C atom and the stacking structures were determined as AB- and AA-type, respectively. The intercalant metal atom layer was found between two AA-stacked graphenes. The K atomic image revealing 2 × 2 periodicity, occupying every second centre site of C hexagonal columns, was reconstructed, and the Ca 2p peak intensity in the photoelectron spectra of (Ca, K)C8 from the cleaved surface was less than a few hundredths of the K 2p peak intensity. These observations indicated that cleavage preferentially occurs at the KC8 layers containing no Ca atoms. PMID:27811975

  14. Interlayer interaction in Ca-Fe layered double hydroxides intercalated with nitrate and chloride species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jaberi, Muayad; Naille, Sébastien; Dossot, Manuel; Ruby, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Ca-Fe layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with chloride and nitrate ions has been synthesized with varying CaII:FeIII molar ratios of the initial solution. Phase pure LDH is observed with CaII:FeIII molar ratio of 2:1 and a mixture of LDH and Ca(OH)2 is formed for CaII:FeIII molar ratios higher than 2:1. Vibrational spectroscopies (Raman and IR) were used successfully to understand the interaction between the cationic and anionic sheets. The Raman bands positions at lower frequencies (150-600 cm-1) are intimately correlated to the nature of the divalent and trivalent ions but also to the nature of the anions. Indeed, a shift of ˜9 cm-1 is observed for the Raman double bands situated in the 300-400 cm-1 region when comparing Raman spectra of CaFe-LDH containing either nitrate or chloride ions. Two types of nitrate environments are observed namely free (non-hydrogen bonded) nitrate and nitrate hydrogen bonded to the interlayer water or to the 'brucite-like' hydroxyl surface. Multiple types of water structure are observed and would result from different hydrogen bond structures. Water bending modes are identified at 1645 cm-1 greater than the one observed for LDH intercalated with chloride anions (1618 cm-1), indicating that the water is strongly hydrogen bonded to the nitrate anions.

  15. Complex Stoichiometry reordering of PTCDA on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, G. P.; Baby, A.; Zwick, C.; Gruenewald, M.; Forker, R.; Fritz, T.; Fratesi, G.; Hofmann, O. T.; Zojer, E.

    Alkali metal atoms are a simple yet efficient n-type dopant of organic semiconductors. However, the molecular crystal structures need be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into PTCDA monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (STHM), and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) as a function of the stoichiometry and by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Large stable monolayer domains are found for x=2,4. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Angstrom precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules.

  16. Electrochemical lithium intercalation into Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimono, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Wataru; Nitani, Hiroaki; Kumai, Reiji; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2013-04-01

    We have prepared Li-intercalated LixBi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (x =0-2.0) samples by using electrochemical method, and performed synchrotron x-ray diffraction, Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and magnetic susceptibility measurements. With increasing x, a- and c-lattice parameters monotonically increase, which shows lithium intercalation into Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. Accompanied by the lithium insertion, the valence of Cu ion changes from Cu2+/Cu3+ to Cu1+/Cu2+ to realize charge neutrality. This change of the valence was detected by Cu K-edge XAFS measurement. A clear increase of spectral weight that corresponds to 1s→ 4pπ(3d10L) was observed at around 8982 eV with x. The superconducting (SC) transition temperature TC significantly changes from 74 K for x = 0 to 90 K for x = 0.8, which is attributed to modified density of states by the decrease of hole concentration. A volume fraction of the superconducting phase was 1-2 % for x >= 0.6 implying phase separation where Li-rich non SC phase and Li-poor SC phase coexist. Such a phase separation is universally seen in electrode active materials.

  17. Superconducting critical fields of alkali and alkaline-earth intercalates of MoS2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Somoano, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for measurements of the critical-field anisotropy and temperature dependence of group-VIB semiconductor MoS2 intercalated with the alkali and alkaline-earth metals Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Sr. The temperature dependences are compared with present theories on the relation between critical field and transition temperature in the clean and dirty limits over the reduced-temperature range from 1 to 0.1. The critical-field anisotropy data are compared with predictions based on coupled-layers and thin-film ('independent-layers') models. It is found that the critical-field boundaries are steep in all cases, that the fields are greater than theoretical predictions at low temperatures, and that an unusual positive curvature in the temperature dependence appears which may be related to the high anisotropy of the layer structure. The results show that materials with the largest ionic intercalate atom diameters and hexagonal structures (K, Rb, and Cs compounds) have the highest critical temperatures, critical fields, and critical-boundary slopes; the critical fields of these materials are observed to exceed the paramagnetic limiting fields.

  18. Measurement of fundamental illite particle thicknesses by X-ray diffraction using PVP-10 intercalation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Nüesch, R.; Šucha, Vladimír; Tsipursky, S.

    1998-01-01

    The thicknesses of fundamental illite particles that compose mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) crystals can be measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak broadening techniques (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach [BWA] method and integral peak-width method) if the effects of swelling and XRD background noise are eliminated from XRD patterns of the clays. Swelling is eliminated by intercalating Na-saturated I-S with polyvinylpyrrolidone having a molecular weight of 10,000 (PVP-10). Background is minimized by using polished metallic silicon wafers cut perpendicular to (100) as a substrate for XRD specimens, and by using a single-crystal monochromator. XRD measurements of PVP-intercalated diagenetic, hydrothermal and low-grade metamorphic I-S indicate that there are at least 2 types of crystallite thickness distribution shapes for illite fundamental particles, lognormal and asymptotic; that measurements of mean fundamental illite particle thicknesses made by various techniques (Bertant-Warren-Averbach, integral peak width, fixed cation content, and transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) give comparable results; and that strain (small differences in layer thicknesses) generally has a Gaussian distribution in the log-normal-type illites, but is often absent in the asymptotic-type illites.

  19. Anthocyanin Interactions with DNA: Intercalation, Topoisomerase I Inhibition and Oxidative Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Michael R.; Min, Kyungmi; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins and their aglycone anthocyanidins are pigmented flavonoids found in significant amounts in many commonly consumed foods. They exhibit a complex chemistry in aqueous solution, which makes it difficult to study their chemistry under physiological conditions. Here we used a gel electrophoresis assay employing supercoiled DNA plasmid to examine the ability of these compounds (1) to intercalate DNA, (2) to inhibit human topoisomerase I through both inhibition of plasmid relaxation activity (catalytic inhibition) and stabilization of the cleavable DNA-topoisomerase complex (poisoning), and (3) to inhibit or enhance oxidative single-strand DNA nicking. We found no evidence of DNA intercalation by anthocyan(id)ins in the physiological pH range for any of the compounds used in this study—cyanidin chloride, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside and luteolinidin chloride. The anthocyanins inhibited topoisomerase relaxation activity only at high concentrations (> 50 μM) and we could find no evidence of topoisomerase I cleavable complex stabilization by these compounds. However, we observed that all of the anthocyan(id)ins used in this study were capable of inducing significant oxidative DNA strand cleavage (nicking) in the presence of 1 mM DTT (dithiothreitol), while the free radical scavenger, DMSO, at concentrations typically used in similar studies, completely inhibited DNA nicking. Finally, we propose a mechanism to explain the anthocyan(id)in induced oxidative DNA cleavage observed under our experimental conditions. PMID:19924259

  20. Critical role of intercalated water for electrocatalytically active nitrogen-doped graphitic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Martinez, Ulises; Dumont, Joseph H.; Holby, Edward F.; ...

    2016-03-18

    Graphitic materials are very essential in energy conversion and storage because of their excellent chemical and electrical properties. The strategy for obtaining functional graphitic materials involves graphite oxidation and subsequent dissolution in aqueous media, forming graphene-oxide nanosheets (GNs). Restacked GNs contain substantial intercalated water that can react with heteroatom dopants or the graphene lattice during reduction. We demonstrate that removal of intercalated water using simple solvent treatments causes significant structural reorganization, substantially affecting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability of nitrogen-doped graphitic systems. Amid contrasting reports describing the ORR activity of GN-based catalysts in alkaline electrolytes, we demonstratemore » superior activity in an acidic electrolyte with an onset potential of ~0.9 V, a half-wave potential (E ½) of 0.71 V, and a selectivity for four-electron reduction of >95%. Finally and further, durability testing showed E ½ retention >95% in N 2- and O 2-saturated solutions after 2000 cycles, demonstrating the highest ORR activity and stability reported to date for GN-based electrocatalysts in acidic media.« less

  1. Intercalation and retention of carbon dioxide in a smectite clay promoted by interlayer cations.

    PubMed

    Michels, L; Fossum, J O; Rozynek, Z; Hemmen, H; Rustenberg, K; Sobas, P A; Kalantzopoulos, G N; Knudsen, K D; Janek, M; Plivelic, T S; da Silva, G J

    2015-03-05

    A good material for CO2 capture should possess some specific properties: (i) a large effective surface area with good adsorption capacity, (ii) selectivity for CO2, (iii) regeneration capacity with minimum energy input, allowing reutilization of the material for CO2 adsorption, and (iv) low cost and high environmental friendliness. Smectite clays are layered nanoporous materials that may be good candidates in this context. Here we report experiments which show that gaseous CO2 intercalates into the interlayer nano-space of smectite clay (synthetic fluorohectorite) at conditions close to ambient. The rate of intercalation, as well as the retention ability of CO2 was found to be strongly dependent on the type of the interlayer cation, which in the present case is Li(+), Na(+) or Ni(2+). Interestingly, we observe that the smectite Li-fluorohectorite is able to retain CO2 up to a temperature of 35°C at ambient pressure, and that the captured CO2 can be released by heating above this temperature. Our estimates indicate that smectite clays, even with the standard cations analyzed here, can capture an amount of CO2 comparable to other materials studied in this context.

  2. Intercalation and Retention of Carbon Dioxide in a Smectite Clay promoted by Interlayer Cations

    PubMed Central

    Michels, L.; Fossum, J. O.; Rozynek, Z.; Hemmen, H.; Rustenberg, K.; Sobas, P. A.; Kalantzopoulos, G. N.; Knudsen, K. D.; Janek, M.; Plivelic, T. S.; da Silva, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    A good material for CO2 capture should possess some specific properties: (i) a large effective surface area with good adsorption capacity, (ii) selectivity for CO2, (iii) regeneration capacity with minimum energy input, allowing reutilization of the material for CO2 adsorption, and (iv) low cost and high environmental friendliness. Smectite clays are layered nanoporous materials that may be good candidates in this context. Here we report experiments which show that gaseous CO2 intercalates into the interlayer nano-space of smectite clay (synthetic fluorohectorite) at conditions close to ambient. The rate of intercalation, as well as the retention ability of CO2 was found to be strongly dependent on the type of the interlayer cation, which in the present case is Li+, Na+ or Ni2+. Interestingly, we observe that the smectite Li-fluorohectorite is able to retain CO2 up to a temperature of 35°C at ambient pressure, and that the captured CO2 can be released by heating above this temperature. Our estimates indicate that smectite clays, even with the standard cations analyzed here, can capture an amount of CO2 comparable to other materials studied in this context. PMID:25739522

  3. Synthesis of ktenasite, a double hydroxide of zinc and copper, and its intercalation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Mei; Chitrakar, Ramesh; Sakane, Kohji; Ooi, Kenta; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Ohnishi, Masayuki; Doi, Akira

    2004-04-01

    Ktenasite was synthesized by the simple method of mixing ZnO powder with CuSO 4 solution at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction pattern of synthesized ktenasite was very similar to that of mineral ktenasite. The lattice parameters were determined as a=0.559, b=0.616, c=2.374 nm and β=95.63°, which agreed comparatively well with those for mineral ktenasite. The synthesized ktenasite consisted of thin rectangular particles ranging in size from 2 to 4 μm in length. TEM observation suggested the formation of a super lattice structure in the a-axis direction and significant crystal growth in the b-axis direction. The intercalation reaction of sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDS) with ktenasite showed that the intercalation took place accompanied by the expansion of basal spacing from 1.17 to 2.70 nm. The reaction progressed by the SO 42-/DS - anion exchange mechanism with the dissolution of interlayer [Zn(H 2O) 6]SO 4 salt.

  4. Intercalation of Coordinatively Unsaturated Fe(III) Ion within Interpenetrated Metal-Organic Framework MOF-5.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Rebecca J; Burns, Thomas; Greer, Samuel M; Kobera, Libor; Stoian, Sebastian A; Korobkov, Ilia; Hill, Stephen; Bryce, David L; Woo, Tom K; Murugesu, Muralee

    2016-06-01

    Coordinatively unsaturated Fe(III) metal sites were successfully incorporated into the iconic MOF-5 framework. This new structure, Fe(III) -iMOF-5, is the first example of an interpenetrated MOF linked through intercalated metal ions. Structural characterization was performed with single-crystal and powder XRD, followed by extensive analysis by spectroscopic methods and solid-state NMR, which reveals the paramagnetic ion through its interaction with the framework. EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed that the intercalated ions were indeed Fe(III) , whereas DFT calculations were employed to ascertain the unique pentacoordinate architecture around the Fe(III) ion. Interestingly, this is also the first crystallographic evidence of pentacoordinate Zn(II) within the MOF-5 SBU. This new MOF structure displays the potential for metal-site addition as a framework connector, thus creating further opportunity for the innovative development of new MOF materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Absence of photoemission from the Fermi level in potassium intercalated picene and coronene films: structure, polaron, or correlation physics?

    PubMed

    Mahns, Benjamin; Roth, Friedrich; Knupfer, Martin

    2012-04-07

    The electronic structure of potassium intercalated picene and coronene films has been studied using photoemission spectroscopy. Picene has additionally been intercalated using sodium. Upon alkali metal addition core level as well as valence band photoemission data signal a filling of previously unoccupied states of the two molecular materials due to charge transfer from potassium. In contrast to the observation of superconductivity in K(x)picene and K(x)coronene (x ~ 3), none of the films studied shows emission from the Fermi level, i.e., we find no indication for a metallic ground state. Several reasons for this observation are discussed.

  6. Intercalated graphitic carbon nitride: a fascinating two-dimensional nanomaterial for an ultra-sensitive humidity nanosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Huang, Jindou; Yuan, Qing; Dong, Bin

    2014-07-01

    We develop a novel humidity nanosensor based on intercalated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets fabricated by a facile thermal polymerization of common urea in the presence of LiCl as the intercalated guest under air and ambient pressure. The response and recovery times of an optimal nanosensor can reach ~0.9 s and ~1.4 s, respectively, which are superior to most of the traditional oxide ceramic-based humidity nanosensors tested under similar conditions. By combining with the theoretical calculations, it is proposed that the ultrafast response-recovery time for this nanosensor is attributed to their unique 2D intercalated nanostructure by which Li species linked with the ``nitrogen pots'' of g-C3N4 can make the protons conduct in the first adsorbed water layer. Meanwhile, the physically adsorbed water on the surface of LiCl-intercalated g-C3N4 nanosheets can be desorbed rapidly at a relative lower RH environment due to their high adsorption energy and the strong diffusion effect of water molecules.We develop a novel humidity nanosensor based on intercalated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets fabricated by a facile thermal polymerization of common urea in the presence of LiCl as the intercalated guest under air and ambient pressure. The response and recovery times of an optimal nanosensor can reach ~0.9 s and ~1.4 s, respectively, which are superior to most of the traditional oxide ceramic-based humidity nanosensors tested under similar conditions. By combining with the theoretical calculations, it is proposed that the ultrafast response-recovery time for this nanosensor is attributed to their unique 2D intercalated nanostructure by which Li species linked with the ``nitrogen pots'' of g-C3N4 can make the protons conduct in the first adsorbed water layer. Meanwhile, the physically adsorbed water on the surface of LiCl-intercalated g-C3N4 nanosheets can be desorbed rapidly at a relative lower RH environment due to their high adsorption energy and

  7. The structure of drug-deoxydinucleoside phosphate complex; generalized conformational behavior of intercalation complexes with RNA and DNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, H S; Berman, H M; Dabrow, M; Neidle, S

    1980-01-01

    A 2:2 complex of proflavine and deoxycytidylyl-3', 5'-guanosine has been crystallized and its structure determined by x-ray crystallography. The two dinucleoside phosphate strands form self complementary duplexes with Watson Crick hydrogen bonds. One proflavin is asymmetrically intercalated between the base pairs and the other is stacked above them. The conformations of the nucleotides are unusual in that one strand has C3',C2'endomixed sugar puckering and the other has C3',C3' endo deoxyribose sugars. These results show that the conformation of the 3'sugar is of secondary importance to the intercalated geometry. PMID:7355129

  8. Synergetic effects of K + and Mg 2+ ion intercalation on the electrochemical and actuation properties of the two-dimensional Ti 3 C 2 MXene

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Qiang; Come, Jeremy; Naguib, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials, such as MXenes, are attractive candidates for energy storage and electrochemical actuators due to their high volume changes upon ion intercalation. Of special interest for boosting energy storage is the intercalation of multivalent ions such as Mg 2+, which suffers from sluggish intercalation and transport kinetics due to its ion size. By combining traditional electrochemical characterization techniques with electrochemical dilatometry and contact resonance atomic force microscopy, the synergetic effects of the pre-intercalation of K +ions are demonstrated to improve the charge storage of multivalent ions, as well as tune the mechanical and actuation properties of the Ti 3Cmore » 2MXene. Our results have important implications for quantitatively understanding the charge storage processes in intercalation compounds and provide a new path for studying the mechanical evolution of energy storage materials.« less

  9. μ-Opioid Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Intercalated Neurons and Effect on Synaptic Transmission to the Central Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Blaesse, Peter; Goedecke, Lena; Bazelot, Michaël; Capogna, Marco; Pape, Hans-Christian; Jüngling, Kay

    2015-05-13

    The amygdala is a key region for the processing of information underlying fear, anxiety, and fear extinction. Within the local neuronal networks of the amygdala, a population of inhibitory, intercalated neurons (ITCs) modulates the flow of information among various nuclei of amygdala, including the basal nucleus (BA) and the centromedial nucleus (CeM) of the amygdala. These ITCs have been shown to be important during fear extinction and are target of a variety of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Here we provide evidence that the activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) by the specific agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin) hyperpolarizes medially located ITCs (mITCs) in acute brain slices of mice. Moreover, we use whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in combination with local electrical stimulation or glutamate uncaging to analyze the effect of MOR activation on local microcircuits. We show that the GABAergic transmission between mITCs and CeM neurons is attenuated by DAMGO, whereas the glutamatergic transmission on CeM neurons and mITCs is unaffected. Furthermore, MOR activation induced by theta burst stimulation in BA suppresses plastic changes of feedforward inhibitory transmission onto CeM neurons as revealed by the MOR antagonist CTAP d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2. In summary, the mITCs constitute a target for the opioid system, and therefore, the activation of MOR in ITCs might play a central role in the modulation of the information processing between the basolateral complex of the amygdala and central nuclei of the amygdala. Copyright © 2015 Blaesse, Goedecke et al.

  10. A Novel Battery Cathode Material Based on intercalation Chemistry: Redox Reactions of the 2,5-Dimercapto-1,3,4-Thiadiazole/V2O5 Xerogel System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-29

    of some interstitial water during intercalation of the disulfide polymer of DMcT. Elemental analysis gives a composition for the intercalation...the disulfide polymer of DMcT. Elemental analysis gives a composition for the intercalation material of [(polyDMcT)o25*V205𔃻.4H20]. The cyclic...13.5 A). This change is consistent with loss of some interstitial water during intercalation of the disulfide polymer of DMcT. Elemental analysis

  11. Open-Structured V 2 O 5 · n H 2 O Nanoflakes as Highly Reversible Cathode Material for Monovalent and Multivalent Intercalation Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huali; Bi, Xuanxuan; Bai, Ying

    The high-capacity cathode material V2O5·nH2O has attracted considerable attention for metal ion batteries due to the multielectron redox reaction during electrochemical processes. It has an expanded layer structure, which can host large ions or multivalent ions. However, structural instability and poor electronic and ionic conductivities greatly handicap its application. Here, in cell tests, self-assembly V2O5·nH2O nanoflakes shows excellent electrochemical performance with either monovalent or multivalent cation intercalation. They are directly grown on a 3D conductive stainless steel mesh substrate via a simple and green hydrothermal method. Well-layered nanoflakes are obtained after heat treatment at 300 °C (V2O5·0.3H2O). Nanoflakes with ultrathinmore » flower petals deliver a stable capacity of 250 mA h g-1 in a Li-ion cell, 110 mA h g-1 in a Na-ion cell, and 80 mA h g-1 in an Al-ion cell in their respective potential ranges (2.0–4.0 V for Li and Na-ion batteries and 0.1–2.5 V for Al-ion battery) after 100 cycles.« less

  12. First-principles characterization of potassium intercalation in the hexagonal 2H-MoS2

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Amity; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lilga, Michael A.

    2012-01-12

    Periodic density functional theory calculations were performed to study the structural and electronic properties of potassium intercalated into hexagonal MoS{sub 2} (2H-MoS{sub 2}). Metallic potassium (K) atoms are incrementally loaded in the hexagonal sites of the interstitial spaces between MoS2 sheets of the 2H-MoS{sub 2} bulk structure generating 2H-KxMoS2 (0.125 {<=} x {<=} 1.0) structures. To accommodate the potassium atoms, the interstitial spacing c parameter in the 2H-MoS{sub 2} bulk expands from 12.816 {angstrom} in 2H-MoS{sub 2} to 16.086 {angstrom} in 2H-K{sub 0.125}MoS{sub 2}. The second lowest potassium loading concentration (K{sub 0.25}MoS{sub 2}) results in the largest interstitial spacing expansionmore » (to c = 16.726 {angstrom}). Our calculations show that there is a small gradual contraction of the interstitial spacing as the potassium loading increases with c = 14.839 {angstrom} for KMoS{sub 2}. This interstitial contraction is correlated with an in-plane expansion of the MoS{sub 2} sheets, which is in good agreement with experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The electronic analysis shows that potassium readily donates its 4s electron to the conduction band of the 2H-K{sub x}MoS{sub 2}, and is largely ionic in character. As a result of the electron donation, the 2H-K{sub x}MoS{sub 2} system changes from a semiconductor to a more metallic system with increasing potassium intercalation. For loadings 0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.625, triangular Mo-Mo-Mo moieties are prominent and tend to form rhombitrihexagonal motifs. Intercalation of H{sub 2}O molecules that solvate the K atoms is likely to occur in catalytic conditions. The inclusion of two H{sub 2}O molecules per K atom in the K{sub 0.25}MoS{sub 2} structure shows good agreement with XRD measurements.« less

  13. Increased levels of type 1 interferon in a type 1 diabetic mouse model induce the elimination of B cells from the periphery by apoptosis and increase their retention in the spleen.

    PubMed

    Badr, Badr Mohamed; Moustafa, Nadia Ahmed; Eldien, Heba M Saad; Mohamed, Amany O; Ibrahim, Hany M; El-Elaimy, Ibrahim A; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal

    2015-01-01

    The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is associated with a defect in the immune response, which increases susceptibility to infection. We recently demonstrated that prolonged elevated levels of type 1 interferon (IFN) induce lymphocyte exhaustion during T1D. In the present study, we further investigated the effect of blocking the type I IFN receptor signaling pathway on diabetic dyslipidemia, in which an abnormal lipid profile leads to the exhaustion of B cells and alteration of their distribution and functions. T1D was induced in a mouse model by an intraperitoneal injection of a single dose (60 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ). Three groups of mice were examined: a non-diabetic control group, a diabetic group and a diabetic group treated with an anti-IFN (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 1 (IFNAR1) blocking antibody to block type I IFN signaling. We observed that induction of T1D was accompanied by a marked destruction of β cells and a reduction in the insulin levels in the diabetic group. Diabetic mice exhibited many changes, including alterations in their lipid profiles, expansion of splenic B cells, increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activity, and apoptosis in peripheral B cells. Blocking type 1 IFN signaling in diabetic mice significantly returned the insulin and lipid profiles to normal levels, subsequently restored the B cell distribution, and rescued the peripheral B cells from apoptosis. Our data suggest the potential role of type I IFN in mediating diabetic dyslipidemia and an exhausted state of B cells during T1D. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. First-principles study on interlayer state in alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms intercalated bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tomoaki; Saito, Riichiro

    2017-11-01

    Energetics and electronic structures of alkali metal (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) and alkaline earth metal (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) atoms intercalated bilayer graphene are systematically investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Formation of alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms intercalated bilayer graphene is exothermic except for Be and Mg. The interlayer state between two graphene layers is occupied for K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, and Ba. We find that the energetic position of the interlayer states between bilayer graphene monotonically shifts downward with increasing of interlayer distance. The interlayer distances of more than 4.5 Å and 4.0 Å, respectively, are necessary for the occupation of the interlayer state in bilayer graphene for alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms, which is almost independent of the intercalant metal species. We discuss the relevance to occurrence of superconductivity for the metal intercalated bilayer graphene in terms of the occupation of the interlayer state and the phonon frequency of metal ions.

  15. Correlation of intercalation potential with d-electron configurations for cathode compounds of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenlian; Zhang, Caixia; Zhang, Zhiyong; Li, Jun

    2014-07-14

    The d-electron localization is widely recognized as important to transport properties of transition metal compounds, but its role in the energy conversion of intercalation reactions of cathode compounds is still not fully explored. In this work, the correlation of intercalation potential with electron affinity, a key energy term controlling electron intercalation, then with d-electron configuration, is investigated. Firstly, we find that the change of the intercalation potential with respect to the transition metal cations within the same structure class is correlated in an approximately mirror relationship with the electron affinity, based on first-principles calculations on three typical categories of cathode compounds including layered oxides and polyoxyanions Then, by using a new model Hamiltonian based on the crystal-field theory, we reveal that the evolution is governed by the combination of the crystal-field splitting and the on-site d-d exchange interactions. Further, we show that the charge order in solid-solution composites and the compatibility of multi-electron redox steps could be inferred from the energy terms with the d-electron configuration alternations. These findings may be applied to rationally designing new chemistry for the lithium-ion batteries and other metal-ion batteries.

  16. Possible Mg intercalation mechanism at the Mo6 S8 cathode surface proposed by first-principles methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Liwen; Prendergast, David

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, great attention has been paid to the development of divalent Mg-ion batteries, which can potentially double the energy density and volumetric capacity compared to monovalent Li-ion batteries. The prototype Mg-ion battery, comprising Mg(anode)/Mg(AlCl2BuEt)2.THF(electrolyte)/Mo6S8(cathode), was established in 2000 by Aurbach et al. Despite the remarkable success of this prototype system, we still lack a clear understanding of the fundamental Mg intercalation/deposition mechanism at the electrolyte/electrode interfaces that perhaps results in the observed sluggish Mg transport process. Our previous work has shown that Mg-ions are strongly coordinated in the bulk electrolyte by a combination of counterion, Cl-, and organic aprotic solvent, THF. In this work, we use first-principles methods to study Mg intercalation behavior at the Mo6S8 cathode surface with the presence of solvent molecules. It is found that the image charge, formed on this metallic cathode surface, can effectively weaken the solvent-surface interactions and facilitate Mg intercalation. A detailed Mg intercalation mechanism is proposed and the unique role of Mo6S8 as the cathode material is emphasized. This work is supported as part of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences.

  17. Polyethylene organo-clay nanocomposites: the role of the interface chemistry on the extent of clay intercalation/exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Mainil, Michaël; Alexandre, Michaël; Monteverde, Fabien; Dubois, Philippe

    2006-02-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared using three different functionalized polyethylene compatibilizers: an ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer, a polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride functions and a (styrene-b-ethylene/butylene-b-styrene) block copolymer. The nanocomposites were prepared via two different routes: (1) the dispersion in HDPE of a masterbatch prepared from the compatibilizer and the clay or (2) the direct melt blending of the three components. For each compatibilizer, essentially intercalated nanocomposites were formed as determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. With the ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer, a significant delamination of the intercalated clay in thin stacks was observed. This dispersion of thin intercalated stacks within the polymer matrix allowed increasing significantly the stiffness and the flame resistance of the nanocomposite. A positive effect of shear rate and blending time has also been put into evidence, especially for the process based on the masterbatch preparation, improving both the formation of thin stacks of intercalated clay and the mechanical properties and the flame resistance of the formed nanocomposites.

  18. Effects of Applied Potential and Water Intercalation on the Surface Chemistry of Ti 2C and Mo 2C MXenes

    DOE PAGES

    Fredrickson, Kurt D.; Anasori, Babak; Seh, Zhi Wei; ...

    2016-12-09

    Here, two-dimensional transition metal carbides and nitrides, also known as MXenes, represent an attractive class of materials for a multitude of electrochemical and other applications. While single sheets of MXenes have been widely studied theoretically, there have been much fewer studies on layered bulk MXenes, which are more representative of multi- or few-layer MXenes used in actual applications. Herein, we investigate the structural and electronic effects of water intercalation, multiple functional groups and applied potential on layered bulk Ti 2C and Mo 2C MXenes using density functional theory. The out-of plane lattice parameter, c, was found to vary significantly withmore » the functional group, and is greatly increased upon intercalation of water. Experimental results confirm the change in lattice constant due to addition or removal of intercalated water. Under zero applied potential, both Ti 2C and Mo 2C were found to be functionalized by one monolayer of O; bare MXenes were never found to be stable, regardless of the applied potential. Applying a potential changed the adsorbate coverage, changing the systems from O covered to H covered at negative potentials and, in some cases, giving rise to a metal–insulator transition. Understanding of the effects of surface functionalization and water intercalation of MXenes provides a better insight of their use for catalytic and electronic applications.« less

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated with cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate anions.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Zolfaghar; Arjomandi Rad, Farzad; Khodam, Fatemeh

    2015-01-21

    In the present work, Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate anions was prepared from the reaction of solutions of Mg(ii) and Al(iii) nitrate salts with an alkaline solution of cubane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid by using the coprecipitation method. The successful preparation of a nanohybrid of cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate(cubane-dc) anions with LDH was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The increase in the basal spacing of LDHs from 8.67 Å to 13.40 Å shows that cubane-dc anions were successfully incorporated into the interlayer space. Thermogravimetric analyses confirm that the thermal stability of the intercalated cubane-dc anions is greater than that of the pure form before intercalation because of host-guest interactions involving hydrogen bonds. The interlayer structure, hydrogen bonding, and subsequent distension of LDH compounds containing cubane-dc anions were shown by molecular simulation. The RDF (radial distribution function), mean square displacement (MSD), and self-diffusion coefficient were calculated using the trajectory files on the basis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the results indicated that the cubane-dc anions were more stable when intercalated into the LDH layers. A good agreement was obtained between calculated and measured X-ray diffraction patterns and between experimental and calculated basal spacings.

  20. Reversible intercalation of ammonia molecules into a layered double hydroxide structure without exchanging nitrate counter-ions

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajal Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.m; Wypych, Fernando; Castillon Barraza, Felipe

    2010-10-15

    A zinc/aluminum LDH was precipitated with recycled ammonia from a chemical vapor deposition reaction. The LDH presented a crystalline phase with basal distance of 8.9 A, typical for nitrate-containing LDHs, and another phase with a basal distance of 13.9 A. Thermal treatment at 150 {sup o}C eliminated the phase with the bigger basal distance leaving only the anhydrous nitrate-intercalated LDH structure with 8.9 A. Intense N-H stretching modes in the FTIR spectra suggested that the expansion was due to intercalation of ammonia in the form of [NH{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup +} species. When additional samples were precipitated with pure ammonia,more » the conventional LDH nitrate structure was obtained (8.9 A basal distance) at pH=7, as well as a pure crystalline phase with 13.9 A basal distance at pH=10 due to ammonia intercalation that can be removed by heating at 150 {sup o}C or by stirring in acetone, confirming a unusual sensu stricto intercalation process into a LDH without exchanging nitrate ions. - Graphical abstract: LDH-nitrate precipitated with ammonia expands the interlayer space if ammonia is bubbled up to pH 10. The basal distance decreased when the compound was heated at 150 {sup o}C or stirred in acetone. Nitrate ions are not exchanged.« less

  1. A new cathode material for super-valent battery based on aluminium ion intercalation and deintercalation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Jiang, Bo; Xiong, Weiyi; Sun, He; Lin, Zheshuai; Hu, Liwen; Tu, Jiguo; Hou, Jungang; Zhu, Hongmin; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Due to their small footprint and flexible siting, rechargeable batteries are attractive for energy storage systems. A super-valent battery based on aluminium ion intercalation and deintercalation is proposed in this work with VO2 as cathode and high-purity Al foil as anode. First-principles calculations are also employed to theoretically investigate the crystal structure change and the insertion-extraction mechanism of Al ions in the super-valent battery. Long cycle life, low cost and good capacity are achieved in this battery system. At the current density of 50 mAg−1, the discharge capacity remains 116 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles. Comparing to monovalent Li-ion battery, the super-valent battery has the potential to deliver more charges and gain higher specific capacity. PMID:24287676

  2. Synthesis and characterization of lithium intercalation electrodes based on iron oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarradin, J.; Guessous, A.; Ribes, M.

    Sputter-deposited iron oxide thin films are investigated as a possible negative electrode for rocking-chair microbatteries. Experimental conditions related to the manufacturing of amorphous thin films suitable to a large number of available intercalation sites are described. Structural and physical properties of the thin layer films are presented. The conductivities of the amorphous thin films were found to be very high compared with those of the respective crystalline forms. Regarding the electrochemical behaviour, Fe 2O 3-based thin films electrodes are able to store and reversibly exchange lithium ions. At a C/2 charge/discharge rate with 100% depth-of-discharge (DOD), the specific capacity of these amorphous thin film electrodes remains almost constant and close to 330 Ah/kg after more than 120 charge/discharge cycles.

  3. Femtosecond laser modification of an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes intercalated with Fe phase nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Labunov, Vladimir; Prudnikava, Alena; Bushuk, Serguei; Filatov, Serguei; Shulitski, Boris; Tay, Beng Kang; Shaman, Yury; Basaev, Alexander

    2013-09-03

    Femtosecond lasers (FSL) are playing an increasingly important role in materials research, characterization, and modification. Due to an extremely short pulse width, interactions of FSL irradiation with solid surfaces attract special interest, and a number of unusual phenomena resulted in the formation of new materials are expected. Here, we report on a new nanostructure observed after the interaction of FSL irradiation with arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) intercalated with iron phase catalyst nanoparticles. It was revealed that the FSL laser ablation transforms the topmost layer of CNT array into iron phase nanospheres (40 to 680 nm in diameter) located at the tip of the CNT bundles of conical shape. Besides, the smaller nanospheres (10 to 30 nm in diameter) are found to be beaded at the sides of these bundles. Some of the larger nanospheres are encapsulated into carbon shells, which sometime are found to contain CNTs. The mechanism of creation of such nanostructures is proposed.

  4. Intercalation of Cobalt into the Interlayer of Birnessite Improves Oxygen Evolution Catalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Thenuwara, Akila C.; Shumlas, Samantha L.; Attanayake, Nuwan H.; ...

    2016-10-10

    Here we show that the activity of cobalt for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) can be enhanced by confining it in the interlayer region of birnessite (layered manganese oxide). The cobalt intercalation was verified by employing state-of-the-art characterization techniques such as XRD, Raman and electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the Co 2+/birnessite electrocatalyst can reach 10 mA cm -2 at an overpotential of 360 mV with near unity Faradaic efficiency. This overpotential is lower than that which can be achieved by using a pure cobalt hydroxide electrocatalyst for the OER. Furthermore, the Co 2+/birnessite catalyst shows no degradation aftermore » 1000 electrochemical cycles.« less

  5. Femtosecond laser modification of an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes intercalated with Fe phase nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers (FSL) are playing an increasingly important role in materials research, characterization, and modification. Due to an extremely short pulse width, interactions of FSL irradiation with solid surfaces attract special interest, and a number of unusual phenomena resulted in the formation of new materials are expected. Here, we report on a new nanostructure observed after the interaction of FSL irradiation with arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) intercalated with iron phase catalyst nanoparticles. It was revealed that the FSL laser ablation transforms the topmost layer of CNT array into iron phase nanospheres (40 to 680 nm in diameter) located at the tip of the CNT bundles of conical shape. Besides, the smaller nanospheres (10 to 30 nm in diameter) are found to be beaded at the sides of these bundles. Some of the larger nanospheres are encapsulated into carbon shells, which sometime are found to contain CNTs. The mechanism of creation of such nanostructures is proposed. PMID:24004518

  6. First principles studies of structure stability and lithium intercalation of ZnCo2 O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanning; Liu, Weiwei; Beijing Computational Science Research Center Team

    Among the metal oxides, which are the most widely investigated alternative anodes for use in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), binary and ternary transition metal oxides have received special attention due to their high capacity values. ZnCo2O4 is a promising candidate as anode for LIB, and one can expect a total capacity corresponding to 7.0 - 8.33 mol of recyclable Li per mole of ZnCo2O4. Here we studied the structural stability, electronic properties, lithium intercalation and diffusion barrier of ZnCo2O4 through density functional calculations. The calculated structural and energetic parameters are comparable with experiments. Our theoretical studies provide insights in understanding the mechanism of lithium ion displacement reactions in this ternary metal oxide.

  7. First principles calculations of stability and lithium intercalation potentials of ZnCo2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L. C.; Wu, J.; Liu, H.; Zhang, Y. N.

    2015-03-01

    Among the metal oxides, which are the most widely investigated alternative anodes for use in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), binary and ternary tin oxides have received special attention due to their high capacity values. ZnCo2O4 is a promising candidate as the anode material for LIB, and one can expect a total capacity corresponding to 7.0 - 8.33 mol of recyclable Li per mole of ZnCo2O4. Here we studied the structural stability, electronic properties, diffusion barrier and lithium intercalation potentials of ZnCo2O4 through density functional calculations. The calculated structural and energetic parameters are comparable with experiments. Our DFT studies provide insights in understanding the mechanism of lithium ion displacement reactions in this ternary metal oxide.

  8. Decoupling of epitaxial graphene via gold intercalation probed by dispersive Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, P. B., E-mail: p.pillai@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: m.desouza@sheffield.ac.uk; DeSouza, M., E-mail: p.pillai@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: m.desouza@sheffield.ac.uk; Narula, R.

    Signatures of a superlattice structure composed of a quasi periodic arrangement of atomic gold clusters below an epitaxied graphene (EG) layer are examined using dispersive Raman spectroscopy. The gold-graphene system exhibits a laser excitation energy dependant red shift of the 2D mode as compared to pristine epitaxial graphene. The phonon dispersions in both the systems are mapped using the experimentally observed Raman signatures and a third-nearest neighbour tight binding electronic band structure model. Our results reveal that the observed excitation dependent Raman red shift in gold EG primarily arise from the modifications of the phonon dispersion in gold-graphene and showsmore » that the extent of decoupling of graphene from the underlying SiC substrate can be monitored from the dispersive nature of the Raman 2D modes. The intercalated gold atoms restore the phonon band structure of epitaxial graphene towards free standing graphene.« less

  9. Raman spectroscopic sensing of carbonate intercalation in breast microcalcifications at stereotactic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sathyavathi, R.; Saha, Anushree; Soares, Jaqueline S.; Spegazzini, Nicolas; McGee, Sasha; Rao Dasari, Ramachandra; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Barman, Ishan

    2015-01-01

    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and frequent target for stereotactic biopsy. Despite their indisputable value, microcalcifications, particularly of the type II variety that are comprised of calcium hydroxyapatite deposits, remain one of the least understood disease markers. Here we employed Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the relationship between pathogenicity of breast lesions in fresh biopsy cores and composition of type II microcalcifications. Using a chemometric model of chemical-morphological constituents, acquired Raman spectra were translated to characterize chemical makeup of the lesions. We find that increase in carbonate intercalation in the hydroxyapatite lattice can be reliably employed to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, with algorithms based only on carbonate and cytoplasmic protein content exhibiting excellent negative predictive value (93–98%). Our findings highlight the importance of calcium carbonate, an underrated constituent of microcalcifications, as a spectroscopic marker in breast pathology evaluation and pave the way for improved biopsy guidance. PMID:25927331

  10. Raman spectroscopic sensing of carbonate intercalation in breast microcalcifications at stereotactic biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyavathi, R.; Saha, Anushree; Soares, Jaqueline S.; Spegazzini, Nicolas; McGee, Sasha; Rao Dasari, Ramachandra; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Barman, Ishan

    2015-04-01

    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and frequent target for stereotactic biopsy. Despite their indisputable value, microcalcifications, particularly of the type II variety that are comprised of calcium hydroxyapatite deposits, remain one of the least understood disease markers. Here we employed Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the relationship between pathogenicity of breast lesions in fresh biopsy cores and composition of type II microcalcifications. Using a chemometric model of chemical-morphological constituents, acquired Raman spectra were translated to characterize chemical makeup of the lesions. We find that increase in carbonate intercalation in the hydroxyapatite lattice can be reliably employed to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, with algorithms based only on carbonate and cytoplasmic protein content exhibiting excellent negative predictive value (93-98%). Our findings highlight the importance of calcium carbonate, an underrated constituent of microcalcifications, as a spectroscopic marker in breast pathology evaluation and pave the way for improved biopsy guidance.

  11. Structure, magnetization, and low-temperature impedance response of polycrystalline InSe intercalated with nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakhira, Y. M.; Tovstyuk, N. K.; Fomenko, V. L.; Grigorchak, I. I.; Borysyuk, A. K.; Seredyuk, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    A solid-phase mechanochemical technology of production of polycrystalline InSе intercalated with Ni up to 1.25 at. % has been developed. The x-ray and phase analyses of the produced NixInSe samples confirm their homogeneity and demonstrate a nonmonotonic Ni-content dependence of the lattice constant along the axis normal to the layers. Analysis of the low-temperature (77 K) impedance response within the frequency region 10-3-106 Hz shows a good correlation between the change in interlayer distance and in the band conductivity observed with increasing Ni concentration. However, the Ni concentration dependence of specific magnetization demonstrates an irregular increase at x ˜ 1 and does not coincide with the former. Such behavior is explained by the proposed theoretical model, which at the same time unveiled the mechanism behind the increasing contribution of free carrier concentration to conductivity - hybridization of electron orbitals of guest nickel and the lattice layers.

  12. Constraint on the potassium content for the superconductivity of potassium-intercalated phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Wei; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Zhang, Chao; Lin, Hai-Qing; Chen, Xiao-Jia

    2014-03-21

    Raman-scattering measurements were performed on K(x)phenanthrene (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 6.0) at room temperature. Three phases (x = 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0) are identified based on the obtained Raman spectra. Only the K3phenanthrene phase is found to exhibit the superconducting transition at 5 K. The C-C stretching modes are observed to broaden and become disordered in K(x)phenanthrene with x = 2.0, 2.5, 6.0, indicating some molecular disorder in the metal intercalation process. This disorder is expected to influence the nonmetallic nature of these materials. The absence of metallic character in these nonsuperconducting phases is found from the calculated electronic structures based on the local density approximation.

  13. Raman spectroscopic sensing of carbonate intercalation in breast microcalcifications at stereotactic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sathyavathi, R; Saha, Anushree; Soares, Jaqueline S; Spegazzini, Nicolas; McGee, Sasha; Rao Dasari, Ramachandra; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Barman, Ishan

    2015-04-30

    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and frequent target for stereotactic biopsy. Despite their indisputable value, microcalcifications, particularly of the type II variety that are comprised of calcium hydroxyapatite deposits, remain one of the least understood disease markers. Here we employed Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the relationship between pathogenicity of breast lesions in fresh biopsy cores and composition of type II microcalcifications. Using a chemometric model of chemical-morphological constituents, acquired Raman spectra were translated to characterize chemical makeup of the lesions. We find that increase in carbonate intercalation in the hydroxyapatite lattice can be reliably employed to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, with algorithms based only on carbonate and cytoplasmic protein content exhibiting excellent negative predictive value (93-98%). Our findings highlight the importance of calcium carbonate, an underrated constituent of microcalcifications, as a spectroscopic marker in breast pathology evaluation and pave the way for improved biopsy guidance.

  14. Intercalation of anionic organic ultraviolet ray absorbers into layered zinc hydroxide nitrate.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Gardolinski, José Eduardo Ferreira da Costa; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was synthesized and nitrate ions were topotactically exchanged with three different anionic species of commercial organic ultraviolet (UV) ray absorbers: 2-mercaptobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-aminobenzoic acid. The exchange reactions were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry, TGA, and differential thermal analysis, DTA). In all the anionic exchanged products, evidence of grafting of the organic species onto the inorganic matrix was obtained. In general, after intercalation/grafting, the UV absorption ability was improved in relation to the use of the parent organic material, showing that layered hydroxide salts (LHS) can be good alternative matrixes for the immobilization of organic species with UV-blocking properties in cosmetic products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intercalation of sulfonated melamine formaldehyde polycondensates into a hydrocalumite LDH structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hoessle, F.; Plank, J.; Leroux, F.

    2015-05-01

    A series of sulfonated melamine formaldehyde (SMF) polycondensates possessing different anionic charge amounts and molecular weights was synthesized and incorporated into a hydrocalumite type layered double hydroxide structure using the rehydration method. For this purpose, tricalcium aluminate was dispersed in water and hydrated in the presence of these polymers. Defined inorganic-organic hybrid materials were obtained as reaction products. All SMF polymers tested intercalated readily into the hydrocalumite structure, independent of their different molecular weights (chain lengths) and anionic charge amounts. X-ray diffraction revealed typical patterns for weakly ordered, highly polymer loaded LDH materials which was confirmed via elemental analysis and thermogravimetry. IR spectroscopy suggests that the SMF polymers are interleaved between the [Ca2Al(OH)6]+ main sheets via electrostatic interaction, and that no chemical bond between the host matrix and the guest anion is formed. The SMF polymers well ensconced within the LDH structure exhibit significantly slower thermal degradation.

  16. Sulfuric acid intercalated-mechanical exfoliation of reduced graphene oxide from old coconut shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islamiyah, Wildatun; Nashirudin, Luthfi; Baqiya, Malik A.; Cahyono, Yoyok; Darminto

    2018-04-01

    We report a fecile preparation of reduced grapheme oxide (rGO) from an old coconut shell by rapid reduction of heating at 400°C, chemical exfoliation using H2SO4 and HCl intercalating and mechanical exfoliation using ultrasonication. The produced samples consist of random stacks of nanometer-sized sheets. The dispersions prepared from H2SO4 had broader size distributions and larger particle sizes than the that from HCl. An average size of rGO in H2SO4 and HCl is respectively 23.62 nm and 570.4 nm. Furthermore, sample prepared in H2SO4 exhibited a high electronical conductivity of 1.1 × 10-3 S/m with a low energy gap of 0.11 eV.

  17. Rare earth and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with the 2-aminobenzoate anion as organic luminescent sensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade, E-mail: anacursino@ufpr.br; Rives, Vicente, E-mail: vrives@usal.es; Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx

    2015-10-15

    Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The UV absorption ability was improved after intercalation/grafting in relation to that shown by the parent material. - Highlights: • Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide were synthesized. • Intercalated nitrate anions were exchanged by 2-aminobenzoate. • In all the 2-aminobenzoate containing compounds, the grafting reaction was detected. • The UV absorption ability was improved after the exchange reactions. • Rare earth hydroxide salts are potential matrixes to produce luminescentmore » materials. - Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The obtained compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopies, fluorescence measurements and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The results from FTIR spectroscopy suggest a direct coordination of 2-aminobenzoate to the metal cations of the inorganic layered structure. The organic derivative products from the intercalation reactions absorb a broader range of UV-light in relation to that shown by the parent material; the photoluminescence measurements present a strong violet, blue and green luminescence under UV-light excitation for layered compounds with, Zn, Y and Tb, respectively. Rare earth hydroxide salts (RE-LHS) are potential alternative matrices for the immobilization of organic species to produce luminescent materials.« less

  18. Intercalated theophylline-smectite hybrid for pH-mediated delivery.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Vivek; Nandi, Uttom; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Coleman, Nichola J

    2018-01-23

    On the basis of their large specific surface areas, high adsorption and cation exchange capacities, swelling potential and low toxicity, natural smectite clays are attractive substrates for the gastric protection of neutral and cationic drugs. Theophylline is an amphoteric xanthine derivative that is widely used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study considers the in vitro uptake and release characteristics of the binary theophylline-smectite system. The cationic form of theophylline was readily ion exchanged into smectite clay at pH 1.2 with a maximum uptake of 67 ± 2 mg g -1 . Characterisation of the drug-clay hybrid system by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the theophylline had been exclusively intercalated into the clay system in an amorphous form. The drug remained bound within the clay under simulated gastric conditions at pH 1.2; and the prolonged release of approximately 40% of the drug was observed in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 6.8 and 7.4 within a 2-h timeframe. The incomplete reversibility of the intercalation process was attributed to chemisorption of the drug within the clay lattice. These findings indicate that smectite clay is a potentially suitable vehicle for the safe passage of theophylline into the duodenum. Protection from absorption in the stomach and subsequent prolonged release in the small intestine are advantageous in reducing fluctuations in serum concentration which may impact therapeutic effect and toxicity.

  19. Enhanced retention of linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl in sandy soil columns intercalated with wood barriers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Ordax, J M; Arienzo, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J

    2011-03-01

    A study has been made of the effect a reactive barrier made of pine (softwood) or oak (hardwood) wood intercalated in a sandy soil column has on the retention of linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl (pesticides with contrasting physicochemical characteristics). The leaching of pesticides has been carried out under a saturated flow regime and breakthrough curves (BTCs) have been obtained at flow rates of 1 m Lmin(-1) (all pesticides) and 3 m Lmin(-1) (linuron). The cumulative curves in the unmodified soil indicate a leaching of pesticides >80% of the total amount of compound added. After barrier intercalation, linuron leaching decreases significantly and a modification of the leaching kinetics of alachlor and metalaxyl has been observed. The theoretical R factors increased ∼2.6-3.3, 1.2-1.6-fold, and 1.4-1.7-fold and the concentration of the maximum peak decreased ∼6-12-fold, 2-4-fold and 1.2-2-fold for linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl, respectively. When considering the three pesticides, significant correlations have been found between the theoretical retardation factor (R) and the pore volume corresponding to the maximum peaks of the BTCs (r=0.77; p<0.05) or the total volume leached (r=-0.78; p<0.05). The results reveal the efficacy of reactive wood barriers to decrease the leaching of pesticides from point sources of pollution depends on the type of wood, the hydrophobicity of the pesticide and the adopted water flow rate. Pine was more effective than oak in decreasing the leaching of hydrophobic pesticide linuron or in decreasing the maximum peak concentration of the less hydrophobic pesticides in soils. Efficacy of these wood barriers was limited for the least hydrophobic pesticide metalaxyl. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intercalated Treatment Following Rebiopsy Is Associated with a Shorter Progression-Free Survival of Osimertinib Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Huang, Yen-Hsiang; Su, Kang-Yi; Yu, Sung-Liang; Chang, Gee-Chen

    2017-12-11

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation serves as an important predictor of osimertinib efficacy. However, little is known about how it works among patients with various timings of T790M emergence and treatment. Advanced EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients with positive T790M mutation in tumor were retrospectively enrolled and observed to determine the outcomes of osimertinib treatment. We evaluated the association between patients' characteristics and the efficacy of osimertinib treatment, particularly with respect to the timing of T790M emergence and osimertinib prescription. A total of 91 patients were enrolled, including 14 (15.4%) with primary and 77 (84.6%) with acquired T790M mutation. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 60.9% and 85.1%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.0 to 14.0) and 30.4 months (95% CI, 11.3 to 49.5), respectively. There was no significant difference in response rate and PFS between primary and acquired T790M populations. In the acquired T790M subgroup, patients who received osimertinib after T790M had been confirmed by rebiopsy had a longer PFS than those with intercalated treatments between rebiopsy and osimertinib prescription (14.0 months [95% CI, 9.0 to 18.9] vs. 7.2 months [95% CI, 3.7 to 10.8]; adjusted hazard ratio 0.48 [95% CI, 0.24 to 0.98; p=0.043]. Rebiopsy timing did not influence the outcome. Osimertinib prescription with intercalated treatment following rebiopsy but not the timing of T790M emergence influenced the treatment outcome. We suggest that it is better to start osimertinib treatment once T790M mutation has been confirmed by biopsy.

  1. Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of Li Intercalation in LiFePO4.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Penghao; Henkelman, Graeme

    2018-01-23

    Even as a commercial cathode material, LiFePO 4 remains of tremendous research interest for understanding Li intercalation dynamics. The partially lithiated material spontaneously separates into Li-poor and Li-rich phases at equilibrium. Phase segregation is a surprising property of LiFePO 4 given its high measured rate capability. Previous theoretical studies, aiming to describe Li intercalation in LiFePO 4 , include both atomic-scale density functional theory (DFT) calculations of static Li distributions and entire-particle-scale phase field models, based upon empirical parameters, studying the dynamics of the phase separation. Little effort has been made to bridge the gap between these two scales. In this work, DFT calculations are used to fit a cluster expansion for the basis of kinetic Monte Carlo calculations, which enables long time scale simulations with accurate atomic interactions. This atomistic model shows how the phases evolve in Li x FePO 4 without parameters from experiments. Our simulations reveal that an ordered Li 0.5 FePO4 phase with alternating Li-rich and Li-poor planes along the ac direction forms between the LiFePO 4 and FePO 4 phases, which is consistent with recent X-ray diffraction experiments showing peaks associated with an intermediate-Li phase. The calculations also help to explain a recent puzzling experiment showing that LiFePO 4 particles with high aspect ratios that are narrower along the [100] direction, perpendicular to the [010] Li diffusion channels, actually have better rate capabilities. Our calculations show that lateral surfaces parallel to the Li diffusion channels, as well as other preexisting sites that bind Li weakly, are important for phase nucleation and rapid cycling performance.

  2. In situ oligomerization of 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate intercalated into Zn{sub 2}Al layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tronto, Jairo, E-mail: jairotronto@ufv.br; Pinto, Frederico G.; Costa, Liovando M. da

    2015-01-15

    A layered double hydroxide (LDH) with cation composition Zn{sub 2}Al was intercalated with 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate (3-TA) monomers. To achieve in situ polymerization and/or oligomerization of the intercalated monomers, soft thermal treatments were carried out, and subsequent hybrid LDH materials were analyzed by means of several characterization techniques using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), {sup 13}C CP–MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (EPR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES), and elemental analysis. PXRD analysis suggested that the intercalated monomers formed a bilayer. Thermalmore » treatment of the hybrid LDH assembly above 120 °C provokes partially the breakdown of the layered structure, generating the phase zincite. EPR results indicated that vicinal monomers (oligomerization) were bound to each other after hydrothermal or thermal treatment, leading to a polaron response characteristic of electron conductivity localized on a restricted number of thiophene-based monomer segments. Localized unpaired electrons exist in the material and interact with the {sup 27}Al nuclei of the LDH layers by superhyperfine coupling. These unpaired electrons also interact with the surface of ZnO (O{sup 2−} vacancies), formed during the thermal treatments. - Graphical abstract: We synthesized a layered double hydroxide (LDH) with cation composition Zn{sub 2}Al, intercalated with 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate (3-TA) monomers, by coprecipitation at constant pH. We thermally treated the material, to achieve in situ polymerization and/or oligomerization of the intercalated monomers. - Highlights: • A Zn{sub 2}Al–LDH was intercalated with 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate monomers. • To achieve in situ oligomerization of the monomers, thermal treatments were

  3. Integration of planar cell polarity and ECM signaling in elongation of the vertebrate body plan.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Paul; Keller, Ray

    2010-10-01

    The shaping of the vertebrate embryonic body plan depends heavily on the narrowing and lengthening (convergence and extension) of embryonic tissues by cell intercalation, a process by which cells actively crawl between one another along the axis of convergence to produce a narrower, longer array. We discuss recent evidence that the vertebrate non-canonical Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway, known to directly function in polarizing the movements of intercalating cells, is also involved in the localized assembly of extracellular matrix (ECM). These cell-ECM interactions, in turn, are necessary for expression of the oriented, polarized cell intercalation. The mechanism of PCP/ECM interactions, their molecular signaling, and their mechanical consequences for morphogenesis are discussed with the goal of identifying important unsolved issues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. One-step synthesis of layered yttrium hydroxides in immiscible liquid-liquid systems: Intercalation of sterically-bulky hydrophobic organic anions and doping of europium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mebae; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2014-02-01

    Inorganic-organic layered rare-earth compounds were synthesized on the basis of a biphasic liquid-liquid system in one pot. Layered yttrium hydroxides (LYHs) were chosen as a host material for the intercalation of hydrophobic organic guest anions such as benzoate, sebacate, or laurate. In a typical synthesis, an organic phase dissolving carboxylic acid was placed in contact with an equal amount of an aqueous phase dissolving yttrium nitrate n-hydrate and urea. At elevated temperatures up to 80 °C, urea was hydrolyzed to release hydroxyl anions which were used to form yttrium hydroxide layers. LYHs were then precipitated with the intercalation of carboxylate anions delivered from the organic phase under the distribution law. The structure and the morphology of the LYHs could be modulated by the intercalated anions. Doped with Eu3+ ions, the LYHs exhibited red photoluminescence which was enhanced by the intercalated anions due to the antenna effect.

  5. Intercalated hybrid of kaolinite with KH2PO4 showing high ionic conductivity (∼10-4 S cm-1) at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shao-Xian; Xue, Chen; Yang, Hao; Huang, Xiao-Qing; Zou, Yang; Ding, Yan-Ni; Li, Li; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present the study of preparation and ionic conductance for an intercalated hybrid of kaolinite with potassium dihydrogen. The intercalation efficiency is high up to ca. 90%. The intercalated hybrid has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivity (σ) of the hybrid material is strongly dependent on the moisture in the environment, with σ = 8.4 × 10-10 S cm-1 at 293 K and gradually increases to 7.16 × 10-9 S cm-1 under N2 atmosphere (anhydrous environment) at 353 K as well as an activation energy of Ea = 0.618 e V, whereas σ = 2.19 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 100% relative humidity and 293 K with Ea = 0.44 eV. The mechanism that the moisture affects the ionic conductance of the intercalated hybrid is further discussed.

  6. Formation of hydrotalcite in aqueous solutions and intercalation of ATP by anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroki; Chiba, Jun; Ito, Masahiro; Takeda, Takashi; Kikkawa, Shinichi; Mawatari, Yasuteru; Tabata, Masayoshi

    2006-08-15

    The formation reaction and the intercalation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were studied for hydrotalcite (HT), a layered double hydroxide (LDH) of magnesium and aluminum. Hydrotalcite with nitrate ions in the interlayer (HT-NO(3)) was formed (A) by dropwise addition of a solution of magnesium and aluminum nitrates (pH ca. 3) to a sodium hydroxide solution (pH ca. 14) until the pH decreased from 14 to 10 and (B) by dropwise addition of the NaOH solution to the solution of magnesium and aluminum nitrates with pH increasing from 3 to 10. The precipitate obtained with method B was contaminated with aluminum hydroxide and the crystallinity of the product was low, possibly because aluminum hydroxide precipitates at pH 4 or 5 and remains even after HT-NO(3) forms at pH above 8. With method A, however, the precipitate was pure HT-NO(3) with increased crystallinity, since the solubility of aluminum hydroxide at pH above and around 10 is high as dissolved aluminate anions are stable in this high pH region, and there was no aluminum hydroxide contamination. The formed HT-NO(3) had a composition of [Mg(0.71)Al(0.29)(OH)(2)](NO(3))(0.29).0.58H(2)O. To intercalate ATP anions into the HT-NO(3), HT-NO(3) was dispersed in an ATP solution at pH 7. It was found that the interlayer nitrate ions were completely exchanged with ATP anions by ion exchange, and the interlayer distance expanded almost twice with a free space distance of 1.2 nm. The composition of HT-ATP was established as [Mg(0.68)Al(0.32)(OH)(2)](ATP)(0.080)0.88H(2)O. The increased distance could be explained with a calculated molecular configuration of the ATP as follows: An ATP molecule is bound to an interlayer surface with the triphosphate group, the adenosine group bends owing to its bond angles and projects into the interlayer to a height of 1 nm, and the adenosine groups aligned in the interlayer support the interlayer distance.

  7. Surface and interlayer base-characters in lepidocrocite titanate: The adsorption and intercalation of fatty acid

    SciTech Connect

    Maluangnont, Tosapol, E-mail: tosapol.ma@kmitl.ac.th; Catalytic Chemistry Research Unit, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520; Arsa, Pornanan

    2016-06-15

    While layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with positively-charged sheets are well known as basic materials, layered metal oxides having negatively-charged sheets are not generally recognized so. In this article, the surface and interlayer base-characters of O{sup 2−} sites in layered metal oxides have been demonstrated, taking lepidocrocite titanate K{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 1.6}O{sub 4} as an example. The low basicity (0.04 mmol CO{sub 2}/g) and low desorption temperature (50–300 °C) shown by CO{sub 2}− TPD suggests that O{sup 2−} sites at the external surfaces is weakly basic, while those at the interlayer space are mostly inaccessible to CO{sub 2}. The liquid-phase adsorptionmore » study, however, revealed the uptake as much as 37% by mass of the bulky palmitic acid (C{sub 16} acid). The accompanying expansion of the interlayer space by ~0.1 nm was detected by PXRD and TEM. In an opposite manner to the external surfaces, the interlayer O{sup 2−} sites can deprotonate palmitic acid, forming the salt (i.e., potassium palmitate) occluded between the sheets. Two types of basic sites are proposed based on ultrafast {sup 1}H MAS NMR and FTIR results. The interlayer basic sites in lepidocrocite titanate leads to an application of this material as a selective and stable two-dimensional (2D) basic catalyst, as demonstrated by the ketonization of palmitic acid into palmitone (C{sub 31} ketone). Tuning of the catalytic activity by varying the type of metal (Zn, Mg, and Li) substituting at Ti{sup IV} sites was also illustrated. - Graphical abstract: Interlayer basic sites in lepidocrocite titanate, K{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 1.6}O{sub 4}, lead to an intercalation of palmitic acid with a layer expansion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • K{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 1.6}O{sub 4} intercalates palmitic acid, forming the occluded potassium salt. • The interlayer expansion is evidenced by PXRD patterns and TEM image. • Two types of basic sites are deduced from

  8. Insights into finding a mismatch through the structure of a mispaired DNA bound by a rhodium intercalator

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Valérie C.; Kaiser, Jens T.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2007-01-01

    We report the 1.1-Å resolution crystal structure of a bulky rhodium complex bound to two different DNA sites, mismatched and matched in the oligonucleotide 5′-(dCGGAAATTCCCG)2-3′. At the AC mismatch site, the structure reveals ligand insertion from the minor groove with ejection of both mismatched bases and elucidates how destabilized mispairs in DNA may be recognized. This unique binding mode contrasts with major groove intercalation, observed at a matched site, where doubling of the base pair rise accommodates stacking of the intercalator. Mass spectral analysis reveals different photocleavage products associated with the two binding modes in the crystal, with only products characteristic of mismatch binding in solution. This structure, illustrating two clearly distinct binding modes for a molecule with DNA, provides a rationale for the interrogation and detection of mismatches. PMID:17194756

  9. Flattening and manipulation of the electronic structure of h-BN/Rh(111) nanomesh upon Sn intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Yuya; Bernard, Carlo; Okuyama, Yuma; Ideta, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Greber, Thomas; Hirahara, Toru

    2018-06-01

    We have deposited Sn on corrugated hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanomeshs formed on Rh(111) and found that Sn atoms are intercalated between h-BN and Rh, flattening the h-BN. Our reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) analysis showed that the average in-plane lattice constant of h-BN increases due to the loss of the corrugation. Furthermore, electronic structure measurements based on angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) showed that the h-BN π band width increases significantly while the σ band width does not change as much. These behaviors were partly different from previous reports on the intercalation of h-BN/Rh system. Our results offer a novel, simple method to control the electronic structure of h-BN.

  10. Incorporation of rare-earth ions in Mg-Al layered double hydroxides: intercalation with an [Eu(EDTA)] - chelate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cang; Wang, Ge; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-12-01

    Reaction of an aqueous slurry of an Mg 2Al-NO 3 layered double hydroxide with a four-fold excess of Na[Eu(EDTA)] gives a material which analyses for Mg 0.68Al 0.32(OH) 2[Eu(EDTA)] 0.10(CO 3) 0.11·0.66H 2O. The interlayer spacing of the material is 13.8 Å, corresponding to a gallery height of 9.0 Å, which accords with the maximal dimensions (9-10 Å) of the anion in metal-EDTA complex salts as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Geometrical considerations show that the charge density on the layered double hydroxide layers is too high to be balanced by intercalation of [Eu(EDTA)] - alone, necessitating the co-intercalation of carbonate ions which have a much higher charge density.

  11. Effective Interlayer Engineering of Two-Dimensional VOPO4 Nanosheets via Controlled Organic Intercalation for Improving Alkali Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Peng, Xu; Fang, Zhiwei; Chu, Wangsheng; Wang, Yu; Xie, Yujun; Li, Yafei; Cha, Judy J; Yu, Guihua

    2017-10-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) energy materials have shown the promising electrochemical characteristics for lithium ion storage. However, the decreased active surfaces and the sluggish charge/mass transport for beyond-lithium ion storage that has potential for large-scale energy storage systems, such as sodium or potassium ion storage, caused by the irreversible restacking of 2D materials during electrode processing remain a major challenge. Here we develop a general interlayer engineering strategy to address the above-mentioned challenges by using 2D ultrathin vanadyl phosphate (VOPO 4 ) nanosheets as a model material for challenging sodium ion storage. Via controlled intercalation of organic molecules, such as triethylene glycol and tetrahydrofuran, the sodium ion transport in VOPO 4 nanosheets has been significantly improved. In addition to advanced characterization including X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the interlayer and the chemical bonding/configuration between the organic intercalants and the VOPO 4 host layers, density functional theory calculations are also performed to understand the diffusion behavior of sodium ions in the pure and TEG intercalated VOPO 4 nanosheets. Because of the expanded interlayer spacing in combination with the decreased energy barriers for sodium ion diffusion, intercalated VOPO 4 nanosheets show much improved sodium ion transport kinetics and greatly enhanced rate capability and cycling stability for sodium ion storage. Our results afford deeper understanding of the interlayer-engineering strategy to improve the sodium ion storage performance of the VOPO 4 nanosheets. Our results may also shed light on possible multivalent-ion based energy storage such as Mg 2+ and Al 3+ .

  12. Increasing the Analytical Sensitivity by Oligonucleotides Modified with Para- and Ortho-Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acids – TINA

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Uffe V.; Géci, Imrich; Jøhnk, Nina; Mikkelsen, Nikolaj D.; Pedersen, Erik B.; Lisby, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnostic assays using DNA hybridization techniques are limited by the dissociation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antiparallel duplex helices. This situation can be improved by addition of DNA stabilizing molecules such as nucleic acid intercalators. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel ortho-Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acid (TINA) amidite utilizing the phosphoramidite approach, and examine the stabilizing effect of ortho- and para-TINA molecules in antiparallel DNA duplex formation. In a thermal stability assay, ortho- and para-TINA molecules increased the melting point (Tm) of Watson-Crick based antiparallel DNA duplexes. The increase in Tm was greatest when the intercalators were placed at the 5′ and 3′ termini (preferable) or, if placed internally, for each half or whole helix turn. Terminally positioned TINA molecules improved analytical sensitivity in a DNA hybridization capture assay targeting the Escherichia coli rrs gene. The corresponding sequence from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa rrs gene was used as cross-reactivity control. At 150 mM ionic strength, analytical sensitivity was improved 27-fold by addition of ortho-TINA molecules and 7-fold by addition of para-TINA molecules (versus the unmodified DNA oligonucleotide), with a 4-fold increase retained at 1 M ionic strength. Both intercalators sustained the discrimination of mismatches in the dsDNA (indicated by ΔTm), unless placed directly adjacent to the mismatch – in which case they partly concealed ΔTm (most pronounced for para-TINA molecules). We anticipate that the presented rules for placement of TINA molecules will be broadly applicable in hybridization capture assays and target amplification systems. PMID:21673988

  13. First-principles investigation of aluminum intercalation and diffusion in TiO2 materials: Anatase versus rutile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Weiqiang; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi; Zhao, Shuangliang; Liu, Honglai

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum-ion batteries, emerging as a promising post-lithium battery solution, have been a subject of increasing research interest. Yet, most existing aluminum-ion research has focused on electrode materials development and synthesis. There has been a lack of fundamental understanding of the electrode processes and thus theoretical guidelines for electrode materials selection and design. In this study, by using density functional theory, we for the first time report a first-principles investigation on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of aluminum intercalation into two common TiO2 polymorphs, i.e., anatase and rutile. After examining the aluminum intercalation sites, intercalation voltages, storage capacities and aluminum diffusion paths in both cases, we demonstrate that the stable aluminum intercalation site locates at the center of the O6 octahedral for TiO2 rutile and off center for TiO2 anatase. The maximum achievable Al/Ti ratios for rutile and anatase are 0.34375 and 0.36111, respectively. Although rutile is found to have an aluminum storage capacity slightly higher than anatase, the theoretical specific energy of rutile can reach 20.90 Wh kg-1, nearly twice as high as anatase (9.84 Wh kg-1). Moreover, the diffusion coefficient of aluminum ions in rutile is 10-9 cm2 s-1, significantly higher than that in anatase (10-20 cm2 s-1). In this regard, TiO2 rutile appears to be a better candidate than anatase as an electrode material for aluminum-ion batteries.

  14. AMS Radiocarbon dating of paleosols intercalated with tephra layers from Mayon Volcano, southern Luzon, Philippines: A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirabueno, Ma. Hannah T.; Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Newhall, Christopher G.; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the AMS 14C dates of paleosols intercalated with tephra layers in the vicinity of Mayon Volcano, southern Luzon, Philippines. the obtained 14C dates are almost consistent with the stratigraphy of the Mayon tephra group. On the basis of calibrated 14C age of soil layer directly overlying the lowest ash layer, the oldest eruptive event must have taken place shortly before 20 cal kyr BP. This age is younger than the previous estimates for Mayon.

  15. Automated cell tracking identifies mechanically oriented cell divisions during Drosophila axis elongation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael F Z; Hunter, Miranda V; Wang, Gang; McFaul, Christopher; Yip, Christopher M; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Embryos extend their anterior-posterior (AP) axis in a conserved process known as axis elongation. Drosophila axis elongation occurs in an epithelial monolayer, the germband, and is driven by cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and oriented cell divisions at the posterior germband. Anterior germband cells also divide during axis elongation. We developed image analysis and pattern-recognition methods to track dividing cells from confocal microscopy movies in a generally applicable approach. Mesectoderm cells, forming the ventral midline, divided parallel to the AP axis, while lateral cells displayed a uniform distribution of division orientations. Mesectoderm cells did not intercalate and sustained increased AP strain before cell division. After division, mesectoderm cell density increased along the AP axis, thus relieving strain. We used laser ablation to isolate mesectoderm cells from the influence of other tissues. Uncoupling the mesectoderm from intercalating cells did not affect cell division orientation. Conversely, separating the mesectoderm from the anterior and posterior poles of the embryo resulted in uniformly oriented divisions. Our data suggest that mesectoderm cells align their division angle to reduce strain caused by mechanical forces along the AP axis of the embryo. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. High-rate capability of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous T-Nb2O5 through Li+ intercalation pseudocapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shuaifeng; Cheng, Xinqun; Wang, Long; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Qin; Ma, Yulin; Gao, Yunzhi; Zuo, Pengjian; Du, Chunyu; Yin, Geping

    2017-09-01

    Orthorhombic Niobium oxide (T-Nb2O5) has been regarded as a promising anode material for high-rate lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its potential to operate at high rates with improved safety and high theoretical capacity of 200 mA h g-1. Herein, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) T-Nb2O5, with mesoporous hierarchical structure, was firstly prepared by a simple approach employing self-assembly polystyrene (PS) microspheres as hard templates. The obtained T-Nb2O5 anode material presents obvious and highly-efficiency pseudocapacitive Li+ intercalation behaviour, which plays a dominant role in the kinetics of electrode process. As a result, rapid Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation are achieved, leading to excellent rate capability and long cycle life. The 3DOM T-Nb2O5 shows a remarkable high capacity of 106 and 77 mA h g-1 at the rate of 20C and 50C. The work presented herein holds great promise for future design of material structure, and demonstrates the great potential of T-Nb2O5 as a practical high-rate anode material for LIBs.

  17. Hierarchical Porous Intercalation-Type V2 O3 as High-Performance Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengcheng; Zhu, Kongjun; Xu, Yuan; Bian, Kan; Wang, Jing; Tai, Guo'an; Gao, Yanfeng; Luo, Hongjie; Lu, Li; Liu, Jinsong

    2017-06-01

    As intercalation-type anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs), the commercially used graphite and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 exhibit good cycling and rate properties, but their theoretical specific capacities are too low to meet the ever-growing demands of high-energy applications such as electric vehicles. Therefore, the development of new intercalation-type anode materials with larger capacity is very desirable. Herein, we design and synthesize novel 3 D hierarchical porous V 2 O 3 @C micro/nanostructures consisting of crumpled nanosheets, through self-reduction under annealing from the structurally similar VO 2 (B)@C precursors without the addition of any other reducing reagent or gas. Excitingly, it is found for the first time through ex situ XRD technology that V 2 O 3 is a new, promising intercalation-type anode material for LIBs with a high capacity. V 2 O 3 @C micro/nanostructures can deliver a large capacity of 732 mAh g -1 without capacity loss at 100 mA g -1 even after 136 cycles, as well as exhibiting excellent cycling and rate performances. The application of V 2 O 3 for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) is elaborated for the first time, and excitingly, it is found that V 2 O 3 @C micro/nanostructures may be promising anode materials for NIBs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiyang; El Gabaly, Farid; Ferguson, Todd R; Smith, Raymond B; Bartelt, Norman C; Sugar, Joshua D; Fenton, Kyle R; Cogswell, Daniel A; Kilcoyne, A L David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bazant, Martin Z; Chueh, William C

    2014-12-01

    Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  19. The effect of surface-bulk potential difference on the kinetics of intercalation in core-shell active cathode particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemiabnavi, Saeed; Malik, Rahul; Orvananos, Bernardo; Abdellahi, Aziz; Ceder, Gerbrand; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2018-04-01

    Surface modification of active cathode particles is commonly observed in battery research as either a surface phase evolving during the cycling process, or intentionally engineered to improve capacity retention, rate capability, and/or thermal stability of the cathode material. Here, a continuum-scale model is developed to simulate the galvanostatic charge/discharge of a cathode particle with core-shell heterostructure. The particle is assumed to be comprised of a core material encapsulated by a thin layer of a second phase that has a different open-circuit voltage. The effect of the potential difference between the surface and bulk phases (Ω) on the kinetics of lithium intercalation and the galvanostatic charge/discharge profiles is studied at different values of Ω, C-rates, and exchange current densities. The difference between the Li chemical potential in the surface and bulk phases of the cathode particle results in a concentration difference between these two phases. This leads to a charge/discharge asymmetry in the galvanostatic voltage profiles, causing a decrease in the accessible capacity of the particle. These effects are more significant at higher magnitudes of surface-bulk potential difference. The proposed model provides detailed insight into the kinetics and voltage behavior of the intercalation/de-intercalation processes in core-shell heterostructure cathode particles.

  20. An Inexpensive Co-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Composite with Electron Donor-Acceptor Character for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shufang; Lu, Jun; Yan, Dongpeng; Qin, Yumei; Li, Hailong; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the inexpensive 4,4-diaminostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DAS) and 4,4-dinitro-stilbene-2,2- disulfonate (DNS) anions with arbitrary molar ratios were successfully co-intercalated into Zn2Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The DAS(50%)-DNS/LDHs composite exhibited the broad UV-visible light absorption and fluorescence quenching, which was a direct indication of photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process between the intercalated DAS (donor) and DNS (acceptor) anions. This was confirmed by the matched HOMO/LUMO energy levels alignment of the intercalated DAS and DNS anions, which was also compatible for water splitting. The DAS(50%)-DNS/LDHs composite was fabricated as the photoanode and Pt as the cathode. Under the UV-visible light illumination, the enhanced photo-generated current (4.67 mA/cm2 at 0.8 V vs. SCE) was generated in the external circuit, and the photoelectrochemical water split was realized. Furthermore, this photoelectrochemical water splitting performance had excellent crystalline, electrochemical and optical stability. Therefore, this novel inorganic/organic hybrid photoanode exhibited potential application prospect in photoelectrochemical water splitting. PMID:26174201

  1. Hydrogenation and hydrogen intercalation of hexagonal boron nitride on Ni(1 1 1): reactivity and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, F.; Gebhardt, J.; Düll, F.; Bauer, U.; Bachmann, P.; Gleichweit, C.; Görling, A.; Steinrück, H.-P.; Papp, C.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the reactivity of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on a Ni(1 1 1) single crystal towards atomic hydrogen over a wide exposure range. Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that for low hydrogen exposures hydrogenation of the h-BN sheet is found. In contrast, intercalation of hydrogen between h-BN and the Ni(1 1 1) substrate occurs for high exposures. For intermediate regimes, a mixture of intercalation and hydrogenation is observed. From temperature-programmed desorption and temperature-programmed XPS experiments, we conclude that the hydrogen covalently bound to h-BN is rather stable with a desorption temperature of 600 K, while intercalated hydrogen is desorbing already at 390 K. Further insight into the structural arrangements and the thermodynamics of the system is obtained by comparing our experimental results with extensive density-functional theory calculations. Together with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the calculations provide detailed insight into the influence of hydrogenation on the electronic structure of h-BN.

  2. Nucleation and growth kinetics for intercalated islands during deposition on layered materials with isolated pointlike surface defects

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Yong; Lii-Rosales, A.; Zhou, Y.; ...

    2017-10-13

    Theory and stochastic lattice-gas modeling is developed for the formation of intercalated metal islands in the gallery between the top layer and the underlying layer at the surface of layered materials. Our model for this process involves deposition of atoms, some fraction of which then enter the gallery through well-separated pointlike defects in the top layer. Subsequently, these atoms diffuse within the subsurface gallery leading to nucleation and growth of intercalated islands nearby the defect point source. For the case of a single point defect, continuum diffusion equation analysis provides insight into the nucleation kinetics. However, complementary tailored lattice-gas modelingmore » produces a more comprehensive and quantitative characterization. We analyze the large spread in nucleation times and positions relative to the defect for the first nucleated island. We also consider the formation of subsequent islands and the evolution of island growth shapes. The shapes reflect in part our natural adoption of a hexagonal close-packed island structure. As a result, motivation and support for the model is provided by scanning tunneling microscopy observations of the formation of intercalated metal islands in highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite at higher temperatures.« less

  3. Relaxation kinetics of the interaction between RNA and metal-intercalators: the Poly(A).Poly(U)/platinum-proflavine system.

    PubMed

    Biver, Tarita; Secco, Fernando; Venturini, Marcella

    2005-05-15

    The interactions of Poly(A).Poly(U) with the cis-platinum derivative of proflavine [{PtCl(tmen)}(2){HNC(13)H(7)(NHCH(2)CH(2))(2)}](+) (PRPt) and proflavine (PR) are investigated by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry and T-jump relaxation at I=0.2M, pH 7.0, and T=25 degrees C. Base-dye interactions prevail at high RNA/dye ratio and binding isotherms analysis reveals that both dyes bind to Poly(A).Poly(U) according to the excluded site model (n=2). Only one relaxation effect is observed for the Poly(A).Poly(U)/PRPt system, whereas two effects are observed with Poly(A).Poly(U)/PR. The results agree with the sequence D+S <==> D, S <==> DS(I) <==> DS(II), where D,S is an external complex, DS(I) is a partially intercalated species, and DS(II) is the fully intercalated complex. Formation of DS(II) could be observed in the case of proflavine only. This result is interpreted by assuming that the platinum-containing residue of PRPt hinders the full intercalation of the acridine residue.

  4. Exfoliation and van der Waals heterostructure assembly of intercalated ferromagnet Cr1/3TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Moriya, Rai; Arai, Miho; Masubuchi, Satoru; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Keiji; Machida, Tomoki

    2017-12-01

    Ferromagnetic van der Waals (vdW) materials are in demand for spintronic devices with all-two-dimensional-materials heterostructures. Here, we demonstrate mechanical exfoliation of magnetic-atom-intercalated transition metal dichalcogenide Cr1/3TaS2 from its bulk crystal; previously such intercalated materials were thought difficult to exfoliate. Magnetotransport in exfoliated tens-of-nanometres-thick flakes revealed ferromagnetic ordering below its Curie temperature T C ~ 110 K as well as strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy; these are identical to its bulk properties. Further, van der Waals heterostructure assembly of Cr1/3TaS2 with another intercalated ferromagnet Fe1/4TaS2 is demonstrated using a dry-transfer method. The fabricated heterojunction composed of Cr1/3TaS2 and Fe1/4TaS2 with a native Ta2O5 oxide tunnel barrier in between exhibits tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), revealing possible spin injection and detection with these exfoliatable ferromagnetic materials through the vdW junction.

  5. First-principles estimates of free energy barriers for Mg desolvation and intercalation at electrolyte/electrode interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Liwen; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    There is a growing interest in developing multivalent ion batteries that could, in principle, double or triple the energy density compared to the monovalent Li-ion batteries. However, the strong electrostatic interaction caused by the extra charge also makes it very challenging to find appropriate intercalation compounds that allow for relatively fast and reversible ion transport. An established working multivalent battery is comprised of Mg(AlCl2BuEt)2 salts in THF solution as the electrolyte, and Mg metal and Mo6S8 Chevrel phase as the anode and cathode, respectively. Currently, we lack a clear understanding of the mechanism for Mg desolvation and intercalation at the interface between the electrolyte and Chevrel phase surfaces, which is critical in designing new advanced battery systems with improved ion diffusion rate. Here, we present a theoretical investigation of the dynamics and kinetics of the Mg desolvation/intercalation process. The surface properties of Mo6S8 are studied for the first time using density functional theory (DFT) and its interaction with the electrolyte is simulated via an ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) approach. The free energy barrier for Mg diffusing through the interface is then calculated by performing a set of biased AIMD simulations. This work is supported as part of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences.

  6. Effect of molecular intercalation on the local structure of superconducting Nax(NH3)yMoSe2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, L.; Paris, E.; Wakita, T.; Marini, C.; Terashima, K.; Miao, X.; Olszewski, W.; Ramanan, N.; Heinis, D.; Kubozono, Y.; Yokoya, T.; Saini, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the local structure of layered Nax(NH3)yMoSe2 system by Mo K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements performed as a function of temperature. We find that molecular intercalation in MoSe2 largely affects the Mo-Se network while Mo-Mo seems to sustain small changes. The Einstein temperature (ΘE) of Mo-Mo distance hardly changes (∼264 K) indicating that bond strength of this distance remains unaffected by intercalation. On the other hand, Mo-Se distance suffers a softening, revealed by the decrease of ΘE from ∼364 K to ∼350 K. The results indicate that Na+ ion transported by NH3 molecules may enter between the two MoSe-layers resulting reduced Se-Se coupling. Therefore, increased hybridization between Se 4p and Mo 4d orbitals due to inter-layer disorder is the likely reason of metallicity in intercalated MoSe2 and superconductivity at low temperature.

  7. SUPPRESSION OF HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSES BY 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-p-DIOXIN INTERCALATED IN SMECTITE CLAY

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Stephen A.; Johnston, Cliff T.; Pinnavaia, Thomas J.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Teppen, Brian J.; Li, Hui; Khan, Bushra; Crawford, Robert B.; Kovalova, Natalia; Kim, Seong-Su; Shao, Hua; Gu, Cheng; Kaplan, Barbara L.F.

    2018-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant found in soils and sediments. Because of its exceptionally low water solubility, this compound exists predominantly in the sorbed state in natural environments. Clay minerals, especially expandable smectite clays, are one of the major component geosorbents in soils and sediments that can function as an effective adsorbent for environmental dioxins, including TCDD. In this study, TCDD was intercalated in the smectite clay saponite by an incipient wetness method. The primary goal of this study was to intercalate TCDD in natural K-saponite clay and evaluate its immunotoxic effects in vivo. The relative bioavailability of TCDD was evaluated by comparing the metabolic activity of TCDD administered in the adsorbed state as an intercalate in saponite and freely dissolved in corn oil. This comparison revealed nearly identical TCDD-induced suppression of humoral immunity, a well-established and sensitive sequela, in a mammalian (mouse) model. This result suggests that TCDD adsorbed by clays is likely to be available for biouptake and biodistribution in mammals, consistent with previous observations of TCDD in livestock exposed to dioxin-contaminated ball clays that were used as feed additives. Adsorption of TCDD by clay minerals does not appear to mitigate risk associated with TCDD exposure substantially. PMID:21994089

  8. Suppression of humoral immune responses by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin intercalated in smectite clay.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Stephen A; Johnston, Cliff T; Pinnavaia, Thomas J; Kaminski, Norbert E; Teppen, Brian J; Li, Hui; Khan, Bushra; Crawford, Robert B; Kovalova, Natalia; Kim, Seong-Su; Shao, Hua; Gu, Cheng; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2011-12-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant found in soils and sediments. Because of its exceptionally low water solubility, this compound exists predominantly in the sorbed state in natural environments. Clay minerals, especially expandable smectite clays, are one of the major component geosorbents in soils and sediments that can function as an effective adsorbent for environmental dioxins, including TCDD. In this study, TCDD was intercalated in the smectite clay saponite by an incipient wetness method. The primary goal of this study was to intercalate TCDD in natural K-saponite clay and evaluate its immunotoxic effects in vivo. The relative bioavailability of TCDD was evaluated by comparing the metabolic activity of TCDD administered in the adsorbed state as an intercalate in saponite and freely dissolved in corn oil. This comparison revealed nearly identical TCDD-induced suppression of humoral immunity, a well-established and sensitive sequela, in a mammalian (mouse) model. This result suggests that TCDD adsorbed by clays is likely to be available for biouptake and biodistribution in mammals, consistent with previous observations of TCDD in livestock exposed to dioxin-contaminated ball clays that were used as feed additives. Adsorption of TCDD by clay minerals does not appear to mitigate risk associated with TCDD exposure substantially. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  9. High Energy-Density and Reversibility of Iron Fluoride Cathode Enabled Via an Intercalation-Extrusion Reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Xiulin; Hu, Enyuan; Ji, Xiao; ...

    2018-05-30

    Iron fluoride, an intercalation-conversion cathode for lithium ion batteries, promises a high theoretical energy density of 1922 Wh Kg –1. However, poor electrochemical reversibility due to repeated breaking/reformation of metal-fluoride bonds poses a grand challenge for its practical application. Here we report that both a high reversibility over 1000 cycles and a high capacity of 420 mAh g –1 can be realized by concerted doping of cobalt and oxygen into iron fluoride. In the doped nanorods, an energy density of ~1000 Wh Kg –1 with a decay rate of 0.03% per cycle is achieved. The anion and cation’s co-substitutions thermodynamicallymore » reduce conversion-reaction potential and shift the reaction from less reversible intercalation-conversion reaction in iron fluoride to a highly reversible intercalation-extrusion reaction in doped material. Furthermore, the co-substitution strategy to tune the thermodynamic features of the reactions could be extended to other high energy conversion materials for improved performance.« less

  10. High Energy-Density and Reversibility of Iron Fluoride Cathode Enabled Via an Intercalation-Extrusion Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xiulin; Hu, Enyuan; Ji, Xiao

    Iron fluoride, an intercalation-conversion cathode for lithium ion batteries, promises a high theoretical energy density of 1922 Wh Kg –1. However, poor electrochemical reversibility due to repeated breaking/reformation of metal-fluoride bonds poses a grand challenge for its practical application. Here we report that both a high reversibility over 1000 cycles and a high capacity of 420 mAh g –1 can be realized by concerted doping of cobalt and oxygen into iron fluoride. In the doped nanorods, an energy density of ~1000 Wh Kg –1 with a decay rate of 0.03% per cycle is achieved. The anion and cation’s co-substitutions thermodynamicallymore » reduce conversion-reaction potential and shift the reaction from less reversible intercalation-conversion reaction in iron fluoride to a highly reversible intercalation-extrusion reaction in doped material. Furthermore, the co-substitution strategy to tune the thermodynamic features of the reactions could be extended to other high energy conversion materials for improved performance.« less

  11. Synthesis a