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Sample records for a-type natriuretic peptide

  1. The natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Gary F

    2004-03-01

    The natriuretic peptides are a family of widely distributed, but evolutionarily conserved, polypeptide mediators that exert a range of actions throughout the body. In cardiovascular homeostasis, the endocrine roles of the cardiac-derived atrial and B-type natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP) in regulating central fluid volume and blood pressure have been recognised for two decades. However, there is a growing realisation that natriuretic peptide actions go far beyond their volume regulating effects. These pleiotropic actions include local (autocrine/paracrine) regulatory actions of ANP and BNP within the heart, and of another natriuretic peptide, CNP, within the vessel wall. Effects on function and growth of the local tissue environment are likely to be of great importance, especially in disease states where tissue and circulating levels of ANP and BNP rise markedly. At present, the relevance of other natriuretic peptides (notably uroguanylin and DNP) to human physiology and pathology remain uncertain. Other articles in this issue of Basic Research in Cardiology review the molecular physiology of natriuretic peptide signalling, with a particular emphasis on the lessons from genetically targetted mice; the vascular activity of natriuretic peptides; the regulation and roles of natriuretic peptides in ischaemic myocardium; and the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic roles of natriuretic peptides in heart failure.

  2. Pro-A-type natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin predict progression of chronic kidney disease: the MMKD Study.

    PubMed

    Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Kollerits, Barbara; Struck, Joachim; Ritz, Eberhard; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-02-01

    A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) are potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic peptides involved in maintaining cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. We conducted a prospective 7-year study of 177 nondiabetic patients with primary chronic kidney disease to see if ANP and ADM plasma concentrations predict the progression of their disease, using novel sandwich immunoassays covering the midregional epitopes of the stable prohormones (MRproANP and MR-proADM). Progression of chronic kidney disease was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or terminal renal failure, which occurred in 65 patients. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of renal endpoints showed similar areas under the curve for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (0.838), MR-proANP (0.810), and MRproADM (0.876), respectively, as did the Kaplan-Meier curve analyses of the patients stratified according to the median of the respective markers. In separate multiple Cox-proportional hazard regression analyses, increased plasma concentrations of both peptides were each strongly predictive of the progression of chronic kidney disease after adjustments for age, gender, GFR, proteinuria and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Our study suggests that MR-proANP and MR-proADM are useful new markers of progression of primary nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.

  3. Triiodothyronine and Brain Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Kozdag, Guliz; Ertas, Gokhan; Kilic, Teoman; Acar, Eser; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    Although low levels of free triiodothyronine and high levels of brain natriuretic peptide have been shown as independent predictors of death in chronic heart failure patients, few studies have compared their prognostic values. The aim of this prospective study was to measure free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide levels and to compare their prognostic values among such patients. A total of 334 patients (mean age, 62 ± 13 yr; 218 men) with ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy were included in the study. The primary endpoint was a major cardiac event. During the follow-up period, 92 patients (28%) experienced a major cardiac event. Mean free triiodothyronine levels were lower and median brain natriuretic peptide levels were higher in patients with major cardiac events than in those without. A significant negative correlation was found between free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide levels. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the predictive cutoff values were <2.12 pg/mL for free triiodothyronine and >686 pg/mL for brain natriuretic peptide. Cumulative survival was significantly lower among patients with free triiodothyronine <2.12 pg/mL and among patients with brain natriuretic peptide >686 pg/mL. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent predictors of major cardiac events were age, free triiodothyronine, and brain natriuretic peptide. In the present study, free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide had similar prognostic values for predicting long-term prognosis in chronic heart failure patients. These results also suggested that combining these biomarkers may provide an important risk indicator for patients with heart failure. PMID:20978564

  4. Natriuretic peptide metabolism, clearance and degradation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lincoln R

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide constitute a family of three structurally related, but genetically distinct, signaling molecules that regulate the cardiovascular, skeletal, nervous, reproductive and other systems by activating transmembrane guanylyl cyclases and elevating intracellular cGMP concentrations. This review broadly discusses the general characteristics of natriuretic peptides and their cognate signaling receptors, and then specifically discusses the tissue-specific metabolism of natriuretic peptides and their degradation by neprilysin, insulin-degrading enzyme, and natriuretic peptide receptor-C.

  5. Natriuretic Peptide Metabolism, Clearance and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide compose a family of three structurally related, but genetically distinct, signaling molecules that regulate the cardiovascular, skeletal, nervous, reproductive and other systems by activating transmembrane guanylyl cyclases and elevating intracellular cGMP concentrations. This review broadly discusses the general characteristics of natriuretic peptides and their cognate signaling receptors, then specifically discusses the tissue specific metabolism of natriuretic peptides and their degradation by neprilysin, insulin-degrading enzyme and natriuretic peptide receptor-C. PMID:21375692

  6. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Douglas G. . E-mail: Douglas.G.Johns@gsk.com; Ao, Zhaohui; Heidrich, Bradley J.; Hunsberger, Gerald E.; Graham, Taylor; Payne, Lisa; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Lu, Quinn; Aiyar, Nambi; Douglas, Stephen A.

    2007-06-22

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) is a newly-described natriuretic peptide which lowers blood pressure via vasodilation. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) removes natriuretic peptides from the circulation, but whether DNP interacts with human NPR-C directly is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNP binds to NPR-C. ANP, BNP, CNP, and the NPR-C ligands AP-811 and cANP(4-23) displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with pM-to-nM K {sub i} values. DNP displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with nM potency, which represents the first direct demonstration of binding of DNP to human NPR-C. DNP showed high pM affinity for the GC-A receptor and no affinity for GC-B (K {sub i} > 1000 nM). DNP was nearly 10-fold more potent than ANP at stimulating cGMP production in GC-A expressing cells. Blockade of NPR-C might represent a novel therapeutic approach in augmenting the known beneficial actions of DNP in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure.

  7. Natriuretic peptide drug leads from snake venom.

    PubMed

    Vink, S; Jin, A H; Poth, K J; Head, G A; Alewood, P F

    2012-03-15

    Natriuretic peptides are body fluid volume modulators, termed natriuretic peptides due to a role in natriuresis and diuresis. The three mammalian NPs, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain or b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), have been extensively investigated for their use as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Although effective, short half-lives and renal side effects limit their use. In approximately 30 years of research, NPs have been discovered in many vertebrates including mammals, amphibians, reptiles and fish, with plants and, more recently, bacteria also being found to possess NPs. Reptiles have produced some of the more interesting NPs, with dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), which was isolated from the venom of the green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), having greater potency and increased stability as compared to the mammalian family members, and taipan natriuretic peptide c (TNPc), which was isolated from the venom of the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus) displaying similar activity to ANP and DNP at rat natriuretic peptide receptor A. Although promising, more research is required in this field to develop therapeutics that overcome receptor-mediated clearance, and potential toxicity issues. This review investigates the use of snake venom NPs as therapeutic drug leads. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel bifunctional natriuretic peptides as potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Deborah M; Burnett, John C; Potter, Lincoln R

    2008-12-12

    Synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide (carperitide) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; nesiritide) are used to treat congestive heart failure. However, despite beneficial cardiac unloading properties, reductions in renal perfusion pressures limit their clinical effectiveness. Recently, CD-NP, a chimeric peptide composed of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) fused to the C-terminal tail of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), was shown to be more glomerular filtration rate-enhancing than BNP in dogs. However, the molecular basis for the increased responsiveness was not determined. Here, we show that the DNP tail has a striking effect on CNP, converting it from a non-agonist to a partial agonist of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A while maintaining the ability to activate NPR-B. This effect is specific for human receptors because CD-NP was only a slightly better activator of rat NPR-A due to the promiscuous nature of CNP in this species. Interesting, the DNP tail alone had no effect on any NPR even though it is effective in vivo. To further increase the potency of CD-NP for NPR-A, we converted two different triplet sequences within the CNP ring to their corresponding residues in BNP. Both variants demonstrated increased affinity and full agonist activity for NPR-A, whereas one was as potent as any NPR-A activator known. In contrast to a previous report, we found that DNP binds the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C). However, none of the chimeric peptides bound NPR-C with significantly higher affinity than endogenous ligands. We suggest that bifunctional chimeric peptides represent a new generation of natriuretic peptide therapeutics.

  9. Sacubitril/valsartan: beyond natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagdeep S S; Burrell, Louise M; Cherif, Myriam; Squire, Iain B; Clark, Andrew L; Lang, Chim C

    2017-07-08

    Natriuretic peptides, especially B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), have primarily been regarded as biomarkers in heart failure (HF). However, they are also possible therapeutic agents due to their potentially beneficial physiological effects. The angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan, simultaneously augments the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) by inhibiting the enzyme neprilysin (NEP) and inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by blocking the angiotensin II receptor. It has been shown to improve mortality and hospitalisation outcomes in patients with HF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The key advantage of sacubitril/valsartan has been perceived to be its ability to augment BNP, while its other effects have largely been overlooked. This review highlights the important effects of sacubitril/valsartan, beyond just the augmentation of BNP. First we discuss how NPS physiology differs between healthy individuals and those with HF by looking at mechanisms like the overwhelming effects of RAAS on the NPS, natriuretic peptide receptor desensitisation and absolute natriuretic deficiency. Second, this review explores other hormones that are augmented by sacubitril/valsartan such as bradykinin, substance P and adrenomedullin that may contribute to the efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in HF. We also discuss concerns that sacubitril/valsartan may interfere with amyloid-β homeostasis with potential implications on Alzheimer's disease and macular degeneration. Finally, we explore the concept of 'autoinhibition' which is a recently described observation that humans have innate NEP inhibitory capability when natriuretic peptide levels rise above a threshold. There is speculation that autoinhibition may provide a surge of natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides to rapidly reverse decompensation. We contend that by pre-emptively inhibiting NEP, sacubitril/valsartan is inducing this surge earlier during decompensation

  10. The midregional fragment of pro-A-type natriuretic peptide, blood pressure, and mortality in a prospective cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-25).

    PubMed

    van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Landman, Gijs W D; Kleefstra, Nanne; Groenier, Klaas H; Struck, Joachim; Navis, Gerjan J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; van der Meer, Klaas; Bilo, Henk J G

    2013-05-01

    Evidence that midregional fragment of pro-A-type natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) is a marker of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is limited. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the capabilities of MR-proANP in predicting mortality. We also investigated whether MR-proANP influences the relationship between blood pressure and mortality in old age. In 1998, 1,143 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes participated in the ZODIAC study. Because blood was drawn for 867 patients (76%) and confounders were missing for 19 patients, the final study sample comprised 848 patients. After a follow-up time of 10 years, we used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the relationship between MR-proANP and (cardiovascular) mortality. Harrell C statistic was used to compare models with and without MR-proANP. The regression analyses were repeated without MR-proANP for patients aged older than 75 years. Median MR-proANP in the total study sample was 75 pmol/L (interquartile range, 48-124 pmol/L). During follow-up, 354 (42%) out of 848 patients had died, of whom 152 (43%) deaths were attributable to cardiovascular factors. MR-proANP was independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of age. During old age, there was a significant inverse relationship between blood pressure and mortality. This relationship did not change after adjustment for MR-proANP. MR-proANP is independently associated with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. MR-proANP did not influence the inverse relationship between blood pressure and mortality in elderly patients.

  11. Brain natriuretic peptide: what the nurse needs to know.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Christopher

    2017-05-17

    Rationale and key points Brain natriuretic peptide is a chemical secreted when the heart is under strain. It is sampled by a blood test. This article informs nurses about how brain natriuretic peptide can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for patients with cardiac conditions. » A brain natriuretic peptide level within the normal range in a patient who is not receiving treatment, almost certainly rules out a significant cardiac condition. » An elevated brain natriuretic peptide level suggests an active cardiac condition and further investigations are indicated, usually an electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. » A highly elevated brain natriuretic peptide level is a marker for a more severe prognosis.

  12. Natriuretic peptides buffer renin-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Theo; Staffel, Janina; Schreiber, Andrea; Valletta, Daniela; Schweda, Frank

    2014-06-15

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and cardiac natriuretic peptides [atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)] are opposing control mechanisms for arterial blood pressure. Accordingly, an inverse relationship between plasma renin concentration (PRC) and ANP exists in most circumstances. However, PRC and ANP levels are both elevated in renovascular hypertension. Because ANP can directly suppress renin release, we used ANP knockout (ANP(-/-)) mice to investigate whether high ANP levels attenuate the increase in PRC in response to renal hypoperfusion, thus buffering renovascular hypertension. ANP(-/-) mice were hypertensive and had reduced PRC compared with that in wild-type ANP(+/+) mice under control conditions. Unilateral renal artery stenosis (2-kidney, 1-clip) for 1 wk induced similar increases in blood pressure and PRC in both genotypes. Unexpectedly, plasma BNP concentrations in ANP(-/-) mice significantly increased in response to two-kidney, one-clip treatment, potentially compensating for the lack of ANP. In fact, in mice lacking guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A(-/-) mice), which is the common receptor for both ANP and BNP, renovascular hypertension was markedly augmented compared with that in wild-type GC-A(+/+) mice. However, the higher blood pressure in GC-A(-/-) mice was not caused by disinhibition of the renin system because PRC and renal renin synthesis were significantly lower in GC-A(-/-) mice than in GC-A(+/+) mice. Thus, natriuretic peptides buffer renal vascular hypertension via renin-independent effects, such as vasorelaxation. The latter possibility is supported by experiments in isolated perfused mouse kidneys, in which physiological concentrations of ANP and BNP elicited renal vasodilatation and attenuated renal vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin II.

  13. The atrial natriuretic peptide: a changing view.

    PubMed

    Rubattu, S; Volpe, M

    2001-11-01

    The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a component of the natriuretic peptide family, was discovered in 1981 when de Bold and his coworkers observed a natriuretic effect induced by infusion of atrial extracts in rats. Subsequently, an impressive amount of research has been carried out in order to identify the structure of the active peptide and its receptors, to characterize the biological functions of ANP and its involvement in the pathophysiology of diseases and, finally, its direct contributory role in the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular disorders. ANP plays a key role in the regulation of salt and water balance, as well as of blood pressure homeostasis. In addition, ANP is involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and heart failure, and exerts a cellular antiproliferative effect in the cardiovascular system. More recently, a direct contributory role of ANP in the development of hypertension and of cerebrovascular disorders has been suggested by the use of molecular genetic approaches. Therefore, our understanding of the pathophysiologic relevance of ANP has changed over time, finally leading to the identification of ANP as a potential determinant of cardiovascular diseases, rather than as a simple marker of cardiac and vascular dysfunctions. This novel view of ANP may open interesting research pathways.

  14. Monoclonal antibody against brain natriuretic peptide and characterization of brain natriuretic peptide-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Tanaka, I; Mukoyama, M; Suga, S; Ogawa, Y; Tamura, N; Ishibashi, R; Goto, M; Nakagawa, O; Sugawara, A; Nakao, K

    2001-03-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a ventricular hormone with natriuretic, diuretic and vasodilatory actions. Acute infusion of BNP reduces cardiac pre- and after-load in healthy and diseased subjects, but its long-term therapeutic usefulness remains unclear. We prepared a monoclonal antibody specific to mouse BNP, and characterized transgenic mice overexpressing BNP in the liver (BNP-Tg mice) as a model of its chronic overproduction. Radioimmunoassay and neutralization experiments using the monoclonal antibody, KY-mBNP-I, were performed in BNP-Tg mice in conjunction with examinations of blood pressure (BP) and other markers for body fluid homeostasis. We developed highly sensitive radioimmunoassay to mouse BNP. In BNP-Tg mice, the plasma BNP concentration increased more than 100-fold, while ventricular BNP concentration did not alter, suggesting that ventricular BNP production was not down-regulated in BNP-Tg mice. The BNP concentration in the kidneys was 10-fold higher than nontransgenic (nonTg) littermates, accompanied with marked reduction in the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration, that may be due to binding of circulating BNP to the natriuretic peptide receptors. BNP-Tg mice showed significantly low arterial BP, and a bolus intraperitoneal administration of KYmBNP-I completely abolished enhanced cGMP excretion in the urine and significantly increased the systolic BP. These results suggested that biological actions of BNP last and reduce cardiac overload in its longterm overproduction in the transgenic mouse model.

  15. Natriuretic peptide-guided management in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chioncel, Ovidiu; Collins, Sean P; Greene, Stephen J; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Macarie, Cezar; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that manifests from various cardiac and noncardiac abnormalities. Accordingly, rapid and readily accessible methods for diagnosis and risk stratification are invaluable for providing clinical care, deciding allocation of scare resources, and designing selection criteria for clinical trials. Natriuretic peptides represent one of the most important diagnostic and prognostic tools available for the care of heart failure patients. Natriuretic peptide testing has the distinct advantage of objectivity, reproducibility, and widespread availability.The concept of tailoring heart failure management to achieve a target value of natriuretic peptides has been tested in various clinical trials and may be considered as an effective method for longitudinal biomonitoring and guiding escalation of heart failure therapies with overall favorable results.Although heart failure trials support efficacy and safety of natriuretic peptide-guided therapy as compared with usual care, the relationship between natriuretic peptide trajectory and clinical benefit has not been uniform across the trials, and certain subgroups have not shown robust benefit. Furthermore, the precise natriuretic peptide value ranges and time intervals of testing are still under investigation. If natriuretic peptides fail to decrease following intensification of therapy, further work is needed to clarify the optimal pharmacologic approach. Despite decreasing natriuretic peptide levels, some patients may present with other high-risk features (e.g. elevated troponin). A multimarker panel investigating multiple pathological processes will likely be an optimal alternative, but this will require prospective validation.Future research will be needed to clarify the type and magnitude of the target natriuretic peptide therapeutic response, as well as the duration of natriuretic peptide-guided therapy in heart failure patients.

  16. Expression of natriuretic peptide receptor mRNA and functional response to atrial natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Powell, M D; McWilliam, H; McLeod, J; Nankervis, S; Butler, R; Toop, T

    2008-04-01

    The stimulatory effect of vasomodulatory natriuretic peptide hormones on macrophages and peripheral blood leucocytes in mammals is well-established. However, the relationship in lower vertebrates has not been characterised. Expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, ventricular natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide-1, and the guanylyl cyclase-linked (GC) natriuretic peptide receptor-A and -B-type receptors (NPR-A and NPR-B, respectively) was determined by PCR from the mRNA of rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes yielding gene fragments with 100% homology to the same respective natriuretic peptide and NPR-A and -B sequences obtained from other rainbow trout tissues. A mixed population of isolated rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes was stimulated in vitro with trout atrial natriuretic peptide (specific NPR-A agonist) and trout C-type natriuretic peptide (NPR-A and -B agonist) as well as the cGMP agonist 8-bromo-cGMP or the GC inhibitor 8-bromo-phenyl-eutheno-cGMP. Respiratory burst was stimulated by trout atrial natriuretic peptide, trout C-type natriuretic peptide-1 and 8-bromo-cGMP in a dose dependant manner with the highest activity as a result of stimulation with trout C-type natriuretic peptide-1 in excess of that achieved by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Equimolar concentrations of the inhibitor, inhibited the respiratory burst caused by the natriuretic peptides and 8-bromo-cGMP. The natriuretic peptide receptors on rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes appear to have a stimulatory function with regard to respiratory burst that is activated through a cGMP second messenger pathway and the natriuretic peptides expressed in the head kidney leucocytes may well act in a paracrine/autocrine manner.

  17. Modulation in Natriuretic Peptides System in Experimental Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Ho; Ha, Gi Won; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2016-04-01

    Renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathophysiology of colonic inflammation. However, there are a few reports about modulation of natriuretic peptide system. This study investigates whether a local atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system exists in rat colon and whether ANP plays a role in the regulation of colonic motility in experimental colitis rat model. Experimental colitis was induced by an intake of 5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) dissolved in tap water for 7 days. After rats were killed, plasma hormone concentrations and mRNAs for natriuretic peptide system were measured. Functional analysis of colonic motility in response to ANP was performed using taenia coli. DSS-treated colon showed an increased necrosis with massive infiltration of inflammatory cells. The colonic natriuretic peptide receptor-A mRNA level and particulate guanylyl cyclase activity in response to ANP from colonic tissue membranes were higher, and the mRNA levels of ANP and natriuretic peptide receptor-B were lower in DSS-treated rats than in control rats. ANP decreased the frequency of basal motility in a dose-dependent manner but did not change the amplitude. The inhibitory responses of frequency of basal motility to ANP and 8-bromo-cGMP were enhanced in DSS-treated rat colon. In conclusion, augmentation of inhibitory effect on basal motility by ANP in experimental colitis may be due an increased expression of colonic natriuretic peptide receptor-A mRNA. These data suggest that local natriuretic peptide system is partly involved in the pathophysiology of experimental colitis.

  18. Insulin blunts the natriuretic action of atrial natriuretic peptide in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Abouchacra, S; Baines, A D; Zinman, B; Skorecki, K L; Logan, A G

    1994-06-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are implicated in the etiology of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been established. The objectives of this study were to determine whether untreated essential hypertensive patients are more sensitive to the antinatriuretic action of insulin and more resistant to the counteracting natriuretic effect of atrial natriuretic peptide in contrast to age- and sex-matched normotensive control subjects. Urinary sodium excretion was measured at baseline, during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and during coadministration of insulin and atrial natriuretic peptide. Baseline urinary sodium excretion was not significantly different in the normotensive subjects (415 +/- 47 mumol/min, n = 12) and hypertensive patients (381 +/- 18 mumol/min, n = 10); with the institution of insulin infusion, there was a similar and significant decline from baseline (P < .001) to 289 +/- 35 mumol/min in normotensive subjects and 235 +/- 17 mumol/min in hypertensive patients. Atrial natriuretic peptide was able to oppose the antinatriuretic action of insulin in normotensive subjects, increasing urinary sodium excretion significantly to a mean level of 352 +/- 31 mumol/min (P < .05), which did not differ significantly from baseline. In the hypertensive group, atrial natriuretic peptide infusion had no effect on urinary sodium excretion (238 +/- 18 mumol/min), and the difference from baseline remained highly significant (P < .001). The hypertensive patients were significantly less insulin sensitive than their normotensive counterparts, as reflected by a lower glucose utilization rate and higher mean baseline plasma insulin level (P < .05 for each).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Brain natriuretic peptide in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Kenji; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Iijima, Mutsumi; Moriya, Saori; Mizuno, Satoko; Toi, Sono; Arai, Kotaro; Ashihara, Kyomi; Abe, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    Elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are associated with cardioembolic stroke mainly because of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the mechanisms of increased serum BNP levels are hitherto unclear. We aimed to identify the factors associated with increased BNP levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We measured serum BNP levels in consecutive patients aged 18 years or older. Stroke subtypes were classified using the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Categorical variables included age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), AF, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulant therapy. Continuous variables included hemoglobin, creatinine (Cr), β-thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and d-dimer levels. We further determined the relationship between serum BNP and intima-media thickness, left ventricular ejection fraction, size of infarction, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge. Of the 231 patients (mean age, 71 ± 12 years) with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), 36% were women. Serum BNP levels significantly correlated with CAD, AF, Cr, mRS, and cardioembolism (CE) (Dunnett method, P = .004). BNP levels were significantly higher in patients with larger infarcts, higher mRS scores, and higher CHADS2 scores. The levels were higher in patients with larger infarcts, higher mRS scores at discharge, and higher CHADS2 scores among AF patients. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Natriuretic peptides in the diagnosis and management of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Felker, G Michael; Petersen, John W; Mark, Daniel B

    2006-09-12

    The natriuretic peptides are a family of related hormones that play a crucial role in cardiovascular homeostasis. They have recently emerged as potentially important clinical markers in heart failure. Recent data have suggested an important role for these markers in establishing the diagnosis of heart failure in patients with unexplained dyspnea in both acute care and ambulatory settings. Other clinical uses of the natriuretic peptides, such as screening for asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction, establishing prognosis or guiding titration of drug therapy, are under investigation but have not yet sufficiently been validated for widespread clinical use.

  1. New aspects of the interactions between the cardiovascular nitric oxide system and natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Costa, María A; Arranz, Cristina T

    2011-03-11

    Arterial blood pressure is regulated by a variety of endocrine, autocrine and neuronal systems. Natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide are important factors that exert synergistic vascular and cardiac actions and their activities are closely linked. The existence of a novel signal transduction mechanism involved in activation of nitric oxide synthase via natriuretic peptides is currently being explored. Since several cardiovascular disorders are associated with dysfunction of natriuretic peptides activity, selective modulation of the natriuretic peptides pathway represents an important therapeutic target. This review article highlights the current findings on cross-talk between natriuretic peptides and the nitric oxide system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic variation in the natriuretic peptide system and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lanfear, David E

    2010-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a modern epidemic and is one of the few cardiovascular diseases which is increasing in prevalence. The growing importance of the Natriuretic Peptide (NP) system in HF is well recognized. Laboratory tests for B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) have proven value as diagnostic and prognostic tools in HF and are now part of routine clinical care. Furthermore, recombinant atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (carperitide) and BNP (nesiritide) and are approved HF therapies in Japan and the US, respectively and additional natriuretic peptides (e.g., CNP, urodilatin, and designer NPs) are under investigation for use in HF. Common genetic sequence variants are increasingly being recognized as determinants of disease risk or drug response and may help explain a portion of the inter-individual variation in the human NP system. This review describes current knowledge of NP system genetic variation as it pertains to HF as well as ongoing studies and where the field is expected to progress in the near future. To briefly summarize, NP system genetic variants have been associated with alterations in gene expression, NP levels, and cardiovascular disease. The next step forward will include specific investigations into how this genetic variation can advance 'Personalized Medicine', such as whether they impact the utility of diagnostic BNP testing or effectiveness of therapeutic NP infusion. This is already in progress, with pharmacogenetic studies of nesiritide currently underway. We expect that within 5 years there should be a reasonable idea of whether NP system genetic variation will have important clinical implications.

  3. Receptor imaging with atrial natriuretic peptide. Part 1: High specific activity iodine-123-atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Lambert, R; Willenbrock, R; Tremblay, J; Bavaria, G; Langlois, Y; Hogan, K; Tartaglia, D; Flanagan, R J; Hamet, P

    1994-04-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was labeled in high specific activity using 123I (p,2n). The biodistribution of 123I-ANP was studied in green vervet monkeys by gamma scintigraphy and in rats by dissection and gamma counting. Iodine-125-ANP was also studied in monkeys by in vitro autoradiography. Iodine-123-ANP showed rapid blood clearance with localization to ANP receptors in the kidneys and lungs, which accounted for 35% of total uptake. In vivo competition imaging studies using cold ANP99-126 and C-ANP102-121 proved that uptake is receptor mediated and allowed imaging of the differential biodistribution of A/B and C-ANP receptor families. Thus, it was possible through the use of selective receptor occupation to prevent uptake in certain organs and to effectively steer the labeled ANP to others. The observed biodistribution patterns were confirmed by an in vitro study using 125I-ANP in the same monkeys, which correlated the scintigraphic images with receptor distribution. An in vivo biodistribution study in rats showed a profound effect of specific activity on biodistribution, with a cutoff for receptor uptake at less than 3000 Ci/mmole. Gamma scintigraphy with 123I-ANP permits the imaging of ANP receptors in vivo. In contrast to receptor imaging with either organic molecules or antibodies, ANP provides rapid first-pass uptake and substantial accumulation (%dose/organ approximately 20% or greater) in receptors. The key to receptor imaging with peptides is high specific activity. Labeled ANP offers potential as a diagnostic tool for diabetic nephropathy, particularly for quantifying the involvement of glomerular disease.

  4. Natriuretic peptides: degradation, circulating forms, dosages and new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Favresse, Julien; Gruson, Damien

    2017-06-01

    Testing for natriuretic peptides (BNP, NT-proBNP or MR-proANP) is recommended by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) since 2005 for the exclusion diagnosis of acute and chronic heart failure because of very high predictive values. Natriuretic peptides are produced by the heart in response to high transmural pressure and/or myocardial ischemia. These peptides circulate in blood of both healthy subjects and heart failure patients. Mass spectrometry methods allowed identifying a collection of circulating and degraded forms of BNP, NT-proBNP and proBNP. Glycosylated forms of NT-proBNP and proBNP have also been identified. Current immunoassays are lacking analytical specificity due to high cross-reactivities between circulating forms. Moreover, glycosylation has been found to interfere with the capacity of antibodies to bind correctly to analytes. These elements have been taken into account to propose strategies for the development of new standardized and improved immunoassays. More recently, the better understanding of the degradation pathways of natriuretic peptides allowed the raise of new therapeutic approaches for heart failure patients. All these elements are detailed in this review.

  5. C-type natriuretic peptide stimulates ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yorino; Cheng, Yuan; Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Takae, Seido; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-07-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) encoded by the NPPC (Natriuretic Peptide Precursor C) gene expressed in ovarian granulosa cells inhibits oocyte maturation by activating the natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)B (NPRB) in cumulus cells. RT-PCR analyses indicated increased NPPC and NPRB expression during ovarian development and follicle growth, associated with increases in ovarian CNP peptides in mice. In cultured somatic cells from infantile ovaries and granulosa cells from prepubertal animals, treatment with CNP stimulated cGMP production. Also, treatment of cultured preantral follicles with CNP stimulated follicle growth whereas treatment of cultured ovarian explants from infantile mice with CNP, similar to FSH, increased ovarian weight gain that was associated with the development of primary and early secondary follicles to the late secondary stage. Of interest, treatment with FSH increased levels of NPPC, but not NPRB, transcripts in ovarian explants. In vivo studies further indicated that daily injections of infantile mice with CNP for 4 d promoted ovarian growth, allowing successful ovulation induction by gonadotropins. In prepubertal mice, CNP treatment alone also promoted early antral follicle growth to the preovulatory stage, leading to efficient ovulation induction by LH/human chorionic gonadotropin. Mature oocytes retrieved after CNP treatment could be fertilized in vitro and developed into blastocysts, allowing the delivery of viable offspring. Thus, CNP secreted by growing follicles is capable of stimulating preantral and antral follicle growth. In place of FSH, CNP treatment could provide an alternative therapy for female infertility.

  6. Utility of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, David R; West, Malcolm; Jeremy, Richmond

    2005-06-01

    Cardiac failure is a prevalent and costly condition in Western society. The ageing of the population, together with current medical options which improve, rather than eradicate heart failure, lead to the projection that this problem will increase substantially in the foreseeable future. The availability of a simple test to assist the diagnosis and effective management of heart failure would greatly assist the clinical approach to this problem. This review examines the physiological basis for the measurement of natriuretic peptides as markers of the presence or risk of heart failure. It considers its use in the hospital and non-hospital setting and examines the cost-effectiveness of current assays. It is possible that in future natriuretic peptides may offer a form of treatment for heart failure, but this is beyond the scope of this review. Nevertheless, the review highlights the potential benefits of this group of tests in the management of heart failure.

  7. A novel natriuretic peptide from the cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Wu, Jianbo; Yu, Guoyu; Chen, Zhongming; Zhou, Xingding; Zhu, Shaowen; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yun; Lu, Qiumin

    2011-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) play crucial roles in human physiology and pathophysiology through natriuresis, dieresis and vasorelaxation. NPs are also one of the important components of snake venoms. However, the low abundance in snake venom hampered the investigation. Here, a novel natriuretic peptide named Na-NP was purified from the cobra Naja atra venom. Na-NP consists of 45 amino acid residues and its molecular weight is 4618.5 Da. A full-length cDNA encoding Na-NP was obtained from the cDNA library constructed from the venom gland. The open reading frame of cloned Na-NP was composed of 498bp and coded for a 165-amino acid residue protein precursor. The nucleotide and deduced protein sequences of Na-NP were remarkably conserved with other elapid NPs while significant different from the viperid NPs. Na-NP showed weak activity to relax the aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine. Meanwhile, Na-NP showed cGMP-promotion activity against primary cultured rabbit endocardial endothelial cells, but had no effect on human platelet aggregation. In conclusion, this is the first report of a natriuretic peptide from the cobra N. atra venom. Na-NP might be served as a useful tool for the study of human NPs and the development of novel therapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of atrial natriuretic peptide resistance in cirrhosis with head-out water immersion and atrial natriuretic peptide infusion.

    PubMed

    Legault, L; Warner, L C; Leung, W M; Logan, A G; Blendis, L M; Skorecki, K L

    1993-02-01

    The nature of sodium retention in cirrhosis complicated by ascites has been studied for the last 30 years. Resistance to the natriuretic action of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may play a potential role in this sodium retention. To further evaluate this possibility, we studied 12 patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis and ascites on 2 consecutive days after a 7-day period off diuretics while receiving a 20 mmol/day sodium restricted diet. Following a crossover design, patients underwent head-out water immersion (HWI) for 3 h and were infused with a alpha-human ANP for 2 h on 2 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected hourly. Five patients displayed a natriuretic response to HWI, sufficient to achieve negative sodium balance, and these patients were termed responders. Each of these five patients also displayed a natriuretic response to ANP infusion. In contrast, the other seven patients (nonresponders) consistently failed to develop a natriuretic response to either maneuver. The two groups had similar elevations in plasma ANP concentrations, but at baseline differed in terms of plasma sodium, plasma renin activity, and serum aldosterone. Despite higher serum aldosterone concentrations, nonresponders excreted less potassium than responders during the peak effect of the interventions, suggesting greater sodium delivery to the aldosterone-sensitive nephron segment in responders. We conclude that the inability to mount an adequate sodium excretory response to HWI in patients with cirrhosis may be conveyed through increased antinatriuretic factors that decrease the sodium delivery to the medullary collecting duct and inhibit the natriuretic effect of ANP at that site.

  9. Cloning of an unusual natriuretic peptide from the South American coral snake Micrurus corallinus.

    PubMed

    Ho, P L; Soares, M B; Maack, T; Gimenez, I; Puorto, G; Furtado, M F; Raw, I

    1997-11-15

    In the course of cloning abundant cDNAs from the South American coral snake Micrurus corallinus venom gland, we characterized a cDNA coding for a putative natriuretic peptide. All the natural natriuretic peptides described so far, possess a ring structure composed of 17 amino acids formed through an S-S bridge which is extended at the N-terminus by few to several amino acids and may be extended at the C-terminus, usually 4-7 amino acids. In contrast, the M. corallinus natriuretic peptide presents several distinct features: (a) the proform of the deduced natriuretic peptide displays an unusual C-terminus extension. This implies that the mature peptide has a long C-terminal tail or it is further extensively processed to result in the mature natriuretic peptide with the expected 4-7 amino-acid extension. (b) the deduced natriuretic peptide presents an unusual internal Cys within the ring structure. This raises the possibility of natriuretic peptides with a smaller ring structure. (c) the putative natriuretic peptide is flanked by two homologous peptides of unknown function. In addition, an analogous peptide was synthesized and assayed on perfused rat kidney, showing a dose-dependent response in urinary volume and sodium excretion. Moreover, northern-blot studies showed that M. corallinus natriuretic peptide transcripts were highly expressed in venom glands, but they were not detectable in other tissues like heart and brain, suggesting a main role for this M. corallinus natriuretic peptide in the venom gland or in the envenomation by this coral snake's bite.

  10. A Test in Context Critical Evaluation of Natriuretic Peptide Testing in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Gary S.; Felker, G. Michael; Tang, W.H. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Circulating natriuretic peptide measurements have been used extensively over the past 15 years to diagnose and monitor patients with heart failure. We are still learning how complex the dynamics of natriuretic peptides can be in the interpretation of test results in individual patients. Although natriuretic peptide measurements are widely used in practice, there are questions regarding why these peptides may not necessarily track with blood volume or invasive hemodynamic measurements in individual patients. Interpretation of natriuretic peptide measurements will depend on many factors, including special patient populations, obesity, renal function, the state of congestion or decongestion, and whether patients are receiving specific therapies. Natriuretic peptide measurements have clearly revolutionized clinical care for patients with heart failure, but further research should provide insights to help use these measurements to individualize patient care beyond the current guidelines. PMID:26796399

  11. Natriuretic peptides for the detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Seegers, Joachim; Zabel, Markus; Grüter, Timo; Ammermann, Antje; Weber-Krüger, Mark; Edelmann, Frank; Gelbrich, Götz; Binder, Lutz; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Gröschel, Klaus; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Feltgen, Nicolas; Pieske, Burkert; Wachter, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Silent atrial fibrillation (AF) and tachycardia (AT) are considered precursors of ischaemic stroke. Therefore, detection of paroxysmal atrial rhythm disorders is highly relevant, but is clinically challenging. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of natriuretic peptide levels in the detection of paroxysmal AT/AF in a pilot study. Methods Natriuretic peptide levels were analysed in two independent patient cohorts (162 patients with arterial hypertension or other cardiovascular risk factors and 82 patients with retinal vessel disease). N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and BNP were measured before the start of a 7-day Holter monitoring period carefully screened for AT/AF. Results 244 patients were included; 16 had paroxysmal AT/AF. After excluding patients with a history of AT/AF (n=5), 14 patients had newly diagnosed AT/AF (5.8%) NT-proBNP and BNP levels were higher in patients with paroxysmal AT/AF in both cohorts: (1) 154.4 (IQR 41.7; 303.6) versus 52.8 (30.4; 178.0) pg/mL and 70.0 (31.9; 142.4) versus 43.9 (16.3; 95.2) and (2) 216.9 (201.4; 277.1) versus 90.8 (42.3–141.7) and 96.0 (54.7; 108.2) versus 29.1 (12.0; 58.1). For the detection of AT/AF episodes, NT-proBNP and BNP had an area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic analysis of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88; p=0.002) and 0.75 (0.61 to 0.89; p=0.004), respectively. Conclusions NT-proBNP and BNP levels are elevated in patients with silent AT/AF as compared with sinus rhythm. Thus, screening for undiagnosed paroxysmal AF using natriuretic peptide level initiated Holter monitoring may be a useful strategy in prevention of stroke or systemic embolism. PMID:26288739

  12. Associations of plasma natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, and homocysteine levels with alterations in arterial stiffness: The Framingham Heart Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experimental studies suggest that the natriuretic peptides influence lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Although it has been shown that obese individuals have reduced natriuretic peptide levels, conflicting data exist on the relation of natriuretic peptide levels to other metabolic risk factors. We ex...

  13. Amino acid sequence of atrial natriuretic peptides in human coronary sinus plasma.

    PubMed

    Yandle, T; Crozier, I; Nicholls, G; Espiner, E; Carne, A; Brennan, S

    1987-07-31

    Two atrial natriuretic peptides were purified from pooled human coronary sinus plasma by Sep-Pak extraction, immunoaffinity chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were homologous with 99-126 human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) and 106-126 hANP, the latter being most probably linked to 99-105 ANP by the disulphide bond. The molar ratio of the peptides in plasma, as assessed by radioimmunoassay was 10:3.

  14. Porcine brain natriuretic peptide receptor in bovine adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Ohashi, M.; Takayanagi, R.; Haji, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nawata, H.

    1989-01-01

    The action of porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP) on the steroidogenesis was investigated in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. Porcine BNP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of both ACTH- and A II-stimulated aldosterone secretion. 10/sup /minus/8/M and 10/sup /minus/7/M pBNP also significantly inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretions. Binding studies of (/sup 125/I)-pBNP to bovine adrenocortical membrane fractions showed that adrenal cortex had high-affinity and low-capacity pBNP binding sites, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.70 x 10/sup /minus/10/M and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 19.9 fmol/mg protein. Finally, the 135 Kd radioactive band was specially visualized in the affinity labeling of bovine adrenal cortex with disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). These results suggest that pBNP may have receptor-mediated suppressive actions on bovine adrenal steroidogenesis, similar to that in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

  15. Endothelial C-type natriuretic peptide maintains vascular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Amie J; Khambata, Rayomand S; Villar, Inmaculada; Bubb, Kristen J; Baliga, Reshma S; Lumsden, Natalie G; Xiao, Fang; Gane, Paul J; Rebstock, Anne-Sophie; Worthington, Roberta J; Simone, Michela I; Mota, Filipa; Rivilla, Fernando; Vallejo, Susana; Peiró, Concepción; Sánchez Ferrer, Carlos F; Djordjevic, Snezana; Caulfield, Mark J; MacAllister, Raymond J; Selwood, David L; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J

    2014-09-01

    The endothelium plays a fundamental role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by releasing factors that regulate local blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and the reactivity of leukocytes and platelets. Accordingly, endothelial dysfunction underpins many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Herein, we evaluated mice with endothelial-specific deletion of Nppc, which encodes C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and determined that this mediator is essential for multiple aspects of vascular regulation. Specifically, disruption of CNP leads to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherogenesis, and aneurysm. Moreover, we identified natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) as the cognate receptor that primarily underlies CNP-dependent vasoprotective functions and developed small-molecule NPR-C agonists to target this pathway. Administration of NPR-C agonists promotes a vasorelaxation of isolated resistance arteries and a reduction in blood pressure in wild-type animals that is diminished in mice lacking NPR-C. This work provides a mechanistic explanation for genome-wide association studies that have linked the NPR-C (Npr3) locus with hypertension by demonstrating the importance of CNP/NPR-C signaling in preserving vascular homoeostasis. Furthermore, these results suggest that the CNP/NPR-C pathway has potential as a disease-modifying therapeutic target for cardiovascular disorders.

  16. Endothelial C-type natriuretic peptide maintains vascular homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Moyes, Amie J.; Khambata, Rayomand S.; Villar, Inmaculada; Bubb, Kristen J.; Baliga, Reshma S.; Lumsden, Natalie G.; Xiao, Fang; Gane, Paul J.; Rebstock, Anne-Sophie; Worthington, Roberta J.; Simone, Michela I.; Mota, Filipa; Rivilla, Fernando; Vallejo, Susana; Peiró, Concepción; Sánchez Ferrer, Carlos F.; Djordjevic, Snezana; Caulfield, Mark J.; MacAllister, Raymond J.; Selwood, David L.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium plays a fundamental role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by releasing factors that regulate local blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and the reactivity of leukocytes and platelets. Accordingly, endothelial dysfunction underpins many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Herein, we evaluated mice with endothelial-specific deletion of Nppc, which encodes C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and determined that this mediator is essential for multiple aspects of vascular regulation. Specifically, disruption of CNP leads to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherogenesis, and aneurysm. Moreover, we identified natriuretic peptide receptor–C (NPR-C) as the cognate receptor that primarily underlies CNP-dependent vasoprotective functions and developed small-molecule NPR-C agonists to target this pathway. Administration of NPR-C agonists promotes a vasorelaxation of isolated resistance arteries and a reduction in blood pressure in wild-type animals that is diminished in mice lacking NPR-C. This work provides a mechanistic explanation for genome-wide association studies that have linked the NPR-C (Npr3) locus with hypertension by demonstrating the importance of CNP/NPR-C signaling in preserving vascular homoeostasis. Furthermore, these results suggest that the CNP/NPR-C pathway has potential as a disease-modifying therapeutic target for cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25105365

  17. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Renal Dopaminergic System: A Positive Friendly Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia Lucía; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Kravetz, María Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabolism by the kidney is accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Renal dopamine plays a central role in this interactive network. The natriuretic hormones, such as the atrial natriuretic peptide, mediate some of their effects by affecting the renal dopaminergic system. Renal dopaminergic tonus can be modulated at different steps of dopamine metabolism (synthesis, uptake, release, catabolism, and receptor sensitization) which can be regulated by the atrial natriuretic peptide. At tubular level, dopamine and atrial natriuretic peptide act together in a concerted manner to promote sodium excretion, especially through the overinhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In this way, different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome or hypertension, are associated with impaired action of renal dopamine and/or atrial natriuretic peptide, or as a result of impaired interaction between these two natriuretic systems. The aim of this review is to update and comment on the most recent evidences demonstrating how the renal dopaminergic system interacts with atrial natriuretic peptide to control renal physiology and blood pressure through different regulatory pathways. PMID:25013796

  18. Natriuretic peptide family as a novel antimigration factor of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Kohno, M; Yasunari, K; Yokokawa, K; Horio, T; Ueda, M; Morisaki, N; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-04-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration is proposed to be an important process in the initiation and/or progression of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effects of the natriuretic peptide family (atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides; ANP, BNP, and CNP) on the migration of cultured rat SMCs, using Boyden's chamber methods. Fetal calf serum (FCS) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB potently stimulated SMC migration. Rat ANP(1-28), rat BNP-45, and rat CNP-22 clearly inhibited SMC migration stimulated with FCS or PDGF-BB in a concentration-dependent manner. CNP-22 had the most potent inhibitory effect compared with other natriuretic peptides. When PDGF-BB-induced migration was separated into chemotactic and chemokinetic activities, the chemotactic component was strongly inhibited by these natriuretic peptides. Such inhibition by these natriuretic peptides was paralleled by an increase in the cellular level of cyclic GMP. The addition of a cyclic GMP analogue, 8-bromo cyclic GMP, and an activator of the cytosolic guanylate cyclase, sodium nitroprusside, significantly inhibited FCS- and PDGF-BB-stimulated migration in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that natriuretic peptides, especially CNP-22, inhibit FCS- or PDGF-BB-stimulated SMC migration at least in part through a cyclic GMP-dependent process. Thus, the natriuretic peptide family may play a role as an antimigration factor of SMCs under certain circumstances.

  19. Influence of resting tension on immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by rat atria superfused in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schiebinger, R.J.; Linden, J.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a potent diuretic hormone secreted by the atria in response to volume expansion. We examined the effect of resting tension on atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by rat atria superfused in vitro. Left atria were hooked between an electrode and force transducer and superfused with medium 199. The atria were studied at a pacing frequency of 0 or 3 Hz. Atrial natriuretic peptide content of the superfusate was measured by radioimmunoassay. In nonpaced and paced atria, increasing resting tension three- to five-fold caused immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion to increase by 35 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6, p less than 0.01) and 30 +/- 3% (n = 4, p less than 0.01), respectively. Lowering resting tension by 50% in nonpaced and paced atria lowered immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by 30 +/- 3% (n = 7, p less than 0.01) and 24 +/- 3% (n = 6, p less than 0.01), respectively. To exclude the possibility that release of norepinephrine or acetylcholine from endogenous nerve endings was mediating this effect, the atria were superfused with the combination of propranolol 0.1 microM, phentolamine 1.0 microM, and atropine 10 microM. These concentrations of the antagonists were 125-fold or higher than their Kd for binding to their respective receptors. The antagonists did not block the rise in immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion; neither did they inhibit an established rise in immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion induced by increasing the resting tension.

  20. Intrinsic defence capacity and therapeutic potential of natriuretic peptides in pulmonary hypertension associated with lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, R S; Scotton, C J; Trinder, S L; Chambers, R C; MacAllister, R J; Hobbs, A J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibro-proliferative disorder refractory to current therapy commonly complicated by the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH); the associated morbidity and mortality are substantial. Natriuretic peptides possess vasodilator and anti-fibrotic actions, and pharmacological augmentation of their bioactivity ameliorates renal and myocardial fibrosis. Here, we investigated whether natriuretic peptides possess an intrinsic cytoprotective function preventing the development of pulmonary fibrosis and associated PH, and whether therapeutics targeting natriuretic peptide signalling demonstrate efficacy in this life-threatening disorder. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Pulmonary haemodynamics, right ventricular function and markers of lung fibrosis were determined in wild-type (WT) and natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A knockout (KO) mice exposed to bleomycin (1 mg·kg−1). Human myofibroblast differentiation was studied in vitro. KEY RESULTS Exacerbated cardiac, vascular and fibrotic pathology was observed in NPR-A KO animals, compared with WT mice, exposed to bleomycin. Treatment with a drug combination that raised circulating natriuretic peptide levels (ecadotril) and potentiated natriuretic peptide-dependent signalling (sildenafil) reduced indices of disease progression, whether administered prophylactically or to animals with established lung disease. This positive pharmacodynamic effect was diminished in NPR-A KO mice. Atrial natriuretic peptide and sildenafil synergistically reduced TGFβ-induced human myofibroblast differentiation, a key driver of remodelling in IPF patients. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data highlight an endogenous host-defence capacity of natriuretic peptides in lung fibrosis and PH. A combination of ecadotril and sildenafil reversed the pulmonary haemodynamic aberrations and remodelling that characterize the disease, advocating therapeutic manipulation of natriuretic

  1. Acute Metabolic Influences on the Natriuretic Peptide System in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Tariq; Arora, Garima; Agha, Obiajulu; Allen, Kaitlin; Tainsh, Robert E.T.; Hu, Dongjian; Ryan, Romy A.; Domian, Ibrahim J.; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Bloch, Donald B.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Wang, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), have central roles in sodium and blood pressure regulation. Extracardiac factors (e.g., obesity and diabetes) influence NP production, potentially altering cardiovascular responses to volume and pressure stress. OBJECTIVES This study examined the effects of acute carbohydrate intake on the NP system in humans, and investigated underlying mechanisms. METHODS Normotensive subjects (N = 33) were given a high-carbohydrate shake. Venous blood was sampled to measure N-terminal (NT)-proANP and NT-proBNP levels. Human embryonic stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and HepG2 cells were treated with glucose, and expression levels of NPs and micro ribonucleic acid 425 (miR-425), a negative regulator of ANP, were examined. The role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the glucose-mediated effects was investigated using a NF-κB inhibitor and expression plasmids encoding NF-κB subunits. RESULTS We observed a 27% reduction in the levels of circulating NT-proANP (p < 0.001, maximal at 6 h) after carbohydrate challenge, with no effect on NT-proBNP levels in our human subjects. Glucose treatment of hESC-CMs for 6 h and 24 h increased levels of the primary transcript of miR-425 (pri-miR-425) and mature miR-425. A corresponding decrease in NPPA messenger RNA levels was also observed at both time points. Overexpression of NF-κB subunits in H9c2 cardiomyocytes increased miR-425 levels, whereas inhibition of NF-κB abrogated the glucose-mediated increase in pri-miR-425 levels in HepG2 cells. CONCLUSIONS Acute carbohydrate challenge is associated with a reduction in ANP production. The mechanism appears to involve a glucose-induced increase in the expression of miR-425, mediated by NF-κB signaling. PMID:26892417

  2. Elevated levels of natriuretic peptides in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Kiely, David G; Kennedy, Norman S; Pirzada, Omar; Batchelor, Sheila A; Struthers, Allan D; Lipworth, Brian J

    2005-10-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) occurs in a wide variety of clinical settings and presents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, often requiring extensive imaging of the vascular bed. Management increasingly requires accurate risk stratification to rapidly identify those with massive and submassive PTE requiring different therapeutic strategies such as thrombolysis. Provision of a rapid blood test that improves diagnostic certainty and helps stratify risk could therefore bridge the gap between uncertainty and delivery of immediate early life-saving treatment. One hundred and fourteen consecutive patients with suspected PTE underwent prospective evaluation. Venous blood samples were obtained from an unselected group referred for ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-ANP (N-ANP) were measured by radioimmunoassay using commercially available kits. The scans were classified into three groups according to standard criteria (PIOPED); normal scan (N) (n=20), low/intermediate probability (L/I) of PTE (n=77) and high probability (H) of PTE (n=17). Comparisons were also made between patients with high probability scans who died (n=3) and those who survived (n=14). Values are quoted for the median and interquartile ranges. There were statistically significant differences between groups for levels of (a) BNP (P<0.001): N=6.7 pmol/l (5.6-11.9), L/I=12.5 pmol/l (6.7-28.2) and H=18.5 pmol/l (12.6-74.6); (b) ANP (P<0.005): N=12.6 pmol/l (7.1-16.0), L/I=19.51 pmol/l (12.5-28.2) and H=19.1 pmol/l (15.7-31.7) and (c) N-ANP (P<0.05): N=177 pmol/l (119-200), L/I=302 pmol/l (152-576) and H=322 pmol/l (223-563). Levels of BNP and ANP were significantly (P<0.05) higher in patients with high probability scans and a diagnosis of PTE who died (n=3) than in those who survived (n=14); BNP: 91.6 pmol/l (77.5-336.2) vs. 14.4 pmol/l (11.9-27.4) and ANP 32.5 pmol/l (21.7-105.5) vs. 17.6 pmol/l (15

  3. Natriuretic peptide control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Coué, Marine; Moro, Cedric

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) have recently emerged as metabolic hormones. Physiological stimulation of cardiac NP release as during exercise may contribute to increase fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and their oxidation by skeletal muscles. Clinical studies have shown that although very high plasma NP level characterizes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure, a consistently reduced plasma NP level is observed in metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. A low circulating NP level also predicts the risk of new onset type 2 diabetes. It is unclear at this stage if the "natriuretic handicap" observed in obesity is causally associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Recent work indicates that NP can activate a thermogenic program in brown and white fat, increase energy expenditure and inhibit food intake. Mouse studies also argue for a key role of NP in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. This review will focus on recent human and mouse studies to highlight the metabolic roles of NP and their potential relevance in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. B-type natriuretic peptide and acute heart failure: Fluid homeostasis, biomarker and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Torres-Courchoud, I; Chen, H H

    2016-10-01

    Natriuretic peptides are a family of peptides with similar structures, but are genetically distinct with diverse actions in cardiovascular, renal and fluid homeostasis. The family consists of an atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) of myocardial cell origin, a C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) of endothelial origin, and a urodilatin (Uro) which is processed from a prohormone ANP in the kidney. Nesiritide, a human recombinant BNP, was approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of acute heart failure (AHF) in 2001. Human recombinant ANP (Carperitide) was approved for the same clinical indication in Japan in 1995, and human recombinant Urodilatin (Ularitide) is currently undergoing phase III clinical trial (TRUE AHF). This review will provide an update on important issues regarding the role of BNP in fluid hemostasis as a biomarker and therapeutics in AHF.

  5. Can Natriuretic Peptides be Used to Guide Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Lupón, Josep; Jaffe, Allan S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the hypothesis that intensified treatment directed at reducing natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations may improve the outcomes of patients with heart failure (HF) has been scrutinized in several prospective clinical trials, with conflicting results. Collectively, however, the data suggest that NP concentrations may be useful in guiding HF management and improving HF-related morbidity and mortality. In this review, we summarize the existing data investigating the use of NPs as targets for outpatient HF therapy. We focus on the information gathered in randomized clinical trials and comprehensive meta-analyses, and also on the recommendations of international guidelines (primarily guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association). Although the results for this approach are promising overall, additional well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials (e.g., the GUIDE-IT trial) are necessary to confirm or refute the utility of NP-guided outpatient HF management. PMID:27683534

  6. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide induces the apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ki-Chan; Chae, Han-Jung; Piao, Cheng-Shi; Kim, Suhn-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2005-01-01

    Early heart failure is characterized by elevated plasma Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactivity (DNP-LI). However, the direct effects of DNP on heart or the heart-associated cell system are not well known. Therefore, we investigated whether DNP induces the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac muscle cells. H9c2 cardiac muscle cells and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with various concentrations of DNP. Cell viability and nuclear morphology change were determined by trypan blue staining and Hoechst 33258 staining, respectively. Caspase-3-like activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrates. Pro-and antiapoptotic proteins were assayed by Western blotting. DNP induced the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum effects occurred at 100 nM concentration of DNP, with a 7-8-fold increase in apoptotic cells, to reach a maximum apoptotic index of 17%. We also identified that H9c2 cardiac muscle cells expressed Natriuretic peptide reactor -A and -B, which respond to DNP to generate cGMP. The treatment with DNP also markedly reduced levels of Bcl-2, inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1, and inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 and increased the level of Bax and cytochrome c release into cytoplasm and subsequent caspase-3 activation, which co-occurred with increased apoptosis. DNP-induced apoptosis was mediated by cyclic GMP, and this effect was mimicked by dibutylyl-cGMP (30 microM), a membrane permeable analog of cGMP. Furthermore, DNP-induced apoptosis was observed in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that DNP induces the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac muscle cells and of cardiomyocytes via cGMP and demonstrate that the operative mechanism includes the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  7. Consensus document and recommendations on the use of natriuretic peptides in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Figal, D A; Casademont, J; Lobos, J M; Piñera, P; Bayés-Genis, A; Ordóñez-Llanos, J; González-Juanatey, J R

    2016-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides are a useful laboratory tool for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients with heart failure. Natriuretic peptides are used in various healthcare settings (consultations, emergency department, hospitalization, laboratory) and by various primary care and specialised professionals. However, their use in clinical practice is still scare and uneven. Properly using and interpreting natriuretic peptides in clinical practice requires a minimum of prelaboratory (pathophysiology), laboratory (methods) and postlaboratory (interpretation and integration of clinical data) expertise. The objective of this consensus document, developed by several scientific societies, is to update the necessary concepts and expertise on natriuretic peptides that enable its application in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of heart failure, in various healthcare environments.

  8. Modulation of natriuretic peptide receptors in human adipose tissue: molecular mechanisms behind the "natriuretic handicap" in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Alessandra; Frangione, Maria Rosaria; Albini, Elisa; Vacca, Carmine; Ricci, Maria Anastasia; De Vuono, Stefano; Boni, Marcello; Rondelli, Fabio; Rotelli, Luciana; Lupattelli, Graziana; Orabona, Ciriana

    2017-08-01

    The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) hormone plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular and energy homeostasis. Obesity is associated with low circulating levels of BNP, a condition known as "natriuretic handicap." Recent evidences suggest an altered expression of BNP receptors-both the signaling natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR)-A and the clearance NPR-C receptor-in adipose tissue (AT) as one of the putative causes of natriuretic handicap. The current study aims at clarifying the molecular mechanisms behind the natriuretic handicap, focusing on NPR modulation in the AT of obese and control subjects. The study enrolled 34 obese and 20 control subjects undergoing bariatric or abdominal surgery, respectively. The main clinical and biochemical parameters, including circulating BNP, were assessed. In visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous AT (SAT) samples, collected during surgery, the adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) expression of NPR-A and NPR-C and the SVF secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined. Both VAT and SAT from obese patients expressed a lower NPR-A/NPR-C ratio in adipocytes and the SVF secreted a higher level of IL-6, compared with the controls. Moreover, NPR-A/NPR-C ratio expressed by VAT and SAT adipocytes negatively correlated with body mass index, insulin, the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin resistance, and IL-6 secreted by SVF, and the expression of the clearance receptor NPR-C, in both the VAT and SAT adipocytes, showed a negative correlation with circulating BNP. Overall, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and AT inflammation (ie, high level of IL-6) are the major determinants of the lower NPR-A/NPR-C ratio in adipocytes, thus contributing to the natriuretic handicap in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. B-type natriuretic peptide as prognostic marker in tetralogy of Fallot surgery.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Subramanian, Arun; Malik, Vishwas; Kiran, Usha; Velayoudham, Devagourou

    2015-02-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide has been extensively studied in patients with cardiovascular disease, but its impact on the perioperative outcome of patients with cyanotic congenital heart defects is still unclear. We assessed the perioperative changes in B-type natriuretic peptide levels and their correlation with preoperative factors and clinical outcomes in a large homogenous group of patients with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing definitive repair at a tertiary care center. A prospective study was undertaken in the cardiac operating room and intensive care unit at a single institution; 250 patients with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing intracardiac repair under cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. B-type natriuretic peptide levels were taken at 3 time points and correlated with clinical variables. Baseline B-type natriuretic peptide levels correlated with the degree of cyanosis in all 4 groups. B-type natriuretic peptide levels at 24 h after admission to the intensive care unit correlated with mortality in the adult subset of patients. B-type natriuretic peptide levels > 290 pg mL(-1) in the intensive care unit predicted an increased probability of adverse clinical outcomes. We demonstrated a rise in serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing definitive repair on cardiopulmonary bypass. B-type natriuretic peptide levels may be monitored to identify patients with cyanosis at increased risk of an augmented inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Resistance to endotoxic shock in mice lacking natriuretic peptide receptor-A.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Catherine M; Baliga, Reshma; Stidwill, Raymond; Taylor, Valerie; Singer, Mervyn; Hobbs, Adrian J

    2010-08-01

    Excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is thought to underlie the vascular dysfunction, systemic hypotension and organ failure that characterize endotoxic shock. Plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) are raised in animal models and humans with endotoxic shock and correlate with the associated cardiovascular dysfunction. Since both NO and natriuretic peptides play important roles in cardiovascular homeostasis via activation of guanylate cyclase-linked receptors, we used mice lacking natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A (NPR1) to establish if natriuretic peptides contribute to the cardiovascular dysfunction present in endotoxic shock. Wild-type (WT) and NPR-A knockout (KO) mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and vascular dysfunction (in vitro and in vivo), production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and iNOS expression and activity were evaluated. LPS-treated WT animals exhibited a marked fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) whereas NPR-A KO mice maintained MABP throughout. LPS administration caused a greater suppression of vascular responses to the thromboxane-mimetic U46619, ANP, acetylcholine and the NO-donor spermine-NONOate in WT versus NPR-A KO mice. This differential effect on vascular function was paralleled by reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, iNOS expression and activity (plasma [NO(x)] and cyclic GMP). These observations suggest that NPR-A activation by natriuretic peptides facilitates iNOS expression and contributes to the vascular dysfunction characteristic of endotoxic shock. Pharmacological interventions that target the natriuretic peptide system may represent a novel approach to treat this life-threatening condition.

  11. Glucagon-like peptide-1: effect on pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Skov, Jeppe; Holst, Jens Juul; Gøtze, Jens Peter; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2014-01-01

    The antihypertensive actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonists have been linked to the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in mice. Whether a GLP1-ANP axis exists in humans is unknown. In this study, we examined 12 healthy young males in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, single-day, cross-over study to evaluate the effects of a 2-h native GLP1 infusion. Plasma proANP concentrations were measured by an automated mid-region-directed proANP immunoassay and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) on Roche Modular E170. Urine was collected for measurements of sodium excretion. Although GLP1 infusion increased the urinary sodium excretion markedly, there were no significant changes in either proANP or proBNP concentrations. When GLP1 infusion was stopped, sodium excretion declined rapidly. As proANP concentration reflects ANP secretion, our data could not confirm the existence of a GLP1-ANP axis in humans. Especially, the natriuretic effects of GLP1 seem unlikely to be mediated exclusively via ANP.

  12. Human adrenal tumor cell line SW-13 contains a natriuretic peptide receptor system that responds preferentially to ANP among various natriuretic peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T.; Katafuchi, T.; Hagiwara, H.; Ito, T.; Kangawa, K.; Matsuo, H.; Hirose, S. )

    1990-12-31

    A new type of ANP receptor system which clearly distinguishes natriuretic peptides A and B (ANP and BNP) has been identified in the human adrenal tumor cell line SW-13 and characterized. SW-13 cells responded to nanomolar concentrations of ANP with large increases in cGMP levels but in the case of BNP, much higher concentrations were required to produce the same extent of response. This property is unique since the 140-kDa ANP receptors so far characterized do not discriminate between ANP and BNP. For comparison, various natriuretic peptide receptors were also re-characterized using the recently identified CNP.

  13. In-hospital brain natriuretic peptide and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide variations are predictors of short-term and long-term outcome in acute decompensated heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure is one of the most important causes of hospitalisation worldwide. Natriuretic peptides have shown their usefulness in the diagnosis and management of heart failure. Their variations during hospitalisation also appear useful to predict outcomes. In particular, data from the literature demonstrate that reduction from admission to discharge of brain natriuretic peptide and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide in these patients is a predictor of future cardiovascular events. PMID:21345261

  14. Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptide determination as a screening test for the detection of patients with mild left ventricular impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Omland, T.; Aakvaag, A.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of measuring the cardiac natriuretic peptides, atrial natriuretic factor, N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor, and brain natriuretic peptide, as screening tests for identifying patients with mild left ventricular impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the cardiac natriuretic peptides. SETTING: Cardiac catheterisation unit, Norwegian central hospital. PATIENTS: A consecutive series of 254 patients undergoing diagnostic left-sided cardiac catheterisation. One hundred and twenty eight of these patients had a history of previous myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of normal and impaired left ventricular function, as evaluated by logistic regression analysis and estimation of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (an index of overall diagnostic accuracy). Ventricular function was assessed by the measurement of left ventricular end diastolic pressure and angiographically determined left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma brain natriuretic peptide was the best predictor of increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (> or = 15 mm Hg) (P < 0.001), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (< or = 45%) (P < 0.001), and the combination of left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 45% and left ventricular end diastolic pressure > or = 15 mm Hg (P < 0.001). The areas under the ROC function for the detection of left ventricular dysfunction were 0.789 for brain natriuretic peptide, 0.665 for atrial natriuretic factor, and 0.610 for N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma brain natriuretic peptide seemed to be a better indicator of left ventricular function than plasma atrial natriuretic factor or N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of circulating atrial natriuretic factor, N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor, and

  15. Clinical value of natriuretic peptides in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Santos-Araújo, Carla; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Pestana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    According to several lines of evidence, natriuretic peptides (NP) are the main components of a cardiac-renal axis that operate in clinical conditions of decreased cardiac hemodynamic tolerance to regulate sodium homeostasis, blood pressure and vascular function. Even though it is reasonable to assume that NP may exert a relevant role in the adaptive response to renal mass ablation, evidence gathered so far suggest that this contribution is probably complex and dependent on the type and degree of the functional mass loss. In the last years NP have been increasingly used to diagnose, monitor treatment and define the prognosis of several cardiovascular (CV) diseases. However, in many clinical settings, like chronic kidney disease (CKD), the predictive value of these biomarkers has been questioned. In fact, it is now well established that renal function significantly affects the plasmatic levels of NP and that renal failure is the clinical condition associated with the highest plasmatic levels of these peptides. The complexity of the relation between NP plasmatic levels and CV and renal functions has obvious consequences, as it may limit the predictive value of NP in CV assessment of CKD patients and be a demanding exercise for clinicians involved in the daily management of these patients. This review describes the role of NP in the regulatory response to renal function loss and addresses the main factors involved in the clinical valorization of the peptides in the context of significant renal failure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacologic Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Human Leg Capillary Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Vissing, Susanne F.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Firth, Brian G.; Erdman, William; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced and secreted by atrial cells. We measured calf capillary filtration rate with prolonged venous-occlusion plethysmography of supine healthy male subjects during pharmacologic infusion of ANP (48 pmol/kg/min for 15 min; n = 6) and during placebo infusion (n = 7). Results during infusions were compared to prior control measurements. ANP infusion increased plasma (ANP) from 30 +/- 4 to 2,568 +/- 595 pmol/L. Systemic hemoconcentration occurred during ANP infusion: mean hematocrit and plasma colloid osmotic pressure increased 4.6 and 11.3%, respectively, relative to preinfusion baseline values (p less than 0.05). Mean calf filtration, however, was significantly reduced from 0.15 to 0.08 ml/100 ml/min with ANP. Heart rate increased 20% with ANP infusion, whereas blood pressure was unchanged. Calf conductance (blood flow/ arterial pressure) and venous compliance were unaffected by ANP infusion. Placebo infusion had no effect relative to prior baseline control measurements. Although ANP induced systemic capillary filtration, in the calf, filtration was reduced with ANP. Therefore, pharmacologic ANP infusion enhances capillary filtration from the systemic circulation, perhaps at upper body or splanchnic sites or both, while having the opposite effect in the leg.

  17. Pharmacologic Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Human Leg Capillary Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Vissing, Susanne F.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Firth, Brian G.; Erdman, William; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced and secreted by atrial cells. We measured calf capillary filtration rate with prolonged venous-occlusion plethys-mography of supine health male subjects during pharmacologic infusion of ANP (48 pmol/kg/min for 15 min; n equals 6) and during placebo infusion (n equals 7). Results during infusions were compared to prior control measurements. ANP infusion increased plasma (ANP) from 30 plus or minus 4 to 2,568 plus or minus 595 pmol/L. Systemic hemoconcentration occurred during ANP infusion; mean hematocrit and plasma colloid osmotic pressure increased 4.6 and 11.3 percent respectively, relative to pre-infusion baseline values (p is less than 0.05). Mean calf filtration, however was significantly reduced from 0.15 to 0.08 ml/100 ml/min with ANP. Heart rate increased 20 percent with ANP infusion, wheras blood pressure was unchanged. Calf conductance (blood flow/arterial pressure) and venous compliance were unaffected by ANP infusion. Placebo infusion had no effect relative to prior baseline control measurements. Although ANP induced systemic capillary filtration, in the calf, filtration was reduced with ANP. Therefore, phamacologic ANP infusion enhances capillary filtration from the systemic circulation, perhaps at upper body or splanchic sites or both, while having the opposite effect in the leg.

  18. Brain natriuretic peptide administered to man: actions and metabolism.

    PubMed

    McGregor, A; Richards, M; Espiner, E; Yandle, T; Ikram, H

    1990-04-01

    To investigate the effects and metabolism of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in man, eight normal subjects received 3-h infusions of synthetic porcine BNP (2 pmol/kg.min) in a placebo-controlled study. The MCR and plasma half-life of BNP were 2.69 L/min and 3.1 min, respectively. BNP clearly suppressed PRA to less than 50% of placebo values (P less than 0.001). Plasma aldosterone concentrations were also significantly reduced by 30% (P less than 0.05). Urinary sodium excretion tended to rise (P = 0.054), and urinary cGMP excretion was clearly enhanced (P less than 0.01). Systemic and renal hemodynamics, hematocrit, plasma protein concentrations, plasma ACTH, arginine vasopressin, PRL, and catecholamines were unchanged. Porcine BNP has a similar range of effects and is similarly metabolized in man as human ANP. Further elucidation of the possible role of BNP as a circulating hormone in man awaits measurement of tissue and plasma concentrations of human BNP in health and disease and provision of fuller dose-response data for human as well as porcine BNP.

  19. The role of natriuretic peptides in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Casserly, Brian P; Sears, Edmund H; Gartman, Eric J

    2010-06-01

    The natriuretic peptides (NPs) are a family of widely distributed, but evolutionarily conserved, polypeptide mediators that exert a range of effects throughout the body. There is growing realization that NP actions go far beyond volume and blood pressure homeostasis. Their pleiotropic effects include a significant role in regulating the immune system. Localization of NP receptors in various immune organs as well as in modulation of inflammation in vascular disease supports this hypothesis. Immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes, express receptors for NPs. NPs are also involved in polarizing the immune response to allergens. NPs play an important role in shaping the early immune response to environmental antigens and appear to play a critical role in the interaction between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The recent explosion of basic and clinical research has resulted in improved understanding of their molecular structure. This has facilitated development of chimeric forms of NPs as well as more convenient routes of administration. Thus, the NPs and their receptors could be exploited to develop therapeutics for the inflammatory and immune responses in wide range of diseases. Also discussed are several patents regarding NPs in the present review.

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide blocks renin response to renal hypotension

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuer, D.A.; Thrasher, T.N.; Quillen, E.W. Jr.; Metzler, C.H.; Ramsay, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    The authors have reported that the renin response to systemic hypotension is inhibited in the presence of elevated atrial pressure and that elevations in atrial pressure of similar or larger magnitude cause graded increases in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Therefore they tested the hypothesis that comparable increments in plasma ANP can inhibit renal hypotension-induced increases in plasma renin activity (PRA) in conscious dogs. Renal perfusion pressure was controlled using cuffs implanted around the abdominal aorta just above the renal arteries. Reducing renal perfusion pressure by 10 or 30% of control caused graded increases in PRA. Infusion of 1-28 rat ANP, which increased plasma ANP by 34.8 +/- 7.5 (SE) pg/ml, eliminated increases in PRA in response to a 10% reduction in renal perfusion pressure and markedly inhibited the response to a 30% pressure reduction. ANP and PRA were measured by radioimmunoassay. These results indicate that increments in plasma ANP which reproduce endogenous release inhibit renal hypotension-induced stimulation of PRA. Furthermore, the results provide an explanation for the inhibition of the renin response to renal hypotension during elevate atrial pressure.

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide prevents cancer metastasis through vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Takashi; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Tokudome, Takeshi; Miura, Koichi; Ishikane, Shin; Otani, Kentaro; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Shintani, Yasushi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Kimura, Toru; Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Minami, Masato; Nakagiri, Tomoyuki; Funaki, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Maeda, Hajime; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Arai, Yuji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Hori, Megumi; Ohno, Yuko; Miyazato, Mikiya; Mochizuki, Naoki; Okumura, Meinoshin; Kangawa, Kenji

    2015-03-31

    Most patients suffering from cancer die of metastatic disease. Surgical removal of solid tumors is performed as an initial attempt to cure patients; however, surgery is often accompanied with trauma, which can promote early recurrence by provoking detachment of tumor cells into the blood stream or inducing systemic inflammation or both. We have previously reported that administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) during the perioperative period reduces inflammatory response and has a prophylactic effect on postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in lung cancer surgery. Here we demonstrate that cancer recurrence after curative surgery was significantly lower in ANP-treated patients than in control patients (surgery alone). ANP is known to bind specifically to NPR1 [also called guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor]. In mouse models, we found that metastasis of GC-A-nonexpressing tumor cells (i.e., B16 mouse melanoma cells) to the lung was increased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A knockout mice and decreased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A transgenic mice compared with control mice. We examined the effect of ANP on tumor metastasis in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide, which mimics systemic inflammation induced by surgical stress. ANP inhibited the adhesion of cancer cells to pulmonary arterial and micro-vascular endothelial cells by suppressing the E-selectin expression that is promoted by inflammation. These results suggest that ANP prevents cancer metastasis by inhibiting the adhesion of tumor cells to inflamed endothelial cells.

  2. Brain natriuretic peptide predicts mortality in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Wallén, T.; Landahl, S.; Hedner, T.; Nakao, K.; Saito, Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether prospective measurements of circulating concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) could predict mortality in the general elderly population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Circulating BNP was measured in a cohort of 85 year olds from the general population who were followed up prospectively for five years as part of a longitudinal population study, "70 year old people in Gothenburg, Sweden". PATIENTS: 541 subjects from the 85 year old population in Gothenburg. All subjects were investigated for the presence or absence of cardiovascular disorder such as congestive heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation. Venous plasma samples were obtained for BNP analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Overall mortality during the prospective follow up period. RESULTS: Circulating concentrations of BNP predicted five-year mortality in the total population (P < 0.001). In subjects with a known cardiovascular disorder, five-year mortality was correlated with increased BNP concentrations (P < 0.01). Increased BNP concentrations predicted five-year mortality in subjects without a defined cardiovascular disorder (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In an elderly population, measurements of BNP may add valuable prognostic information and may be used to predict mortality in the total population as well as in patients with known cardiovascular disorders. In subjects without any known cardiovascular disorder, BNP was a strong and independent predictor of total mortality. PMID:9093047

  3. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide administered intracerebroventricularly increases renal water excretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, JongUn; Kim, Soo Wan

    2002-03-01

    1. The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) on renal function were examined in anaesthetized rats. The results were compared with those obtained following intravenous (i.v.) infusion of the same dose of DNP. 2. Urine volume was increased four- to six-fold over basal values by i.c.v. infusion of DNP (6 pmol/min). Urine osmolality was decreased, whereas sodium excretion was not significantly altered. Intravenous infusion of the same dose of DNP had little effect on urinary water excretion. Neither arterial pressure nor heart rate was changed significantly by either i.v. or i.c.v. infusion of DNP. Glomerular filtration rate, measured by creatinine clearance, remained unaltered. 3. The diuretic response to i.c.v. DNP was markedly attenuated in rats that were deprived of their water supply for 3 days before the experiment. 4. These results suggest that DNP can act within the central nervous system to increase renal water excretion.

  4. Atrial natriuretic peptide prevents cancer metastasis through vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nojiri, Takashi; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Tokudome, Takeshi; Miura, Koichi; Ishikane, Shin; Otani, Kentaro; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Shintani, Yasushi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Kimura, Toru; Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Minami, Masato; Nakagiri, Tomoyuki; Funaki, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Maeda, Hajime; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Arai, Yuji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Hori, Megumi; Ohno, Yuko; Miyazato, Mikiya; Mochizuki, Naoki; Okumura, Meinoshin; Kangawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Most patients suffering from cancer die of metastatic disease. Surgical removal of solid tumors is performed as an initial attempt to cure patients; however, surgery is often accompanied with trauma, which can promote early recurrence by provoking detachment of tumor cells into the blood stream or inducing systemic inflammation or both. We have previously reported that administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) during the perioperative period reduces inflammatory response and has a prophylactic effect on postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in lung cancer surgery. Here we demonstrate that cancer recurrence after curative surgery was significantly lower in ANP-treated patients than in control patients (surgery alone). ANP is known to bind specifically to NPR1 [also called guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor]. In mouse models, we found that metastasis of GC-A–nonexpressing tumor cells (i.e., B16 mouse melanoma cells) to the lung was increased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A knockout mice and decreased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A transgenic mice compared with control mice. We examined the effect of ANP on tumor metastasis in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide, which mimics systemic inflammation induced by surgical stress. ANP inhibited the adhesion of cancer cells to pulmonary arterial and micro-vascular endothelial cells by suppressing the E-selectin expression that is promoted by inflammation. These results suggest that ANP prevents cancer metastasis by inhibiting the adhesion of tumor cells to inflamed endothelial cells. PMID:25775533

  5. Guanylyl Cyclase/Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A: Role in the Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), also known as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is an endogenous and potent hypotensive hormone that elicits natriuretic, diuretic, vasorelaxant, and anti-proliferative effects, which are important in the control of blood pressure and cardiovascular events. One principal locus involved in the regulatory action of ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA). Studies on ANP, BNP, and their receptor, GC-A/NPRA, have greatly increased our knowledge of the control of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Cellular, biochemical, and molecular studies have helped to delineate the receptor function and signaling mechanisms of NPRA. Gene-targeted and transgenic mouse models have advanced our understanding of the importance of ANP, BNP, and GC-A/NPRA in disease states at the molecular level. Importantly, ANP and BNP are used as critical markers of cardiac events; however, their therapeutic potentials for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and stroke have just begun to be realized. We are now just at the initial stage of molecular therapeutics and pharmacogenomic advancement of the natriuretic peptides. More investigations should be undertaken and ongoing ones be extended in this important field. PMID:21815745

  6. Endothelial actions of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    The cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is critically involved in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. Its cGMP-producing GC-A receptor is densely expressed in the microvascular endothelium of the lung and systemic circulation, but the functional relevance is controversial. Some studies reported that ANP stimulates endothelial cell permeability, whereas others described that the peptide attenuates endothelial barrier dysfunction provoked by inflammatory agents such as thrombin or histamine. Many studies in vitro addressed the effects of ANP on endothelial proliferation and migration. Again, both pro- and anti-angiogenic properties were described. To unravel the role of the endothelial actions of ANP in vivo, we inactivated the murine GC-A gene selectively in endothelial cells by homologous loxP/Cre-mediated recombination. Our studies in these mice indicate that ANP, via endothelial GC-A, increases endothelial albumin permeability in the microcirculation of the skin and skeletal muscle. This effect is critically involved in the endocrine hypovolaemic, hypotensive actions of the cardiac hormone. On the other hand the homologous GC-A-activating B-type NP (BNP), which is produced by cardiac myocytes and many other cell types in response to stressors such as hypoxia, possibly exerts more paracrine than endocrine actions. For instance, within the ischaemic skeletal muscle BNP released from activated satellite cells can improve the regeneration of neighbouring endothelia. This review will focus on recent advancements in our understanding of endothelial NP/GC-A signalling in the pulmonary versus systemic circulation. It will discuss possible mechanisms accounting for the discrepant observations made for the endothelial actions of this hormone-receptor system and distinguish between (patho)physiological and pharmacological actions. Lastly it will emphasize the potential therapeutical implications derived from the

  7. Endothelial actions of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2012-05-01

    The cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is critically involved in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. Its cGMP-producing GC-A receptor is densely expressed in the microvascular endothelium of the lung and systemic circulation, but the functional relevance is controversial. Some studies reported that ANP stimulates endothelial cell permeability, whereas others described that the peptide attenuates endothelial barrier dysfunction provoked by inflammatory agents such as thrombin or histamine. Many studies in vitro addressed the effects of ANP on endothelial proliferation and migration. Again, both pro- and anti-angiogenic properties were described. To unravel the role of the endothelial actions of ANP in vivo, we inactivated the murine GC-A gene selectively in endothelial cells by homologous loxP/Cre-mediated recombination. Our studies in these mice indicate that ANP, via endothelial GC-A, increases endothelial albumin permeability in the microcirculation of the skin and skeletal muscle. This effect is critically involved in the endocrine hypovolaemic, hypotensive actions of the cardiac hormone. On the other hand the homologous GC-A-activating B-type NP (BNP), which is produced by cardiac myocytes and many other cell types in response to stressors such as hypoxia, possibly exerts more paracrine than endocrine actions. For instance, within the ischaemic skeletal muscle BNP released from activated satellite cells can improve the regeneration of neighbouring endothelia. This review will focus on recent advancements in our understanding of endothelial NP/GC-A signalling in the pulmonary versus systemic circulation. It will discuss possible mechanisms accounting for the discrepant observations made for the endothelial actions of this hormone-receptor system and distinguish between (patho)physiological and pharmacological actions. Lastly it will emphasize the potential therapeutical implications derived from the

  8. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, J.M.

    1987-06-01

    We have studied the localization, kinetics, and regulation of receptors for the circulating form of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; 99-126) in the rat brain. Quantitative autoradiographic techniques and a /sup 125/I-labeled ligand, /sup 125/I-ANP (99-126), were employed. After in vitro autoradiography, quantification was achieved by computerized microdensitometry followed by comparison with /sup 125/I-standards. ANP receptors were discretely localized in the rat brain, with the highest concentrations in circumventricular organs, the choroid plexus, and selected hypothalamic nuclei involved in the production of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin and in blood-pressure control. Spontaneously (genetic) hypertensive rats showed much lower numbers of ANP receptors than normotensive controls in the subfornical organ, the area postrema, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the choroid plexus. These changes are in contrast to those observed for receptors of angiotensin II, another circulating peptide with actions opposite to those of ANP. Under conditions of acute dehydration after water deprivation, as well as under conditions of chronic dehydration such as those present in homozygous Brattleboro rats, there was an up-regulation of ANP receptors in the subfornical organ. Our results indicate that in the brain, circumventricular organs contain ANP receptors which could respond to variations in the concentration of circulating ANP. In addition, brain areas inside the blood-brain barrier contain ANP receptors probably related to the endogenous, central ANP system. The localization of ANP receptors and the alterations in their regulation present in genetically hypertensive rats and after dehydration indicate that brain ANP receptors are probably related to fluid regulation, including the secretion of vasopressin, and to cardiovascular function.

  9. Localization of Brain Natriuretic Peptide Immunoreactivity in Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Abdelalim, Essam M.; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exerts its functions through NP receptors. Recently, BNP has been shown to be involved in a wide range of functions. Previous studies reported BNP expression in the sensory afferent fibers in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord. However, BNP expression and function in the neurons of the central nervous system are still controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated BNP expression in the rat spinal cord in detail using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR analysis showed that BNP mRNA was present in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). BNP immunoreactivity was observed in different structures of the spinal cord, including the neuronal cell bodies and neuronal processes. BNP immunoreactivity was observed in the DH of the spinal cord and in the neurons of the intermediate column (IC) and ventral horn (VH). Double-immunolabeling showed a high level of BNP expression in the afferent fibers (laminae I–II) labeled with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), suggesting BNP involvement in sensory function. In addition, BNP was co-localized with CGRP and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the motor neurons of the VH. Together, these results indicate that BNP is expressed in sensory and motor systems of the spinal cord, suggesting its involvement in several biological actions on sensory and motor neurons via its binding to NP receptor-A (NPR-A) and/or NP receptor-B (NPR-B) at the spinal cord level. PMID:27994541

  10. A possible role of atrial natriuretic peptide in ethanol-induced acute diuresis

    SciTech Connect

    Colantonio, D.; Casale, R.; Mammarella, M.; Pasqualetti, P. ); Desiati, P.; De Michele, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The acute effects of ethanol on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels were investigated in 4 clinically healthy males, aged 24-26 years, consumed either 750 ml of water as a control study, or the same beverage with 1 ml/kg alcohol added, which increased the plasma alcohol concentration to 99.12{plus minus}15.10 mg/dl at 60 min. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher in the alcohol study compared to the control study at each time point, and with a peak at 10 min. Atrial natriuretic peptide levels showed a positive significant correlation with plasma antidiuretic hormone in the control group, while no relationship was found between the two peptides in the alcohol study. Moreover, a significant correlation exists between plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels and systolic arterial blood pressure, and heart rate, and between the variations in atrial natriuretic peptide values and the variations in plasma sodium, serum ethanol, and plasma osmolality in the alcohol study. Acute ethanol intake causes an increase in urinary volume, and a decrease in urinary potassium excretion and urinary osmolality, and no change in urinary sodium excretion.

  11. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide system and its paracrine function in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Yang, Sung Hoon; Yu, Mo Young; Lee, Hye Kyung; Kim, So Young; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2004-08-15

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), a 38-amino-acid peptide, was isolated from the venom of Green Mamba. It has structural and functional similarities to other members of the natriuretic peptide family. The purpose of this study was to determine whether DNP system is present in the rat colon and to define its biological functions. The serial dilution curve of extracts of colonic tissues was parallel to the standard curve of DNP and a major peak of molecular profile by HPLC was synthetic DNP. The concentration of DNP was 0.5 +/- 0.04 ng/g of colonic tissues. DNP as well as atrial natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide caused dose-dependent increases in cGMP production in the purified membrane of colonic tissues. Three types of natriuretic peptide receptor mRNAs were detected using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Functionally, synthetic DNP inhibited the spontaneous contraction of rat colonic circular muscle in a concentration-dependent manner. The potency appeared to be at least 10 times greater than that of CNP. Furthermore, DNP inhibited carbachol-induced muscle contraction, suggesting that it also can modulate the nerve regulation of colonic motility. This study demonstrates the presence of DNP system in rat colon and its function as a local regulator of colonic motility.

  12. Natriuretic peptide receptor B signaling in the cardiovascular system: protection from cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Pagel-Langenickel, Ines; Buttgereit, Jens; Bader, Michael; Langenickel, Thomas H

    2007-08-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NP) represent a family of structurally homologous but genetically distinct peptide hormones involved in regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, blood pressure, fat metabolism, cell proliferation, and long bone growth. Recent work suggests a role for natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) signaling in regulation of cardiac growth by either a direct effect on cardiomyocytes or by modulation of other signaling pathways including the autonomic nervous system. The research links NPR-B for the first time to a cardiac phenotype in vivo and underlines the importance of the NP in the cardiovascular system. This manuscript will focus on the role of NPR-B and its ligand C-type natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular physiology and disease and will evaluate these new findings in the context of the known function of this receptor, with a perspective on how future research might further elucidate NPR-B function.

  13. Assessing prognosis of pulmonary embolism using tissue-Doppler echocardiography and brain natriuretic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Clara Tude; Cordovil, Adriana; Mônaco, Cláudia Gianini; Guimarães, Laise Antônia Bonfim; de Oliveira, Wércules Antônio Alves; Fischer, Claudio Henrique; de Lira, Edgar Bezerra; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Morhy, Samira Saady

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess prognosis of pulmonary thromboembolism using tissue Doppler echocardiography and brain natriuretic peptide. Methods: Patients aged over 18 years were evaluated within 24 hours of confirmed diagnosis (chest tomography/pulmonary scintigraphy) of pulmonary embolism using two-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler for right ventricular systolic (s') velocities, strain, tissue tracking and myocardial performance index. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide was also obtained within 24 hour. The influence of echocardiographic and clinical variables on mortality was examined (up to 12 months) using Cox regression analysis. Results: Out of 118 patients, 100 patients were included in the study (60 males, aged 55±17 years). Right ventricular dysfunction was observed in 28% using two-dimensional echocardiography. Tissue Doppler right ventricular variables (s' velocities, tissue tracking and strain) were decreased only for patients with right ventricular dysfunction, whereas myocardial performance index and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were increased. Mean brain natriuretic peptide value was 66±111pg/mL, also increased in patients with right ventricular dysfunction (136±146pg/mL). Mortality was 11% and related to age, malignancy and brain natriuretic peptide levels. The only echocardiographic variables capable of predicting events by univariate analysis were pulmonary pressure and right ventricular s' velocity. However, multivariate analysis showed only malignancy to predict mortality in this group. Conclusion: Lower tissue Doppler systolic velocities and elevated brain natriuretic peptide levels are associated with poorer prognosis in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism; but only malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of mortality. PMID:24136761

  14. Potassium channel stimulation by natriuretic peptides through cGMP-dependent dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    White, R E; Lee, A B; Shcherbatko, A D; Lincoln, T M; Schonbrunn, A; Armstrong, D L

    1993-01-21

    Natriuretic peptides inhibit the release and action of many hormones through cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), but the mechanism of cGMP action is unclear. In frog ventricular muscle and guinea-pig hippocampal neurons, cGMP inhibits voltage-activated Ca2+ currents by stimulating phosphodiesterase activity and reducing intracellular cyclic AMP; however, this mechanism is not involved in the action of cGMP on other channels or on Ca2+ channels in other cells. Natriuretic peptide receptors in the rat pituitary also stimulate guanylyl cyclase activity but inhibit secretion by increasing membrane conductance to potassium. In an electrophysiological study on rat pituitary tumour cells, we identified the large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) as the primary target of another inhibitory neuropeptide, somatostatin. Here we report that atrial natriuretic peptide also stimulates BK channel activity in GH4C1 cells through protein dephosphorylation. Unlike somatostatin, however, the effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on BK channel activity is preceded by a rapid and potent stimulation of cGMP production and requires cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity. Protein phosphatase activation by cGMP-dependent kinase could explain the inhibitory effects of natriuretic peptides on electrical excitability and the antagonism of cGMP and cAMP in many systems.

  15. C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Analog as Therapy for Achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is an important regulator of bone formation. Gain-of-function mutations in the FGFR3 gene result in chondrodysplasias which include achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of dwarfism, in which skull, appendicular and axial skeletons are affected. The skeletal phenotype of patients with ACH showed defective proliferation and differentiation of the chondrocytes in the growth plate cartilage. Both endochondral and membranous ossification processes are disrupted during development. At cellular level, Fgfr3 mutations induce increased phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3, which correlate with an enhanced activation of its downstream signaling pathways. Potential therapeutic strategies have emerged for ACH. Several preclinical studies have been conducted such as the C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) analog (BMN111), intermittent parathyroid hormone injections, soluble FGFR3 therapy, and meclozine and statin treatments. Among the putative targets to antagonize FGFR3 signaling, CNP (or BMN111) is one of the most promising strategies. BMN111 acts as a key regulator of longitudinal bone growth by downregulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, which is activated as a result of a FGFR3 gain-of-function mutation. Preclinical studies showed that BMN111 treatment led to a large improvement in skeletal parameters in Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice mimicking ACH. In 2014, a clinical trial (phase 2) of BMN111 in pediatric patients with ACH has started. This first clinical trial marks the first big step towards real treatment for these patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Natriuretic peptides stimulate oocyte meiotic resumption in bovine.

    PubMed

    De Cesaro, Matheus P; Macedo, Mariana P; Santos, Joabel T; Rosa, Paulo R A; Ludke, Charles A; Rissi, Vitor B; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of mRNA encoding natriuretic peptides (NPs) and their receptors in the cumulus-oocyte complex in cattle, a monovular mammalian species, and also to investigate the role of NPs in oocyte meiotic resumption in vitro. mRNA was observed for the NP precursor type-A (NPPA), type-C (NPPC), NP receptor-1 (NPR-1), receptor-2 (NPR-2) and receptor-3 (NPR-3) in bovine cumulus cells, and NPR-2 mRNA was observed in oocytes. These results are different from those obtained in mouse and pig models. The effects of NPPA, NP precursor type-B (NPPB) and NPPC on the resumption of arrested meiosis maintained by forskolin were studied at three different doses (10, 100 and 1000nM) with a 12h culture system. The germinal vesicle breakdown rates were greater (P≤0.05) in oocytes that were cultured in the presence of one or a combination of NPs (from 44% to 73%) than the negative control (from 24% to 27%). Additionally, it was demonstrated that the concentration of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is increased by NPPA and NPPC in oocytes and cumulus cells after 3h of in vitro maturation. However, in both groups, the concentration of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in the oocyte did not increase between 3 and 6h of culture, even when forskolin was used. In summary, we observed the presence of mRNA for NPs and their receptors in the bovine cumulus-oocyte complex and demonstrated that, in vitro, NPPA, NPPB and NPPC stimulate oocyte meiotic resumption in a monovular species.

  17. Functional atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in human adrenal tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Shionoiri, H.; Hirawa, N.; Takasaki, I.; Ishikawa, Y.; Oda, H.; Minamisawa, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Matsukawa, T.; Ueda, S.; Miyajima, E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of synthetic human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on the release of catecholamines, aldosterone, or cortisol were observed in human adrenal tumors obtained surgically from patients with pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, or Cushing's syndrome, respectively. Each tumor tissue or adjacent normal cortical tissue was sectioned into slices, which were incubated in medium-199 in the presence or absence of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and ANP. The amounts of epinephrine, norepinephrine, aldosterone, or cortisol released into the medium were measured. Existence of ANP receptors on the adrenal tissues was examined by binding assays, affinity labeling, and immunohistochemistry. Release of catecholamines from pheochromocytoma tissues was inhibited by ANP, and the presence of the ANP receptor on pheochromocytoma was further demonstrated by both binding assays and affinity labeling; Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of binding sites for ANP with a Kd of 1.0 nM and a Bmax of 0.4 pmol/mg of protein and the molecular size was estimated as 140 and a 70 kDa under nonreducing and reducing conditions, respectively. The presence of ANP receptors in pheochromocytoma was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. ANP inhibited both basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone secretion in the slices of normal cortex, and localization of ANP receptors in zona glomerulosa cells was also demonstrated. However, ANP did not inhibit basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone and cortisol secretion in both tissue slices from aldosteronoma and Cushing's adenoma. Consistent with these observations, the absence of ANP receptors in adenoma tissues was determined by binding assays, affinity labeling, and immunohistochemistry.

  18. Weight Loss, Saline Loading, and the Natriuretic Peptide System

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj; Reingold, Jason; Baggish, Aaron; Guanaga, Derek P.; Wu, Connie; Ghorbani, Anahita; Song, Yanna; Chen‐Tournaux, Annabel; Khan, Abigail May; Tainsh, Laurel T.; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Williams, Jonathan S.; Heublein, Denise M.; Burnett, John C.; Semigran, Marc J.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Scherrer‐Crosbie, Marielle; Newton‐Cheh, Christopher; Kaplan, Lee M.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In epidemiologic studies, obesity has been associated with reduced natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. Reduced NP production could impair the ability of obese individuals to respond to salt loads, increasing the risk of hypertension and other disorders. We hypothesized that weight loss enhances NP production before and after salt loading. Methods and Results We enrolled 15 obese individuals (mean BMI 45±5.4 kg/m2) undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Before and 6 months after surgery, subjects were admitted to the clinical research center and administered a large‐volume intravenous saline challenge. Echocardiography and serial blood sampling were performed. From the pre‐operative visit to 6 months after surgery, subjects had a mean BMI decrease of 27%. At the 6‐month visit, N‐terminal pro‐atrial NP (Nt‐proANP) levels were 40% higher before, during, and after the saline infusion, compared with levels measured at the same time points during the pre‐operative visit (P<0.001). The rise in Nt‐pro‐ANP induced by the saline infusion (≈50%) was similar both before and after surgery (saline, P<0.001; interaction, P=0.2). Similar results were obtained for BNP and Nt‐proBNP; resting concentrations increased by 50% and 31%, respectively, after gastric bypass surgery. The increase in NP concentrations after surgery was accompanied by significant decreases in mean arterial pressure (P=0.004) and heart rate (P<0.001), and an increase in mitral annular diastolic velocity (P=0.02). Conclusion In obese individuals, weight loss is associated with a substantial increase in the “setpoint” of circulating NP concentrations. Higher NP concentrations could contribute to an enhanced ability to handle salt loads after weight loss. PMID:25595796

  19. Muscarinic effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on rabbit airways.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, A; Saunier, C; Michoud, M C; du Souich, P

    1993-10-01

    1. The aim of the present work was to investigate under which circumstances atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) modulates airway resistance. 2. Of the six groups of rabbits (n = 5) studied, three received an infusion of ANP (80 ng min-1 kg-1 i.v.) for a period of 100 min, while the other three were infused with the vehicle. Before receiving the infusion of ANP or the vehicle, the animals were pretreated with atropine (0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.), propranolol (2 mg kg-1 i.v.) or not pretreated. After 75 min of infusion of ANP, bronchoconstriction was induced by inhalation of histamine. Respiratory resistance (Rrs) was measured before and 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min post-histamine challenge. 3. Following 75 min of ANP infusion, plasma ANP concentration increased from 153 +/- 52 (mean +/- s.e.mean) to 1441 +/- 203 pg ml-1 (P < 0.05) without affecting baseline Rrs. Control Rrs values (12.5-20.4 cmH2O l-1 s) were significantly increased following the inhalation of histamine (P < 0.001). By themselves, atropine, propranolol or ANP did not modify the histamine-induced increase in Rrs. However, when the animals were pretreated with atropine, ANP infusion significantly reduced the increase in Rrs induced by histamine (30 +/- 2 vs 51 +/- 6 cmH2O l-1 s; P < 0.05). 4. These data suggest that ANP has an indirect modulating effect on the airway smooth muscle and will decrease Rrs when muscarinic receptors are blocked.

  20. Impaired atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated lipolysis in obesity.

    PubMed

    Rydén, M; Bäckdahl, J; Petrus, P; Thorell, A; Gao, H; Coue, M; Langin, D; Moro, C; Arner, P

    2016-04-01

    Catecholamines and natriuretic peptides (NPs) are the only hormones with pronounced lipolytic effects in human white adipose tissue. Although catecholamine-induced lipolysis is well known to be impaired in obesity and insulin resistance, it is not known whether the effect of NPs is also altered. Catecholamine- and atrial NP (ANP)-induced lipolysis was investigated in abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes in vitro and in situ by microdialysis. In a cohort of 122 women, both catecholamine- and ANP-induced lipolysis in vitro was markedly attenuated in obesity (n=87), but normalized after substantial body weight loss (n=52). The impairment of lipolysis differed between the two hormones when expressing lipolysis per lipid weight, the ratio of stimulated over basal (spontaneous) lipolysis rate or per number of adipocytes. Thus, while the response to catecholamines was lower when expressed as the former two measures, it was higher when expressed per cell number, a consequence of the significantly larger fat cell size in obesity. In contrast, although ANP-induced lipolysis was also attenuated when expressed per lipid weight or the ratio stimulated/basal, it was similar between non-obese and obese subjects when expressed per cell number suggesting that the lipolytic effect of ANP may be even more sensitive to the effects of obesity than catecholamines. Obesity was characterized by a decrease in the protein expression of the signaling NP A receptor (NPRA) and a trend toward increased levels of the clearance receptor NPRC. The impairment in ANP-induced lipolysis observed in vitro was corroborated by microdialysis experiments in situ in a smaller cohort of lean and overweight men. ANP- and catecholamine-induced lipolysis is reversibly attenuated in obesity. The pro-lipolytic effects of ANP are relatively more impaired compared with that of catecholamines, which may in part be due to specific changes in NP receptor expression.

  1. Radioimmunoassay and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide in human plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yandle, T.G.; Espiner, E.A.; Nicholls, M.G.; Duff, H.

    1986-07-01

    A RIA for alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide (alpha hANP) in plasma was developed and used to study the immunoreactive components secreted by the heart and circulating in peripheral venous plasma. The assay used (125I)diiodotyrosyl-alpha hANP, purified by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and a C-terminal-specific antiserum purchased from Peninsula Laboratories. Serial dilution curves of coronary sinus plasma samples were parallel with the standard curve, but significant nonparallelism was found in peripheral plasma samples of low immunoreactivity. When plasma was extracted using C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges, serial dilution curves from both coronary sinus and peripheral plasma samples were parallel to the standard curve. Although values for plasma samples assayed before and after extraction agreed closely (r = 0.99; n = 76), immunoreactive ANP in unextracted plasma was consistently greater (70-79 pmol/liter) than in extracts of plasma, suggesting non-specific interference by a component in plasma when assayed without extraction. Mean plasma immunoreactive ANP in 19 normal subjects consuming a normal salt intake was 14 +/- 1 (+/- SE) pmol/liter. In 5 normal men, increasing dietary sodium intake from 10 to 200 mmol sodium/day was associated with a 2-fold increment in ANP levels, and similar changes accompanied acute sodium loading using iv saline. Elevated values were found in patients with congestive heart failure (mean, 58 pmol/liter; range, 0-200; n = 9), chronic renal failure (mean, 118 pmol/liter; range, 30-290; n = 8), and primary aldosteronism (range, 32-90 pmol/liter; n = 3). HPLC and gel chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material found in coronary sinus plasma extracts showed that a large amount of the material eluted in the position of alpha hANP.

  2. Caffeine-induced diuresis and atrial natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Nussberger, J; Mooser, V; Maridor, G; Juillerat, L; Waeber, B; Brunner, H R

    1990-05-01

    After a single-blind, randomized, cross-over protocol using decaffeinated coffee in a control experiment, the effect of an oral 250-mg caffeine dose on plasma immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF) was assessed in eight healthy students who had been on a methylxanthine-free diet for 1 week. One to 2 h after caffeine ingestion, both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) increased by 12 mm Hg while heart rate (HR) also tended to increase. An increase in diuresis and in urinary sodium, potassium, and osmol excretion was observed within 1 h. Decaffeinated coffee induced no change in any of these parameters. Plasma epinephrine (EPI) increased gradually from 16.6 +/- 3.2 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM) to 45.1 +/- 7.9 pg/ml within 2 h after caffeine ingestion, but did not change after decaffeinated coffee (p less than 0.001). Plasma norepinephrine (NE), renin activity (PRA), aldosterone, and vasopressin remained unchanged. Plasma ANF was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using an extremely sensitive antiserum (Kd = 10(-12) M) after rapid and virtually complete (90-103%) extraction from plasma. In 0.2 ml plasma, the theoretical detection limit is 1.1 fmol/ml. Normal plasma ANF concentrations in supine subjects were 17.9 +/- 8.1 fmol/ml (mean +/- SD) and 11.0 +/- 3.3 fmol/ml in subjects in the upright position. Plasma ANF levels were not affected by coffee drinking. In conclusion, by using a new and sensitive assay for plasma ANF, we did not find that caffeine-induced diuresis is mediated by ANF.

  3. Factors influencing brain natriuretic peptide levels in healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mayama, Michinori; Yoshihara, Masato; Uno, Kaname; Tano, Sho; Takeda, Takehiko; Ukai, Mayu; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2017-02-01

    The normal range of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pregnant women is still unclear. Moreover, pregnant women experience dynamic body weight changes and suffer from anemia, but effects on maternal BNP have not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal the normal plasma BNP range and examine the effects of physiological changes on BNP among pregnant women. Plasma BNP, hemoglobin, plasma creatinine and BMI were measured in 58 non-pregnant control women and in 773 normal pregnant women at late pregnancy, early postpartum and 1-month postpartum. Mean plasma BNP (in pg/mL) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval: 0-27.5) in non-pregnant women, 17.9 (0-44.7, p<0.001) at late pregnancy, 42.5 (0-112.6, p<0.001) early postpartum and 16.1 (0-43.9, p=0.001) 1-month postpartum. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pre-delivery BNP levels were negatively correlated with BMI (p<0.001) and hemoglobin (p=0.002) and positively correlated with creatinine (p<0.001). Post-delivery BNP was positively associated with body weight change during pregnancy (p=0.001) and post-delivery creatinine (p=0.010) but negatively associated with body weight loss at delivery (p<0.001) and post-delivery hemoglobin (p=0.004). Even normal pregnancy affects plasma BNP, particularly in the early postpartum period, indicative of cardiac stress. Plasma BNP levels are affected by BMI, body weight changes, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; therefore, these factors should be considered when analysing cardiac function and the physiological implications of BNP levels in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain natriuretic peptide predicts functional outcome in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Natalia S; Biffi, Alessandro; Cloonan, Lisa; Chorba, John; Kelly, Peter; Greer, David; Ellinor, Patrick; Furie, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been associated with cardioembolic (CE) stroke and increased post-stroke mortality. We sought to determine whether BNP levels were associated with functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Methods We measured BNP in consecutive patients aged ≥18 years admitted to our Stroke Unit between 2002–2005. BNP quintiles were used for analysis. Stroke subtypes were assigned using TOAST criteria. Outcomes were measured as 6-month modified Rankin Scale score (“good outcome” = 0–2 vs. “poor”) as well as mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess association between the quintiles of BNP and outcomes. Predictive performance of BNP as compared to clinical model alone was assessed by comparing ROC curves. Results Of 569 ischemic stroke patients, 46% were female; mean age was 67.9 ± 15 years. In age- and gender-adjusted analysis, elevated BNP was associated with lower ejection fraction (p<0.0001) and left atrial dilatation (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, elevated BNP decreased the odds of good functional outcome (OR 0.64, 95%CI 0.41–0.98) and increased the odds of death (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.36–2.24) in these patients. Addition of BNP to multivariate models increased their predictive performance for functional outcome (p=0.013) and mortality (p<0.03) after CE stroke. Conclusions Serum BNP levels are strongly associated with CE stroke and functional outcome at 6 months after ischemic stroke. Inclusion of BNP improved prediction of mortality in patients with CE stroke. PMID:22116811

  5. Will sacubitril-valsartan diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care?

    PubMed

    Mair, Johannes; Lindahl, Bertil; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Huber, Kurt; Thygesen, Kristian; Plebani, Mario; Möckel, Martin; Müller, Christian; Jaffe, Allan S

    2017-06-01

    Since the approval of sacubitril-valsartan for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, a commonly raised suspicion is that a wider clinical use of this new drug may diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing as sacubitril may interfere with B-type natriuretic peptide clearance. In this education paper we critically assess this hypothesis based on the pathophysiology of the natriuretic peptide system and the limited published data on the effects of neprilysin inhibition on natriuretic peptide plasma concentrations in humans. As the main clinical application of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care is and will be the rapid rule-out of suspected acute heart failure there is no significant impairment to be expected for B-type natriuretic peptide testing in the acute setting. However, monitoring of chronic heart failure patients on sacubitril-valsartan treatment with B-type natriuretic peptide testing may be impaired. In contrast to N-terminal-proBNP, the current concept that the lower the B-type natriuretic peptide result in chronic heart failure patients, the better the prognosis during treatment monitoring, may no longer be true.

  6. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  7. Natriuretic peptides modify Pseudomonas fluorescens cytotoxicity by regulating cyclic nucleotides and modifying LPS structure

    PubMed Central

    Veron, Wilfried; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc GJ; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Background Nervous tissues express various communication molecules including natriuretic peptides, i.e. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP). These molecules share structural similarities with cyclic antibacterial peptides. CNP and to a lesser extent BNP can modify the cytotoxicity of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The psychrotrophic environmental species Pseudomonas fluorescens also binds to and kills neurons and glial cells, cell types that both produce natriuretic peptides. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to natriuretic peptides and evaluated the distribution and variability of putative natriuretic peptide-dependent sensor systems in the Pseudomonas genus. Results Neither BNP nor CNP modified P. fluorescens MF37 growth or cultivability. However, pre-treatment of P. fluorescens MF37 with BNP or CNP provoked a decrease of the apoptotic effect of the bacterium on glial cells and an increase of its necrotic activity. By homology with eukaryotes, where natriuretic peptides act through receptors coupled to cyclases, we observed that cell-permeable stable analogues of cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and cyclic GMP (8BcGMP) mimicked the effect of BNP and CNP on bacteria. Intra-bacterial concentrations of cAMP and cGMP were measured to study the involvement of bacterial cyclases in the regulation of P. fluorescens cytotoxicity by BNP or CNP. BNP provoked an increase (+49%) of the cAMP concentration in P. fluorescens, and CNP increased the intra-bacterial concentrations of cGMP (+136%). The effect of BNP and CNP on the virulence of P. fluorescens was independent of the potential of the bacteria to bind to glial cells. Conversely, LPS extracted from MF37 pre-treated with dbcAMP showed a higher necrotic activity than the LPS from untreated or 8BcGMP-pre-treated bacteria. Capillary electrophoresis analysis suggests that these different effects of the LPS may be due, at least in part, to

  8. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide, Aldosterone, and Fluid Management in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Marney, Annis M; Rice, Todd W; Nian, Hui; Yu, Chang; Wheeler, Arthur P; Brown, Nancy J

    2016-07-01

    Conservative fluid management increases ventilator-free days without influencing overall mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (a marker of ventricular filling) or aldosterone (a marker of effective circulating volume) may identify patients for whom fluid management impacts survival. This was a retrospective analysis of the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT), a randomized trial comparing conservative with liberal fluid management in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Using plasma collected at study enrollment, we measured B-type natriuretic peptide and aldosterone by immunoassay. Multivariable analyses examined the interaction between B-type natriuretic peptide or aldosterone concentration and fluid strategy with regard to 60-day in-hospital mortality. Among 625 patients with adequate plasma, median B-type natriuretic peptide concentration was 825 pg/mL (interquartile range, 144-1,574 pg/mL), and median aldosterone was 2.49 ng/dL (interquartile range, 1.1-4.3 ng/dL). B-type natriuretic peptide did not predict overall mortality, correlate with fluid balance, or modify the effect of conservative vs liberal fluid management on outcomes. In contrast, among patients with lower aldosterone concentrations, conservative fluid management increased ventilator-free days (17.1 ± 9.8 vs 12.5 ± 10.3, P < .001) and decreased mortality (19% vs 30%, P = .03) (P value for interaction = .01). In acute respiratory distress syndrome, B-type natriuretic peptide does not modify the effect of fluid management on outcomes. Lower initial aldosterone appears to identify patients for whom conservative fluid management may improve mortality. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aortic stiffness and plasma brain natriuretic peptide predicts mortality in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Biteker, Murat; Özden, Temel; Dayan, Akın; Tekkeşin, Ahmet İlker; Mısırlı, Cemile Handan

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic role and discriminative power of aortic stiffness and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels in a cohort of patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke. Three hundred and ten consecutive patients aged 50 years and older with a first episode of acute ischemic stroke were prospectively evaluated. All patients were admitted to the hospital within 24 h of the onset of stroke symptoms. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Blood samples were taken for measurement of brain natriuretic peptide levels at admission. Aortic stiffness indices, aortic strain and distensibility, were calculated from the aortic diameters measured by transthoracic echocardiography. The patients were followed for one-year or until death, whichever came first. Death occurred in 51 (16·5%) patients. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score >13, diabetes, brain natriuretic peptide >235 pg/mL, aortic distensibility, and aortic strain were associated with all-cause mortality. The optimal cutoff level of brain natriuretic peptide to distinguish the deceased group from the survival group was 235 pg/mL (sensitivity 71·0% and specificity 63·0%) and to distinguish cardioembolic stroke from noncardioembolic stroke was 155 pg/mL (sensitivity 81% and specificity 63%). Aortic stiffness and brain natriuretic peptide predict mortality in patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke. Brain natriuretic peptide also differentiates cardioembolic stroke from noncardioembolic stroke. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Discovery and dimeric approach of novel Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A (NPR-A) agonists.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Takehiko; Oyama, Yoshiaki; Tomoo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Taisaku; Okamura, Yoshihiko; Sugiyama, Masako; Yamaki, Akira; Furuya, Mayumi

    2017-03-15

    Novel agonists of the Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A (NPR-A) were obtained through random screening and subsequent structural modification of triazine derivatives. The key structural feature to improve in vitro activity was the dimerization of triazine monomer derivatives. The non peptide derivative 7c and 13a showed highly potent NPR-A agonistic activity in vitro and diuretic activity in vivo. These results implied that non-peptidic small molecules open the possibility of new therapy for congestive heart failure.

  11. Betaxolol improves the survival rate and changes natriuretic peptide expression in rats with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Juan, Wen; Narasimman, Gurusamy; Ma, Meilei; Inoue, Mikio; Saito, Yuki; Wahed, Mir I I; Nakazawa, Mikio; Hasegawa, Go; Naito, Makoto; Tachikawa, Hitoshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Kodama, Makoto; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Takahashi, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The cardioprotective effects of betaxolol were studied in a rat model with heart failure induced by autoimmune myocarditis. Twenty-eight days after immunization, Lewis rats were divided into four groups; 0.1 mg/kg betaxolol per day (group 0.1), 1.0 mg/kg betaxolol per day (group 1), 10 mg/kg betaxolol per day (group 10), and vehicle (0.5% methylcellulose, group V) (all groups, n = 13). After oral administration for 1 month, the heart weight, the mRNA expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide in the left ventricle, the plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration, the mean blood pressure, the heart rate, the central venous pressure, the peak left ventricular pressure, the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and its first derivative +/-dP/dt, and the area of myocardial fibrosis were measured. Betaxolol reduced the heart rate, the levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA expression and the atrial natriuretic peptide concentration [group N (normal rats), 367 +/- 4 beats/min, 100%, 100% and 78 +/- 7 pg/ml, respectively; group V, 391 +/- 9 beats/min, 761 +/- 68% versus group N, 317 +/- 42% versus group N and 4374 +/- 312 pg/ml, respectively; group 0.1, 387 +/- 10 beats/min, 621 +/- 78%, 288 +/- 41% and 2875 +/- 331 pg/ml, respectively; group 1, 323 +/- 9 beats/min, 442 +/- 84%, 148 +/- 12% and 884 +/- 51 pg/ml, respectively; and group 10, 312 +/- 8 beats/min, 97 +/- 18%, 92 + 9% and 453 +/- 53 pg/ml, respectively], and increased survival (group V, 62%; group 0.1, 69%; groups N, 1 and 10, 100%). Betaxolol did not significantly alter the heart weight, the hemodynamic parameters or the area of fibrosis. These observations suggest that betaxolol may improve the survival rate by reducing sudden death and changing the atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA expression in patients with heart failure.

  12. Clinical Applications of Natriuretic Peptides in Assessment of Valvular Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Ahmed, Vaseem; Garg, Aakash; Aggarwal, Chirag

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers such as natriuretic peptides (NPs) have evolving clinical utility beyond the scope of heart failure. The role of NPs in the management of valvular heart disease is a growing area of investigation. NPs have much potential in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with hemodynamically significant valvular lesions who have traditionally been excluded from consideration of surgical intervention. NPs also have a role in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in routine surveillance and monitoring. Together with echocardiographic data and functional status, NPs are being incorporated into the management of valvular heart disease. In this review we examine the evidence for the role of natriuretic peptides in assessment of VHD.

  13. Natriuretic peptides and the heart: current and future implications for clinical biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Penney, M D

    2005-11-01

    The measurement of B-type natriuretic peptides in plasma is under intense promotion as a method of screening for heart failure. This article provides a historical context for this contention, and attempts to highlight what practical problems may be encountered in establishing a screening service from a clinical biochemistry standpoint. B-type natriuretic peptide measurements may also prove, in future, to have a significant role in the objective monitoring of treatment for heart failure, and to be a valuable prognostic indicator in patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome.

  14. B-type natriuretic peptides and mortality after stroke

    PubMed Central

    García-Berrocoso, Teresa; Giralt, Dolors; Bustamante, Alejandro; Etgen, Thorleif; Jensen, Jesper K.; Sharma, Jagdish C.; Shibazaki, Kensaku; Saritas, Ayhan; Chen, Xingyong; Whiteley, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To measure the association of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal fragment of BNP (NT-proBNP) with all-cause mortality after stroke, and to evaluate the additional predictive value of BNP/NT-proBNP over clinical information. Methods: Suitable studies for meta-analysis were found by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until October 26, 2012. Weighted mean differences measured effect size; meta-regression and publication bias were assessed. Individual participant data were used to estimate effects by logistic regression and to evaluate BNP/NT-proBNP additional predictive value by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, and integrated discrimination improvement and categorical net reclassification improvement indexes. Results: Literature-based meta-analysis included 3,498 stroke patients from 16 studies and revealed that BNP/NT-proBNP levels were 255.78 pg/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 105.10–406.47, p = 0.001) higher in patients who died; publication bias entailed the loss of this association. Individual participant data analysis comprised 2,258 stroke patients. After normalization of the data, patients in the highest quartile had double the risk of death after adjustment for clinical variables (NIH Stroke Scale score, age, sex) (odds ratio 2.30, 95% CI 1.32–4.01 for BNP; and odds ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.75–3.94 for NT-proBNP). Only NT-proBNP showed a slight added value to clinical prognostic variables, increasing discrimination by 0.028 points (integrated discrimination improvement index; p < 0.001) and reclassifying 8.1% of patients into correct risk mortality categories (net reclassification improvement index; p = 0.003). Neither etiology nor time from onset to death affected the association of BNP/NT-proBNP with mortality. Conclusion: BNPs are associated with poststroke mortality independent of NIH Stroke Scale score, age, and sex. However, their translation to clinical practice seems difficult because BNP

  15. C-type natriuretic peptide activates a non-selective cation current in acutely isolated rat cardiac fibroblasts via natriuretic peptide C receptor-mediated signalling.

    PubMed

    Rose, R A; Hatano, N; Ohya, S; Imaizumi, Y; Giles, W R

    2007-04-01

    In the heart, fibroblasts play an essential role in the deposition of the extracellular matrix and they also secrete a number of hormonal factors. Although natriuretic peptides, including C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and brain natriuretic peptide, have antifibrotic effects on cardiac fibroblasts, the effects of CNP on fibroblast electrophysiology have not been examined. In this study, acutely isolated ventricular fibroblasts from the adult rat were used to measure the effects of CNP (2 x 10(-8) M) under whole-cell voltage-clamp conditions. CNP, as well as the natriuretic peptide C receptor (NPR-C) agonist cANF (2 x 10(-8) M), significantly increased an outwardly rectifying non-selective cation current (NSCC). This current has a reversal potential near 0 mV. Activation of this NSCC by cANF was abolished by pre-treating fibroblasts with pertussis toxin, indicating the involvement of G(i) proteins. The cANF-activated NSCC was inhibited by the compounds Gd(3+), SKF 96365 and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of mRNA from rat ventricular fibroblasts revealed the expression of several transient receptor potential (TRP) channel transcripts. Additional electrophysiological analysis showed that U73122, a phospholipase C antagonist, inhibited the cANF-activated NSCC. Furthermore, the effects of CNP and cANF were mimicked by the diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), independently of protein kinase C activity. These are defining characteristics of specific TRPC channels. More detailed molecular analysis confirmed the expression of full-length TRPC2, TRPC3 and TRPC5 transcripts. These data indicate that CNP, acting via the NPR-C receptor, activates a NSCC that is at least partially carried by TRPC channels in cardiac fibroblasts.

  16. Expression of brain natriuretic peptide by human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Kamath, S; Mosquera, D; Zigova, T; Sanberg, P; Vesely, D L; Sanchez-Ramos, J

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) have been shown to generate neural cells under experimental conditions in vitro and following transplantation into animal models of stroke and traumatic CNS injury. Hastened recovery from the neurological deficit has not correlated with structural repair of the lesion in the stroke model. Secretory functions of BMSC, such as the elaboration of growth factors and cytokines, have been hypothesized to play a role in the enhanced recovery of neurological function. Using gene expression arrays, real time RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, we have found that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized and released by BMSC at physiologically relevant levels in vitro. BNP, like its close homolog atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), exerts powerful natriuretic, diuretic and vasodilatory effects. We speculate that transplanted BMSCs facilitate recovery from brain and spinal cord lesions by releasing BNP and other vasoactive factors that reduce edema, decrease intracranial pressure and improve cerebral perfusion.

  17. Elevated glucose concentration and natriuretic peptides receptor response on vascular smooth muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Kano, H; Hanehira, T; Minami, M; Ikeda, M; Horio, T; Yokokawa, K; Takeda, T

    1995-12-01

    1. Hyperglycaemia is believed to be a major cause of diabetic vascular complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis. In order to elucidate the effect of hyperglycaemia on vascular response in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the natriuretic peptides receptor responses to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) which are thought to suppress atherosclerosis were studied under high glucose (HG:22.2 mmol/L) conditions. 2. The total number of cells in SHR is higher and natriuretic peptides receptor response is smaller than that of cells in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Membrane bound protein kinase C (PKC) activity in HG or SHR is higher compared to that of cells in normal glucose (NG:5.6 mmol/L) or WKY. Cells cultured in HG for at least 2 passages had higher total cell number and receptor mediated cGMP formation were suppressed compared to cells cultured in NG both in SHR and WKY. Specific PKC inhibitor PKC (19-36) 1 mu mol/L prevented HG induced suppression of natriuretic peptides response. 3. These results show that hyperglycaemia may be linked to suppressed natriuretic peptides receptor response which is caused by increased PKC activity both in WKY and SHR. This suppressed response may cause the accelerated atherosclerosis by hyperglycaemia.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117 Section 862.1117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  19. Responses of Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide to High Intensity Submaximal Exercise in the Heat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Natriuretic Peptide to LnHigh Intensity Submaximal Exercise in the Heat 0 " William J. Kraemer. Lawrence E. Armstrong, Roger W. Hubbard. :I[_] Louis J...atriopeptins in rat adrenal cells. Cir Res 57: 113-118. f V-0C -- V- - IF -I 7 - % 7 -. 17 Chartier L. Schiffrin EL. Thibault G (1984). Effects of atrial

  20. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117 Section 862.1117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117 Section 862.1117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117 Section 862.1117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1117 - B-type natriuretic peptide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false B-type natriuretic peptide test system. 862.1117 Section 862.1117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  4. Molecular cloning of natriuretic peptide receptor A from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) brain and its functional expression.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, T; Miyamoto, K; Mizutani, T; Yamada, K; Yazawa, T; Yoshino, M; Minegishi, T; Takei, Y; Kangawa, K; Minamino, N; Saito, Y; Kojima, M

    2001-08-08

    A comparative study of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR) was performed by cloning the NPR-A receptor subtype from the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) brain and analyzing its functional expression. Like other mammalian NPR-A receptors, the bullfrog NPR-A receptor consists of an extracellular ligand binding domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, a kinase-like domain and a guanylate cyclase domain. Sequence comparison among the bullfrog and mammalian receptors revealed a relatively low ( approximately 45%) similarity in the extracellular domain compared to a very high similarity ( approximately 92%) in the cytoplasmic regulatory and catalytic domains. Expression of NPR-A mRNA was detected in various bullfrog tissues including the brain, heart, lung, kidney and liver; highest levels were observed in lung. Functional expression of the receptor in COS-7 cells revealed that frog atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) elicited cyclic guanosine 3'5'-monophosphate production by stimulating the receptor in a dose-dependent manner from 10(-10) M concentrations. Rat ANP was also effective in stimulating the frog receptor whereas rat BNP and porcine BNP were less responsive to the receptor. On the other hand, frog C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as well as porcine CNP stimulated the receptor only at high concentrations (10(-7) M). This clearly indicates that the bullfrog receptor is a counterpart of mammalian NPR-A, and is specific for ANP or BNP but not for CNP.

  5. Serum Natriuretic Peptides as Differential Biomarkers Allowing for the Distinction between Physiologic and Pathologic Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael E; Manfredi, Thomas G; Agostinucci, Kevin; Engle, Steven K; Powe, Josh; King, Nicholas M P; Rodriguez, Luis A; Gropp, Kathryn E; Gallacher, Matthew; Vetter, Frederick J; More, Vijay; Shimpi, Prajakta; Serra, David; Colton, Heidi M

    2017-02-01

    Given the proven utility of natriuretic peptides as serum biomarkers of cardiovascular maladaptation and dysfunction in humans and the high cross-species sequence conservation of atrial natriuretic peptides, natriuretic peptides have the potential to serve as translational biomarkers for the identification of cardiotoxic compounds during multiple phases of drug development. This work evaluated and compared the response of N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in rats during exercise-induced and drug-induced increases in cardiac mass after chronic swimming or daily oral dosing with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 to 10 weeks were assigned to control, active control, swimming, or drug-induced cardiac hypertrophy groups. While the relative heart weights from both the swimming and drug-induced cardiac hypertrophy groups were increased 15% after 28 days of dosing, the serum NT-proANP and NT-proBNP values were only increased in association with cardiac hypertrophy caused by compound administration. Serum natriuretic peptide concentrations did not change in response to adaptive physiologic cardiac hypertrophy induced by a 28-day swimming protocol. These data support the use of natriuretic peptides as fluid biomarkers for the distinction between physiological and drug-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  6. Clinical correlation between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and angiographic coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Demóstenes G L; Silva, Ricardo P; Barboza, Daniella R M M; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical correlation between angiographic coronary atherosclerosis and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide along with other known correlated factors. In total, 153 patients with a diagnostic hypothesis of stable angina, unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction were classified as group A (patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries) or group B (patients with angiographic coronary atherosclerosis). The two groups were analyzed with respect to the following factors: gender, age, body mass index, abdominal circumference, smoking, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, early family history of atherosclerosis, statin use, the presence of metabolic syndrome, clinical presentation and biochemical factors, including cholesterol, creatinine and fibrinogen plasma concentrations, monocyte counts and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Univariate analyses comparing the two groups revealed that group B patients more frequently had diabetes, used statins and had systolic dysfunction, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels ≥ 250 pg/mL, fibrinogen levels >500 mg/dL and ≥ 501 monocytes/mm3 compared with group A patients (p<0.05). Nevertheless, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of angiographic coronary atherosclerosis were an N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level ≥ 250 pg/mL, diabetes mellitus and increased monocyte numbers and fibrinogen plasma concentration, regardless of the creatinine level or the presence of systolic dysfunction. An N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide plasma concentration of ≥ 250 pg/mL is an independent predictor of angiographic coronary atherosclerosis.

  7. Racial Differences in Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepak K; Claggett, Brian; Wells, Quinn; Cheng, Susan; Li, Man; Maruthur, Nisa; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef; Konety, Suma; Butler, Kenneth R; Mosley, Thomas; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hoogeveen, Ron; Ballantyne, Christie M; Solomon, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Background Natriuretic peptides promote natriuresis, diuresis, and vasodilation. Experimental deficiency of natriuretic peptides leads to hypertension (HTN) and cardiac hypertrophy, conditions more common among African Americans. Hospital-based studies suggest that African Americans may have reduced circulating natriuretic peptides, as compared to Caucasians, but definitive data from community-based cohorts are lacking. Methods and Results We examined plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels according to race in 9137 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants (22% African American) without prevalent cardiovascular disease at visit 4 (1996–1998). Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed adjusting for clinical covariates. Among African Americans, percent European ancestry was determined from genetic ancestry informative markers and then examined in relation to NTproBNP levels in multivariable linear regression analysis. NTproBNP levels were significantly lower in African Americans (median, 43 pg/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 18, 88) than Caucasians (median, 68 pg/mL; IQR, 36, 124; P<0.0001). In multivariable models, adjusted log NTproBNP levels were 40% lower (95% confidence interval [CI], −43, −36) in African Americans, compared to Caucasians, which was consistent across subgroups of age, gender, HTN, diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity. African-American race was also significantly associated with having nondetectable NTproBNP (adjusted OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 4.22, 7.80). In multivariable analyses in African Americans, a 10% increase in genetic European ancestry was associated with a 7% (95% CI, 1, 13) increase in adjusted log NTproBNP. Conclusions African Americans have lower levels of plasma NTproBNP than Caucasians, which may be partially owing to genetic variation. Low natriuretic peptide levels in African Americans may contribute to the greater risk for HTN and its sequalae in

  8. Interactions between endothelin-1 and atrial natriuretic peptide influence cultured chick cardiac myocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Bézie, Y; Mesnard, L; Longrois, D; Samson, F; Perret, C; Mercadier, J J; Laurent, S

    1996-09-12

    We have previously shown that rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces the contractility of cultured, spontaneously beating chick embryo ventricular cells, an effect opposite to that of endothelin-1. Endothelin-1 has been described as a secretagogue for natriuretic peptides in vitro and in vivo. Natriuretic peptides can inhibit endothelin-1 secretion from cultured endothelial cells, suggesting a negative feedback mechanism between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to determine whether ANP attenuated the endothelin-1-induced increase in myocyte contractility. Using a video-microscopy system we studied the contractility of isolated cultured chick ventricular myocytes in response to endothelin-1, chicken natriuretic peptide (ChNP), and both. We also used Northern blot analysis to study the time course of ChNP expression in response to endothelin-1. Endothelin-1 (10(-8) M) increased chick cardiomyocyte contractility by 20-25% between 5 and 15 min (P < 0.05). Although ChNP (3 x 10(-7) M) did not significantly change the amplitude of contraction in basal conditions, it prevented the endothelin-1-induced increase in contractility (P < 0.05) when perfused prior to endothelin-1, and reversed it when perfused 5 min after endothelin-1 exposure (P < 0.05). Endothelin-1 significantly increased the accumulation of ChNP mRNA in chick ventricular myocytes as early as the 30 min after exposure (P < 0.05), with a maximal effect after 2 h of stimulation (P < 0.01); no effect was observed after 4 h. These data support an interaction between endothelin-1 and natriuretic peptides as autocrine/paracrine factors regulating the contractile function of chick cardiac myocytes, as well as their antagonistic effects on cardiac cell contractility. The early and transient expression of ChNP mRNA in response to endothelin-1 may be involved in this interaction.

  9. INTERACTING DISCIPLINES: Cardiac natriuretic peptides and obesity: perspectives from an endocrinologist and a cardiologist

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Hugo R; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; de Bold, Adolfo J

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in 1981, the cardiac natriuretic peptides (cNP) atrial natriuretic peptide (also referred to as atrial natriuretic factor) and brain natriuretic peptide have been well characterised in terms of their renal and cardiovascular actions. In addition, it has been shown that cNP plasma levels are strong predictors of cardiovascular events and mortality in populations with no apparent heart disease as well as in patients with established cardiac pathology. cNP secretion from the heart is increased by humoral and mechanical stimuli. The clinical significance of cNP plasma levels has been shown to differ in obese and non-obese subjects. Recent lines of evidence suggest important metabolic effects of the cNP system, which has been shown to activate lipolysis, enhance lipid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. Clinically, these properties lead to browning of white adipose tissue and to increased muscular oxidative capacity. In human association studies in patients without heart disease higher cNP concentrations were observed in lean, insulin-sensitive subjects. Highly elevated cNP levels are generally observed in patients with systolic heart failure or high blood pressure, while obese and type-2 diabetics display reduced cNP levels. Together, these observations suggest that the cNP system plays a role in the pathophysiology of metabolic vascular disease. Understanding this role should help define novel principles in the treatment of cardiometabolic disease. PMID:26115665

  10. Natriuretic peptides as regulatory mediators of secretory activity in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia

    2009-04-10

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) are members of the natriuretic peptide family best known for their role in blood pressure regulation. However, in recent years all the natriuretic peptides and their receptors have been described in the gastrointestinal tract, digestive glands and central nervous system, as well as implicated in the regulation of digestive gland functions. The current review highlights the regulatory role of ANP and CNP in pancreatic and other digestive secretions. ANP and CNP stimulate basal as well as induced pancreatic secretion and modify bicarbonate and chloride secretions. Whereas ANP and CNP exert effects directly on pancreatic cells, CNP also acts through a vago-vagal reflex. At high doses both peptides attenuate pancreatic secretion induced by high doses of secretin through the PLC/PKC pathway. With regards to other digestive secretions, ANP and CNP decrease bile secretion in the rat. ANP does not induce salivation by itself but enhances stimulated salivary secretion and modifies salivary composition in rat parotid as well as submandibular glands. In rat pancreatic, hepatic, parotid and submandibular tissues, the NPR-C receptor mediates mostly peripheral responses whereas NPR-A and NPR-B receptors, which are coupled to guanylate cyclase, likely mediate the central response. In addition, ANP modulates gastric acid secretion via a vagal-dependent mechanism. In the intestine, ANP and CNP decrease water and sodium chloride absorption through an increase in cGMP levels. Overall, these findings indicate that ANP and CNP are members of the large group of regulatory peptides affecting digestive secretions.

  11. Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bordicchia, M; Ceresiani, M; Pavani, M; Minardi, D; Polito, M; Wabitsch, M; Cannone, V; Burnett, J C; Dessì-Fulgheri, P; Sarzani, R

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are involved in cardiorenal regulation and in lipolysis. The NP activity is largely dependent on the ratio between the signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC. Lipolysis increases when NPRC is reduced by starving or very-low-calorie diet. On the contrary, insulin is an antilipolytic hormone that increases sodium retention, suggesting a possible functional link with NP. We examined the insulin-mediated regulation of NP receptors in differentiated human adipocytes and tested the association of NP receptor expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with metabolic profiles of patients undergoing renal surgery. Differentiated human adipocytes from VAT and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell line were treated with insulin in the presence of high-glucose or low-glucose media to study NP receptors and insulin/glucose-regulated pathways. Fasting blood samples and VAT samples were taken from patients on the day of renal surgery. We observed a potent insulin-mediated and glucose-dependent upregulation of NPRC, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, associated with lower lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. No effect was observed on NPRA. Low-glucose medium, used to simulate in vivo starving conditions, hampered the insulin effect on NPRC through modulation of insulin/glucose-regulated pathways, allowing atrial natriuretic peptide to induce lipolysis and thermogenic genes. An expression ratio in favor of NPRC in adipose tissue was associated with higher fasting insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and atherogenic lipid levels. Insulin/glucose-dependent NPRC induction in adipocytes might be a key factor linking hyperinsulinemia, metabolic syndrome, and higher blood pressure by reducing NP effects on adipocytes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Vascular effects and electrolyte homeostasis of the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon rattlesnake) venom.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, S L; Dias-Junior, C A; Baldasso, P A; Damico, D C S; Carvalho, B M A; Garanto, A; Acosta, G; Oliveira, E; Albericio, F; Soares, A M; Marangoni, S; Resende, R R

    2012-08-01

    Crotalus oreganus abyssus is a rattlesnake that is usually found in the Grand Canyon, United States of America. Knowledge regarding the composition of C. o. abyssus venom is scarce. New natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of members of the Crotalinae family. The NP family comprises three members, ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), BNP (b-type natriuretic peptide) and CNP (c-type natriuretic peptide), and has an important role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to characterize a novel natriuretic-like peptide (Coa_NP2), isolated from C. o. abyssus venom. The Coa_NP2 presents an average molecular mass of 3419.88Da (theoretical average molecular mass 3418.94Da, monoisotopic molecular mass 3416.66Da and theoretical PI 7.78) and its amino acid sequence presents the loop region that is characteristic of natriuretic peptides. The peptide has 32 amino acids and its complete sequence is SYGISSGCFGLKLDRIGTMSGLGCWRLLQDSP. Coa_NP2 is a natriuretic peptide of the ANP/BNP-like family, since the carboxyterminal region of CNP has its own NP domain. We demonstrate, herein, that Coa_NP2 produces a dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial pressure in rats, followed by significant increases in concentrations of markers of nitric oxide formation measured in the plasma and vasorelaxation in a thoracic aortic ring bath. The structural and biological aspects confirm Coa_NP2 as a new natriuretic peptide, isolated from snake venom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with right-sided congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    KANNO, Nobuyuki; HORI, Yasutomo; HIDAKA, Yuichi; CHIKAZAWA, Seishiro; KANAI, Kazutaka; HOSHI, Fumio; ITOH, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The clinical utility of plasma natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) remains unclear. We investigated whether plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are useful for assessing the congestive signs of right-sided heart failure in dogs. This retrospective study enrolled 16 healthy dogs and 51 untreated dogs with presence (n=28) or absence (n=23) of right-sided CHF. Medical records of physical examinations, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were reviewed. The plasma concentration of canine ANP was measured with a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Plasma ANP and NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with right-sided CHF were significantly higher than in healthy controls and those without right-sided CHF. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration >3,003 pmol/l used to identify right-sided CHF had a sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 90.3%. An area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.93. The AUC for NT-proBNP was significantly higher than the AUCs for the cardiothoracic ratio, vertebral heart score, ratio of right ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter to body surface area, tricuspid late diastolic flow and ratio of the velocities of tricuspid early to late diastolic flow. These results suggest that plasma ANP and NT-proBNP concentrations increase markedly in dogs with right-sided CHF. Particularly, NT-proBNP is simple and helpful biomarkers to assess the right-sided CHF. PMID:26607133

  14. Novel mutations in natriuretic peptide receptor-2 gene underlie acromesomelic dysplasia, type maroteaux

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are peptide hormones that exert their biological actions by binding to three types of cell surface natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs). The receptor NPR-B binding C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) acts locally as a paracrine and/or autocrine regulator in a wide variety of tissues. Mutations in the gene NPR2 have been shown to cause acromesomelic dysplasia-type Maroteaux (AMDM), an autosomal recessive skeletal disproportionate dwarfism disorder in humans. Methods In the study, presented here, genotyping of six consanguineous families of Pakistani origin with AMDM was carried out using polymorphic microsatellite markers, which are closely linked to the gene NPR2 on chromosome 9p21-p12. To screen for mutations in the gene NPR2, all of its coding exons and splice junction sites were PCR amplified from genomic DNA of affected and unaffected individuals of the families and sequenced. Results Sequence analysis of the gene NPR2 identified a novel missence mutation (p.T907M) in five families, and a splice donor site mutation c.2986 + 2 T > G in the other family. Conclusion We have described two novel mutations in the gene NPR2. The presence of the same mutation (p.T907M) and haplotype in five families (A, B, C, D, E) is suggestive of a founder effect. PMID:22691581

  15. Increase in plasma concentrations of cardiodilatin (amino terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide) in cardiac failure and during recumbency.

    PubMed Central

    Meleagros, L; Gibbs, J S; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R

    1988-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cardiodilatin, the peptide sequence at the amino terminal of the pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, in 17 normal subjects ranged from 59 to 202 (mean 118 (SEM) (9] pmol/l. Recumbency increased the mean (SEM) concentration to 160 (13) pmol/l. The plasma concentration of cardiodilatin in 24 patients with congestive cardiac failure was much higher (964 (175) pmol/l) than in the normal subjects. It was highest in those with heart failure in New York Heart Association functional classes III and IV and the concentration correlated both with atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and left ventricular ejection fraction. Concentrations rose during induced tachycardia in three patients tested. Chromatography showed a single clean peak of plasma cardiodilatin immunoreactivity. It seems that cardiodilatin is a second circulating cardiac peptide that is jointly released with atrial natriuretic peptide by common stimuli. Other workers have reported that, like atrial natriuretic peptide, three partial cardiodilatin sequences can stimulate renal particulate guanylate cyclase and increase cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The simultaneous release of cardiodilatin in higher circulating concentrations than atrial natriuretic peptide may be relevant to the finding that appropriate concentrations of exogenous atrial natiuretic peptide alone do not produce the full renal effects associated with endogenous peptide release. PMID:2970269

  16. Natriuretic peptide type C induces sperm attraction for fertilization in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Nana; Xu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yakun; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Zhao, Yu; Qiao, Jie; Xia, Guoliang; Zhang, Meijia

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa undergo selective movement along the isthmus of the oviduct to the ampulla during ovulation, which is a prerequisite for fertilization. The factor(s) that involves in selective spermatozoa movement is still unknown. In this study, we found that the oviductal epithelium in mouse ampulla expressed high levels of natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) in the presence of ovulated oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs). Spermatozoa expressed NPPC receptor natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2, a guanylyl cyclase) on the midpiece of flagellum. NPPC increased intracellular levels of cGMP and Ca2+ of spermatozoa, and induced sperm accumulation in the capillary by attraction. Importantly, spermatozoa from Npr2 mutant mice were not attracted by NPPC, preventing fertilization in vivo. Oocyte-derived paracrine factors promoted the expression of Nppc mRNA in the ampulla. Therefore, NPPC secreted by oviductal ampulla attracts spermatozoa towards oocytes, which is essential for fertilization. PMID:28054671

  17. Maintaining the Phenotype Stability of Chondrocytes Derived from MSCs by C-Type Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Quan; Qian, Zhiyong; Liu, Donghua; Sun, Jie; Xu, Juan; Guo, Ximin

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a critical role in cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSCs-derived chondrocytes or cartilage tissues are not stable and easily lose the cellular and cartilage phenotype during long-term culture in vitro or implantation in vivo. As a result, chondrocytes phenotypic instability can contribute to accelerated ossification. Thus, it is a big challenge to maintain their correct phenotype for engineering hyaline cartilage. As one member of the natriuretic peptide family, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is found to correlate with the development of the cartilage, affect the chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation. Besides, based on its biological effects on protection of extracellular matrix of cartilage and inhibition of mineralization, we hypothesize that CNP may contribute to the stability of chondrocyte phenotype of MSCs-derived chondrocytes. PMID:28337152

  18. [Assessment of natriuretic peptide indices and oxidative stress in patients with chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Abezov, D K; Kamilova, U K; Shukurdzhanova, S M; Rakhmonov, R R; Alieva, T A

    2010-01-01

    The authors have studied indices of natriuretic peptide and oxidative stress in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). 52 male patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis (PICS) who have developed CHF have been observed. The age of the patients varied from 38 till 60. It was established that CHF patients with progression of the disease had worsening of their clinical condition together with an increase of oxidative stress which was characterized through decrease of NO metabolites, NADPH--diaphorase (eNOS), increase of nitrite reductase (iNOS) and peroxinitrite (ONOO), correlative increase the level of brain natriuretic peptide in blood plazma. Reliable connection between considerable increase of oxidative stress and the level of NT-pro BNP was noted in CHF patients, which demands necessity of correction of observed disorders.

  19. Preeclampsia and maladaptation to pregnancy: a role for atrial natriuretic peptide?

    PubMed

    Spaanderman, M; Ekhart, T; van Eyck, J; de Leeuw, P; Peeters, L

    2001-10-01

    The majority of women with a history of preeclampsia have either an underlying thrombophilic disorder or a vascular disorder. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that only the latter condition predisposes for abnormal hemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy. Thirty-seven formerly preeclamptic subjects were subdivided into a hypertensive (HYPERT, N = 10), a normotensive thrombophilic (THROMB, N = 13) and a normotensive nonthrombophilic subgroup (NONTHROMB, N = 14). In these women and in 10 normal parous controls, the following variables were measured at least five-months postpartum at day 5 (+/-2) of the menstrual cycle and again at five- and seven-weeks amenorrhea in the next pregnancy: mean arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, central cardiovascular dimensions, plasma volume, glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, 17-beta estradiol, progesterone, the hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) axis, catecholamines and alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide. The early pregnancy rise in cardiac output, renal variables, RAAS activity, and plasma volume was comparable in all groups. However, the HYPERT and NONTHROMB subgroups differed from controls by a lower plasma volume in the prepregnant state. In addition, only the women in these two subgroups responded to pregnancy by a rise in circulating alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide. In addition, at seven weeks, in the subjects belonging to the HYPERT and NONTHROMB subgroups, plasma volume was the lowest and correlated inversely with the concomitant circulating level of alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide. The hemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy in the HYPERT and NONTHROMB subgroups differs from that in THROMB and controls by an early pregnancy rise in alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide. As a consequence, the early pregnancy plasma volume expansion in the NONTHROMB and HYPERT subgroups is less than in normal parous controls.

  20. B-type natriuretic peptide level in a patient with constrictive pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd; Hollman, Jay

    2006-12-01

    We report the case of a 35-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis who had a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level of 129 pg/dl despite a left ventricular end diastolic pressure of 35 mmHg. We discuss a possible explanation for the relatively low BNP level given this patient's markedly elevated intracavitary pressures in the setting of constrictive pericarditis.

  1. Relation of Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations to Central Sleep Apnea in Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Calvin, Andrew D.; Somers, Virend K.; van der Walt, Christelle; Scott, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Central sleep apnea (CSA) is frequent among patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Elevated cardiac filling pressures promote CSA and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) secretion. We hypothesized that circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations predict CSA. Methods: Consecutive patients with HF (n = 44) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% underwent polysomnography for detection of CSA. CSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 with ≥ 50% central apneic events. The relation of natriuretic peptide concentrations to CSA was evaluated by estimation of ORs and receiver operator characteristics (ROCs). Results: Twenty-seven subjects (61%) had CSA, with men more frequently affected than women (73% vs 27%; OR, 7.1; P = .01); given that only three women had CSA, further analysis was restricted to men. Subjects with CSA had higher mean ANP (4,336 pg/mL vs 2,510 pg/mL, P = .03) and BNP concentrations (746 pg/mL vs 379 pg/mL, P = .05). ANP and BNP concentrations were significantly related to CSA (OR, 3.7 per 3,000 pg/mL, P = .03 and OR, 1.5 per 200 pg/mL, P = .04, respectively), whereas age, LVEF, and New York Heart Association functional class were not. Concentrations of ANP and BNP were predictive of CSA as ROC demonstrated areas under the curve of 0.75 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusions: Risk of CSA is related to severity of HF. ANP and BNP concentrations performed similarly for detection of CSA; low concentrations appear associated with low risk for CSA in men. PMID:21636668

  2. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    SciTech Connect

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S.

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  3. Specific receptor binding of atrial natriuretic peptide to rat renal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, T.; Mitsui, T.; Ogawa, N.; Ota, Z.

    1985-09-01

    Radiolabeled receptor assay (RRA) of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was studied in rat kidney membranes. Binding of ( SVI)-ANP to membrane preparations of rat whole kidney was saturated and show a high affinity. Furthermore, renal cortex membrane had a higher affinity for ANP binding site than renal medulla membrane. This high affinity ANP receptor site in renal cortex membrane indicated that ANP controlled the balance of water and sodium excretion due to this receptor site in the kidney.

  4. Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A as a Novel Target for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The receptor for the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), is expressed in cancer cells, and natriuretic peptides have been implicated in cancers. However, the direct role of NPRA signaling in prostate cancer remains unclear. Results NPRA expression was examined by western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. NPRA was downregulated by transfection of siRNA, shRNA and NPRA inhibitor (iNPRA). Antitumor efficacy of iNPRA was tested in mice using a TRAMP-C1 xenograft. Here, we demonstrated that NPRA is abundantly expressed on tumorigenic mouse and human prostate cells, but not in nontumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. NPRA expression showed positive correlation with clinical staging in a human PCa tissue microarray. Down-regulation of NPRA by siNPRA or iNPRA induced apoptosis in PCa cells. The mechanism of iNPRA-induced anti-PCa effects was linked to NPRA-induced expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine over-expressed in PCa and significantly reduced by siNPRA. Prostate tumor cells implanted in mice deficient in atrial natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA-KO) failed to grow, and treatment of TRAMP-C1 xenografts with iNPRA reduced tumor burden and MIF expression. Using the TRAMP spontaneous PCa model, we found that NPRA expression correlated with MIF expression during PCa progression. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that NPRA promotes PCa development in part by regulating MIF. Our findings also suggest that NPRA is a potential prognostic marker and a target for PCa therapy. PMID:21586128

  5. Expression of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene in the cardiac muscle of rat extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary veins.

    PubMed Central

    Springall, D R; Bhatnagar, M; Wharton, J; Hamid, Q; Gulbenkian, S; Hedges, M; Meleagros, L; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1988-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a peptide regulating salt and water balance, originally isolated from the cardiac atrium, where it is synthesised as part of a precursor molecule in specialised myocardial cells. The myocardium extends into the extrapulmonary part of the pulmonary veins in many species, including man. In some small mammals, however, such as the rat, mouse, and bat, it extends further to veins in the peripheral parts of the lung. Since this myocardial layer is continuous with that in the atrium, we have looked for the possible expression of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene in this tissue in rats. Strong immunoreactivity was seen for both the peptide and the N terminal sequence (cardiodilatin) of its precursor in extrapulmonary veins and in intrapulmonary veins extending into the lung as far as the second branching point, where it was localised in the dense cored granules by electron microscopy; in situ hybridisation showed atrial natriuretic peptide messenger RNA at identical sites. Chromatography and radioimmunoassay of extracts of extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary veins showed most of the atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity to be in the uncleaved (precursor molecule) form. Thus the peptide is synthesised in veins both outside and inside the lung, and these extra-atrial sites may be an important additional source of circulating atrial natriuretic peptide. Images PMID:2965426

  6. Reduced ability of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) to activate natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) causes dwarfism in lbab -/- mice.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Andrea R; Kruse, Andrew C; Earhart, Cathleen A; Ohlendorf, Douglas H; Potter, Lincoln R

    2008-09-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates endochondrial ossification by activating the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase, natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B). Recently, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation that causes severe dwarfism in mice was identified. The mutant, called long bone abnormality (lbab), contains a single point mutation that converts an arginine to a glycine in a conserved coding region of the CNP gene, but how this mutation affects CNP activity has not been reported. Here, we determined that 30-fold to greater than 100-fold more CNP(lbab) was required to activate NPR-B as compared to wild-type CNP in whole cell cGMP elevation and membrane guanylyl cyclase assays. The reduced ability of CNP(lbab) to activate NPR-B was explained, at least in part, by decreased binding since 10-fold more CNP(lbab) than wild-type CNP was required to compete with [125I][Tyr0]CNP for receptor binding. Molecular modeling suggested that the conserved arginine is critical for binding to an equally conserved acidic pocket in NPR-B. These results indicate that reduced binding to and activation of NPR-B causes dwarfism in lbab(-/-) mice.

  7. Reduced ability of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) to activate natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Andrea R.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Earhart, Cathleen A.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Potter, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates endochondrial ossification by activating the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase, natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B). Recently, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation that causes severe dwarfism in mice was identified. The mutant, called long bone abnormality (lbab), contains a single point mutation that converts an arginine to a glycine in a conserved coding region of the CNP gene, but how this mutation affects CNP activity has not been reported. Here, we determined that thirty to greater than one hundred-fold more CNPlbab was required to activate NPR-B as compared to wild-type CNP in whole cell cGMP elevation and membrane guanylyl cyclase assays. The reduced ability of CNPlbab to activate NPR-B was explained, at least in part, by decreased binding since ten-fold more CNPlbab than wild-type CNP was required to compete with [125I][Tyr0]CNP for receptor binding. Molecular modeling suggested that the conserved arginine is critical for binding to an equally conserved acidic pocket in NPR-B. These results indicate that reduced binding to and activation of NPR-B causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice. PMID:18554750

  8. Brain and atrial natriuretic peptides bind to common receptors in brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, R A; Frank, H J; Levin, E; Pedram, A

    1991-08-01

    The recent discovery of brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) that stimulates natriuresis, diuresis, and vascular smooth muscle relaxation in a manner similar to that of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) suggests the possibility that these endocrine hormones function via some common mechanism. Indirect evidence from several laboratories suggests that BNP and ANP may bind to the same receptors. We examined whether ANP and BNP bind to a common set of receptors in cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells and in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Scatchard plot analysis of binding data shows a similar dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 0.3 nM and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 50 fmol/mg protein for both natriuretic peptides in brain capillary cells and 0.6 nM and 80 fmol/mg protein, respectively, in the aortic endothelial cells. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the affinity cross-linked receptor-ligand complex shows a strongly labeled 65-kDa receptor and a 125-kDa band that is likely to be a receptor of the guanylate cyclase type. ANP and BNP cross compete equally for binding to the two receptors identified on the gels. ANP and BNP also stimulate guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate production in these cells, consistent with the presence of a functional guanylate cyclase-linked B receptor. We conclude that ANP and BNP share common receptors in brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells.

  9. The Epigenetic Regulation of GATA4-Dependent Brain Natriuretic Peptide Expression during Alcohol Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Glahn, Alexander; Rhein, Mathias; Heberlein, Annemarie; Muschler, Marc; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides participate in the collection of metabolic effects during alcohol withdrawal. Having witnessed modulation of other natriuretic peptides in alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal, we were interested in the relation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) methylation with protein expression and craving in this longitudinal study. Ninety-nine male patients were compared to 101 healthy controls concerning epigenetic regulation and protein expression during detoxification treatment. With BNP expression being GATA4 dependent, we observed a correlation of GATA4 binding site methylation and protein expression. BNP serum levels and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale scores are significantly decreased during withdrawal. Focusing on the two CpGs that are between GATA transcription factor binding sites, statistical analysis revealed a reversely proportional methylation pattern, significantly increasing with ongoing detoxification and thereby supporting the observed serum level changes. Without the functional knowledge about regulation of BNP expression via the GATA transcription factor, it would have been easy to take the mean results of the global CpG data and propose a direct relationship between methylation and expression. Thus, these findings are a voice for functionally and mechanistically approved results. There was no causal relationship between protein expression levels and epigenetic changes. Further research is needed which includes protein expression and other approaches. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The role of brain natriuretic peptide in maintaining myometrial quiescence during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Jorge A

    2014-03-01

    Myometrial quiescence is a physiological stage of the myometrium during pregnancy. It is a period of active relaxation of the myometrial smooth muscle cells; myometrial quiescence is responsible for maintaining pregnancy. The precise mechanisms underlying myometrial quiescence have not been completely elucidated, although many mediators and cellular pathways have been described as playing a role. Fetal membranes (chorion and amnion) produce and release one or more substances that inhibit myometrial contractions, playing a central role in the maintenance of myometrial quiescence. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is more potent than any other natriuretic peptide in inhibiting myometrial contractions in vitro. Brain natriuretic peptide is produced by the chorion and amnion, mainly during myometrial quiescence, and decreasing towards the end of pregnancy. Production of BNP is reduced in fetal membranes obtained from women in preterm labour. It is postulated that BNP, acting in a paracrine fashion, plays a key role in the maintaining myometrial quiescence and, therefore, controlling the duration of pregnancy. Furthermore, it is postulated that a premature decrease of BNP production by the fetal membranes may cause preterm labour and preterm birth.

  11. [Natriuretic peptides. History of discovery, chemical structure, mechanism of action and the removal routes. Basis of diagnostic and therapeutic use].

    PubMed

    Stryjewski, Piotr J; Nessler, Bohdan; Cubera, Katarzyna; Nessler, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NP) are the group of proteins synthesized and secreted by the mammalian heart. All the NP are synthesized from prohormones and have 17-amino acid cyclic structures containing two cysteine residues linked by internal disulphide bond. They are characterized by a wide range of actions, mainly through their membrane receptors. The NP regulate the water and electrolyte balance, blood pressure through their diuretic, natriuretic, and relaxating the vascular smooth muscles effects. They also affect the endocrine system and the nervous system. The neurohormonal regulation of blood circulation results are mainly based on antagonism with renin--angiotensin--aldosterone system. The NP representatives are: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), urodilatine and (DNP) Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide, not found in the human body. According to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology determination of NT-proBNP level have found a use in the diagnosis of acute and chronic heart failure, risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes and pulmonary embolism. There are reports found in the literature, that demonstrate the usefulness of NT-proBNP determination in valvular, atrial fibrillation, and syncopes. Recombinant human ANP--Carperitid and BNP--Nesiritid, have already found a use in the adjunctive therapy of dyspnea in acute heart failure.

  12. Biologic and physical characteristics of the non-peptidic, non-digitalis-like natriuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    Bricker, N S; Zea, L; Shapiro, M; Sanclemente, E; Shankel, S

    1993-11-01

    At least three independent groups of natriuretic hormones have been isolated over the past ten years. Two, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), are proteins and the third is made up of digitalis-like substances (DLS). The present report concerns the isolation, substantial purification and biologic actions of an entirely different natriuretic hormone (NH) which appears to be steroidal in nature and an isomer of cortisone. The source of NH was uremic urine. Purification involved successive chromatographic steps including gel filtration and multiple HPLC runs through C-18 resins. A translucent crystal ultimately was obtained. The product was examined using mass spectroscopy with trimethylsilyl derivatization. Only one compound was identifiable. The characteristics of the molecule include: a molecular weight, 360.4; a molecular formula, C21H28O5; a steroidal nucleus; UV absorption at 220 and 290 nm; and intrinsic fluorescence. The onset of action occurs within minutes both in the rat and, as previously shown, in several in vitro systems including the frog skin, toad bladder, fibroblasts and renal tubular epithelial cells grown in culture and isolated perfused cortical collecting tubules. In contrast to DLS, NH has been previously shown not to cross react with digoxin antibodies. Moreover, when given to intact rats, it produces a profound natriuresis but little or no kaliuresis. In contrast to ANF and BNP the compound is active orally as well as intravenously. It is clearly different from cortisone, based both on its biologic and mass spectroscopic characteristics.

  13. Natriuretic peptides in water-deprived and in salt-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Makino, Y; Minamino, N; Kakishita, E; Kangawa, K; Matsuo, H

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the differences of physiological function of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), we measured tissue concentration and mRNA level in cardiac atrium, ventricle, and brain as well as plasma concentration of these three peptides in water-deprived (WD) and in salt-loaded (SI.) rats. WD rats were given no water for 5 days, whereas SL rats had free access to 2% saline for 14 days. Plasma ANP and BNP concentration of the WD group decreased to 21% and < 10%, and the concentration of the SL group to 36% and 47% of the control (CON) group. Atrial and ventricular BNP concentration of the WD group decreased to 36% and 23% of the CON group, and atrial BNP concentration of the SL group decreased to a lesser extent. BNP mRNA level in atrium and ventricle decreased in both the WD and SL groups, with the WD group showing larger decreases to 11% and 20% of the CON group. ANP mRNA level in atrium and ventricle of the WD group decreased to 40% and 61% of the CON group, but increased to 147% in ventricle of the SL group. In the brain, no significant change was observed in ANP and CNP concentration in both the WD and SL group. Under these conditions. BNP generally showed larger changes than ANP in both peptide concentration and mRNA level. Gene transcription and peptide production of ANP and BNP in atrium and in ventricle were not always found to be in concert, especially in the case of salt loading. Taken as a whole, our results demonstrate differences among the systems regulating biosynthesis and secretion of ANP and BNP in atrium and ventricle.

  14. Serum B-Type Natriuretic Peptide is Affected by Neoplastic Edema in Patients with a Brain Tumor.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Francesco; Noris, Alice; Beretta, Luigi; Mortini, Pietro; Gemma, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A positive correlation between serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels and the amount of dislodgement of intracranial structures (mass effect) produced by brain tumors has been demonstrated previously. The aim of our prospective observational study was to evaluate a possible relationship between serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels and the amount of neoplastic edema in patients affected by brain tumor. We prospectively studied 110 patients with a supratentorial brain tumor. Serum N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide was measured and brain magnetic resonance images were analyzed to discriminate between neoplastic tissue and perilesional edema. A multivariate linear regression model predictive for serum N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels was generated. The radiologic diagnoses were meningioma in 45 patients (40.9%), glioma in 33 (30%), and metastasis in 32 (29.1%). A mass effect was present in 29 (26.4%) patients. Serum N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide was 125.61 ± 174.14 pg/mL (median 60 pg/mL, interquartile range 28-139 pg/mL). Four variables were entered into a multivariate linear regression model predictive for serum N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide values: age, neoplastic edema volume, metastatic lesion, and the presence of a mass effect (whole model P < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.5555; adjusted R(2) = 0.5294). Our data demonstrate that serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels are positively correlated to neoplastic brain edema in patients with a brain tumor and suggest a possible cerebral source for this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of expression of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide, biomarkers for heart development and disease.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Irina A; Christoffels, Vincent M

    2013-12-01

    The mammalian heart expresses two closely related natriuretic peptide (NP) hormones, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The excretion of the NPs and the expression of their genes strongly respond to a variety of cardiovascular disorders. NPs act to increase natriuresis and decrease vascular resistance, thereby decreasing blood volume, systemic blood pressure and afterload. Plasma levels of BNP are used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for hypertrophy and heart failure (HF), and both ANF and BNP are widely used in biomedical research to assess the hypertrophic response in cell culture or the development of HF related diseases in animal models. Moreover, ANF and BNP are used as specific markers for the differentiating working myocardium in the developing heart, and the ANF promoter serves as platform to investigate gene regulatory networks during heart development and disease. However, despite decades of research, the mechanisms regulating the NP genes during development and disease are not well understood. Here we review current knowledge on the regulation of expression of the genes for ANF and BNP and their role as biomarkers, and give future directions to identify the in vivo regulatory mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart failure pathogenesis and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  16. Amino acid sequence of homologous rat atrial peptides: natriuretic activity of native and synthetic forms.

    PubMed Central

    Seidah, N G; Lazure, C; Chrétien, M; Thibault, G; Garcia, R; Cantin, M; Genest, J; Nutt, R F; Brady, S F; Lyle, T A

    1984-01-01

    A substance called atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), localized in secretory granules of atrial cardiocytes, was isolated as four homologous natriuretic peptides from homogenates of rat atria. The complete sequence of the longest form showed that it is composed of 33 amino acids. The three other shorter forms (2-33, 3-33, and 8-33) represent amino-terminally truncated versions of the 33 amino acid parent molecule as shown by analysis of sequence, amino acid composition, or both. The proposed primary structure agrees entirely with the amino acid composition and reveals no significant sequence homology with any known protein or segment of protein. The short form ANF-(8-33) was synthesized by a multi-fragment condensation approach and the synthetic product was shown to exhibit specific activity comparable to that of the natural ANF-(3-33). PMID:6232612

  17. Differential response of the natriuretic peptide system to weight loss and exercise in overweight or obese patients.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Sven; Kaminski, Jana; Utz, Wolfgang; Haas, Verena; Mähler, Anja; Daniels, Martin A; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Engeli, Stefan; Jordan, Jens

    2015-07-01

    Relative atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We tested the hypothesis that more than 5% body weight reduction through 6 months hypocaloric dieting alters ANP release at rest and more so during exercise in overweight or obese patients. Venous mid-regional pro-ANP concentration was assessed at rest and after incremental exhaustive exercise testing before and after weight reduction. We also measured natriuretic peptide receptor A and C mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue to gauge both ANP responsiveness and clearance mechanisms. The average weight reduction of 9.1 ± 3.8  kg was associated with reductions in visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat mass, liver fat content, insulin resistance, and ambulatory blood pressure. However, mid-regional pro-ANP plasma concentrations were unchanged with weight loss (51 ± 24 vs. 53 ± 24  pmol/l). Exercise elicited similar acute mid-regional pro-ANP increases before and after weight loss. Adipose tissue natriuretic peptide receptor type A mRNA expression remained unchanged, whereas natriuretic peptide receptor type C mRNA decreased with weight loss. We conclude that physical exercise acutely increases ANP release in obese patients, whereas modest diet-induced weight loss primarily affects ANP clearance mechanisms. Interventions combining weight loss and regular physical exercise may be particularly efficacious in reversing obesity-associated relative natriuretic peptide deficiency.

  18. Ratio of preoperative atrial natriuretic peptide to brain natriuretic peptide predicts the outcome of the maze procedure in mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masafumi; Mikamo, Akihito; Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Murakami, Masanori; Kobayashi, Toshiro; Yoshimura, Koich; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2013-02-28

    Although the maze procedure is an established surgical treatment for eliminating atrial fibrillation (AF), its efficacy in patients with mitral valve disease has remained unsatisfactory. A useful predictive marker for the outcome of the maze procedure is needed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the preoperative ratio of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) reflects atrial fibrosis and can be used to predict the maze procedure outcome in patients with mitral valve disease. A total of 23 consecutive patients who underwent the radial approach to the maze procedure combined with mitral valve surgery were included in this study and were divided into a sinus rhythm (SR) group (n=16) and an AF group (n=7) based on postoperative cardiac rhythm. Plasma samples were obtained at rest before the operation and were analysed for ANP and BNP levels. Atrial tissue samples taken during surgery were used to quantify interstitial fibrosis. The preoperative ANP-to-BNP ratio in the SR group was significantly higher than that in the AF group (0.74 +/- 0.29 vs. 0.42 +/- 0.28, respectively; p=0.025). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify factors that predict outcomes after the maze procedure. The area under the ROC curve for the ANP-to-BNP ratio (0.81) was greater than for any other preoperative factors. Moreover, the preoperative ANP-to-BNP ratio demonstrated a negative correlation with left atrial fibrosis (r=-0.69; p=0.003). The preoperative ANP-to-BNP ratio can predict maze procedure outcome in patients with mitral valve disease, and it represents a potential biomarker for left atrial fibrosis.

  19. Effects of angiotensin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, D. E.; Shue, S. G.; Keil, L. C.; Balaban, C. D.; Severs, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin (ANG) on blood and intraocular pressures of pentobarbital anesthetized rats were evaluated following intravenous, intracerebroventricular or anterior chamber routes of administration. Central injections did not affect intraocular pressure. Equipressor intravenous infusions of ANG raised, whereas AVP decreased, intraocular pressure. Direct infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter/min) raised intraocular pressure between 30 and 60 min. Adding ANG or ANP slightly reduced this solvent effect but AVP was markedly inhibitory. An AVP-V1 receptor antagonist reversed the blunting of the solvent-induced rise by the peptide, indicating receptor specificity. Acetazolamide pretreatment lowered intraocular pressure, but the solvent-induced rise in intraocular pressure and inhibition by AVP still occurred without altering the temporal pattern. Thus, these effects appear unrelated to aqueous humor synthesis rate. The data support the possibility of intraocular pressure regulation by peptides acting from the blood and aqueous humor.

  20. Effects of angiotensin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, D. E.; Shue, S. G.; Keil, L. C.; Balaban, C. D.; Severs, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin (ANG) on blood and intraocular pressures of pentobarbital anesthetized rats were evaluated following intravenous, intracerebroventricular or anterior chamber routes of administration. Central injections did not affect intraocular pressure. Equipressor intravenous infusions of ANG raised, whereas AVP decreased, intraocular pressure. Direct infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter/min) raised intraocular pressure between 30 and 60 min. Adding ANG or ANP slightly reduced this solvent effect but AVP was markedly inhibitory. An AVP-V1 receptor antagonist reversed the blunting of the solvent-induced rise by the peptide, indicating receptor specificity. Acetazolamide pretreatment lowered intraocular pressure, but the solvent-induced rise in intraocular pressure and inhibition by AVP still occurred without altering the temporal pattern. Thus, these effects appear unrelated to aqueous humor synthesis rate. The data support the possibility of intraocular pressure regulation by peptides acting from the blood and aqueous humor.

  1. Renal alterations of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors by chronic moderate ethanol treatment.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, P; Than, V D; Gianoulakis, C; Gutkowska, J

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that chronic moderate ethanol (EtOH) consumption prevents the age-dependent increase in blood pressure. However, the physiological systems mediating the antihypertensive effects of EtOH are not known. The objective of the present studies was to investigate the effects of chronic (8 mo) moderate EtOH consumption on renal natriuretic receptors of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive (WKY) rats, using competitive binding assay and autoradiographic techniques. In the renal glomeruli, the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of the heterogeneous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor population (NPR-A and NPR-C) was significantly lower in EtOH-treated SHR and WKY rats compared with water-treated controls. Quantification of receptor subtypes showed that this decrease was primarily the result of NPR-C down-regulation. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) was also decreased by the EtOH treatment. In the renal papilla, the Bmax of the homogeneous receptor population (NPR-A) was significantly elevated by long-term EtOH consumption in both strains compared with water-treated controls. However, the Kd was unaltered by the EtOH administration. Thus EtOH treatment induced specific alterations in renal natriuretic receptors that may play a role in the "protective" effect of moderate EtOH consumption on the age-dependent increase in blood pressure.

  2. Dexamethasone increases production of C-type natriuretic peptide in the sheep brain.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michele O; McNeill, Bryony A; Barrell, Graham K; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A

    2017-10-01

    Although C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has high abundance in brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the source and possible factors regulating its secretion within the central nervous system (CNS) are unknown. Here we report the dynamic effects of a single IV bolus of dexamethasone or saline solution on plasma, CSF, CNS and pituitary tissue content of CNP products in adult sheep, along with changes in CNP gene expression in selected tissues. Both CNP and NTproCNP (the amino-terminal product of proCNP) in plasma and CSF showed dose-responsive increases lasting 12-16 h after dexamethasone, whereas other natriuretic peptides were unaffected. CNS tissue concentrations of CNP and NTproCNP were increased by dexamethasone in all of the 12 regions examined. Abundance was highest in limbic tissues, pons and medulla oblongata. Relative to controls, CNP gene expression (NPPC) was upregulated by dexamethasone in 5 of 7 brain tissues examined. Patterns of responses differed in pituitary tissue. Whereas the abundance of CNP in both lobes of the pituitary gland greatly exceeded that of brain tissues, neither CNP nor NTproCNP concentration was affected by dexamethasone, despite an increase in NPPC expression. This is the first report of enhanced production and secretion of CNP in brain tissues in response to a corticosteroid. Activation of CNP secretion within CNS tissues by dexamethasone, not exhibited by other natriuretic peptides, suggests an important role for CNP in settings of acute stress. Differential findings in pituitary tissues likely relate to altered processing of proCNP storage and secretion. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Interaction of atrial natriuretic peptide with its receptors in bovine lung membranes.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Arakawa, Y; Rajasekaran, A K; Yu, T H; Wada, O

    1995-03-31

    In bovine lung membranes, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) showed temperature-dependent binding to guanylate cyclase-natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-GC). Photoaffinity labeling of the receptors with 4-azidobenzoyl (AZB)-125I-ANP and competitive binding studies with 125I-ANP, ANP, and atriopeptin I (API) revealed that NPR-GC was detected as the predominant ANP-binding protein at 0 degrees C, whereas at 37 degrees C natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) was detected as the predominant protein. The ratio of NPR-GC and NPR-C was 89:11 at 0 degrees C for 40 min, respectively, whereas 6:94 at 37 degrees C. AZB-125I-ANP bound to NPR-GC dissociated from the binding site within 5 min at 37 degrees C but not at 0 degrees C, whereas ANP bound to NPR-C did not dissociate from the binding site at 0 and 37 degrees C. The dissociated AZB-125I-ANP rapidly rebound to NPR-GC at 37 degrees C but not to NPR-C, and the dissociated NPR-GC was capable of binding. Some AZB-125I-ANP was hydrolyzed by a membrane-bound proteinase(s). Phosphoramidon inhibited the hydrolysis of AZB-125I-ANP. Thus, the dissociated AZB-125I-ANP rebound to NPR-GC and NPR-C. These results suggest that usually intact ANP repeatedly binds to NPR-GC until hydrolysis. Furthermore, the majority of ANP bind to NPR-GC before binding to NPR-C under physiological temperature.

  4. B and C types natriuretic peptides modulate norepinephrine uptake and release in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Vatta, M S; Presas, M; Bianciotti, L G; Zarrabeitia, V; Fernández, B E

    1996-09-16

    We previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) regulates catecholamine metabolism in the central nervous system. ANF, B and C types natriuretic peptides (BNP and CNP) also play a regulatory role in body fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular activity and hormonal and neuro-hormonal secretions. The aim of the present work was to investigate BNP and CNP effects on the uptake and release of norepinephrine (NE) in rat hypothalamic slices incubated in vitro. Results showed that BNP (100 nM) and CNP (1, 10 and 100 nM) enhanced total and neuronal [3H]NE uptake but did not modify non-neuronal uptake. BNP (100 nM) and CNP (1 nM) caused a rapid increase in NE uptake (1 min), which was sustained for 60 min. BNP (100 nM) did not modify the intracellular distribution of NE; however, 1 nM CNP increased the granular store and decreased the cytosolic pool of NE. BNP (100 nM) and CNP (1, 10 and 100 nM), diminished spontaneous NE release. In addition, BNP (1, 10, 100 nM) and CNP (1, 10 and 100 pM, as well as 1, 10 and 100 nM) reduced NE output induced by 25 mM KCl. These results suggest that BNP and CNP may be involved in the regulation of several central as well as peripheral physiological functions through the modulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission at the presynaptic neuronal level. Present results provide evidence to consider CNP as the brain natriuretic peptide since physiological concentrations of this peptide (pM) diminished NE evoked release.

  5. Endocytosis and Trafficking of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A: Potential Role of Short Sequence Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2015-01-01

    The targeted endocytosis and redistribution of transmembrane receptors among membrane-bound subcellular organelles are vital for their correct signaling and physiological functions. Membrane receptors committed for internalization and trafficking pathways are sorted into coated vesicles. Cardiac hormones, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) bind to guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and elicit the generation of intracellular second messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which lowers blood pressure and incidence of heart failure. After ligand binding, the receptor is rapidly internalized, sequestrated, and redistributed into intracellular locations. Thus, NPRA is considered a dynamic cellular macromolecule that traverses different subcellular locations through its lifetime. The utilization of pharmacologic and molecular perturbants has helped in delineating the pathways of endocytosis, trafficking, down-regulation, and degradation of membrane receptors in intact cells. This review describes the investigation of the mechanisms of internalization, trafficking, and redistribution of NPRA compared with other cell surface receptors from the plasma membrane into the cell interior. The roles of different short-signal peptide sequence motifs in the internalization and trafficking of other membrane receptors have been briefly reviewed and their potential significance in the internalization and trafficking of NPRA is discussed. PMID:26151885

  6. The response of circulating brain natriuretic peptide to academic stress in college students.

    PubMed

    Amir, Offer; Sagiv, Moran; Eynon, Nir; Yamin, Chen; Rogowski, Ori; Gerzy, Yishay; Amir, Ruthie E

    2010-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a cardiac peptide, has been implicated in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses to psychological stressors. The influence of academic stress on circulating concentration of the N-terminal fragment of BNP precursor (NT-proBNP), and in relation to the stress hormone (cortisol) response was studied in 170 college students undergoing major examinations. Just prior to the examination, we measured self-estimated stress level, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), plasma levels of cortisol, and NT-proBNP. These parameters were compared to the participants' baseline measurements, taken at the same hour of a different 'control day', without a major examination to induce stress. Hemodynamic variables (SBP, DBP, and HR) increased on the examination day compared with baseline values ( p < 0.001). Circulating cortisol concentration increased before examinations (+42%, p < 0.001). The response to stress was marked by a significant decrease in plasma NT-proBNP concentration (-40%, p < 0.001). We found in males a significant interaction between the cortisol elevation with examination stress and the NT-proBNP reduction ( p = 0.02). In response to academic stress, the plasma cortisol elevation was accompanied by a marked reduction in plasma NT-proBNP level. These data may indicate that mental stress entails an interface between the HPA axis and the peripheral natriuretic peptide system, leading to reciprocating changes in circulating levels of the corresponding hormones.

  7. Brain Natriuretic Peptide: It's Not About the Brain or Just Another Smart Polypeptide--It's About the Heart.

    PubMed

    Carella, Dominick M

    2015-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac hormone with diuretic, natriuretic, and vasodilator properties. Measurement of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations is increasingly used to aid diagnosis, assess prognosis, and tailor treatment in adults with congestive heart failure. Recent studies suggest that the peptide is also useful in pediatric patients. The diagnostic role of plasma BNP in neonates admitted to the NICU has shown promise as an aid in diagnosis in neonates with signs of congenital heart disease; as a biomarker of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn; a predictive biomarker of the response to indomethacin in preterm infants; and, more significantly, in acute heart failure.

  8. Cardiovascular Mortality in Chest Pain Patients: Comparison of Natriuretic Peptides With Novel Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Stress.

    PubMed

    Sinning, Christoph; Ojeda, Francisco; Zeller, Tanja; Zengin, Elvin; Rupprecht, Hans-J; Lackner, Karl-J; Bickel, Christoph; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schnabel, Renate B; Westermann, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Natriuretic peptides are the standard biomarker for risk stratification in cardiovascular disease. Novel biomarkers of cardiovascular stress might allow refinement in risk stratification for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We tested the performance of these novel biomarkers for cardiovascular risk stratification in patients who presented with ACS. In the AtheroGene study, 873 patients presented with ACS in the emergency department. Biomarkers measured were: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), copeptin, and troponin I. The median follow-up time was 4 years and during this time 50 patients died from cardiac causes. Cox regression analysis for the continuous variables NT-proBNP and BNP showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.9 and 1.8, respectively, for 1 SD increase (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003) in the fully adjusted model. Novel biomarkers with MR-proADM had an HR of 3.2, followed by midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide with an HR of 1.9 (both P < 0.001), and copeptin with an HR of 1.6 (P < 0.001). C-index revealed MR-proADM as the best discriminator for identifying patients with the outcome with a C-index = 0.8, and C-index was 0.72 for NT-proBNP (P for comparison = 0.017). Integrated discrimination improvement for MR-proADM was 0.059 compared with NT-proBNP (P = 0.016), thus providing background that MR-proADM was better to identify persons with the outcome. Troponin I levels at the time of admission were not significant for risk stratification. In patients who present with ACS the novel biomarker, MR-proADM was the best predictor for outcome. MR-proADM adds modest information and is useful for risk prediction in ACS patients. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. C-type natriuretic peptide modulates quorum sensing molecule and toxin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Blier, Anne-Sophie; Veron, Wilfried; Bazire, Alexis; Gerault, Eloïse; Taupin, Laure; Vieillard, Julien; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Le Derf, Franck; Orange, Nicole; Hulen, Christian; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates its virulence expression and establishment in the host in response to modification of its environment. During the infectious process, bacteria are exposed to and can detect eukaryotic products including hormones. It has been shown that P. aeruginosa is sensitive to natriuretic peptides, a family of eukaryotic hormones, through a cyclic nucleotide-dependent sensor system that modulates its cytotoxicity. We observed that pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) increases the capacity of the bacteria to kill Caenorhabditis elegans through diffusive toxin production. In contrast, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) did not affect the capacity of the bacteria to kill C. elegans. The bacterial production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was enhanced by both BNP and CNP whereas the production of phenazine pyocyanin was strongly inhibited by CNP. The amount of 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), a precursor to 2-heptyl-3-hydroxyl-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; PQS), decreased after CNP treatment. The quantity of 2-nonyl-4-quinolone (HNQ), another quinolone which is synthesized from HHQ, was also reduced after CNP treatment. Conversely, both BNP and CNP significantly enhanced bacterial production of acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) [e.g. 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) and butanoylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL)]. These results correlate with an induction of lasI transcription 1 h after bacterial exposure to BNP or CNP. Concurrently, pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with either BNP or CNP enhanced PAO1 exotoxin A production, via a higher toxA mRNA level. At the same time, CNP led to elevated amounts of algC mRNA, indicating that algC is involved in C. elegans killing. Finally, we observed that in PAO1, Vfr protein is essential to the pro-virulent effect of CNP whereas the regulator PtxR supports only a part of the CNP pro-virulent activity. Taken together, these data reinforce the hypothesis that during

  10. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in brain microvessel endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Huls, M. H.; Sams, Clarence F.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the suggestions by Chabrier et al. (1987) and Steardo and Nathanson (1987) that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may play a role in the fluid homeostasis of the brain, the ANP receptors in primary cultures of bovine brain microvessel endothelian cells were quantitated and characterized. Results of partition binding studies and the effect of cGMP additions indicated the presence of at least two types of ANP receptors, with the majority of the receptors being the nonguanylate cyclase coupled receptors. The presence of at least two ANP receptor types suggests an active role for ANP in regulating brain endothelial cell function.

  11. Presence of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide and its binding to NPR-A receptor in rabbit kidney.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Mi; Kim, Yoon Ah; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Suhn Hee; Cho, Kyung Woo; Kim, Sung Zoo

    2011-02-25

    Natriuretic peptides help to maintain sodium and fluid volume homeostasis in a healthy cardio-renal environment. Since the identification of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) as a new member of the natriuretic peptide family, DNP has been considered as an important regulator of natriuresis and dieresis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the presence of immunoreactive Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) and its specific receptor in rabbit. DNP was detected in heart, kidney, liver, brain, and plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA). DNP contents of cardiac atrium and ventricle, renal cortex and medulla, liver, and brain were 1.42 ± 0.15, 1.0 6 ± 0.08, 2.55 ± 0.21, 1.81 ± 0.16, 1.36 ± 0.22, and 0.69 ± 0.15 pg/mg of wet weight, respectively. The concentration of DNP in plasma was 235.44 ± 15.44 pg/ml. By quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography, specific ¹²⁵I-DNP binding sites were revealed in glomeruli, interlobular artery, acuate artery, vasa recta bundle, and inner medulla of the kidney with an apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) of 0.29 ± 0.05, 0.36 ± 0.03, 0.84 ± 0.19, 1.18 ± 0.23, and 10.91 ± 1.59 nM, respectively. Basal rate of 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production by particulate guanylyl cyclase (GC) activation of glomerular membranes was basally 13.40 ± 1.70 pmol/mg protein/min. DNP caused an increment of cGMP production in similar magnitude to that caused by ANP, BNP, and urodilatin, while the production of cGMP by CNP was significantly lower than that by DNP. Our results show that plasma levels of DNP were higher when compared to other tissues. DNP produces cGMP via the NPR-A receptor subtype in the kidney, similarly to ANP and BNP, suggesting that plasma DNP could have similar functions as ANP and BNP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Application of brain natriuretic peptide in evaluation of cardiac function in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei-Min; Mao, Rui-Ming; Du, Zhong-Bo; Mi, Li; Zhu, Bao-Ll

    2011-10-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a major marker for evaluating cardiac function and has been widely used in clinical practice. Recent researches show that BNP is also useful for identification of sudden cardiac death in forensic pathology. This article reviews the molecular structure and biological characteristics of the BNP and its application as a functional indicate in forensic medicine. It shows that the expression of BNP in cardiac muscles, together with the expression of BNP in blood and pericardium liquid can be used to evaluate the pathological physiology changes and dysfunction degrees of the heart during the cardiac sudden death.

  13. Rationale and therapeutic opportunities for natriuretic peptide system augmentation in heart failure.

    PubMed

    McKie, Paul M; Burnett, John C

    2015-02-01

    The natriuretic peptide system (NPS) is intimately involved in cardiorenal homeostasis in health, and dysregulation of the NPS plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Indeed, the diuretic, vasorelaxation, beneficial remodeling, and potent neurohumoral inhibition of the NPS support the therapeutic development of chronic augmentation of the NPS in symptomatic HF. Further, chronic augmentation of the protective NPS and in early stages of HF may ultimately prevent the progression of HF and reduced subsequent morbidity and mortality. In the current manuscript, we review the rationale for as well as previous and current efforts aimed at chronic therapeutic augmentation of the NPS in HF.

  14. Effects of natriuretic peptides on electrical conduction in the sinoatrial node and atrial myocardium of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Azer, John; Hua, Rui; Krishnaswamy, Pooja S; Rose, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides, including B-type and C-type natriuretic peptide (BNP and CNP), are powerful regulators of the cardiovascular system; however, their electrophysiological effects in the heart, particularly in the sinoatrial node (SAN), are incompletely understood. We have used high-resolution optical mapping to measure the effects of BNP and CNP, and the roles of natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR-A, NPR-B and NPR-C), on electrical conduction within the SAN and atrial myocardium. In basal conditions BNP and CNP (50–500 nm) increased conduction velocity (CV) within the SAN by ∼30% at the high dose and shifted the initial exit site superiorly. These effects sped conduction from the SAN to the surrounding atrial myocardium and were mediated by the NPR-A and NPR-B receptors. In the presence of isoproterenol (1 μm) the NPR-C receptor made a major contribution to the effects of BNP and CNP in the heart. In these conditions BNP, CNP and the NPR-C agonist cANF each decreased SAN CV and shifted the initial exit site inferiorly. The effects of cANF (30% reduction) were larger than BNP or CNP (∼15% reduction), indicating that BNP and CNP activate multiple natriuretic peptide receptors. In support of this, the inhibitory effects of BNP were absent in NPR-C knockout mice, where BNP instead elicited a further increase (∼25%) in CV. Measurements in externally paced atrial preparations demonstrate that the effects of natriuretic peptides on CV are partially independent of changes in cycle length. These data provide detailed novel insight into the complex effects of natriuretic peptides and their receptors on electrical conduction in the heart. PMID:24344164

  15. Effects of natriuretic peptides on electrical conduction in the sinoatrial node and atrial myocardium of the heart.

    PubMed

    Azer, John; Hua, Rui; Krishnaswamy, Pooja S; Rose, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Natriuretic peptides, including B-type and C-type natriuretic peptide (BNP and CNP), are powerful regulators of the cardiovascular system; however, their electrophysiological effects in the heart, particularly in the sinoatrial node (SAN), are incompletely understood. We have used high-resolution optical mapping to measure the effects of BNP and CNP, and the roles of natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR-A, NPR-B and NPR-C), on electrical conduction within the SAN and atrial myocardium. In basal conditions BNP and CNP (50-500 nm) increased conduction velocity (CV) within the SAN by ∼30% at the high dose and shifted the initial exit site superiorly. These effects sped conduction from the SAN to the surrounding atrial myocardium and were mediated by the NPR-A and NPR-B receptors. In the presence of isoproterenol (1 μm) the NPR-C receptor made a major contribution to the effects of BNP and CNP in the heart. In these conditions BNP, CNP and the NPR-C agonist cANF each decreased SAN CV and shifted the initial exit site inferiorly. The effects of cANF (30% reduction) were larger than BNP or CNP (∼15% reduction), indicating that BNP and CNP activate multiple natriuretic peptide receptors. In support of this, the inhibitory effects of BNP were absent in NPR-C knockout mice, where BNP instead elicited a further increase (∼25%) in CV. Measurements in externally paced atrial preparations demonstrate that the effects of natriuretic peptides on CV are partially independent of changes in cycle length. These data provide detailed novel insight into the complex effects of natriuretic peptides and their receptors on electrical conduction in the heart.

  16. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in acute Kawasaki disease correlates with coronary artery involvement.

    PubMed

    Adjagba, Philippe M; Desjardins, Laurent; Fournier, Anne; Spigelblatt, Linda; Montigny, Martine; Dahdah, Nagib

    2015-10-01

    We have lately documented the importance of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in aiding the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. We sought to investigate the potential value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide pertaining to the prediction of coronary artery dilatation (Z-score>2.5) and/or of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. We hypothesised that increased serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level correlates with increased coronary artery dilatation and/or resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin. We carried out a prospective study involving newly diagnosed patients treated with 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin within 5-10 days of onset of fever. Echocardiography was performed in all patients at onset, then weekly for 3 weeks, then at month 2, and month 3. Coronary arteries were measured at each visit, and coronary artery Z-score was calculated. All the patients had N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide serum level measured at onset, and the Z-score calculated. There were 109 patients enrolled at 6.58±2.82 days of fever, age 3.79±2.92 years. High N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level was associated with coronary artery dilatation at onset in 22.2 versus 5.6% for normal N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (odds ratio 4.8 [95% confidence interval 1.05-22.4]; p=0.031). This was predictive of cumulative coronary artery dilatation for the first 3 months (p=0.04-0.02), but not during convalescence at 2-3 months (odds ratio 1.28 [95% confidence interval 0.23-7.3]; p=non-significant). Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels did not predict intravenous immunoglobulin resistance, 15.3 versus 13.5% (p=1). Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level correlates with acute coronary artery dilatation in treated Kawasaki disease, but not with intravenous immunoglobulin resistance.

  17. Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Pang-Hu; Zhang, Xiao-Bin

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate any changes in the plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin (ADM), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC). The plasma concentrations of the three peptides were measured in 45 healthy control individuals and 90 untreated patients with PC, who consisted of 20 normotensive patients, 30 borderline hypertensive patients and 40 hypertensive patients. After 4 weeks of effective antihypertensive therapy for hypertensive PC patients, the concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP were measured again, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was then performed for all PC patients with values that were measured 2 weeks later. The plasma concentrations of the three peptides were significantly increased in the borderline hypertensive and hypertensive patients compared with the concentrations in control individuals and normotensive patients. In addition, there were significant differences between the levels of ADM, ANP and BNP in the borderline and hypertensive groups. The plasma ADM concentration was not associated with the blood urea nitrogen levels, serum creatinine levels or glomerular filtration rate, but was correlated with the serum epinephrine, serum norepinephrine and urine vanillylmandelic acid levels. In addition, the ADM concentration was associated with the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass index and plasma concentrations of ANP and BNP in the hypertensive patients with PC. After 4 weeks of antihypertensive treatment, the values of the three peptides in the hypertensive patients with PC were not significantly changed. As expected, the values in borderline and hypertensive groups were significantly decreased 2 weeks subsequent to surgery, whereas there were no significant changes in the normotensive group. ADM may participate, along with ANP and BNP, in the mechanisms that counteract further elevation

  18. NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE SYSTEM GENE VARIANTS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION AFTER CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Amanda A.; Collard, Charles D.; Shernan, Stanton K.; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D.; Perry, Tjorvi E.; Aranki, Sary F.; Lange, Christoph; Herman, Daniel S.; Meitinger, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Body, Simon C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ventricular dysfunction (VnD) after primary coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with increased hospital stay and mortality. Natriuretic peptides have compensatory vasodilatory, natriuretic and paracrine influences on myocardial failure and ischemia. We hypothesized that natriuretic peptide system gene variants independently predict risk of VnD after primary coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods 1164 patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass at two institutions were prospectively enrolled. After prospectively defined exclusions, 697 Caucasian patients (76 with VnD) were analyzed. VnD was defined as need for ≥ 2 new inotropes and/or new mechanical ventricular support after coronary artery bypass grafting. 139 haplotype-tagging SNPs within 7 genes (NPPA; NPPB; NPPC; NPR1; NPR2; NPR3; CORIN) were genotyped. SNPs univariately associated with VnD were entered into logistic regression models adjusting for clinical covariates predictive of VnD. To control for multiple comparisons, permutation analyses were conducted for all SNP associations. Results After adjusting for clinical covariates and multiple comparisons within each gene, seven NPPA/NPPB SNPs (rs632793, rs6668352, rs549596, rs198388, rs198389, rs6676300, rs1009592) were associated with decreased risk of postoperative VnD (additive model; odds ratios 0.44–0.55; P = 0.010–0.036), and four NPR3 SNPs (rs700923, rs16890196, rs765199, rs700926) were associated with increased risk of postoperative VnD (recessive model; odds ratios 3.89–4.28; P = 0.007–0.034). Conclusions Genetic variation within the NPPA/NPPB and NPR3 genes is associated with risk of VnD after primary coronary artery bypass grafting. Knowledge of such genotypic predictors may result in better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying postoperative VnD. PMID:19326473

  19. Phorbol ester and atrial natriuretic peptide receptor response on vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Murakawa, K; Yokokawa, K; Horio, T; Takeda, T

    1992-04-01

    At least two types of receptors for natriuretic peptides have been reported: biologically active receptors coupled with guanylate cyclase (atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP]-B receptors) and clearance receptors (ANP-C receptors). To elucidate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of ANP-B receptors, vascular smooth muscle cells in culture were treated with phorbol ester. Incubation with receptor agonists and phorbol ester led to the desensitization of receptor-mediated cyclic guanosine monophosphate (ANP-B receptor response) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Although a PKC inhibitor and downregulation of PKC by long-term incubation of cells with phorbol esters blocked the phorbol ester-induced desensitization of the ANP-B receptor response, they did not block the ANP-induced desensitization of the ANP-B receptor response. In addition, when desensitization by phorbol esters was observed, ANP was still capable of desensitization. These observations suggest that the mechanism for regulating ANP-B receptor sensitivity may be both PKC-dependent and PKC-independent and mediated by phorbol esters and ANP, respectively.

  20. Natriuretic peptides regulate the expression of tissue factor and PAI-1 in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, M; Tsuji, H; Nishimura, H; Masuda, H; Kunieda, Y; Kawano, H; Kimura, S; Sugano, T; Kitamura, H; Nakagawa, K; Nakagawa, M

    1999-11-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) interact with angiotensin II (Ang II) in regulative blood coagulation and fibrinolysis by suppressing the expressions of both tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) induced by Ang II. The expressions of TF and PAI-1 mRNA were analyzed by northern blotting methods, and the activities of TF on the surface of rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) and PAI-1 in the culture media were respectively measured by chromogenic assay. Both BNP and CNP suppressed the expressions of TF and PAI-1 mRNA induced by Ang II in a time- and concentration-dependent manner via cGMP cascade, which suppressions were accompanied by respective decrease in activities of TF and PAI-1. However, neither the expression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) nor tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA) mRNA was affected by the treatment of BNP and CNP.

  1. Plant natriuretic peptides: systemic regulators of plant homeostasis and defense that can affect cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Immunologic evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptide (NPs) hormones in plants because antiatrial NP antibodies affinity purify biologically active plant NPs (PNP). In the model plant, an Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) has been identified and characterized. AtPNP-A belongs to a novel class of molecules that share some similarity with the cell wall loosening expansins but do not contain the carbohydrate-binding wall anchor thus suggesting that PNPs and atrial natriuretic peptides are heterologs. AtPNP-A acts systemically, and this is consistent with its localization in the apoplastic extracellular space and the conductive tissue. Furthermore, AtPNP-A signals via the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate and modulates ion and water transport and homeostasis. It also plays a critical role in host defense against pathogens. AtPNP-A can be classified as novel paracrine plant hormone because it is secreted into the apoplastic space in response to stress and can enhance its own expression. Interestingly, purified recombinant PNP induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and was most effective on cardiac myoblast cell lines. Because PNP is mimicking the effect of ANP in some instances, PNP may prove to provide useful leads for development of novel therapeutic NPs.

  2. Dwarfism and early death in mice lacking C-type natriuretic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Chusho, Hideki; Tamura, Naohisa; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Yasoda, Akihiro; Suda, Michio; Miyazawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuki; Kurihara, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Yasato; Itoh, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Katsuki, Motoya; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal bone growth is determined by endochondral ossification that occurs as chondrocytes in the cartilaginous growth plate undergo proliferation, hypertrophy, cell death, and osteoblastic replacement. The natriuretic peptide family consists of three structurally related endogenous ligands, atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP), and is thought to be involved in a variety of homeostatic processes. To investigate the physiological significance of CNP in vivo, we generated mice with targeted disruption of CNP (Nppc−/− mice). The Nppc−/− mice show severe dwarfism as a result of impaired endochondral ossification. They are all viable perinatally, but less than half can survive during postnatal development. The skeletal phenotypes are histologically similar to those seen in patients with achondroplasia, the most common genetic form of human dwarfism. Targeted expression of CNP in the growth plate chondrocytes can rescue the skeletal defect of Nppc−/− mice and allow their prolonged survival. This study demonstrates that CNP acts locally as a positive regulator of endochondral ossification in vivo and suggests its pathophysiological and therapeutic implication in some forms of skeletal dysplasia. PMID:11259675

  3. B and C types natriuretic peptides modify norepinephrine uptake and release in the rat adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Vatta, M S; Presas, M F; Bianciotti, L G; Rodriguez-Fermepin, M; Ambros, R; Fernandez, B E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) modulates adrenomedullar norepinephrine (NE) metabolism. On this basis, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of B and C types natriuretic peptides (BNP and CNP) on the uptake, intracellular distribution and release of 3H-NE. Experiments were carried out in rat adrenal medulla slices incubated "in vitro." Results showed that 100 nM of both, CNP and BNP, enhanced total and neuronal NE uptake. Both peptides (100 nM) caused a rapid increase in NE uptake during the first minute, which was sustained for 60 min. NE intracellular distribution was only modified by CNP (100 nM), which increased the granular fraction and decreased the cytosolic pool. On the other hand, spontaneous as well as evoked (KCl) NE release, was decreased by BNP and CNP (50 and 100 nM for spontaneous release and 1, 10, 50 and 100 nM for evoked output). The present results suggest that BNP and CNP may regulate catecholamine secretion and modulate adrenomedullary biological actions mediated by catecholamines, such as blood arterial pressure, smooth muscle tone, and metabolic activities.

  4. Role of C-type natriuretic peptide in the function of normal human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hui; Chen, Yao; Wu, Ke-Jia; Zhao, Hu; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Huang, Dong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a newly discovered type of local regulatory factor that mediates its biological effects through the specific, membrane-bound natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B). Recent studies have established that CNP is closely related to male reproductive function. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of CNP/NPR-B in human ejaculated spermatozoa through different methods (such as immunolocalization, real time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot), and then to evaluate the influence of CNP on sperm function in vitro, such as motility and acrosome reaction. Human semen samples were collected from consenting donors who met the criteria of the World Health Organization for normozoospermia. Our results show that the specific receptor NPR-B of CNP is localized in the acrosomal region of the head and the membrane of the front-end tail of the sperm, and there is no signal of CNP in human sperm. Compared with the control, CNP can induce a significant dose-dependent increase in spermatozoa motility and acrosome reaction. In summary, CNP/NPR-B can affect sperm motility and acrosome reaction, thus regulating the reproductive function of males. CNP may be a new key factor in regulating sperm function. PMID:25926602

  5. Dwarfism and early death in mice lacking C-type natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Chusho, H; Tamura, N; Ogawa, Y; Yasoda, A; Suda, M; Miyazawa, T; Nakamura, K; Nakao, K; Kurihara, T; Komatsu, Y; Itoh, H; Tanaka, K; Saito, Y; Katsuki, M; Nakao, K

    2001-03-27

    Longitudinal bone growth is determined by endochondral ossification that occurs as chondrocytes in the cartilaginous growth plate undergo proliferation, hypertrophy, cell death, and osteoblastic replacement. The natriuretic peptide family consists of three structurally related endogenous ligands, atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP), and is thought to be involved in a variety of homeostatic processes. To investigate the physiological significance of CNP in vivo, we generated mice with targeted disruption of CNP (Nppc(-/-) mice). The Nppc(-/-) mice show severe dwarfism as a result of impaired endochondral ossification. They are all viable perinatally, but less than half can survive during postnatal development. The skeletal phenotypes are histologically similar to those seen in patients with achondroplasia, the most common genetic form of human dwarfism. Targeted expression of CNP in the growth plate chondrocytes can rescue the skeletal defect of Nppc(-/-) mice and allow their prolonged survival. This study demonstrates that CNP acts locally as a positive regulator of endochondral ossification in vivo and suggests its pathophysiological and therapeutic implication in some forms of skeletal dysplasia.

  6. The Functional Genomics of Guanylyl Cyclase/Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A: Perspectives and Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hormones atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) activate guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and produce the second messenger cGMP. The GC-A/NPRA is a member of the growing family of GC receptors. The recent biochemical, molecular, and genomic studies of GC-A/NPRA have provided important insights into the regulation and functional activity of this receptor protein with a particular emphasis on cardiac and renal protective roles in hypertension and cardiovascular disease states. The progress in this field of research has significantly strengthened and advanced our knowledge about the critical roles of Npr1 gene (coding for GC-A/NPRA) in control of fluid volume, blood pressure, cardiac remodeling, and other physiological functions and pathological states. Overall, this review attempts to provide insight and to delineate the current concepts in the field of functional genomics and signaling of GC-A/NPRA in hypertension and cardiovascular disease states at the molecular level. PMID:21375691

  7. Associates of an Elevated Natriuretic Peptide Level in Stable Heart Failure Patients: Implications for Targeted Management

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, Ian; Murphy, Niamh; Collier, Patrick; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Watson, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Persistently elevated natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in heart failure (HF) patients are associated with impaired prognosis. Recent work suggests that NP-guided therapy can improve outcome, but the mechanisms behind an elevated BNP remain unclear. Among the potential stimuli for NP in clinically stable patients are persistent occult fluid overload, wall stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and ischemia. The purpose of this study was to identify associates of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a stable HF population. Methods. In a prospective observational study of 179 stable HF patients, the association between BNP and markers of collagen metabolism, inflammation, and Doppler-echocardiographic parameters including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index (LAVI), and E/e prime (E/e′) was measured. Results. Univariable associates of elevated BNP were age, LVEF, LAVI, E/e′, creatinine, and markers of collagen turnover. In a multiple linear regression model, age, creatinine, and LVEF remained significant associates of BNP. E/e′ and markers of collagen turnover had a persistent impact on BNP independent of these covariates. Conclusion. Multiple variables are associated with persistently elevated BNP levels in stable HF patients. Clarification of the relative importance of NP stimuli may help refine NP-guided therapy, potentially improving outcome for this at-risk population. PMID:24453873

  8. Arg13 of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Reciprocally Modulates Binding to Guanylyl Cyclase but Not Clearance Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Deborah M.; Barbieri, Kathryn A.; McGuirk, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) decreases cardiac preload and hypertrophy. As such, synthetic BNP, nesiritide, was approved for the treatment of acutely decompensated heart failure. However, two problems limit its therapeutic potential. First, ensuing hypertension decreases urine output, and second, guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A), the primary signaling receptor for BNP, is down-regulated in heart failure. Thus, alternative or chimeric natriuretic peptides maintaining the renal but lacking the vasorelaxation properties of BNP provide an alternative approach. Here, we examined the ability of single amino acid substitutions in the conserved 17-amino acid disulfide ring structure of human BNP to activate GC-A and guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B), which is not reduced in heart failure. We hypothesized that substitution of highly conserved residues in BNP with highly conserved residues from a GC-B-specific peptide would yield BNP variants with increased and decreased potency for human GC-B and GC-A, respectively. Substitution of Leu for Arg13 (l-bnp) yielded a 5-fold more potent activator of GC-B and 7-fold less potent activator of GC-A compared with wild type. l-bnp also bound GC-A 4.5-fold less tightly than wild type. In contrast, substitution of Met for Ser21 (M-BNP) had no effect. A peptide containing both the Leu and Met substitutions behaved similarly to l-bnp. Meanwhile, wild-type and l-bnp bound the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor with similar affinities. These data indicate that Arg13 of BNP is a critical discriminator of binding to guanylyl cyclase-linked but not clearance natriuretic peptide receptors, supporting designer natriuretic peptides as an alternative to wild-type BNP for the treatment of heart failure. PMID:20530652

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Expresses a Functional Human Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Ortholog: Involvement in Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Rosay, Thibaut; Bazire, Alexis; Diaz, Suraya; Clamens, Thomas; Blier, Anne-Sophie; Mijouin, Lily; Hoffmann, Brice; Sergent, Jacques-Aurélien; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Boireau, Wilfrid; Vieillard, Julien; Hulen, Christian; Dufour, Alain; Harmer, Nicholas J; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2015-08-25

    Considerable evidence exists that bacteria detect eukaryotic communication molecules and modify their virulence accordingly. In previous studies, it has been demonstrated that the increasingly antibiotic-resistant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can detect the human hormones brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) at micromolar concentrations. In response, the bacterium modifies its behavior to adapt to the host physiology, increasing its overall virulence. The possibility of identifying the bacterial sensor for these hormones and interfering with this sensing mechanism offers an exciting opportunity to directly affect the infection process. Here, we show that BNP and CNP strongly decrease P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Isatin, an antagonist of human natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR), prevents this effect. Furthermore, the human NPR-C receptor agonist cANF(4-23) mimics the effects of natriuretic peptides on P. aeruginosa, while sANP, the NPR-A receptor agonist, appears to be weakly active. We show in silico that NPR-C, a preferential CNP receptor, and the P. aeruginosa protein AmiC have similar three-dimensional (3D) structures and that both CNP and isatin bind to AmiC. We demonstrate that CNP acts as an AmiC agonist, enhancing the expression of the ami operon in P. aeruginosa. Binding of CNP and NPR-C agonists to AmiC was confirmed by microscale thermophoresis. Finally, using an amiC mutant strain, we demonstrated that AmiC is essential for CNP effects on biofilm formation. In conclusion, the AmiC bacterial sensor possesses structural and pharmacological profiles similar to those of the human NPR-C receptor and appears to be a bacterial receptor for human hormones that enables P. aeruginosa to modulate biofilm expression. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly dangerous opportunist pathogen for immunocompromised hosts, especially cystic fibrosis patients. The sites of P. aeruginosa infection are varied, with predominance

  10. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by cell-surface peptidase activity on endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. J.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a fluid-regulating peptide hormone that promotes vasorelaxation, natriuresis, and diuresis. The mechanisms for the release of ANP and for its clearance from the circulation play important roles in modulating its biological effects. Recently, we have reported that the cell surface of an endothelial cell line, CPA47, could degrade 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA. In this study, we have characterized this degradation of 125I-ANP. The kinetics of ANP degradation by the surface of CPA47 cells were first order, with a Km of 320 +/- 60 nM and Vmax of 35 +/- 14 pmol of ANP degraded/10 min/10(5) cells at pH 7.4. ANP is degraded by the surface of CPA47 cells over a broad pH range from 7.0-8.5. Potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and bestatin inhibited 125I-ANP degradation, suggesting that this degradative activity on the surface of CPA47 cells has exopeptidase characteristics. The selectivity of CPA47 cell-surface degradation of ANP was demonstrated when 125I-ANP degradation was inhibited in the presence of neuropeptide Y and angiotensin I and II but not bradykinin, bombesin, endothelin-1, or substance P. The C-terminal amino acids phe26 and tyr28 were deduced to be important for ANP interaction with the cell-surface peptidase(s) based on comparison of the IC50 of various ANP analogues and other natriuretic peptides for the inhibition of ANP degradation. These data suggest that a newly characterized divalent cation-independent exopeptidase(s) that selectively recognizes ANP and some other vasoactive peptides exists on the surface of endothelial cells.

  11. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by cell-surface peptidase activity on endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. J.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a fluid-regulating peptide hormone that promotes vasorelaxation, natriuresis, and diuresis. The mechanisms for the release of ANP and for its clearance from the circulation play important roles in modulating its biological effects. Recently, we have reported that the cell surface of an endothelial cell line, CPA47, could degrade 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA. In this study, we have characterized this degradation of 125I-ANP. The kinetics of ANP degradation by the surface of CPA47 cells were first order, with a Km of 320 +/- 60 nM and Vmax of 35 +/- 14 pmol of ANP degraded/10 min/10(5) cells at pH 7.4. ANP is degraded by the surface of CPA47 cells over a broad pH range from 7.0-8.5. Potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and bestatin inhibited 125I-ANP degradation, suggesting that this degradative activity on the surface of CPA47 cells has exopeptidase characteristics. The selectivity of CPA47 cell-surface degradation of ANP was demonstrated when 125I-ANP degradation was inhibited in the presence of neuropeptide Y and angiotensin I and II but not bradykinin, bombesin, endothelin-1, or substance P. The C-terminal amino acids phe26 and tyr28 were deduced to be important for ANP interaction with the cell-surface peptidase(s) based on comparison of the IC50 of various ANP analogues and other natriuretic peptides for the inhibition of ANP degradation. These data suggest that a newly characterized divalent cation-independent exopeptidase(s) that selectively recognizes ANP and some other vasoactive peptides exists on the surface of endothelial cells.

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  13. Effect of natriuretic peptide family on the oxidized LDL-induced migration of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Yasunari, K; Kano, H; Minami, M; Ueda, M; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-10-01

    The migration of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the intima is proposed to be an important process of intimal thickening in atherosclerotic lesions. The present study examined the possible effect of a novel endothelium-derived relaxing peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced migration of cultured human coronary artery SMCs by the Boyden's chamber method. The effect of CNP was compared with that of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively). Oxidized LDL stimulates SMC migration in a concentration-dependent manner between 20 and 200 micrograms/mL. This stimulation was chemotactic in nature but was not chemokinetic. By contrast, native LDL was without significant activity. CNP-22 clearly inhibited SMC migration stimulated with 200 micrograms/mL oxidized LDL in a concentration-dependent manner between 10(-9) and 10(-6) mol/L. ANP-(1-28) and BNP-32 also inhibited oxidized LDL-induced SMC migration at concentrations of 10(-7) and 10(-6) mol/L, but these effects were weaker than the effect of CNP-22. Such inhibition by these natriuretic peptides was paralleled by an increase in the cellular level of cGMP. Oxidized LDL-induced migration was significantly inhibited by a stable analogue of cGMP, 8-bromo-cGMP, or an activator of the cytosolic guanylate cyclase, sodium nitroprusside. These natriuretic peptides did not suppress the cell adhesion either in the absence or presence of oxidized LDL. These data indicate that oxidized LDL stimulates migration of human coronary artery SMCs and that natriuretic peptides, especially CNP, inhibit this stimulated SMC migration, at least in part, through a cGMP-dependent process. Taken together with the finding that oxidized LDL is present in the intima, CNP may play a role as a local antimigration factor during the process of intimal thickening in hypercholesterolemia-induced coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. The plant natriuretic peptide receptor is a guanylyl cyclase and enables cGMP-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Turek, Ilona; Gehring, Chris

    2016-06-01

    The functional homologues of vertebrate natriuretic peptides (NPs), the plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs), are a novel class of peptidic hormones that signal via guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and systemically affect plant salt and water balance and responses to biotrophic plant pathogens. Although there is increasing understanding of the complex roles of PNPs in plant responses at the systems level, little is known about the underlying signaling mechanisms. Here we report isolation and identification of a novel Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein that directly interacts with A. thaliana PNP, AtPNP-A. In vitro binding studies revealed that the Arabidopsis AtPNP-A binds specifically to the LRR protein, termed AtPNP-R1, and the active region of AtPNP-A is sufficient for the interaction to occur. Importantly, the cytosolic part of the AtPNP-R1, much like in some vertebrate NP receptors, harbors a catalytic center diagnostic for guanylyl cyclases and the recombinant AtPNP-R1 is capable of catalyzing the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cGMP. In addition, we show that AtPNP-A causes rapid increases of cGMP levels in wild type (WT) leaf tissue while this response is significantly reduced in the atpnp-r1 mutants. AtPNP-A also causes cGMP-dependent net water uptake into WT protoplasts, and hence volume increases, whereas responses of the protoplasts from the receptor mutant are impaired. Taken together, our results suggest that the identified LRR protein is an AtPNP-A receptor essential for the PNP-dependent regulation of ion and water homeostasis in plants and that PNP- and vertebrate NP-receptors and their signaling mechanisms share surprising similarities.

  15. State of the art of immunoassay methods for B-type natriuretic peptides: An update.

    PubMed

    Clerico, Aldo; Franzini, Maria; Masotti, Silvia; Prontera, Concetta; Passino, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its related peptides. Using chromatographic procedures, several studies reported an increasing number of circulating peptides related to BNP in human plasma of patients with heart failure. These peptides may have reduced or even no biological activity. Furthermore, other studies have suggested that, using immunoassays that are considered specific for BNP, the precursor of the peptide hormone, proBNP, constitutes a major portion of the peptide measured in plasma of patients with heart failure. Because BNP immunoassay methods show large (up to 50%) systematic differences in values, the use of identical decision values for all immunoassay methods, as suggested by the most recent international guidelines, seems unreasonable. Since proBNP significantly cross-reacts with all commercial immunoassay methods considered specific for BNP, manufacturers should test and clearly declare the degree of cross-reactivity of glycosylated and non-glycosylated proBNP in their BNP immunoassay methods. Clinicians should take into account that there are large systematic differences between methods when they compare results from different laboratories that use different BNP immunoassays. On the other hand, clinical laboratories should take part in external quality assessment (EQA) programs to evaluate the bias of their method in comparison to other BNP methods. Finally, the authors believe that the development of more specific methods for the active peptide, BNP1-32, should reduce the systematic differences between methods and result in better harmonization of results.

  16. The expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in the oviduct and its functions in pig spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meijia; Hong, Haiyan; Zhou, Bo; Jin, Shiying; Wang, Chao; Fu, Maoyong; Wang, Songbo; Xia, Guoliang

    2006-06-01

    Locally synthesized atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its receptors have been found in reproductive tissues of various mammals, and play an important role in the acrosome reaction of human sperm. The objective of the present study was to examine the expression of ANP and its receptors in pig spermatozoa and oviduct, and the effect of ANP on pig spermatozoa function. The expression of ANP and its receptors was analyzed by RT-PCR. Only natriuretic peptide receptors-A (NPRA) mRNA was detected in fresh sperm. While the levels of natriuretic peptide receptors-C (NPRC) mRNA were low with no obvious change among different oviductal phases, the levels of ANP mRNA were high in oviduct(OT)1 , OT3 and OT5, but were very low in OT2. On the other hand, the levels of NPRA mRNA were low in OT1 and OT2, increased in OT3 and reached a maximum in OT4 and OT5. Western blot analysis revealed that the level of ANP was high in OT1, decreased in OT2 and OT3, and arrived at the nadir in OT4 and OT5. The effect of ANP on spermatozoa function was studied by the acrosome reaction and IVF. Incubation with ANP for 1 h significantly induced acrosome reaction of preincubated spermatozoa, and maximal response of acrosome reaction (34.1 +/- 2.3%) was achieved at 1 nM ANP treatment. Both C-ANP-(4-23), a selective ligand of NPRC, and caffeine had no effect on the acrosome reaction. The stimulatory effect of ANP on acrosome reaction could be mimicked by the permeable cGMP analog, 8-Br-cGMP. ANP and caffeine had a similar effect on improving the oocytes penetration rate, polyspermy rate and the average number of sperm per penetrated oocyte. Also, ANP treatment had a similar effect on cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate and the number of cells per blastocyst as that of caffeine treatment. The effects of ANP on the acrosome reaction and the parameters of oocyte penetration could be blocked by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors KT5823 and/or Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS. These results suggest that

  17. The potential value of integrated natriuretic peptide and echo-guided heart failure management.

    PubMed

    Scali, Maria Chiara; Simioniuc, Anca; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Marzilli, Mario

    2014-07-18

    There is increasing interest in guiding Heart Failure (HF) therapy with Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) or N-terminal prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), with the goal of lowering concentrations of these markers (and maintaining their suppression) as part of the therapeutic approach in HF. However, recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines did not recommend biomarker-guided therapy in the management of HF patients. This has likely to do with the conceptual, methodological, and practical limitations of the Natriuretic Peptides (NP)-based approach, including biological variability, slow time-course, poor specificity, cost and venipuncture, as well as to the lack of conclusive scientific evidence after 15 years of intensive scientific work and industry investment in the field. An increase in NP can be associated with accumulation of extra-vascular lung water, which is a sign of impending acute heart failure. If this is the case, an higher dose of loop diuretics will improve symptoms. However, if no lung congestion is present, diuretics will show no benefit and even harm. It is only a combined clinical, bio-humoral (for instance with evaluation of renal function) and echocardiographic assessment which may unmask the pathophysiological (and possibly therapeutic) heterogeneity underlying the same clinical and NP picture. Increase in B-lines will trigger increase of loop diuretics (or dialysis); the marked increase in mitral insufficiency (at baseline or during exercise) will lead to increase in vasodilators and to consider mitral valve repair; the presence of substantial inotropic reserve during stress will give a substantially higher chance of benefit to beta-blocker or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT). To each patient its own therapy, not with a "blind date" with symptoms and NP and carpet bombing with drugs, but with an open-eye targeted approach on the

  18. Blood levels and renal effects of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, P; Hasler, L; Gnädinger, M P; Lang, R E; Uehlinger, D E; Shaw, S; Rascher, W; Reubi, F C

    1986-01-01

    Since mammalian atria were recently found to contain vasoactive and natriuretic peptides, we investigated the following in normal humans: plasma human atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary water and electrolyte excretion, blood pressure (BP), and catecholamine, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), angiotensin II, and aldosterone levels before, during, and after intravenous administration of the newly synthetized alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide (alpha hANP). In 10 subjects alpha hANP given as an initial bolus of 50 micrograms followed by a 45-min maintenance infusion at 6.25 micrograms/min increased plasma alpha hANP from 58 +/- 12 to 625 +/- 87 (mean +/- SEM) pg/ml; caused an acute fall in diastolic BP (-12%, P less than 0.001) and a hemoconcentration (hematocrit +7%, P less than 0.01) not fully explained by a negative body fluid balance; increased GFR (+15%, P less than 0.05) despite unchanged or decreased ERPF (filtration fraction +37%, P less than 0.001); augmented (P less than 0.05- less than 0.001) urinary chloride (+317%), sodium (+224%), calcium (+158%), magnesium (+110%), phosphate excretion (+88%), and free water clearance (from -0.76 to +2.23 ml/min, P less than 0.001) with only little change in potassium excretion; and increased plasma norepinephrine (P less than 0.001) while plasma and urinary epinephrine and dopamine, and plasma ADH, angiotensin II, and aldosterone levels were unchanged. The magnitude and pattern of electrolyte and water excretion during alpha hANP infusion could not be accounted for by increased GFR alone. Therefore, in normal man, endogenous alpha hANP seems to circulate in blood. alpha hANP can cause a BP reduction and hemoconcentration which occur, at least in part, independently of diuresis and are accompanied by sympathetic activation. An increase in GFR that occurs in the presence of unchanged or even decreased total renal blood flow is an important

  19. B-type natriuretic peptide modulates ghrelin, hunger, and satiety in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blinded study (subject) placebo once and 3.0 pmol/kg/min human BNP-32 once administered as a continuous infusion during 4 h. Circulating concentrations of appetite-regulating peptides were measured hourly. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. BNP inhibited the fasting-induced increase in total and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time (P = 0.043 and P = 0.038, respectively). In addition, BNP decreased the subjective rating of hunger (P = 0.009) and increased the feeling of satiety (P = 0.012) when compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in circulating peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. In summary, our results demonstrate that BNP exerts anorectic effects and reduces ghrelin concentrations in men. These data, taken together with the known cardiovascular properties of ghrelin, support the existence of a heart-gut-brain axis, which could be therapeutically targeted in patients with heart failure and obesity.

  20. Involvement of the atrial natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular pathophysiology and its relationship with exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this minireview we describe the involvement of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cardiovascular pathophysiology and exercise. The ANP has a broad homeostatic role and exerts complex effects on the cardio-circulatory hemodynamics, it is produced by the left atrium and has a key role in regulating sodium and water balance in mammals and humans. The dominant stimulus for its release is atrial wall tension, commonly caused by exercise. The ANP is involved in the process of lipolysis through a cGMP signaling pathway and, as a consequence, reducing blood pressure by decreasing the sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle to the action of vasoconstrictors and regulate fluid balance. The increase of this hormone is associated with better survival in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This minireview provides new evidence based on recent studies related to the beneficial effects of exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease, focusing on the ANP. PMID:22313592

  1. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) produced by the human chorioamnion may mediate pregnancy myometrial quiescence.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Jorge A; Delpiano, Ana M; Cuello, Mauricio A; Poblete, Jose A; Casanello, Paola C; Sobrevia, Luis A; Weiner, Carl P

    2009-01-01

    We aim to demonstrate that Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is synthesized and released from the fetal membranes and mediates pregnancy myometrial quiescence. Myometrium and fetal membranes (FM) were obtained from term and preterm pregnancies at the time of cesarean section, either in labor or not in labor. BNP was measured in term and preterm FM, in culture cells, and conditioned media. We found BNP (but not ANP or CNP) inhibited contractions of preterm, but not term, human myometrium. BNP (both protein and mRNA) was detected in all tissues, conditioned media and cultured cells. BNP was higher in samples from preterm women not in labor compared to those at term not in labor. BNP concentrations were significantly reduced in women in spontaneous preterm labor. We conclude that locally produced BNP may be involved in generating myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. Further, a premature decrease of BNP production may cause preterm labor.

  2. The use of B-type natriuretic peptide to diagnose congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeffery R

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the background and current use of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) assays to differentiate congestive heart failure (CHF) from other causes of dyspnea. With a large and growing elderly population, CHF is being diagnosed much more often in emergency rooms in the United States. Doctors need a way to quickly distinguish whether a patient with respiratory distress is suffering from cardiac insufficiency or another etiology. BNP is released from the ventricles in response cardiac overload from CHF or some other form of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Therefore, the detection and measurement of BNP is a fast and accurate method of determining if CHF is the cause of a patient's breathing difficulties.

  3. Presence of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide in follicular fluid, ovary and ovarian perfusates

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhn Hee; Cho, Kyung Woo; Seul, Kyung Hwan; Ryu, Hoon; Koh, Gou Young )

    1989-01-01

    Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ir-ANP) was measured in the follicular fluid of pig ovarian follicle, and rabbit ovarian homogenates and perfusates using a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serial dilution curves made with the extracts of follicular fluid, ovarian homogenates and perfusates using Sep-Pak C18 cartridges were parallel with the RIA standard curve. On gel filtration chromatography and reverse phase HPLC, all extracted materials showed high and low molecular weight forms of ir-ANP. The amount of ir-ANP in rabbit ovary was 40.7{plus minus}0.39 pg/mg and that in follicular fluid of pig ovarian follicle was 18.88{plus minus}2.49 pg/ml.

  4. Genetic Decreases in Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Salt-Sensitive Hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Simon W. M.; Krege, John H.; Oliver, Paula M.; Hagaman, John R.; Hodgin, Jeffrey B.; Pang, Stephen C.; Flynn, T. Geoffrey; Smithies, Oliver

    1995-02-01

    To determine if defects in the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system can cause hypertension, mice were generated with a disruption of the proANP gene. Homozygous mutants had no circulating or atrial ANP, and their blood pressures were elevated by 8 to 23 millimeters of mercury when they were fed standard (0.5 percent sodium chloride) and intermediate (2 percent sodium chloride) salt diets. On standard salt diets, heterozygotes had normal amounts of circulating ANP and normal blood pressures. However, on high (8 percent sodium chloride) salt diets they were hypertensive, with blood pressures elevated by 27 millimeters of mercury. These results demonstrate that genetically reduced production of ANP can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension.

  5. B-type natriuretic peptide and heart failure: what can we learn from clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Binoun-A-Egom, Christian; Andreas, Angelo; Klimas, Jan; Valentova, Vanda; Kruzliak, Peter; Egom, Emmanuel E

    2015-05-13

    The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), may favor natriuresis and diuresis, making it an ideal drug that may aid in diuresing a fluid-overloaded patient who had poor or worsening renal function. Several randomized clinical trials have tested the hypothesis that infusions of pharmacological doses of BNP to acute heart failure (HF) patients may enhance decongestion and preserve renal function in this clinical setting. Unfortunately, none of these has resulted in a better outcome. The current challenge for BNP research in acute HF lies in a failure of concept and reluctance to abandon a demonstrably ineffectual research model. Future success will necessitate a detailed understanding of the mechanism of action of BNP as well as a better integration of basic and clinical science. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of cardiovascular nitric oxide system in C-type natriuretic peptide effects.

    PubMed

    Costa, María Angeles; Elesgaray, Rosana; Caniffi, Carolina; Fellet, Andrea; Arranz, Cristina

    2007-07-20

    The aims were to evaluate the role of cardiovascular nitric oxide (NO)-system in C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) actions and to investigate receptor types and signaling pathways involved in this interaction. Wistar rats were infused with saline or CNP. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and nitrites and nitrates (NOx) excretion were determined. NO synthase (NOS) activity and NOS expression (Western blot) were analyzed in atria, ventricle and aorta. CNP decreased MAP and increased NOx excretion. CNP estimulated NOS activity, inducing no changes on cardiac and vascular endothelial NOS expression. NOS activity induced by CNP was abolished by suramin and calmidazoliumand but it is not modified by anantin. CNP would interact with NPR-C receptor coupled via G proteins leading to the activation Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent endothelial NOS, increasing NO production which would induce the reduction in cardiac myocyte contractility and ANP synthesis and secretion in right atria and the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.

  7. Persistent sexual arousal in a woman with associated cardiac defects and raised atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Bell, C; Richardson, D; Goldmeier, D; Crowley, T; Kocsis, A; Hill, S

    2007-02-01

    The persistent sexual arousal syndrome (PSAS) is a newly described entity where the woman becomes involuntarily genitally aroused for extended periods of time in the absence of sexual desire and is distressed by this situation. The cause of this sexual problem is not well understood. We describe such a case where the subjective feelings were confirmed by observing genital engorgement. In her case, PSAS came on after initiation of fludrocortisone given for hypotension and bradycardia that was associated with an atrial septal defect (ASD). We argue that the combined effect of the ASD and fludrocortisone may be associated with an increase in her levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). ANP causes profound vasodilation and vascular leakage. We postulate that the high serum levels of ANP in her case may be contributory to her PSAS.

  8. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Bando, Sachiko; Soeki, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Tobiume, Takeshi; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Sata, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has also been shown to be upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac myocytes. Although we often measure plasma BNP levels in cancer patients, it remains unknown whether cancer-related inflammation affects the plasma BNP levels. We investigated the relationship between the BNP and human cancers. We retrospectively studied 2,923 patients in whom the plasma BNP levels and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and echocardiography was performed. Patients with clinically evident heart failure (NYHA II or higher), heart disease requiring medical treatment or surgery, renal dysfunction, and inflammatory disease were excluded. There were 234 patients in the final analysis. Blood sampling was performed before surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the inflammation and plasma BNP levels in mouse models of colon cancer. Of the 234 patients, 80 were diagnosed with cancer. Both the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than those without. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels in cancer patients (r = 0.360, P<0.01) but not in those without. In cancer patients, only the CRP correlated with the BNP independent of the age, creatinine level, hypertension, and body mass index. In addition, in nude mice with subcutaneous colon cancer, the plasma BNP level was elevated compared with that in non-cancer mice, and there was a significant relationship between the plasma BNP and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. In cancer patients, as well as colon cancer model mice, the plasma BNP levels were elevated, possibly due to cancer-related inflammation. The effect of cancer on the BNP

  9. Natriuretic peptide pharmacogenetics: membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME): common gene sequence variation, functional characterization and degradation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Naveen L; Aksoy, Pinar; Moon, Irene; Peng, Yi; Redfield, Margaret M; Burnett, John C; Wieben, Eric D; Yee, Vivien C; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME), also known as neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (EC 3.4.24.11), is involved in the metabolism of natriuretic peptides that play a key role in modulating cardiac structure and function. Common genetic variation in MME has not been addressed by resequencing the gene using DNA from different ethnic populations. We set out to identify and functionally characterize common genetic variation in MME in three ethnic groups. DNA samples from 96 European-American, 96 African-American, and 96 Han Chinese-American healthy subjects were used to resequence MME. Ninety polymorphisms, 65 novel, were identified, including 8 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs). Expression constructs for the nsSNPs were created and COS-1 cells were transfected with constructs for wild type (WT) and variant allozymes. Recombinant proteins were analyzed by quantitative Western blot analysis and by a one-step fluorometric assay. A significant reduction in enzyme activity (21% of WT) and immunoreactive protein (29% of WT) for the Val73 variant allozyme was observed. Proteasome-mediated degradation and autophagy participated in the degradation of this variant allozyme. The chaperone proteins, BiP and GRP94, were upregulated after transfection with Val73 MME, suggesting protein misfolding, compatible with conclusions based on the MME X-ray crystal structure. Multiple novel polymorphisms of MME were identified in three ethnic groups. The Val73 variant allozyme displayed a significant decrease in MME protein quantity and activity, with degradation mediated by both proteasome and autophagy pathways. This polymorphism could have a significant effect on the metabolism of natriuretic peptides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NT-brain natriuretic peptide levels in pleural fluid distinguish between pleural transudates and exudates.

    PubMed

    Tomcsányi, János; Nagy, Erzsébet; Somlói, Miklós; Moldvay, Judit; Bezzegh, Attila; Bózsik, Béla; Strausz, János

    2004-10-01

    Pleural effusion is not pathognomic and distinguishing between transudates and exudates often presents a diagnostic dilemma. The purpose of our study was to examine whether the inclusion of pleural fluid brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement into the analysis improves the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion. The pleural effusion of 14 patients with CHF (group A) and 14 subjects with different pleural pathology (group B) were analyzed. Samples of pleural fluid and serum were obtained from all patients on admission and biochemical analysis, bacterial and fungal culture, acid-fast bacilli smear and culture and cytology were performed on the pleural fluid. In vitro quantitative determination of N-terminal pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in serum and pleural fluid were performed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay proBNP method on an Elecsys 2010 (Roche) analyzer. The median NT-proBNP levels in groups A and B were 6295 pg/ml and 276 pg/ml, respectively: (P=0.0001). There was no overlap between the two groups. While the Light's criteria had a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 43% for transudates, the pleural fluid NT-proBNP level accurately differentiated between the two groups. The pleural NT-proBNP levels were elevated in all patients who had transudate. Therefore if the NT-proBNP levels of pleural effusion are within the normal range, transudate resulting from congestive heart failure can be ruled out. Our results suggest that the inclusion of pleural fluid NT-proBNP measurement in the routine diagnostic panel would enhance discrimination among the different causes of pleural effusions.

  11. Evidence for functional heterogeneity of circulating B-type natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Liang, Faquan; O'Rear, Jessica; Schellenberger, Ute; Tai, Lungkuo; Lasecki, Michael; Schreiner, George F; Apple, Fred S; Maisel, Alan S; Pollitt, N Stephen; Protter, Andrew A

    2007-03-13

    These studies describe molecular forms of circulating B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as well as their biological activity. Increased circulating levels of immunoreactive BNP correlate with the severity of heart failure and are considered a sensitive biomarker. However, little is known about the molecular forms of circulating BNP and their biological activity. Western blot analysis was used to characterize immunoreactive BNP species in heart failure plasma. Recombinant proBNP was assessed for reactivity in commercially available BNP assays and cell activity by cyclic guanosine monophosphate production in vascular cells. Heart failure plasma contained both low- (LMW-BNP) and high-molecular-weight (HMW-BNP) forms. The LMW-BNP migrated similarly to a 32-amino acid BNP standard, whereas HMW-BNP, when deglycosylated, was similar to deglycosylated recombinant proBNP. Recombinant proBNP and BNP were equally recognized by the Triage BNP assay (Biosite, San Diego, California). Furthermore, recombinant proBNP and BNP were both recognized by the Advia Centaur BNP test (Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, New York), but only recombinant proBNP was recognized by the Elecsys NTproBNP assay (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, Indiana). Recombinant proBNP exerted significantly less biological activity than BNP on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Comparison of effective concentration (50%) values indicates that proBNP is 6- to 8-fold less potent than BNP in these human cells. This study demonstrates that proBNP, constituting a substantial portion of immunoreactive BNP in heart failure plasma, possesses significantly lower biological activity than the processed 32-amino acid hormone. These results implicate a discordance in heart failure between the high circulating levels of immunoreactive BNP and hormone activity, suggesting that some patients may be in a state of natriuretic peptide deficiency.

  12. C-type natriuretic peptide effects on cardiovascular nitric oxide system in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Caniffi, Carolina; Elesgaray, Rosana; Gironacci, Mariela; Arranz, Cristina; Costa, María Angeles

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to study the effects of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the cardiovascular nitric oxide (NO) system in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and to investigate the signaling pathways involved in this interaction. SHR and WKY rats were infused with saline or CNP. MAP and nitrites and nitrates excretion (NO(x)) were determined. Catalytic NO synthase (NOS) activity and endothelial (eNOS), neuronal (nNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) were measured in the heart and aorta artery. NOS activity induced by CNP was determined in presence of: iNOS or nNOS inhibitors, NPR-A/B natriuretic peptide receptors blocker and Gi protein and calmodulin inhibitors. CNP diminished MAP and increased NO(x) in both groups. Cardiovascular NOS activity was higher in SHR than in WKY. CNP increased NOS activity, but this activation was lower in SHR. CNP had no effect on NOS isoforms expression. iNOS and nNOS inhibitors did not modify CNP-induced NOS activity. NPR-A/B blockade induced no changes in NOS stimulation via CNP in both tissues. Cardiovascular NOS response to CNP was reduced by Gi protein and calmodulin inhibitors in both groups. CNP interacts with NPR-C receptors, activating Ca-calmodulin eNOS via Gi protein. NOS response to CNP is impaired in the heart and aorta of SHR. Alterations in the interaction between CNP and NO would be involved in the maintenance of high blood pressure in this model of hypertension. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxytocin releases atrial natriuretic peptide by combining with oxytocin receptors in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowska, Jolanta; Jankowski, Marek; Lambert, Chantal; Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla; Zingg, Hans H.; McCann, Samuel M.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the central nervous system induces release of the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) by release of oxytocin from the neurohypophysis. The presence of specific transcripts for the oxytocin receptor was demonstrated in all chambers of the heart by amplification of cDNA by the PCR using specific oligonucleotide primers. Oxytocin receptor mRNA content in the heart is 10 times lower than in the uterus of female rats. Oxytocin receptor transcripts were demonstrated by in situ hybridization in atrial and ventricular sections and confirmed by competitive binding assay using frozen heart sections. Perfusion of female rat hearts for 25 min with Krebs–Henseleit buffer resulted in nearly constant release of ANP. Addition of oxytocin (10−6 M) significantly stimulated ANP release, and an oxytocin receptor antagonist (10−7 and 10−6 M) caused dose-related inhibition of oxytocin-induced ANP release and in the last few minutes of perfusion decreased ANP release below that in control hearts, suggesting that intracardiac oxytocin stimulates ANP release. In contrast, brain natriuretic peptide release was unaltered by oxytocin. During perfusion, heart rate decreased gradually and it was further decreased significantly by oxytocin (10−6 M). This decrease was totally reversed by the oxytocin antagonist (10−6 M) indicating that oxytocin released ANP that directly slowed the heart, probably by release of cyclic GMP. The results indicate that oxytocin receptors mediate the action of oxytocin to release ANP, which slows the heart and reduces its force of contraction to produce a rapid reduction in circulating blood volume. PMID:9326674

  14. Continuous intra- and postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia attenuates brain natriuretic peptide release after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Suttner, Stefan; Lang, Katrin; Piper, Swen N; Schultz, Harald; Röhm, Kerstin D; Boldt, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    We investigated whether blocking afferent nociceptive inputs by continuous intra- and postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) would decrease plasma concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients who were at risk for, or had, coronary artery disease. Twenty-eight patients undergoing major abdominal surgery received either general anesthesia supplemented with a continuous thoracic epidural infusion of 1.25 mg/mL bupivacaine and 1 microg/mL sufentanil (n = 14; TEA) or general anesthesia followed by IV patient-controlled analgesia (n = 14; IV PCA). Visual analog scale pain scores, hemodynamics, plasma catecholamines, cardiac troponin T, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and BNP were serially measured preoperatively, 90 min after skin incision, at arrival in the intensive care unit, and in the morning of the first, second, and third postoperative day. Dynamic visual analog scale scores were significantly less in the TEA group. TEA reduced the postoperative heart rate without affecting other hemodynamic variables. Plasma epinephrine increased perioperatively in both groups but was significantly lower in the TEA group. Baseline ANP and BNP concentrations were similar between groups (TEA 3.4 +/- 1.8 and 27.0 +/- 12.3 pg/mL; IV PCA 3.1 +/- 2.0 and 25.9 +/- 13.0 pg/mL, respectively). ANP and BNP increased perioperatively in both groups, with significantly lower postoperative BNP levels in TEA patients (TEA 92.1 +/- 31.9 pg/mL; IV PCA 161.2 +/- 44.7 pg/mL). No such difference was observed in plasma ANP concentrations. Plasma cardiac troponin T concentrations were within normal limits in both groups at all times. We conclude that continuous perioperative TEA using local anesthetics and opioids attenuated the release of BNP in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery who were at risk for, or had, coronary artery disease.

  15. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate/B-type natriuretic peptide ratio and mortality in advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Patrícia; Araújo, José Paulo; Azevedo, Ana; Ferreira, António; Bettencourt, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Aims Attenuation of the effects of natriuretic peptides has been demonstrated in animal models but studies in humans are scarce, particularly concerning renal attenuation. We investigated the attenuation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in chronic advanced heart failure (HF). Methods and results We included 62 outpatients with HF and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Cases had at least one hospital admission or emergency department visit for acute HF in the previous year and were in NYHA class III/IV despite optimized therapy. The individual age- and sex-matched controls were symptomatically controlled (NYHA I and II). We collected 24 h urine and a blood sample from all patients. Plasma BNP and plasma (pcGMP) and urine cyclic guanosine monophosphate (ucGMP) were measured. Patients were followed for 3 months for hospital admission or all-cause death. ucGMP to plasma BNP (ucGMP/BNP) ratio was attenuated in cases vs. controls [median (IQR): 8354 (4293–16 456) vs. 12 693 (6896–22 851)]. There were no differences in pcGMP to BNP (pcGMP/BNP) ratio or urine cGMP excretion. Patients with worse outcome had lower pcGMP/BNP [260 (86–344) vs. 381 (244–728) in patients without adverse outcome events] and lower ucGMP/BNP [4146 (2207–9363) vs. 10 922 (7495–19 971)]. Conclusion Renal NP’s second messenger production is attenuated in advanced HF. Patients with worse outcome have lower ucGMP/BNP and pcGMP/BNP ratios. PMID:19168517

  16. Sex Differences of the Natriuretic Peptide Polymorphism Associated With Angiographic Coronary Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Terry Y.; Tse, M. Yat; Pang, Stephen C.; McLellan, Catherine S.; King, Will D.; Johri, Amer M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms within natriuretic peptide (NP) genes have been associated with clinical outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but no previous study has compared the effect of these polymorphisms between men and women. This study aimed to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key genes of the NP system and coronary angiographic outcomes, with the focus on the sexual dimorphism in the effects of these SNPs. Methods Patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography (n = 513, 328 men and 185 women) were consented and genotyped for NPPA rs5065, NPPB rs198389 and NPR2 rs10758325. Patients were stratified into having normal coronaries, non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or obstructive CAD, based on the highest stenosis in any epicardial artery. Average luminal narrowing across all four arteries was derived to represent the overall atherosclerotic burden. Results The frequency of NPPB rs198389 AA genotype was significantly higher in women with obstructive CAD (P = 0.014). The same association was not observed in males. With respect to atherosclerotic burden, an association was found between the AA genotype and average luminal narrowing in women (P = 0.005), but not in men. Conclusions The current study identified an association between an SNP of the NPPB gene and coronary atherosclerotic burden through angiographic evidence in women but not in men. These results suggest that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) may have more important involvement in the development of CAD in women compared to men, and as such, genotyping of the NPPB gene may serve as a potential biomarker to identify women with high risk for CAD. PMID:28275418

  17. Physiological levels of A-, B- and C-type natriuretic peptide shed the endothelial glycocalyx and enhance vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Matthias; Saller, Thomas; Chappell, Daniel; Rehm, Markus; Welsch, Ulrich; Becker, Bernhard F

    2013-05-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a peptide hormone released from the cardiac atria during hypervolemia. Though named for its well-known renal effect, ANP has been demonstrated to acutely increase vascular permeability in vivo. Experimentally, this phenomenon was associated with a marked shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx, at least for supraphysiological intravascular concentrations. This study investigates the impact and mechanism of action of physiological doses of ANP and related peptides on the vascular barrier. In isolated guinea pig hearts, prepared and perfused in a modified Langendorff mode with and without the intravascular presence of the colloid hydroxyethyl starch (HES), we measured functional changes in vascular permeability and glycocalyx shedding related to intracoronary infusion of physiological concentrations of A-, B- and C-type natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP and CNP). Significant coronary venous washout of glycocalyx constituents (syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate) was observed. As tested for ANP, this effect was positively related to the intracoronary concentration. Intravascular shedding of the glycocalyx was morphologically confirmed by electron microscopy. Also, functional vascular barrier competence decreased, as indicated by significant increases in transudate formation and HES extravasation. Ortho-phenanthroline, a non-specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases, was able to reduce ANP-induced glycocalyx shedding. These findings suggest participation of natriuretic peptides in pathophysiological processes like heart failure, inflammation or sepsis. Inhibition of metalloproteases might serve as a basis for future therapeutical options.

  18. Natriuretic peptides in cetaceans: identification, molecular characterization and changes in plasma concentration after landing.

    PubMed

    Naka, Tadaomi; Katsumata, Etsuko; Sasaki, Kazuki; Minamino, Naoto; Yoshioka, Motoi; Takei, Yoshio

    2007-06-01

    Dolphins are aquatic animals free from gravity, and this may have imposed significant changes in their cardiovascular status and its hormonal regulation compared with terrestrial animals. This study molecularly characterized two major cardiovascular hormones, atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) and measured their changes in dolphin plasma concentrations in relation to the cardiovascular status of the animal. We initially identified ANP and BNP in three species of dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Phocoenoides dalli and Tursiops truncatus). ANP precursors are highly conserved in most mammals, but dolphin BNP precursors were more variable. In molecular phylogenetic analyses, dolphin ANP and BNP precursors grouped with those of artiodactyls, particularly to the camel peptides. The chromatographic characterization of tissue and plasma molecular forms using specific radioimmunoassays showed that the predominant ANP and BNP in the atrium are prohormone and mature peptide, respectively, whereas mature ANP and BNP are circulating in the dolphin blood. A mass spectrometric analysis showed that atrial BNP consists of 26 amino acids, rather than the 32-amino-acid form detected in other mammals. Finally, changes in plasma ANP and BNP concentrations were examined in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) after their pool was drained. Plasma ANP and BNP concentrations did not change after landing, unlike terrestrial mammals. Plasma angiotensin II and cortisol concentrations did not change either, showing minor stress after landing. Since landed dolphins show a different cardiovascular status on land than terrestrial mammals, plasma ANP and BNP concentrations seem to reflect the cardiovascular status characteristic of dolphins.

  19. Influence of storage conditions on in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide and of anesthesia on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration in cats.

    PubMed

    Heishima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma samples under various storage conditions and the influence of anesthesia on plasma ANP concentration in cats. ANIMALS 1 cat with congestive heart failure and 5 healthy adult mixed-breed cats. PROCEDURES A plasma sample from the cat with heart failure was serially diluted, and dilutional parallelism of ANP concentration was evaluated. Plasma samples containing aprotinin or serum samples from the 5 healthy cats were kept at room temperature (27°C) for ≤ 12 hours. Plasma samples from the same healthy cats were stored at -70°, -20°, or 4°C for ≤ 14 days. Plasma samples were obtained from the healthy cats before and during isoflurane anesthesia. Plasma ANP concentrations were measured at a commercial laboratory by use of a human ANP chemiluminescence assay. RESULTS Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively, and dilutional parallelism was established. Although ANP concentration decreased by 82.4 ± 13.6% (mean ± SD) after sample storage for 12 hours at room temperature, this decrease was prevented by aprotinin. Plasma ANP concentrations were stable for 7 days at -20°C and for 14 days at -70°C. However, concentrations decreased markedly to 57.6 ± 6.9% at -20°C and to 18.0 ± 3.0% at 4°C after 14 days. Plasma ANP concentration decreased significantly in cats during anesthesia and was correlated with blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that aprotinin should be added routinely in preparation of plasma samples from cats for measurement of ANP concentration, and those samples, if stored, should be frozen immediately at ≤ -20°C. General anesthesia or systemic blood pressure may affect plasma ANP concentration in cats.

  20. Effect of Sialylated O-Glycans in Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Stability

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingjing; Pristera, Nicole; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiumei; Wu, Qingyu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrial-, brain- and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP) are important in regulating a variety of cardiovascular and cellular functions. In cells, these peptides are made as pro-forms that are converted to mature forms. BNP and its related peptides are biomarkers for the diagnosis of heart failure. In this study, we examined glycosylation in pro-ANP, pro-BNP and pro-CNP, which may alter their biochemical and metabolic properties. METHODS Human pro-ANP, pro-BNP, and pro-CNP were expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes, and analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Deglycosylation enzymes were used to determine the carbohydrate content on these peptides. The effects of inhibiting O-glycosylation on cellular expression and stability of the peptides also were examined. RESULTS In HEK 293 and HL-1 cells, pro-BNP, but not pro-ANP and pro-CNP, from the culture medium had a greater molecular mass than that from cell lysate. Digestion with PNGase F, O-glycosidase and sialidase A indicated that pro-BNP contained O-glycans but not N-glycans. The O-glycans on pro-BNP had sialic acids at their termini, protecting it from O-glycosidase digestion. In contrast, pro-ANP and pro-CNP contained no detectable amounts of N- or O-glycans. Inhibition of O-glycosylation on pro-BNP did not prevent its expression in the cells. However, partially O-glycosylated pro-BNP was much less stable than fully O-glycosylated pro-BNP. CONCLUSIONS O-glycosylation is not necessary for pro-BNP expression but important for its stability. PMID:20348402

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide and vasopressin-presence in the ciliary body of eye in the pig (sus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Valentino, B; Valentino, A; Lipari, L; Lipari, A; Farina, E

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous humor is produced in the ciliary body, therefore in this study we investigated the Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and vasopressin (VP)-presence in the ciliary body of the pig eye since these peptide are involved in the homeostasis of body fluids. The results show ANP-presence in the epithelial cells and in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels and VP-presence in the epithelial cells, in the endothelium of canal of Schelmm and in the muscle cells of the blood vessels. These peptides might regulate the synthesis and the composition of the aqueous humor and regulate the hydrodynamic flow and haemodynamic flow of the blood.

  2. Cardiac natriuretic peptides are related to left ventricular mass and function and predict mortality in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, C; Mallamaci, F; Benedetto, F A; Tripepi, G; Parlongo, S; Cataliotti, A; Cutrupi, S; Giacone, G; Bellanuova, I; Cottini, E; Malatino, L S

    2001-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship among brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and left ventricular mass (LVM), ejection fraction, and LV geometry in a large cohort of dialysis patients without heart failure (n = 246) and to test the prediction power of these peptides for total and cardiovascular mortality. In separate multivariate models of LVM, BNP and ANP were the strongest independent correlates of the LVM index. In these models, the predictive power of BNP was slightly stronger than that of ANP. Both natriuretic peptides also were the strongest independent predictors of ejection fraction, and again BNP was a slightly better predictor of ejection fraction than ANP. In separate multivariate Cox models, the relative risk of death was significantly higher in patients of the third tertile of the distribution of BNP and ANP than in those of the first tertile (BNP, 7.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.83 to 18.01, P = 0.00001]; ANP, 4.22 [95% CI, 1.79 to 9.92, P = 0.001]), and a similar difference was found for cardiovascular death (BNP, 6.72 [95% CI, 2.44 to 18.54, P = 0.0002]; ANP, 3.80 [95% CI, 1.44 to 10.03, P = 0.007]). BNP but not ANP remained as an independent predictor of death in a Cox's model including LVM and ejection fraction. Cardiac natriuretic peptides are linked independently to LVM and function in dialysis patients and predict overall and cardiovascular mortality. The measurement of the plasma concentration of BNP and ANP may be useful for risk stratification in these patients.

  3. Differential changes in atrial natriuretic peptide and vasopressin receptor bindings in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, T.; Mitsui, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Katayama, E.; Ota, Z.; Ogawa, N.

    1987-01-19

    To elucidate the role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and vasopressin (VP) in a hypertensive state, ANP and VP receptor bindings in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) kidney were analyzed using the radiolabeled receptor assay (RRA) technique. Systolic blood pressure of SHR aged 12 weeks was statistically higher than that of age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of (/sup 125/I)-ANP binding to the SHR kidney membrane preparations was statistically lower than that of WKY rats, but dissociation constant (Kd) was not significantly different. On the other hand, Bmax of (/sup 3/H)-VP binding to the SHR kidney membrane preparations was statistically higher than that of WKY rats, but Kd were similar. Since the physiological action of ANP is natriuresis and VP is the most important antidiuretic hormone in mammalia, these opposite changes of ANP and VP receptor bindings in SHR kidney suggested that these peptides may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the hypertensive state, although it has not been confirmed as yet.

  4. Prognostic role of troponin and natriuretic peptides as biomarkers for deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction after chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzisława; Safranow, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity due to anthracyclines, trastuzumab and other potential cardiotoxic drugs is still a problem of modern chemotherapy. For years researchers have tried to find biological markers that can predict changes in the heart. The most thoroughly tested markers are troponin and natriuretic peptides. Some studies have proven that these markers can indeed be useful. In studies which have shown the predictive role of troponin I the assessment of this marker was performed very frequently. It is not possible to carry out such serial measurements in many centers because of typical 1-day hospital stay times. The predictive role of natriuretic peptides still needs further investigation. This review considers the newest research from recent years. PMID:25395954

  5. Plasmatic levels of N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in preeclamptic patients and healthy normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia; Mayner-Tresol, Gabriel; Herrera-Moya, Pedro; Fernández-Ramírez, Andreina; Rondón-Tapía, Marta

    2017-08-31

    To compare plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in preeclamptic patients and healthy normotensive pregnant women. A cases-controls study was done with 180 patients at Hospital Central Dr. Urquinaona, Maracaibo, Venezuela, that included 90 preeclamptic patients (group A; cases) and 90 healthy normotensive pregnant women selected with the same age and body mass index similar to group A (group B; controls). Blood samples were collected one hour after admission and prior to administration of any medication in group A to determine plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and other laboratory parameters. Plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in group A (mean 1.01 [0.26] pg/mL) showed a significant difference when compared with patients in group B (mean 0.55 [0.07] pg/mL; P<.001]. There was no significant correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in preeclamptic patients (P=ns). A cut-off value of 0.66ng/mL had an area under the curve of 0.93, sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 83.3%, a positive predictive value of 84.0% and a negative predictive value of 87.2%, with a diagnostic accuracy of 85.6%. Preeclamptic patients have significantly higher concentrations of plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide compared with healthy normotensive pregnant women, with high predictive values for diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [The interaction of atrial natriuretic peptide with other bioregulators of kidney function in chronic glomerulonephritis in children].

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, A G; Markov, Kh M; Zokirov, N Z; Naumova, V I

    1994-01-01

    A study was made of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity and plasmic concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (NUP) as well as antidiuretic hormone in children with primary glomerulonephritis. A close relationship was established of these parameters in regulation of water-salt homeostasis. The above systems are involved in pathogenesis of childhood glomerulonephritis. This finding should be considered in development of pathogenetically validated therapy of glomerulonephritis, including introduction of synthetic NUP.

  7. Bioimpedance analysis and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide assay may cooperate in diagnosing and managing heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tamagno, Gianluca; Guzzon, Samuele

    2006-06-01

    We describe the case of an obese patient presenting leg oedema, progressive oliguria, orthopnoea and mild increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) provided additional data for the interpretation of the plasma BNP values, contributing to the diagnosis of heart failure and the appropriate management of the patient. In our mind, BIA could represent a useful tool for integrating the plasma BNP assay in both diagnosis and management of heart failure.

  8. Water deprivation enhances the inhibitory effect of natriuretic peptides on cAMP synthesis in rat renal glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Geoffrey E; Li, Xiaohong; Rosado, Juan A

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of water deprivation on the expression of atrial natiruretic peptide (ANP)(1-28) binding sites in rat kidney. Water deprivation increased the B(max) of glomerular binding sites for ANP(1-28) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)(1-22) without modifying their affinity, an effect that was prevented in the presence of C-atrial natriuretic factor (C-ANF), suggesting that natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) binding sites might be enhanced. Our results indicate that ANP(1-28), CNP(1-22), and C-ANF inhibit cAMP synthesis directly stimulated by forskolin or by the physiological agonists histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. The inhibitory effect was found to be significantly greater in water-deprived rats than in controls. Our observations suggest that this effect must be attributed to the 67-kDa NPR-C-like protein, because the 67- and 77-kDa NPR-C-like proteins show high and low affinities for CNP(1-22), respectively, and the enhanced inhibitory effect of CNP on cAMP generation in water-deprived rats was detected at subnanomolar concentrations. In addition, using affinity cross-linking studies we have observed that water deprivation increases the expression of the 67-kDa NPR-C-like protein, and HS-142, which binds to NPR-A and the 77-kDa NPR-C-like but not the 67-kDa protein, reduced ligand internalization without affecting cAMP inhibition by ANP(1-28). Finally, we have found that ligand binding to the 67-kDa NPR-C-like protein is reduced by GTPgammaS, suggesting that this receptor is associated with a G protein in renal glomeruli. The enhanced inhibitory role of natriuretic peptides on cAMP synthesis induced by water deprivation may influence glomerular function in the rat kidney.

  9. Natriuretic peptide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase expression is down-regulated in human melanoma cells at simulated weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Krassimira; Eiermann, Peter; Tsiockas, Wasiliki; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Gerzer, Rupert

    2011-04-01

    The membrane-bound guanylyl cyclases A and B (GC-A/B), which are receptors for natriuretic peptides, are expressed in cancer cells including melanomas and may represent new anticancer targets. Here, we report down-regulation of GC-A/B expression in human metastatic melanoma cells at simulated weightlessness in comparison to 1 g conditions, suggesting attenuation of metastatic potential in weightlessness.

  10. B-type natriuretic peptide and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Wagner, Brandie D; Ivy, David Dunbar

    2011-01-01

    Objectives B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the amino-terminal fragment (NTproBNP) correlate with clinical variables, but have not been simultaneously studied in a large number of pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The purpose of our investigation was to compare BNP and NTproBNP with clinical indicators of disease in a pediatric PAH population for which biomarkers are much needed. Design We retrospectively compared BNP and NTproBNP levels with exercise capacity, echocardiographic data, and hemodynamics in PAH patients under 21 years-old. Two hundred sixty three blood samples from 88 pediatric PAH patients were obtained, with BNP and NTproBNP drawn at the same time. Results There was a correlation between BNP and NTproBNP with mean pulmonary arterial pressure/mean arterial pressure (mPAP/mSAP) ratio (r=0.40 p<0.01, r=0.45 p<0.01, respectively), mean right atrial pressure (mRAP) (r=0.48 p<0.01, r=0.48 p<0.01), and tricuspid regurgitant (TR) velocity (r=0.36 p<0.01, r=0.41 p<0.01). BNP and NTproBNP are associated with 6 minute walking distance, mPAP, mPAP/mSAP ratio, mRAP, pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), and TR velocity when investigated longitudinally. On the average, a 1 unit increase in log BNP or NTproBNP was associated with 4.5 unitsxm2 or 3.4 unitsxm2 increase in PVRI, respectively. There was a strong correlation between log BNP and log NTproBNP measurements (r= 0.87, p<0.01). Conclusion In pediatric PAH, BNP and NTProBNP are strongly correlated and predict changes in clinical variables and hemodynamics. In a cross-sectional analysis, NTproBNP correlated with echocardiographic and exercise data better than BNP; NTproBNP showed less within patient variability over time, therefore NTproBNP can add additional information towards predicting these clinical measurements. PMID:22325151

  11. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), not ANP, is the principal cardiac natriuretic peptide in vertebrates as revealed by comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshio; Inoue, Koji; Trajanovska, Sofie; Donald, John A

    2011-05-01

    The natriuretic peptide (NP) family consists of at least seven members; cardiac ANP, BNP and VNP and brain CNPs (CNP1-4). Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses showed that CNP4 is the ancestral molecule of the family, from which CNP3 and CNP1/2 were duplicated in this order, and that the three cardiac NPs were generated from CNP3 by tandem duplication. Seven members existed at the divergence of ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes (tetrapods), but some of the NP genes have disappeared during the course of evolution. In ray-finned fishes, all three cardiac NPs exist in chondrostei and some migratory teleost species, but VNP is generally absent and ANP is absent in a group of teleosts (Beloniformes). In tetrapods, ANP and BNP are present in mammals and amphibians, but ANP is usually absent in reptiles and birds. Thus, BNP is a ubiquitous cardiac NP in bony fishes and tetrapods though elasmobranchs and cyclostomes have only CNP3/4 as a cardiac NP. Functional studies indicate that cardiac NPs are essential Na(+)-extruding hormones throughout vertebrates; they play critical roles in seawater (SW) adaptation in teleosts, while they are important volume-depleting hormones in mammals as water and Na(+) are regulated in parallel in terrestrial animals. In mammals, cardiac NPs become prominent in pathological conditions such as heart failure where they are used in diagnosis and treatment. Although the functional role of BNP has not yet been fully elucidated compared with ANP in non-mammalian vertebrates, it appears that BNP plays pivotal roles in the cardiovascular and body fluid regulation as shown in mammals. ANP has previously been recognized as the principal cardiac NP in mammals and teleosts, but comparative studies have revealed that BNP is the only cardiac NP that exists in all tetrapods and teleosts. This is an excellent example showing that comparative studies have created new insights into the molecular and functional evolution of a hormone family.

  12. Brain Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Lipid Metabolism through Its Receptor NPR1 and the Glycerolipid Metabolism Pathway in Chicken Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, H Y; Zhao, G P; Liu, R R; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Li, S F; Liang, Z; Zhao, Z H; Wen, J

    2015-11-03

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is related to lipid metabolism in mammals, but its effect and the molecular mechanisms underlying it in chickens are incompletely understood. We found that the level of natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB, which encodes BNP) mRNA expression in high-abdominal-fat chicken groups was significantly higher than that of low-abdominal-fat groups. Partial correlations indicated that changes in the weight of abdominal fat were positively correlated with NPPB mRNA expression level. In vitro, compared with the control group, preadipocytes with NPPB interference showed reduced levels of proliferation, differentiation, and glycerin in media. Treatments of cells with BNP led to enhanced proliferation and differentiation of cells and glycerin concentration, and mRNA expression of its receptor natriuretic peptide receptor 1 (NPR1) was upregulated significantly. In cells exposed to BNP, 482 differentially expressed genes were identified compared with controls without BNP. Four genes known to be related to lipid metabolism (diacylglycerol kinase; lipase, endothelial; 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1; and 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2) were enriched in the glycerolipid metabolism pathway and expressed differentially. In conclusion, BNP stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and lipolysis of preadipocytes through upregulation of the levels of expression of its receptor NPR1 and key genes enriched in the glycerolipid metabolic pathway.

  13. [Usefulness of natriuretic peptide testing and Doppler echocardiography at bedside in the diagnosis of acute heart failure].

    PubMed

    Arques, S; Roux, E

    2016-11-01

    Acute heart failure is a common condition that leads to hospital admission, with important mortality and readmission rates. A prompt and accurate diagnosis of this condition by hospitalists is essential for an early and tailored medical management. The use of natriuretic peptide testing (BNP and NT-proBNP) through a two cut-point strategy is currently recommended as the first-line diagnostic complement to the initial clinical evaluation in the acute care setting. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is an other noninvasive method that can be used at bedside, especially in patients with intermediate, inconclusive natriuretic peptides levels. In this regard, left ventricular ejection fraction and several simple Doppler indexes (restrictive mitral filling pattern, spectral tissue Doppler E/e' ratio), have been validated in the emergency diagnosis of acute heart failure. The aim of the present review is to overview the respective contribution of natriuretic peptides and Doppler echocardiography at bedside to the diagnosis of acute heart failure in the acute care setting.

  14. A novel chimeric natriuretic peptide reduces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the NHE-1-calcineurin pathway.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ana; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Sandberg, Sharon M; Zeidan, Asad; Hunter, J Craig; Said Faruq, Nazo; Lee, Candace Y; Burnett, John C; Karmazyn, Morris

    2010-12-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through a cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent process, although these effects are associated with substantial vasodilatation. In this study, we used CU-NP, a non-vasodilatating novel NP synthesized from the ring structure of human C-type NP (CNP) and both C- and N-termini of urodilatin, and investigated whether it can directly modulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Experiments were carried out in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes exposed to phenylephrine, angiotensin II, or endothelin-1 in the absence or presence of CU-NP. CU-NP produced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in intracellular cGMP levels. The hypertrophic responses to all agonists were abrogated by 10 nM CU-NP. CU-NP treatment also prevented increased activity, gene and protein expression of sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE-1) as well as elevations in intracellular Na(+) concentrations caused by hypertrophic agents. In addition, these effects were associated with a more than two-fold increase in activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin that peaked 6 h after addition of hypertrophic stimuli. Early (1-3 h) calcineurin activation was unaffected by CU-NP, although activation at 6 and 24 h was prevented by CU-NP as was the resultant translocation of the transcriptional factor NFAT into nuclei. Our study demonstrates a direct anti-hypertrophic effect of the chimeric peptide CU-NP via NHE-1 inhibition, thereby preventing calcineurin activation and NFAT nuclear import. Thus, CU-NP represents a novel fusion peptide of CNP and urodilatin that has the potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent to treat cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

  15. Characteristics of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide and its receptor in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Soo Mi; Noh, Hye Jung; Cho, Chong Gu; Kim, Sung Zoo

    2015-08-01

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) shares a functionally important sequence homology with other natriuretic peptides. However, the characteristics of DNP and its receptor in the context of diabetes remafin to be fully elucidated. In the present study, alterations in the plasma levels and tissue contents of DNP and the properties of its receptor in diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection, were investigated. The plasma levels of DNP were 90.01 ± 4.12 and 196.68 ± 5.60 pg/ml in the control and STZ-induced diabetic rats, respectively. The tissue contents of DNP in the cardiac atrium, ventricle, renal cortex and inner medulla of the STZ-induced diabetic rats were also significantly increased compared with the control rats. Specific (125)I-DNP-binding sites were located predominantly in the glomeruli and inner medulla of the rat kidney. In the glomeruli of the kidney, the apparent dissociation constants (Kd) of (125)I-DNP in the control and STZ-induced diabetic rats were 0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.56 ± 0.06 nM, respectively. The maximum binding capacities (Bmax) of (125)I-DNP in control and STZ-induced diabetic rats were 2.98 ± 0.21 and 6.22 ± 1.06 fmol/mg protein, respectively. However, no differences were observed in the apparent Kd and Bmax of (125)I-DNP in the inner medulla of the kidney between the control and STZ-induced diabetic rats. In the glomerular and inner medullary kidney membranes, DNP stimulated the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in a dose-dependent manner. The magnitude of cGMP production in glomerular membranes was greater in the STZ-induced diabetic rats, whereas the magnitude of cGMP production in the inner medullary membranes was lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats compared with the control rats. These results indicated that STZ-induced diabetes modulate DNP and its receptor, and also suggested that modulation of the DNP system is involved in the renal function of diabetic animals via the intracellular domain

  16. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Sandra C.; Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper; Dole, William P.

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). {yields} ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. {yields} ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. {yields} Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNF{alpha}) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and

  17. B-type natriuretic peptide-guided heart failure therapy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Porapakkham, Pramote; Porapakkham, Pornwalee; Zimmet, Hendrik; Billah, Baki; Krum, Henry

    2010-03-22

    The use of plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) to guide treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (HF) has been investigated in a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the benefits of this treatment approach have been uncertain. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to examine the overall effect of BNP-guided drug therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic HF. We identified RCTs by systematic search of manuscripts, abstracts, and databases. Eligible RCTs were those that enrolled more than 20 patients and involved comparison of BNP-guided drug therapy vs usual clinical care of the patient with chronic HF in an outpatient setting. Eight RCTs with a total of 1726 patients and with a mean duration of 16 months (range, 3-24 months) were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, there was a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.91; P = .003) in the BNP-guided therapy group compared with the control group. In the subgroup of patients younger than 75 years, all-cause mortality was also significantly lower in the BNP-guided group (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.82; P = .005). However, there was no reduction in mortality with BNP-guided therapy in patients 75 years or older (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.71-1.25; P = .70). The risk of all-cause hospitalization and survival free of any hospitalization was not significantly different between groups (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.05; P = .12 and RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85-1.34; P = .58, respectively). The additional percentage of patients achieving target doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers during the course of these trials averaged 21% and 22% in the BNP group and 11.7% and 12.5% in the control group, respectively. B-type natriuretic peptide-guided therapy reduces all-cause mortality in patients with chronic HF compared with usual clinical care, especially in patients younger than 75 years

  18. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in brain microvessel endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Huls, M. H.; Sams, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding and ANP-induced increases in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels have been observed in brain microvessels (Chabrier et al., 1987; Steardo and Nathanson, 1987), suggesting that this fluid-regulating hormone may play a role in the fluid homeostasis of the brain. This study was initiated to characterize the ANP receptors in primary cultures of brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs). The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd, for ANP increased from 0.25 nM to 2.5 nM, and the number of ANP binding sites as determined by Scatchard analysis increased from 7,100 to 170,000 sites/cell between 2 and 10 days of culture following monolayer formation. Time- and concentration-dependent studies on the stimulation of cGMP levels by ANP indicated that guanylate cyclase-linked ANP receptors were present in BMECs. The relative abilities of ANP, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and a truncated analog of ANP containing amino acids 5-27 (ANP 5-27) to modulate the accumulation of cGMP was found to be ANP greater than BNP much greater than ANP 5-27. Affinity cross-linking with disuccinimidyl suberate and radiolabeled ANP followed by gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions demonstrated a single band corresponding to the 60-70 kD receptor, indicating the presence of the nonguanylate cyclase-linked ANP receptor. Radiolabeled ANP binding was examined in the presence of various concentrations of either ANP, BNP, or ANP 5-27 and suggested that a large proportion of the ANP receptors present in blood-brain barrier endothelial cells bind all of these ligands similarly. These data indicate both guanylate cyclase linked and nonguanylate cyclase linked receptors are present on BMECs and that a higher proportion of the nonguanylate cyclase linked receptors is expressed. This in vitro culture system may provide a valuable tool for the examination of ANP receptor expression and function in blood-brain barrier endothelial cells.

  19. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in brain microvessel endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Huls, M. H.; Sams, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding and ANP-induced increases in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels have been observed in brain microvessels (Chabrier et al., 1987; Steardo and Nathanson, 1987), suggesting that this fluid-regulating hormone may play a role in the fluid homeostasis of the brain. This study was initiated to characterize the ANP receptors in primary cultures of brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs). The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd, for ANP increased from 0.25 nM to 2.5 nM, and the number of ANP binding sites as determined by Scatchard analysis increased from 7,100 to 170,000 sites/cell between 2 and 10 days of culture following monolayer formation. Time- and concentration-dependent studies on the stimulation of cGMP levels by ANP indicated that guanylate cyclase-linked ANP receptors were present in BMECs. The relative abilities of ANP, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and a truncated analog of ANP containing amino acids 5-27 (ANP 5-27) to modulate the accumulation of cGMP was found to be ANP greater than BNP much greater than ANP 5-27. Affinity cross-linking with disuccinimidyl suberate and radiolabeled ANP followed by gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions demonstrated a single band corresponding to the 60-70 kD receptor, indicating the presence of the nonguanylate cyclase-linked ANP receptor. Radiolabeled ANP binding was examined in the presence of various concentrations of either ANP, BNP, or ANP 5-27 and suggested that a large proportion of the ANP receptors present in blood-brain barrier endothelial cells bind all of these ligands similarly. These data indicate both guanylate cyclase linked and nonguanylate cyclase linked receptors are present on BMECs and that a higher proportion of the nonguanylate cyclase linked receptors is expressed. This in vitro culture system may provide a valuable tool for the examination of ANP receptor expression and function in blood-brain barrier endothelial cells.

  20. The diagnostic accuracy of the natriuretic peptides in heart failure: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis in the acute care setting

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Emmert; Dworzynski, Katharina; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Cowie, Martin R; McMurray, John J V; Mant, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of serum natriuretic peptide levels (B type natriuretic peptide, N terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), and mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP)) in people presenting with acute heart failure to acute care settings using thresholds recommended in the 2012 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for heart failure. Design Systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, database of abstracts of reviews of effects, NHS economic evaluation database, and Health Technology Assessment up to 28 January 2014, using combinations of subject headings and terms relating to heart failure and natriuretic peptides. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Eligible studies evaluated one or more natriuretic peptides (B type natriuretic peptide, NTproBNP, or MRproANP) in the diagnosis of acute heart failure against an acceptable reference standard in consecutive or randomly selected adults in an acute care setting. Studies were excluded if they did not present sufficient data to extract or calculate true positives, false positives, false negatives, and true negatives, or report age independent natriuretic peptide thresholds. Studies not available in English were also excluded. Results 37 unique study cohorts described in 42 study reports were included, with a total of 48 test evaluations reporting 15 263 test results. At the lower recommended thresholds of 100 ng/L for B type natriuretic peptide and 300 ng/L for NTproBNP, the natriuretic peptides have sensitivities of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.93 to 0.96) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00) and negative predictive values of 0.94 (0.90 to 0.96) and 0.98 (0.89 to 1.0), respectively, for a diagnosis of acute heart failure. At the lower recommended threshold of 120 pmol/L, MRproANP has a sensitivity ranging from 0.95 (range 0

  1. Effects of posture and ageing on circulating atrial natriuretic peptide levels in man.

    PubMed

    Haller, B G; Züst, H; Shaw, S; Gnädinger, M P; Uehlinger, D E; Weidmann, P

    1987-10-01

    Possible influences of posture or age on plasma immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (irANP) levels and potential correlates were assessed in 12 young (age +/- s.e.m. 24 +/- 1 year) and 12 elderly (63 +/- 8 year) healthy subjects on a liberal sodium intake. The groups did not differ significantly in their basal 24-h urinary sodium excretion (210 +/- 23 versus 180 +/- 15 mmol/l). However, plasma irANP was five- to ninefold higher in the elderly (P less than 0.05-0.01). Plasma irANP averaged 167 +/- 31 and 24 +/- 3 pg/ml in the elderly and young, respectively, during recumbency, fell (P less than 0.05) to 101 +/- 21 and 11 +/- 1 pg/ml, respectively, with upright posture, and rose (P less than 0.01) to 250 +/- 51 and 50 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, after intravenous (i.v.) loading with 0.9% saline (2.14 l in 3 h). Supine blood pressure (BP) and plasma norepinephrine tended to be higher while renin and aldosterone levels were lower (P less than 0.01) in the elderly; the three latter variables rose (P less than 0.001) with upright posture. These findings demonstrate that in normal humans, circulating irANP levels vary with posture and ageing. These changes may have potential physiological relevance and should be considered when interpreting plasma irANP levels in pathological conditions.

  2. Genetic Analysis of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene Polymorphisms among Essential Hypertensive Patients in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsian, Nooshin; Ismail, Patimah; Ahmadloo, Salma; Eskandarian, Narges; Etemad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) considerably influences blood pressure regulation through water and sodium homoeostasis. Several of the studies have utilized anonymous genetic polymorphic markers and made inconsequent claims about the ANP relevant disorders. Thus, we screened Insertion/Deletion (ID) and G191A polymorphisms of ANP to discover sequence variations with potential functional significance and to specify the linkage disequilibrium pattern between polymorphisms. The relationships of detected polymorphisms with EH with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) status were tested subsequently. Method. ANP gene polymorphisms (I/D and A191G) were specified utilizing mutagenically separated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 320 subjects including 163 EH case subjects and 157 controls. Result. This case-control study discovered a significant association between I/D polymorphisms of ANP gene in EH patient without T2DM. However, the study determined no association between G191A polymorphisms of ANP in EH with or without T2DM. In addition, sociodemographic factors in the case and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (P < 0.05). Conclusion. As a risk factor, ANP gene polymorphisms may affect hypertension. Despite the small sample size in this study, it is the first research assessing the ANP gene polymorphisms in both EH and T2DM patients among Malaysian population. PMID:27413750

  3. Role of atrial natriuretic peptide in systemic responses to acute isotonic volume expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Buckey, Jay C.; Lane, Lynda D.; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that a temporal relationship exists between increases in cardiac filling pressure and plasma artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration and also between ANP elevation and vasodilation, fluid movement from plasma to interstitium, and increased urine volume (UV). To test the hypothesis, 30 ml/kg isotonic saline were infused in supine male subjects over 24 min and responses were monitored for 3 h postinfusion. Results show that at end infusion, mean arterial pressure (RAP), heart rate and plasma volume exhibited peak increases of 146, 23, and 27 percent, respectively. Mean plasma ANP and UV peaked (45 and 390 percent, respectively) at 30 min postinfusion. Most cardiovascular variables had returned toward control levels by 1 h postinfusion, and net reabsorption of extravascular fluid ensued. It is concluded that since ANP was not significantly increased until 30 min postinfusion, factors other than ANP initiate responses to intravascular fluid loading. These factors include increased vascular pressures, baroreceptor-mediated vasolidation, and hemodilution of plasma proteins. ANP is suggested to mediate, in part, the renal response to saline infusion.

  4. Influence of diabetes on natriuretic peptide thresholds in screening for Stage B heart failure.

    PubMed

    Watson, Chris; James, Stephanie; O'Connell, Eoin; Gallagher, Joe; O'Reilly, James; Tallon, Elaine; Baugh, John; O'Connell, Jean; O'Shea, Donal; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Ken

    2016-09-01

    Natriuretic peptide (NP) has been shown to be an effective screening tool to identify patients with Stage B heart failure and to have clinical value in preventing heart failure progression. The impact of associated metabolic confounders on the screening utility of NP needs clarification. To assess the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on NP screening for asymptomatic Stage B heart failure. The study population consisted of 1368 asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors recruited from general practice as part of the STOP-HF trial. B-type NP (BNP) was quantified at point-of-care. BNP was found to be as accurate for detecting Stage B heart failure in DM patients compared to non-DM patients (AUC 0.75 [0.71,0.78] and 0.77 [0.72,0.82], respectively). However, different BNP thresholds are required to achieve the same level of diagnostic sensitivity in DM compared with non-DM patients. To achieve 80% sensitivity a difference of 5-ng/L lower is required for patients with DM. Although a significantly different BNP threshold is detected for patients with DM, the BNP concentration difference is small and unlikely to warrant a clinically different diagnostic threshold.

  5. Insufficient secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide at acute phase of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Tsutamoto, T; Wada, A; Mabuchi, N; Hayashi, M; Hisanaga, T; Kamijo, T; Kinoshita, M

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the secretion of the plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we evaluated the relationship between plasma levels of ANP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in 45 consecutive patients during the acute phase of AMI ( approximately 12 h after the attack) (group 1) and compared data with those obtained after 1 mo (group 2). In both groups 1 and 2, plasma ANP levels significantly correlated with PCWP. The slope of the linear regression line between the PCWP and ANP in group 1 was significantly lower, by about one-third, than that in group 2. In addition, we examined changes in ANP levels and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) over 180 min after AMI induced by injection of microspheres into the left coronary arteries of three dogs. The LVEDP and ANP levels 30 min after AMI were significantly higher than those before; however, despite the persistent high LVEDP during the 180 min after AMI, ANP levels decreased gradually and significantly to 63% of the peak level at 150 min. These findings suggest that the secretion of ANP during the acute phase of myocardial infarction may be insufficient relative to the chronic phase.

  6. The evaluation of brain natriuretic peptide changes and difficult airway predictors during perioperative period of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Basaranoglu, G; Umutoglu, T; Bakan, M; Esen, A; Ates, S; Bacaksiz, A; Salihoglu, Z

    2016-02-01

    Airway changes, difficult ventilation, and intubation are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy, but no prospective study has evaluated the relationship between airway changes and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) before and after cesarean section operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between BNP and airway changes in women undergoing delivery and during the postoperative period. Included in this prospective study were a total of 35 pregnant females with ASA I physical status who were scheduled for cesarean section under general anesthesia. BNP levels, Mallampati classification, mouth opening, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, and the degree of neck extension were recorded before cesarean section and 24 h after the operation. Laryngeal views were also documented after intubation. Significant differences in BNP levels, Mallampati classification, mouth opening, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, and the degree of neck extension measurements arose between initial measurements and those measurements made 24 h postoperatively. Pre-delivery Mallampati I, II, III, IV scores of 6, 18, 7, 4 had by 24 h after cesarean section changed to 13, 13, 6, 3, respectively (p < 0.05). Initial BNP levels were 7.59 ± 6.30; postoperative levels were 52.39 ± 48.17. In this study we found a correlation between perioperative BNP levels and difficult intubation parameters. Within 24 h postpartum, Mallampati scores changed in 13 patients (30.95 %). Besides the correlation between BNP levels and difficult intubation parameters, we also found significant differences in initial and postoperative BNP values.

  7. Circadian variation of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, cortisol and fluid balance in the goat.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, U M; Riskilä, P; Roihankorpi, M T; Soveri, T

    2001-01-01

    Circadian variation of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cortisol and fluid balance was studied in ten adult female goats. The concentrations of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH), electrolytes, creatinine and total protein, as well as plasma and urine osmolalities and renal electrolyte excretion and clearances (Cosm, CH2O, Ccrea), were used to evaluate fluid balance. At 3-h intervals, urine was collected from five goats and venous blood samples from all ten goats. Urethral catheterization had no effect on the results. Besides the lower plasma creatinine level in the dark than in daylight, no other changes were observed in relation to luminousness. Plasma concentrations of ANP, ADH, total protein and K, urine flow rate and osmolality, urine concentrations of Na, K and creatinine, renal Na and K excretion, Cosm, CH2O and Ccrea, and haematocrit showed no circadian variation. Circadian variation was observed in plasma osmolality (P < 0.05) and the concentrations of Na (P < 0.05) and creatinine (P < 0.05), with achrophases around 16:00 hours and nadirs between 01:00 and 07:00 hours. Changes in osmolality and Na followed the feeding schedule. There was a small elevation in plasma cortisol levels in six goats after midnight, which may be the consequence of circadian rhythm. In conclusion, the results suggest that in plasma ANP no circadian rhythm exists.

  8. Urinary C-type natriuretic peptide: an emerging biomarker for heart failure and renal remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Rosita; Burnett, John C; Sangaralingham, S Jeson

    2015-03-30

    The public health and economic burden of heart failure (HF) is staggering and the need for relevant pathophysiologic and clinical biomarkers to advance the field and improve HF therapy remains high. Renal dysfunction is common among HF patients and is associated with increased HF hospitalization and mortality. It is widely recognized that mechanisms contributing to HF pathogenesis include a complex bidirectional interaction between the kidney and heart, encompassed by the term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Among a new wave of urinary biomarkers germane to CRS, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has emerged as an innovative biomarker of renal structural and functional impairment in HF and chronic renal disease states. CNP is a hormone, synthesized in the kidney, and is an important regulator of cell proliferation and organ fibrosis. Hypoxia, cytokines and fibrotic growth factors, which are inherent to both cardiac and renal remodeling processes, are among the recognized stimuli for CNP production and release. In this review we aim to highlight current knowledge regarding the biology and pathophysiological correlates of urinary CNP, and its potential clinical utility as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in HF and renal disease states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain natriuretic peptide: the reason of respiratory distress is heart disease or lung disease?

    PubMed

    Sahingozlu, Taylan; Karadas, Ulaş; Eliacik, Kayi; Bakiler, Ali Rahmi; Ozdemir Karadas, Nihal; Kanik, Muhammed Ali; Baran, Masaallah

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma levels of amino-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) could differentiate between heart failure and lung disease among infants with acute bronchiolitis. Sixty-eight infants (age range, 1-26 months; median age, 5.9 ± 5.0 months) who presented with respiratory distress underwent physical examination, plasma BNP measurement, and echocardiography within 24 hours after admission. Nineteen (28%) patients had congenital heart disease. The control group was consisted of 30 healthy infants. Although mean plasma BNP levels were 118.9 ± 219.5 pg/mL in patients with isolated bronchiolitis (n = 49), it was 841.2 ± 1475.8 pg/mL in patients with congenital heart disease (n = 19). Plasma BNP levels were significantly higher in infants with congenital heart disease (P = .001). It was shown that plasma BNP levels were affected much more in cardiac disease rather than lung disease. Among infants with respiratory distress, plasma BNP measurements can differentiate congenital heart disease and lung disease and can be used to monitor the effects of treatment for infants with heart failure. The comments were taken for consideration. The patient groups control BNP levels were attached to the results. As it was a clinical study and multiple factors (respiratory score, respiratory rate, treatment, etc) may effect on BNP levels, the tables could not be decreased to 1 table. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Constitutively active form of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 ameliorates experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nawa, Nobutoshi; Ishida, Hidekazu; Katsuragi, Shinichi; Baden, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Higeno, Ryota; Torigoe, Fumiko; Mihara, Seiko; Narita, Jun; Miura, Kohji; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We recently found a constitutively active mutant of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (caNPR2; V883M), which synthesizes larger amounts of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) intracellularly without any ligand stimulation than existing drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of gene transduction using caNPR2 for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In vitro gene transduction into human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells using Sendai virus (SeV) vectors carrying caNPR2 induced 10,000-fold increases in the synthesis of cGMP without ligand stimulation, and the proliferation of caNPR2-expressing cells was significantly attenuated. The PAH model rats generated by hypoxia and the administration of SU5416 were then treated with SeV vectors through a direct injection into the left pulmonary artery. Right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly decreased 2 weeks after the treatment, while systemic blood pressure remained unchanged. Histological analyses revealed that the medial wall thickness and occlusion rate of pulmonary arterioles were significantly improved in caNPR2-treated lungs. Neither the systemic integration of virus vectors nor side effects were observed. The massive stimulation of cGMP synthesis by gene therapy with caNPR2 was safe and effective in a PAH rat model and, thus, has potential as a novel therapy for patients with severe progressive PAH. PMID:27419193

  11. Constitutively active form of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 ameliorates experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Nobutoshi; Ishida, Hidekazu; Katsuragi, Shinichi; Baden, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Higeno, Ryota; Torigoe, Fumiko; Mihara, Seiko; Narita, Jun; Miura, Kohji; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We recently found a constitutively active mutant of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (caNPR2; V883M), which synthesizes larger amounts of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) intracellularly without any ligand stimulation than existing drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of gene transduction using caNPR2 for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In vitro gene transduction into human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells using Sendai virus (SeV) vectors carrying caNPR2 induced 10,000-fold increases in the synthesis of cGMP without ligand stimulation, and the proliferation of caNPR2-expressing cells was significantly attenuated. The PAH model rats generated by hypoxia and the administration of SU5416 were then treated with SeV vectors through a direct injection into the left pulmonary artery. Right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly decreased 2 weeks after the treatment, while systemic blood pressure remained unchanged. Histological analyses revealed that the medial wall thickness and occlusion rate of pulmonary arterioles were significantly improved in caNPR2-treated lungs. Neither the systemic integration of virus vectors nor side effects were observed. The massive stimulation of cGMP synthesis by gene therapy with caNPR2 was safe and effective in a PAH rat model and, thus, has potential as a novel therapy for patients with severe progressive PAH.

  12. The impact of atrial natriuretic peptide on anxiety, stress and craving in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Anne; Leménager, Tagrid; Wolf, Nadine Donata; Reinhard, Iris; Hermann, Derik; Koch, Jan; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kiefer, Falk

    2014-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is well known to modulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis but also to counter-regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Correspondingly, recent studies suggest an important role of ANP in the neurobiology of anxiety. Preclinical and clinical data now provide evidence for an involvement of ANP in the pathophysiology of addictive behavior. The present study aims to elucidate the effects of ANP on alcohol-dependent patients' anxiety, perceived stress and craving during alcohol withdrawal. A sample of 59 alcohol-dependent inpatients was included in the analysis. A blood sample was taken at day 14 of detoxification in order to assess the concentrations of ANP and cortisol in plasma. In parallel, we assessed patients' alcohol craving, using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, as well as anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Patients' stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. We found a significant negative association between patients' ANP plasma concentrations and anxiety, craving for alcohol and perceived stress. Regression analyses suggest that ANP is a significant predictor both for patients' perceived stress and for the severity of anxiety during early abstinence. The association of patients' ANP plasma levels and craving is suggested to be mediated by perceived stress. Our results suggest that the association of patients' ANP plasma levels and craving is mediated by their perceived stress. For this reason, intranasal application of ANP may prove to be a new avenue for the treatment of alcohol dependence in patients exhibiting high levels of perceived stress.

  13. Binding, internalization, and degradation of atrial natriuretic peptide in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Y.; Takata, S.; Tomita, M.; Takaichi, S.

    1985-11-15

    Binding, internalization, and degradation of /sup 125/I-labeled-rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) were studied in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). At 37 degrees C, /sup 125/I-labeled-rANP rapidly bound to VSMCs, but the cell-bound radioactivity rapidly decreased upon subsequent incubation, while the binding was slow at 4 degrees C, reaching to an apparent equilibrium after 6 hrs. The cell-bound /sup 125/I-labeled-rANP at 37 degrees C is rapidly dissociated from VSMC (t 1/2: approximately 40 min) with the appearance of degradaded product(s) of radioligand in the medium, whereas the degradation was minimal at 4 degrees C. This degradative process was blocked by inhibitors of metabolic energy production (azide, dinitrophenol), inhibitors of lysosomal cathepsins (leupeptin, pepstatin), and lysosomotropic agents (NH/sub 4/Cl, chloroquine, lidocaine, methylamine, dansylcadaverine), but not by inhibitors of serine or thiol proteases. /sup 125/I-labeled-rANP initially bound to the cell-surface was rapidly internalized, and delivered to lysosomal structures, which was confirmed by autoradiographic studies. These data indicate that rANP, after binding to the cell-surface receptors, is rapidly internalized into the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and subsequently degradaded by lysosomal hydrolases.

  14. Resting and dobutamine stress test induced serum concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide in German Shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Kosić, Ljubica; Trailović, Dragiša R; Matunović, Radomir

    2012-12-01

    Studies of clinical uses of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) represent one of the most important advances in cardiology since the introduction of echocardiography as a clinical diagnostic procedure. Defining the clinical potential of BNP in canine cardiology has not been completed yet. The aim of this study is to measure BNP concentrations in healthy German Shepherd dogs of different ages as a baseline in resting and when conventional protocol of the dobutamine stress test (DST) is applied to dogs. Concentrations of BNP were measured in blood serum by the radioimmunoassay method. The values of BNP concentrations were compared to cardiac parameters obtained by standard cardiac diagnostic procedures (radiology, electrocardiography and echocardiography). No significant differences in serum BNP concentrations existed in dogs of different ages. A statistically significant increase in BNP concentrations was registered after DST. These changes in BNP concentrations were related to ST/T electrocardiographic changes, and correlated to changes in the left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LVESD). These data suggest that BNP is not increased in aged dogs with normal cardiac systolic function and renal function, and that myocardial ischemia leads to a significant increase in BNP concentrations even in dogs with normal left ventricular function.

  15. The role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cold-induced diuresis (CID)

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, J.W.; Freund, B.J.; DuBose, D.A.; McKay, J.M.; Hashiro, G.M. Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI )

    1991-03-11

    The hormonal control of cold-induced diuresis (CID) remains unresolved. This study investigated the role of ANP, plasma vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone (ALDO) on CID. Four semi-nude men participated in a 210 min exposure to 15C and 29C air, on separate days. These subjects drank 300 mL of water and had an intravenous saline drip throughout both exposures to replace blood and insensible fluid losses. CID was observed in 15C but not in the 29C experiment, as indicated by a greater urine output. In 15C, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased after 90 min by 41% and remained elevated for 2 h relative to 29C. No differences were observed in AVP between 15C and 29C. In the 15C versus the 29C experiment, ALDO was approximately 37% lower at the pre, 15 and 90 min time periods. Mean arterial blood pressure was generally greater but only significant at 60 min during the 15C versus the 29C experiment. Urinary NA{sup +} excretion was elevated in 15C relative to 29C while no difference in K{sup +} excretion was observed. Although pressure effects may contribute, the observed natriuresis in the absence of a kaliuresis in the cold suggests a physiological role of ANP in CID.

  16. Effectiveness of natriuretic peptide-guided treatment of chronic heart failure. Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gamiño-Arroyo, Ana-Estela; Prado-Galbarro, Francisco-Javier; García-Pérez, Sonia; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos

    2017-04-10

    Evaluate the efficacy of natriuretic peptide (NP)-guided therapy compared to clinically-guided therapy reducing mortality and hospitalization in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) were selected through a systematic review. Four meta-analyses were conducted for the outcomes of overall mortality, HF-related mortality, overall hospitalization, and HF-related hospitalization. Heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were assessed. Nine RCTs were found with a total of 1914 patients. NP-guided therapy reduced significantly overall mortality and HF-related hospitalization. No significant results were found for HF-related mortality and overall hospitalization. Some clinical heterogeneity regarding interventions performed was found between studies. Publication bias was found for HF-related and overall hospitalizations. NP-guided therapy seems to improve outcomes compare to clinically-guided therapy. However, heterogeneity found between interventions might reduce generalizability of these results. Specific interventions of the clinical trials should be examined when making recommendations regarding NP-guided therapy. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypermethylation of brain natriuretic peptide gene is associated with the risk of rheumatic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ni; Zheng, Dawei; Sun, Lebo; Shi, Huoshun; Zhu, Xiuying; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Qinning; Zhu, Caimin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) promoter DNA methylation to the risk of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and the influence of warfarin anticoagulant therapy on BNP methylation levels for RHD patients after surgery. BNP methylation levels were determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing from plasma samples of RHD patients compared with healthy controls. Several factors influencing the RHD patients were included like age, smoking and cholesterol levels. A fragment of five CG sites (CpG1–5) in the promoter region of BNP gene was measured. BNP gene hypermethylation was found in CpG4 and CpG5 in RHD patients compared with non-RHD controls. A significant difference was also observed between RHD patients with long-term administration of warfarin and RHD patients who had recently undergone an operation. Moreover, single CpG4 and CpG5 analysis revealed a significant increase in methylation levels in men. BNP gene body hypermethylation is associated with the risk of RHD, and also influenced by the warfarin anticoagulant therapy of RHD patients after surgery, which could represent novel and promising targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27920275

  18. The natriuretic peptides system in the pathophysiology of heart failure: from molecular basis to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Carnovali, Marino; Mastromarino, Vittoria

    2015-01-01

    After its discovery in the early 1980s, the natriuretic peptide (NP) system has been extensively characterized and its potential influence in the development and progression of heart failure (HF) has been investigated. HF is a syndrome characterized by the activation of different neurohormonal systems, predominantly the renin–angiotensin (Ang)–aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), but also the NP system. Pharmacological interventions have been developed to counteract the neuroendocrine dysregulation, through the down modulation of RAAS with ACE (Ang-converting enzyme) inhibitors, ARBs (Ang receptor blockers) and mineralcorticoid antagonists and of SNS with β-blockers. In the last years, growing attention has been paid to the NP system. In the present review, we have summarized the current knowledge on the NP system, focusing on its role in HF and we provide an overview of the pharmacological attempts to modulate NP in HF: from the negative results of the study with neprilysin (NEP) inhibitors, alone or associated with an ACE inhibitor and vasopeptidase inhibitors, to the most recently and extremely encouraging results obtained with the new pharmacological class of Ang receptor and NEP inhibitor, currently defined ARNI (Ang receptor NEP inhibitor). Indeed, this new class of drugs to manage HF, supported by the recent results and a vast clinical development programme, may prompt a conceptual shift in the treatment of HF, moving from the inhibition of RAAS and SNS to a more integrated target to rebalance neurohormonal dysregulation in HF. PMID:26637405

  19. Arterial Remodeling in B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Knock-Out Females

    PubMed Central

    Holditch, Sara J.; Schreiber, Claire A.; Burnett, John C.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms are recognized in cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, stroke, thrombosis and vasculitis. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A) agonist. The anti-hypertensive, vasodilatory, anti-fibrotic, and anti-hypertrophic properties of BNP are well established in male animal models. Although circulating BNP levels are higher in women, when compared to age-matched men, the cardiovascular protective propensity of BNP in females is poorly understood. We assessed the cardiovascular consequences of BNP deletion in genetically null (Nppb−/−) female rat lines. Throughout the study, blood pressure (BP) remained uninfluenced by genotype, and cardiorenal consequences of BNP knock out remained minor. Unexpectedly, approximately 60% of Nppb−/− females developed mesenteric polyarteritis-nodosa (PAN)-like vasculitis in their life span, some as early as 4 months of age. Mesenteric lesions involved intense arterial remodeling, progressive inflammation, occluded lumens, and less frequently intestinal necrosis and multiple visceral arterial aneurysms. Cumulative pathologies resulted in a significant decline in survival of the Nppb−/− female. This study highlights BNP’s vasoprotective propensity, bringing to light a possible sex specific difference in the cardiovascular protection provided by BNP. Defects in the BNP/GC-A/cGMP pathway may play a role in arteriopathies in women, while GC-A agonists may provide effective therapy for arteritis. PMID:27162120

  20. Role of atrial natriuretic peptide in systemic responses to acute isotonic volume expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Buckey, Jay C.; Lane, Lynda D.; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that a temporal relationship exists between increases in cardiac filling pressure and plasma artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration and also between ANP elevation and vasodilation, fluid movement from plasma to interstitium, and increased urine volume (UV). To test the hypothesis, 30 ml/kg isotonic saline were infused in supine male subjects over 24 min and responses were monitored for 3 h postinfusion. Results show that at end infusion, mean arterial pressure (RAP), heart rate and plasma volume exhibited peak increases of 146, 23, and 27 percent, respectively. Mean plasma ANP and UV peaked (45 and 390 percent, respectively) at 30 min postinfusion. Most cardiovascular variables had returned toward control levels by 1 h postinfusion, and net reabsorption of extravascular fluid ensued. It is concluded that since ANP was not significantly increased until 30 min postinfusion, factors other than ANP initiate responses to intravascular fluid loading. These factors include increased vascular pressures, baroreceptor-mediated vasolidation, and hemodilution of plasma proteins. ANP is suggested to mediate, in part, the renal response to saline infusion.

  1. In vivo measurement of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors using nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Willenbrock, R; Lambert, R; Tremblay, J; Bavaria, G; Langlois, Y; Léveillé, J; Flanagan, R; Hamet, P

    1992-11-01

    We have successfully visualized atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors in vivo using nuclear imaging. 123I-Labelled ANP, injected in green vervet monkeys, was rapidly bound to ANP receptors in the kidneys and lungs. That the observed uptake was receptor mediated was demonstrated with competition studies using simultaneous injection of unlabelled ANP 99-126. It was possible to distinguish between the ANP receptor subtypes by the use of selective antagonists. Thus coinjection of ANP 102-121-des[Gln, Ser, Gly, Leu, Gly] (C-ANP), an ANP analog that selectively binds to the ANP C-receptor, decreased uptake in the kidneys by 50% but increased relative uptake in the lungs and soft tissues. This method permits for the first time, the dynamic in vivo analysis of ANP receptors and their interaction with endogenous ligand. Differences and changes in local ANP receptor concentrations and occupancy could be detected. Since ANP receptor density and affinity are influenced by various physiological and pathological conditions, clinical and diagnostic applications seem possible.

  2. Regulation of endothelial cell shape and monolayer permeability by atrial natriuretic peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Lofton-Day, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), considered to be an important regulator of intravascular fluid volume, binds specifically to receptors on endothelial cells. In this study, the role of ANP-specific binding was investigated by examining the effect of ANP on the morphology and macromolecular permeability of monolayer cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells. ANP alone had no observable effect on the monolayers. However, incubation of monolayers with ANP antagonized thrombin- or glucose oxidase-induced cell shape changes and intercellular gap formation. ANP pretreatment also opposed the effect of thrombin and glucose oxidase on actin filament distribution as observed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and digital image analysis of F0actin staining. In addition, ANP reversed cell shape changes and cytoskeletal alterations induced by thrombin treatment but did not reverse alternations induced by glucose oxidase treatment. ANP significantly reduced increases in monolayer permeability to albumin resulting from thrombin or glucose oxidases treatment. Thrombin caused a 2-fold increase in monolayer permeability to {sup 125}I-labeled albumin, which was abolished by 10{sup {minus}8}-10{sup {minus}6}M ANP pretreatment. Glucose oxidase caused similar increases in permeability and was inhibited by ANP at slightly shorter time periods.

  3. Modulation of RAAS-natriuretic peptides in the treatment of HF: Old guys and newcomers.

    PubMed

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Gliozzi, Micaela; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors in the treatment of chronic heart failure (HF) and arterial hypertension is recommended by the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on the basis of consolidated evidence supporting their efficacy in the development of such a disease. However, the high incidence of re-hospitalization and mortality in patients undergoing chronic HF, leads to the need for the development of novel RAAS inhibitors possessing a better pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics profile in approaching hemodynamic imbalance and myocardial dysfunction associated with the development of chronic HF. Here we summarize some of the recent advances in the area of RAAS-modulators, including novel renin inhibitors, mineralcorticoid receptor antagonists and novel AT1 and AT2-receptor modulators. In addition, the pharmacology of a new class of compounds which display both AT1-receptor blocking properties combined with inhibition of neprilysin, the vasopeptidase enzyme degradating natriuretic peptide (ARNi), will be reviewed, alongside with their impact in the pathophysiology of chronic HF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor heterogeneity and effects on cyclic GMP accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Leitman, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on guanylate cyclase activity and cyclic GMP accumulation were examined, since these hormones appear to be intimately associated with blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. ANP was found to increase cyclic GMP accumulation in ten cell culture systems, which were derived from blood vessels, adrenal cortex, kidney, lung, testes and mammary gland. ANP receptors were characterized in intact cultured cells using {sup 125}I-ANP{sub 8-33}. Specific {sup 125}I-ANP binding was saturable and of high affinity. Scratchard analysis of the binding data for all cell types exhibited a straight line, indicating that these cells possessed a single class of binding sites. Despite the presence of linear Scatchard plots, these studies demonstrated that cultured cells possess two functionally and physically distinct ANP-binding sites. Most of the ANP-binding sites in cultured cells have a molecular size of 66,000 daltons under reducing conditions. The identification of cultured cell types in which hormones (ANP and oxytocin) regulate guanylate cyclase activity and increase cyclic GMP synthesis will provide valuable systems to determine the mechanisms of hormone-receptor coupling to guanylate cyclase and the cellular processes regulated by cyclic GMP.

  5. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels Predict Ventricular Arrhythmia Post Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Yaron; Malik, Adnan S; Lin, Hongbo; Shen, Changyu; Wang, I-Wen; Wozniak, Thomas C; Hashmi, Zubair A; Pickrell, Jeanette; Jani, Milena; Caccamo, Marco A; Gradus-Pizlo, Irmina; Hadi, Azam

    2015-12-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels have been shown to predict ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and sudden death in patients with heart failure. We sought to determine whether BNP levels before left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation can predict VA post LVAD implantation in advanced heart failure patients. We conducted a retrospective study consisting of patients who underwent LVAD implantation in our institution during the period of May 2009-March 2013. The study was limited to patients receiving a HeartMate II or HeartWare LVAD. Acute myocardial infarction patients were excluded. We compared between the patients who developed VA within 15 days post LVAD implantation to the patients without VA. A total of 85 patients underwent LVAD implantation during the study period. Eleven patients were excluded (five acute MI, four without BNP measurements, and two discharged earlier than 13 days post LVAD implantation). The incidence of VA was 31%, with 91% ventricular tachycardia (VT) and 9% ventricular fibrillation. BNP remained the single most powerful predictor of VA even after adjustment for other borderline significant factors in a multivariate logistic regression model (P < 0.05). BNP levels are a strong predictor of VA post LVAD implantation, surpassing previously described risk factors such as age and VT in the past.

  6. Midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and procalcitonin improve survival prediction in VAP.

    PubMed

    Boeck, L; Eggimann, P; Smyrnios, N; Pargger, H; Thakkar, N; Siegemund, M; Marsch, S; Rakic, J; Tamm, M; Stolz, D

    2011-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) affects mortality, morbidity and cost of critical care. Reliable risk estimation might improve end-of-life decisions, resource allocation and outcome. Several scoring systems for survival prediction have been established and optimised over the last decades. Recently, new biomarkers have gained interest in the prognostic field. We assessed whether midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and procalcitonin (PCT) improve the predictive value of the Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) in VAP. Specified end-points of a prospective multinational trial including 101 patients with VAP were analysed. Death <28 days after VAP onset was the primary end-point. MR-proANP and PCT were elevated at the onset of VAP in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (p = 0.003 and p = 0.017, respectively) and their slope of decline differed significantly (p = 0.018 and p = 0.039, respectively). Patients with the highest MR-proANP quartile at VAP onset were at increased risk for death (log rank p = 0.013). In a logistic regression model, MR-proANP was identified as the best predictor of survival. Adding MR-proANP and PCT to SAPS II and SOFA improved their predictive properties (area under the curve 0.895 and 0.880). We conclude that the combination of two biomarkers, MR-proANP and PCT, improve survival prediction of clinical severity scores in VAP.

  7. Analytical Issues with Natriuretic Peptides – has this been Overly Simplified?

    PubMed Central

    Katrukha, Alexey G.

    2016-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) were first described as cardiac biomarkers more than two decades ago. Since that time, numerous studies have confirmed NPs’ diagnostic and prognostic utilities as biomarkers of myocardial function. However, we must now admit that despite the NPs’ relatively long period of use in clinical practice, our understanding of the biochemistry and the variety of circulating forms of NPs, as well as of their potential as biomarkers, remains far from being complete and comprehensive. The highly complex nature and wide diversity of circulating forms of NPs make their accurate measurements in plasma far more complex than initially believed. A highly simplistic view of the NPs’ use is that elevated values of NPs indicate the severity of heart failure and thus reflect the prognosis. However, as shown by a variety of studies, deep understanding of how the NP system works will be required for correct interpretation of test results in routine practice of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding of the complexity of the NP system and discuss related analytical issues, which open new horizons, as well as challenges for clinical diagnostics. PMID:27683533

  8. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri uses a plant natriuretic peptide-like protein to modify host homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S; Daurelio, Lucas D; Valentine, Alex; Gehring, Chris; Orellano, Elena G; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2008-11-25

    Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are a class of extracellular, systemically mobile molecules that elicit a number of plant responses important in homeostasis and growth. The bacterial citrus pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, also contains a gene encoding a PNP-like protein, XacPNP, that shares significant sequence similarity and identical domain organization with plant PNPs but has no homologues in other bacteria. We have expressed and purified XacPNP and demonstrated that the bacterial protein alters physiological responses including stomatal opening in plants. Although XacPNP is not expressed under standard nutrient rich culture conditions, it is strongly induced under conditions that mimic the nutrient poor intercellular apoplastic environment of leaves, as well as in infected tissue, suggesting that XacPNP transcription can respond to the host environment. To characterize the role of XacPNP during bacterial infection, we constructed a XacPNP deletion mutant. The lesions caused by this mutant were more necrotic than those observed with the wild-type, and bacterial cell death occurred earlier in the mutant. Moreover, when we expressed XacPNP in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, the transgenic bacteria caused less necrotic lesions in the host than the wild-type. In conclusion, we present evidence that a plant-like bacterial PNP can enable a plant pathogen to modify host responses to create conditions favorable to its own survival.

  9. Interpretation and Use of Natriuretic Peptides in Non-Congestive Heart Failure Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Yue; Chu, Shi-Jye; Hsu, Ching-Wang; Cheng, Shu-Meng

    2010-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been found to be useful markers in differentiating acute dyspneic patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) and emerged as potent prognostic markers for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The best-established and widely used clinical application of BNP and NT-proBNP testing is for the emergent diagnosis of CHF in patients presenting with acute dyspnea. Nevertheless, elevated NPs levels can be found in many circumstances involving left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or hypertrophy; right ventricular (RV) dysfunction secondary to pulmonary diseases; cardiac inflammatory or infectious diseases; endocrinology diseases and high output status without decreased LV ejection fraction. Even in the absence of significant clinical evidence of volume overload or LV dysfunction, markedly elevated NP levels can be found in patients with multiple comorbidities with a certain degree of prognostic value. Potential clinical applications of NPs are expanded accompanied by emerging reports regarding screening the presence of secondary cardiac dysfunction; monitoring the therapeutic responses, risk stratifications and providing prognostic values in many settings. Clinicians need to have expanded knowledge regarding the interpretation of elevated NPs levels and potential clinical applications of NPs. Clinicians should recognize that currently the only reasonable application for routine practice is limited to differentiation of acute dyspnea, rule-out-diagnostic-tests, monitoring of therapeutic responses and prognosis of acute or decompensated CHF. The rationales as well the potential applications of NPs in these settings are discussed in this review article. PMID:20191004

  10. Cortical Brain Connectivity and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Valeriani, Lavinia; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bramanti, Placido; Mecarelli, Oriano; Rossini, Paolo M

    2015-07-01

    The brain has a high level of complexity and needs continuous oxygen supply. So it is clear that any pathological condition, or physiological (aging) change, in the cardiovascular system affects functioning of the central nervous system. We evaluated linear aspects of the relationship between the slowness of cortical rhythms, as revealed by the modulation of a graph connectivity parameter, and congestive heart failure (CHF), as a reflection of neurodegenerative processes. Eyes-closed resting electroencephalographic (EEG) data of 10 patients with CHF were recorded by 19 electrodes positioned according the international 10-20 system. Graph theory function (normalized characteristic path length λ) was applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA software, therefore getting rid of volumetric propagation influences. The EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The analysis between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) values and λ showed positive correlation in delta, associated with a negative correlation in alpha 2 band. Namely, the higher the severity of the disease (as revealed by the BNP vales), the higher the λ in delta, and lower in alpha 2 band. Results suggest that delta and alpha λ indices are good markers of the severity of CHF.

  11. Determinants of low levels of brain natriuretic peptide in morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Maria Anastasia; De Vuono, Stefano; Pucci, Giacomo; Di Filippo, Francesco; Berisha, Sokol; Gentili, Alessandra; Daviddi, Giulia; Ministrini, Stefano; Rondelli, Fabio; Boni, Marcello; Lupattelli, Graziana

    2017-08-01

    morbid obesity is associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. A noteworthy feature of this relationship could regard low levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The study investigates the relationship between BNP and obesity-related markers in a morbid obese population, along with echocardiographic and vascular parameters. in 154 morbid obese patients we evaluated anthropometric parameters, glycometabolic/lipid profile, bioimpedentiometry, echocardiography, visceral fat area and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) by ultrasonography. we divided population in two groups on the basis of median BMI levels; patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BNP (p = .008), FMD (p = .014) and HDL-C (p = .001) and showed a more impaired heart function. A similar trend emerged subdividing patients on the basis of median visceral fat area. BNP showed a significant inverse correlation with BMI (p < .001), left ventricular mass (p = .026) and inter-ventricular septum thickness (p = .007) and a significant positive correlation with FMD (p = .008), HDL-C (p = .022), and ejection fraction (p = .013). BMI and triglycerides were independent predictors of BNP levels. patients with higher BMI show lower BNP levels associated with greater total body fat amount. The correlation of BNP with endothelium-dependent vasodilation and cardiac impairment could represent another link between obesity and cardiovascular damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of calcium in effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on aldosterone production in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, L.; Schiffrin, E.L.

    1987-04-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the stimulation of aldosterone secretion by isolated adrenal glomerulosa cells produced by angiotensin II (ANG II), ACTH, and potassium. The effect of ANP on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium on isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. In the presence of ANP the maximal response of aldosterone output stimulated by ANG II or potassium decreased and the half-maximum (EC/sub 50/) of the response to ACTH was displaced to the right. Because these effects resemble those of calcium-channel blockers, the authors investigated the effect of different concentrations of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium. Nifedipine produced effects similar to ANP. The maximal response of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II and potassium was decreased and the dose-response curve to ACTH was displaced to the right. ANP decreased the maximal response of aldosterone to the dihydropyridine derivative BAY K8644, a calcium-channel activator, without change in its EC/sub 50/. In contrast, nifedipine displaced the dose-response curve to BAY K8644 to the right as expected of a competitive inhibitor. The effect of ANP and nifedipine on basal and stimulated /sup 45/Ca influx into isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. ANP may act on the rat adrenal glomerulosa cells at least in part by interference with calcium entry.

  13. Regulation of B-type natriuretic peptide synthesis by insulin in obesity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Thoonen, Robrecht; Yao, Vincent; Buys, Emmanuel S; Popovich, John; Su, Yan Ru; Wang, Thomas J; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Human studies suggest that insulin resistance and obesity are associated with a decrease in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plasma concentrations. The objective of the study was to gain insights into the mechanisms involved in the association between insulin resistance and decreased BNP plasma concentrations. Mice fed a high-fat, high-fructose (HFHF) diet for 4 weeks developed mild obesity and systemic insulin resistance. Elevated plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose and triglycerides were noted. The HFHF diet was also associated with myocardial insulin resistance, characterized by an impaired response of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT (PI3K-AKT) pathway to insulin in the left ventricle. Myocardial BNP expression and protein were decreased in HFHF-fed mice compared with control animals. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to 100 nm insulin activated PI3K-AKT signalling (15 min) and induced a 1.9 ± 0.3-fold increase in BNP gene expression (6 h). Prolonged exposure of cardiomyocytes to a high insulin concentration (100 nm) for 48 h induced insulin resistance, characterized by an impaired response of the PI3K-AKT signalling pathway and a decreased response of the BNP gene expression to insulin. The decreased response in BNP gene expression was reproduced by treating cardiomyocytes for 7 h with a PI3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin). In conclusion, HFHF diet in vivo, prolonged exposure to an elevated concentration of insulin or inhibition of the PI3K-AKT pathway in vitro all decrease BNP mRNA levels; this decrease may in turn contribute to the decreased BNP peptide concentrations in plasma observed in insulin-resistant individuals. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  14. Effect of systemic B-type natriuretic peptide on cardiac vagal motoneuron activity.

    PubMed

    Toader, E; McAllen, R M; Cividjian, A; Woods, R L; Quintin, L

    2007-12-01

    Intravenous B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) enhances the bradycardia of reflexes from the heart, including the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex, but its site of action is unknown. The peptide is unlikely to penetrate the blood-brain barrier but could act on afferent or efferent reflex pathways. To investigate the latter, two types of experiment were performed on urethane-anesthetized (1.4 g/kg iv) rats. First, the activity was recorded extracellularly from single cardiac vagal motoneurons (CVMs) in the nucleus ambiguus. CVMs were identified by antidromic activation from the cardiac vagal branch and by their barosensitivity. Phenyl biguanide (PBG), injected via the right atrium in bolus doses of 1-5 mug to evoke the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex, caused a dose-related increase in CVM activity and bradycardia. BNP infusion (25 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) iv) significantly enhanced both the CVM response to PBG (n = 5 rats) and the reflex bradycardia, but the log-linear relation between those two responses over a range of PBG doses was unchanged by BNP. The reflex bradycardia was not enhanced in five matched time-control rats receiving only vehicle infusions. In five other rats the cervical vagi were cut and the peripheral right vagus was stimulated supramaximally at frequencies of 1-20 Hz. The bradycardic responses to these stimuli were unchanged before, during, and after BNP infusion. We conclude that systemic BNP in a moderate dose enhances the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex activation of CVM, in parallel with the enhanced reflex bradycardia. That enhancement is due entirely to an action before the vagal efferent arm of the reflex pathway.

  15. Circulating C-type natriuretic peptide and its relationship to cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    PubMed

    Sangaralingham, S Jeson; McKie, Paul M; Ichiki, Tomoko; Scott, Christopher G; Heublein, Denise M; Chen, Horng H; Bailey, Kent R; Redfield, Margaret M; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Burnett, John C

    2015-06-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is an endothelium-derived peptide that is released as a protective mechanism in response cardiovascular injury or disease. However, no studies have investigated circulating CNP, identifying clinical factors that may influence CNP and its relationship to cardiovascular disease in the general population. We studied 1841 randomly selected subjects from Olmsted County, MN (mean age, 63±11 years; 48% men). Plasma CNP was measured by a well-established radioimmunoassay and echocardiography, clinical characterization, and detailed medical record review were performed. We report that CNP circulates at various concentrations (median, 13 pg/mL), was unaffected by sex, was weakly associated by age, and that highest quartile of CNP identified a high-risk phenotype. Subjects with CNP in the highest quartile were associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.09; P=0.01) but not heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents, or death during a follow-up of 12 years. Addition of the highest quartile of CNP to clinical variables led to a modest increase in the integrated discrimination improvement for risk of myocardial infarction. In a large community-based cohort, elevated circulating CNP identified a high-risk phenotype that included cardiovascular comorbidities and left ventricular dysfunction, and provided evidence that highest concentrations of CNP potentially has prognostic value in predicting future risk of myocardial infarction. Together, these data from the general population highlight the potential value of CNP and support the need for additional studies to evaluate whether mechanisms regulating CNP could improve outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Circulating C-Type Natriuretic Peptide and its Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Sangaralingham, S. Jeson; McKie, Paul M.; Ichiki, Tomoko; Scott, Christopher G.; Heublein, Denise M.; Chen, Horng H.; Bailey, Kent R.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Burnett, John C.

    2015-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is an endothelium-derived peptide that is released as a protective mechanism in response cardiovascular injury and/or disease. However no studies have investigated circulating CNP, identifying clinical factors that may influence CNP and its relationship to cardiovascular disease in the general population. We studied 1,841 randomly selected subjects from Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA (mean age 63 ± 11 years; 48% male). Plasma CNP was measured by a well-established radioimmunoassay and echocardiography, clinical characterization and detailed medical record review were performed. We report that CNP circulates at various concentrations (median 13 pg/ml), was unaffected by gender, was weakly associated by age and that highest quartile of CNP identified a high-risk phenotype. Subjects with CNP in the highest quartile were associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (multi-variable adjusted hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–2.09; P= 0.01) but not heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents or death over a follow-up of 12 years. Addition of the highest quartile of CNP to clinical variables led to a modest increase in the integrated discrimination improvement for risk of myocardial infarction. In a large community-based cohort elevated circulating CNP identified a high-risk phenotype that included cardiovascular comorbidities and left ventricular dysfunction, and provided evidence that highest concentrations of CNP potentially has prognostic value in predicting future risk of myocardial infarction. Together, these data from the general population highlights the potential value of CNP and supports the need for additional studies to evaluate whether mechanisms regulating CNP could improve outcomes. PMID:25895587

  17. A Novel Bioassay for the Activity Determination of Therapeutic Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Rao, Chunming; Shi, Xinchang; Li, Yonghong; Gao, Kai; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Junzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) is an important peptide-based therapeutic drug indicated for the treatment of acute heart failure. Accurate determination of the potency of therapeutic rhBNP is crucial for the safety and efficacy of the drug. The current bioassay involves use of rabbit aortic strips, with experiments being complicated and time-consuming and markedly variable in results. Animal-less methods with better precision and accuracy should be explored. We have therefore developed an alternative cell-based assay, which relies on the ability of BNP to induce cGMP production in HEK293 cells expressing BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A. Methodology/Principal Findings An alternative assay based on the measurement of BNP-induced cGMP production was developed. Specifically, the bioassay employs cells engineered to express BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A (GCA). Upon rhBNP stimulation, the levels of the second messager cGMP in these cells drastically increased and subsequently secreted into culture supernatants. The quantity of cGMP, which corresponds to the rhBNP activity, was determined using a competitive ELISA developed by us. Compared with the traditional assay, the novel cell-based assay demonstrated better reproducibility and precision. Conclusion/Significance The optimized cell-based assay is much simpler, more rapid and precise compared with the traditional assay using animal tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a novel and viable alternative assay for rhBNP potency analysis. PMID:23185490

  18. Permeability and contractile responses of collecting lymphatic vessels elicited by atrial and brain natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Scallan, Joshua P; Davis, Michael J; Huxley, Virginia H

    2013-10-15

    Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively) are cardiac hormones released into the bloodstream in response to hypervolaemia or fluid shifts to the central circulation. The actions of both peptides include natriuresis and diuresis, a decrease in systemic blood pressure, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Further, ANP and BNP elicit increases in blood microvessel permeability sufficient to cause protein and fluid extravasation into the interstitium to reduce the vascular volume. Given the importance of the lymphatic vasculature in maintaining fluid balance, we tested the hypothesis that ANP or BNP (100 nM) would likewise elevate lymphatic permeability (Ps) to serum albumin. Using a microfluorometric technique adapted to in vivo lymphatic vessels, we determined that rat mesenteric collecting lymphatic Ps to rat serum albumin increased by 2.0 ± 0.4-fold (P = 0.01, n = 7) and 2.7 ± 0.8-fold (P = 0.07, n = 7) with ANP and BNP, respectively. In addition to measuring Ps responses, we observed changes in spontaneous contraction amplitude and frequency from the albumin flux tracings in vivo. Notably, ANP abolished spontaneous contraction amplitude (P = 0.005) and frequency (P = 0.006), while BNP augmented both parameters by ∼2-fold (P < 0.01 each). These effects of ANP and BNP on contractile function were examined further by using an in vitro assay. In aggregate, these data support the theory that an increase in collecting lymphatic permeability opposes the absorptive function of the lymphatic capillaries, and aids in the retention of protein and fluid in the interstitial space to counteract volume expansion.

  19. Permeability and contractile responses of collecting lymphatic vessels elicited by atrial and brain natriuretic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Scallan, Joshua P; Davis, Michael J; Huxley, Virginia H

    2013-01-01

    Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively) are cardiac hormones released into the bloodstream in response to hypervolaemia or fluid shifts to the central circulation. The actions of both peptides include natriuresis and diuresis, a decrease in systemic blood pressure, and inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. Further, ANP and BNP elicit increases in blood microvessel permeability sufficient to cause protein and fluid extravasation into the interstitium to reduce the vascular volume. Given the importance of the lymphatic vasculature in maintaining fluid balance, we tested the hypothesis that ANP or BNP (100 nm) would likewise elevate lymphatic permeability (Ps) to serum albumin. Using a microfluorometric technique adapted to in vivo lymphatic vessels, we determined that rat mesenteric collecting lymphatic Ps to rat serum albumin increased by 2.0 ± 0.4-fold (P= 0.01, n= 7) and 2.7 ± 0.8-fold (P= 0.07, n= 7) with ANP and BNP, respectively. In addition to measuring Ps responses, we observed changes in spontaneous contraction amplitude and frequency from the albumin flux tracings in vivo. Notably, ANP abolished spontaneous contraction amplitude (P= 0.005) and frequency (P= 0.006), while BNP augmented both parameters by ∼2-fold (P < 0.01 each). These effects of ANP and BNP on contractile function were examined further by using an in vitro assay. In aggregate, these data support the theory that an increase in collecting lymphatic permeability opposes the absorptive function of the lymphatic capillaries, and aids in the retention of protein and fluid in the interstitial space to counteract volume expansion. PMID:23897233

  20. C-type natriuretic peptide in combination with sildenafil attenuates proliferation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zenitani, Masahiro; Nojiri, Takashi; Uehara, Shuichiro; Miura, Koichi; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kimura, Toru; Nakahata, Kengo; Miyazato, Mikiya; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Kangawa, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignant mesenchymal tumor and the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Because of several complications associated with intensive multimodal therapies, including growth disturbance and secondary cancer, novel therapies with less toxicity are urgently needed. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), an endogenous peptide secreted by endothelial cells, exerts antiproliferative effects in multiple types of mesenchymal cells. Therefore, we investigated whether CNP attenuates proliferation of RMS cells. We examined RMS patient samples and RMS cell lines. All RMS clinical samples expressed higher levels of guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B), the specific receptor for CNP, than RMS cell lines. GC-B expression in RMS cells decreased with the number of passages in vitro. Therefore, GC-B stable expression lines were established to mimic clinical samples. CNP increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in RMS cells in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the biological activity of CNP. However, because cGMP is quickly degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the selective PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil was added to inhibit its degradation. In vitro, CNP, and sildenafil synergistically inhibited proliferation of RMS cells stably expressing GC-B and decreased Raf-1, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. These results suggested that CNP in combination with sildenafil exerts antiproliferative effects on RMS cells by inhibiting the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. This regimen exerted synergistic effects on tumor growth inhibition without severe adverse effects in vivo such as body weight loss. Thus, CNP in combination with sildenafil represents a promising new therapeutic approach against RMS. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Autoradiographic localization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptor subtypes in rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Salas, S.P.; Singleton, A.; Polak, J.M. )

    1990-07-01

    The distribution of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) clearance receptors in rat kidney was investigated by in vitro autoradiography using des(Gln18,Ser19,Gly20,Leu21,Gly22)-ANP-(4- 23) (C-ANP) and 125I-Tyr0-ANP-(5-25) as relatively specific ligands of this receptor. Alpha-125I-ANP (100 pM) bound reversibly but with high affinity to glomeruli, outer medullary vasa recta bundles, and inner medulla. C-ANP (10 microM) inhibited greater than 60% of this glomerular binding but did not inhibit the binding of alpha-125I-ANP to medullary tissues. Alpha-125I-ANP also bound reversibly to the renal arteries up to the glomerulus. This arterial binding was only partly inhibited by 10 microM C-ANP. In the presence of 10 microM C-ANP, increasing concentrations of alpha-125I-ANP bound to a residue of glomerular sites with apparent dissociation constants of 0.82 +/- 0.16 to 2.73 +/- 1.20 nM at different cortical levels. 125I-Tyr0-ANP-(5-25) bound significantly to glomeruli and intrarenal arteries but not to vasa recta bundles or inner medulla. This glomerular binding also occurred with nanomolar dissociation constants. It was completely inhibited by 1 microM alpha-ANP and 10 microM C-ANP, but not by unrelated peptides such as gastrin. These results suggest that renal ANP clearance receptors are restricted in vivo to the glomeruli and renal arterial system of the rat.

  2. Plant natriuretic peptides induce proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Ilona; Marondedze, Claudius; Wheeler, Janet I.; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, structural and physiological evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptides (PNPs). PNPs are secreted into the apoplast, are systemically mobile and elicit a range of responses signaling via cGMP. The PNP-dependent responses include tissue specific modifications of cation transport and changes in stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic rate. PNP also has a critical role in host defense responses. Surprisingly, PNP-homologs are produced by several plant pathogens during host colonization suppressing host defense responses. Here we show that a synthetic peptide representing the biologically active fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) induces the production of reactive oxygen species in suspension-cultured A. thaliana (Col-0) cells. To identify proteins whose expression changes in an AtPNP-A dependent manner, we undertook a quantitative proteomic approach, employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, to reveal temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM PNP at two different time-points post-treatment. Both concentrations yield a distinct differential proteome signature. Since only the higher (1 nM) concentration induces a ROS response, we conclude that the proteome response at the lower concentration reflects a ROS independent response. Furthermore, treatment with 1 nM PNP results in an over-representation of the gene ontology (GO) terms “oxidation-reduction process,” “translation” and “response to salt stress” and this is consistent with a role of AtPNP-A in the adaptation to environmental stress conditions. PMID:25505478

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of an Ophiophagus hannah cDNA encoding a precursor of two natriuretic peptide domains.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Jiang, Ping; He, Yingying; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2011-04-01

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake. Despite the components are mainly neurotoxins, the venom contains several proteins affecting blood system. Natriuretic peptide (NP), one of the important components of snake venoms, could cause local vasodilatation and a promoted capillary permeability facilitating a rapid diffusion of other toxins into the prey tissues. Due to the low abundance, it is hard to purify the snake venom NPs. The cDNA cloning of the NPs become a useful approach. In this study, a 957 bp natriuretic peptide-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from an O. hannah venom gland cDNA library. The open-reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 210-amino acid residues precursor protein named Oh-NP. Oh-NP has a typical signal peptide sequence of 26 amino acid residues. Surprisingly, Oh-NP has two typical NP domains which consist of the typical sequence of 17-residue loop of CFGXXDRIGC, so it is an unusual NP precursor. These two NP domains share high amino acid sequence identity. In addition, there are two homologous peptides of unknown function within the Oh-NP precursor. To our knowledge, Oh-NP is the first protein precursor containing two NP domains. It might belong to another subclass of snake venom NPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The natriuretic peptide/guanylyl cyclase–A system functions as a stress-responsive regulator of angiogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michaela; Völker, Katharina; Schwarz, Kristine; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Flögel, Ulrich; Jacoby, Christoph; Stypmann, Jörg; van Eickels, Martin; Gambaryan, Stepan; Hartmann, Michael; Werner, Matthias; Wieland, Thomas; Schrader, Jürgen; Baba, Hideo A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) modulate blood pressure and volume by activation of the receptor guanylyl cyclase–A (GC-A) and subsequent intracellular cGMP formation. Here we report what we believe to be a novel function of these peptides as paracrine regulators of vascular regeneration. In mice with systemic deletion of the GC-A gene, vascular regeneration in response to critical hind limb ischemia was severely impaired. Similar attenuation of ischemic angiogenesis was observed in mice with conditional, endothelial cell–restricted GC-A deletion (here termed EC GC-A KO mice). In contrast, smooth muscle cell–restricted GC-A ablation did not affect ischemic neovascularization. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed BNP expression in activated satellite cells within the ischemic muscle, suggesting that local BNP elicits protective endothelial effects. Since within the heart, BNP is mainly induced in cardiomyocytes by mechanical load, we investigated whether the natriuretic peptide/GC-A system also regulates angiogenesis accompanying load-induced cardiac hypertrophy. EC GC-A KO hearts showed diminished angiogenesis, mild fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction. In vitro BNP/GC-A stimulated proliferation and migration of cultured microvascular endothelia by activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and phosphorylating vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and p38 MAPK. We therefore conclude that BNP, produced by activated satellite cells within ischemic skeletal muscle or by cardiomyocytes in response to pressure load, regulates the regeneration of neighboring endothelia via GC-A. This paracrine communication might be critically involved in coordinating muscle regeneration/hypertrophy and angiogenesis. PMID:19487812

  5. Release of NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide in children before and after adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Oran, Bulent; Ozturk, Kayhan; Çimen, Derya; Vatansev, Husamettin; Bulut, Serap; Arslan, Derya

    2013-05-01

    To measure serum B-type natriuretic peptide, especially N-terminal segment of its prohormone (NT-proBNP) and pulmonary arterial pressure levels and to determine whether NT-proBNP concentrations correlate with pulmonary arterial pressure levels in children before and after adenotonsillectomy. Twenty children with adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all patients to assess pulmonary artery systolic and diastolic pressure with cardiac dysfunction. The NT-proBNP was analyzed for correlation with pulmonary artery pressure. Our results showed that prohormone serum concentrations and pulmonary arterial pressures were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group at the preoperative evaluation. A significant decrease was detected among patients after surgery (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the study and control groups for prohormone serum concentration and pulmonary arterial pressure at the postoperative evaluation (p>0.05). We found increased serum prohormone levels and height pulmonary artery pressures in the children with adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy when comparing with healthy subjects. Our study supported that increased serum prohormone levels and pulmonary artery pressures as a result of adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy are reversible. Pediatric cardiologs and otolaryngologs should keep in mind an increased pulmonary artery pressure during management of children with adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy. Furthermore, Doppler echocardiography may be useful in the monitoring of pulmonary arterial pressure and in the follow-up of surgical outcome of children with adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Release of atrial natriuretic peptide from rat myocardium in vitro: effect of minoxidil-induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, P.; Taskinen, T.; Leppäluoto, J.; Ruskoaho, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ventricular hypertrophy is characterized by stimulation of ventricular synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). To examine the role of ventricular ANP levels in the secretion of ANP into the circulation, atrial and ventricular levels of immunoreactive-ANP (IR-ANP) as well as ANP messenger RNA (mRNA), and the release of IR-ANP from isolated perfused hearts, both before and after atrialectomy, were measured simultaneously in control and minoxidil-treated Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. 2. IR-ANP levels in the ventricles of untreated, 12 month-old SHR with severe ventricular hypertrophy were increased when compared to age-matched WKY rats. Minoxidil treatment for 8 weeks in both strains resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure and increases in ventricular weight to body weight ratios, plasma IR-ANP concentrations (in WKY from 133 +/- 20 to 281 +/- 34 pg ml-1, P less than 0.01; in SHR from 184 +/- 38 to 339 +/- 61 pg ml-1, P less than 0.05), and in ventricular IR-ANP contents (in WKY: 53%; in SHR: 41%). A highly significant correlation was found between ventricular IR-ANP content and ventricular weight to body weight ratio (r = 0.59, P less than 0.001, n = 26). 3. When studied in vitro, in isolated perfused heart preparations, the hypertrophied ventricular tissue after atrialectomy secreted more ANP into the perfusate than ventricles of the control hearts; ventricles contributed 28%, 22%, 18% and 15% of the total ANP release to perfusate in the minoxidil-treated SHR, control SHR, minoxidil-treated WKY and control WKY, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141796

  7. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SERUM BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE LEVELS AFTER THE FONTAN PROCEDURE

    PubMed Central

    Atz, Andrew M.; Zak, Victor; Breitbart, Roger E.; Colan, Steven D.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hsu, Daphne T.; Lu, Minmin; Mahony, Lynn; Paridon, Stephen M.; Puchalski, Michael D.; Geva, Tal; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although a useful marker of heart failure in adults, the utility of brain natriuretic peptide concentration (BNP) for children after the Fontan procedure is not well studied. Design BNP was measured in 510 patients aged 6–18 years in the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan cross-sectional study at a median of 8.2 years after Fontan. Patients underwent echocardiography, exercise testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional health status questionnaires. Associations of BNP with baseline patient characteristics, medical history and cross-sectional assessment were examined with multivariable linear regression analyses. Results The distribution of BNP was highly skewed, median 13.0 pg/mL (inter-quartile range: 7.1, 25.9), and was normalized with logarithmic transformation (logBNP). Among medical history variables, logBNP was greater in females (p=0.02) and older patients (p<0.001). Presence of pre-Fontan systolic ventricular dysfunction, greater number of post-Fontan complications, and thrombosis after Fontan were independently associated with higher logBNP (R2=0.16). Age-adjusted logBNP was significantly related to Fontan connection type, (lower with extracardiac conduits, higher with atriopulmonary connection; p<0.001). Lower physical functioning health status (R2=0.05), lower chronotropic index during exercise (R2=0.17), indices of diastolic dysfunction measured by echocardiography (R2=0.15), and higher total ventricular mass on MRI (R2=0.33) were related to higher logBNP. Conclusions Despite a markedly abnormal circulation, BNP was variable but within a normal range in the majority of Fontan patients in this large outpatient cohort. Higher BNP was associated with several markers of suboptimal outcome, although associations were weak. The routine use of BNP as an outpatient surveillance tool in asymptomatic Fontan patients is not warranted. PMID:21435188

  8. The relation between intraocular pressure change and plasma natriuretic peptide under simulated hypobaric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Karadag, Remzi; Sen, Ahmet; Yildirim, Nilgun; Basmak, Hikmet; Golemez, Haydar; Cakir, Erdinc; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) that occur during hypobaric hypoxic exposure are related to plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 26 healthy participants (all male, mean age 23.1 years). IOP was measured at local ground level, (792 m above sea level), then while in a chamber providing hypobaric hypoxic conditions (the subjects were exposed to a pressure equivalent to 9144 m for 1-3 min), and again after exit from the chamber. In each condition, the mean of three consecutive measurements of IOP was calculated for each eye. For BNP measurements, blood samples were drawn before the participants entered the chamber and just after they left the chamber. Results: IOP during hypobaric hypoxic exposure (18.00 ± 3.70 mmHg) was significantly greater than that before (15.66 ± 2.10 mmHg, P < 0.001) or after (16.10 ± 2.63 mmHg, P = 0.001) the exposure. IOP levels before and after the exposure were not significantly different (P = 0.136). Plasma BNP levels measured before and after exposure to hypobaric hypoxic conditions were not significantly different (P = 0.462). Conclusion: Plasma BNP levels did not change after short-term hypobaric hypoxic exposure, while the IOP increased. This increase may have been caused by some other systemic factors. As the hypobaric hypoxic conditions were reversed, IOP decreased to normal levels. PMID:20413920

  9. B-type (brain) natriuretic peptide and pruritus in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yoshio; Sonoda, Ayano; Nogi, Chieko; Ogushi, Yoko; Kanda, Reo; Yamaguchi, Saori; Nohara, Nao; Aoki, Tatsuya; Yamada, Kaori; Nakata, Junichiro; Io, Hiroaki; Kurusu, Atsushi; Hamada, Chieko; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and objective While pruritus is a common complication in hemodialysis patients, the pathophysiological mechanisms remain obscure. Recently, B-type (brain) natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been defined as an itch-selective neuropeptide in pruriceptive neurons in mice, and higher serum levels of BNP are frequently observed in hemodialysis patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of serum BNP in pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Patients and methods The current cross-sectional study was performed on 43 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. A visual analog scale (VAS) measuring the general severity of pruritus (values from 0 to 10, with higher values indicating more severe pruritus) in daytime and at night was self-reported by patients. Each patient’s background and laboratory tests, including serum BNP in the post-hemodialysis period, were collected. The correlation between VAS and clinical parameters was evaluated. Results Both daytime and nighttime VAS scores in diabetic patients were significantly less than those in nondiabetic patients. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pruritus in daytime was worsened by serum BNP (β=2.0, t=2.4, P=0.03), calcium (β=4.4, t=5.2, P<0.0001), and β2-microglobulin (β=2.0, t=3.0, P=0.007), while it was eased by age (β=−2.2, t=−3.2, P=0.0004). Nocturnal pruritus was severe in nondiabetic patients (β=1.7, t=3.8, P=0.0005) and weakened by the total iron binding capacity (β=−2.9, t=−3.1, P=0.004). Conclusion It is suggested that a higher level of serum BNP increases the pruritus of hemodialysis patients in daytime and that diabetic patients are less sensitive to itch, especially at nighttime. PMID:25187733

  10. Brain natriuretic peptide correlates with troponin T in patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sahinarslan, Asife; Guz, Galip; Okyay, Kaan; Torer, Nihan; Bali, Musa; Sindel, Sükrü; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-04-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure, the main cause of mortality is cardiovascular disease. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are found to be related with decreased survival in both the normal population and in patients with chronic renal failure in different studies. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between cTnT and BNP in patients with chronic renal failure. 58 chronic haemodialysis patients were enrolled prospectively for the study. Blood samples for measurement of cTnT and BNP were collected after the haemodialysis. The patients are divided into 3 groups according to cTnT measurements. Group I included the patients with cTnT < 0.05 ng/ml, Group II included the patients with cTnT between 0.05 and 0.1 ng/ml and group III included the patients with cTnT > 0. 1 ng/ml. We performed echocardiography in all patients to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction and thickness of septum and posterior wall. When BNP levels were compared among the 3 groups, we found that the BNP level was lowest in group I and highest in group III (165.13 +/- 125.44 pg/dl; 236.0 +/- 107.83 pg/dl; 280.71 +/- 153.25 pg/dl, respectively) (P = 0.01).The difference in BNP levels among groups was statistically significant and independent from left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular ejection fraction and volume overload in multiple regression analysis. We also searched the relationship between plasma cTnT and BNP levels and found a positive correlation (r = 0.3; P = 0.023). cTnT and BNP levels were related to each other in patients with chronic renal failure.These parameters can help to identify the patients with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Vagal reflex actions of atrial natriuretic peptide survive physiological but not pathological cardiac hypertrophy in rat.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sally G; Woods, Robyn L

    2004-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) enhances cardiac vagal baroreflexes in normotensive animals. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) this effect of ANP was absent. The reflex actions of ANP were preserved if hypertrophy was completely prevented in SHRs. However even a small amount of cardiac hypertrophy, with no hypertension, in SHRs was accompanied by a loss of the reflex bradycardic actions of ANP. In the present study, we investigated whether pathophysiological cardiac hypertrophy, induced by one-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension (1K-1C; n = 6), or physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic spontaneous, wheel-running exercise training (n = 7), similarly prevented vagal reflex actions of ANP. Cardiac baroreceptor-activated bradycardia was measured during rapid ramp increases ( approximately 5 s) in blood pressure after bolus doses of methoxamine or vehicle in conscious, chronically instrumented rats during infusions of ANP (50 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)). Compared with uninephrectomised control rats (n = 10), rats with 1K-1C had cardiac hypertrophy (approximately 55% increase in left ventricle:body weight (LV:BW) ratio; P < 0.05) and blunted vagal baroreflex gain (-0.93 +/- 0.18 versus-0.50 +/- 0.13 beats min(-1) mmHg(-1); P < 0.05). ANP did not augment baroreflex function in 1K-1C. Compared with their sedentary controls (n = 7), exercise-trained rats with cardiac hypertrophy ( approximately 20% increase LV:BW ratio; P < 0.05) also had blunted ramp baroreflex bradycardia (-1.28 +/- 0.23 versus-0.57 +/- 0.09 beats min(-1) mmHg(-1); P < 0.05). In contrast, ANP more than doubled baroreflex bradycardia in exercise-trained rats (P < 0.05). The aetiology of cardiac hypertrophy therefore influenced whether ANP retained its vagal baroreflex enhancing properties. Copyright 2004 The Physiological Society

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide as a preload depressor in acute renal failure secondary to congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Seta, K; Hayashi, T; Sugawara, A; Kasuno, K; Watanabe, S; Sumi, Y; Kijima, Y; Kawaguchi, K; Kotake, C; Seo, T; Toda, T; Kuwahara, T

    1998-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to verify the hypothesis that infusion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) might lower preload and be beneficial in the treatment of pulmonary congestion even without a diuresis in patients with acute renal failure (ARF) secondary to severe congestive heart failure (CHF). We studied 22 patients with ARF secondary to CHF. The mean age of the patients (14 men and 8 women) was 72 years (range 36 to 85 years). Seven of the patients had dilated cardiomyopathy, ten had ischemic heart disease, and five had valvular heart disease. ANP was infused intravenously and the following data before and 1 hour after the start of ANP infusion were recorded; urinary output, systemic blood pressure (SBP), pulmonary blood pressure (PBP), right atrial pressure (RAP), cardiac index (CI), heart rate (HR), and arterial blood oxygen partial pressure. Diastolic PBP were employed as pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Urinary output did not change. Mean SBP decreased from 92 to 85 mmHg (p < 0.05), and mean PBP decreased from 34 to 28 mmHg (p < 0.01). Mean RAP decreased from 11 to 9 mmHg (p < 0.01) and diastolic PBP decreased from 25 to 19 mmHg (p < 0.01). HR did not change significantly and CI increased 2.4 to 2.5 mi/min/m2 (p < 0.05). Arterial blood oxygen partial pressure increased significantly from 71 to 82 mmHg (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ANP decreased preload and improved arterial blood oxygen partial pressure, though diuretic response to ANP is attenuated in ARF secondary to CHE. Infusion of ANP will be very beneficial in cases in which dyspnea and pulmonary edema due to elevation of preload are the principal clinical problems.

  13. B-type natriuretic peptide after open-water and hyperbaric chamber exposure to 10 msw.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Paolo; Stenner, Elisabetta; Rinaldi, Adriano; Delbello, Giorgio; Piccinini, Clara; Bussani, Andrea; Biancardi, Bruno; Biasioli, Bruno; Berlot, Giorgio

    2009-08-01

    Hyperbaric environment exposure in humans has cardiovascular effects mainly characterized by an increase in afterload and a decrease in cardiac output. In a previous study we did not find B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) changes in healthy volunteers exposed to hyperbaric oxygen while other authors documented a significant increase in N-terminal pro-BNP after scuba diving. On the basis of these data we hypothesized that dry hyperbaric exposure and scuba diving could have different effects on BNP secretion. Nine healthy volunteers performed a 1-h open-sea air dive at 10 m depth (T); a few days later they were compressed in air in a hyperbaric chamber (CT) using the same dive profile. Three venous blood samples were drawn for each session: before starting the dives (T0 and CT0), immediately after exiting the water and the chamber (T1 and CT1), and 5 h later (T2 and CT2). A significant increase in plasma BNP was found with respect to baseline conditions after scuba diving both at T1 (median increment +32.69% [interquartile range +25.62 to +65.35%]) and at T2 (+28.03% [+23.08 to +38.92%]) while no differences were documented after the same dive in dry conditions either at CT1 (+1.34% [-17.57 to +33.55%]) or at CT2 (0.00% [17,67 to +21.62%]). These preliminary findings show that scuba diving and dry hyperbaric exposure, although at the same environmental pressure, cause different effects on ventricular loads in healthy subjects.

  14. Increasing B-type natriuretic peptide levels predict mortality in unselected haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Breidthardt, Tobias; Kalbermatter, Stefan; Socrates, Thenral; Noveanu, Markus; Klima, Theresia; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Mueller, Christian; Kiss, Denes

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac disease is the major cause of death in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis. Recent studies have found that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels accurately reflect the cardiovascular burden of dialysis patients. However, the prognostic potential of BNP measurements in dialysis patients remains unknown. The study included 113 chronic dialysis patients who were prospectively followed up. Levels of BNP were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. The potential of baseline BNP and annual BNP changes to predict all-cause and cardiac mortality were assessed as endpoints. Median follow-up was 735 (354-1459) days; 35 (31%) patients died, 17 (15%) of them from cardiac causes. Baseline BNP levels were similar among survivors and non-survivors, and failed to predict all-cause and cardiac death. Cardiac death was preceded by a marked increase in BNP levels. In survivors BNP levels remained stable [median change: +175% (+20-+384%) vs. -14% (-35-+35%) over the 18 months preceding either death or the end of follow-up, P< 0.001]. Hence, annual BNP changes adequately predicted all-cause and cardiac death in the subsequent year {AUC(all-cause) = 0.70 [SD 0.05, 95% CI (0.60-0.81)]; AUC(cardiac) = 0.82 [SD 0.04, 95%CI (0.73-0.90)]}. A BNP increase of 40% provided the best cut-off level. Cox regression analysis confirmed that annual increases over 40% were associated with a seven-fold increased risk for all-cause and cardiac death. Annual BNP increases above 40% predicted all-cause and cardiac death in the subsequent year. Hence, serially measuring BNP levels may present a novel tool for risk stratification and treatment guidance of end-stage renal disease patients on chronic dialysis.

  15. Procalcitonin and Midregional Proatrial Natriuretic Peptide as Biomarkers of Subclinical Cerebrovascular Damage: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Katan, Mira; Moon, Yeseon; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Spanaus, Kathartina; DeRosa, Janet; Gutierrez, Jose; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton; Sacco, Ralph; Elkind, Mitchell

    2017-03-01

    Chronic infections and cardiac dysfunction are risk factors for stroke. We hypothesized that blood biomarkers of infection (procalcitonin) and cardiac dysfunction (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP]), previously associated with small vessel stroke and cardioembolic stroke are also associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage, including silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume. The NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) was designed to assess risk factors for incident vascular disease in a multiethnic cohort. A subsample underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and had blood samples available for biomarker measurement (n=1178). We used logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of these biomarkers with silent brain infarcts after adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and medical risk factors. We used linear regression to assess associations with log-white matter hyperintensity volume. Mean age was 70±9 years; 60% were women, 66% Hispanic, 17% black, and 15% were white. After adjusting for risk factors, subjects with procalcitonin or MR-proANP in the top quartile, compared with the lowest quartile were more likely to have silent brain infarcts (adjusted odds ratio for procalcitonin, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7 and for MR-proANP, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.3) and increased white matter hyperintensity volume (adjusted mean change in log-white matter hyperintensity volume for procalcitonin, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.13-0.44 and for MR-proANP, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.004-0.36). Higher concentrations of procalcitonin, a marker of infection, and MR-proANP, a marker of cardiac dysfunction, are independently associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage. If further studies demonstrate an incremental value for risk stratification, biomarker-guided primary prevention studies may lead to new approaches to prevent cerebrovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in adult healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CVI]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of <0.05 being significant. Results The median daily and weekly CVI for the population were 13.1% (range 0-28.7%) and 21.2% (range 3.9-68.1%), respectively. The index of individuality was 0.99 and 1 for daily and weekly samples, respectively. The median daily and weekly RCVs for the population were 39.8% (range 17.0-80.5%) and 60.5% (range 20.1-187.8%), respectively. Conclusions and relevance This study demonstrates high individual variability for NT-proBNP concentrations in a population of adult healthy cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.

  17. C-type natriuretic peptide as a new regulator of food intake and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Inuzuka, Megumi; Tamura, Naohisa; Yamada, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Oyamada, Naofumi; Taura, Daisuke; Sonoyama, Takuhiro; Fukunaga, Yasutomo; Ohinata, Kousaku; Sone, Masakatsu; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2010-08-01

    The physiological implication of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) including energy metabolism has not been elucidated, because of markedly short stature in CNP-null mice. In the present study we analyzed food intake and energy expenditure of CNP-null mice with chondrocyte-targeted CNP expression (CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice), in which marked skeletal dysplasia was rescued, to investigate the significance of CNP under minimal influences of skeletal phenotypes. In CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice, body weight and body fat ratio were reduced by 24% and 32%, respectively, at 20 wk of age, and decreases of blood glucose levels during insulin tolerance tests were 2-fold exaggerated at 17 wk of age, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Urinary noradrenalin excretion of CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice was greater than that of CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice by 28%. In CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice, rectal temperature at 1600 h was higher by 1.1 C, and uncoupling protein-1 mRNA expression in the brown adipose tissue was 2-fold increased, which was canceled by propranolol administration, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Oxygen consumption was significantly increased in CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice compared with that in CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Food intake of CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice upon ad libitum feeding and refeeding after 48 h starvation were reduced by 21% and 61%, respectively, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. This study unveiled a new aspect of CNP as a molecule regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Further analyses on precise mechanisms of CNP actions would lead to the better understanding of the significance of the CNP/guanylyl cyclase-B system in food intake and energy expenditure.

  18. Atrial natriuretic peptide protects against Staphylococcus aureus-induced lung injury and endothelial barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Junjie; Moldobaeva, Nurgul

    2011-01-01

    Lung inflammation and alterations in endothelial cell (EC) permeability are key events to development of acute lung injury (ALI). Protective effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been shown against inflammatory signaling and endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by gram-negative bacterial wall liposaccharide. We hypothesized that ANP may possess more general protective effects and attenuate lung inflammation and EC barrier dysfunction by suppressing inflammatory cascades and barrier-disruptive mechanisms shared by gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. C57BL/6J wild-type or ANP knockout mice (Nppa−/−) were treated with gram-positive bacterial cell wall compounds, Staphylococcus aureus-derived peptidoglycan (PepG) and/or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (intratracheal, 2.5 mg/kg each), with or without ANP (intravenous, 2 μg/kg). In vitro, human pulmonary EC barrier properties were assessed by morphological analysis of gap formation and measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance. LTA and PepG markedly increased pulmonary EC permeability and activated p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinases, NF-κB, and Rho/Rho kinase signaling. EC barrier dysfunction was further elevated upon combined LTA and PepG treatment, but abolished by ANP pretreatment. In vivo, LTA and PepG-induced accumulation of protein and cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tissue neutrophil infiltration, and increased Evans blue extravasation in the lungs was significantly attenuated by intravenous injection of ANP. Accumulation of bronchoalveolar lavage markers of LTA/PepG-induced lung inflammation and barrier dysfunction was further augmented in ANP−/− mice and attenuated by exogenous ANP injection. These results strongly suggest a protective role of ANP in the in vitro and in vivo models of ALI associated with gram-positive infection. Thus ANP may have important implications in therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of sepsis and ALI-induced gram-positive bacterial

  19. Mechanical stretch increases brain natriuretic peptide production and secretion in the human fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Jorge A; Delpiano, Ana M; Cuello, Mauricio A; Poblete, José A

    2013-05-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized by human fetal membranes, both the amnion and chorion. This locally produced BNP inhibits the contraction of the human myometrium, contributing to the maintenance of myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that BNP production is increased by fetal membrane stretching, which is predicted to occur in the expanding uterus, and inhibited by epidermal growth factor (EGF), whose production in the fetal membranes increases in late pregnancy. Term fetal membranes were obtained during elective cesarean delivery before labor. Sections of membranes were placed in an isolated chamber containing DMEM: F12 medium (37°C) and stretched with a 35 g weight. Medium and tissue samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 18, and 24 hours for measurement of messenger RNA (mRNA) and BNP levels in the presence/absence of EGF (2 × 10(-9 )mol/L). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and β-actin were also evaluated to discard a nonspecific effect of mechanical stretch on protein expression. We found that amnion and chorion stretching increased the BNP mRNA (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) and protein (radioimmunosorbent assay [RIA]) levels from 18 hours onward. The effect of stretching was inhibited by EGF (2 × 10(-9) mol/L). Stretch did not increase iNOS or β-actin protein levels. We concluded that chorion and amnion stretching may increase BNP expression in the fetal membranes during pregnancy, while increasing biological activity of EGF may decrease BNP production in the chorion and amnion late in pregnancy. We postulate BNP is an important regulator of myometrial contractility during pregnancy, and its production is modulated by both stretch and progressive increase in EGF levels during pregnancy.

  20. Mechanical Stretch Increases Brain Natriuretic Peptide Production and Secretion in the Human Fetal Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Delpiano, Ana M.; Cuello, Mauricio A.; Poblete, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized by human fetal membranes, both the amnion and chorion. This locally produced BNP inhibits the contraction of the human myometrium, contributing to the maintenance of myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that BNP production is increased by fetal membrane stretching, which is predicted to occur in the expanding uterus, and inhibited by epidermal growth factor (EGF), whose production in the fetal membranes increases in late pregnancy. Term fetal membranes were obtained during elective cesarean delivery before labor. Sections of membranes were placed in an isolated chamber containing DMEM: F12 medium (37°C) and stretched with a 35 g weight. Medium and tissue samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 18, and 24 hours for measurement of messenger RNA (mRNA) and BNP levels in the presence/absence of EGF (2 × 10−9 mol/L). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and β-actin were also evaluated to discard a nonspecific effect of mechanical stretch on protein expression. We found that amnion and chorion stretching increased the BNP mRNA (reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) and protein (radioimmunosorbent assay [RIA]) levels from 18 hours onward. The effect of stretching was inhibited by EGF (2 × 10−9 mol/L). Stretch did not increase iNOS or β-actin protein levels. We concluded that chorion and amnion stretching may increase BNP expression in the fetal membranes during pregnancy, while increasing biological activity of EGF may decrease BNP production in the chorion and amnion late in pregnancy. We postulate BNP is an important regulator of myometrial contractility during pregnancy, and its production is modulated by both stretch and progressive increase in EGF levels during pregnancy. PMID:23012317

  1. Urine measurement indicates the plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration during optimization of heart failure treatment.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert G; Jaarsma, Tiny; Waldréus, Nana; Linssen, Gerard C M

    2016-01-01

    To assess the correlation between the amino-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration in blood and urine during a period when actively adjusting the treatment of heart failure (HF). Plasma and urine analyses of NT-proBNP were compared in 51 patients on admission to and discharge from a nurse-led outpatient clinic where HF treatment was optimized. The median time between the two measurements was 42 days. Correlations were analyzed using linear regression, where R(2) is the degree of variability in the plasma NT-proBNP concentration that can be accounted for by the urinary NT-proBNP. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the urine and plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP on both occasions, but R(2) varied greatly depending on how the data were presented. The correlation between the raw data showed an R(2) of only 30%, and it almost doubled upon logarithm transformation, which shows that the variability (error) was concentration-dependent. Correction of the urinary NT-proBNP for urinary creatinine further increased R(2) for the logarithm-transformed correlation to 68% on admission and 76% on discharge. The highest R(2) (77%) was obtained when the relative changes in urinary NT-proBNP/creatinine between admission and discharge were compared with the corresponding relative changes in the plasma concentration. The sensitivity and specificity of the urine in indicating plasma concentration changes > 10% were 82% and 86%, respectively. Relative changes in plasma NT-proBNP could be reliably estimated from urine samples during a period of optimization of HF treatment.

  2. Troponin T and Pro–B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Fetuses of Type 1 Diabetic Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Noirin E.; Higgins, Mary F.; Amaruso, Michael; Foley, Michael; McAuliffe, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cardiomyopathy is noted in up to 40% of infants of diabetic mothers, and the exact mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether fetal serum markers of cardiac function differ between normal and type 1 diabetic pregnancies and to examine the relationship between these markers and fetal cardiac structure and function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective observational study of 45 type 1 diabetic pregnancies and 39 normal pregnancies. All participants had concentrations of fetal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and troponin-T (TnT) measured at the time of delivery. All patients with type 1 diabetes had Doppler evaluation of the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus in the third trimester, and a subset (n = 21) had detailed fetal echocardiograms performed in each trimester. RESULTS Fetal proBNP and TnT concentrations were higher in the diabetic cohort than in the normal cohort (P < 0.05). ProBNP correlated positively with interventricular septum thickness (P < 0.05) but not with cardiac function indexes in the third trimester. In patients with poor glycemic control, there was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) between fetal TnT and the third trimester umbilical artery pulsatility index. There were also increased levels of fetal TnT in infants with poor perinatal outcome (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Biochemical markers of cardiac dysfunction are elevated in infants of diabetic mothers, especially those with cardiomyopathy or poor perinatal outcome. Hyperglycemia in early pregnancy may affect myocardial and placental development, thus contributing to the susceptibility to hypoxia seen in these infants. PMID:19690080

  3. N-terminal pro-C-natriuretic peptide and cytokine kinetics in dogs with endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Floras, A N K; Holowaychuk, M K; Bienzle, D; Bersenas, A M E; Sharif, S; Harvey, T; Nordone, S K; Wood, G A

    2014-01-01

    Serum N-terminal pro-C-natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) concentration at hospital admission has sufficient sensitivity and specificity to differentiate naturally occurring sepsis from nonseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). However, little is known about serum NT-proCNP concentrations in dogs during the course of sepsis. To determine serum NT-proCNP and cytokine kinetics in dogs with endotoxemia, a model of canine sepsis. Eighty canine serum samples. Eight healthy adult Beagles were randomized to receive Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 μg/kg) or placebo (0.9% NaCl) as a single IV dose in a randomized crossover study. Serum collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours was stored at -80°C for batch analysis. Serum NT-proCNP was measured by ELISA and 13 cytokines and chemokines by multiplex magnetic bead-based assay. Serum NT-proCNP concentrations did not differ significantly between LPS- and placebo-treated dogs at any time. When comparing serum cytokine concentrations, LPS-treated dogs had higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, TNF-α and KC-like at 1, 2, and 4 hours; higher CCL2 at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours; and higher IL-8 and CXCL10 at 4 hours compared to placebo-treated dogs. There were no differences in serum GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 or IL-18 between LPS- and placebo-treated dogs. Serum NT-proCNP concentration does not change significantly in response to LPS administration in healthy dogs. Certain serum cytokine and chemokine concentrations are significantly increased within 1-4 hours after LPS administration and warrant further investigation as tools for the detection and management of sepsis in dogs. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Evaluation of Pericardial Fluid C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients Undergoing Coronary Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guclu, Orkut; Karahan, Oguz; Karabacak, Mustafa; Yuksel, Volkan; Huseyin, Serhat; Mavitas, Binali

    2017-06-01

    Background Neurohumoral and hemodynamic mechanisms have an effect on cardiac activity. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is accessible in the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to determine whether CNP concentrations in pericardial fluid and blood are related to cardiac dysfunction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods In this study, 40 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled. The patients were separated into two groups according to left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF): group 1 contained 28 patients with normal LV systolic function (LVEF ≥ 50%) and group 2 contained 12 patients with impaired LV systolic function (LVEF < 45%). Plasma and pericardial fluid samples were acquired during surgery to measure CNP levels. Results In group 1, CNP levels were detected to be 0.46 ± 0.10 ng/mL in plasma and 0.66 ± 0.8 ng/mL in pericardial liquid. In group 2, these levels were 0.51 ± 0.09 and 0.79 ± 0.12 ng/mL, respectively. CNP levels were determined to be significantly higher in patients with low EF compared with those with normal EF in pericardial fluid concentrations (p = 0.013). Conclusions CNP level in pericardial fluid is a more sensitive and proper marker of LV dysfunction than CNP levels in plasma. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine pericardial fluid CNP levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. It may have a valuable role in organizing cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Incremental value of natriuretic peptide measurement in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santaguida, Pasqualina L; Don-Wauchope, Andrew C; Ali, Usman; Oremus, Mark; Brown, Judy A; Bustamam, Amy; Hill, Stephen A; Booth, Ronald A; Sohel, Nazmul; McKelvie, Robert; Balion, Cynthia; Raina, Parminder

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) independently add incremental value for predicting mortality and morbidity in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Medline(®), Embase™, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL were searched from 1989 to June 2012. We also searched reference lists of included articles, systematic reviews, and the gray literature. Studies were screened for eligibility criteria and assessed for risk of bias. Data were extracted on study design, population demographics, assay cutpoints, prognostic risk prediction model covariates, statistical methods, outcomes, and results. From 183 citations, only seven studies (5 BNP and 2 NT-proBNP) considered incremental value in ADHF subjects admitted to acute care centers. Admission assay levels and length of follow-up varied for BNP studies (31 days to 12 months) and for NT-proBNP studies (25-82 months). All studies presented at least one estimate of incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP relative to the base prognostic model. Using discrimination or likelihood statistics, these studies consistently showed that BNP or NT-proBNP increased model performance. Three studies used reclassification and model validation computations to establish incremental value; these studies showed less consistency with respect to added value. In conclusion, the literature assessing incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP in ADHF populations is limited to seven studies evaluating only mortality outcomes and at moderate risk of bias. Although there were differences in the base risk prediction models, assay cutpoints, and lengths of follow-up, there was consistency in BNP/NT-proBNP adding incremental value in prediction models in ADHF patients.

  6. Attenuation of post-shock increases in brain natriuretic Peptide with post shock overdrive pacing.

    PubMed

    Budeus, Marco; Salibassoglu, Emanuel; Schymura, Anna Maria; Reinsch, Nico; Lehmann, Nils; Wieneke, Heinrich; Sack, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund

    2010-03-05

    Predischarge defibrillation threshold testing is often performed a few days after ICD implantation in order to validate defibrillation thresholds obtained at the time of implant. Ventricular fibrillation is induced with such testing and causes an increase in serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels. BNP is an indicator for cardiac stress. We wanted to examine the feasibility to alter the trend of BNP after predischarge testing in VVI, DDD and CRT ICD's. We measured BNP before predischarge testing and 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes after predischarge testing in 13 groups with each 20 patients. We evaluated patients without post shock pacing and patients with a post shock pacing frequency of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 bpm and a duration of 30 and 60 sec as well as a post shock pacing frequency of 80 and 90 bpm and a duration of 120 sec post shock pacing. Patients without post shock pacing showed the highest BNP during the follow-up. The percentage values of BNP increased consistent significantly after 5 minutes compared with BNP before predischarge testing. The percentage values of BNP trend was significantly lower with a post shock pacing of 90 bpm and duration of 60 sec. In addition, we excluded a cardiac necrosis by predischarge testing because of similar values of myoglobin, cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase during the follow-up. Our results suggested that post shock pacing with 90 bpm and duration of 60 sec as the best optimized post shock pacing frequency and duration for VVI, DDD and CRT ICD's. A reduction of cardiac stress is going to be achieved with the optimization of the post shock pacing frequency and duration.

  7. Increased B-type natriuretic peptide levels in early-onset versus late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Gábor; Molvarec, Attila; Nagy, Bálint; Rigó, János

    2014-02-01

    We compared B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, clinical and laboratory findings in early-onset preeclampsia (EOP), late-onset preeclampsia (LOP) and healthy pregnant groups. We studied 40 healthy pregnant and 40 preeclamptic patients. Preeclamptics were divided in two groups, the EOP group (n=20) and LOP group (n=20), according to gestational age at the onset of disease. The distinction criterion for early- vs. late-onset was set as week 34 of gestation. The concentration of the BNP levels was measured by a sandwich fluorescence immunoassay. For statistical analysis of the clinical and laboratory findings non-parametric methods were applied. BNP levels were higher in EOP [61.35 (36.95-93.25) pg/mL] and LOP patients [32.4 (19.15-39.2) pg/mL] than in healthy pregnant women [10.05 (6.08-16.03) pg/mL] (both p<0.001). Furthermore, EOPs had significantly higher BNP levels as compared to LOP patients (p<0.001). A BNP cut-off <24.5 pg/mL had a negative-predictive value of 85.1% excluding preeclampsia. There was a significant inverse correlation between plasma BNP levels of EOP patients and sodium (p<0.05) and total protein concentrations (p<0.05). In the EOP group, a significant positive correlation was observed between plasma levels of BNP and hematocrit (p<0.05), serum potassium (p<0.05), urea (p<0.05) and 24-h proteinuria (p<0.05). BNP levels were significantly higher in EOP than in LOP patients. The cut-off value <24.5 pg/mL seems to be a powerful discriminative indicator excluding preeclampsia. The amount of proteinuria and total protein levels correlate with the elevation of the BNP levels. In EOP the extent of proteinuria is higher than in the LOP.

  8. Chronic Treatment with Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Beneficial Renal Effects and Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Mariana; Caniffi, Carolina; Bouchet, Gonzalo; Costa, María A.; Elesgaray, Rosana; Arranz, Cristina; Tomat, Analía L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on renal function, nitric oxide (NO) system, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as sex-related differences in the response to the treatment. Methods 10 week-old male and female SHR were infused with ANP (100 ng/h/rat) or saline (NaCl 0.9%) for 14 days (subcutaneous osmotic pumps). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded and diuresis and natriuresis were determined. After treatment, renal NO synthase (NOS) activity and eNOS expression were evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in the kidney. Collagen was identified in renal slices by Sirius red staining and apoptosis by Tunel assay. Results Female SHR showed lower SBP, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidney, and higher renal NOS activity and eNOS protein content, than males. ANP lowered SBP, increased diuresis, natriuresis, renal NOS activity and eNOS expression in both sexes. Renal response to ANP was more marked in females than in males. In kidney, ANP reduced TBARS, renal collagen content and apoptosis, and increased glutathione concentration and activity of GPx and SOD enzymes in both sexes. Conclusions Female SHR exhibited less organ damage than males. Chronic ANP treatment would ameliorate hypertension and end-organ damage in the kidney by reducing oxidative stress, increasing NO-system activity, and diminishing collagen content and apoptosis, in both sexes. PMID:25774801

  9. Thyrotropin modulates receptor-mediated processing of the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in cultured thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Y.L.; Burman, K.D.; Lahiri, S.; Abdelrahim, M.M.; D'Avis, J.C.; Wartofsky, L. )

    1991-03-01

    In a prior study of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding to cultured thyroid cells, we reported that at 4 C, more than 95% of bound ANP is recovered on cell membranes, with negligible ANP internalization observed. Since ANP binding was inhibited by TSH, we have further studied TSH effects on postbinding ANP processing to determine whether this phenomenon reflects enhanced endocytosis of the ANP-receptor complex. An ANP chase study was initiated by binding (125I) ANP to thyroid cells at 4 C for 2 h, followed by incubation at 37 C. ANP processing was then traced by following 125I activity at various time intervals in three fractions: cell surface membranes, incubation medium, and inside the cells. Radioactivity released into medium represented processed ANP rather than ANP dissociated from surface membranes, since prebound (125I)ANP could not be competitively dissociated by a high concentration of ANP (1 mumol/L) at 37 C. Chase study results showed that prebound ANP quickly disappeared from cell membranes down to 34% by 30 min. Internalized ANP peaked at 10 min, with 21% of initial prebound ANP found inside the cells. At the same time, radioactivity recovered in incubation medium sharply increased between 10-30 min from 8% to 52%. Preincubation of cells with chloroquine (which blocks degradation of the ANP-receptor complex by inhibiting lysosomal hydrolase) caused a 146% increase in internalized (125I)ANP by 30 min (39% compared to 15% control), while medium radioactivity decreased from 52% to 16%, suggesting that processing of the receptor complex is mediated via lysosomal enzymes. In chase studies employing cells pretreated with chloroquine, TSH stimulated the internalization rate of ANP-receptor complex. By 30 min, TSH significantly reduced the membrane-bound ANP, and the decrease was inversely correlated to the increase in internalized radioactivity.

  10. Circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations reflect changes in insulin sensitivity over time in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Walford, Geoffrey A; Ma, Yong; Christophi, Costas A; Goldberg, Ronald B; Jarolim, Petr; Horton, Edward; Mather, Kieren J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Davis, Jaclyn; Florez, Jose C; Wang, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to study the relationship between measures of adiposity, insulin sensitivity and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). The DPP is a completed clinical trial. Using stored samples from this resource, we measured BMI, waist circumference (WC), an insulin sensitivity index (ISI; [1/HOMA-IR]) and NT-proBNP at baseline and at 2 years of follow-up in participants randomised to placebo (n = 692), intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 832) or metformin (n = 887). At baseline, log NT-proBNP did not differ between treatment arms and was correlated with baseline log ISI (p < 0.0001) and WC (p = 0.0003) but not with BMI (p = 0.39). After 2 years of treatment, BMI decreased in the lifestyle and metformin groups (both p < 0.0001); WC decreased in all three groups (p < 0.05 for all); and log ISI increased in the lifestyle and metformin groups (both p < 0.001). The change in log NT-proBNP did not differ in the lifestyle or metformin group vs the placebo group (p > 0.05 for both). In regression models, the change in log NT-proBNP was positively associated with the change in log ISI (p < 0.005) in all three study groups after adjusting for changes in BMI and WC, but was not associated with the change in BMI or WC after adjusting for changes in log ISI. Circulating NT-proBNP was associated with a measure of insulin sensitivity before and during preventive interventions for type 2 diabetes in the DPP. This relationship persisted after adjustment for measures of adiposity and was consistent regardless of whether a participant was treated with placebo, intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin.

  11. Gene for the rat atrial natriuretic peptide is regulated by glucocorticoids in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D G; Gertz, B J; Deschepper, C F; Kim, D Y

    1988-01-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate the expression of the gene for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in neonatal cardiocytes. Dexamethasone (Dex) increased cytoplasmic ANP mRNA levels and media ANP immunoreactivity in a dose-dependent fashion. These effects were not shared by the other classes of steroid hormones and were reversed by the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 38486. The effect on ANP mRNA levels resulted, at least in part, from enhanced transcription of the gene. Dex effected a two-fold increase in ANP gene activity assessed using a run-on transcription assay. The turnover of the ANP transcript was approximated using a standard pulse-chase technique. The half-life of the ANP mRNA was 18 h in hormone-free media. In the presence of Dex this half-life increased modestly to 30 h, although the increase relative to the control did not reach statistical significance. The effect of Dex at the level of the individual myocardial cell was assessed by in situ hybridization analysis using a specific [3H]cRNA probe. These studies demonstrated a significant level of ANP expression within a subpopulation of cells in the cultures. Exposure of the cells to Dex for 24 h did not recruit additional cells into the expressing pool (27.3% cells/high power field vs. 31.3% for the control) but did increase the level of expression (i.e., grain density) within individual cells. These findings indicate that glucocorticoids stimulate expression of the ANP gene directly at the level of the myocardial cell. This results predominantly from transcriptional activation in cells already expressing the gene rather than through recruitment of previously quiescent cells. Images PMID:2971674

  12. B-type natriuretic peptide is an independent predictor of endothelial function in man.

    PubMed

    Pauriah, Maheshwar; Khan, Faisel; Lim, Tiong K; Elder, Douglas H; Godfrey, Valerie; Kennedy, Gwen; Belch, Jill J F; Booth, Nuala A; Struthers, Allan D; Lang, Chim C

    2012-09-01

    BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) has been reported to be elevated in preclinical states of vascular damage. To elucidate the relationship between plasma BNP and endothelial function, we have investigated the relationship between BNP and endothelial function in a cohort of subjects comprising healthy subjects as well as at-risk subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. To also clarify the relative contribution of different biological pathways to the individual variation in endothelial function, we have examined the relationship between a panel of multiple biomarkers and endothelial function. A total of 70 subjects were studied (mean age, 58.1±4.6 years; 27% had a history of hypertension and 18% had a history of hypercholesterolaemia). Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was evaluated by the invasive ACH (acetylcholine)-induced forearm vasodilatation technique. A panel of biomarkers of biological pathways was measured: BNP, haemostatic factors PAI-1 (plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1) and tPA (tissue plasminogen activator), inflammatory markers, including cytokines [hs-CRP (high sensitive C-reactive protein), IL (interleukin)-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) and MPO (myeloperoxidase] and soluble adhesion molecules [E-selectin and sCD40 (soluble CD40)]. The median BNP level in the study population was 26.9 pg/ml. Multivariate regression analyses show that age, the total cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoprotein) ratio, glucose and BNP were independent predictors of endothelial function, and BNP remained an independent predictor (P=0.009) in a binary logistic regression analysis using FBF (forearm blood flow) as a dichotomous variable based on the median value. None of the other plasma biomarkers was independently related to ACH-mediated vasodilatation. In a strategy using several biomarkers to relate to endothelial function, plasma BNP was found to be an independent predictor of endothelial function as assessed by endothelium

  13. Atrial natriuretic peptide decreases blood volume in intact and anephric rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trippodo, N.C.; Chien, Y.W.; Pegram, B.L.; Cole, F.E.; MacPhee, A.A.; Kardon, M.B.

    1986-03-05

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reportedly lowers atrial pressure and increases hematocrit, suggesting venodilation and/or decreased blood volume (BV). To examine these possibilities, rat ANP (99-126) was administered to Inactinanesthetized rats (313 +/- 9 g, +/- SE) at 0.5 ..mu..g/kg/min for 30 minutes. Urine flow increased by 0.05 ml/min (p < 0.001) during the last 15 minutes of infusion. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and thoracic central venous pressure (CVP) decreased (p < 0.001) by 12 and 0.5 mmHg, respectively; hematocrit increased by 4.1 units (p < 0.001) and BV (/sup 51/Cr-RBC) decreased by 3.4 ml/kg (p < 0.001). Mean circulatory filling pressure, measured by inflating an intracardiac balloon to briefly stop the circulation, did not change. Distribution of BV between the thoracic and spanchnic organs (whole-animal freezing in liquid nitrogen) was not measurably altered. The results suggest that the decrease in CVP was related more to decreased BV than to venodilation. To investigate possible mechanisms for the decreased BV, the same dose of ANP was administered to anephric rats. MAP decreased by 8 mmHg (p < 0.001); hematocrit increased by 2.4 units (p < 0.001) and BV decreased by 1.7 ml/kg (p < 0.05). The results indicate that short-term administration of ANP decreases blood volume by causing intravascular fluid to shift into the interstitium as well as by inducing diuresis.

  14. [Four-week simulated weightlessness increases the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in the myocardium].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Huai-Zhang; Xu, Peng-Tao; Chang, Hui; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-04-25

    One of the major circulatory changes that occur in human during space flight and simulated weightlessness is a cerebral redistribution of body fluids, which is accompanied by an increase of blood volume in the upper body. Therefore, atrial myocardium should increase the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), but the researches lack common conclusion until now. The present study was to investigate the expression level of ANP in simulated weightlessness rats, and to confirm the changes of ANP by observing the associated proteins of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). The tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate weightlessness. Western blots were carried out to examine the expression levels of ANP and SNARE proteins in atrial and left ventricular myocardium. The results showed that ANP expression in atrial myocardium showed an increase in 4-week tail-suspended rats (SUS) compared with that in the synchronous control rats (CON). We only detected a trace amount of ANP in the left ventricular myocardium of the CON, but found an enhanced expression of ANP in left ventricular myocardium of the SUS. Expression of VAMP-1/2 (vesicle associated SNARE) increased significantly in both atrial and left ventricular myocardium in the SUS compared with that in the CON. There was no difference of the expression of syntaxin-4 (target compartment associated SNARE) between the CON and SUS, but the expression of SNAP-23 showed an increase in atrial myocardium of the SUS compared with that in the CON. Synip and Munc-18c as regulators of SNAREs did not show significant difference between the CON and SUS. These results suggest that the expression of ANP shows an increase in atrial and left ventricular myocardium of 4-week tail-suspended rats. Enhanced expression of VAMP-1/2 associated with ANP vesicles confirms the increased expression of ANP in atrial and left ventricular myocardium.

  15. Brain natriuretic peptide as a predictor of weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory illness.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Shereen; Galal, Mostafa; Hasan, Ali A; Nafady, Asmaa

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction has been reported as an important mechanism of weaning failure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a sensitive and specific marker for cardiovascular dysfunction. To determine the value of BNP levels measured at initiation and end of a 2h spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) as a predictor of successful weaning of mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory illness. Thirty consecutive patients ready for weaning were prospectively enrolled in this cross-sectional analytic study over a 6-month period. All patients had been on spontaneous mode of weaning for at least 2h. Tidal volume, respiratory rate, rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), minute ventilation and PaO2/FiO2 were observed at initiation of SBT. BNP was measured at the initiation (BNP1) and at the end of SBT (BNP2). Weaning failure is defined as either the failure of SBT or the need for reintubation within 48 h following extubation. Out of the 30 included patients, 14 (46.6%) patients had failed weaning. PaCO2 and BNP2 were significantly higher in the patients with failed weaning as compared to those with successful weaning (P = 0.025, P = 0.031 respectively). However, BNP1 levels were not statistically significant between the 2 groups (P = 0.722). On multiple regression analysis, BNP% (percent change in the BNP level during the 2-h SBT) was the only predictor of weaning success. As compared to other weaning parameters, BNP% ≤ 14.9 had the best sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Measuring the percentage change in the BNP level during a SBT may be a good predictor of weaning success from mechanical ventilation in respiratory patients. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain natriuretic peptide improves long-term functional recovery after acute CNS injury in mice.

    PubMed

    James, Michael L; Wang, Haichen; Venkatraman, Talaignair; Song, Pingping; Lascola, Christopher D; Laskowitz, Daniel T

    2010-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is elevated after acute brain injury, and that it may play an adaptive role in recovery through augmentation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Through a series of experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the administration of BNP after different acute mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) injury could improve functional recovery by improving CBF. C57 wild-type mice were exposed to either pneumatic-induced closed traumatic brain injury (TBI) or collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). After injury, either nesiritide (hBNP) (8 microg/kg) or normal saline were administered via tail vein injection at 30 min and 4 h. The mice then underwent functional neurological testing via rotorod latency over the following 5 days and neurocognitive testing via Morris water maze testing on days 24-28. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed by laser Doppler from 25 to 90 min after injury. After ICH, mRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histochemical staining were performed during the acute injury phase (<24 h) to determine the effects on inflammation. Following TBI and ICH, administration of hBNP was associated with improved functional performance as assessed by rotorod and Morris water maze latencies (p < 0.01). CBF was increased (p < 0.05), and inflammatory markers (TNF-alpha and IL-6; p < 0.05), activated microglial (F4/80; p < 0.05), and neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade B; p < 0.05) were reduced in mice receiving hBNP. hBNP improves neurological function in murine models of TBI and ICH, and was associated with enhanced CBF and downregulation of neuroinflammatory responses. hBNP may represent a novel therapeutic strategy after acute CNS injury.

  17. Procalcitonin and Midregional Proatrial Natriuretic Peptide as Markers of Ischemic Stroke: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Katan, Mira; Moon, Yeseon P; Paik, Myunghee C; Mueller, Beat; Huber, Andreas; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2016-07-01

    Chronic infections and neuroendocrine dysfunction may be risk factors for ischemic stroke (IS). We hypothesized that selected blood biomarkers of infection (procalcitonin [PCT]), hypothalamic-pituitary-axis function (copeptin), and hemodynamic dysfunction (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide [MRproANP]) are associated with incident IS risk in the multiethnic, urban Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) cohort. A nested case-control study was performed among initially stroke-free participants. Cases were defined as first IS (n=172). We randomly selected controls among those who did not develop an event (n=344). We calculated Cox proportional hazards models with inverse probability weighting to estimate the association of blood biomarkers with risk of stroke after adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and medical risk factors. Those with PCT and MRproANP, but not copeptin, in the top quartile, compared with the lowest quartile, were associated with IS (for PCT adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-3.8 and for MRproANP adjusted HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6-7.5). The associations of PCT and MRproANP differed by stroke etiology; PCT levels in the top quartile were particularly associated with small vessel stroke (adjusted HR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4-18.7) and MRproANP levels with cardioembolic stroke (adjusted HR, 16.3; 95% CI, 3.7-70.9). Higher levels of PCT, a marker of infection, and MRproANP, a marker for hemodynamic stress, were independently associated with IS risk. PCT was specifically associated with small vessel and MRproANP with cardioembolic stroke risk. Further study is needed to validate these biomarkers and determine their significance in stroke risk prediction and prevention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations reflect changes in insulin sensitivity over time in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Walford, Geoffrey A.; Ma, Yong; Christophi, Costas A.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Jarolim, Petr; Horton, Edward; Mather, Kieren J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Davis, Jaclyn; Florez, Jose C.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We aimed to study the relationship between measures of adiposity, insulin sensitivity and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Methods The DPP is a completed clinical trial. Using stored samples from this resource, we measured BMI, waist circumference (WC), an insulin sensitivity index (ISI; [1/HOMA-IR]) and NT-proBNP at baseline and at 2 years of follow-up in participants randomised to placebo (n=692), intensive lifestyle intervention (n=832) or metformin (n=887). Results At baseline, log NT-proBNP did not differ between treatment arms and was correlated with baseline log ISI (p<0.0001) and WC (p=0.0003) but not with BMI (p=0.39). After 2 years of treatment, BMI decreased in the lifestyle and metformin groups (both p<0.0001); WC decreased in all three groups (p<0.05 for all); and log ISI increased in the lifestyle and metformin groups (both p<0.001). The change in log NT-proBNP did not differ in the lifestyle or metformin group vs the placebo group (p>0.05 for both). In regression models, the change in log NT-proBNP was positively associated with the change in log ISI (p<0.005) in all three study groups after adjusting for changes in BMI and WC, but was not associated with the change in BMI or WC after adjusting for changes in log ISI. Conclusion/interpretation Circulating NT-proBNP was associated with a measure of insulin sensitivity before and during preventive interventions for type 2 diabetes in the DPP. This relationship persisted after adjustment for measures of adiposity and was consistent regardless of whether a participant was treated with placebo, intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin. PMID:24554005

  19. Chronic subcutaneous brain natriuretic peptide therapy in asymptomatic systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    McKie, Paul M; Schirger, John A; Benike, Sherry L; Harstad, Lynn K; Slusser, Joshua P; Hodge, David O; Redfield, Margaret M; Burnett, John C; Chen, Horng H

    2016-04-01

    We have previously reported that asymptomatic systolic heart failure (HF) is characterized by an impaired renal response to volume expansion due to lack of activation of urinary cGMP which is corrected by subcutaneous (SQ) BNP. In the current study, we sought to define the cardiorenal response to intravascular volume expansion after 12 weeks of SQ BNP therapy. We utilized a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to compare 12 weeks of twice-daily SQ BNP 10 µg/kg (n = 22) or placebo (n = 12) in asymptomatic systolic HF. Subjects underwent two study visits: baseline and after 12 weeks of therapy. At each study visit, echocardiography, renal, and neurohumoral assessments were performed before and after intravascular volume expansion. The primary endpoint was change in urinary sodium excretion in response to volume expansion at 12 weeks, and we observed a greater increase in urinary sodium excretion [166 (77, 290) vs. 15 (-39, 72) mEq/min; P = 0.02] with SQ BNP treatment vs. placebo. Secondary endpoints included change in urine flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to volume expansion at 12 weeks. We observed a significant increase in urine flow (P < 0.01) and trend for differential response in GFR (P = 0.08) with SQ BNP treatment vs. placebo. Among patients with asymptomatic systolic HF, twice-daily SQ BNP therapy improved the cardiorenal response to volume expansion at 12-week follow-up. Further studies are warranted to determine if these beneficial physiological observations with chronic natriuretic peptide administration translate into a delay in the progression to symptomatic HF. © 2016 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  20. Endothelial actions of atrial natriuretic peptide prevent pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Werner, Franziska; Kojonazarov, Baktybek; Gaßner, Birgit; Abeßer, Marco; Schuh, Kai; Völker, Katharina; Baba, Hideo A; Dahal, Bhola K; Schermuly, Ralph T; Kuhn, Michaela

    2016-03-01

    The cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressure by activation of its cyclic GMP-producing guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor. In the lung, these hypotensive effects were mainly attributed to smooth muscle-mediated vasodilatation. It is unknown whether pulmonary endothelial cells participate in the homeostatic actions of ANP. Therefore, we analyzed GC-A/cGMP signalling in lung endothelial cells and the cause and functional impact of lung endothelial GC-A dysfunction. Western blot and cGMP determinations showed that cultured human and murine pulmonary endothelial cells exhibit prominent GC-A expression and activity which were markedly blunted by hypoxia, a condition known to trigger pulmonary hypertension (PH). To elucidate the consequences of impaired endothelial ANP signalling, we studied mice with genetic endothelial cell-restricted ablation of the GC-A receptor (EC GC-A KO). Notably, EC GC-A KO mice exhibit PH already under resting, normoxic conditions, with enhanced muscularization of small arteries and perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells. These alterations were aggravated on exposure of mice to chronic hypoxia. Lung endothelial GC-A dysfunction was associated with enhanced expression of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and increased pulmonary levels of Angiotensin II. Angiotensin II/AT1-blockade with losartan reversed pulmonary vascular remodelling and perivascular inflammation of EC GC-A KO mice, and prevented their increment by chronic hypoxia. This experimental study indicates that endothelial effects of ANP are critical to prevent pulmonary vascular remodelling and PH. Chronic endothelial ANP/GC-A dysfunction, e.g. provoked by hypoxia, is associated with activation of the ACE-angiotensin pathway in the lung and PH.

  1. Synthesis, internalization, and localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in rat adrenal medulla

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, G.; Chabot, J.G.; Garcia-Caballero, T.; Gossard, F.; Dihl, F.; Belles-Isles, M.; Heisler, S.

    1988-07-01

    Some, though not all studies, have indicated that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) can bind to adrenal medullary cells. ANP-like immunoreactivity (ANP-LI) has also been identified in catecholamine-secreting cells. Together, these findings suggest that ANP may be taken up and/or synthesized in the adrenal medulla. The present study was designed to ascertain, by in situ hybridization, whether adrenal chromaffin cells could synthesize ANP, to define by an in vivo ultrastructural autoradiographic approach, whether ANP could, in fact, bind to rat adrenal medulla cells, to determine whether there was a cellular (noradrenaline (NA) vs. adrenaline (A)) selectivity in the binding process, and to establish whether extracellular (125I)ANP could be internalized by these cells. The cellular and subcellular distribution of endogenous ANP-LI was also investigated in both cell types by cryoultramicrotomy and immunocytochemical approaches. The in situ hybridization studies indicate the presence of mRNA to ANP in about 15% of adrenal medullary cells. Intravenous injection of (125I)ANP resulted in a 3-fold, preferential and specific radiolabeling of A-as compared to NA-containing cells. In A-containing cells, plasma membranes were significantly labeled 2 and 5 min post injection; cytoplasmic matrix, mitochondria, and secretory granules throughout the time course studied (1-30 min post injection). Lysosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and nuclei were not labeled. ANP-LI was identified in both NA- and A-containing cells; in the former, it was almost exclusively localized in secretory vesicles, in the latter it was detected in plasma membranes, cytoplasmic matrix, nuclear euchromatin, some mitochondria and relatively fewer granules than in NA-containing cells.

  2. Creation of dialysis vascular access with normal flow increases brain natriuretic peptide levels.

    PubMed

    Malík, Jan; Tuka, Vladimir; Krupickova, Zdislava; Chytilova, Eva; Holaj, Robert; Slavikova, Marcela

    2009-12-01

    Chronic heart failure is very common in hemodialyzed patients due to several factors such as intermittent volume overload, anemia, and hypertension. Dialysis access flow is usually considered to have a minor effect. We hypothesized that creation of dialysis access with "normal" flow would lead to elevation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), which is a sensitive marker of heart failure. We included subjects with a newly created, well-functioning vascular access and normal left ventricular ejection fraction. They were examined before access creation (baseline), then again 6 weeks and 6 months after the surgery. Only subjects with access flow (Qa) < 1500 ml/min were included. Changes of BNP levels and their relation to access flow were studied. We examined 35 subjects aged 60.6 +/- 13.5 years. Qa was 789 +/- 361 and 823 +/- 313 ml/min at 6 weeks and 6 months after the surgery, respectively. Within 6 weeks after access creation, BNP rose from 217 (294) to 267 (550) ng/l (median (quartile range)) with P = 0.003. Qa was significantly related to BNP levels 6 weeks after access creation (r = 0.37, P = 0.036). Six months after access creation, there was only a trend of BNP decrease (235 (308) ng/l, P = 0.44). Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemoglobin levels as well as patients' weight did not change significantly. Creation of dialysis access with "normal" flow volume leads to significant increase of BNP, which is related to the value of access flow. The increase of BNP probably mirrors worsening of clinically silent heart failure.

  3. B-type natriuretic peptide: Usefulness in the management of critically-ill neonates.

    PubMed

    Salas, Gisela L; Jozefkowicz, Mariela; Goldsmit, Gustavo S; Disa, Gabriela; Rodiño, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Susana; Fariña, Diana

    2017-10-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is responsible for changes in the heart organogenesis and is associated with transition to extrauterine life. In the first week of life, BNP levels are high and return to normal with the physiological loss in weight. High BNP levels are associated with different conditions. To establish the relationship between BNP levels and criticality and the short-term clinical course among patients hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Observational and analytical study conducted in a prospective cohort. Criticality was defined as a requirement for assisted mechanical ventilation with a fraction of inspired oxygen of more than 50% and/or inotropes. Two blood samples were collected 72 hours apart. Seventy-three patients were included in the study. Depending on their clinical course on day 7, they were divided into 2 groups: patients with a good clinical course or a persistent, severe clinical course. The median baseline BNP level was similar in both groups (p: 0.15). The median BNP level at 72 hours was higher among patients with a persistent, severe clinical course (p: 0.005). The difference between both BNP values was calculated (ΔBNP: BNP level at 72 hours - BNP level at 0 hours). The ΔBNP was positive among patients with a persistent, severe clinical course (X= 1260 pg/mL; range: 426-2094) and negative in the group with a good clinical course (X= -967 pg/mL; range: -1656/-278) (p: 0.0002); sensitivity: 87%; specificity: 86%; positive predictive value: 74%; and negative predictive value: 93%. In this group of patients, the delta-BNP value reflected the short-term clinical course.

  4. Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Managing Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bernus, Anna; Wagner, Brandie D.; Accurso, Frank; Doran, Aimee; Kaess, Heidi; Ivy, D. Dunbar

    2009-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in children. In this study we aimed to investigate the value of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) in a cohort of children with PAH, with respect to monitoring disease severity as assessed by hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters. Methods We performed a prospective study to determine if BNP varies over time in this population and if these changes track with hemodynamic or echocardiographic parameters. The population included a group of 78 pediatric patients from January 2005 until April 2008. All patients were diagnosed with PAH and had serum BNP, catheterization and echocardiographic variables collected longitudinally. Results The median BNP level, for all observations, was 36.0pg/ml (interquartile range [IQR], 18.0 to 76pg/ml). There was no strong correlation found between commonly used echocardiographic or hemodynamic data and BNP. However, using a bivariate model, the change in BNP measurements over time significantly correlated with the change in the hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters. Patients with a BNP value greater than 180pg/ml had a decreased survival rate. Conclusions There is indication that BNP could be a useful marker to monitor disease severity in pediatric pulmonary hypertension. We show that simple correlations between variables and BNP are not likely to illustrate its usefulness due to variations in the normative levels. Instead, we propose that patient’s BNP levels should be monitored over time, as changes in BNP within a patient are likely to be more informative. PMID:18849405

  5. Effect of phorbol ester on the release of atrial natriuretic peptide from the hypertrophied rat myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, P.; Taskinen, T.; Järvinen, M.; Ruskoaho, H.

    1991-01-01

    1. To determine the cellular mechanisms of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release from ventricular cardiomyocytes, the secretory and the cardiac effects of a phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), known to stimulate protein kinase C activity in heart cells, were studied in isolated, perfused heart preparations from 2- and 21-month-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. TPA was added to the perfusion fluid for 30 min at a concentration of 46 nM after removal of atrial tissue. Additionally, atrial and ventricular levels of immunoreactive ANP (IR-ANP) and ANP mRNA, the distribution of ANP within ventricles as well as the relative contribution of atria and ventricles in the release of ANP were studied. 2. Ventricular hypertrophy that gradually developed in hypertensive rats resulted in remarkable augmentation of ANP gene expression, as reflected by elevated levels of immunoreactive ANP and ANP mRNA. The total amount of IR-ANP in the ventricles of the SHR rats increased 41 fold and ANP mRNA levels 12.9 fold from the age of 2 to 21 months. At the age of 21 months, levels of IR-ANP and ANP mRNA in the ventricles of SHR rats were 5.4 fold and 3.7 fold higher, respectively, than in the normotensive WKY rats. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated ANP granules within the hypertrophic ventricles of the old SHR rats, but not within normal ventricular tissue. 3. In isolated perfused heart preparations, the severely hypertrophied ventricular tissue of SHR rats after atrialectomy secreted more ANP into the perfusate than did the control hearts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 PMID:1826618

  6. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen; Xu, Lei; Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

    2014-01-01

    The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1:9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1:16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment.

  7. Negative Interference by Rheumatoid Factor of Plasma B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. Methods The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1∶9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. Results When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1∶16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Conclusions Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment. PMID:25144685

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide behaviour and myocyte hypertrophic profile in combined pressure and volume-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, Susana; González, Germán E; Puyó, Ana M; Rosón, María I; Pérez, Susana; Morales, Celina; Hertig, Cecilia M; Gelpi, Ricardo J; Fernández, Belisario E

    2007-09-01

    To investigate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and hormonal profile in cardiac hypertrophy resulting from sequentially applied overloads. We studied Sprague-Dawley rats with renovascular hypertension (RV), where pressure overload predominates, or deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt (DS), where volume overload predominates, at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, and the combination of both models in inverse sequence: RV 2 weeks/DS 2 weeks (RV2/DS2) and DS 2 weeks/RV 2 weeks (DS2/RV2), and their sham controls (Sh). Blood pressure and cardiomyocyte diameter increased to a similar extent in RV and DS at 2 and 4 weeks and in combined models. Cardiomyocyte length increased remarkably in the DS4 group. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was elevated in all hypertensive groups after 2 and 4 weeks. The RV2/DS2 group showed similar plasma ANP levels to RV4, but DS2/RV2 exhibited a three-fold increase in ANP levels (P<0.001 versus Sh4, DS2 and DS4). Atrial ANP mRNA remained unchanged in all groups. DS treatment alone or in combination with RV increased left ventricular ANP mRNA, meanwhile only RV treatment increased left ventricular B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA. Ventricular ANP expression levels, but not circulating ANP, correlated with both cardiomyocyte diameter (r=0.859, P<0.01) and length (r=0.848, P<0.01). Renal expression of natriuretic peptide receptor C (NPR-C) was unchanged in RV4 but decreased to a similar extent in the DS4 group and both combined treatments. Morphometric patterns seem to be more related to the paracrine function of the heart than to the secretion of ANP and the endocrine function. Plasma ANP in the DS2/RV2 group could indicate a different evolution of the remodelling process. ANP expression seems to be a more sensitive marker for volume than for pressure overload.

  9. B-type natriuretic peptide in the recognition of critical congenital heart disease in the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Das, Srikant; Chanani, Nikhil K; Deshpande, Shriprasad; Maher, Kevin O

    2012-08-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease having obstruction to the left ventricular outflow and ductal-dependent systemic circulation can present critically ill with shock. Prompt disease recognition and initiation of prostaglandins are necessary to prevent excess morbidity and mortality. We assessed a large cohort of newborn infants with ductal-dependent systemic circulation to determine if B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is consistently elevated at presentation, potentially aiding in diagnosis and treatment. The clinical records of infants with left-sided obstructive lesions admitted from January 2005 to June 2009 were reviewed. Infants were divided into 2 groups: group 1 was diagnosed with cardiogenic/circulatory shock at presentation, and group 2 consisted of infants with ductal-dependent systemic circulation without evidence of shock. B-type natriuretic peptide levels and other variables between the groups were compared. All patients with critical congenital heart disease presenting with shock had elevated BNP levels, ranging from 553 to greater than 5000 pg/mL. Infants in group 1 (shock, n = 36) had significantly higher median BNP levels of 4100 pg/mL at presentation compared with group 2 patients (no shock, n = 86), who had a median BNP of 656 pg/mL (range, 30-3930 pg/mL; P < 0.001). Every 100 U of increase in BNP at presentation increased the likelihood of shock (odds ratio, 100; P < 0.001). B-type natriuretic peptide is markedly elevated in neonates presenting in shock secondary to left-sided obstructive heart disease and is an important diagnostic tool to aid in the rapid identification and treatment of these patients.

  10. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet-leukocyte interactions via suppression of P-selectin expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotland, Ramona S.; Cohen, Marc; Foster, Paul; Lovell, Matthew; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2005-10-01

    The multifaceted process of immune cell recruitment to sites of tissue injury is key to the development of an inflammatory response and involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disorders. We recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an important endothelium-derived mediator that regulates vascular tone and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigated whether CNP inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation and thereby exerts a potential antiinflammatory influence on the blood vessel wall. We assessed the effects of CNP on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo in animals with high basal leukocyte activation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, eNOS-/-) or under acute inflammatory conditions (induced by interleukin-1 or histamine). CNP suppressed basal leukocyte rolling in eNOS-/- mice in a rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CNP were mimicked by the selective natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist cANF4-23. CNP also suppressed leukocyte rolling induced by IL-1 or histamine, inhibited platelet-leukocyte interactions, and prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of human blood. Furthermore, analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets revealed that CNP selectively attenuates expression of P-selectin. Thus, CNP is a modulator of acute inflammation in the blood vessel wall characterized by leukocyte and platelet activation. These antiinflammatory effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of P-selectin expression. These observations suggest that endothelial CNP might maintain an anti-atherogenic influence on the blood vessel wall and represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. endothelium | natriuretic peptide receptor type C | atherosclerosis | thrombosis

  11. Clinical Value of Natriuretic Peptides in Predicting Time to Dialysis in Stage 4 and 5 Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Sofia; Larson, Thomas; Cauliez, Bruno; Bauer, Fabrice; Dumont, Audrey; Le Roy, Frank; Hanoy, Mélanie; Fréguin-Bouilland, Caroline; Godin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Anticipating the time to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is an important but challenging issue. Natriuretic peptides are biomarkers of ventricular dysfunction related to poor outcome in CKD. We comparatively investigated the value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as prognostic markers for the risk of RRT in stage 4 and 5 CKD patients, and in foretelling all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events within a 5-year follow-up period. Methods Baseline plasma BNP (Triage, Biosite) and NT-proBNP (Elecsys, Roche) were measured at inclusion. Forty-three patients were followed-up during 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis, with log-rank testing and hazard ratios (HR), were calculated to evaluate survival without RRT, cardiovascular events or mortality. The independent prognostic value of the biomarkers was estimated in separate Cox multivariate analysis, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), creatininemia and comorbidities. Results During the first 12-month follow-up period, 16 patients started RRT. NT-proBNP concentration was higher in patients who reached endpoint (3221 ng/L vs 777 ng/L, p = 0.02). NT-proBNP concentration > 1345 ng/L proved significant predictive value on survival analysis for cardiovascular events (p = 0.04) and dialysis within 60 months follow-up (p = 0.008). BNP concentration > 140 ng/L was an independent predictor of RRT after 12 months follow-up (p<0.005), and of significant predictive value for initiation of dialysis within 60 months follow-up. Conclusions Our results indicate a prognostic value for BNP and NT-proBNP in predicting RRT in stage 4 and 5 CKD patients, regarding both short- and long-term periods. NT-proBNP also proved a value in predicting cardiovascular events. Natriuretic peptides could be useful predictive biomarkers for therapeutic guidance in CKD. PMID:27548064

  12. The use of pre-operative brain natriuretic peptides as a predictor of adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Litton, Edward; Ho, Kwok M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to assess whether pre-operative brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) are independent predictors of adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery. MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register databases were searched. Eligible studies included observational or randomized control trials measuring natriuretic peptide concentrations before induction of anaesthesia for cardiac surgery. Two investigators independently extracted the data and assessed the validity of the included studies. The predictive ability of pre-operative BNP or NT pro-BNP on mortality, post-operative atrial fibrillation (AF) and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) requirement was meta-analysed. The association between BNP or NT pro-BNP and other outcomes was systematically summarized. A total of 4933 patients from 22 studies were considered in the systematic review. Ten studies with one or more outcomes of interest were included in the meta-analyses. The strength of association between pre-operative natriuretic peptide levels and adverse outcomes after surgery was variable, as was the size and quality of the included studies. The summary areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for mortality, post-operative AF and post-operative IABP requirement were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.70), 0.61 (95% CI 0.58-0.64) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.89), respectively. With the limited data available, the associations between pre-operative natriuretic peptide levels and adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery were moderate. Future studies should assess whether pre-operative natriuretic peptides can provide additional independent predictive information to well-validated prognostic scores of cardiac surgery.

  13. Beta-blockers influence the short-term and long-term prognostic information of natriuretic peptides and catecholamines in chronic heart failure independent from specific agents.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Nelles, Manfred; Slavutsky, Maxim; Schellberg, Dieter; Doesch, Andreas; Katus, Hugo; Remppis, Andrew; Zugck, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF), the physiologic effects of natriuretic peptides and catecholamines are interdependent. Furthermore, reports state an agent-dependent effect of individual beta-blockers on biomarkers. Data on the short-term and long-term predictive power comparing these biomarkers as well as accounting for the influence of beta-blocker treatment both on the marker or the resultant prognostic information are scarce. We included 513 consecutive patients with systolic CHF, measured atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), noradrenaline, and adrenaline, and monitored them for 90 +/- 25 months. Death or the combination of death and cardiac transplantation at 1 year, 5 years, and overall follow-up were considered end points. Compared with patients not taking beta-blockers, patients taking beta-blockers had significantly lower levels of catecholamines but not natriuretic peptides. Only for adrenaline was the amount of this effect related to the specific beta-blocker chosen. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated superior prognostic accuracy for NTproBNP both at the 1- and 5-year follow-up compared with ANP, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. In multivariate analysis including established risk markers (New York Heart Association functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction, peak oxygen uptake, and 6-minute walk test), of all neurohumoral parameters, only NTproBNP remained an independent predictor for both end points. Long-term beta-blocker therapy is associated with decreased levels of plasma catecholamines but not natriuretic peptides. This effect is independent from the actual beta-blocker chosen for natriuretic peptides and noradrenaline. In multivariate analysis, both for short-term and long-term prediction of mortality or the combined end point of death and cardiac transplantation, only NTproBNP remained independent from established clinical risk markers.

  14. Involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme in insulin- and atrial natriuretic peptide-sensitive internalization of amyloid-β peptide in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shingo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Murata, Sho; Katsukura, Yuki; Suzuki, Hiroya; Funaki, Miho; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral clearance of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, involves elimination across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and we previously showed that an insulin-sensitive process is involved in the case of Aβ1-40. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism of the insulin-sensitive Aβ1-40 elimination across mouse BBB. An in vivo cerebral microinjection study demonstrated that [125I]hAβ1-40 elimination from mouse brain was inhibited by human natriuretic peptide (hANP), and [125I]hANP elimination was inhibited by hAβ1-40, suggesting that hAβ1-40 and hANP share a common elimination process. Internalization of [125I]hAβ1-40 into cultured mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (TM-BBB4) was significantly inhibited by either insulin, hANP, other natriuretic peptides or insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) inhibitors, but was not inhibited by phosphoramidon or thiorphan. Although we have reported the involvement of natriuretic peptide receptor C (Npr-C) in hANP internalization, cells stably expressing Npr-C internalized [125I]hANP but not [125I]hAβ1-40, suggesting that there is no direct interaction between Npr-C and hAβ1-40. IDE was detected in plasma membrane of TM-BBB4 cells, and internalization of [125I]hAβ1-40 by TM-BBB4 cells was reduced by IDE-targeted siRNAs. We conclude that elimination of hAβ1-40 from mouse brain across the BBB involves an insulin- and ANP-sensitive process, mediated by IDE expressed in brain capillary endothelial cells.

  15. Influence of doxazosin on biosynthesis of S100A6 and atrial natriuretic factor peptides in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Żaneta; Filipek, Anna; Majewski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension frequently results in severe complications in cardiovascular system and histopathological changes in the heart. To better understand the cellular processes and signaling pathways responsible for the proper functioning of the heart, we decided to check whether doxazosin affects the density of structures containing S100A6 and atrial natriuretic factor in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats. The aim of this study is to find differences in the density of the structures containing S100A6 and atrial natriuretic factor in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with doxazosin compared to untreated animals. Fragments of heart were collected from five spontaneously hypertensive rats and five spontaneously hypertensive rats receiving doxazosin for six weeks (dose 0.1 mg per 1 kg of body weight). On the paraffin sections S100A6 and atrial natriuretic factor peptides were localized in the heart using immunohistochemistry. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for S100A6 was observed in atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes and in the coronary vasculature. In the heart of hypertensive rats treated with doxazosin the S100A6 immunoreactivity was significantly lower compared to untreated animals. Immunodetection of atrial natriuretic factor in the heart of rats confirmed presence of peptide in atrial myocardium. Delicate atrial natriuretic factor-immunoreactivity was observed also in few ventricular cardiomyocytes. The atrial natriuretic factor-immunosignal was significantly weaker in hearts of hypertensive rats receiving doxazosin compared to spontaneously hypertensive rats untreated. Since we found that doxazosin reduces the levels of S100A6 and atrial natriuretic factor peptides in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats, it can be assumed that cardiovascular disorders that occur in hypertension may be associated with disturbances of cellular processes and signaling pathways. PMID:26515144

  16. Natriuretic Peptide Receptor B modulates the proliferation of the cardiac cells expressing the Stem Cell Antigen-1

    PubMed Central

    Rignault-Clerc, Stéphanie; Bielmann, Christelle; Liaudet, Lucas; Waeber, Bernard; Feihl, François; Rosenblatt-Velin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) injections in adult “healthy” or infarcted mice led to increased number of non-myocyte cells (NMCs) expressing the nuclear transcription factor Nkx2.5. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of the cells able to respond to BNP as well as the signaling pathway involved. BNP treatment of neonatal mouse NMCs stimulated Sca-1+ cell proliferation. The Sca-1+ cells were characterized as being a mixed cell population involving fibroblasts and multipotent precursor cells. Thus, BNP treatment led also to increased number of Sca-1+ cells expressing Nkx2.5, in Sca-1+ cell cultures in vitro and in vivo, in the hearts of neonatal and adult infarcted mice. Whereas BNP induced Sca-1+ cell proliferation via NPR-B receptor and protein kinase G activation, CNP stimulated Sca-1+ cell proliferation via NPR-B and a PKG-independent mechanism. We highlighted here a new role for the natriuretic peptide receptor B which was identified as a target able to modulate the proliferation of the Sca-1+ cells. The involvement of NPR-B signaling in heart regeneration has, however, to be further investigated. PMID:28181511

  17. Mutations in the Transmembrane Natriuretic Peptide Receptor NPR-B Impair Skeletal Growth and Cause Acromesomelic Dysplasia, Type Maroteaux

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Cynthia F.; Bükülmez, Hülya; Padayatti, Pius; Rhee, David K.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Pauli, Richard M.; Mundlos, Stefan; Chitayat, David; Shih, Ling-Yu; Al-Gazali, Lihadh I.; Kant, Sarina; Cole, Trevor; Morton, Jenny; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Faivre, Laurence; Lees, Melissa; Kirk, Jeremy; Mortier, Geert R.; Leroy, Jules; Zabel, Bernhard; Kim, Chong Ae; Crow, Yanick; Braverman, Nancy E.; van den Akker, Focco; Warman, Matthew L.

    2004-01-01

    The homodimeric transmembrane receptor natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B [also known as guanylate cyclase B, GC-B, and GUC2B]; gene name NPR2) produces cytoplasmic cyclic GMP from GTP on binding its extracellular ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). CNP has previously been implicated in the regulation of skeletal growth in transgenic and knockout mice. The autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia known as “acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux” (AMDM) maps to an interval that contains NPR2. We sequenced DNA from 21 families affected by AMDM and found 4 nonsense mutations, 4 frameshift mutations, 2 splice-site mutations, and 11 missense mutations. Molecular modeling was used to examine the putative protein change brought about by each missense mutation. Three missense mutations were tested in a functional assay and were found to have markedly deficient guanylyl cyclase activity. We also found that obligate carriers of NPR2 mutations have heights that are below the mean for matched controls. We conclude that, although NPR-B is expressed in a number of tissues, its major role is in the regulation of skeletal growth. PMID:15146390

  18. C-type natriuretic peptide-modified lipid vesicles: fabrication and use for the treatment of brain glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Shuan; Mu, Li-Min; Bu, Ying-Zi; Liu, Lei; Yan, Yan; Hu, Ying-Jie; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Lu, Weiyue; Lu, Wan-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy of brain glioma faces a major obstacle owing to the inability of drug transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Besides, neovasculatures in brain glioma site result in a rapid infiltration, making complete surgical removal virtually impossible. Herein, we reported a novel kind of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) modified vinorelbine lipid vesicles for transferring drug across the BBB, and for treating brain glioma along with disrupting neovasculatures. The studies were performed on brain glioma U87-MG cells in vitro and on glioma-bearing nude mice in vivo. The results showed that the CNP-modified vinorelbine lipid vesicles could transport vinorelbine across the BBB, kill the brain glioma, and destroy neovasculatures effectively. The above mechanisms could be associated with the following aspects, namely, long circulation in the blood; drug transport across the BBB via natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPRB)-mediated transcytosis; elimination of brain glioma cells and disruption of neovasculatures by targeting uptake and cytotoxic injury. Besides, CNP-modified vinorelbine lipid vesicles could induce apoptosis of the glioma cells. The mechanisms could be related to the activations of caspase 8, caspase 3, p53, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibition of survivin. Hence, CNP-modified lipid vesicles could be used as a carrier material for treating brain glioma and disabling glioma neovasculatures. PMID:28402948

  19. C-type natriuretic peptide-modified lipid vesicles: fabrication and use for the treatment of brain glioma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Shuan; Mu, Li-Min; Bu, Ying-Zi; Liu, Lei; Yan, Yan; Hu, Ying-Jie; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Lu, Weiyue; Lu, Wan-Liang

    2017-03-29

    Chemotherapy of brain glioma faces a major obstacle owing to the inability of drug transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Besides, neovasculatures in brain glioma site result in a rapid infiltration, making complete surgical removal virtually impossible. Herein, we reported a novel kind of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) modified vinorelbine lipid vesicles for transferring drug across the BBB, and for treating brain glioma along with disrupting neovasculatures. The studies were performed on brain glioma U87-MG cells in vitro and on glioma-bearing nude mice in vivo. The results showed that the CNP-modified vinorelbine lipid vesicles could transport vinorelbine across the BBB, kill the brain glioma, and destroy neovasculatures effectively. The above mechanisms could be associated with the following aspects, namely, long circulation in the blood; drug transport across the BBB via natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPRB)-mediated transcytosis; elimination of brain glioma cells and disruption of neovasculatures by targeting uptake and cytotoxic injury. Besides, CNP-modified vinorelbine lipid vesicles could induce apoptosis of the glioma cells. The mechanisms could be related to the activations of caspase 8, caspase 3, p53, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibition of survivin. Hence, CNP-modified lipid vesicles could be used as a carrier material for treating brain glioma and disabling glioma neovasculatures.

  20. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the guanylyl cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptor B: dephosphorylation is a mechanism of desensitization.

    PubMed

    Potter, L R

    1998-02-24

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) binds the guanylyl cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and stimulates marked elevations of the intracellular signaling molecule, cGMP. Here, the essential role of phosphorylation in the hormonal activation and deactivation of this receptor is described. Exposure of NIH3T3 fibroblasts overexpressing NPR-B (3T3-NPR-B) to CNP resulted in time-dependent decreases in both subsequent CNP-dependent cGMP elevations in whole cells and hormone-dependent guanylyl cyclase activity assayed in crude membranes. NPR-B isolated from resting 3T3-NPR-B cells was phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues, and exposure to CNP resulted in a time-dependent dephosphorylation and desensitization of the receptor. Immunoblot analysis and guanylyl cyclase activity assayed with the general activators Mn2+ and Triton X-100 indicated that these reductions were not due to receptor degradation. Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping analysis suggested that CNP treatment caused a complete dephosphorylation of approximately one-half of the NPR-B population. In vitro dephosphorylation of crude 3T3-NPR-B membranes with purified protein phosphatase 2A was highly correlated with losses in CNP- but not Mn2+- and Triton X-100-dependent guanylyl cyclase activity. Taken together, these data indicate that the catalytic activity of NPR-B is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation state and that dephosphorylation is a mechanism of desensitization.

  1. Clathrin-dependent internalization, signaling, and metabolic processing of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A.

    PubMed

    Somanna, Naveen K; Mani, Indra; Tripathi, Satyabha; Pandey, Kailash N

    2017-09-12

    Cardiac hormones, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP), have pivotal roles in renal hemodynamics, neuroendocrine signaling, blood pressure regulation, and cardiovascular homeostasis. Binding of ANP and BNP to the guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) induces rapid internalization and trafficking of the receptor via endolysosomal compartments, with concurrent generation of cGMP. However, the mechanisms of the endocytotic processes of NPRA are not well understood. The present study, using (125)I-ANP binding assay and confocal microscopy, examined the function of dynamin in the internalization of NPRA in stably transfected human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) cells. Treatment of recombinant HEK-293 cells with ANP time-dependently accelerated the internalization of receptor from the cell surface to the cell interior. However, the internalization of ligand-receptor complexes of NPRA was drastically decreased by the specific inhibitors of clathrin- and dynamin-dependent receptor internalization, almost 85% by monodansylcadaverine, 80% by chlorpromazine, and 90% by mutant dynamin, which are specific blockers of endocytic vesicle formation. Visualizing the internalization of NPRA and enhanced GFP-tagged NPRA in HEK-293 cells by confocal microscopy demonstrated the formation of endocytic vesicles after 5 min of ANP treatment; this effect was blocked by the inhibitors of clathrin and by mutant dynamin construct. Our results suggest that NPRA undergoes internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis as part of its normal itinerary, including trafficking, signaling, and metabolic degradation.

  2. Subcellular trafficking of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A with concurrent generation of intracellular cGMP.

    PubMed

    Mani, Indra; Garg, Renu; Tripathi, Satyabha; Pandey, Kailash N

    2015-09-15

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) activates guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), which lowers blood pressure and blood volume. The objective of the present study was to visualize internalization and trafficking of enhanced GFP (eGFP)-tagged NPRA (eGFP-NPRA) in human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) cells, using immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) of eGFP-NPRA. Treatment of cells with ANP initiated rapid internalization and co-localization of the receptor with early endosome antigen-1 (EEA-1), which was highest at 5 min and gradually decreased within 30 min. Similarly, co-localization of the receptor was observed with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1); however, after treatment with lysosomotropic agents, intracellular accumulation of the receptor gradually increased within 30 min. Co-IP assays confirmed that the localization of internalized receptors occurred with subcellular organelles during the endocytosis of NPRA. Rab 11, which was used as a recycling endosome (Re) marker, indicated that ∼20% of receptors recycled back to the plasma membrane. ANP-treated cells showed a marked increase in the IF of cGMP, whereas receptor was still trafficking into the intracellular compartments. Thus, after ligand binding, NPRA is rapidly internalized and trafficked from the cell surface into endosomes, Res and lysosomes, with concurrent generation of intracellular cGMP. © 2015 Authors.

  3. Role of brain natriuretic peptide as a novel prognostic biomarker in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Ramalingam, Krishnana; Conjeevaram, Jyoti; Munisusmitha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We investigated to study the prognostic importance of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke and measured plasma BNP levels and compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Risk factors, biochemical parameters, lipid profile, carotid and vertebral Doppler, imaging, and cardiac evaluation were done. Stroke severity was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission and functional disability by Barthel Index (BI) at 3 months. Ischemic stroke subtype was classified according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP). Data were entered in MS Excel, and appropriate statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software version 21.0. A P = 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean age of patients was 55.17 ± 11.37 years with a male:female ratio 3:1. OCSP showed total anterior circulation infarct (TACI) 35, partial anterior circulation infarct 9, lacunar infarct 12, and posterior circulation infarct 44. NIHSS on admission was average 10 ± 7 and BI was 57 ± 30. BNP in patients (435 ng/ml) was very high as compared to controls (<60 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between age and BNP (R2 = 0.34; P < 0.00); NIHSS and BNP (R2 = 0.255; P < 0.01), negative correlation between BI and BNP (R2 = −0.064; P < 0.01). Mean BNP levels across the OCSP showed higher values in TACI (F = 4.609 P = 0.005). Regression analysis showed that BNP can predict BI which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Plasma BNP levels was significantly elevated in patients with ischemic stroke. Our study concludes that high BNP levels are seen in large anterior circulation stroke and is a predictor for the poor functional outcome at 3 months. Determination of BNP levels as a biomarker could be helpful in predicting the outcome in stroke patients. PMID:27994354

  4. [High levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and copeptin and mortality risk].

    PubMed

    Rey, Corsino; García-Cendón, Clara; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; López-Herce, Jesús; Concha-Torre, Andrés; Medina, Alberto; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Mayordomo-Colunga, Juan

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether high levels of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), copeptin, and procalcitonin (PCT) plasma concentrations are associated with increased mortality risk. Prospective observational study including 254 critically ill children. MR-proANP, copeptin and PCT were compared between children with high (Group A; n=33) and low (Group B; n=221) mortality risk, and between patients with failure of more than 1 organ (Group 1; n=71) and less than 2 (Group 2; n=183). Median (range) of MR-proANP, copeptin, and PCT levels in group A vs B were, respectively: 209.4 (30.5-1415.8) vs. 75.0 (14.6-867.2) pmol/L (P<.001); 104.4 (7.4-460.9) vs. 26.6 (0.00-613.1) pmol/L (P<.001), and 7.8 (0.3-552.0) vs. 0.3 (0.02-107.0) ng/mL (P<.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for the differentiation of group A and B was 0.764 (95% CI: 0.674-0.854) for MR-proANP; 0.735 (0.642-0.827) for copeptin, and 0.842 (0.744-0.941) for PCT, with no statistical differences. The AUCs for the differentiation of group 1 and 2 were: 0.837 (0.784-0.891) for MR-proANP, 0.735 (0.666-0.804) for copeptin, and 0.804 (0.715-0.892) for PCT, with statistical differences between MR-proANP and copeptin, P=.01. High levels of MR-proANP, copeptin and PCT were associated with increased mortality risk scores. MR-proANP showed a higher association than copeptin with number of organs in failure. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Circulating Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in the General Community: Relationship to Cardiorenal and Metabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Buglioni, Alessia; Cannone, Valentina; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Sangaralingham, S. Jeson; Heublein, Denise M.; Scott, Christopher G.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo; Burnett, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to investigate the role of aldosterone as a mediator of disease and its relationship with the counter-regulatory natriuretic peptide (NP) system. We measured plasma aldosterone (n=1674; age ≥45 years old) in a random sample of the general population from Olmsted County, MN. In a multivariate logistic regression model, aldosterone analyzed as a continuous variable was associated with hypertension (HTN) (OR=1.75, 95%CI= 1.57,1.96; p<0.0001), obesity (OR=1.34, 95%CI= 1.21,1.48; p<0.0001), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR=1.39, 95%CI= 1.22,1.60; p<0.0001), central obesity (OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.32,1.63; p<0.0001), metabolic syndrome (MetS) (OR=1.41, 95%CI= 1.26,1.58; p<0.0001), high triglycerides (OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.11,1.36; p<0.0001), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH) (OR=1.22, 95%CI= 1.09,1.38; p=0.0007) and atrial fibrillation (OR=1.24, 95%CI= 1.01,1.53; p=0.04), after adjusting for age and sex. The associations with HTN, central obesity, MetS, triglycerides and cLVH remained significant after further adjustment for BMI, NPs, and renal function. Furthermore, aldosterone in the highest tertile correlated with lower NP levels and increased mortality. Importantly, most of these associations remained significant even after excluding subjects with aldosterone levels above the normal range. In conclusion, we report that aldosterone is associated with HTN, CKD, obesity, MetS, cLVH, and lower NPs in the general community. Our data suggests that aldosterone, even within the normal range, may be a biomarker of cardiorenal and metabolic disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate a therapeutic and preventive strategy to delay the onset and/or progression of disease, using mineralocorticoid antagonists or chronic NP administration in high risk subjects identified by plasma aldosterone. PMID:25368032

  6. Circulating aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in the general community: relationship to cardiorenal and metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Buglioni, Alessia; Cannone, Valentina; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Heublein, Denise M; Scott, Christopher G; Bailey, Kent R; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo; Burnett, John C

    2015-01-01

    We sought to investigate the role of aldosterone as a mediator of disease and its relationship with the counter-regulatory natriuretic peptide (NP) system. We measured plasma aldosterone (n=1674; aged≥45 years old) in a random sample of the general population from Olmsted County, MN. In a multivariate logistic regression model, aldosterone analyzed as a continuous variable was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR]=1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.57-1.96; P<0.0001), obesity (OR=1.34; 95% CI=1.21-1.48; P<0.0001), chronic kidney disease (OR=1.39; 95% CI=1.22-1.60; P<0.0001), central obesity (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.32-1.63; P<0.0001), metabolic syndrome (OR=1.41; 95% CI=1.26-1.58; P<0.0001), high triglycerides (OR=1.23; 95% CI=1.11-1.36; P<0.0001), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (OR=1.22; 95% CI=1.09-1.38; P=0.0007), and atrial fibrillation (OR=1.24; 95% CI=1.01-1.53; P=0.04), after adjusting for age and sex. The associations with hypertension, central obesity, metabolic syndrome, triglycerides, and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy remained significant after further adjustment for body mass index, NPs, and renal function. Furthermore, aldosterone in the highest tertile correlated with lower NP levels and increased mortality. Importantly, most of these associations remained significant even after excluding subjects with aldosterone levels above the normal range. In conclusion, we report that aldosterone is associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, and lower NPs in the general community. Our data suggest that aldosterone, even within the normal range, may be a biomarker of cardiorenal and metabolic disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate a therapeutic and preventive strategy to delay the onset and progression of disease, using mineralocorticoid antagonists or chronic NP administration in high-risk subjects identified by plasma aldosterone. © 2014

  7. Evaluation of cardiac functions of cirrhotic children using serum brain natriuretic peptide and tissue Doppler imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fattouh, Aya M; El-Shabrawi, Mortada H; Mahmoud, Enas H; Ahmed, Wafaa O

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is described as the presence of cardiac dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. In children with chronic liver disease, CCM has been very rarely investigated. The Aim of the Study: Is to evaluate the cardiac function of cirrhotic children to identify those with CCM. Patients and Methods: Fifty-two cirrhotic patients and 53 age and sex matched controls were assessed using serum brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), conventional echocardiography, and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: Patients’ mean ages were 7.66 ± 4.16 years (vs. 6.88 ± 3.04 years for the controls). The study included 27 males and 25 females (28 and 25 respectively for the controls). Patients had larger left atrium and right ventricle (RV) (P value 0.05) and increased LV posterior wall thickness than controls (P value 0.04). They had higher late atrial diastolic filling velocity (A) of tricuspid valve (TV) inflow (0.59 ± 0.17 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1 m/s, P < 0.001) and lower ratios between the early diastolic filling velocity (E) and A wave velocity (E/A) of both mitral valve and TV inflow (1.7 ± 0.35 vs. 1.87 ± 0.34 and 1.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.5 ± 0.3, P < 0.005 and 0.0008, respectively). Patients had significantly longer isovolumic relaxation time of LV (45.5 ± 11.1 vs. 40.5 ± 7.7 ms P 0.008), higher late diastolic peak myocardial velocity (A’) (11.8 ± 3.6 vs. 9.5 ± 2.7 ms, P 0.0003) and systolic velocity (S’) of the RV (14.5 ± 2.7 vs. 13.2 ± 2.9, P 0.01) and significantly higher myocardial performance index of both LV and RV (P 0.001 and 0.01). BNP levels were significantly higher in cases than controls (5.25 ng/l vs. 3.75 ng/l, P < 0.04) and was correlated with the E wave velocity of the TV (r 0.004) and the E/E’ ratio of the RV (r 0.001). None of the clinical or laboratory data were correlated with the BNP level. Conclusion Cirrhotic children have cardiac dysfunction mainly in the form of diastolic dysfunction. There is a need that CCM be more accurately

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide modulates the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells via KCNQ1 expression

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIA; ZHAO, ZHILONG; ZU, CHAO; HU, HAIJIAN; SHEN, HUI; ZHANG, MINGXIN; WANG, JIANSHENG

    2013-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain NP (BNP) belong to the NP family that regulates mammalian blood volume and blood pressure. ANP signaling through NP receptor A (NPR-A)/cyclic guanosine 3′5′-monophosphate (cGMP)/ cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activates various downstream effectors involved in cell growth, apoptosis, proliferation and inflammation. Evidence has shown the critical role of plasma K+ channels in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation. However, the role of ANP in the proliferation of gastric cancer cells is not clear. In the present study, the expression of NPR-A in the human gastric cancer cell line, AGS, and the effect of ANP on the proliferation of AGS cells were investigated using western blotting, immunofluorescence, qPCR and patch clamp assays. The K+ current was also analyzed in the effect of ANP on the proliferation of AGS cells. NPR-A was expressed in the human gastric cancer AGS cell line. Lower concentrations of ANP promoted the proliferation of the AGS cells, although higher concentrations decreased their proliferation. Significant increases in the levels of cGMP activity were observed in the AGS cells treated with 10−10, 10−9 and 10−8 M ANP compared with the controls, but no significant differences were observed in the 10−7 and 10−6 M ANP groups. The patch clamp results showed that 10−9 M ANP significantly increased the tetraethylammonium (TEA)- and 293B-sensitive K+ current, while 10−6 M ANP significantly decreased the TEA- and 293B-sensitive K+ current. The results showed that 10−10 and 10−9 M ANP significantly upregulated the expression of potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) at the protein and mRNA levels, although 10−7 and 10−6 M ANP significantly downregulated the expression of KCNQ1. The data indicated that lower and higher concentrations of ANP have opposite effects on the proliferation of AGS cells through cGMP-dependent or -independent pathways. KCNQ1

  9. The effect of atrial natriuretic peptide infusion on intestinal injury in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Elbaradey, Ghada F.; Elshmaa, Nagat Sayed; Hodeib, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in septic shock. Material and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled, observer-blinded study was carried out in surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU), University Hospital. Forty adult patients in septic shock were randomly divided into two groups, control group (Group C) received normal saline and ANP group (Group A) patients received ANP in the form of 1.5 mg vial added to 250 ml solvent in plastic bag (1 ml = 6 micg) given at 2 mcg/kg intravenous bolus over 1 min followed by 0.01 mcg/kg/min for 24 h. The primary outcome measurements were blood marker of intestinal hypoperfusion in form of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), malondialdehyde (MDA), myloperoxidase enzyme activity (MPO), protein carbonyl (PC), and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPA) measured before start of ANP infusion, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after start of infusion. The secondary outcome measurements were the duration of noradrenaline infusion, duration of ICU stay, hospital mortality rate, and complications related to ANP. Results: In comparison with Group C, Group A showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in serum level of MPO, MDA, PC, and I-FABP, with a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum level of GPA, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after the start of ANP infusion. There was significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mean duration of noradrenaline infusion, the length of ICU stay and mortality rate in Group A in comparison with Group C. In Group A, seven patients had mean arterial blood pressure < 65 mmHg but respond to volume resuscitation, three patients serum sodium was 125–130 mmol/L. Conclusion: In cases of septic shock, concomitant administration of ANP with noradrenaline may have a protective effect against intestinal injury through a decrease in the level of intestinal hypoperfusion owing to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect. PMID

  10. Factors Associated with Serum B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Infants with Single Ventricles

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Ryan J.; Zak, Victor; Hsu, Daphne; Cnota, James; Colan, Steven D.; Hehir, David; Kantor, Paul; Levine, Jami C.; Margossian, Renee; Richmond, Marc; Szwast, Anita; Williams, Derek; Williams, Richard; Atz, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the value of B-type natriuretic peptide measurements (BNP) in infants with single ventricle (SV) physiology are lacking. The objective of this analysis was to describe the changes in BNP in infants with SV physiology before and after superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. Methods BNP levels were measured by a core laboratory pre-SCPC (5.0 ± 1.6 months) and at age 14 months during a multicenter trial of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition therapy in infants with SV. Multivariable longitudinal analysis was utilized to model the associations between BNP with three sets of grouped variables (echocardiographic, catheterization, growth). Multivariable analysis was performed to assess associations with patient characteristics at both visits. Associations between BNP and neurodevelopmental variables were investigated at the 14 month visit as neurodevelopmental assessment was performed only at this visit. Results BNP was significantly higher before SCPC (n=173) than at 14 months (n=134); median [IQR] 80.8 pg/ml [35–187] v. 34.5 pg/ml [17–67], p<0.01. BNP > 100 pg/ml was present in 72 (42%) subjects pre-SCPC and 21 (16%) at 14 months. In the 117 patients who had BNP at both visits, the median BNP decreased 32 pg/mL [1–79 pg/mL], p<0.01. In longitudinal multivariable analysis, higher BNP were associated with a higher end-systolic volume z-score (p=0.01), greater degree of atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation (p<0.01), lower weight z-score (p<0.01), and lower length z-score (p=0.02) In multivariable analyses, higher BNP at 14 months was associated with presence of arrhythmia post-SCPC surgery (p<0.01), prior Norwood procedure (p<0.01), longer length of hospital stay post-SCPC surgery (p=0.04), and lower Bayley Psychomotor Developmental Index (p=0.02). Conclusion BNP decreases in infants with SV from the pre- SCPC visit to 14 months. Higher BNP is associated with increased ventricular dilation in systole, increased AV valve

  11. [Application of B type natriuretic peptide in fluid therapy after major abdominal operations].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Peng, Kai-qin; Hu, Yuan-gui; Shao, Yong-sheng; Zhu, Ling; Zhu, Guo-chao; Quan, Zhuo-yong; Zhang, Ying-tian

    2011-10-11

    To evaluate the values of serum level of B type natriuretic peptide level (BNP) in the prediction of fluid overloading after major abdominal operations. The levels of BNP were dynamically monitored in 105 patients during peri-operative period from February 2009 to November 2010. Then comparisons were made with age and the volume of positive fluid balance. A post-operative elevation of BNP was observed in all cases. Among them, the peak level of BNP exceeded 100 ng/L in 32 patients while a normal peak level of BNP was found in 73 patients. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was diagnosed in 5 patients. At every single time point, the volume of positive fluid balance showed no significant difference among the peak level of BNP < 100 ng/L, ≥ 100 ng/L and CHF patients (all P > 0.05). In the group of peak level of BNP ≥ 100 ng/L, the patients received post-operative diuretic and the urine volume increased significantly [(280 ± 55) ml/h vs (82 ± 22) ml/h, P < 0.05]. However, in the group of the peak level of BNP < 100 ng/L, the urine volume showed no difference after dosing of diuretic [(95 ± 18) ml/h vs (89 ± 24) ml/h, P > 0.05]. Single variance analysis showed that the elevated level of BNP was associated with age and concurrent cardiopulmonary diseases (R = 0.87, P = 0.006) but not with the volume of positive fluid balance (R = 0.43, P = 0.080). And multiple variance analysis showed the similar results (R = 0.59, P = 0.020, R = 0.38, P = 0.120). In all cases, the levels of BNP peaked at 12 hours post-operation. However, body weight and the volume of positive fluid balance peaked at 18 - 24 hours post-operation. The post-operative level of BNP is associated with age. And a highly elevated level of BNP may predict the occurrence of fluid overloading. An early peak of BNP value may be used as a cut-off point of positive and negative fluid balances.

  12. B-type natriuretic peptide levels in preterm neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a marker of severity?

    PubMed

    Kalra, Vaneet Kumar; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Arora, Prem; Natarajan, Girija

    2014-11-01

    B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone released in response to stretching of the ventricular wall. The role of BNP as a biomarker of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not been clarified. To determine if plasma BNP concentrations correlate with the severity of BPD. This prospective observational case control study included 60 preterm infants (≤32 weeks); 27 infants had no/mild BPD, 19 had moderate and 14 had severe BPD. BNP levels were measured at 36 ± 2 weeks PMA or within a week of discharge home. Groups were compared using Mann-Whitney's U-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and bivariate regression. Median (IQR) plasma levels of BNP in infants with moderate/severe BPD infants (n = 33) were higher as compared to those with no/mild BPD (n = 27); 27.1 (12.1-43.5) pg/ml versus 9.3 (6-18.5) pg/ml; P < 0.05 (Mann Whitney U). Median (IQR) BNP levels in infants with severe BPD (n = 14), 43.5 (28.4-189) pg/ml differed significantly from levels in those with moderate (n = 19), 22.8 (10.3-27.7) pg/ml; mild (n = 16), 11.5 (6.6-44.5 pg/ml); or no (n = 11), 8.1 (5-12.6 pg/ml) BPD (P < 0.001 Kruskal-Wallis). Based on receiver operating characteristic curves, BNP > 24.4 pg/ml at 36 ± 2 weeks PMA or discharge home was 85.7% sensitive and 76.1% specific for severe BPD. An elevation in plasma BNP was significantly associated with severe BPD. We speculate that plasma BNP measurement in infants with BPD may aid in risk-stratification and further targeted therapies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in children with latent rheumatic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Justin P; Aliku, Twalib; Scheel, Amy; Hasan, Babar S; Lwabi, Peter; Sable, Craig; Beaton, Andrea Z

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a global cause of early heart failure. Early RHD is characterized by valvar regurgitation, leading to ventricular distention and possible elaboration of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We investigated the ability of NT-proBNP to distinguish cases of latent RHD detected by echocardiographic screening from the controls. Materials and Methods: Ugandan children (N = 44, 36% males, mean age: 12 ± 2 years) with latent RHD (cases) and siblings (controls) by echocardiography were enrolled. Cases and controls were matched for age and sex, and they had normal hemoglobin (mean: 12.8 mg/dL). Children with congenital heart disease, pregnancy, left ventricular dilation or ejection fraction (EF) below 55%, or other acute or known chronic health conditions were excluded. RHD cases were defined by the World Heart Federation (WHF) 2012 consensus guideline criteria as definite. Controls had no echocardiography (echo) evidence for RHD. At the time of echo, venous blood samples were drawn and stored as serum. NT-proBNP levels were measured using sandwich immunoassay. Paired t-tests were used to compare NT-proBNP concentrations including sex-specific analyses. Results: The mean NT-proBNP concentration in the cases was 105.74 ± 67.21 pg/mL while in the controls, it was 86.63 ± 55.77 pg/mL. The cases did not differ from the controls (P = 0.3). In sex-specific analyses, male cases differed significantly from the controls (158.78 ± 68.82 versus 76 ± 42.43, P = 0.008). Female cases did not differ from the controls (75.44 ± 45.03 versus 92.30 ± 62.35 respectively, P = 0.4). Conclusion: Serum NT-proBNP did not distinguish between latent RHD cases and the controls. Sex and within-family exposures may confound this result. More investigation into biomarker-based RHD detection is warranted. PMID:27212845

  14. The effect of discrete stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors on atrial natriuretic peptide in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    al-Obaidi, M; Whitaker, E M; Karim, F

    1991-01-01

    1. In seven chloralose-anaesthetized and artificially ventilated beagles, the carotid sinus regions were vascularly isolated and perfused with either arterial or mixed (arterial and venous) blood (PO2 46.4 +/- 1.5 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.M.) to stimulate the chemoreceptors at constant flow and pressure. Cervical vagosympathetic trunks were ligated in all dogs, and gallamine triethiodide (2.0 mg kg-1 h-1, I.V.) was given in five dogs. Right atrial pressure was measured in all dogs, and left atrial pressure in four dogs. Mean aortic pressure was held constant (91.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg) by means of a reservoir connected to the animal via the common carotid and femoral arteries. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was measured by radioimmunoassay and urinary sodium by flame photometry. 2. In seven dogs with mean carotid sinus pressure maintained at 96.0 +/- 4.3 mmHg, stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors for 25 min produced significant increases in left atrial pressure of 41.2 +/- 3.3% (n = 4; P less than 0.005) from 5.4 +/- 0.6 cmH2O and of 30.9 +/- 4.5% (n = 7; P less than 0.002) in ANP from 31.6 +/- 2.1 pg ml-1. However, chemoreceptor stimulation produced significant decreases in urine flow rate of 26.1 +/- 1.9% (n = 9; P less than 0.001) from 0.29 +/- 0.03 ml min-1 (100 g kidney weight)-1 and sodium excretion of 29.0 +/- 2.3% (P less than 0.001) from 8.5 +/- 1.7 mumol min-1 (100 g kidney weight)-1 but right atrial pressure and heart rate did not change significantly. In three of the dogs, beta-adrenoceptor blockade by atenolol (2 mg kg-1, I.V.) greatly reduced the effects of chemoreceptor stimulation on plasma levels of ANP. 3. The results show, for the first time, that discrete stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors caused an increase in plasma ANP levels, probably due to the reflex increase in atrial pressure that results from an inhibition of the cardiac sympathetic nerves, and an increase in venous return from a reduction of peripheral vascular capacitance. PMID

  15. Relative atrial natriuretic peptide deficiency and inadequate renin and angiotensin II suppression in obese hypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B; Linneberg, Allan; Møller, Daniel V; Hedley, Paula L; Christiansen, Michael; Goetze, Jens P; Esler, Murray; Jeppesen, Jørgen L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanisms by which obesity leads to hypertension are incompletely understood. On this background, we assessed dietary sodium intake, serum levels of natriuretic peptides (NPs), and the activity of the renin-angiotensin system in 63 obese hypertensive men (obeseHT: body mass index, ≥30.0 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, ≥130/80 mm Hg), in 40 obese normotensive men (obeseNT: body mass index, ≥30.0 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, <130/80 mm Hg), and in 27 lean normotensive men (leanNT: body mass index, 20.0-24.9 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, <130/80 mm Hg). All study subjects were medication free. As a surrogate estimate for dietary sodium intake, we measured sodium excretion in a 24-hour urine collection and we measured serum levels of midregional proatrial NP and plasma levels of renin and angiotensin II. The obese men had higher mean (±SD) urinary sodium excretion (obeseHT, 213.6±85.2 mmol; obeseNT, 233.0±70.0 mmol) than the lean normotensive men (leanNT, 155.5±51.7 mmol; P=0.003). ObeseHT had lower (median [interquartile range]) serum midregional proatrial NP levels (49.2 [37.3-64.7] pmol/L) than leanNT (69.3 [54.3-82.9] pmol/L; P=0.003), whereas obeseNT had midregional proatrial NP levels in between (54.1 [43.2-64.7] pmol/L); obeseNT had lower (median [interquartile range]) plasma levels of renin (5.0 [3.0-8.0] mIU/L versus 9.0 [4.0-18.0]) and angiotensin II (2.4 [1.5-3.5] pmol/L versus 4.2 [2.2-7.9]) than obeseHT (P≤0.049), whereas obeseHT had similar plasma levels of renin and angiotensin II as leanNT (P≥0.19). Thus, despite a high sodium intake and a high blood pressure, obese hypertensive men have a relative NP deficiency and an inadequate renin-angiotensin system suppression.

  16. Comparison between immunoradiometric and fluorimetric brain natriuretic peptide determination in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Feola, M; Valeri, L; Menditto, E; Nervo, E; Bianco, F; Aspromonte, N; Valle, R; Visconti, G

    2010-09-01

    This study compared two different methods, namely the immunoradiometric (IRMA) and fluorimetric (FIA), in order to determine plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. CHF in-patients underwent echocardiography and plasma BNP determination using both two methods. The echocardiograms analysed left ventricular end-systolic (LVESV) and end-diastolic (LVEDV) volumes and systolic dysfunction [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%]. Seventy-three (71% males, age 67 ± 9.6 yr) patients were enrolled, 31.5% affected by valvular heart disease. The mean LVEF was 39.8 ± 14.1%; in 26 (35%) a hypertensive etiology emerged. The immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) BNP was found to be significantly lower than the FIA determination 116.5 ± 149 pg/ml vs 267.3 ± 285.6 pg/ml; p=0.0001) and the two methods were closely correlated (r=0.89; p=0.00001). Logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between BNP, LVEF, and LVESV/LVEDV (r=-0.45, p=0.0003; r=-0.48, p=0.00001; r=0.22 p=0.003; r=0.34 p=0.0001; r=0.13 p=0.02; r=0.28 p=0.001 IRMA and FIA, respectively). IRMA BNP and FIA BNP significantly increased according to the worsening functional class [from 34.3 ± 60.2 pg/ml in NYHA (New York Heart Association) I to 555.5 ± 273.1 pg/ml in NYHA IV; from 86.1 ± 162.1 pg/ml in NYHA I to 1070 ± 42.2 pg/ml in NYHA IV, respectively]. In severe systolic dysfunction (LVEF<30%), receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a satisfactorily sensitivity and specificity using a cut-off point of 50.6 pg/ml with IRMA and 243 pg/ml with FIA. In mild systolic dysfunction (LVEF<50%), a good sensitivity and specificity using a cut-off point of 42 pg/ml with IRMA and 182 pg/ml with FIA emerged. In CHF patients both BNP methods correlated with NYHA class, LVEF, and ventricular volumes.

  17. Immunoreactive prohormone atrial natriuretic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 - Existence of a single circulating amino-terminal peptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Whitson, Peggy A.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1990-01-01

    Sep-Pak C18 extraction of human plasma and radioimmunoassay using antibodies which recognize atrial natriuretic peptide (99-128) and the prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 resulted in mean values from 20 normal subjects of 26.2 (+/- 9.2), 362 (+/- 173) and 368 (+/- 160) pg/ml, respectively. A high correlation coefficient between values obtained using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 was observed (R = 0.84). Extracted plasma immunoreactivity of 1-30 and 31-67 both eluted at 46 percent acetonitrile. In contrast, chromatographic elution of synthetic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 was observed at 48 and 39 percent acetonitrile, respectively. Data suggest that the radioimmunoassay of plasma using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 may represent the measurement of a unique larger amino-terminal peptide fragment containing antigenic sites recognized by both antisera.

  18. Role of atrial natriuretic peptide in mediating the blood pressure-independent natriuresis elicited by systemic inhibition of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Leszek; Kuczeriszka, Marta; Castillo, Alexander; Majid, Dewan S; Navar, L Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    While it is clearly recognized that increased intrarenal nitric oxide (NO) levels elicit natriuresis, confounding data showing that systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition (NOSi) also increases sodium excretion (UNaV) poses a conundrum. This response has been attributed to the associated increases in arterial pressure (AP); however, the increases in AP and in UNaV are temporally dissociated. The changes in regional renal haemodynamics induced by NOSi could also contribute to the alterations of UNaV. To evaluate the roles of AP and non-AP mechanisms mediating the natriuresis, N ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) was infused i.v. at doses ranging from 5 to 50 μg/kg/min in anaesthetized rats. UNaV, perfusion of the cortex (cortical blood flow, CBF) and medulla (medullary blood flow, MBF) with laser-Doppler flowmetry and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured. UNaV increased from 0.6 ± 0.2 to 1.6 ± 0.1 μmol/kg/min (P < 0.05) with the lower nonpressor doses. With the higher doses, AP increased from 116 ± 4 to 122 ± 4 mmHg and UNaV increased from 1.1 ± 0.3 to 3.3 ± 0.7 μmol/min/g (P < 0.002). UNaV increased similarly in a group where renal AP was maintained at baseline levels. The associated reductions in CBF (17 ± 5 and 38 ± 5 %) and MBF (27 ± 6 and 52 ± 6 %) would be expected to attenuate rather than contribute to the natriuresis. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations increased significantly following NOSi. Anantin, a natriuretic peptide receptor-A blocker, prevented or reversed the L-NAME-induced natriuresis without altering the L-NAME-induced changes in AP or CBF. The results indicate that increased ANP and related natriuretic peptides mediate the AP-independent natriuresis, at least partly, elicited by systemic L-NAME infusion and help resolve the conundrum of natriuresis during systemic NOSi.

  19. Diuretic and Natriuretic Effects of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Teneligliptin: The Contribution of Glucagon-like Peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Moroi, Masao; Kubota, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are antidiabetic agents; however, their mechanisms of action are different. GLP-1R and DPP-4 are also expressed in the renal proximal tubular brush border, where they regulate Na reabsorption. We investigated whether the DPP-4 inhibitor, teneligliptin, has diuretic and natriuretic effects and whether these are associated with the stimulation of the GLP-1R in rats. Oral administration of teneligliptin resulted in a reduction of plasma DPP-4 activity over 6 hours, as well as an induction of diuresis and natriuresis. Although teneligliptin did not change the increase in blood glucose levels by glucose loading, percentage of urine volume and Na/K ratio with teneligliptin to vehicle were augmented by glucose loading. Peak levels of plasma GLP-1 did not change after oral administration of teneligliptin when glucose was not loaded but increased at least 2-fold with glucose loading. Furthermore, the natriuretic effect of teneligliptin was inhibited by the GLP-1R antagonist, exendin9-39, whereas the diuresis was not affected. These results suggest that the mechanism of natriuresis was different from that of diuresis, and the natriuresis is associated with the stimulation of GLP-1R. There may be mechanistic differences in DPP-4 inhibition between diuresis and natriuresis.

  20. The plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide is increased in malnourished hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chazot, Charles; Jean, Guillaume; Vo-Van, Cyril; Collonge, Cecile; Terrat, Jean Claude; Vanel, Thierry; Lorriaux, Christie; Hurot, Jean Marc; Charra, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, the plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level is associated with left ventricular dysfunction and patients' survival. Malnutrition is common in HD patients, it is associated with inflammation and contributes to the high incidence of cardiovascular (CV) disease in this setting (malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome). In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the relationship between predialysis plasma BNP level and nutritional markers in chronic HD patients. Of 210 patients receiving HD treatment in our unit, 51 patients who were treated with three times weekly long-hour HD (5-8 h/session) for at least 6 months (mean age 65.8 +/- 15.0 years; F/M ratio 23/28; vintage 71.3 +/- 71.9 months; BMI 24.9 +/- 5.9; session time 6.9 +/- 1.3 h; percentage of diabetic patients 31%) were studied before a mid-week HD session for nutritional markers (plasma albumin 35.3 +/- 3.7 g/l; prealbumin 0.36 +/- 0.09 g/l; CRP 15.3 +/- 14.7 mg/l; nPNA 1.29 +/- 0.29 g/kg/day) and plasma BNP (246.9 +/- 252.2 ng/l, normal <100 ng/l, Bayer(R) kit). The interdialytic weight gain was 2.1 +/- 1.0 kg. In the last 3 months prior to the commencement of the study, the patients' dry weight varied by +0.17 +/- 1.9 kg. Predialysis plasma BNP levels did not differ according to gender and the presence of diabetes. It was not correlated with age and vintage but was found to be negatively associated with the session time (r = -0.34, p = 0.018). Several nutritional markers were negatively correlated with BNP levels: prealbumin (r = -0.46, p = 0.001), BMI (r = -0.33, p = 0.018), nPNA (r = -0.46, p = 0.002). The plasma albumin relationship with the BNP level was close to significance (p = -0.26, p = 0.070). The 3-month dry weight variation was also negatively correlated with BNP levels (r = -0.34, p = 0.018). With multiple stepwise regression analysis, prealbumin and session time remained significant (respectively p = 0.004 and 0.01). BNP levels were higher in a

  1. Comparison of copeptin, B-type natriuretic peptide, and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure: prediction of death at different stages of the disease.

    PubMed

    Neuhold, Stephanie; Huelsmann, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Stoiser, Brigitte; Struck, Joachim; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Bergmann, Andreas; Moertl, Deddo; Berger, Rudolf; Pacher, Richard

    2008-07-22

    This study sought to evaluate the predictive value of copeptin over the entire spectrum of heart failure (HF) and compare it to the current benchmark markers, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Vasopressin has been shown to increase with the severity of chronic HF. Copeptin is a fragment of pre-pro-vasopressin that is synthesized and secreted in equimolar amounts to vasopressin. Both hormones have a short lifetime in vivo, similar to BNPs, but in contrast to vasopressin, copeptin is very stable in vitro. The predictive value of copeptin has been shown in advanced HF, where it was superior to BNP for predicting 24-month mortality. This was a long-term observational study in 786 HF patients from the whole spectrum of heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class I to IV, BNP 688 +/- 948 pg/ml [range 3 to 8,536 pg/ml], left ventricular ejection fraction 25 +/- 10% [range 5% to 65%]). The NYHA functional class was the most potent single predictor of 24-month outcome in a stepwise Cox regression model. The BNP, copeptin, and glomerular filtration rate were related to NYHA functional class (p < 0.0001 for trend). Copeptin was the most potent single predictor of mortality in patients with NYHA functional class II (p < 0.0001) and class III (p < 0.0001). In NYHA functional class IV, the outcome of patients was best predicted by serum sodium, but again, copeptin added additional independent information. Increased levels of copeptin are linked to excess mortality, and this link is maintained irrespective of the clinical signs of severity of the disease. Copeptin was superior to BNP or NT-proBNP in this study, but the markers seem to be closely related.

  2. Glucocorticoids improve renal responsiveness to atrial natriuretic peptide by up-regulating natriuretic peptide receptor-A expression in the renal inner medullary collecting duct in decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Chen, Ying; Kang, Yunxiao; Ni, Zhihua; Xiu, Heming; Guan, Jing; Liu, Kunshen

    2011-10-01

    In heart failure, the renal responsiveness to exogenous and endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is blunted. The mechanisms of renal hyporesponsiveness to ANP are complex, but one potential mechanism is decreased expression of natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) in inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. Newly emerging evidence shows that glucocorticoids could produce potent diuresis and natriuresis in patients with heart failure, but the precise mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we found dexamethasone (Dex) dramatically increased the expression of NPR-A in IMCD cells in vitro. The NPR-A overexpression induced by Dex presented in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which emerged after 12 h and peaked after 48 h. The cultured IMCD cells were then stimulated with exogenous rat ANP. Consistent with the findings with NPR-A expression, Dex greatly increased cGMP (the second messenger for the ANP) generation in IMCD cells, which presented in a time- and dose-dependent manner as well. In rats with decompensated heart failure, Dex dramatically increased NPR-A expression in inner renal medulla, which was accompanied by a remarkable increase in renal cGMP generation, urine flow rate, and renal sodium excretion. It is noteworthy that Dex dramatically lowered plasma ANP, cGMP levels, and left ventricular end diastolic pressure. These favorable effects induced by Dex were glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated and abolished by the GR antagonist 17β-hydroxy-11β-[4-dimethylamino phenyl]-17α-[1-propynyl]estra-4,9-dien-3-one (RU486). Collectively, glucocorticoids could improve renal responsiveness to ANP by up-regulating NPR-A expression in the IMCD and induce a potent diuretic action in rats with decompensated heart failure.

  3. Assessing cardiovascular risk in children with chronic kidney disease. B-type natriuretic peptide: a potential new marker.

    PubMed

    Ariceta, Gema; Brooks, Ellen R; Langman, Craig B

    2005-12-01

    Elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level is a hallmark of altered left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Measurement of circulating BNP has proved to be a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for congestive heart failure (CHF) and coronary syndrome in adults. Further, BNP levels constitute a strong predictive marker for future cardiovascular (CV) events. In high CV risk populations, such as adults with hypertension or chronic kidney disease (CKD), increased BNP predicts CV morbidity and mortality in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients. However, caution is needed in interpreting plasma BNP levels, as they increase with both age and decreased renal function. Despite increasing evidence of the value of BNP in the medical literature in adults, data in children are limited to those with congenital heart disease. It is appropriate to analyze the potential application of this tool in children with CKD, a well-known factor for CV disease.

  4. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  5. Distribution of C-type natriuretic peptide and its messenger RNA in rat central nervous system and peripheral tissue.

    PubMed

    Minamino, N; Aburaya, M; Kojima, M; Miyamoto, K; Kangawa, K; Matsuo, H

    1993-11-30

    In rat, the highest concentration of immunoreactive (ir-) C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) was found in the central nervous system, as is the case in pig and human. Although its concentration in peripheral tissue was much lower than that in brain, CNP was present mainly as CNP-53 in ileum-jejunum, colon-cecum, stomach, kidney, lung, testis and submaxillary gland, but not in heart. By Northern blot analysis, CNP mRNA was detected in ileum-jejunum, testis, thymus, adrenal gland and submaxillary gland as well as in brain and spinal cord. CNP mRNA was further verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to be present in most peripheral tissue, including aorta and bone marrow. These results indicate that CNP is synthesized in peripheral tissue and possibly functions as a local regulator in addition to acting as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.

  6. The evolution of natriuretic peptide augmentation in management of heart failure and the role of sacubitril/valsartan

    PubMed Central

    Yandrapalli, Srikanth; Mondal, Pratik; Chabbott, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures in the US and worldwide. For three decades, the pillars of treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were medications that targeted the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Prior attempts to augment the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) for the management of HF failed either due to lack of significant clinical benefit or due to the unacceptable side effect profile. This review article will discuss the NPS, the failure of early drugs which targeted the NPS as therapies for HF, and the sequence of events which led to the development of sacubitril plus valsartan (Entresto; LCZ696; Novartis). LCZ696 has been shown to be superior to the standard of care available for treatment of HFrEF in several substantial hard endpoints including heart failure hospitalizations, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. PMID:28883863

  7. The evolution of natriuretic peptide augmentation in management of heart failure and the role of sacubitril/valsartan.

    PubMed

    Yandrapalli, Srikanth; Aronow, Wilbert S; Mondal, Pratik; Chabbott, David R

    2017-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures in the US and worldwide. For three decades, the pillars of treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were medications that targeted the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Prior attempts to augment the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) for the management of HF failed either due to lack of significant clinical benefit or due to the unacceptable side effect profile. This review article will discuss the NPS, the failure of early drugs which targeted the NPS as therapies for HF, and the sequence of events which led to the development of sacubitril plus valsartan (Entresto; LCZ696; Novartis). LCZ696 has been shown to be superior to the standard of care available for treatment of HFrEF in several substantial hard endpoints including heart failure hospitalizations, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality.

  8. Amino-terminal propeptide of C-type natriuretic peptide (NTproCNP) predicts height velocity in healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Olney, Robert C.; Permuy, Joseph W.; Prickett, Timothy C.R.; Han, Joan C.; Espiner, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a paracrine regulatory factor of the growth plate and plays a key role in endochondral growth. Its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP) is an equimolar product of CNP biosynthesis and is easily measured in plasma. Preliminary studies suggest that NTproCNP levels correlate with height velocity in sheep and children. The objectives of the study were to correlate NTproCNP levels with height velocity and to define the reference range for plasma CNP and NTproCNP across childhood. Design This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of healthy children. Patients Participants were 258 healthy children between 2 months and 20 years of age. Measurements Anthropometrics were obtained and CNP and NTproCNP levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results For both sexes, CNP and NTproCNP levels were high in infancy, lower in early childhood, rising during puberty, then falling to low adult levels. Levels of NTproCNP peaked at 14.1 years in boys and 11.9 years in girls, coincident with the age of peak height velocity. Levels of NTproCNP varied with pubertal status, peaking at genital Tanner stage IV in boys and III in girls. There was a highly significant correlation between NTproCNP and height velocity. Conclusions C-type natriuretic peptide plays an integral role in endochondral growth. We show here that CNP synthesis (as measured by NTproCNP levels in plasma) is closely related to linear growth in healthy children at all ages. We propose NTproCNP as a biomarker of linear growth. PMID:22435455

  9. Amino-terminal propeptide of C-type natriuretic peptide (NTproCNP) predicts height velocity in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Olney, Robert C; Permuy, Joseph W; Prickett, Timothy C R; Han, Joan C; Espiner, Eric A

    2012-09-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a paracrine regulatory factor of the growth plate and plays a key role in endochondral growth. Its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP) is an equimolar product of CNP biosynthesis and is easily measured in plasma. Preliminary studies suggest that NTproCNP levels correlate with height velocity in sheep and children. The objectives of the study were to correlate NTproCNP levels with height velocity and to define the reference range for plasma CNP and NTproCNP across childhood. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of healthy children. Participants were 258 healthy children between 2 months and 20 years of age. Anthropometrics were obtained and CNP and NTproCNP levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. For both sexes, CNP and NTproCNP levels were high in infancy, lower in early childhood, rising during puberty, then falling to low adult levels. Levels of NTproCNP peaked at 14·1 years in boys and 11·9 years in girls, coincident with the age of peak height velocity. Levels of NTproCNP varied with pubertal status, peaking at genital Tanner stage IV in boys and III in girls. There was a highly significant correlation between NTproCNP and height velocity. C-type natriuretic peptide plays an integral role in endochondral growth. We show here that CNP synthesis (as measured by NTproCNP levels in plasma) is closely related to linear growth in healthy children at all ages. We propose NTproCNP as a biomarker of linear growth. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effects of cardiac natriuretic peptides on oxidized low-density lipoprotein- and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced human mesangial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Yasunari, K; Maeda, K; Kano, H; Minami, M; Hanehira, T; Yoshikawa, J

    2000-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to determine whether oxidized LDL and lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PtdCho), a major phospholipid component of oxidized LDL, stimulate the migration of cultured human mesangial cells and (2) to investigate the possible effects on mesangial cell migration of the cardiac natriuretic peptides atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP). Oxidized LDL (10 and 100 microg/mL) and lyso-PtdCho (10(-7) to 10(-5) mol/L) stimulated migration in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the effects of native LDL and phosphatidylcholine were modest or nonexistent. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and downregulation of PKC activity by phorbol ester inhibited oxidized LDL- and lyso-PtdCho-induced migration. Human ANP(1-28) and human BNP-32 significantly inhibited oxidized LDL- and lyso-PtdCho-induced migration in a concentration-dependent manner. C-ANF (des-[Glu(18),Ser(19),Gly(20),Leu(21),Gly(22)]ANP(4-23)), a specific ligand for ANP clearance receptors, could not inhibit oxidized LDL- and lyso-PtdCho-induced migration. Inhibition by ANP and BNP of lyso-PtdCho-induced migration was paralleled by an increase in the cellular level of GMP. Oxidized LDL- and lyso-PtdCho-induced migrations were inhibited by 8-bromo-cGMP. The results suggest that oxidized LDL and lyso-PtdCho stimulate the migration of human mesangial cells, at least in part, through a PKC-dependent process and that ANP and BNP inhibit this stimulated migration, probably through a cGMP-dependent process.

  11. Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA and immunoreactivity in the rat heart and human atrial appendage

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Q.; Wharton, J.; Terenghi, G.; Hassall, C.J.S.; Aimi, J.; Taylor, K.M.; Nakazato, H.; Dixon, J.E.; Burnstock, G.; Polak, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The localization of mRNA encoding preproatrial natriuretic peptide was investigated in tissue sections and cultures of rat heart and in sections of human right atrial appendage using the technique of in situ hybridization with /sup 32/P- and /sup 35/S-labeled RNA probes. Rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) transcripts were demonstrated in numerous atrial myocytes and, to a lesser extent, in ventricular myocytes in both tissue sections and newborn rat heart cultures. These findings are consistent with those obtained by RNA blot analysis of rat heart total RNA, indicating that a single prepro-ANP transcript of approx. 900 nucleotides was present in the ventricles as well as the atria. Using a /sup 35/S-labeled RNA probe for human ANP mRNA, ANP transcripts were also localized to the majority of myocytes in the human right atrial appendage. Only background levels of autoradiographic labeling were obtained when RNA probes identical to the coding sequence of rat or human ANP mRNA were used. A close correlation was found between the distribution of ANP immunoreactivity and prepro-ANP mRNA in these preparations. These results provide unequivocal evidence for the expression of the ANP gene in the rat ventricles, as well as the atria, because myocytes in these tissues have been established as the sites of both ANP localization and precursor biosynthesis. The combined use of cardiac cultures and in situ hybridization may be of value in future studies investigating the regulation of ANP synthesis in cardiac myocytes.

  12. Reference limits for N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in healthy individuals (from the Framingham Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Fradley, Michael G; Larson, Martin G; Cheng, Susan; McCabe, Elizabeth; Coglianese, Erin; Shah, Ravi V; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wang, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) is a commonly measured cardiovascular biomarker in ambulatory and hospital settings. Nonetheless, there are limited data regarding "normal" ranges for NT-pro-BNP in healthy subjects, despite the importance of such information for interpreting natriuretic peptide measurements. In this study, a healthy reference sample free of cardiovascular disease from the Framingham Heart Study Generation 3 cohort was examined; there were 2,285 subjects (mean age 38 years, 56% women). Plasma NT-pro-BNP levels were measured using the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys 2010 assay, and reference values (2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th quantiles) were determined using empiric and quantile regression methods. Gender, age, blood pressure, and body mass index accounted for approximately 33% of the interindividual variability in NT-pro-BNP in the reference sample. NT-pro-BNP values were substantially higher in women compared to men at every age, and levels increased with increasing age for both genders. Using quantile regression, the upper reference values (97.5th quantile) for NT-pro-BNP were 42.5 to 106.4 pg/ml in men (depending on age) and 111.0 to 215.9 pg/ml in women. Intraindividual variability was assessed in an additional 12 healthy subjects, who had serial NT-pro-BNP measurements over 1 month. Intraclass correlation was 0.85, indicating that most of the variability in NT-pro-BNP concentrations was among rather than within subjects. However, the reference change value was 100%, suggesting that small proportional differences in NT-pro-BNP could be attributable to analytic variability. In conclusion, the reference limits obtained from this large, healthy, community-based sample may aid in the evaluation of NT-pro-BNP concentrations measured for clinical and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incremental predictive value of natriuretic peptides for prognosis in the chronic stable heart failure population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Don-Wauchope, Andrew C; Santaguida, Pasqualina L; Oremus, Mark; McKelvie, Robert; Ali, Usman; Brown, Judy A; Bustamam, Amy; Sohel, Nazmul; Hill, Stephen A; Booth, Ronald A; Balion, Cynthia; Raina, Parminder

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether measurement of natriuretic peptides independently adds incremental predictive value for mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic stable heart failure (CSHF). We electronically searched Medline®, Embase™, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL from 1989 to June 2012. We also searched reference lists of included articles, systematic reviews, and the gray literature. Studies were screened for eligibility criteria and assessed for methodological quality. Data were extracted on study design, population demographics, assay cutpoints, prognostic risk prediction model covariates, statistical methods, outcomes, and results. One hundred and eighty-three studies were identified as prognostic in the systematic review. From these, 15 studies (all NT-proBNP) considered incremental predictive value in CSHF subjects. Follow-up varied from 12 to 37 months. All studies presented at least one estimate of incremental predictive value of NT-proBNP relative to the base prognostic model. Using discrimination or likelihood statistics, these studies consistently showed that NT-proBNP increased model performance. Three studies used re-classification and model validation computations to establish incremental predictive value; these studies showed less consistency with respect to added value. Although there were differences in the base risk prediction models, assay cutpoints, and lengths of follow-up, there was consistency in NT-proBNP adding incremental predictive value for prognostic models in chronic stable CSHF patients. The limitations in the literature suggest that studies designed to evaluate prognostic models should be undertaken to evaluate the incremental value of natriuretic peptide as a predictor of mortality and morbidity in CSHF.

  14. Muscarinic activity modulated by C-type natriuretic peptide in gastric smooth muscles of guinea-pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Xing, De-gang; Huang, Xu; Li, Chun-hui; Li, Xiang-lan; Piao, Lian-hua; Gao, Ling; Zhang, Yang; Kim, Yong-chul; Xu, Wen-xie

    2007-10-04

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) generation system like nitric oxide (NO) and play an inhibitory regulation in gastrointestinal motility but the effect of NPs on muscarinic activity is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate effect of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on muscarinic control of gastric motility and its ion channel mechanism. The spontaneous contraction of gastric smooth muscle strip was recorded by using physiograph in guinea-pig. Membrane currents and potential were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. CNP significantly inhibited muscarinic M receptor agonist carbachol (Cch)-induced contractions of gastric smooth muscle strips and dramatically hyperpolarized Cch-induced depolarization of membrane potential in gastric single smooth muscle cell. Muscarinic currents induced by both Cch and GTPgammaS, a G-protein agonist were significantly suppressed by CNP. 8-Br-cGMP mimicked the effect of CNP on Cch-induced muscarinic currents, and the peak holding current was decreased from -200.66+/-54.35 pA of control to -67.35+/-24.82 pA. LY83583, a guanylate cyclase nonspecific inhibitor, significantly weakened the inhibitory effect of CNP on muscarinic current while zaprinast, a cGMP sensitive phosphoesterase inhibitor, potentiated the inhibitory effect of CNP on muscarinic current. cGMP production was dramatically enhanced by CNP and this effect was suppressed by LY83583 in gastric smooth muscle. These results suggest that CNP modulates muscarinic activity via CNP-NPR-particulate guanylate cyclase (pGC)-cGMP pathway in guinea-pig.

  15. Functional silencing of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A by microRNA interference: analysis of receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Somanna, Naveen K; Pandey, Amitabh C; Arise, Kiran K; Nguyen, Vickie; Pandey, Kailash N

    2013-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) is the principal receptor for the regulatory action of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) and an important effector molecule in controlling of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis. We have utilized RNA interference to silence the expression of GC-A/NPRA gene (Npr1), providing a novel system to study the internalization and trafficking of NPRA in intact cells. MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) elicited functional gene-knockdown of NPRA in stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells expressing a high density of recombinant NPRA. We artificially expressed three RNA polymerase II-driven miRNAs that specifically targeted the Npr1 gene, but shared no significant sequence homology with any other known mouse genes. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analyses identified two highly efficient Npr1 miRNA sequences to knockdown the expression of NPRA. The Npr1 miRNA in chains or clusters decreased NPRA expression more than 90% as compared with control cells. ANP-dependent stimulation of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and guanylyl cyclase activity of NPRA were significantly reduced in Npr1 miRNA-expressing cells by 90-95% as compared with control cells. Treatment with Npr1 miRNA caused a drastic reduction in the receptor density subsequently a deceased internalization of radiolabeled 125I-ANP-NPRA ligand-receptor complexes. Only 12%-15% of receptor population was localized in the intracellular compartments of microRNA silenced cells as compared to 70%-80% in control cells. PMID:23638320

  16. Functional silencing of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A by microRNA interference: analysis of receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Somanna, Naveen K; Pandey, Amitabh C; Arise, Kiran K; Nguyen, Vickie; Pandey, Kailash N

    2013-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) is the principal receptor for the regulatory action of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) and an important effector molecule in controlling of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis. We have utilized RNA interference to silence the expression of GC-A/NPRA gene (Npr1), providing a novel system to study the internalization and trafficking of NPRA in intact cells. MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) elicited functional gene-knockdown of NPRA in stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells expressing a high density of recombinant NPRA. We artificially expressed three RNA polymerase II-driven miRNAs that specifically targeted the Npr1 gene, but shared no significant sequence homology with any other known mouse genes. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analyses identified two highly efficient Npr1 miRNA sequences to knockdown the expression of NPRA. The Npr1 miRNA in chains or clusters decreased NPRA expression more than 90% as compared with control cells. ANP-dependent stimulation of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and guanylyl cyclase activity of NPRA were significantly reduced in Npr1 miRNA-expressing cells by 90-95% as compared with control cells. Treatment with Npr1 miRNA caused a drastic reduction in the receptor density subsequently a deceased internalization of radiolabeled (125)I-ANP-NPRA ligand-receptor complexes. Only 12%-15% of receptor population was localized in the intracellular compartments of microRNA silenced cells as compared to 70%-80% in control cells.

  17. A Constitutively “Phosphorylated” Guanylyl Cyclase-linked Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Mutant Is Resistant to Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lincoln R.; Hunter, Tony

    1999-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of the natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) is hypothesized to mediate its desensitization in response to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding. Recently, we identified six phosphorylation sites within the kinase homology domain of NPR-A and determined that the conversion of these residues to alanine abolished the ability of the receptor to be phosphorylated or to be activated by ANP and ATP. In an attempt to generate a form of NPR-A that mimics a fully phosphorylated receptor but that is resistant to dephosphorylation, we engineered a receptor variant (NPR-A-6E) containing glutamate substitutions at all six phosphorylation sites. Consistent with the known ability of negatively charged glutamate residues to substitute functionally, in some cases, for phosphorylated residues, we found that NPR-A-6E was activated 10-fold by ANP and ATP. As determined by guanylyl cyclase assays, the hormone-stimulated activity of the wild-type receptor declined over time in membrane preparations in vitro, and this loss was blocked by the serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor microcystin. In contrast, the activity of NPR-A-6E was more linear with time and was unaffected by microcystin. The nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue adenosine 5′-(β,γ-imino)-triphosphate was half as effective as ATP in stimulating the wild-type receptor but was equally as potent in stimulating NPR-A-6E, suggesting that ATP is required to keep the wild-type but not 6E variant phosphorylated. Finally, the desensitization of NPR-A-6E in whole cells was markedly blunted compared with that of the wild-type receptor, consistent with its inability to shed the negative charge from its kinase homology domain via dephosphorylation. These data provide the first direct test of the requirement for dephosphorylation in guanylyl cyclase desensitization and they indicate that it is an essential component of this process. PMID:10359598

  18. Atrial natriuretic peptide affects cardiac remodeling, function, heart failure, and survival in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Gladysheva, Inna P; Fan, Tai-Hwang M; Sullivan, Ryan; Houng, Aiilyan K; Reed, Guy L

    2014-03-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a biomarker of dilated cardiomyopathy, but there is controversy whether ANP modulates the development of heart failure. Therefore, we examined whether ANP affects heart failure, cardiac remodeling, function, and survival in a well-characterized, transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Mice with dilated cardiomyopathy with normal ANP levels survived longer than mice with partial ANP (P<0.01) or full ANP deficiency (P<0.001). In dilated cardiomyopathy mice, ANP protected against the development of heart failure as indicated by reduced lung water, alveolar congestion, pleural effusions, etc. ANP improved systolic function and reduced cardiomegaly. Pathological cardiac remodeling was diminished in mice with normal ANP as indicated by decreased ventricular interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. Mice with dilated cardiomyopathy and normal ANP levels had better systolic function (P<0.001) than mice with dilated cardiomyopathy and ANP deficiency. Dilated cardiomyopathy was associated with diminished cardiac transcripts for NP receptors A and B in mice with normal ANP and ANP deficiency, but transcripts for NP receptor C and C-type natriuretic peptide were selectively altered in mice with dilated cardiomyopathy and ANP deficiency. Taken together, these data indicate that ANP has potent effects in experimental dilated cardiomyopathy that reduce the development of heart failure, prevent pathological remodeling, preserve systolic function, and reduce mortality. Despite the apparent overlap in physiological function between the NPs, these data suggest that the role of ANP in dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure is not compensated physiologically by other NPs.

  19. Effects of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides upon cyclic GMP levels, potassium transport, and receptor binding in rat astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, K.; Tan, P.K. )

    1990-02-01

    The ability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to alter cyclic GMP levels and NaKCl cotransport in rat neocortical astrocytes was determined. At concentrations of 10(-9)-10(-6) M, rat ANP99-126 (rANF), rat ANP102-126 (auriculin B), and rat ANP103-126 (atriopeptin III) stimulated 6- to 100-fold increases in cyclic GMP levels. Porcine BNP (pBNP) and rat BNP (rBNP) were 20%-90% as effective as rANF over most of this concentration range, although 10(-6) M pBNP produced a greater effect than rANF. NaKCl cotransport as measured by bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ influx was not altered by exposure of astrocytes to 10(-6)M rANF, pBNP, or rBNP. Both pBNP and rBNP, as well as rat ANP103-123 (atriopeptin I) and des(gl18, ser19, gly20, leu21, gly22) ANF4-23-NH2 (C-ANF4-23) strongly competed for specific 125I-rANF binding sites in astrocyte membranes with affinities ranging from 0.03 to 0.4 nM, suggesting that virtually all binding sites measured at subnanomolar concentrations of 125I-rANF were of the ANP-C (ANF-R2) receptor subtype. These receptors are thought to serve a clearance function and may be linked to a guanylate cyclase activity that is chemically and pharmacologically distinct from that coupled to ANP-A (ANF-R1) receptors. ANP receptors on astrocytes may function in limiting the access of ANP and BNP to neurons involved in body fluid and cardiovascular regulation.

  20. Impact of natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR3) gene variants on blood pressure in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Roussel, Ronan; Halimi, Jean Michel; Lebrec, Jeremie; Dardari, Dured; Maimaitiming, Sulyia; Guilloteau, Gérard; Prugnard, Xavier; Marechaud, Richard; Ragot, Stephanie; Marre, Michel; Hadjadj, Samy

    2011-05-01

    Hypertension in diabetes is characterized by abnormal sodium homeostasis, suggesting a particular role of natriuretic peptide pathway. Natriuretic peptides can affect blood pressure (BP) through their plasma concentrations, which are dependent on their receptor activities. We thus assessed the association between nine NPR3 gene polymorphisms and BP levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the haplotype structure of the NPR3 gene were genotyped in the 3,126 French Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes, Hypertension, Microalbuminuria or Proteinuria, Cardiovascular Events, and Ramipril (DIABHYCAR) trial participants. We then used a second population (Diabete de type 2, Nephropathie et Genetique [DIAB2NEPHROGENE]/Survie, Diabete de type 2 et Genetique [SURDIAGENE] study) of 2,452 patients for the purpose of replication. Finally, we separately investigated subjects selected according to their rs 2270915SNP genotypes for their BP response to salt restriction. In DIABHYCAR patients, three SNPs (rs6889608, rs1173773, and rs2270915) were significantly associated with systolic BP (SBP). The effect of the rs2270915 was replicated in the second step population: AA homozygotes had a lower SBP than G carriers (137.4 ± 19.1 vs. 140.0 ± 20.2 mmHg, P = 0.004). The rs2270915 influenced the response of SBP to salt reduction, with AA homozygous patients showing greater reductions after restriction of salt intake compared with G carriers: -20 mmHg (-43 to -8) vs. -3 (-20 to +7); P = 0.006. We found a consistent and significant association between the rs2270915 polymorphism of the NPR3 gene and SBP in diabetic patients. This genetic variation may affect pressure response to changes in dietary sodium.

  1. B-type Natriuretic Peptide Assay in Differentiating Congestive Heart Failure from Lung Disease in Patients Presenting with Dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Bari, M S; Islam, M N; Bari, M A; Siddique, S R; Islam, M Z; Begum, M S; Ahammed, S U; Rahman, M A

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. After fulfilling the exclusion & inclusion criteria, B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were measured in a convenience sample of 100 predominantly male (94%) dyspnic patients who got admitted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital from November 2013 to October 2014. The diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) was based on generally accepted Framingham criteria with corroborative information including hospital course (response to diuretics, vasodilators, inotropes or hemodynamic monitoring) and results of further cardiac testing, including echocardiography. Patients with right heart failure from cor pulmonale were classified as having CHF. Pulmonary disease was confirmed by using the following diagnostic tools: i) A chest X-ray without signs of heart enlargement or pulmonary venous hypertension or a chest X-ray with signs of chronic obstructive lung disease, ii) Normal heart function as seen by echocardiography, iii) Abnormal pulmonary function tests or follow-up results and iv) A positive response to treatment with steroids, nebulizers or antibiotics in hospital. Patients with CHF (n=50) had mean BNP level 1146.72pg/ml (range 103 to 5000pg/ml), which is significantly higher than the group of patients with a final diagnosis of pulmonary disease (n=50) whose BNP was 34pg/ml (range 10 to 90pg/ml) (p<0.05). In conclusion, it was found that B-type natriuretic peptide is an important biomarker for differentiating congestive heart failure from lung disease in patients presenting with dyspnea.

  2. Receptors for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and regulation of thyroglobulin secretion by ANP in human thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sellitti, D.F.; Tseng, Y.C.L.; Wartofsky, L. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC )

    1989-01-01

    Specific binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were identified and characterized in primary cultures of human thyroid cells. Saturation analysis using ({sup 125}I) {alpha} rat (1-28) ANP as the ligand showed a single class of high affinity binding which was inhibited by atriopeptin I and the {alpha} -human form of ANP, but not by a C-terminal fragment (13-28) of the peptide. The number of ANP binding sites in these cultures was not altered by the thyroid hormone concentration of the medium. In a dose-response experiment, thyroglobulin secretion was significantly reduced in the presence of 0.01 nM ANP and was maximally reduced with 10 nM ANP. Cyclic GMP production was increased threefold in the presence of 100 nM ANP, but was unchanged with lower doses of the peptides. The finding of receptors in thyroid follicular cells suggests a hitherto unrecognized role of ANP in the thyroid gland.

  3. Lebetin 2, a Snake Venom-Derived Natriuretic Peptide, Attenuates Acute Myocardial Ischemic Injury through the Modulation of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore at the Time of Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Tourki, Bochra; Matéo, Philippe; Morand, Jessica; Elayeb, Mohamed; Godin-Ribuot, Diane; Marrakchi, Naziha; Belaidi, Elise; Messadi, Erij

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is now well established that natriuretic peptides can attenuate the development of irreversible ischemic injury during myocardial infarction. Lebetin 2 (L2) is a new discovered peptide isolated from Macrovipera lebetina venom with structural similarity to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Our objectives were to define the acute cardioprotective actions of L2 in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts after regional or global ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We studied infarct size, left ventricular contractile recovery, survival protein kinases and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in injured myocardium. L2 dosage was determined by preliminary experiments at its ability to induce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) release without changing hemodynamic effects in normoxic hearts. L2 was found to be as effective as BNP in reducing infarct size after the induction of either regional or global IR. Both peptides equally improved contractile recovery after regional IR, but only L2 increased coronary flow and reduced severe contractile dysfunction after global ischemia. Cardioprotection afforded by L2 was abolished after isatin or 5-hydroxydecanote pretreatment suggesting the involvement of natriuretic peptide receptors and mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channels in the L2-induced effects. L2 also increased survival protein expression in the reperfused myocardium as evidenced by phosphorylation of signaling pathways PKCε/ERK/GSK3β and PI3K/Akt/eNOS. IR induced mitochondrial pore opening, but this effect was markedly prevented by L2 treatment. These data show that L2 has strong cardioprotective effect in acute ischemia through stimulation of natriuretic peptide receptors. These beneficial effects are mediated, at least in part, by mitoKATP channel opening and downstream activated survival kinases, thus delaying mPTP opening and improving IR-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID

  4. The natriuretic peptide/helokinestatin precursor from Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) venom: Amino acid sequence deduced from cloned cDNA and identification of two novel encoded helokinestatins.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chengbang; Yang, Mu; Zhou, Mei; Wu, Yuxin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Ding, Anwei; Shaw, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Natriuretic peptides are common components of reptile venoms and molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursors has revealed that in snakes, they co-encode bradykinin-potentiating peptides and in venomous lizards, some co-encode bradykinin inhibitory peptides such as the helokinestatins. The common natriuretic peptide/helokinestatin precursor of the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum, encodes five helokinestatins of differing primary structures. Here we report the molecular cloning of a natriuretic peptide/helokinestatin precursor cDNA from a venom-derived cDNA library of the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum). Deduction of the primary structure of the encoded precursor protein from this cloned cDNA template revealed that it consisted of 196 amino acid residues encoding a single natriuretic peptide and five helokinestatins. While the natriuretic peptide was of identical primary structure to its Gila Monster (H. suspectum) homolog, the encoded helokinestatins were not, with this region of the common precursor displaying some significant differences to its H. suspectum homolog. The helokinestatin-encoding region contained a single copy of helokinestatin-1, 2 copies of helokinestatin-3 and single copies of 2 novel peptides, (Phe)(5)-helokinestatin-2 (VPPAFVPLVPR) and helokinestatin-6 (GPPFNPPPFVDYEPR). All predicted peptides were found in reverse phase HPLC fractions of the same venom. Synthetic replicates of both novel helokinestatins were found to antagonize the relaxing effect of bradykinin on rat tail artery smooth muscle. Thus lizard venom continues to provide a source of novel biologically active peptides. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin in the evaluation of acute chest pain of uncertain etiology. A PITAGORAS substudy.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Juan; Bardají, Alfredo; Bosch, Xavier; Loma-Osorio, Pablo; Marín, Francisco; Sánchez, Pedro L; Calvo, Francisco; Avanzas, Pablo; Hernández, Carolina; Serrano, Silvia; Carratalá, Arturo; Barrabés, José A

    2013-07-01

    High-sensitivity troponin assays have improved the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting with chest pain and normal troponin levels as measured by conventional assays. Our aim was to investigate whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide provides additional information to troponin determination in these patients. A total of 398 patients, included in the PITAGORAS study, presenting to the emergency department with chest pain and normal troponin levels as measured by conventional assay in 2 serial samples (on arrival and 6 h to 8h later) were studied. The samples were also analyzed in a central laboratory for high-sensitivity troponin T (both samples) and for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (second sample). The endpoints were diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and the composite endpoint of in-hospital revascularization or a 30-day cardiac event. Acute coronary syndrome was adjudicated to 79 patients (20%) and the composite endpoint to 59 (15%). When the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide quartile increased, the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome also increased (12%, 16%, 23% and 29%; P=.01), as did the risk of the composite endpoint (6%, 13%, 16% and 24%; P=.004). N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide elevation (>125ng/L) was associated with both endpoints (relative risk= 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.3; P=.02; relative risk=2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.2; P=.004). However, in the multivariable models adjusted by clinical and electrocardiographic data, a predictive value was found for high-sensitivity T troponin but not for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. In low-risk patients with chest pain of uncertain etiology evaluated using high-sensitivity T troponin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide does not contribute additional predictive value to diagnosis or the prediction of short-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights

  6. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca2+ release, and activation of protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems. PMID:25202235

  7. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca(2+) release, and activation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kailash N

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca(2+) and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca(2+), and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems.

  8. B-type natriuretic peptide-guided treatment for heart failure.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Julie; Heneghan, Carl J; Perera, Rafael; Clements, Alison M; Glasziou, Paul P; Kearley, Karen E; Pidduck, Nicola; Roberts, Nia W; Tyndel, Sally; Wright, F Lucy; Bankhead, Clare

    2016-12-22

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart does not pump enough blood to meet all the needs of the body. Symptoms of heart failure include breathlessness, fatigue and fluid retention. Outcomes for patients with heart failure are highly variable; however on average, these patients have a poor prognosis. Prognosis can be improved with early diagnosis and appropriate use of medical treatment, use of devices and transplantation. Patients with heart failure are high users of healthcare resources, not only due to drug and device treatments, but due to high costs of hospitalisation care. B-type natriuretic peptide levels are already used as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure, but could offer to clinicians a possible tool to guide drug treatment. This could optimise drug management in heart failure patients whilst allaying concerns over potential side effects due to drug intolerance. To assess whether treatment guided by serial BNP or NT-proBNP (collectively referred to as NP) monitoring improves outcomes compared with treatment guided by clinical assessment alone. Searches were conducted up to 15 March 2016 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database in the Cochrane Library. Searches were also conducted in the Science Citation Index Expanded, the Conference Proceedings Citation Index on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov. We applied no date or language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of NP-guided treatment of heart failure versus treatment guided by clinical assessment alone with no restriction on follow-up. Adults treated for heart failure, in both in-hospital and out-of-hospital settings, and trials reporting a clinical outcome were included. Two review authors

  9. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M.; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L.; Kravetz, María C.; Lee, Brenda M.; Carranza, Andrea; Del Mauro, Julieta S.; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Toblli, Jorge E.; Fernández, Belisario E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on organic cation transporters (OCTs) expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T), ANP, dopamine (DA), D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27392042

  10. Brain natriuretic peptide as a biomarker of asymptomatic clozapine-related heart dysfunction: a criterion for a more cautious administration.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Vincenzo; Monica, Petrosino; Fiore, Germano; Tridente, Annamaria; La Rocca, Antonietta; Catapano, Francesco; Fabrazzo, Michele

    2016-12-20

    Clozapine-related pericarditis is a rare side effect of the drug. We reported the clinical cases of two women, aged 22 and 28 years, affected by schizophrenia with pericarditis symptoms related to clozapine treatment of 200 mg/day. Clozapine was discontinued in both patients, resulting in normalization of the ECG changes, and echocardiography confirmed the progressive disappearance of the pericardial effusion. Interestingly, while inflammatory indices and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) plasma levels were high in both patients, only one of them showed tachycardia, subjective chest pain, shortness of breath and dyspnea, with a clinical symptomatology suggesting a cardiac involvement. BNP is a vasoactive peptide synthetized by the ventricular myocardium which splits in two fragments: BNP and the N-terminal (pro-BNP). Both are considered valuable biomarkers in clinical practice for the prediction of disease state and prognosis in patients with suspected heart failure. Pro-BNP acts as a key regulator in the homeostasis of water and salt excretion and in the maintenance of blood pressure, mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and blocking the sympathetic nervous activity. In our cases, pro-BNP plasma levels proved to be a profitable way to identify subjects with asymptomatic cardiac impairment who could benefit from a therapy preventing progression to heart failure.

  11. Changes of adrenomedullin and natriuretic peptides in patients with adrenal medullary hyperplasia prior to and following pharmacological therapy and adrenalectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pang-Hu; Shi, Lei; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathophysiological functions of adrenomedullin (ADM), atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) in patients with adrenal medullary hyperplasia (AMH). Plasma ADM, ANP and BNP concentrations were measured in 20 patients with AMH, 35 patients with essential hypertension (EH), and 40 healthy control subjects. Following effective antihypertensive therapy, the values in AMH and EH patients were measured again and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed for AMH patients. At 2 weeks after surgery, the three peptides were measured again. The AMH patients had higher plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP compared with the EH and control subjects. There were significant differences in the values of ADM, ANP and BNP between adrenal vein and inferior vena cava and between AMH and contralateral adrenal vein. Plasma ADM concentration was correlated with serum epinephrine and norepinephrine and urine vanillylmandelic acid, in addition to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass index and ANP and BNP values in the AMH group. Following antihypertensive treatment, ADM, ANP and BNP were significantly decreased in EH patients, but remained unchanged in AMH subjects. However, these concentrations significantly decreased following surgery. Therefore, the present results suggest that ADM, ANP and BNP may be involved in regulating adrenal medulla functions. PMID:27446289

  12. An analogue of atrial natriuretic peptide (C-ANP4-23) modulates glucose metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Aguilera, Concepción María; Rupérez, Azahara Iris; Gil, Ángel; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of C-atrial natriuretic peptide (C-ANP4-23) in human adipose-derived stem cells differentiated into adipocytes over 10 days (1 μM for 4 h). The intracellular cAMP, cGMP and protein kinase A levels were determined by ELISA and gene and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, in the presence or absence of C-ANP4-23. The levels of lipolysis and glucose uptake were also determined. C-ANP4-23 treatment significantly increased the intracellular cAMP levels and the gene expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit (AMPK). Western blot showed a significant increase in GLUT4 and phosphor-AMPKα levels. Importantly, the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 abolished these effects. Additionally, C-ANP4-23 increased glucose uptake by 2-fold. Our results show that C-ANP4-23 enhances glucose metabolism and might contribute to the development of new peptide-based therapies for metabolic diseases.

  13. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and proBNP: role of emerging markers to guide therapy and determine prognosis in cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Godkar, Darshan; Bachu, Kalyan; Dave, Bijal; Niranjan, Selva; Khanna, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, one group of neurohormonal markers, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N-terminal pro-ANP, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and N-terminal proBNP, has generated much interest in the evaluation and management of heart failure and acute coronary syndrome. There has been so much literature on the subject, especially concerning BNP and proBNP, that it leaves us confused at times about what the literature has to say about these markers. In this article, we have made an honest attempt to examine all the available literature in relation to the impact of BNP and proBNP on cardiovascular disease and present it to the reader in an assimilated fashion.

  14. Irradiation-induced effects on mast cells, neuropeptides, and atrial natriuretic peptide in the rat heart and lung: bases for further studies.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, K S; Cavén, A G; Hansson, M C; Larsson, F H; Kjörell, U K; Henriksson, R G; Franzén, L I

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of irradiation over the thorax of the rat on the mast cells, the neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers, and the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in the heart and lung. The total doses were 20 to 36 Gy delivered as single doses or fractionated irradiation. Immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay methods were used. The number of mast cells was much reduced in both the lung and heart in response to irradiation. A trend for lowering the atrial natriuretic peptide levels in plasma was noted both 1 day and 9 days after irradiation. In contrast to the situation in other organs (salivary and laryngeal glands, the intestine), no changes occurred in the immunohistochemical expression of neuropeptides. With these observations and those made in previous studies about the effects of radiotherapy on other organs, the functional significance and basis for further research in the fields are discussed.

  15. Transforming growth factor β1 antagonizes the transcription, expression and vascular signaling of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor A - role of δEF1.

    PubMed

    Sen, Anagha; Kumar, Prerna; Garg, Renu; Lindsey, Sarah H; Katakam, Prasad V G; Bloodworth, Meaghan; Pandey, Kailash N

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in transcriptional regulation and function of the guanylyl cyclase A/natriuretic peptide receptor A gene (Npr1) and whether cross-talk exists between these two hormonal systems in target cells. After treatment of primary cultured rat thoracic aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and mouse mesangial cells with TGF-β1, the Npr1 promoter construct containing a δ-crystallin enhancer binding factor 1 (δEF1) site showed 85% reduction in luciferase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TGF-β1 also significantly attenuated luciferase activity of the Npr1 promoter by 62%, and decreased atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated relaxation of mouse denuded aortic rings ex vivo. Treatment of cells with TGF-β1 increased the protein levels of δEF1 by 2.4-2.8-fold, and also significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of Smad 2/3, but markedly reduced Npr1 mRNA and receptor protein levels. Over-expression of δEF1 showed a reduction in Npr1 promoter activity by 75%, while deletion or site-directed mutagenesis of δEF1 sites in the Npr1 promoter eliminated the TGF-β1-mediated repression of Npr1 transcription. TGF-β1 significantly increased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen type I α2 in rat thoracic aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, which was markedly attenuated by atrial natriuretic peptide in cells over-expressing natriuretic peptide receptor A. Together, the present results suggest that an antagonistic cascade exists between the TGF-β1/Smad/δEF1 pathways and Npr1 expression and receptor signaling that is relevant to renal and vascular remodeling, and may be critical in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular homeostasis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Myopericarditis with predominantly right ventricular involvement with normal B-type natriuretic peptide and cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Manautou, Luis; Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Meraz, Manuel; Perez-Garcia, Luis F; Diaz-Cid, Antonio; de la Peña-Almaguer, Erasmo; Avila, Cesar; Sanchez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with a 12-hour history of sudden dyspnea and severe chest pain at rest. Initial findings of physical examination, electrocardiogram and chest radiography showed typical pericarditis and clinical instability. Echocardiogram revealed small pericardial effusion with right ventricle dilatation. The patient was admitted in the ICU; a new echocardiogram revealed moderate pericardial effusion and diagnosis of pericarditis complicated with acute cardiac tamponade was established. The patient transiently improved after pericardial window. In the following hours, the diagnosis of myocarditis with predominantly right ventricular involvement (MPRVI) with severe right heart failure was supported by clinical, chest radiography and echocardiogram data, despite normal B-type natriuretic peptide. On day 2, cardiac troponin I detection was observed. By day 3, B-type natriuretic peptide in the range of ventricular dysfunction was identified. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings supported the diagnosis of MPRVI. A systematic MEDLINE/PubMed from 1993 to 2013 does not identify any cases of MPRVI related to systemic lupus erythematosus. Simultaneous acute MPRVI with normal B-type natriuretic peptide and acute cardiac tamponade heralding the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described.

  17. Molecular cloning of natriuretic peptides from the heart of reptiles: loss of ANP in diapsid reptiles and birds.

    PubMed

    Trajanovska, Sofie; Donald, John A

    2008-04-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type NP (BNP) are hormones involved in homeostatic control of body fluid and cardiovascular regulation. Both ANP and BNP have been cloned from the heart of mammals, amphibians, and teleost fishes, while an additional cardiac peptide, ventricular NP, has been found in selected species of teleost fish. However, in chicken, BNP is the primary cardiac peptide identified thus far. In contrast, the types of NP/s present in the reptilian heart are unknown, representing a considerable gap in our understanding of NP evolution. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced a BNP cDNA from the atria of representative species of reptile, including crocodile, lizard, snake, and tortoise. In addition, we cloned BNP from the pigeon atria. The reptilian and pigeon BNP cDNAs had ATTTA repeats in the 3' untranslated region, as observed in all vertebrate BNP mRNAs. A high sequence homology was evident when comparing reptile and pigeon preproBNP with the previously identified chicken preproBNP. In particular, the predicted mature BNP-29 was identical between crocodile, tortoise, and chicken, with pigeon having a single amino acid substitution; lizard and snake BNP had seven and nine substitutions, respectively. Furthermore, an ANP cDNA could only be cloned from the tortoise atria. Since ANP was not isolated from the heart of any non-chelonian reptile and appears to be absent in birds, we propose that the ANP gene has been lost after branching of the turtles in the amniote line. This data provides new avenues for research on NP function in reptiles.

  18. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels and recurrent arrhythmia after successful ablation of lone atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ayman A; Saliba, Walid I; Martin, David O; Shadman, Mazyar; Kanj, Mohamed; Bhargava, Mandeep; Dresing, Thomas; Chung, Mina; Callahan, Thomas; Baranowski, Bryan; Tchou, Patrick; Lindsay, Bruce D; Natale, Andrea; Wazni, Oussama M

    2011-05-17

    Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is abnormally elevated in patients with lone atrial fibrillation (AF). The exact significance and prognostic implications of this elevation have yet to be determined. Little is known about BNP in lone AF patients undergoing arrhythmia ablation. We sought to determine the relationship between BNP levels and the risk of recurrent arrhythmia after ablation of lone AF. We followed up 726 patients with lone AF undergoing first-time arrhythmia ablation. All had BNP levels measured on the day of ablation with of the point-of-care Triage Meter assay (Biosite Diagnostics, San Diego, CA). At baseline, factors associated with elevated BNP levels in multivariable linear regression analysis (with log BNP being the dependent variable) were older age (β regression coefficient for +1-year change, 0.025; P<0.0001), longer duration of AF (β for +1-year change, 0.031; P=0.01), nonparoxysmal AF (versus paroxysmal; β, 0.52; P<0.0001), and larger left atrial size (β for +1-cm(2) change, 0.040; P<0.0001). The BNP levels were strongly associated with arrhythmia recurrence in univariate- (hazard ratio for +1-log-BNP change, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 2.74; P<0.001) and covariate- (hazard ratio for +1-log-BNP change, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 2.06 to 2.38; P<0.001) adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis. The covariate-adjusted hazard ratios for recurrent arrhythmia were 1.6, 2.7, 4.3, and 5.7 for the second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles, respectively, compared with patients in the lowest quintile (P for trend across quintiles <0.001). B-type natriuretic peptide levels correlate with AF burden (chronicity, altered hemodynamics, and anatomic remodeling) in patients with lone AF and are strong predictors of recurrent arrhythmia after ablation. Elevated BNP levels may reflect increased cardiac chamber wall stress and/or intrinsic atrial disease, thus increasing the risk of arrhythmia recurrence.

  19. Early cardiac changes in a rat model of prediabetes: brain natriuretic peptide overexpression seems to be the best marker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as structural and functional changes in the myocardium due to metabolic and cellular abnormalities induced by diabetes mellitus (DM). The impact of prediabetic conditions on the cardiac tissue remains to be elucidated. The goal of this study was to elucidate whether cardiac dysfunction is already present in a state of prediabetes, in the presence of insulin resistance, and to unravel the underlying mechanisms, in a rat model without obesity and hypertension as confounding factors. Methods Two groups of 16-week-old Wistar rats were tested during a 9 week protocol: high sucrose (HSu) diet group (n = 7) – rats receiving 35% of sucrose in drinking water vs the vehicle control group (n = 7). The animal model was characterized in terms of body weight (BW) and the glycemic, insulinemic and lipidic profiles. The following parameters were assessed to evaluate possible early cardiac alterations and underlying mechanisms: blood pressure, heart rate, heart and left ventricle (LV) trophism indexes, as well as the serum and tissue protein and/or the mRNA expression of markers for fibrosis, hypertrophy, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress. Results The HSu-treated rats presented normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), accompanied by hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (P < 0.01), confirming this rat model as prediabetic. Furthermore, although hypertriglyceridemia (P < 0.05) was observed, obesity and hypertension were absent. Regarding the impact of the HSu diet on the cardiac tissue, our results indicated that 9 weeks of treatment might be associated with initial cardiac changes, as suggested by the increased LV weight/BW ratio (P < 0.01) and a remarkable brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA overexpression (P < 0.01), together with a marked trend for an upregulation of other important mediators of

  20. Haemodynamic action of B-type natriuretic peptide substantially outlasts its plasma half-life in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Colleen J; Woods, Robyn L

    2003-01-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma half-life of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in conscious dogs after intravenous administration and to compare this with its haemodynamic effects. In six chronically instrumented dogs, plasma BNP concentrations were measured under basal conditions, during a constant infusion of canine BNP-32 (10 pmol/kg per min; 25 min) to steady state and at nominated time points up to 75 min after stopping the infusion. Concomitant, continuous measurements of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP) and mesenteric blood flow (MBF) were obtained. 2. Baseline plasma BNP levels were 15.0 +/- 2.3 fmol/mL and rose approximately 10-fold to 159 +/- 23 fmol/mL after 20-25 min BNP infusion. When the infusion was turned off, plasma BNP levels declined in a biphasic manner, with an initial half-life of 1.57 +/- 0.14 min and a terminal half-life of 301 +/- 85 min. The metabolic clearance rate of BNP was 2.29 +/- 0.34 L/min. 3. The infusion of BNP reduced MAP (approximately 10%), CVP (approximately 65%) and MBF (approximately 25%), whereas haematocrit (approximately 4%) and mesenteric vascular resistance (MVR) increased (approximately 40%; all P < 0.05). Plasma BNP levels returned to baseline by 20 min after BNP infusion had been stopped, whereas none of the haemodynamic variables returned to normal by this time. Mean arterial pressure returned to resting levels within 10-15 min after plasma BNP returned to normal. However, CVP, haematocrit and MBF remained substantially below baseline values for more than 20 min after circulating BNP levels had returned to pre-infusion levels. Of these, only mesenteric vascular changes were returned to baseline within 60 min of plasma BNP levels normalizing. 4. These results demonstrate that the removal of BNP from the canine circulation is rapid, similar to observations made regarding the metabolism of circulating atrial natriuretic peptide in dogs

  1. Synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide improves systemic and splanchnic circulation and has a lung-protective effect during endotoxemia in pigs.

    PubMed

    Sekino, Motohiro; Makita, Tetsuji; Ureshino, Hiroyuki; Sungsam, Cho; Sumikawa, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is thought to maintain gut perfusion during circulatory stress and thereby avoid later failure of distant organs. In this controlled experimental study, we investigated the effects of carperitide, a synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide that inhibits the renin-angiotensin system, on the systemic and splanchnic circulation during fluid-resuscitated endotoxemia in pigs. Sixteen domestic pigs of both sexes were randomly divided into 2 groups. The pigs were anesthetized and their lungs ventilated before receiving either saline (Group A: n = 8) or carperitide (Group B: n = 8). After a baseline measurement was taken, the pigs from both groups received a continuous infusion (1.7 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) of endotoxin for 240 min. Group B received a continuous infusion of carperitide (0.05 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) starting 30 min before the endotoxin infusion and lasting until the end of the study, whereas Group A received the same volume of saline. Fluid resuscitation was titrated to maintain pulmonary artery wedge pressure between 10 and 12 mm Hg. Systemic and regional hemodynamics, oxygenation variables, and the arterial-to-intestinal PCO(2) gap were measured at baseline and after endotoxin infusion for 240 min. The primary end points were cardiac index, superior mesenteric artery flow index, and PCO(2) gap at the end of this study (T240). Cardiac index and superior mesenteric artery flow index in Group B were significantly higher than those in Group A at T240 (83 +/- 15 vs 135 +/- 23 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001; 2.6 +/- 1.4 vs 7.9 +/- 4.8, P = 0.01), respectively. Carperitide administration resulted in a significantly better maintenance of intestinal mucosal perfusion assessed by the PCO(2) gap at T240 (33.0 +/- 14.5 vs 11.6 +/- 10.0 mm Hg, P = 0.004). The PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio in Group B was significantly greater than that in Group A from T60 to T240. In this porcine fluid-resuscitated endotoxemia model, a

  2. Prognostic potential of midregional pro-adrenomedullin following decompensation for systolic heart failure: comparison with cardiac natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Morbach, Caroline; Marx, Almuth; Kaspar, Mathias; Güder, Gülmisal; Brenner, Susanne; Feldmann, Carolin; Störk, Stefan; Vollert, Jörn O; Ertl, Georg; Angermann, Christiane E

    2017-05-17

    Whereas guidelines recommend the routine use of natriuretic peptides (NPs) in heart failure (HF) care, the clinical relevance and prognostic potential of midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is less well established. We aimed to compare the prognostic potential of MR-proADM after acute decompensation for systolic HF with that of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and midregional pro-atrial NP (MR-proANP), to investigate the significance of high/rising MR-proADM, and to evaluate the incremental prognostic yield of repeat measurements. The Interdisciplinary Network Heart Failure (INH) programme enrolled patients hospitalized for acute systolic HF and followed them for 18 months (100% complete). Of 1022 INH participants, 917 (68 ± 12 years, 28% female) who had biomaterials available were enrolled. High MR-proADM was associated with more impaired left ventricular function, higher comorbidity burden, lower doses of HF medications, and lower likelihood of left ventricular reverse remodelling. Compared with NPs, MR-proADM had superior prognostic significance (concordance index 0.72 for all-cause mortality), improved Cox regression models including NPs (P < 0.001), and was the only biomarker also predicting non-cardiac death (hazard ratio 1.8 vs. 1.0). In the setting of low NPs, patients with high MR-proADM experienced non-cardiac death more often. Six month MR-proADM enhanced models including baseline MR-proADM (P < 0.001) for prediction of all-cause death (net reclassification index: 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.78). MR-proADM was found to correlate with the global disease burden in HF and proved a potent prognostic indicator, capturing the risk for both cardiac and non-cardiac death. Serial MR-proADM measurements further enhanced risk assessment, thus facilitating substantial reclassification. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  3. Combined Measurement of Soluble ST2 and Amino-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Provides Early Assessment of Severity in Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tolppanen, Heli; Rivas-Lasarte, Mercedes; Lassus, Johan; Sadoune, Malha; Gayat, Etienne; Pulkki, Kari; Arrigo, Mattia; Krastinova, Evguenia; Sionis, Alessandro; Parissis, John; Spinar, Jindrich; Januzzi, James; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Mortality in cardiogenic shock complicating acute coronary syndrome is high, and objective risk stratification is needed for rational use of advanced therapies such as mechanical circulatory support. Traditionally, clinical variables have been used to judge risk in cardiogenic shock. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of serial measurement of soluble ST2 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide to clinical parameters for risk stratification in cardiogenic shock. CardShock (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01374867) is a prospective European multinational study of cardiogenic shock. The main study introduced CardShock risk score, which is calculated from seven clinical variables at baseline, and was associated with short-term mortality. Nine tertiary care university hospitals. Patients with cardiogenic shock caused by acute coronary syndrome (n=145). In this substudy, plasma samples from the study patients were analyzed at eight time points during the ICU or cardiac care unit stay. Additional prognostic value of the biomarkers was assessed with incremental discrimination improvement. The combination of soluble ST2 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide showed excellent discrimination for 30-day mortality (area under the curve, 0.77 at 12 hr up to 0.93 at 5-10 d after cardiogenic shock onset). At 12 hours, patients with both biomarkers elevated (soluble ST2, ≥ 500 ng/mL and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, ≥ 4,500 ng/L) had higher 30-day mortality (79%) compared to those with one or neither biomarkers elevated (31% or 10%, respectively; p < 0.001). Combined measurement of soluble ST2 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide at 12 hours added value to CardShock risk score, correctly reclassifying 11% of patients. The combination of results for soluble ST2 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide provides early risk assessment beyond clinical variables in patients with acute coronary syndrome

  4. Importance of plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, epicardial adipose tissue, and carotid intima-media thicknesses in asymptomatic obese children.

    PubMed

    Saritas, Turkay; Tascilar, Emre; Abaci, Ayhan; Yozgat, Yilmaz; Dogan, Mustafa; Dundaroz, Ruşen; Hasimi, Adnan; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Lenk, M Koray; Kilic, Ayhan

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the variations of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, epicardial adipose tissue thickness, and carotid intima-media thickness in childhood obesity. The study participants consisted of 50 obese children in the study group and 20 nonobese children referred for evaluation of murmurs who proved to have an innocent murmur and were used as control subjects. All the subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination for determination of left ventricular systolic function and mass index, myocardial tissue rates, and myocardial performance index. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and carotid intima-media thickness also were measured during echocardiography. Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels were measured at the time of evaluation. The left ventricle mass index was 40.21 + or - 10.42 g/m(2) in the obese group and 34.44 + or - 4.51 g/m(2) in the control group (p > 0.05). The serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level was 109.25 + or - 48.53 pg/ml in the study group and 51.96 + or - 22.36 pg/ml and in the control group (p = 0.001). The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was 5.57 + or - 1.45 mm in the study group and 2.98 + or - 0.41 mm in the control group (p = 0.001), and the respective carotid intima-media thicknesses were 0.079 + or - 0.019 cm and 0.049 + or - 0.012 cm (p = 0.001). The left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions showed no statistically significant correlations with N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels, carotid intima-media thickness, or epicardial adipose tissue thickness values. The results show that measurement of serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level, carotid intima-media thickness, and epicardial adipose tissue thickness in asymptomatic obese children is not needed.

  5. The prognostic value of pre-operative and post-operative B-type natriuretic peptides in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodseth, Reitze N; Biccard, Bruce M; Le Manach, Yannick; Sessler, Daniel I; Lurati Buse, Giovana A; Thabane, Lehana; Schutt, Robert C; Bolliger, Daniel; Cagini, Lucio; Cardinale, Daniela; Chong, Carol P W; Chu, Rong; Cnotliwy, Miłosław; Di Somma, Salvatore; Fahrner, René; Lim, Wen Kwang; Mahla, Elisabeth; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Puma, Francesco; Pyun, Wook B; Radović, Milan; Rajagopalan, Sriram; Suttie, Stuart; Vanniyasingam, Thuvaraha; van Gaal, William J; Waliszek, Marek; Devereaux, P J

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this study was to determine whether measuring post-operative B-type natriuretic peptides (NPs) (i.e., B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal fragment of proBNP [NT-proBNP]) enhances risk stratification in adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, in whom a pre-operative NP has been measured. Pre-operative NP concentrations are powerful independent predictors of perioperative cardiovascular complications, but recent studies have reported that elevated post-operative NP concentrations are independently associated with these complications. It is not clear whether there is value in measuring post-operative NP when a pre-operative measurement has been done. We conducted a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis to determine whether the addition of post-operative NP levels enhanced the prediction of the composite of death and nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 and ≥180 days after surgery. Eighteen eligible studies provided individual patient data (n = 2,179). Adding post-operative NP to a risk prediction model containing pre-operative NP improved model fit and risk classification at both 30 days (corrected quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion: 1,280 to 1,204; net reclassification index: 20%; p < 0.001) and ≥180 days (corrected quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion: 1,320 to 1,300; net reclassification index: 11%; p = 0.003). Elevated post-operative NP was the strongest independent predictor of the primary outcome at 30 days (odds ratio: 3.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.2 to 6.2; p < 0.001) and ≥180 days (odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 2.7; p < 0.001) after surgery. Additional post-operative NP measurement enhanced risk stratification for the composite outcomes of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days and ≥180 days after noncardiac surgery compared with a pre-operative NP measurement alone. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology

  6. Pharmacological Therapy in the Heart as an Alternative to Cellular Therapy: A Place for the Brain Natriuretic Peptide?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt-Velin, Nathalie; Badoux, Suzanne; Liaudet, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The discovery that stem cells isolated from different organs have the ability to differentiate into mature beating cardiomyocytes has fostered considerable interest in developing cellular regenerative therapies to treat cardiac diseases associated with the loss of viable myocardium. Clinical studies evaluating the potential of stem cells (from heart, blood, bone marrow, skeletal muscle, and fat) to regenerate the myocardium and improve its functional status indicated that although the method appeared generally safe, its overall efficacy has remained modest. Several issues raised by these studies were notably related to the nature and number of injected cells, as well as the route and timing of their administration, to cite only a few. Besides the direct administration of cardiac precursor cells, a distinct approach to cardiac regeneration could be based upon the stimulation of the heart's natural ability to regenerate, using pharmacological approaches. Indeed, differentiation and/or proliferation of cardiac precursor cells is controlled by various endogenous mediators, such as growth factors and cytokines, which could thus be used as pharmacological agents to promote regeneration. To illustrate such approach, we present recent results showing that the exogenous administration of the natriuretic peptide BNP triggers “endogenous” cardiac regeneration, following experimental myocardial infarction. PMID:26880973

  7. NT-pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels and the Risk of Death in the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Roberto F.; Hildesheim, Mariana; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Remaley, Alan T.; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support a hypothesis that pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) that is associated with a high risk of death and evolves as a complication of haemolytic anaemia. This fundamental hypothesis has been recently challenged and remains controversial. In order to further test this hypothesis in a large and independent cohort of SCD patients we obtained plasma samples from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) for analysis of a biomarker, N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which is elevated in the setting of pulmonary arterial and venous hypertension. A NT-pro-BNP value previously identified to predict PH in adults with SCD was used to determine the association between the risk of mortality in 758 CSSCD participants (428 children and 330 adults). An abnormally high NT-proBNP level ≥160 ng/l was present in 27.6 % of adult SCD patients. High levels were associated with markers of haemolytic anaemia, such as low haemoglobin level (P<0.001), high lactate dehydrogenase (P<0.001), and high total bilirubin levels (P<0.007). A NT-proBNP level ≥160 ng/l was an independent predictor of mortality (RR 6.24, 95% CI 2.9–13.3, P<0.0001). These findings provide further support for an association between haemolytic anaemia and cardiovascular complications in this patient population. PMID:21689089

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by CPA47 cells - Evidence for a divalent cation-independent cell-surface proteolytic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. J.; Chen, Y. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is rapidly cleared and degraded in vivo. Nonguanylate-cyclase receptors (C-ANPR) and a metalloproteinase, neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) (NEP 24.11), are thought to be responsible for its metabolism. We investigated the mechanisms of ANP degradation by an endothelial-derived cell line, CPA47. CPA47 cells degraded 88 percent of 125I-ANP after 1 h at 37 degrees C as determined by HPLC. Medium preconditioned by these cells degraded 41 percent of the 125I-ANP, and this activity was inhibited by a divalent cation chelator, EDTA. Furthermore, a cell-surface proteolytic activity degraded 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA when receptor-mediated endocytosis was inhibited either by low temperature (4 degrees C) or by hyperosmolarity at 37 degrees C. The metalloproteinase, NEP 24.11, is unlikely to be the cell-surface peptidase because 125I-ANP is degraded by CPA47 cells at 4 degrees C in the presence of 5 mM EDTA. These data indicate that CPA47 cells can degrade ANP by a novel divalent cation-independent cell-surface proteolytic activity.

  9. Blood N-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide and Interleukin-17 for Distinguishing Incomplete Kawasaki Disease from Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Chen, Yuanling; Zhong, Shiling; Li, Yunyan; Dai, Xiahua; Di, Yazhen

    2015-06-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and interleukin-17(IL-17) for incomplete Kawasaki disease. Patients with Kawasaki disease, Incomplete Kawasaki disease and unclear infectious fever were included in this retrospective study. Their clinical features, and laboratory test results of blood NT-proBNP and IL-17 were collected and compared. 766 patients with complete clinical information were recruited, consisting of 291 cases of Kawasaki disease, 74 cases of incomplete Kawasaki disease, and 401 cases of unclear infectious diseases. When the consistency with indicator 2 and 3 in Kawasaki disease diagnosis criteria was assessed with blood IL-17 ?11.55 pg/mL and blood NT-proBNP ? 225.5 pg/dL as the criteria, the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing incomplete Kawasaki disease and infectious diseases reached 86.5% and 94.8%, respectively. When we chose the consistency with indicator 1 and 2 in Kawasaki disease diagnosis criteria, the appearance of decrustation and/or the BCG erythema, blood IL-17 ?11.55 pg/mL and blood NT-Pro BNP ?225.5 pg/dL as the criteria, the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing incomplete Kawasaki disease and infectious diseases was 43.2% and 100%, respectively. Blood NT-proBNP and IL-17 are useful laboratory indicators for distinguishing incomplete Kawasaki disease and infectious diseases at the early stage.

  10. Comparison of usefulness of tissue Doppler imaging versus brain natriuretic peptide for differentiation of constrictive pericardial disease from restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Partho P; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay K; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Korinek, Josef; Belohlavek, Marek; Sundt, Thoralf M; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy; Seward, James B; Tajik, A Jamil; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2008-08-01

    Brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide (BNP) and tissue Doppler imaging may distinguish restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCMP) from idiopathic constrictive pericardial disease (CP). However, their comparative efficacy is unknown for patients with CP from secondary causes (e.g., surgery or radiotherapy). We compared the efficacy of tissue Doppler imaging and BNP for differentiation of RCMP (n = 15) and CP (n = 16) were compared. BNP was higher in patients with RCMP than CP (p = 0.008), but the groups overlapped, particularly for BNP <400 pg/ml. BNP was lower with idiopathic CP than secondary CP (139 +/- 50 vs 293 +/- 69 pg/ml; p <0.001) or RCMP (139 +/- 50 vs 595 +/- 499 pg/ml; p <0.001), but not significantly different between those with secondary CP and RCMP (293 +/- 69 vs 595 +/- 499 pg/ml; p = 0.1). Patients with CP and RCMP had less overlap in early diastolic and isovolumic contraction tissue Doppler imaging velocities compared with BNP, with clear separation of groups evident with mean early diastolic annular velocities (averaged from 4 walls). Early diastolic tissue Doppler imaging velocity was superior to BNP for differentiation of CP and RCMP (area under the curve 0.97 vs 0.76, respectively; p = 0.01). In conclusion, mean early diastolic mitral annular velocity correctly distinguished CP from RCMP even when there was a large overlap of BNP between the 2 groups.

  11. Predictive value of B-type natriuretic peptide level on the postoperative course of infants with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Elhanan; Pollak, Uri; Dagan, Ovdi; Amir, Gabriel; Frenkel, George; Birk, Einat

    2013-05-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been shown to have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Less is known about its prognostic value in infants. To investigate the predictive value of BNP levels regarding the severity of the postoperative course in infants undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart disease. We conducted a prospective comparative study. Plasma BNP levels in infants aged 1-12 months with congenital heart disease undergoing complete repair were measured preoperatively and 8, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. Demographic and clinical data included postoperative inotropic support and lactate level, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospitalization stay. Cardiac surgery was performed in 19 infants aged 1-12 months. Preoperative BNP level above 170 pg/ml had a positive predictive value of 100% for inotropic score > or = 7.5 at 24 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 57%) and 48 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 100%), and was associated with longer ICU stay (P = 0.05) and a trend for longer mechanical ventilation (P = 0.12). Similar findings were found for 8 hours postoperative BNP above 1720 pg/ml. BNP level did not correlate with measured fractional shortening. In infants undergoing heart surgery, preoperative and 8 hour BNP levels were predictive of inotropic support and longer ICU stay. These findings may have implications for preplanning ICU loads in clinical practice. Further studies with larger samples are needed.

  12. Intracerebroventricular administration of C-type natriuretic peptide suppresses food intake via activation of the melanocortin system in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada-Goto, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Ebihara, Ken; Inuzuka, Megumi; Ochi, Yukari; Yamashita, Yui; Kusakabe, Toru; Yasoda, Akihiro; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-05-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus associated with regulating energy homeostasis. To elucidate the possible involvement of CNP in energy regulation, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of CNP on food intake in mice. The intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53 significantly suppressed food intake on 4-h refeeding after 48-h fasting. Next, intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53 significantly decreased nocturnal food intake. The increment of food intake induced by neuropeptide Y and ghrelin was markedly suppressed by intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53. When SHU9119, an antagonist for melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors, was coadministered with CNP-53, the suppressive effect of CNP-53 on refeeding after 48-h fasting was significantly attenuated by SHU9119. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-53 markedly increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the ARC, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and lateral hypothalamus. In particular, c-Fos-positive cells in the ARC after intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-53 were coexpressed with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone immunoreactivity. These results indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of CNP induces an anorexigenic action, in part, via activation of the melanocortin system.

  13. Salt-losing nephropathy associated with inappropriate secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide--a new clinical syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Soriano, J; Vallo, A

    1997-10-01

    A state of normokalemic renal sodium wasting associated with an apparently inappropriate secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has not been previously recognized. We here report an 11-year-old boy who presented with a chronic "salt-losing" nephropathy manifested by normonatremic or mildly hyponatremic extracellular fluid volume depletion, hypodipsia, absence of salt appetite, normokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hyper-reninemic hyperaldosteronism, hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, and highly conserved capacities for concentrating diluting the urine. Plasma ANP values were paradoxically elevated (between 10 and 47 fmol/ml), despite the coexistence of intravascular volume depletion and increased plasma levels of renin and aldosterone. Although the patient had some clinical similarities to Bartter's syndrome, fractional sodium chloride (NaCl) reabsorption during hypotonic saline diuresis was normal and no clinical amelioration was observed while on indomethacin therapy. Neither a tumor nor cardiac or cerebral abnormalities, which could be responsible for the increased ANP secretion, were detected. These clinical, biochemical, and histological features have not been previously described together and may represent a new clinical syndrome. The pathophysiology of this entity remains unknown, but an attractive, although unproven, hypothesis is that the renal defect in NaCl reabsorption in this patient could be related to an inappropriate and unregulated secretion of ANP.

  14. Prevention of airway inflammation with topical cream containing imiquimod and small interfering RNA for natriuretic peptide receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Xu, Weidong; Mohapatra, Subhra; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Li, Xu; Lockey, Richard F; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2008-01-01

    Background Asthma is a complex disease, characterized by reversible airway obstruction, hyperresponsiveness and chronic inflammation. Principle pharmacologic treatments for asthma include bronchodilating beta2-agonists and anti-inflammatory glucocorticosteroids; but these agents do not target the main cause of the disease, the generation of pathogenic Th2 cells. We previously reported reduction in allergic inflammation in mice deficient in the ANP receptor NPRA. Here we determined whether siRNA for natriuretic peptide receptor A (siNPRA) protected against asthma when administered transdermally. Methods Imiquimod cream mixed with chitosan nanoparticles containing either siRNA green indicator (siGLO) or siNPRA was applied to the skin of mice. Delivery of siGLO was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The anti-inflammatory activity of transdermal siNPRA was tested in OVA-sensitized mice by measuring airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, lung histopathology and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results SiGLO appearing in the lung proved the feasibility of transdermal delivery. In a mouse asthma model, BALB/c mice treated with imiquimod cream containing siNPRA chitosan nanoparticles showed significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, lung histopathology and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in lung homogenates compared to controls. Conclusion These results demonstrate that topical cream containing imiquimod and siNPRA nanoparticles exerts an anti-inflammatory effect and may provide a new and simple therapy for asthma. PMID:18279512

  15. Correlation between plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration and lung thallium-201 uptake on exercise thallium perfusion images.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Noriko; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Kimura, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Toyama, Shinichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Uchino, Kazuaki; Yamakawa, Yohei; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Inoue, Tomio; Umemura, Satoshi

    2006-03-01

    The plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration at rest correlates with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). High lung thallium-201 uptake has been reported to be associated with hemodynamic variables such as LVEDP, LVEF, and PCWP. However, there is no study that has investigated the correlation of plasma BNP concentration with lung thallium-201 uptake. We examined whether the plasma BNP concentration was related to lung thallium-201 uptake. Before exercise, venous blood samples were obtained from 39 patients with old myocardial infarction. We investigated the correlations between plasma BNP concentration and lung thallium-201 uptake, and whether they were related to LVEF, extent of nonviable myocardium, and ischemic myocardium, respectively, with thallium-201 exercise stress testing. The plasma BNP concentration significantly correlated with lung thallium-201 uptake (P < 0.05), nonviable segments (P < 0.01), and LVEF (P < 0.01). Lung thallium-201 uptake correlated with nonviable segments (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that increased secretion of BNP is related to increased lung thallium-201 uptake, and they are related to the extent of nonviable myocardium and decreased left ventricular function. Plasma BNP concentration and lung thalium-201 uptake may reflect the extent of myocardial fibrosis causing myocyte stretch.

  16. C-type natriuretic peptide prevents kidney injury and attenuates oxidative and inflammatory responses in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gan; Song, Xiang; Yin, Yujing; Xia, Sha; Liu, Qingjun; You, Guoxing; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress induced by hemorrhagic shock (HS) initiates a systemic inflammatory response, which leads to subsequent kidney injury. This study assessed the efficacy of c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in attenuating kidney injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R). Sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats underwent HS induced by the withdrawal of blood to a mean arterial pressure of 30-35 mmHg for 50 min. Then, the animals received CNP (25 μg/kg) or vehicle (saline) intravenously, followed byresuscitation with 1.5 times the shed blood volume in the form of normal saline. Mean arterial pressure was measured throughout the experiment, and acid-base status, oxidative stress, inflammation, tissue injury and kidney function were evaluated after resuscitation. CNP infusion reduced the malondialdehyde content, lowered the myeloperoxidase activity and decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in the kidney. The histologic injury score and the plasma creatinine concentration were also significantly decreased after CNP treatment compared to the vehicle group. CNP treatment ameliorates oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and consequently acute kidney injury after HS/R. Thus, CNP may represent a promising strategy to improve resuscitation for the treatment of HS and deserves further investigation.

  17. Characterization and purification of the detergent solubilized atrial natriuretic peptide receptor from bovine aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, D.; Phelps, M.; Scarborough, R.; Johnson, K.; Lewicki, J.

    1986-03-01

    A protein has been purified from total homogenates of cultured vascular bovine smooth muscle cells with properties indicative of the receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Specific /sup 125/I-ANP binding activity was solubilized quantitatively from smooth muscle cell membranes with a purified component of Triton X-100. Equilibrium binding studies of the solubilized ANP receptor reveal by Scatchard analysis a single class of binding sites with a K/sub d/ = 1.77 x 10/sup -10/ moles /sup 125/I-ANP/1 and B/sub max/ = 34.6 pmol/mg protein. The ANP receptor solubilized in this manner is stable for greater than or equal to 2 months at -70/sup 0/C. Studies investigating the ANP receptor show that it binds to wheat germ agglutinin and to CM-cellulose at pH 4.1 but not at pH 6.5. These findings imply that the ANP receptor is a neutral to mildly basic glycoprotein. Further purification studies involving affinity chromatography with ANP-Sepharose result in a 500-fold purification and reveal a single protein with a molecular mass of 58,700 daltons as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The size of this protein is in good agreement with that of an ANP receptor previously identified in intact smooth muscle cells by crosslinking studies with /sup 125/I-ANP.

  18. Changes in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration in exercising horses in relation to hydration status and exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Nyman, S; Kokkonen, U M; Dahlborn, K

    1998-04-01

    To investigate effects of hydration status and exercise intensity on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration in exercising horses. 4 trained Standardbreds. Horses performed a 40-minute exercise test at 65 to 70% maximal heart rate (HRmax; no incline) and a 12-minute test at approximately 90% HRmax (3.5 degrees incline). The 40-minute test was performed with ad libitum access to drinking water (normohydration), after water had been withheld for 24 hours (dehydration), and 30 minutes after 12 L of water at body temperature had been given via nasogastric tube (hyperhydration). The 12-minute test was only performed with normohydrated horses. Plasma ANP concentration was higher toward the end of exercise during hyperhydration than during the other 2 hydration states, and the area under the plasma ANP concentration curve was significantly greater during hyperhydration than during dehydration. The maximal plasma ANP value induced during the 12-minute test was similar to that of the 40-minute test. After the 12-minute test, plasma ANP concentration did not decrease during the first 30 minutes of recovery, whereas after the 40-minute test, plasma ANP concentration decreased by approximately 30% during the same period. Hydration status can affect plasma ANP concentration in horses during submaximal exercise. Maximal plasma ANP concentration was similar at the 2 exercise intensities studied, but the postexercise return to baseline values differed. Changes in hydration status can cause alterations in plasma concentration of ANP, one of the hormones involved in the control of cardiovascular functions during exercise.

  19. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in amniotic fluid of fetuses with known or suspected cardiac load.

    PubMed

    Leufgen, Christina; Gembruch, Ulrich; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Fimmers, Rolf; Merz, Waltraut M

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction occurs in a variety of fetal disorders. Findings from adult cardiology, where n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP) is an established biomarker of left ventricular dysfunction have been extended to fetal life. Since fetal blood sampling is technically challenging we investigated amniotic fluid nt-proBNP for its suitability to diagnose fetal myocardial dysfunction. Ultrasound, Doppler examination and echocardiography was applied to classify cases and controls. Amniotic fluid nt-proBNP to amniotic fluid total protein ratio was calculated and compared to the gestational age-dependent reference intervals. In a subset of cases, fetal and maternal plasma nt-proBNP levels were determined. Specimen from 391 fetuses could be analyzed (171 cases, 220 controls). There was a high correlation between amniotic fluid and fetal blood nt-proBNP levels (r = 0.441 for cases; r = 0.515 for controls), whereas no correlation could be detected between maternal and fetal (blood and amniotic fluid) nt-proBNP concentrations. Specificity and positive likelihood ratio of amniotic fluid nt-proBNP to amniotic fluid total protein ratio were high (0.97 and 4.3, respectively). Amniotic fluid nt-proBNP measurement allows diagnostic confirmation of fetal myocardial dysfunction. It may serve as a useful adjunct in addition and correlation to existing tests of myocardial function, particularly in the context of invasive fetal therapy, where access to the amniotic cavity is part of the procedure.

  20. Effect of induced ventricular fibrillation and shock delivery on brain natriuretic peptide measured serially following a predischarge ICD test.

    PubMed

    Budeus, Marco; Salibassoglu, Emanuel; Schymura, Anna Maria; Reinsch, Nico; Wieneke, Heinrich; Sack, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund

    2007-10-22

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was a marker for heart failure and cardiac wall tension. We analysed the trend of BNP after predischarge testing in order to get non-invasive details about the cardiac stress during predischarge testing. 4-5 days after ICD implant we measured BNP, myoglobin, cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase in 20 patients before and 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 minutes and at the next day after predischarge testing. We evaluated actual values and percentage alterations of BNP. BNP significantly increased with a maximum after 5 minutes (804.0 +/- 803.4 vs. 475.7 +/- 629.5 pg/ml, P < 0.0001) and in terms of the percentage values (100 vs. 199.4 +/- 61.4 %, P < 0.0001) compared with baseline BNP. BNP decreased after that with the last significantly increased BNP value after 20 minutes (540.2 +/- 604.9 vs. 475.7 +/- 629.5 pg/ml, P = 0.017). We excluded a cardiac necrosis during predischarge testing because of similar values of myoglobin, cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase during the 2-hour follow-up. Our data showed a great increase with a doubling of BNP after 5 minutes as a result of induced ventricular fibrillation during predischarge test. This increase was not generated by myocardial necrosis but rather caused by an acute cardiac failure as a consequence of induced ventricular fibrillation in predischarge testing.

  1. Profiling B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Cleavage Peptidoforms in Human Plasma by Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenyan; Raedschelders, Koen; Santos, Marcia; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2017-10-02

    B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is a biologically active circulating hormone. Plasma concentrations of BNP are routinely used in the diagnosis of heart failure, and the intravenous infusion of recombinant BNP can be used for heart failure treatment. Like many bioactive polypeptides, multiple plasma enzymes are known to cleave circulating BNP, and as part of the CVD-B/D-HPP mandate, we sought to develop a technique capable of profiling these catabolic processes in plasma. We used a neutral-coated capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization (CESI) separation system coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to profile the proteolysis of exogenous recombinant BNP1-32 in plasma. Our method utilizes electrokinetic injection of minimally processed plasma samples to simultaneously monitor the dynamic generation and breakdown of at least five BNP peptidoforms in plasma. By integrating multisegment injection, our method can produce a multipoint BNP proteolytic profile for one sample within an hour. We envision applying this method to assess the potential relation between plasma-based BNP proteolysis and heart failure as well as a means of monitoring BNP bioavailability after therapeutic infusion.

  2. Comparability of Results between Point-of-Care and Automated Instruments to Measure B-type Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kevin; Terracciano, Garrett J.; Jiang, Kevin; Maisel, Alan S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in the U.S. The incorporation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements when triaging patients presenting with shortness of breath has improved the diagnostic and prognostic ability of physicians. Currently, there are no point-of-care systems for quantifying BNP that can be used without sacrificing accuracy. We compared the analytical performance of the Abbott i-STAT analyzer, a handheld point-of-care system for measuring BNP, with the lab-based system, the Abbott ARCHITECT. Methods: One-hundred fifty samples were collected from three clinical settings: 41 from the Emergency Department, 58 from the inpatient wards, and 51 from heart failure outpatient clinics. Linear regression and bias difference analyses were run to evaluate the accuracy of the i-STAT. Correlation between the i-STAT and Architect BNP values were made with values of BNP. Results: The correlation coefficient was r=0.977 (N=150, p<.0001). The average bias was significant (-36) and there were concentration-dependent differences at higher BNP values. Precision of the i-STAT was poor compared to the lab-based platform. Conclusion: Although the precision of the i-STAT was poor, there was good clinical agreement between the i-STAT and the lab-based platform. PMID:20411075

  3. Human B-natriuretic peptide improves hemodynamics and renal function in heart transplant patients immediately after surgery.

    PubMed

    Feldman, David S; Ikonomidis, John S; Uber, Walter E; Van Bakel, Adrian B; Pereira, Naveen L; Crumbley, Arthur J; Tann, Stephen M

    2004-08-01

    B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) is effective in the treatment of decompensated heart failure, but has not specifically been evaluated in the immediate postoperative cardiac transplant population. To determine if BNP can favorably alter hemodynamics in the perioperative setting after heart transplantation. We administered (human)BNP ((h)BNP, Nesiritide) to 10 consecutive patients with preexisting renal insufficiency and elevated filling pressures. All patients had failed to respond to inotropes and escalating doses of diuretics. BNP was started 48 hours after transplantation, and continued for 48 to 72 hours. Intravascular hemodynamics were measured. With (h)BNP therapy, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, and mean pulmonary artery pressure were all attenuated, whereas the cardiac output was significantly increased. The mean urine output increased significantly in the first 24 hours of therapy with no increase in diuretics. Implementation of BNP therapy allowed for a reduction of patients' inotropes and diuretics, while decreasing serum BNP levels. An improvement in cardiac hemodynamics and renal function was observed with administration of (h)BNP in these postsurgical patients with elevated filling pressures and acute on chronic renal insufficiency. This study demonstrates that posttransplant patients retain the capacity to respond to exogenous BNP immediately after surgery.

  4. N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide is decreased in insulin dependent gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is elevated in gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. This trial aimed to generate data for gestational diabetes mellitus patients, who are at risk to develop these complications. Methods We have measured NT-proBNP in 223 otherwise healthy women between gestational week 24 and 32 referred to the outpatient diabetes unit in a cross-sectional study. Results 88 control subjects, 45 patients with indication for medical nutrition therapy (MNT) alone and 90 patients who required insulin therapy were included. Groups of women were comparable regarding gestational week. Body mass index before pregnancy and at blood draw was significantly higher in subjects with insulin dependent gestational diabetes mellitus compared to MNT controlled gestational diabetes mellitus. NT-proBNP was significantly lower in patients with insulin dependent gestational diabetes mellitus (35 ± 25 pg/ml) compared to controls (53 ± 43 pg/ml, p = 0.012). Conclusions NT-proBNP is within the reference range of normal subjects in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Differences in body mass index, changes in glomerular filtration rate and haemodynamics may explain lower NT-proBNP concentrations in insulin dependent gestational diabetes mellitus. A false negative interpretation needs to be considered in these women. PMID:21489265

  5. B-type natriuretic peptide-guided therapy and length of hospital stay post left ventricular assist device implantation.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Yaron; Malik, Adnan S; Lin, Hongbo; Shen, Changyu; Wang, I-Wen; Wozniak, Thomas C; Hashmi, Zubair A; Shaukat, Arslan; Pickrell, Jeanette; Caccamo, Marco A; Gradus-Pizlo, Irmina; Hadi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)-guided therapy during the early postoperative period following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has not been well described in the literature. We conducted a retrospective cohort study consisting of consecutive patients who underwent LVAD implantation at our institution during May 2009 to March 2013. The study was limited to patients receiving HeartMate II (Thoratec) or HVAD (HeartWare) LVADs. Patients with acute myocardial infarction were excluded. We compared between patients with multiple postoperative BNP tests (BNP-guided therapy) and earlier period patients who typically had only a baseline BNP measurement (non-BNP-guided therapy). A total of 85 patients underwent LVAD implantation during the study period. Eight patients were excluded (five acute myocardial infarction, three without BNP measurements). The only differences in the baseline characteristics of BNP versus non-BNP-guided therapy included age and female gender. The postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS) in the BNP-guided therapy group was 5 days shorter when compared with the non-BNP-guided therapy group. In multivariate analysis, BNP-guided therapy remained a significant predictor of reduced LOS. The use of repeated BNP measurements during the early postoperative period was associated with a significantly lower LOS post LVAD implantation.

  6. Multiplex detection of B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin I and C-reactive protein with photonic suspension array.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenbin; Fu, Cong; Chen, Yong; Lu, Jun; Yao, Yuyu; Shen, Chengxing; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-01-01

    A novel photonic suspension array has been developed for multiplex immunoassay. The carriers of this array were silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs). The codes of these carriers have characteristic reflection peaks originating from their structural periodicity; therefore they do not suffer from fading, bleaching, quenching or chemical instability. In addition, the fluorescence background of SCCBs is negligible because no fluorescence materials or dyes are involved. With a sandwich method, the proposed suspension array was used for simultaneous multiplex detection of heart failure (HF) and coronary heart disease (CAD) biomarkers in one test tube. The results showed that the three biomarkers: cardiac troponin I (cTnI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) could be assayed in the ranges of 0.1-500 ng/ml, 1-500 mg/L and 0.02-50 ng/ml with detection limits of 0.01 ng/ml, 0.36 mg/L and 0.004 ng/ml at 3σ, respectively. There were no significant differences between the photonic suspension array and traditional parallel single-analyte test. This novel method demonstrated acceptable accuracy, high detection sensitivity and reproducibility and excellent storage stability. This technique provides a new strategy for low cost, automated, and simultaneous multiplex immunoassays of bio-markers.

  7. The role of n terminal - probrain natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of hemodynamic persistent asrteriosus ductus in premature neonates patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasraf, D.; Djer, M. M.; Advani, N.

    2017-08-01

    Persistent ductus arteriosus is one of the most frequent congenital heart diseases found in infants, mainly in preterms. Echocardiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hs-PDA) in preterm neonates. A few studies have suggested that the use of a simple blood assay to detect N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may be useful in determining the diagnosis and management of hs-PDA. No such studies have been conducted in Indonesia, although the assay kit and characteristics of the patient (gestational age and chronological age) influence the accuracy of NT-proBNP levels in determining hs-PDA. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the NT-proBNP level and the prevalence of hs-PDA in an Indonesian patient population. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. PDA was determined using echocardiography in 49 preterm neonates (gestational age <37 weeks and birthweight <2000 g). Subsequently, these patients were divided into three groups: non-PDA, non-hsPDA, and hs-PDA. The blood NT-proBNP level was then determined in the non-hsPDA and hs-PDA groups, and between-group differences were compared. Among the 49 neonates, 33 patients had PDA, and 16 of these had hs-PDA. The results revealed a significant association between the NT-proBNP level and hs-PDA (p < 0.001).

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by CPA47 cells - Evidence for a divalent cation-independent cell-surface proteolytic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. J.; Chen, Y. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is rapidly cleared and degraded in vivo. Nonguanylate-cyclase receptors (C-ANPR) and a metalloproteinase, neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) (NEP 24.11), are thought to be responsible for its metabolism. We investigated the mechanisms of ANP degradation by an endothelial-derived cell line, CPA47. CPA47 cells degraded 88 percent of 125I-ANP after 1 h at 37 degrees C as determined by HPLC. Medium preconditioned by these cells degraded 41 percent of the 125I-ANP, and this activity was inhibited by a divalent cation chelator, EDTA. Furthermore, a cell-surface proteolytic activity degraded 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA when receptor-mediated endocytosis was inhibited either by low temperature (4 degrees C) or by hyperosmolarity at 37 degrees C. The metalloproteinase, NEP 24.11, is unlikely to be the cell-surface peptidase because 125I-ANP is degraded by CPA47 cells at 4 degrees C in the presence of 5 mM EDTA. These data indicate that CPA47 cells can degrade ANP by a novel divalent cation-independent cell-surface proteolytic activity.

  9. Interaction of malnutrition, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and ventricular remodeling in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Ji; Song, Bong Gun; Kim, Min Su; Cho, Seong; Chun, Woo Jung; Oh, Ju Hyun; Kim, Sung Rok

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of nutritional status, N-terminal probrain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and ventricular remodeling in hemodialysis patients. NT-proBNP was measured by immunoassay. Nutritional status was assessed using the subjective global assessment (SGA) and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS). Transthoracic echocardiographic examinations were performed on all patients. 44 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. Malnourished patients had higher levels of extracellular water (ECW) per kg body weight (BWt) than well-nourished patients and higher levels of NT-proBNP. MIS was positively correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), log NT-proBNP and ECW/BWt, and negatively correlated with fat mass and LV systolic dysfunction. LV systolic dysfunction, LVMI and MIS were independently associated with log NT-proBNP levels. Multiple regression analysis showed that log NT-proBNP, mean arterial pressure and ECW/BWt were independently associated with LVMI. However, MIS did not have an independent relationship to LVMI. Malnutrition in hemodialysis patients is accompanied by volume overload and associated with increased log NT-proBNP levels independent of volume status, and these levels are independently associated with increased LVMI. This suggests a possibility that nutritional status may affect ventricular remodeling in hemodialysis patients.

  10. The influence of anaemia on stroke prognosis and its relation to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Nybo, M; Kristensen, S R; Mickley, H; Jensen, J K

    2007-05-01

    Anaemia is a negative prognostic factor for patients with heart failure and impaired renal function, but its role in stroke patients is unknown. Furthermore, anaemia has been shown to influence the level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), but this is only investigated in patients with heart failure, not in stroke patients. Two-hundred-and-fifty consecutive, well-defined ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Mortality was recorded at 6 months follow-up. Anaemia was diagnosed in 37 patients (15%) in whom stroke severity was worse than in the non-anaemic group, whilst the prevalence of renal affection, smoking and heart failure was lower. At 6 months follow-up, 23 patients were dead, and anaemia had an odds ratio of 4.7 when adjusted for age, Scandinavian Stroke Scale and a combined variable of heart and/or renal failure and/or elevation of troponin T using logistic regression. The median NT-proBNP level in the anaemic group was significantly higher than in the non-anaemic group, and in a multivariate linear regression model, anaemia remained an independent predictor of NT-proBNP. Conclusively, anaemia was found to be a negative prognostic factor for ischemic stroke patients. Furthermore, anaemia influenced the NT-proBNP level in ischemic stroke patients, an important aspect when interpreting NT-proBNP in these patients.

  11. Potentiation of the depressor responses to atrial natriuretic peptides in conscious SHR by an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Seymour, A A; Swerdel, J N; Fennell, S A; Druckman, S P; Neubeck, R; Delaney, N G

    1989-08-01

    In previous studies, neutral endopeptidase (NEP) hydrolyzed the Cys105-Phe106 bond of atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) in vitro. Three such ring-opened peptides derived from ANP 99-126, 103-126, and 103-123 were inactive in conscious rats. In conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in the present study, 100 mumol/kg, intravenously (i.v.) of the NEP inhibitor, SQ 29,072 (7-[[2-(mercaptomethyl)-1-oxo-3-phenyl-propyl]amino]heptanoic acid), significantly increased the area over the curve (AOC) of the depressor response to 3 nmol/kg of ANP 103-126 from 165 +/- 36 to 792 +/- 350, 1,515 +/- 374, and 828 +/- 164 mm Hg.min at 15, 30, and 60 min after inhibitor treatment. Thirty minutes after 3, 10, 30, and 100 mumol/kg of SQ 29,072, the AOC of 3 nmol/kg of ANP 99-126 increased from 175 +/- 59 mm Hg.min in vehicle-treated rats to 296 +/- 100, 318 +/- 34, 632 +/- 194 (p less than 0.05) and 656 +/- 151 (p less than 0.05) mm Hg.min. Furthermore, 100 mumol/kg of SQ 29,072 potentiated the AOC of human ANP 99-126 and 105-126 and rat ANP 99-126, 103-126, and 103-123, suggesting that the exocyclic N-terminal residues and the C-terminal tripeptide did not influence ANP potentiation by SQ 29,072. In contrast, inhibitors of aminopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and serine protease and an arginine vasopressin (AVP) antagonist did not substantially affect the AOC of 3 nmol/kg ANP 99-126. Finally, SQ 29,072 did not alter the activities of bradykinin, AVP, or angiotensin I or II. In conclusion, NEP may inactivate ANP in vivo by cleavage of susceptible bonds within the ANP ring.

  12. Catecholamines, cardiac natriuretic peptides and chromogranin A: evolution and physiopathology of a 'whip-brake' system of the endocrine heart.

    PubMed

    Tota, Bruno; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Gattuso, Alfonsina

    2010-09-15

    In the past 50 years, extensive evidence has shown the ability of vertebrate cardiac non-neuronal cells to synthesize and release catecholamines (CA). This formed the mindset behind the search for the intrinsic endocrine heart properties, culminating in 1981 with the discovery of the natriuretic peptides (NP). CA and NP, co-existing in the endocrine secretion granules and acting as major cardiovascular regulators in health and disease, have become of great biomedical relevance for their potent diagnostic and therapeutic use. The concept of the endocrine heart was later enriched by the identification of a growing number of cardiac hormonal substances involved in organ modulation under normal and stress-induced conditions. Recently, chromogranin A (CgA), a major constituent of the secretory granules, and its derived cardio-suppressive and antiadrenergic peptides, vasostatin-1 and catestatin, were shown as new players in this framework, functioning as cardiac counter-regulators in 'zero steady-state error' homeostasis, particularly under intense excitatory stimuli, e.g. CA-induced myocardial stress. Here, we present evidence for the hypothesis that is gaining support, particularly among human cardiologists. The actions of CA, NP and CgA, we argue, may be viewed as a hallmark of the cardiac capacity to organize 'whip-brake' connection-integration processes in spatio-temporal networks. The involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/nitric oxide (NO) system in this configuration is discussed. The use of fish and amphibian paradigms will illustrate the ways that incipient endocrine-humoral agents have evolved as components of cardiac molecular loops and important intermediates during evolutionary transitions, or in a distinct phylogenetic lineage, or under stress challenges. This may help to grasp the old evolutionary roots of these intracardiac endocrine/paracrine networks and how they have evolved from relatively less complicated designs. The latter can also be used

  13. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress.

    PubMed

    Hadzovic-Dzuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Avdagić, Nesina; Lepara, Orhan; Zaćiragić, Asija; Jadrić, Radivoj; Alajbegović, Jasmin; Prnjavorac, Besim

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n = 8) and stress group (n = 8). Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep) containing tap water (temperature ca. 25 degrees C). The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the first day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacrificed and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.). There was no statistically significant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81 +/- 0.14 ng/ml) as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 +/- 0.08 ng/ml). After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs. 272.8 g), but this difference was not statistically significant. The stress period had no influence on food intake in the stress rat group. The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not sufficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  14. The natriuretic peptides BNP and CNP increase heart rate and electrical conduction by stimulating ionic currents in the sinoatrial node and atrial myocardium following activation of guanylyl cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Springer, Jeremy; Azer, John; Hua, Rui; Robbins, Courtney; Adamczyk, Andrew; McBoyle, Sarah; Bissell, Mary Beth; Rose, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are best known for their ability to regulate blood vessel tone and kidney function whereas their electrophysiological effects on the heart are less clear. Here, we measured the effects of BNP and CNP on sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrial electrophysiology in isolated hearts as well as isolated SAN and right atrial myocytes from mice. BNP and CNP dose-dependently increased heart rate and conduction through the heart as indicated by reductions in R-R interval, P wave duration and P-R interval on ECGs. In conjunction with these ECG changes BNP and CNP (100 nM) increased spontaneous action potential frequency in isolated SAN myocytes by increasing L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) and the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(f)). BNP had no effect on right atrial myocyte APs in basal conditions; however, in the presence of isoproterenol (10nM), BNP increased atrial AP duration and I(Ca,L). Quantitative gene expression and immunocytochemistry data show that all three NP receptors (NPR-A, NPR-B and NPR-C) are expressed in the SAN and atrium. The effects of BNP and CNP on SAN and right atrial myocytes were maintained in mutant mice lacking functional NPR-C receptors and blocked by the NPR-A antagonist A71915 indicating that BNP and CNP function through their guanylyl cyclase-linked receptors. Our data also show that the effects of BNP and CNP are completely absent in the presence of the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor milrinone. Based on these data we conclude that NPs can increase heart rate and electrical conduction by activating the guanylyl cyclase-linked NPR-A and NPR-B receptors and inhibiting PDE3 activity.

  15. N-Terminal pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels are Linked with Modified Child-Pugh Classification in Patients with Nonalcoholic Cirrhosis [NT-ProBNP and Liver Cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Kumbasar, Abdulbaki; Navdar, Mehtap; Ataoglu, Esra; Uzunhasan, Isil; Ergen, Kadir; Poturoglu, Sule; Basinoglu, Filiz; Yilmaz, Fatih; Yenigun, Mustafa; Sar, Fuat; Tanriverdi, Ozgur

    2017-03-01

    Excess N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide secretion has been linked to cirrhosis in previously studies. The relationship of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and cardiac dysfunction determined by echocardiography were investigated in patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis and a control group of chronic hepatitis. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Thirty-two men and thirty-three women who gave informed consent who were followed-up for chronic liver failure were enrolled. All patients gave clinical history, physical examination was carried out and information about ongoing medication has been obtained. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level was measured in all patients. The same cardiologist determined ejection fraction, end-diastolic left ventricular diameter, interventricular septum, and posterior wall on transthoracic echocardiography. Patients with extensive liver disease according to Child-Pugh classification from A to C had increasing N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in association (P < .001). According to the Child-Pugh classification there were no significant difference between groups for echocardiographic measurements (P > .05). N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide may be an important marker for cardiac dysfunction in patients with chronic liver failure in accordance with Child-Pugh stage.

  16. Atrial natriuretic peptide in the rat brain and plasma during clinical death and after resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kapuściński, A

    1994-01-01

    By means of the radioimmunologic method changes of ANP content in the rat brain and plasma have been evaluated during 5-min clinical death and up to 2 hr after resuscitation. Ischemia did not produce significant rise of ANP immunoreactivity in the brain, however, in the early postresuscitation period its reversible increase was noted with the peak value at 15th min. The content of peptide in plasma significantly increased at the end of clinical death and 5 min after resuscitation. The obtained results can support the notion of quantitative relationship between concentration of ANP and cGMP content in the brain in vivo.

  17. Comparison of B-type natriuretic peptide and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with constrictive pericarditis undergoing pericardiectomy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Aggarwal, Vikram; Chowdhury, Ujjwal; Choudhury, Minati; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Kiran, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Chronic constrictive pericarditis (CCP) due to tuberculosis has high morbidity and mortality in the periopeartive period following pericardiectomy because of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is considered a marker for both LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. We undertook this prospective study in 24 patients, to measure the BNP levels and to compare it with transmitral Doppler flow velocities, that is, the E/A ratio (E = initial peak velocity during early diastolic filling and A = late peak flow velocity during atrial systole), as a marker of diastolic function and systolic parameters, pre- and post-pericardiectomy, at the time of discharge. The latter parameters have been taken as a flow velocity across the mitral valve on a transthoracic echo. There was a significant decrease in the mean values of log BNP (6.19 +/- 0.33 to 4.65 +/- 0.14) (P = 0.001) and E/A ratio (1.81 +/- 0.21 to 1.01 +/- 0.14) (P = 0.001) post pericardiectomy, with a positive correlation, r = 0.896 and 0.837, respectively, between the two values at both the time periods. There was significant improvement in the systolic parameters of the LV function, that is, stroke volume index, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, and delivered oxygen index. However, no correlation was observed between these values and the BNP levels. We believe that BNP can be used as a marker for LV diastolic dysfunction in place of the E/A ratio in patients with CCP, undergoing pericardiectomy. However, more studies have to be performed for validation of the same.

  18. Brain natriuretic peptide and the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in mildly symptomatic heart failure patients enrolled in MADIT-CRT.

    PubMed

    Medina, Aharon; Moss, Arthur J; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Wang, Paul J; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data about the correlation between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and arrhythmic risk assessment in patients who receive device therapy for the treatment of heart failure (HF) or for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. We aimed to investigate the association between BNP levels and the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias among mildly symptomatic HF patients who receive an intracardiac defibrillator (ICD) with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy (respectively, CRT-D or CRT). The study population involved 1197 patients enrolled in MADIT-CRT. Plasma BNP was measured in a core laboratory at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) events were identified from ICD/CRT-D interrogations. Multivariate Cox hazards regression modeling showed that elevated baseline (> median = 72 ng/L) and 1-year BNP were associated with a significant increase in the risk of VT/VF (HR = 1.36, P = .026; and HR = 1.79, P < .001, respectively); and VT/VF or death (HR = 1.37, P = .008; and HR = 1.84, P < .0001, respectively) during follow-up. At 1 year post device implantation, BNP levels were significantly lower among study patients treated with CRT-D as compared with those who received ICD only (P = .014). CRT-D patients who had greater than median reductions in BNP levels (greater than one-third reduction of initial value) experienced a significantly lower risk of subsequent VT/VF (HR = 0.61, P = .021) and VT/VF or death (HR = 0.45, P < .0001) as compared to patients without such reductions. In MADIT-CRT, elevated baseline and follow-up BNP levels were independent predictors of increased risk for subsequent ventricular tachyarrhythmias, whereas BNP reductions following CRT-D implantation identified patients with a lower incidence of VT/VF during follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Four natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, VNP and CNP) coexist in the sturgeon: identification of BNP in fish lineage.

    PubMed

    Kawakoshi, A; Hyodo, S; Inoue, K; Kobayashi, Y; Takei, Y

    2004-04-01

    The natriuretic peptide (NP) family is composed of three members: atrial, brain/ventricular and C-type NPs (ANP, BNP/VNP and CNP respectively) in tetrapods and teleostean fish, but only CNP in elasmobranch fish. In order to trace the process of divergence of the NP family in early vertebrate evolution, we attempted to detect NPs in the primitive ray-finned fish, the sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Unexpectedly, we isolated four distinct NP cDNAs from the heart and brain of this chondrostean fish. The single NP from the brain was CNP, as judged from the lack of C-terminal 'tail' sequence extending from the intramolecular ring. Two of the three cardiac NPs were ANP and VNP, as judged by the presence of an amidation signal at its C-terminus (ANP) and a long and conserved C-terminal tail sequence (VNP) respectively. The third cardiac NP was most probably BNP because it possessed all the features characteristic of BNP including: (1) the presence of dibasic amino acids within the intramolecular ring; (2) the presence of AUUUA repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of its mRNA; (3) equivalent expression of its mRNA in the atrium and ventricle and appreciable expression in the brain. Based on the sturgeon BNP sequence, we further isolated BNP cDNA from the heart of tilapia and pufferfish for the first time in teleostean fish. Phylogenetic analysis of the precursors showed that newly identified NPs belong to each group of the four NPs. The current identification of both VNP and BNP in the sturgeon clearly showed that BNP and VNP are coded by distinct genes, and that the NP family consists of at least four members in the ray-finned fish. VNP has not been molecularly identified in mammals but its presence is suggested from physiological studies; heterologous fish VNP exhibited more potent vasorelaxant activity than homologous mammalian ANP in the isolated coronary artery of dogs.

  20. Evaluation of plasma C-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide in healthy cats and cats with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hori, Y; Yamano, S; Iwanaga, K; Kano, T; Tanabe, M; Uechi, M; Kanai, K; Nakao, R; Hoshi, F; Higuchi, S

    2008-01-01

    The clinical implications of evaluating C-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration in cats are still controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma C-terminal ANP concentration and left atrial pressure (LAP) in healthy cats with volume overload (study 1), and to compare plasma C-terminal ANP in normal cats and cats with cardiomyopathy (study 2). Five healthy adult cats were used in study 1, and clinically healthy cats (n=8) and cats with cardiomyopathy (n=14) were used in study 2. In study 1, cats were anesthetized and given acetated Ringer's solution (100 mL/kg/h for 60 minute) via the cephalic vein. Hemodynamic measurements and blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were performed at 10-min intervals. In study 2, blood samples from normal cats and cats with cardiomyopathy were collected from the cephalic vein. The plasma C-terminal ANP concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay for human alpha-ANP. In study 1, volume overload significantly increased the C-terminal ANP concentration and LAP from baseline. The C-terminal ANP concentration was strongly correlated with the mean LAP. In study 2, age, E wave velocity, and the ratios of the left atrium to aorta were significantly higher in the cats with cardiomyopathy compared with the normal cats. The C-terminal ANP concentration was significantly higher in the cats with cardiomyopathy compared with the normal cats. Our results suggest that the measurement of plasma C-terminal ANP in cats may provide additional information for the diagnosis of heart disease.

  1. Cardiac natriuretic peptides act via p38 MAPK to induce the brown fat thermogenic program in mouse and human adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bordicchia, Marica; Liu, Dianxin; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ailhaud, Gerard; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Zhang, Chaoying; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Sarzani, Riccardo; Collins, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    The ability of mammals to resist body fat accumulation is linked to their ability to expand the number and activity of “brown adipocytes” within white fat depots. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) can induce a functional “brown-like” adipocyte phenotype. As cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) and β-AR agonists are similarly potent at stimulating lipolysis in human adipocytes, we investigated whether NPs could induce human and mouse adipocytes to acquire brown adipocyte features, including a capacity for thermogenic energy expenditure mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). In human adipocytes, atrial NP (ANP) and ventricular NP (BNP) activated PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and UCP1 expression, induced mitochondriogenesis, and increased uncoupled and total respiration. At low concentrations, ANP and β-AR agonists additively enhanced expression of brown fat and mitochondrial markers in a p38 MAPK–dependent manner. Mice exposed to cold temperatures had increased levels of circulating NPs as well as higher expression of NP signaling receptor and lower expression of the NP clearance receptor (Nprc) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT). NPR-C–/– mice had markedly smaller WAT and BAT depots but higher expression of thermogenic genes such as Ucp1. Infusion of BNP into mice robustly increased Ucp1 and Pgc-1α expression in WAT and BAT, with corresponding elevation of respiration and energy expenditure. These results suggest that NPs promote “browning” of white adipocytes to increase energy expenditure, defining the heart as a central regulator of adipose tissue biology. PMID:22307324

  2. Hypergravity differentially modulates cGMP efflux in human melanocytic cells stimulated by nitric oxide and natriuretic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, K.; Stieber, C.; Lambers, B.; Block, I.; Krieg, R.; Wellmann, A.; Gerzer, R.

    Nitric oxide NO plays a key role in many patho physiologic processes including inflammation and skin cancer The diverse cellular effects of NO are mainly mediated by activation of the soluble guanylyl cycla