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Sample records for a-type post-agb stars

  1. Luminosity Variations in Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesler, Robert; Henson, G.

    2007-12-01

    Although much is known about AGB stars and planetary nebulae, relatively little is known about the phase of a star's life in which it transitions between those two states. We have measured the variations in luminosity of a sample of known Post-AGB stars (as well as several candidates) relative to nearby, non-variable stars in order to compare them with theoretical models. The typical behavior of the observed variations is described and an attempt is made to discern whether any periodicity might be present. Luminosity variations were found to be on the order of a few hundredths to a few tenths of a magnitude for the stars that were surveyed, with occasional fluctuations of up to a magnitude. This agrees with current models of Post-AGB stars. Each star fell into one of three categories, which were termed groups 1, 2, and 3. Group 1 stars showed long term, non-periodic luminosity variations on the scale of weeks or longer and were most likely to display some sort of short term, coherent luminosity oscillation (each of which lasted for only a few cycles). Group 2 stars showed erratic, short-term magnitude variations occurring on scales of several days. Group 3 stars showed little or no variation in magnitude. Of the 27 Post-AGB stars that were sampled, five fell into group 1, fifteen fell into group 2, and seven fell into group 3. The luminosity variations tended to be color-independent, and occurred on timescales ranging nearly continuously from a few days to more than a year. No clear periodic behavior was found in any star in our sample. This project was funded by a partnership between the National Science Foundation (NSF AST-0552798), Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), and the Department of Defense (DoD) ASSURE (Awards to Stimulate and Support Undergraduate Research Experiences) programs.

  2. Spectropolarimetry of Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, S. R.; Goodrich, R. W.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    1992-12-01

    We have used the technique of optical spectropolarimetry to investigate post-AGB stars, objects that represent the first stages of the transition from the AGB to a planetary nebula. Several of the observed objects display unpolarized emission lines superimposed on a highly polarized continuum. The continuum polarization provides evidence for the presence of an aspherical dust envelope early in the transition process. The observed objects were chosen from several samples: high latitude supergiants with IR excesses that are thought to be post-AGB stars (e.g. Bond et. al. 1984, PASP, 96, 176), their lower latitude counterparts (e.g. Hrivnak et. al. 1989, ApJ, 346, 265), post-AGB stars shown by Johnson & Jones (1991, AJ, 101, 1735) to have high broad band polarizations, and three highly polarized extreme carbon stars investigated by Cohen & Schmidt (1982, ApJ, 259, 693). GL 1403, an extreme carbon star, shows an abrupt position angle rotation at 6000 Angstroms, implying that at blue wavelengths we see a scattered stellar continuum, while the star itself is hidden from direct view. Longward of the position angle rotation, we begin to see the star directly. Menzies & Whitelock (1988, MNRAS, 233, 697) proposed that IRAS 20056+1834, an unreddened GO supergiant with very strong Na I emission lines and a large infrared excess, is a mass-losing star obscured from direct view, in which the photospheric light is seen in reflection. Our data support this interpretation; the Na I emission is unpolarized, indicating that it is produced in the shell, while the continuum is scattered and polarized (5-7%) by the aspherical shell of material. IRAS 20000+3239 also shows unpolarized Na I D emission and is probably similar to IRAS 20056+1834. IRC +10420 exhibits unpolarized Hα emission and GL 2699, an extreme carbon star, displays both polarized and unpolarized Hα as well as unpolarized low excitation forbidden [S II] and [O I] emission lines.

  3. Quasiperiodicity and chaos in post-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icke, V.

    2003-03-01

    This is a mini-presentation of three subjects, which are all related to the atmospheric motion in post-AGB stars. First, a summary of my 1990 equation of a driven stellar oscillator that exhibits chaotic solutions. Second, an advertisement for the subtle interplay of hydrodynamics, gas/dust drift, gas chemistry, dust formation, and radiation pressure, as presented in the thesis by Simis. Third, a new model equation for nonspherical stellar oscillations that resembles the FPU-equation which shows permanent non-equilibrium, with possibly intermittent solutions.

  4. INFRARED TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS, POST-AGB STARS, AND PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Kyung-Won, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr

    2015-08-01

    We present various infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and investigate possible evolutionary tracks. We use catalogs from the available literature for the sample of 4903 AGB stars (3373 O-rich; 1168 C-rich; 362 S-type), 660 post-AGB stars (326 post-AGB; 334 pre-PN), and 1510 PNe in our Galaxy. For each object in the catalog, we cross-identify the IRAS, AKARI, Midcourse Space Experiment, and 2MASS counterparts. The IR 2CDs can provide useful information about the structure and evolution of the dust envelopes as well as the central stars. To find possible evolutionarymore » tracks from AGB stars to PNe on the 2CDs, we investigate spectral evolution of post-AGB stars by making simple but reasonable assumptions on the evolution of the central star and dust shell. We perform radiative transfer model calculations for the detached dust shells around evolving central stars in the post-AGB phase. We find that the theoretical dust shell model tracks using dust opacity functions of amorphous silicate and amorphous carbon roughly coincide with the densely populated observed points of AGB stars, post-AGB stars, and PNe on various IR 2CDs. Even though some discrepancies are inevitable, the end points of the theoretical post-AGB model tracks generally converge in the region of the observed points of PNe on most 2CDs.« less

  5. The nebula around the post-AGB star 89 Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujarrabal, V.; van Winckel, H.; Neri, R.; Alcolea, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Deroo, P.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We aim to study the structure of the nebula around the post-AGB, binary star 89 Her. The presence of a rotating disk around this star had been proposed but not been yet confirmed by observations. Methods: We present high-resolution PdBI maps of CO J=2-1 and 1-0. Properties of the nebula are directly derived from the data and model fitting. We also present N-band interferometric data on the extent of the hot dust emission, obtained with the VLTI. Results: Two nebular components are found: (a) an extended hour-glass-like structure, with expansion velocities of 7 km s-1 and a total mass 3× 10-3 M{⊙}, and (b) an unresolved very compact component, smaller than 0.4 arcsec and with a low total velocity dispersion of 5 km s-1. We cannot determine the velocity field in the compact component, but we argue that it can hardly be in expansion, since this would require too recent and too sudden an ejection of mass. On the other hand, assuming that this component is a Keplerian disk, we derive disk properties that are compatible with expectations for such a structure; in particular, the size of the rotating gas disk should be very similar to the extent of the hot dust component from our VLTI data. Assuming that the equator of the extended nebula coincides with the binary orbital plane, we provide new results on the companion star mass and orbit. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, as well as on observations of the Belgian Guaranteed time on VISA (ESO). IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  6. Discovery of a Metal-poor, Luminous Post-AGB Star that Failed the Third Dredge-up

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, D.; Winckel, H. Van; Wood, P. R.

    Post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars are known to be chemically diverse. In this paper we present the first observational evidence of a star that has failed the third dredge-up (TDU). J005252.87-722842.9 is an A-type ( T {sub eff} = 8250 ± 250 K) luminous (8200 ± 700 L {sub ⊙}) metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −1.18 ± 0.10) low-mass ( M {sub initial} ≈ 1.5–2.0 M {sub ⊙}) post-AGB star in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Through a systematic abundance study, using high-resolution optical spectra from UVES, we found that this likely post-AGB object shows an intriguing photospheric composition with no confirmed carbon-enhancementmore » (upper limit of [C/Fe] < 0.50) nor enrichment of s -process elements. We derived an oxygen abundance of [O/Fe] = 0.29 ± 0.1. For Fe and O, we took the effects of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium into account. We could not derive an upper limit for the nitrogen abundance as there are no useful nitrogen lines within our spectral coverage. The chemical pattern displayed by this object has not been observed in single or binary post-AGBs. Based on its derived stellar parameters and inferred evolutionary state, single-star nucleosynthesis models predict that this star should have undergone TDU episodes while on the AGB, and it should be carbon enriched. However, our observations are in contrast with these predictions. We identify two possible Galactic analogs that are likely to be post-AGB stars, but the lack of accurate distances (hence luminosities) to these objects does not allow us to confirm their post-AGB status. If they have low luminosities, then they are likely to be dusty post-RGB stars. The discovery of J005252.87-722842.9 reveals a new stellar evolutionary channel whereby a star evolves without any TDU episodes.« less

  7. Unveiling hidden companions in post-AGB stars: 3D simulations of evolved star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhaus, Jason

    2017-08-01

    The deaths of ordinary stars are marked by extraordinary transitions. For those with initial masses <8 M_sun, the geometry of the outflows rapidly change from the spherical dust-driven winds seen in the giant phases to the iconic HST images of asymmetric post-Asymptotic-Giant-Branch and planetary nebulae (PNe). Measurements of post-AGB/PN nebular kinematics suggest that most (if not all) of these systems likely possess close, hidden companions responsible for the breaking of symmetry and the extreme momenta/energy observed in the outflows. However, it is notoriously difficult to detect such companions as the dusty outflows make direct detection improbable and efficiently mask radial velocity signatures. To address this issue, we have selected four post-AGB/PN systems that have comprehensive multi-epoch, multi-wavelength archival data obtained over the past 10-15 years. For each system, we will perform fully-dynamical 3D binary simulations using the AMR code AstroBEAR. Our results will be compared to the broad-band SED, and multi-epoch proper motion and archival images to constrain properties of the companions responsible for the outflow kinematics. We have successfully demonstrated this technique in L2 Puppis (one of the nearest Mira-like systems), where we were able to fully match the multi-wavelength observational data for the system if an unseen planet were present. Since then, ALMA has tentatively detected such a planet in L2 Puppis.Lastly, this award will provide partial funding for a deaf graduate student. Professor Nordhaus is fluent in American Sign Language and working to increase opportunities for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in astronomy.

  8. Monitoring Observatinos of H2O and SiO Masers Toward Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeheon; Cho, Se-Hyung; Yoon, Dong-Hwan

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of simultaneous monitoring observations of H_2O 6_{1,6}-5_{2,3} (22 GHz) and SiO J=1-0, 2-1, 3-2 maser lines (43, 86, 129 GHz) toward five post-AGB (candidate) stars, using the 21-m single-dish telescopes of the Korean VLBI Network. Depending on the target objects, 7 - 11 epochs of data were obtained. We detected both H_2O and SiO maser lines from four sources: OH16.1-0.3, OH38.10-0.13, OH65.5+1.3, and IRAS 19312+1950. We could not detect H_2O maser emission toward OH13.1+5.1 between the late OH/IR and post-AGB stage. The detected H_2O masers show typical double-peaked line profiles. The SiO masers from four sources, except IRAS 19312+1950, show the peaks around the stellar velocity as a single peak, whereas the SiO masers from IRAS 19312+1950 occur above the red peak of the H_2O maser. We analyzed the properties of detected maser lines, and investigated their evolutionary state through comparison with the full widths at zero power. The distribution of observed target sources was also investigated in the IRAS two-color diagram in relation with the evolutionary stage of post-AGB stars. From our analyses, the evolutionary sequence of observed sources is suggested as OH65.5+1.3 → OH13.1+5.1 → OH16.1-0.3 → OH38.10-0.13, except for IRAS 19312+1950. In addition, OH13.1+5.1 from which the H_2O maser has not been detected is suggested to be on the gateway toward the post-AGB stage. With respect to the enigmatic object, IRAS 19312+1950, we could not clearly figure out its nature. To properly explain the unusual phenomena of SiO and H_2O masers, it is essential to establish the relative locations and spatial distributions of two masers using VLBI technique. We also include the 1.2 - 160 μm spectral energy distribution using photometric data from the following surveys: 2MASS, WISE, MSX, IRAS, and AKARI (IRC and FIS). In addition, from the IRAS LRS spectra, we found that the depth of silicate absorption features shows significant variations

  9. High rotational CO lines in post-AGB stars and PNe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Skinner, C. J.; Haas, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A significant fraction of a star's initial mass is lost while it is on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). Mass loss rates range from 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr for early AGB stars to a few 10(exp -4) solar mass/yr for stars at the tip of the AGB. Dust grains condense from the outflow as the gas expands and form a dust shell around the central star. A superwind (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -3) solar mass/yr) is thought to terminate the AGB phase. In the post-AGB phase, the star evolves to a higher effective temperature, the mass loss decreases (approximately 10(exp -8) solar mass/yr), but the wind velocity increases (approximately 1000 km/s). During this evolution, dust and gas are exposed to an increasingly harsher radiation field and when T(sub eff) reaches about 30,000 K, the nebula is ionized and becomes a planetary nebula (PN). Photons from the central star can create a photodissociation region (PDR) in the expanding superwind. Gas can be heated through the photoelectric effect working on small grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). This gas can cool via the atomic fine structure lines of O I (63 microns and 145 microns) and C II (158 microns), as well as the rotational lines of CO. In the post-AGB phase, the fast wind from the central star will interact with the material ejected during the AGB phase. The shock caused by this interaction will dissociate and heat the gas. This warm gas will cool through atomic fine structure lines of O I and the rotational lines of (newly formed) CO.

  10. IS THE POST-AGB STAR SAO 40039 MILDLY HYDROGEN-DEFICIENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. Sumangala; Pandey, Gajendra; Giridhar, Sunetra

    2011-08-10

    We have conducted an LTE abundance analysis for SAO 40039, a warm post-AGB star whose spectrum is known to show surprisingly strong He I lines for its effective temperature and has been suspected of being H-deficient and He-rich. High-resolution optical spectra are analyzed using a family of model atmospheres with different He/H ratios. Atmospheric parameters are estimated from the ionization equilibrium set by neutral and singly ionized species of Fe and Mg, the excitation of Fe I and Fe II lines, and the wings of the Paschen lines. On the assumption that the He I lines are of photospheric andmore » not chromospheric origin, a He/H ratio of approximately unity is found by imposing the condition that the adopted He/H ratio of the model atmosphere must equal the ratio derived from the observed He I triplet lines at 5876, 4471, and 4713 A, and singlet lines at 4922 and 5015 A. Using the model with the best-fitting atmospheric parameters for this He/H ratio, SAO 40039 is confirmed to exhibit mild dust-gas depletion, i.e., the star has an atmosphere deficient in elements of high condensation temperature. The star appears to be moderately metal-deficient with [Fe/H] = -0.4 dex. But the star's intrinsic metallicity as estimated from Na, S, and Zn, elements of a low condensation temperature, is [Fe/H]{sub o} {approx_equal} -0.2 ([Fe/H]{sub o} refers to the star's intrinsic metallicity). The star is enriched in N and perhaps O as well, changes reflecting the star's AGB past and the event that led to He enrichment.« less

  11. Post-AGB Stars in Nearby Galaxies as Calibrators for HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes activities carried out with support from the NASA Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravitational Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program under Grant NAG 5-6821. The Principal Investigator is Howard E. Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute). STScI Postdoctoral Associates Laura K. Fullton (1998), David Alves (1998-2001), and Michael Siegel (2001) were partially supported by this grant. The aim of the program is to calibrate the absolute magnitudes of post-asymptotic- giant-branch (post-AGB or PAGB) stars, which we believe will be an excellent new "standard candle" for measuring extragalactic distances. The argument is that, in old populations, the stars that are evolving through the PAGB region of the HR diagram arise from only a single main-sequence turnoff mass. In addition, theoretical PAGB evolutionary tracks show that they evolve through this region at constant luminosity; hence the PAGB stars should have an extremely narrow luminosity function. Moreover, as the PAGB stars evolve through spectral types F and A (en route from the AGB to hot stellar remnants and white dwarfs), they have the highest luminosities attained by old stars (both bolometrically and in the visual band). Finally, PAGB stars of these spectral types are very easily identified. because of their large Balmer jumps, which are due to their very low surface gravities. Our approach is first to identify PAGB stars in Milky Way globular clusters and in other Local Group galaxies, which are at known distances, and thus to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for the PAGB stars. With this Milky Way and Local Group luminosity calibration, we will then be in a position to find PAGB stars in more distant galaxies from the ground, and ultimately from the Hubble Space Telescope. and thus derive distances. These PAGB stars are, as noted above, the visually brightest members of Population II, and hence will allow distance measurements to galaxies that do not contain Cepheids, such as

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy of the extremely iron-poor post-AGB star CC Lyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Honda, Satoshi; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Li, Haining; Suda, Takuma

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution optical spectroscopy was conducted for the metal-poor post-AGB star CC Lyr to determine its chemical abundances and spectral line profiles. Our standard abundance analysis confirms its extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -3.5) and a clear correlation between abundance ratios and the condensation temperature for 11 elements, indicating that dust depletion is the cause of the abundance anomaly of this object. The very low abundances of Sr and Ba, which are detected for the first time for this object, suggest that heavy neutron-capture elements are not significantly enhanced in this object by the s-process during its evolution through the AGB phase. The radial velocity of this object and profiles of some atomic absorption lines show variations depending on pulsation phases, which could be formed by dynamics of the atmosphere rather than by binarity or contributions of circumstellar absorption. On the other hand, the Hα emission with double peaks shows no evident velocity shift, suggesting that the emission is originating from the circumstellar matter, presumably the rotating disk around the object.

  13. Common Envelope Evolution: Implications for Post-AGB Stars and Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhaus, J.

    2017-10-01

    Common envelopes (CE) are of broad interest as they represent one method by which binaries with initially long-period orbits of a few years can be converted into short-period orbits of a few hours. Despite their importance, the brief lifetimes of CE phases make them difficult to directly observe. Nevertheless, CE interactions are potentially common, can produce a diverse array of nebular shapes, and can accommodate current post-AGB and planetary nebula outflow constraints. Here, I discuss ongoing theoretical and computational work on CEs and speculate on what lies ahead for determining accurate outcomes of this elusive phase of evolution.

  14. A Post-AGB Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud Observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-23

    spectral features, MSX SMC 029, in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) usimg the low-resolution modules of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space ...029, in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the low-resolution modules of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. A cool dust... outer atmosphere expands and pulsates, pushing gas away from the star where it can cool and condense into dust grains. The resulting circumstellar dust

  15. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hony, S.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; de Koter, A.

    2003-04-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch ``21 mu m object'' HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model the emission of the dust we use amorphous carbon, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, magnesium sulfide and titanium carbide. We present a detailed parametrisation of the optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon as a function of H/C content. The mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy is best reproduced by a single dust shell from 1.2 to 2.6'' radius around the central star. This shell originates from a short period during which the mass-loss rate exceeded 10-4 Msun/yr. We find that the strength of the ``21'' mu m feature poses a problem for the TiC identification. The low abundance of Ti requires very high absorption cross-sections in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range to explain the strength of the feature. Other nano-crystalline metal carbides should be considered as well. We find that hydrogenated amorphous carbon in radiative equilibrium with the local radiation field does not reach a high enough temperature to explain the strength of the 3.3-3.4 and 6-9 mu m hydrocarbon features relative to the 11-17 mu m hydrocarbon features. We propose that the carriers of these hydrocarbon features are not in radiative equilibrium but are transiently heated to high temperature. We find that 2 per cent of the dust mass is required to explain the strength of the ``30'' mu m feature, which fits well within the measured atmospheric abundance of Mg and S. This further strengthens the MgS identification of the ``30'' mu m feature. Based on observations taken at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile and observation obtained with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and

  16. Is the 21-micron Feature Observed in Some Post-AGB Stars Caused by the Interaction Between Ti Atoms and Fullerenes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A. III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    Recent measurements of fullerenes and Ti atoms recorded in our laboratory have demonstrated the presence of an infrared feature near 21 pm. The feature observed has nearly the same shape and position as is observed for one of the most enigmatic features in post-asymptotic giant blanch (AGB) stars. In our experimental system large cage carbon particles, such as large fullerenes, were produced from CO gas by the Boudouard reaction. Large-cage carbon particles intermixed with Ti atoms were produced by the evaporation of a Ti metal wrapped carbon electrode in CO gas. The infrared spectra of large fullerenes interacting with Ti atoms show a characteristic feature at 20.3 micron that closely corresponds to the 20.1 micron feature observed in post-AGB stars. Both the lab- oratory and stellar spectra also show a small but significant peak at 19.0 micron, which is attributed to fullerenes. Here, we propose that the interaction between fullerenes and Ti atoms may be a plausible explanation for the 21-micron feature seen in some post-AGB stars.

  17. A new tool for post-AGB SED classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendjoya, P.; Suarez, O.; Galluccio, L.; Michel, O.

    We present the results of an unsupervised classification method applied on a set of 344 spectral energy distributions (SED) of post-AGB stars extracted from the Torun catalogue of Galactic post-AGB stars. This method aims to find a new unbiased method for post-AGB star classification based on the information contained in the IR region of the SED (fluxes, IR excess, colours). We used the data from IRAS and MSX satellites, and from the 2MASS survey. We applied a classification method based on the construction of the dataset of a minimal spanning tree (MST) with the Prim's algorithm. In order to build this tree, different metrics have been tested on both flux and color indices. Our method is able to classify the set of 344 post-AGB stars in 9 distinct groups according to their SEDs.

  18. Processing of presolar grains around post-AGB stars: SiC as the carrier of the ``21''μ m feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A. M.; Speck, A. K.

    2003-12-01

    Intermediate mass stars (0.8-8.0 Msolar) eventually evolve on the H-R diagram, up the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The intensive mass loss which characterizes the AGB produces a circumstellar shell of dust and neutral gas. At the end of the AGB, mass loss virtually stops and the circumstellar shell begins to drift away from the star. At the same time the central star begins to shrink and heat up. This is the proto-planetary nebula (PPN) phase. Some PPNe exhibit an enigmatic feature in their infrared (IR) spectra at ˜21μ m. This feature is not seen in the spectra of either the precursors to PPNe, the AGB stars, or the successors of PPNe, ``normal'' planetary nebulae (PNe). However the ``21''μ m feature has been seen in the spectra of PNe with Wolf-Rayet central stars. Therefore the carrier of this feature is unlikely to be a transient species that only exists in the PPNe phase. This feature has been attributed to various molecular and solid state species, none of which satisfy all constraints, although titanium carbide (TiC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have seemed the most viable. We present new laboratory data for silicon carbide (SiC) and show that it has a spectral feature which is a good candidate for the carrier of the 21μ m feature. The SiC spectral feature appears at approximately the same wavelength (depending on polytype/grain size) and has the same asymmetric profile as the observed astronomical feature. We suggest that processing and cooling of the SiC grains known to exist around carbon-rich AGB stars are responsible for the emergence of the enigmatic 21μ m feature. The emergence of this feature in the spectra of post-AGB stars demonstrates the processing of dust due to the changing physical environments around evolving stars.

  19. High-resolution observations of IRAS 08544-4431. Detection of a disk orbiting a post-AGB star and of a slow disk wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Winckel, H. Van; Alcolea, J.; Contreras, C. Sánchez; Santander-García, M.; Hillen, M.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Aims: In order to study the effects of rotating disks in the post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) evolution, we observe a class of binary post-AGB stars that seem to be systematically surrounded by equatorial disks and slow outflows. Although the rotating dynamics had only been well identified in three cases, the study of such structures is thought to be fundamental to the understanding of the formation of disks in various phases of the late evolution of binary stars and the ejection of planetary nebulae from evolved stars. Methods: We present ALMA maps of 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 lines in the source IRAS 08544-4431, which belongs to the above mentioned class of objects. We analyzed the data by means of nebula models, which account for the expectedly composite source and can reproduce the data. From our modeling, we estimated the main nebula parameters, including the structure and dynamics and the density and temperature distributions. We discuss the uncertainties of the derived values and, in particular, their dependence on the distance. Results: Our observations reveal the presence of an equatorial disk in rotation; a low-velocity outflow is also found, probably formed of gas expelled from the disk. The main characteristics of our observations and modeling of IRAS 08544-4431 are similar to those of better studied objects, confirming our interpretation. The disk rotation indicates a total central mass of about 1.8 M⊙, for a distance of 1100 pc. The disk is found to be relatively extended and has a typical diameter of 4 × 1016 cm. The total nebular mass is 2 × 10-2 M⊙, of which 90% corresponds to the disk. Assuming that the outflow is due to mass loss from the disk, we derive a disk lifetime of 10 000 yr. The disk angular momentum is found to be comparable to that of the binary system at present. Assuming that the disk angular momentum was transferred from the binary system, as expected, the high values of the disk angular momentum in this and other

  20. High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy of Hot Post-AGB Star Candidates LS IV-04 1 and LB3116

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present LTE analysis of high resolution optical spectra for B-type hot PAGB stars LS IV-04 1 and LB3116 (LSE 237). The spectra of these high Galactic latitude stars were obtained with the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the UCLES spectrograph. The standard 1D LTE analysis with line-blanketed LTE model atmospheres and spectral synthesis provided fundamental atmospheric parameters of T eff= 15 000±1000 K, log g= 2.5±0.2, ξ = 5.0±1.0 km s-1, [M/H] = -1.81 dex, and v sin i= 5 km s-1 for LSIV-04 1 and T eff= 16 000±1000 K, log g= 2.5±0.1, v sin i= 25 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -0.93 dex for LB 3116. Chemical abundances of ten different elements were obtained. For LS IV-04 1, its derived model temperature contradicts with previous analysis results. The upper limits for its nitrogen and oxygen abundances were reported for the first time. The magnesium, silicon and calcium were overabundant (i.e. [Mg/Fe] = 0.8 dex, [Si/Fe] = 0.5 dex, [Ca/Fe] = 0.9 dex). With its metal-poor photosphere and VLSR ≈ 96 km s-1, LSIV-04 1 is likely a population II star and most probably a PAGB star. LTE abundances of LB 3116 were reported for the first time. The spectrum of this helium rich star shows 0.9 dex enhancement in the nitrogen. The photosphere of the star is slightly deficient in Mg, Si, and S. (i.e. [Mg/Fe] = -0.2 dex, [Si/Fe] = -0.4 dex, [S/Fe] = -0.2 dex). The Al is slightly enhanced. The phosphorus is overabundant, i.e. [P/Fe] ≈ 1.7 ± 0.47 dex, hence LB3116 may be the first example of a PAGB star which is rich in phosphorus. With its high radial velocity (i.e. V LSR = 73 km s-1), and the deficiencies observed in C, Mg, Si, and S indicate that LB 3116 is likely a hot PAGB star at high galactic latitude.

  1. Full Stokes IQUV spectropolarimetry of AGB and post-AGB stars: probing surface magnetism and atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lèbre, Agnès; Aurière, Michel; Fabas, Nicolas; Gillet, Denis; Josselin, Eric; Mathias, Philippe; Petit, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Full Stokes spectropolarimetric observations of a Mira star (χ Cyg) and a RV Tauri star (R Sct) are presented and analyzed comparatively. From their Stokes V data (circular polarization), we report the detection of a weak magnetic field at the surface of these cool and evolved radially pulsating stars. For both stars, we analyse this detection in the framework of their complex atmospheric dynamics, with the possibility that shock waves may imprint an efficient compressive effect on the surface magnetic field. We also report strong Stokes U and Stokes Q signatures associated to metallic lines (as a global trend), those linear polarimetric features appear to be time variable along the pulsating phase. More surprising, in the Stokes U and Stokes Q data, we also detect signatures associated to individual metallic lines (such as Sr i 460.7 nm, Na D2 588.9 nm), that are known (from the solar case) to be easily polarizable in case of a global asymmetry at the photospheric level.

  2. AGB and post-AGB objects in the outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczerba, Ryszard; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Sewiło, Marta; Siódmiak, Natasza; Karska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of our search for low- and intermediate mass evolved stars in the outer Galaxy using AllWISE catalogue photometry. We show that the [3.4]-[12] vs. [4.6]-[22] colour-colour diagram is most suitable for separating C-rich/O-rich AGB and post-AGB star candidates. We are able to select 2,510 AGB and 24,821 post-AGB star candidates. However, the latter are severely mixed with the known young stellar objects in this diagram.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Torun catalog of post-AGB and related objects (Szczerba+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczerba, R.; Siodmiak, N.; Stasinska, G.; Borkowski, J.

    2007-09-01

    With the ongoing AKARI infrared sky survey, of much greater sensitivity than IRAS, a wealth of post-AGB objects may be discovered. It is thus time to organize our present knowledge of known post-AGB stars in the galaxy with a view to using it to search for new post-AGB objects among AKARI sources. We searched the literature available on the NASA Astrophysics Data System up to 1 October 2006, and defined criteria for classifying sources into three categories: very likely, possible and disqualified post-AGB objects. The category of very likely post-AGB objects is made up of several classes. We have created an evolutionary, on-line catalogue of Galactic post-AGB objects, to be referred to as the Torun catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects. The present version of the catalogue contains 326 very likely, 107 possible and 64 disqualified objects. For the very likely post-AGB objects, the catalogue gives the available optical and infrared photometry, infrared spectroscopy and spectral types, and links to finding charts and bibliography. (3 data files).

  4. Probing the collimation of pristine post-AGB jets with STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Contreras, Carmen

    2009-07-01

    The shaping of planetary and protoplanetary nebulae {PNe and PPNe} is probably the most exciting yet least understood problem in the late evolution of 1-8 solar mass stars. An increasing number of astronomers believe that fast jet-like winds ejected in the PPN phase are responsible for carving out the diverse shapes in the dense envelopes of the Asymptotic Giant Branch {AGB} stars. To date, the properties of these post-AGB jets have not been characterized and, indeed, their launching/collimation mechanism is still subject to controversial debate. This is due to the lack of the direct observations probing the spatio-kinematic structure of post-AGB winds in the stellar vicinity { 10e16cm}, which is only possible with HST+STIS. Recently, STIS observations have allowed us for the first time the DIRECT study of the structure and kinematics of the elusive post-AGB winds in one PPN, He3-1475 {Sanchez Contreras & Sahai 2001}. Those winds have been discovered through H-alpha blue-shifted absorption features in the inner 0.3"-0.7" of the nebula. These STIS observations have revealed an ultra-fast collimated outflow relatively unaffected by the interaction with the AGB wind that is totally hidden in ground-based spectroscopic observations and HST images. The discovery of the pristine ultra-fast { 2300km/s} jet in He3-1475 is the first observational confirmation of the presence of collimated outflows as close as 10e16cm from the central star. Most importantly, the spatio-kinematic structure of the ultra-fast jet clearly rules out hydrodynamical collimation alone and favors magnetic wind collimation. Therefore, STIS observations provide a unique method of probing the structure, kinematics, and collimation mechanism of the elusive post-AGB winds. We now propose similar observations for a sample of bipolar PPNe with ongoing post-AGB ejections in order to investigate the frequency of jets like those in He3-1475 in other PPNe and elucidate their nature and collimation mechanism

  5. Application of the Calculating Formula for the Mean Neutron Exposure in CEPM-s and CEPM-r/s Stars %Kstars: AGB and post-AGB, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, methods: analytical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, L.; Cui, W. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that, for the current s-process nucleosynthesis model for the low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with (13C) pocket radiative burning during the interpulse period, the neutron exposure distribution in the nucleosynthesis region can be regarded as an exponential function, and the relation between the mean neutron exposure (τ0) and the model parameters is τ0 = - Δ τ/ln [q/(1 - r + q)]), in which (Δ τ) is the exposure value of each neutron irradiation, (r) is the overlap factor, and (q) is the mass ratio of the (13C) shell to the He intershell. Using the published data resulted from fitting the observed abundances of neutron-capture elements in 20 CEMP (Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor)-s and CEMP-s/r stars with the parametric AGB stellar s-process model, the reliability of the derived formula is tested, and further more the application of the formula in the s-process nucleosynthesis study is explored preliminarily. Our results show that, under the radiative s-process nucleosynthesis mechanism, the formula is suitable for CEMP stars experiencing recurrent neutron exposures. Combined with the parametric AGB nucleosynthesis model, the formula could be regarded as an effective tool to screen the CEMP stars with a single neutron exposure or a special type. Considering the uncertainty of the (13C) pocket, the role of this formula in understanding the physical conditions necessary to reproduce the observed s-process abundances in CEMP stars needs further study.

  6. Calibration of Post-AGB Supergiants as Standard Extragalactic Candles for HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes activities carried out with support from the NASA Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravitational Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program. The aim of the program is to calibrate the absolute magnitudes of post-asymptotic-giant-branch (post-AGB or PAGB) stars, which we believe will be an excellent new "standard candle" for measuring extragalactic distances. The reason for this belief is that in old populations, the stars that are evolving through the PAGB region of the HR (Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram arise from only a single main-sequence turnoff mass. In addition, the theoretical PAGB evolutionary tracks show that they evolve through this region at constant luminosity; hence the PAGB stars should have an extremely narrow luminosity function. Moreover, as the PAGB stars evolve through spectral types F and A (en route from the AGB to hot stellar remnants and white dwarfs), they have the highest luminosities attained by old stars (both bolometrically and in the visual band). Finally, the PAGB stars of these spectral types are very easily identified, due to their large Balmer jumps, which are due to their very low surface gravities.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Water maser emission toward post-AGB and PN (Gomez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, J. F.; Rizzo, J. R.; Suarez, O.; Palau, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The observed sources are listed in Table 1. They comprise most of the sources in Ramos-Larios et al. (2009A&A...501.1207R). They are post-AGB stars and PN candidates with the IRAS color criteria of Suarez et al. (2006A&A...458..173S) and with signs of strong optical obscuration. We have also included some optically visible post-AGB stars from Suarez et al. (2006A&A...458..173S) that were not included in our previous water maser observations of Suarez et al. (2007A&A...467.1085S, 2009A&A...505..217S) or for which those observations had poor sensitivity. We observed the 616-523 transition of H2O (rest frequency = 22235.08MHz) using three different telescopes: the DSS-63 antenna (70m diameter) at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) near Robledo de Chavela (Spain), the 64m antenna at the Parkes Observatory of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), and the 100m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The observed positions, rms noise per spectral channel, and observing dates are listed in Table 1. (3 data files).

  8. The Detection of 6.9 μm Emission Features in the Infrared Spectra of IRAS 04296+3429, IRAS 05341+0852, and IRAS 22272+5435: Evidence for the Presence of Hn-PAHs in Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally believed to be ubiquitous in space and responsible for numerous telltale interstellar infrared emission bands. In Sandford et al., we suggested that PAHs with excess hydrogenation at their periphery ({{{H}}}{{n}}-PAHs) may be an important subclass of these molecules in some astrophysical environments. These molecules are candidates to explain objects with anomalously large 3.4 μm features, which are presumed to be associated with the aliphatic C-H stretching vibrations of the excess hydrogen. In that work, we suggest that for Hn-PAHs to be a viable candidate as the source for this 3.4 μm feature, we must also expect to observe methylene scissoring modes at 6.9 μm. In this work, we continue to develop the {{{H}}}{{n}} - {PAH} hypothesis with a focus on the 6.9 μm feature. We also present some new observations of three post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) objects with abnormally large 3.4 μm features, IRAS 04296+3429, IRAS 05341+0852, and IRAS 22272+5435, in addition to one post-AGB object with normal PAH emissions, IRAS 20000+3239. These observations were made using the FORCAST instrument in grism mode on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy aircraft and demonstrate the presence of a 6.9 μm feature for the three objects with abnormally large 3.4 μm features and no detectable 6.9 μm feature for the normal PAH emitter. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Hn-PAHs are a possible source of these infrared emission bands.

  9. Jet creation in post-AGB binaries: the circum-companion accretion disk around BD+46°442

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Dylan; Van Winckel, Hans; Kamath, Devika

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We aim at describing and understanding binary interaction processes in systems with very evolved companions. Here, we focus on understanding the origin and determining the properties of the high-velocity outflow observed in one such system. Methods: We present a quantitative analysis of BD+46°442, a post-AGB binary that shows active mass transfer that leads to the creation of a disk-driven outflow or jet. We obtained high-resolution optical spectra from the HERMES spectrograph, mounted on the 1.2 m Flemish Mercator Telescope. By performing a time-series analysis of the Hα profile, we identified the different components of the system. We deduced the jet geometry by comparing the orbital phased data with our jet model. In order to image the accretion disk around the companion of BD+46°442, we applied the technique of Doppler tomography. Results: The orbital phase-dependent variations in the Hα profile can be related to an accretion disk around the companion, from which a high-velocity outflow or jet is launched. Our model shows that there is a clear correlation between the inclination angle and the jet opening angle. The latitudinally dependent velocity structure of our jet model shows a good correspondence to the data, with outflow velocities higher than at least 400 km s-1. The intensity peak in the Doppler map might be partly caused by a hot spot in the disk, or by a larger asymmetrical structure in the disk. Conclusions: We show that BD+46°442 is a result of a binary interaction channel. The origin of the fast outflow in this system might be to a gaseous disk around the secondary component, which is most likely a main-sequence star. Our analysis suggests that the outflow has a rather wide opening angle and is not strongly collimated. Our time-resolved spectral monitoring reveals the launching site of the jet in the binary BD+46°442. Similar orbital phase-dependent Hα profiles are commonly observed in post-AGB binaries. Post-AGB binaries provide ideal

  10. AI canis minoris, a pulsating low-mass supergiant at an early transition phase from the AGB to the post-AGB stage of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Esipov, V. F.; Komissarova, G. V.

    2017-06-01

    The U BV photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy for the semiregular variable AI CMi, a candidate for post-AGB objects, performed in 1996-2016 and 2000-2013, respectively, are presented. The star showed multiperiodic brightness variations with an amplitude up to 1\\underset{\\cdot}{m} 5 in the V band, a significant (up to 0\\underset{\\cdot}{m} 4) bluing of the B - V and U - B colors as the star faded, and a change of its spectrum from G5 I to K3-5 I, depending on its brightness. A possible long-term fading of AI CMi below 8\\underset{\\cdot}{m} 5 in the period from May 2013 to early 2015 is observed in the light curve. The colors in this episode did not change the pattern of their unusual behavior with brightness. The main feature of the spectrum for AI CMi is the appearance and strengthening of TiO absorption bands as its brightness declines, which are atypical in the spectra of ordinary G5-K3 supergiants. The bluing of the B - V and U - B colors is interpreted as the blanketing of stellar radiation predominantly in V (and to a lesser extent in B) by the TiO absorption bands whose intensity increases dramatically with decreasing brightness. Another cause of the bluing can be the scattering of stellar radiation by small dust particles in the gas-dust shell of AI CMi. The star's continuum-normalized spectra over the period from 2000 to 2013 in the wavelength range 4200 to 7700 or 9200 Å are presented. These were taken at different phases of the pulsation cycle and clearly demonstrate the behavior of the TiO absorption bands depending on the V magnitude and B - V color. The equivalent widths of individual TiO bands weremeasured, and their correlation with the photometric parameters of the star is shown. AI CMi belongs to the O-rich branch of AGB/post-AGB supergiants and has a luminosity of 4000 L ⊙ at a distance of 1500 ± 700 pc. The mass of AI CMi is most likely small and close to the lower mass limit for post-AGB stars. The connection of the star

  11. A mid-IR interferometric survey with MIDI/VLTI: resolving the second-generation protoplanetary disks around post-AGB binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillen, M.; Van Winckel, H.; Menu, J.; Manick, R.; Debosscher, J.; Min, M.; de Wit, W.-J.; Verhoelst, T.; Kamath, D.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We present a mid-IR interferometric survey of the circumstellar environment of a specific class of post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) binaries. For this class the presence of a compact dusty disk has been postulated on the basis of various spatially unresolved measurements. The aim is to determine the angular extent of the N-band emission directly and to resolve the compact circumstellar structures. Methods: Our interferometric survey was performed with the MIDI instrument on the VLTI. In total 19 different systems were observed using variable baseline configurations. Combining all the visibilities at a single wavelength at 10.7 μm, we fitted two parametric models to the data: a uniform disk and a ring model mimicking a temperature gradient. We compared our observables of the whole sample, with synthetic data computed from a grid of radiative transfer models of passively irradiated disks in hydrostatic equilibrium. These models are computed with a Monte Carlo code that has been widely applied to describe the structure of protoplanetary disks around young stellar objects (YSO). Results: The spatially resolved observations show that the majority of our targets cluster closely together in the distance-independent size-colour diagram, and have extremely compact N-band emission regions. The typical uniform disk diameter of the N-band emission region is 40 mas, which corresponds to a typical brightness temperature of 400-600 K. The resolved objects display very similar characteristics in the interferometric observables and in the spectral energy distributions. Therefore, the physical properties of the disks around our targets must be similar. Our results are discussed in the light of recently published sample studies of YSOs to compare quantitatively the secondary discs around post-AGB stars to the ones around YSOs. Conclusions: Our high-angular-resolution survey further confirms the disk nature of the circumstellar structures present around wide post-AGB

  12. Amorphous carbon in the disk around the post-AGB binary HR 4049. Discerning dust species with featureless opacity curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acke, B.; Degroote, P.; Lombaert, R.; de Vries, B. L.; Smolders, K.; Verhoelst, T.; Lagadec, E.; Gielen, C.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Infrared spectroscopy has been extensively used to determine the mineralogy of circumstellar dust. The identification of dust species with featureless opacities, however, is still ambiguous. Here we present a method to lift the degeneracy using the combination of infrared spectroscopy and interferometry. Aims: The binary post-AGB star HR 4049 is surrounded by a circumbinary disk viewed at a high inclination angle. Apart from gaseous emission lines and molecular emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), diamonds, and fullerenes, the 2-25 μm infrared spectrum is featureless. The goal of the paper is to identify the dust species responsible for the smooth spectrum. Methods: We gathered high-angular-resolution measurements in the near- and mid-infrared with the VLTI interferometric instruments AMBER and MIDI. The data set is expanded with archival Geneva optical photometry, ISO-SWS and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectroscopy, and VISIR N-band images and spectroscopy. We computed a grid of radiative-transfer models of the circumbinary disk of HR 4049 using the radiative-transfer code MCMax. We searched for models that provide good fits simultaneously to all available observations. Results: We find that the variable optical extinction towards the primary star is consistent with the presence of very small (0.01 μm) iron-bearing dust grains or amorphous carbon grains. The combination of the interferometric constraint on the disk extent and the shape of the infrared spectrum points to amorphous carbon as the dominant source of opacity in the circumbinary disk of HR 4049. The disk is optically thick to the stellar radiation in the radial direction. At infrared wavelengths it is optically thin. The PAH emission is spatially resolved in the VISIR data and emanates from a region with an extent of several hundreds of AU, with a projected photocenter displacement of several tens of AU from the disk center. The PAHs most likely reside in a bipolar outflow

  13. Evidence for the Presence of Hn-PAHs in Post AGB Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be ubiquitous in space therefore represent an important class of molecules for the field of astrochemistry. PAHs are relatively stable under interstellar conditions, account for a significant fraction of the known Universe's molecular carbon inventory, and are believed responsible for numerous telltale interstellar infrared emission bands. PAHs can be subdivided into numerous classes, one of which is Hydrogenated PAHs (Hn-PAHs). Hn-PAHs are multi-ringed partially aromatic compounds with excess hydrogenation, leading to a partial disruption of the aromatic system. The infrared spectra of these compounds produce telltale signatures that make them distinct from ordinary aromatic or aliphatic molecules (or a mixture of both). Hn-PAHs may be an important subclass of PAHs that could explain the spectra of some astronomical objects with anomalously large 3.4 micron features. The 3.4 micron feature observed in these objects may be associated with the aliphatic C-H stretching vibrations of the excess hydrogen. If this presumption is correct, we also expect to observe methylene scissoring modes at 6.9 microns. We have recently conducted a series of follow-up observations to compliment our laboratory experiments into the properties of Hn-PAHs. Here we present our laboratory and observational results in support of the hypothesis that Hn-PAHs are a viable candidate molecule as the emission source for numerous post-asymptotic giant branch objects with abnormally large 3.4 micron features.

  14. On the inorganic carriers of the 21 micron emission feature in post-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Biwei; Li, Aigen

    2008-10-01

    The mysterious 21 μm emission feature seen in only 12 C-rich proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) remains unidentified since its discovery in 1989. Over a dozen materials have been suggested as the carrier candidates while none of them has received general acceptance. We investigate the inorganic carrier candidates by applying the observational constraints of the feature strength and associated features. It is found that: (1) three candidates, TiC clusters, fullerenes with Ti impurity atoms, and SiS2, are not abundant enough to account for the emission power of the 21 μm band, (2) five candidates, doped-SiC, SiO2-mantled SiC dust, carbon and silicon mixtures, Fe2O3, and Fe3O4, all show associated features which are either not detected in the 21 μm sources or detected but with a much lower strength, and (3) FeO, which satisfies the abundance constraints, does not display any associated features which are not seen in the 21 μm sources. Moreover, FeO is more likely to survive in the C-rich environment than Fe2O3 and Fe3O4. Thus FeO seems to be the most plausible one among the inorganic carrier candidates.

  15. The COSAS survey I: First results from the IRAM mapping survey of 12CO J=1-0 & J=2-1 emission in AGB and early post-AGB circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea Jimanez, J.; Castr-Carrizo, A.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Neri, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Schoeier, F. L.; Winters, J. M.; Olofsson, H.; Lindqvist, M.; Lucas, R.; Grewing, M.

    Here we present the first result from the COSAS (CO Survey of late AGB Stars) program (P.I. A. Castro-Carrizo), a J=1-0 and J=2-1 line emission mapping survey of a statistically representative sample of circumstellar envelopes around AGB and post-AGB stars. This mapping survey has been carried out to investigate the small and large scale morphological and kinematical properties of the molecular environment surrounding stars in the late AGB and early post-AGB phases. For this, COSAS ideally combines the high spatial resolution and sensitivity of the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, with the IRAM Pico de Veleta 30m-MRT capabilities to map more extended emission. The whole program includes of 45 stars, selected to sample a wide variety in mass loss rate, chemical type (M, S and C types), variability type (regular variables like Miras and OH/IRs, semiregulars, irregulars, and non varying post-AGBs), evolutionary state, and initial mass. By no means it is an unbiased sample, so results must be interpreted with care, and in terms of the different population of sources represented in the sample. COSAS products (at first. maps and velocity fields, and after modeling, excitation and density profiles across the envelopes) provides means to quantify variations in the mass-loss rate history, assess on the prevalence of different morphological and kinematical features, and investigate the appearance of fast aspherical winds in the late-AGB and early post-AGB phases. This paper, which is the first of a series of COSAS papers, presents the results from the final mapping of a sample of 16 selected sources (about 1/3 of the whole list), namely: WX Psc, IK Tau, TX Cam, RX Boo, X Her, CRL 2362, x Cyg, V Cyg, S Cep, OH 104.9+2.4, R Cas, IRAS 19475+3119, IRAS 20028+3910, IRAS 21282+5050, IRAS 23321+6545 and CRL 2477. The envelopes around late AGB stars are found to be mostly spherical, but often presenting features like concentric arcs (R Cas and TX Cam), spiral density patterns

  16. An interferometric study of the post-AGB binary 89 Herculis. I. Spatially resolving the continuum circumstellar environment at optical and near-IR wavelengths with the VLTI, NPOI, IOTA, PTI, and the CHARA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillen, M.; Verhoelst, T.; Van Winckel, H.; Chesneau, O.; Hummel, C. A.; Monnier, J. D.; Farrington, C.; Tycner, C.; Mourard, D.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Zavala, R. T.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Binary post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars are interesting laboratories to study both the evolution of binaries as well as the structure of circumstellar disks. Aims: A multiwavelength high angular resolution study of the prototypical object 89 Herculis is performed with the aim of identifying and locating the different emission components seen in the spectral energy distribution. Methods: A large interferometric data set, collected over the past decade and covering optical and near-infrared wavelengths, is analyzed in combination with the spectral energy distribution and flux-calibrated optical spectra. In this first paper only simple geometric models are applied to fit the interferometric data. Combining the interferometric constraints with the photometry and the optical spectra, we re-assess the energy budget of the post-AGB star and its circumstellar environment. Results: We report the first (direct) detection of a large (35-40%) optical circumstellar flux contribution and spatially resolve its emission region. Given this large amount of reprocessed and/or redistributed optical light, the fitted size of the emission region is rather compact and fits with(in) the inner rim of the circumbinary dust disk. This rim dominates our K band data through thermal emission and is rather compact, emitting significantly already at a radius of twice the orbital separation. We interpret the circumstellar optical flux as due to a scattering process, with the scatterers located in the extremely puffed-up inner rim of the disk and possibly also in a bipolar outflow seen pole-on. A non-local thermodynamic equilibrium gaseous origin in an inner disk cannot be excluded but is considered highly unlikely. Conclusions: This direct detection of a significant amount of circumbinary light at optical wavelengths poses several significant questions regarding our understanding of both post-AGB binaries and the physics in their circumbinary disks. Although the

  17. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR GRANULATION IN EARLY A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kallinger, Thomas; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    2010-03-01

    Stars with spectral types earlier than about F0 on (or close) to the main sequence have long been believed to lack observable surface convection, although evolutionary models of A-type stars do predict very thin surface convective zones. We present evidence for granulation in two {delta} Scuti stars of spectral type A2: HD 174936 and HD 50844. Recent analyses of space-based CoRoT data revealed up to some 1000 frequencies in the photometry of these stars. The frequencies were interpreted as individual pulsation modes. If true, there must be large numbers of nonradial modes of very high degree l which should suffermore » cancellation effects in disk-integrated photometry (even of high space-based precision). The p-mode interpretation of all the frequencies in HD 174936 and HD 50844 depends on the assumption of white (frequency-independent) noise. Our independent analyses of the data provide an alternative explanation: most of the peaks in the Fourier spectra are the signature of non-white granulation background noise, and less than about 100 of the frequencies are actual stellar p-modes in each star. We find granulation timescales which are consistent with scaling relations that describe cooler stars with known surface convection. If the granulation interpretation is correct, the hundreds of low-amplitude Fourier peaks reported in recent studies are falsely interpreted as independent pulsation modes and a significantly lower number of frequencies are associated with pulsation, consistent with only modes of low degree.« less

  19. An interferometric study of the post-AGB binary 89 Herculis. II. Radiative transfer models of the circumbinary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillen, M.; Menu, J.; Van Winckel, H.; Min, M.; Gielen, C.; Wevers, T.; Mulders, G. D.; Regibo, S.; Verhoelst, T.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The presence of stable disks around post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) binaries is a widespread phenomenon. Also, the presence of (molecular) outflows is now commonly inferred in these systems. Aims: In the first paper of this series, a surprisingly large fraction of optical light was found to be resolved in the 89 Her post-AGB binary system. The data showed that this flux arises from close to the central binary. Scattering off the inner rim of the circumbinary disk, or scattering in a dusty outflow were suggested as two possible origins. With detailed dust radiative transfer models of the circumbinary disk, we aim to discriminate between the two proposed configurations. Methods: By including Herschel/SPIRE photometry, we extend the spectral energy distribution (SED) such that it now fully covers UV to sub-mm wavelengths. The MCMax Monte Carlo radiative transfer code is used to create a large grid of disk models. Our models include a self-consistent treatment of dust settling as well as of scattering. A Si-rich composition with two additional opacity sources, metallic Fe or amorphous C, are tested. The SED is fit together with archival mid-IR (MIDI) visibilities, and the optical and near-IR visibilities of Paper I. In this way we constrain the structure of the disk, with a focus on its inner rim. Results: The near-IR visibility data require a smooth inner rim, here obtained with a double power-law parameterization of the radial surface density distribution. A model can be found that fits all of the IR photometric and interferometric data well, with either of the two continuum opacity sources. Our best-fit passive models are characterized by a significant amount of ~mm-sized grains, which are settled to the midplane of the disk. Not a single disk model fits our data at optical wavelengths because of the opposing constraints imposed by the optical and near-IR interferometric data. Conclusions: A geometry in which a passive, dusty, and puffed

  20. Models of the Hydrodynamic Histories of Post-AGB Stars. I. Multiflow Shaping of OH 231.8+04.2

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, Bruce; Frank, Adam; Liu, Baowei

    2017-07-10

    We present a detailed hydrodynamic model that matches the present structure of the well-observed preplanetary nebula (“pPN”) OH 231.8+04.2 (“OH231”). The purpose of the model is to present a physically justified and coherent picture of its evolutionary history from about 100 years from the start of the formation of its complex outer structures to the present. We have adopted a set of initial conditions that are heavily constrained by high-quality observations of its present structure and kinematics. The shaping of the nebula occurs while the densities of the flows are “light,” i.e., less than the surrounding AGB-wind environment. The simulationsmore » show that pairs of essentially coeval clumps and sprays of the same extent and density, but different outflow speeds, sculpted both the pair of thin axial flow “or spine” and the bulbs. The total ejected mass and momentum in the best-fit model are surprisingly large—3 M {sub ⊙} and 2.2 × 10{sup 41} gm cm s{sup −1}, respectively—however, these values are reduced by up to a factor of 10 in other models that fit the data almost as well. Our ultimate goal is to combine the present model results of masses, momenta, flow speeds, and flow geometries for OH231 with those of other models to be published in the future in order to find common attributes of their ejection histories.« less

  1. Spectral Analysis of the O(He)-Type Central Stars of the Planetary Nebulae K 1-27 and LoTr 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reindl, N.; Ringat, E.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The four known O(He) stars are the only amongst the hottest post-AGB stars whose atmospheres are composed of almost pure helium. Thus, their evolution deviates from the hydrogen-defiCient post-AGB evolutionary sequence of carbon-dominated stars like e.g. PG 1159 stars. The origin of the O(He) stars is still not explained. They might be either post-early AGB stars or the progeny of R Coronae Borealis stars. We present preliminary results of a non-LTE spectral analysis based on FUSE and HST/COS observations.

  2. Detection of atmospheric velocity fields in A-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J. D.

    1998-10-01

    High signal-to-noise spectra with spectral resolution of more than 10(5) have been obtained of one normal B9.5V, one normal A1V, two Am stars, and two HgMn B stars having v sin i less than 6 km s(-1) . These spectra are modeled with LTE line profile synthesis to test the extent to which the spectrum of each star can be modeled correctly with a single set of parameters T_e, log g, chemical abundances, v sin i, and (depth-independent) microturbulent velocity xi . The answer to this question is important for abundance analysis of A and B stars; if conventional line synthesis does not reproduce the line profiles observed in stars of small v sin i, results obtained from such analysis are not likely to be very precise. The comparison of models with observations is then used to search for direct evidence of atmospheric motions, including line-strength dependent broadening, line core shape, and line asymmetries, in order to study how the microturbulence derived from abundance analysis is related to more direct evidence of atmospheric velocity fields. It is found for the three stars with 12,000 >= T_e >= 10,200 K (the normal star 21 Peg and the two HgMn stars 53 Tau and HD 193452) that xi is less than 1 km s(-1) , and line profiles are reproduced accurately by the synthesis with a single set of parameters. The slightly cooler (T_e ~ 9800 K) star HD 72660 has only a slightly stronger surface convective layer than the hotter stars, but for this star xi ~ 2.2 km s(-1) . Strong spectral lines all show significant asymmetry, with the blue line wing deeper than the red wing, and have line bisectors which have curvature towards the blue with a span of about 0.5 to 1.0 km s(-1) . A single model fits all lines satisfactorily. The two Am stars (HD 108642 and 32 Aqr), with T_e ~ 8000 K, are found to have much larger values of xi (4 to 5 km s(-1) ). The strong spectral lines of these two stars are extremely asymmetric, with depressed blue wings, and the bisectors have spans of order 3

  3. FLARES ON A-TYPE STARS: EVIDENCE FOR HEATING OF SOLAR CORONA BY NANOFLARES?

    SciTech Connect

    Švanda, Michal; Karlický, Marian, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz

    We analyzed the occurrence rates of flares on stars of spectral types K, G, F, and A, observed by Kepler . We found that the histogram of occurrence frequencies of stellar flares is systematically shifted toward a high-energy tail for A-type stars compared to stars of cooler spectral types. We extrapolated the fitted power laws toward flares with smaller energies (nanoflares) and made estimates for total energy flux to stellar atmospheres by flares. We found that, for A-type stars, the total energy flux density was at least four-times smaller than for G stars. We speculate that this deficit in energymore » supply may explain the lack of hot coronae on A-type stars. Our results indicate the importance of nanoflares for heating and formation of the solar corona.« less

  4. A survey for pulsations in A-type stars using SuperWASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2015-12-01

    "It is sound judgement to hope that in the not too distant future we shall be competent to understand so simple a thing as a star." - Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, The Internal Constitution of Stars, 1926 A survey of A-type stars is conducted with the SuperWASP archive in the search for pulsationally variable stars. Over 1.5 million stars are selected based on their (J-H) colour. Periodograms are calculated for light curves which have been extracted from the archive and cleaned of spurious points. Peaks which have amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude are identified in the periodograms. In total, 202 656 stars are identified to show variability in the range 5-300 c/d. Spectroscopic follow-up was obtained for 38 stars which showed high-frequency pulsations between 60 and 235 c/d, and a further object with variability at 636 c/d. In this sample, 13 were identified to be normal A-type δ Sct stars, 14 to be pulsating metallic-lined Am stars, 11 to be rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, and one to be a subdwarf B variable star. The spectra were used not only to classify the stars, but to determine an effective temperature through Balmer line fitting. Hybrid stars have been identified in this study, which show pulsations in both the high- and low-overtone domains; an observation not predicted by theory. These stars are prime targets to perform follow-up observations, as a confirmed detection of this phenomenon will have significant impact on the theory of pulsations in A-type stars. The detected number of roAp stars has expanded the known number of this pulsator class by 22 per cent. Within these results both the hottest and coolest roAp star have been identified. Further to this, one object, KIC 7582608, was observed by the Kepler telescope for 4 yr, enabling a detailed frequency analysis. This analysis has identified significant frequency variations in this star, leading to the hypothesis that this is the first close binary star of its type. The observational

  5. An unbiased study of debris discs around A-type stars with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thureau, N. D.; Greaves, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Kennedy, G.; Phillips, N.; Booth, M.; Duchêne, G.; Horner, J.; Rodriguez, D. R.; Sibthorpe, B.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Herschel DEBRIS (Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) survey brings us a unique perspective on the study of debris discs around main-sequence A-type stars. Bias-free by design, the survey offers a remarkable data set with which to investigate the cold disc properties. The statistical analysis of the 100 and 160 μm data for 86 main-sequence A stars yields a lower than previously found debris disc rate. Considering better than 3σ excess sources, we find a detection rate ≥24 ± 5 per cent at 100 μm which is similar to the debris disc rate around main-sequence F/G/K-spectral type stars. While the 100 and 160 μm excesses slowly decline with time, debris discs with large excesses are found around some of the oldest A stars in our sample, evidence that the debris phenomenon can survive throughout the length of the main sequence (˜1 Gyr). Debris discs are predominantly detected around the youngest and hottest stars in our sample. Stellar properties such as metallicity are found to have no effect on the debris disc incidence. Debris discs are found around A stars in single systems and multiple systems at similar rates. While tight and wide binaries (<1 and >100 au, respectively) host debris discs with a similar frequency and global properties, no intermediate separation debris systems were detected in our sample.

  6. Rotational velocities of A-type stars. IV. Evolution of rotational velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Royer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Context. In previous works of this series, we have shown that late B- and early A-type stars have genuine bimodal distributions of rotational velocities and that late A-type stars lack slow rotators. The distributions of the surface angular velocity ratio Ω/Ωcrit (Ωcrit is the critical angular velocity) have peculiar shapes according to spectral type groups, which can be caused by evolutionary properties. Aims: We aim to review the properties of these rotational velocity distributions in some detail as a function of stellar mass and age. Methods: We have gathered vsini for a sample of 2014 B6- to F2-type stars. We have determined the masses and ages for these objects with stellar evolution models. The (Teff,log L/L⊙)-parameters were determined from the uvby-β photometry and the HIPPARCOS parallaxes. Results: The velocity distributions show two regimes that depend on the stellar mass. Stars less massive than 2.5 M⊙ have a unimodal equatorial velocity distribution and show a monotonical acceleration with age on the main sequence (MS). Stars more massive have a bimodal equatorial velocity distribution. Contrarily to theoretical predictions, the equatorial velocities of stars from about 1.7 M⊙ to 3.2 M⊙ undergo a strong acceleration in the first third of the MS evolutionary phase, while in the last third of the MS they evolve roughly as if there were no angular momentum redistribution in the external stellar layers. The studied stars might start in the ZAMS not necessarily as rigid rotators, but with a total angular momentum lower than the critical one of rigid rotators. The stars seem to evolve as differential rotators all the way of their MS life span and the variation of the observed rotational velocities proceeds with characteristic time scales δt ≈ 0.2 tMS, where tMS is the time spent by a star in the MS. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  7. An asymptotic-giant-branch star in the progenitor system of a type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, M M; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Maza, José; González, L E; Roth, Miguel; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia; Green, E M; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J

    2003-08-07

    Stars that explode as supernovae come in two main classes. A type Ia supernova is recognized by the absence of hydrogen and the presence of elements such as silicon and sulphur in its spectrum; this class of supernova is thought to produce the majority of iron-peak elements in the Universe. They are also used as precise 'standard candles' to measure the distances to galaxies. While there is general agreement that a type Ia supernova is produced by an exploding white dwarf star, no progenitor system has ever been directly observed. Significant effort has gone into searching for circumstellar material to help discriminate between the possible kinds of progenitor systems, but no such material has hitherto been found associated with a type Ia supernova. Here we report the presence of strong hydrogen emission associated with the type Ia supernova SN2002ic, indicating the presence of large amounts of circumstellar material. We infer from this that the progenitor system contained a massive asymptotic-giant-branch star that lost several solar masses of hydrogen-rich gas before the supernova explosion.

  8. Detection of a Red Supergiant Progenitor Star of a Type II-Plateau Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smartt, Stephen J.; Maund, Justyn R.; Hendry, Margaret A.; Tout, Christopher A.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Mattila, Seppo; Benn, Chris R.

    2004-01-01

    We present the discovery of a red supergiant star that exploded as supernova 2003gd in the nearby spiral galaxy M74. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Gemini Telescope imaged this galaxy 6 to 9 months before the supernova explosion, and subsequent HST images confirm the positional coincidence of the supernova with a single resolved star that is a red supergiant of 8+4-2 solar masses. This confirms both stellar evolution models and supernova theories predicting that cool red supergiants are the immediate progenitor stars of type II-plateau supernovae.

  9. Behavior of Abundances in Chemically Peculiar Dwarf and Subgiant A-Type Stars: HD 23193 and HD 170920

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoğlu, Tolgahan; Çalışkan, Şeyma; Ünal, Kübraözge

    2018-01-01

    To understand the origin of the abundance peculiarities of non-magnetic A-type stars, we present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of a metallic line star HD 23193 (A2m) and an A-type subgiant HD 170920 (A5), which could have been a HgMn star on the main sequence. Our analysis is based on medium (R ∼ 14,000) and high (R ∼ 40,000) resolution spectroscopic data of the stars. The abundances of 18 elements are derived: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, and Ba. The masses of HD 23193 and HD 170920 are estimated from evolutionary tracks as 2.3 ± 0.1 M ⊙ and 2.9 ± 0.1 M ⊙. The ages are found to be 635 ± 33 Myr for HD 23193 and 480 ± 50 Myr for HD 170920 using isochrones. The abundance pattern of HD 23193 shows deviations from solar values in the iron-peak elements and indicates remarkable overabundances of Sr (1.16), Y (1.03), and Ba (1.24) with respect to the solar abundances. We compare the derived abundances of this moderately rotating (v\\sin i =37.5 km s‑1) Am star to the theoretical chemical evolution models including rotational mixing. The theoretically predicted abundances resemble our derived abundance pattern, except for a few elements (Si and Cr). For HD 170920, we find nearly solar abundances, except for C (‑0.43), S (0.16), Ti (0.15), Ni (0.16), Zn (0.41), Y (0.57), and Ba (0.97). Its low rotational velocity (v\\sin i=14.5 km s‑1), reduced carbon abundance, and enhanced heavy element abundances suggest that the star is most likely an evolved HgMn star. Based on observations made at the TÜBITAK National Observatory (Program ID 14BRTT150–671), and the Ankara University Observatory, Turkey.

  10. On the Evolution of O(He)-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.

    2012-01-01

    O(He) stars represent a small group of four very hot post-AGB stars whose atmospheres are composed of almost pure helium. Their evolution deviates from the hydrogen-deficient post-AGO evolutionary sequence of carbon-dominated stars like e.g. PG 1159 or Wolf- Rayet stars. While (very) late thermal pulse evolutionary models can explain the observed He/C/O abundances in these objects, they do not reproduce He-dominated surface abundances. Currently it seems most likely that the O(He) stars originate from a double helium white dwarf merger and so they could be the successors of the luminous helium-rich sdO-stars. An other possibility is that O(He)-stars could be successors of RCB or EHe stars.

  11. Copious amounts of hot and cold dust orbiting the main sequence a-type stars HD 131488 and HD 121191

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.

    2013-11-20

    We report two new dramatically dusty main sequence stars: HD 131488 (A1 V) and HD 121191 (A8 V). HD 131488 is found to have substantial amounts of dust in its terrestrial planet zone (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol} ≈ 4 × 10{sup –3}), cooler dust farther out in its planetary system, and an unusual mid-infrared spectral feature. HD 121191 shows terrestrial planet zone dust (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol} ≈ 2.3 × 10{sup –3}), hints of cooler dust, and shares the unusual mid-infrared spectral shape identified in HD 131488. These two stars belong to sub-groups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB associationmore » and have ages of ∼10 Myr. HD 131488 and HD 121191 are the dustiest main sequence A-type stars currently known. Early-type stars that host substantial inner planetary system dust are thus far found only within the age range of 5-20 Myr.« less

  12. Exo-comet Detection in Debris Disks Around Young A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry; Montgomery, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present details of the successful search for comet-like bodies (i.e. exo-comets) in orbit around several nearby stars. These objects have been found in young stellar systems that are in the transitional stage of evolution between possession of a gaseous protoplanetary disk to that of a dust-rich debris disk. During this period it is thought that large planetesimals of ~ 1000 km diameter may cause dynamical perturbations in the population of smaller bodies (such as asteroids and comets), such that they are sent on highly eccentric orbits towards their parent star resulting in the liberation of large amounts of evaporating gas and dust. By observing the varying spectral absorption signature of the CaII K-line at 3933Å due to this liberated gas, we have been able to track the trajectory of these exo-comets over a time-frame of several nights as they approach (and sometimes pass around) the central star. The youngest debris disks (1 - 50 Myr) are thought to represent the last stage in the formation of planetary systems and they may resemble our solar system’s own debris disk at the time of the Late Heavy Bombardment when the terrestrial worlds were subject to frequent collisions with asteroids and comets. Collisions with water-rich comets from the outer regions of our solar system may have delivered water to thee Earth’s oceans.

  13. HST/COS Observations of the UV-Bright Star Y453 in the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William V.; Chayer, Pierre; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-AGB stars represent a short-lived phase of stellar evolution during which stars cross the optical color-magnitude diagram from the cool, red tip of the assymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the hot, blue tip of the white-dwarf cooling curve. Their surface chemistry reflects the nuclear-shell burning, mixing, and mass-loss processes characteristic of AGB stars, and their high effective temperatures allow the detection of elements that are unobservable in cool giants. Post-AGB stars in globular clusters offer the additional advantages of known distance, age, and initial chemistry. To better understand the AGB evolution of low-mass stars, we have observed the post-AGB star Y453 in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The star, which has an effective temperature of at least 60,000 K, shows absorption from He, C, N, O, Ne, Si, S, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Ga. While the star's C and O abundances are consistent with those measured in a sample of nitrogen-poor RGB stars in M4, its N abundance is considerably enhanced. The star's low C abundance suggests that it left the AGB before the onset of third dredge-up.This work was supported by NASA grant HST-GO-13721.001-A to the University of Wisconsin, Whitewater. P.C. is supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a contract with NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics.

  14. Barium Stars: Theoretical Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husti, Laura; Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara; Straniero, Oscar; Cristallo, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    Barium stars are extrinsic Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. They present the s-enhancement characteristic for AGB and post-AGB stars, but are in an earlier evolutionary stage (main sequence dwarfs, subgiants, red giants). They are believed to form in binary systems, where a more massive companion evolved faster, produced the s-elements during its AGB phase, polluted the present barium star through stellar winds and became a white dwarf. The samples of barium stars of Allen & Barbuy (2006) and of Smiljanic et al. (2007) are analysed here. Spectra of both samples were obtained at high-resolution and high S/N. We compare these observations with AGB nucleosynthesis models using different initial masses and a spread of 13C-pocket efficiencies. Once a consistent solution is found for the whole elemental distribution of abundances, a proper dilution factor is applied. This dilution is explained by the fact that the s-rich material transferred from the AGB to the nowadays observed stars is mixed with the envelope of the accretor. We also analyse the mass transfer process, and obtain the wind velocity for giants and subgiants with known orbital period. We find evidence that thermohaline mixing is acting inside main sequence dwarfs and we present a method for estimating its depth.

  15. Discovery of starspots on Vega. First spectroscopic detection of surface structures on a normal A-type star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, T.; Holschneider, M.; Lignières, F.; Petit, P.; Rainer, M.; Paletou, F.; Wade, G.; Alecian, E.; Carfantan, H.; Blazère, A.; Mirouh, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The theoretically studied impact of rapid rotation on stellar evolution needs to be compared with these results of high-resolution spectroscopy-velocimetry observations. Early-type stars present a perfect laboratory for these studies. The prototype A0 star Vega has been extensively monitored in recent years in spectropolarimetry. A weak surface magnetic field was detected, implying that there might be a (still undetected) structured surface. First indications of the presence of small amplitude stellar radial velocity variations have been reported recently, but the confirmation and in-depth study with the highly stabilized spectrograph SOPHIE/OHP was required. Aims: The goal of this article is to present a thorough analysis of the line profile variations and associated estimators in the early-type standard star Vega (A0) in order to reveal potential activity tracers, exoplanet companions, and stellar oscillations. Methods: Vega was monitored in quasi-continuous high-resolution echelle spectroscopy with the highly stabilized velocimeter SOPHIE/OHP. A total of 2588 high signal-to-noise spectra was obtained during 34.7 h on five nights (2 to 6 of August 2012) in high-resolution mode at R = 75 000 and covering the visible domain from 3895-6270 Å. For each reduced spectrum, least square deconvolved equivalent photospheric profiles were calculated with a Teff = 9500 and log g = 4.0 spectral line mask. Several methods were applied to study the dynamic behaviour of the profile variations (evolution of radial velocity, bisectors, vspan, 2D profiles, amongst others). Results: We present the discovery of a spotted stellar surface on an A-type standard star (Vega) with very faint spot amplitudes ΔF/Fc ~ 5 × 10-4. A rotational modulation of spectral lines with a period of rotation P = 0.68 d has clearly been exhibited, unambiguously confirming the results of previous spectropolarimetric studies. Most of these brightness inhomogeneities seem to be located in lower

  16. Exceptional Stars Origins, Companions, Masses and Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hansen, Bradley M. S.; Phinney, Sterl; vanKerkwijk, Martin H.; Vasisht, Gautam

    2004-01-01

    As SIM Interdisciplinary Scientist, we will study the formation, nature and planetary companions of the exotic endpoints of stellar evolution. Our science begins with stars evolving from asymptotic branch giants into white dwarfs. We will determine the parallax and orbital inclination of several iron-deficient post-AGB stars, who peculiar abundances and infrared excesses are evidence that they are accreting gas depleted of dust from a circumbinary disk. Measurement of the orbital inclination, companion mass arid parallax will provide critical constraints. One of these stars is a prime candidate for trying nulling observations, which should reveal light reflected from both the circumbinary and Roche disks. The circumbinary disks seem favorable sites for planet formation. Next, we will search for planets around white dwarfs, both survivors froni the main-sequence stage, and ones newly formed from the circumbinary disks of post-AGB binaries or in white dwarf mergers. Moving up in mass, we will measure the orbital reflex of OB/Be companions to pulsars, determine natal kicks and presupernova orbits, and expand the sample of well-determined neutron star masses. We will obtain the parallax of a transient X-ray binary, whose quiescent emission may be thermal emission from the neutron star, aiming for precise measurement of the neutron star radius. Finally, black holes. We will measure the reflex motions of the companion of what appear to be the most massive stellar black holes. The visual orbits will determine natal kicks, and test the assumptions underlying mass estimates made from the radial velocity curves, projected rotation, and ellipsoidal variations. In addition, we will attempt to observe the visual orbit of SS 433, as well as the proper motion of the emission line clumps in its relativistic jets. Additional information is included in the original document.

  17. Spectral Analysis of PG 1034+001, the Exciting Star of Hewett 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, J. W.; Mahsereci, M.; Ringat, E.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.

    2011-01-01

    PG 1034+001 is an extremely hot, helium-rich DO-type star that excites the planetary nebula Hewett 1 and large parts of the surrounding interstellar medium. We present preliminary results of an ongoing spectral analysis by means of non-LTE model atmospheres that consider most elements from hydrogen to nickel. This analysis is based on high-resolution ultraviolet (FUSE, IUE) and optical (VLT/UVES, KECK) data. The results are compared with those of PG 1034+001's spectroscopic twin, the DO star PG 0038+ 199. Keywords. stars: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB, stars: atmospheres, stars: evolution, stars: individual (PG 1034+001, PG 0038+ 199), planetary nebulae: individual (Hewett 1)

  18. Yellow evolved stars in open clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sowell, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a program in which Galactic cluster post-AGB candidates were first identified and then analyzed for cluster membership via radial velocities, monitored for possible photometric variations, examined for evidence of mass loss, and classified as completely as possible in terms of their basic stellar parameters. The intrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters. With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by the supergiants decline. It appears that the evolutionary tracks of luminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than of class III. Only two superluminous giant star candidates are foundmore » in open clusters. 154 references.« less

  19. High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy of an Intriguing High-Latitude B-Type Star HD119608

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present an LTE analysis of high resolution echelle optical spectra obtained with the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the UCLES spectrograph for a B1Ib high galactic latitude supergiant HD119608. A fresh determination of the atmospheric parameters using line-blanketed LTE model atmospheres and spectral synthesis provided T eff = 23 300 ± 1000 K, log g = 3.0 ± 0.3, and the microturbulent velocity ξ = 6.0 ± 1.0 kms-1 and [Fe/H] = 0.16. The rotational velocity of the star was derived fromC, O, N, Al, and Fe lines as v sin i = 55.8 ± 1.3 kms-1. Elemental abundances were obtained for 10 different species. He, Al, and P abundances of the star were determined for the first time. In the spectra, hot post-AGB status as well as the Pop I characteristics of the star were examined. The approximately solar carbon and oxygen abundances, along with mild excess in helium and nitrogen abundances do not stipulate a CNO processed surface composition, hence a hot post-AGB status. The LTE abundances analysis also indicates solar sulphur and moderately enriched magnesium abundances. The average abundances of B dwarfs of well studied OB associations and Population I stars show a striking resemblance to abundances obtained for HD119608 in this study. This may imply a runaway status for the star.

  20. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  1. A SOFIA FORCAST Grism Study of the Mineralogy of Dust in the Winds of Proto-planetary Nebulae: RV Tauri Stars and SRd Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Arneson, R. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Woodward, C. E.

    We present a SOFIA FORCAST grism spectroscopic survey to examine the mineralogy of the circumstellar dust in a sample of post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) yellow supergiants that are believed to be the precursors of planetary nebulae. Our mineralogical model of each star indicates the presence of both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich dust species—contrary to simple dredge-up models—with a majority of the dust in the form of amorphous carbon and graphite. The oxygen-rich dust is primarily in the form of amorphous silicates. The spectra do not exhibit any prominent crystalline silicate emission features. For most of the systems, our analysis suggests thatmore » the grains are relatively large and have undergone significant processing, supporting the hypothesis that the dust is confined to a Keplerian disk and that we are viewing the heavily processed, central regions of the disk from a nearly face-on orientation. These results help to determine the physical properties of the post-AGB circumstellar environment and to constrain models of post-AGB mass loss and planetary nebula formation.« less

  2. First Spectroscopic Detection of Surface Structures on a Normal A-Type Star - The Case of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Torsten

    2018-04-01

    For the first time the existence of spots on the surface of the intermediate mass star Vega has been shown. This unexpected result sets new important constraints on the stellar evolution of intermediate mass stars and in particular on the magnetic field generation mechanisms. Vega (α Lyrae) is an intermediate mass star (spectral class A0) in rapid rotation (Prot = 0.68 d). Since more than 150 years it is a stability reference for photometry. Despite the fact that very small sporadic light variations had been announced in the past, no periodicity had been detected in its light curve. In 2009 a very faint magnetic field has been detected on Vega (Lignières et al., 2009, A&A, 500L, 41) and subsequently also on other stars of the same spectral class (A). While the solar magnetic field is generated by a dynamo mechanism in its convective envelope, the origin of magnetic field in stars exempt of convective envelopes, such as Vega, remains mysterious. One of the characteristics of the solar dynamo is its temporal variability revealed by the appearance or disappearance of solar spots. Are there similar structures on the surface of Vega? 2015 A&A, 577, 64. & Nature Research Highlights

  3. A FIVE-YEAR SPECTROSCOPIC AND PHOTOMETRIC CAMPAIGN ON THE PROTOTYPICAL {alpha} CYGNI VARIABLE AND A-TYPE SUPERGIANT STAR DENEB

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, N. D.; Morrison, N. D.; Kryukova, E. E.

    2011-01-15

    Deneb is often considered the prototypical A-type supergiant and is one of the visually most luminous stars in the Galaxy. A-type supergiants are potential extragalactic distance indicators, but the variability of these stars needs to be better characterized before this technique can be considered reliable. We analyzed 339 high-resolution echelle spectra of Deneb obtained over the five-year span of 1997 through 2001 as well as 370 Stroemgren photometric measurements obtained during the same time frame. Our spectroscopic analysis included dynamical spectra of the H{alpha} profile, H{alpha} equivalent widths, and radial velocities measured from Si II {lambda}{lambda} 6347, 6371. Time-series analysismore » reveals no obvious cyclic behavior that proceeds through multiple observing seasons, although we found a suspected 40 day period in two, non-consecutive observing seasons. Some correlations are found between photometric and radial velocity data sets and suggest radial pulsations at two epochs. No correlation is found between the variability of the H{alpha} profiles and that of the radial velocities or the photometry. Lucy found evidence that Deneb was a long-period single-lined spectroscopic binary star, but our data set shows no evidence for radial velocity variations caused by a binary companion.« less

  4. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  5. NuSTAR Observation of a Type I X-Ray Burst from GRS 1741.9-2853

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Bachetti, Matteo; Boggs, Steven E.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-02-01

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 1034 erg s-1 on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 1035 erg s-1 in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H mass fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M ⊙, we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M ⊙.

  6. NuSTAR OBSERVATION OF A TYPE I X-RAY BURST FROM GRS 1741.9-2853

    SciTech Connect

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1} in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H massmore » fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M {sub ☉}, we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M {sub ☉}.« less

  7. Multi-band polarimetry of post-asymptotic giant branch stars - I. Optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akras, S.; Ramírez Vélez, J. C.; Nanouris, N.; Ramos-Larios, G.; López, J. M.; Hiriart, D.; Panoglou, D.

    2017-04-01

    We present new optical broad-band (UBVRI) aperture polarimetric observations of 53 post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars selected to exhibit a large near-infrared excess. 24 out of the 53 stars (45 per cent of our sample) are presented for the first time. A statistical analysis shows four distinctive groups of polarized post-AGB stars: unpolarized or very lowly polarized (degree of polarization or DoP < 1 per cent), lowly polarized (1 per cent < DoP < 4 per cent), moderately polarized (4 per cent < DoP < 8 per cent) and highly polarized (DoP > 8 per cent). 23 out of the 53 (66 per cent) belong to the first group, 10 (19 per cent) to the second, five (9 per cent) to the third and only three (6 per cent) to the last group. Approximately 34 per cent of our sample was found to be unpolarized objects, which is close to the percentage of round planetary nebulae. On average, the low and moderate groups show a wavelength-dependent polarization that increases towards shorter wavelengths, implying an intrinsic origin of the polarization, which signifies a Rayleigh-like scattering spectrum typical for non-symmetrical envelopes composed principally of small dust grains. The moderately polarized stars exhibit higher K - W3 and W1 - W3 colour indices compared with the group of lowly polarized stars, suggesting a possible relation between DoP and mass-loss rate. Moreover, they are found to be systematically colder (redder in B - V), which may be associated with the condensation process close to these stars that results in a higher degree of polarization. We also provide evidence that multiple scattering in optically thin polar outflows is the mechanism that gives high DoP in post-AGB stars with bipolar or multi-polar envelopes.

  8. ALMA reveals sunburn: CO dissociation around AGB stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Lagadec, E.; Sloan, G. C.; Boyer, M. L.; Matsuura, M.; Smith, R. J.; Smith, C. L.; Yates, J. A.; van Loon, J. Th.; Jones, O. C.; Ramstedt, S.; Avison, A.; Justtanont, K.; Olofsson, H.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Goldman, S. R.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2015-11-01

    Atacama Large Millimetre Array observations show a non-detection of carbon monoxide around the four most luminous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Stellar evolution models and star counts show that the mass-loss rates from these stars should be ˜1.2-3.5 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. We would naïvely expect such stars to be detectable at this distance (4.5 kpc). By modelling the ultraviolet radiation field from post-AGB stars and white dwarfs in 47 Tuc, we conclude that CO should be dissociated abnormally close to the stars. We estimate that the CO envelopes will be truncated at a few hundred stellar radii from their host stars and that the line intensities are about two orders of magnitude below our current detection limits. The truncation of CO envelopes should be important for AGB stars in dense clusters. Observing the CO (3-2) and higher transitions and targeting stars far from the centres of clusters should result in the detections needed to measure the outflow velocities from these stars.

  9. On Helium-Dominated Stellar Evolution: The Mysterious Role of the O(He)-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Todt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Context. About a quarter of all post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are hydrogen-deficient. Stellar evolutionary models explain the carbon-dominated H-deficient stars by a (very) late thermal pulse scenario where the hydrogen-rich envelope is mixed with the helium-rich intershell layer. Depending on the particular time at which the final flash occurs, the entire hydrogen envelope may be burned. In contrast, helium-dominated post-AGB stars and their evolution are not yet understood. Aims. A small group of very hot, helium-dominated stars is formed by O(He)-type stars. A precise analysis of their photospheric abundances will establish constraints to their evolution. Methods. We performed a detailed spectral analysis of ultraviolet and optical spectra of four O(He) stars by means of state-of-the-art non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques. Results. We determined effective temperatures, surface gravities, and the abundances of H, He, C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, and Fe. By deriving upper limits for the mass-loss rates of the O(He) stars, we found that they do not exhibit enhanced mass-loss. The comparison with evolutionary models shows that the status of the O(He) stars remains uncertain. Their abundances match predictions of a double helium white dwarf (WD) merger scenario, suggesting that they might be the progeny of the compact and of the luminous helium-rich sdO-type stars. The existence of planetary nebulae that do not show helium enrichment around every other O(He) star precludes a merger origin for these stars. These stars must have formed in a different way, for instance via enhanced mass-loss during their post-AGB evolution or a merger within a common-envelope (CE) of a CO-WD and a red giant or AGB star. Conclusions. A helium-dominated stellar evolutionary sequence exists that may be fed by different types of mergers or CE scenarios. It appears likely that all these pass through the O(He) phase just before they become WDs.

  10. R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS ARE VIABLE FACTORIES OF PRE-SOLAR GRAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Hampel, Melanie, E-mail: amanda.karakas@anu.edu.au

    2015-08-20

    We present a new theoretical estimate for the birthrate of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars that is in agreement with recent observational data. We find the current Galactic birthrate of RCB stars to be ≈25% of the Galactic rate of Type Ia supernovae, assuming that RCB stars are formed through the merger of carbon–oxygen and helium-rich white dwarfs. Our new RCB birthrate (1.8 × 10{sup −3} yr{sup −1}) is a factor of 10 lower than previous theoretical estimates. This results in roughly 180–540 RCB stars in the Galaxy, depending on the RCB lifetime. From the theoretical and observational estimates, wemore » calculate the total dust production from RCB stars and compare this rate to dust production from novae and born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the amount of dust produced by RCB stars is comparable to the amounts produced by novae or born-again post-AGB stars, indicating that these merger objects are a viable source of carbonaceous pre-solar grains in the Galaxy. There are graphite grains with carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios consistent with the observed composition of RCB stars, adding weight to the suggestion that these rare objects are a source of stardust grains.« less

  11. The ultraviolet-bright stars of Omega Centauri, M3, and M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Whitney, Jonathan H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Hill, Robert S.; Maran, Stephen P.; Parise, Ronald A.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew A.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    Two new UV-bright stars detected within 2 arcmin of the center of Omega Cen are spectroscopically investigated with the short-wavelength spectrograph of the IUE. The IUE spectra of the UV-bright stars UIT-1 and UIT-2 in the core of Omega Cen superficially resemble those of Population I mid-B stars. The absorption lines of the core UV-bright stars are significantly weaker than in Population I stars, consistent with their membership in the cluster. Synthetic spectra calculated from low-metallicity Kurucz model stellar atmospheres are compared with the spectra. These objects are insufficiently luminous to be classical hydrogen-burning post-AGB stars. They may be evolved hot horizontal branch stars which have been brightened by more than 3 mag since leaving the zero-age horizontal branch. It is inferred from the spectra and luminosity of the core UV-bright stars that similar objects could provide the source of the UV light in elliptical galaxies.

  12. A Spectroscopic Study of the High-Latitude Far Evolved Star V534 Lyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendzikas, E. G.; Chentsov, E. L.

    2017-06-01

    We study a pulsating variable post-AGB star V534 Lyr = HD172324 based on five high resolution spectra (R=60000) obtained with the NES echelle spectrograph of the 6-meter Russian telescope (BTA) in 2010 and 2013. Using the atmosphere modeling method and the Kurucz model set, we obtained the effective temperature Teff=10500 K, surface gravity log g=2.5, and microturbulent velocity ξt=4.0 km/s. The underabundance of the iron group elements [Met/H]⊙ = -0.50 was detected. This fact in combination with high spatial velocity indicates that V534 Lyr does not belong to the disk population. The radial velocity gradient in the V534 Lyr atmosphere is minimum: differential shifts of lines are close to measurement errors. The spectral class A0 Iab corresponds to the distance to V534 Lyr, d≍6 kpc.

  13. Infra-Red Characteristics of Faint Galactic Carbon Stars from the First Byurakan Spectral Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostandyan, G. R.; Gigoyan, K. S.

    2017-07-01

    Infra-Red (IR) astronomical databases, namely, IRAS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer, are used to analyze photometric data of 126 carbon (C) stars whose spectra are visible in the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) (Markarian et al. 1989) low-resolution (lr) spectral plates. In this work several IR color-color diagrams are studied. Early and late-type C stars are separated in the JHK Near-Infra-Red (NIR) color-color plots, as well as in the WISE W3-W4 versus W1-W2 diagram. Late N-type Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are redder in W1-W2, while early-types (CH and R giants) are redder in W3-W4 as expected. Objects with W2-W3 > 1.0m show double-peaked spectral energy distribution (SED), indicating the existence of the circumstellar envelopes around them. 26 N-type stars have IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC) associations. The reddest object among the targets is N-type C star FBS 2213+421, which belong to the group of the cold post-AGB R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) variables (Rossi et al. 2016).

  14. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. S.; Giridhar, S.

    2014-04-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  15. Rings in Evolved Stars: Fingerprints of Their Mass-Loss History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Santamaria, Edgar; Sabin, Laurence; Guerrero, Martin; Marquez-Lugo, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The majority of intermediate mass evolved stars i.e. asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB and pre-planetary nebulae (PPN) are well known for been characterized by external structures such as knots, arcs, ansae, jets, haloes, shells and even annular enhancements in intensity -features which are commonly referred to as rings. These are well described either as spherical bubbles of periodic isotropic nuclear mass pulsations (Balick, Wilson & Hajian 2001) or projections of spherical shells onto the plane of the sky by Kwok (2001).These interesting structures are part of the AGB wind, suggesting that this wind comes in a series of semi periodic lapses, indicating that the outflow has quasi-periodic oscillations.After an extensive analysis in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archives we found new ring-like structures in several evolved stars. Following the image analysis procedure described by Corradi et al. (2004), and using unsharp masking techniques it was possible to enhance the ring structures, and to obtain an effective removal of the underlying halo emission.Our new findings will help first to constrain the physical processes responsible for the rings creation and then to better understand the mass loss activity in these evolved stars.

  16. ON IRON MONOXIDE NANOPARTICLES AS A CARRIER OF THE MYSTERIOUS 21 μm EMISSION FEATURE IN POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Aigen; Jiang, B. W.; Liu, J. M., E-mail: lia@missouri.edu, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2013-11-10

    A prominent mysterious emission feature peaking at ∼20.1 μm—historically known as the '21 μm' feature—is seen in over two dozen Galactic and Magellanic Cloud carbon-rich, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The nature of its carrier remains unknown since the first detection of the 21 μm feature in 1989. Over a dozen materials have been suggested as possible carrier candidates. However, none of them has been accepted: they either require too much material (compared to what is available in the circumstellar shells around these post-AGB stars), or exhibit additional emission features that are not seen in these 21 μm sources. Recently,more » iron monoxide (FeO) nanoparticles seem to be a promising carrier candidate as Fe is an abundant element and FeO emits exclusively at ∼21 μm. In this work, using the proto-typical protoplanetary nebula HD 56126 as a test case, we examine FeO nanoparticles as a carrier for the 21 μm feature by modeling their infrared emission, with FeO being stochastically heated by single stellar photons. We find that FeO emits too broad a 21 μm feature to explain that observed and the Fe abundance required to be locked up in FeO exceeds what is available in HD 56126. We therefore conclude that FeO nanoparticles are not likely to be responsible for the 21 μm feature.« less

  17. Rings and arcs around evolved stars - I. Fingerprints of the last gasps in the formation process of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Santamaría, E.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Sabin, L.; Toalá, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Evolved stars such as asymptotic giant branch stars (AGB), post-AGB stars, proto-planetary nebulae (proto-PNe), and planetary nebulae (PNe) show rings and arcs around them and their nebular shells. We have searched for these morphological features in optical Hubble Space Telescope and mid-infrared Spitzer Space Telescope images of ˜650 proto-PNe and PNe and discovered them in 29 new sources. Adding those to previous detections, we derive a frequency of occurrence ≃8 per cent. All images have been processed to remove the underlying envelope emission and enhance outer faint structures to investigate the spacing between rings and arcs and their number. The averaged time lapse between consecutive rings and arcs is estimated to be in the range 500-1200 yr. The spacing between them is found to be basically constant for each source, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the formation of these structures in the final stages of evolved stars is stable during time periods of the order of the total duration of the ejection. In our sample, this period of time spans ≤4500 yr.

  18. Processing of Presolar Grains around Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Silicon Carbide as the Carrier of the 21 Micron Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela K.; Hofmeister, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    Some proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) exhibit an enigmatic feature in their infrared spectra at ~21 μm. This feature is not seen in the spectra of either the precursors to PPNs, the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, or the successors of PPNs, ``normal'' planetary nebulae (PNs). However, the 21 μm feature has been seen in the spectra of PNs with Wolf-Rayet central stars. Therefore, the carrier of this feature is unlikely to be a transient species that only exists in the PPN phase. This feature has been attributed to various molecular and solid-state species, none of which satisfy all constraints, although titanium carbide (TiC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have seemed the most viable. We present new laboratory data for silicon carbide (SiC) and show that it has a spectral feature that is a good candidate for the carrier of the 21 μm feature. The SiC spectral feature appears at approximately the same wavelength (depending on the polytype/grain size) and has the same asymmetric profile as the observed astronomical feature. We suggest that processing and cooling of the SiC grains known to exist around carbon-rich AGB stars are responsible for the emergence of the enigmatic 21 μm feature. The emergence of this feature in the spectra of post-AGB stars demonstrates the processing of dust due to the changing physical environments around evolving stars.

  19. Lithium and zirconium abundances in massive Galactic O-rich AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; García-Lario, P.; Plez, B.; Manchado, A.; D'Antona, F.; Lub, J.; Habing, H.

    2007-02-01

    Lithium and zirconium abundances (the latter taken as representative of s-process enrichment) are determined for a large sample of massive Galactic O-rich AGB stars, for which high-resolution optical spectroscopy has been obtained (R˜ 40 000{-}50 000). This was done by computing synthetic spectra based on classical hydrostatic model atmospheres for cool stars and using extensive line lists. The results are discussed in the framework of "hot bottom burning" (HBB) and nucleosynthesis models. The complete sample is studied for various observational properties such as the position of the stars in the IRAS two-colour diagram ([ 12] - [25] vs. [ 25] - [60] ), Galactic distribution, expansion velocity (derived from the OH maser emission), and period of variability (when available). We conclude that a considerable fraction of these sources are actually massive AGB stars (M>3{-}4 M⊙) experiencing HBB, as deduced from the strong Li overabundances we found. A comparison of our results with similar studies carried out in the past for the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) reveals that, in contrast to MC AGB stars, our Galactic sample does not show any indication of s-process element enrichment. The differences observed are explained as a consequence of metallicity effects. Finally, we discuss the results obtained in the framework of stellar evolution by comparing our results with the data available in the literature for Galactic post-AGB stars and PNe. Based on observations at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Also based on observations with the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile). Tables [see full text]-[see full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. FORMALDEHYDE MASERS: EXCLUSIVE TRACERS OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, E. D.; Brown, J. E.; Olmi, L.

    2015-11-15

    The detection of four formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) maser regions toward young high-mass stellar objects in the last decade, in addition to the three previously known regions, calls for an investigation of whether H{sub 2}CO masers are an exclusive tracer of young high-mass stellar objects. We report the first survey specifically focused on the search for 6 cm H{sub 2}CO masers toward non high-mass star-forming regions (non HMSFRs). The observations were conducted with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope toward 25 low-mass star-forming regions, 15 planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, and 31 late-type stars. We detected no H{sub 2}CO emission in ourmore » sample of non HMSFRs. To check for the association between high-mass star formation and H{sub 2}CO masers, we also conducted a survey toward 22 high-mass star-forming regions from a Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey) sample known to harbor 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. We detected a new 6 cm H{sub 2}CO emission line in G32.74−0.07. This work provides further evidence that supports an exclusive association between H{sub 2}CO masers and young regions of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, we detected H{sub 2}CO absorption toward all Hi-GAL sources, and toward 24 low-mass star-forming regions. We also conducted a simultaneous survey for OH (4660, 4750, 4765 MHz), H110α (4874 MHz), HCOOH (4916 MHz), CH{sub 3}OH (5005 MHz), and CH{sub 2}NH (5289 MHz) toward 68 of the sources in our sample of non HMSFRs. With the exception of the detection of a 4765 MHz OH line toward a pre-planetary nebula (IRAS 04395+3601), we detected no other spectral line to an upper limit of 15 mJy for most sources.« less

  1. Probing Dust Formation Around Evolved Stars with Near-Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, B.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; Meixner, M.

    2014-09-01

    Near-infrared interferometry holds great promise for advancing our understanding of the formation of dust around evolved stars. For example, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI), which will be an optical/near-infrared interferometer with down to submilliarcsecond resolution, includes studying stellar mass loss as being of interest to its Key Science Mission. With facilities like MROI, many questions relating to the formation of dust around evolved stars may be probed. How close to an evolved star such as an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) or red supergiant (RSG) star does a dust grain form? Over what temperature ranges will such dust form? How does dust formation temperature and distance from star change as a function of the dust composition (carbonaceous versus oxygen-rich)? What are the ranges of evolved star dust shell geometries, and does dust shell geometry for AGB and RSG stars correlate with dust composition, similar to the correlation seen for planetary nebula outflows? At what point does the AGB star become a post-AGB star, when dust formation ends and the dust shell detaches? Currently we are conducting studies of evolved star mass loss in the Large Magellanic Cloud using photometry from the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE; PI: M. Meixner) Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program. We model this mass loss using the radiative transfer program 2Dust to create our Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch ModelS (GRAMS). For simplicity, we assume spherical symmetry, but 2Dust does have the capability to model axisymmetric, non-spherically-symmetric dust shell geometries. 2Dust can also generate images of models at specified wavelengths. We discuss possible connections of our GRAMS modeling using 2Dust of SAGE data of evolved stars in the LMC and also other data on evolved stars in the Milky Way's Galactic Bulge to near-infrared interferometric studies of such stars. By understanding the origins of dust around evolved

  2. Establishing binarity amongst Galactic RV Tauri stars with a disc⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manick, Rajeev; Van Winckel, Hans; Kamath, Devika; Hillen, Michel; Escorza, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Context. Over the last few decades it has become more evident that binarity is a prevalent phenomenon amongst RV Tauri stars with a disc. This study is a contribution to comprehend the role of binarity upon late stages of stellar evolution. Aims: In this paper we determine the binary status of six Galactic RV Tauri stars, namely DY Ori, EP Lyr, HP Lyr, IRAS 17038-4815, IRAS 09144-4933, and TW Cam, which are surrounded by a dusty disc. The radial velocities are contaminated by high-amplitude pulsations. We disentangle the pulsations from the orbital signal in order to determine accurate orbital parameters. We also place them on the HR diagram, thereby establishing their evolutionary nature. Methods: We used high-resolution spectroscopic time series obtained from the HERMES and CORALIE spectrographs mounted on the Flemish Mercator and Swiss Leonhard Euler Telescopes, respectively. An updated ASAS/AAVSO photometric time series is analysed to complement the spectroscopic pulsation search and to clean the radial velocities from the pulsations. The pulsation-cleaned orbits are fitted with a Keplerian model to determine the spectroscopic orbital parameters. We also calibrated a PLC relationship using type II cepheids in the LMC and apply the relation to our Galactic sample to obtain accurate distances and hence luminosities. Results: All six of the Galactic RV Tauri stars included in this study are binaries with orbital periods ranging between 650 and 1700 days and with eccentricities between 0.2 and 0.6. The mass functions range between 0.08 to 0.55 M⊙ which points to an unevolved low-mass companion. In the photometric time series we detect a long-term variation on the timescale of the orbital period for IRAS 17038-4815, IRAS 09144-4933, and TW Cam. Our derived stellar luminosities indicate that all except DY Ori and EP Lyr are post-AGB stars. DY Ori and EP Lyr are likely examples of the recently discovered dusty post-RGB stars. Conclusions: The orbital parameters

  3. Binarity and Accretion in AGB Stars: HST/STIS Observations of UV Flickering in Y Gem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Mangan, A. S.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Muthumariappan, C.; Claussen, M. J.

    2018-06-01

    Binarity is believed to dramatically affect the history and geometry of mass loss in AGB and post-AGB stars, but observational evidence of binarity is sorely lacking. As part of a project to search for hot binary companions to cool AGB stars using the GALEX archive, we discovered a late-M star, Y Gem, to be a source of strong and variable UV and X-ray emission. Here we report UV spectroscopic observations of Y Gem obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope that show strong flickering in the UV continuum on timescales of ≲20 s, characteristic of an active accretion disk. Several UV lines with P-Cygni-type profiles from species such as Si IV and C IV are also observed, with emission and absorption features that are red- and blueshifted by velocities of ∼500 {km} {{{s}}}-1 from the systemic velocity. Our model for these (and previous) observations is that material from the primary star is gravitationally captured by a companion, producing a hot accretion disk. The latter powers a fast outflow that produces blueshifted features due to the absorption of UV continuum emitted by the disk, whereas the redshifted emission features arise in heated infalling material from the primary. The outflow velocities support a previous inference by Sahai et al. that Y Gem’s companion is a low-mass main-sequence star. Blackbody fitting of the UV continuum implies an accretion luminosity of about 13 L ⊙, and thus a mass-accretion rate >5 × 10‑7 M ⊙ yr‑1 we infer that Roche-lobe overflow is the most likely binary accretion mode for Y Gem.

  4. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the LMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    2004-01-01

    In FUSE cycle 2's program B001 we studied Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPN) in the Large Magellanic Could. All FUSE observations have been successfully completed and have been reduced, analyzed and published. The analysis and the results are summarized below. The FUSE data were reduced using the latest available version of the FUSE calibration pipeline (CALFUSE v2.2.2). The flux of these LMC post-AGB objects is at the threshold of FUSE's sensitivity, and thus special care in the background subtraction was needed during the reduction. Because of their faintness, the targets required many orbit-long exposures, each of which typically had low (target) count-rates. Each calibrated extracted sequence was checked for unacceptable count-rate variations (a sign of detector drift), misplaced extraction windows, and other anomalies. All the good calibrated exposures were combined using FUSE pipeline routines. The default FUSE pipeline attempts to model the background measured off-target and subtracts it from the target spectrum. We found that, for these faint objects, the background appeared to be over-estimated by this method, particularly at shorter wavelengths (i.e., < 1000 A). We therefore tried two other reductions. In the first method, subtraction of the measured background is turned off and and the background is taken to be the model scattered-light scaled by the exposure time. In the second one, the first few steps of the pipeline were run on the individual exposures (correcting for effects unique to each exposure such as Doppler shift, grating motions, etc). Then the photon lists from the individual exposures were combined, and the remaining steps of the pipeline run on the combined file. Thus, more total counts for both the target and background allowed for a better extraction.

  5. Examining the infrared variable star population discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the SAGE-SMC survey

    SciTech Connect

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Marengo, M.; Seale, J.

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S{sup 3}MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 μm band. Anmore » error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ∼2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.« less

  6. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  7. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  8. MUSE crowded field 3D spectroscopy of over 12 000 stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. I. The first comprehensive HRD of a globular cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Dreizler, Stefan; Wendt, Martin; Wulff, Nina; Bacon, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Brinchmann, Jarle; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Roth, Martin M.; Monreal-Ibero, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the high multiplex advantage of crowded field 3D spectroscopy with the new integral field spectrograph MUSE by means of a spectroscopic analysis of more than 12 000 individual stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. Methods: The stars are deblended with a point spread function fitting technique, using a photometric reference catalogue from HST as prior, including relative positions and brightnesses. This catalogue is also used for a first analysis of the extracted spectra, followed by an automatic in-depth analysis via a full-spectrum fitting method based on a large grid of PHOENIX spectra. Results: We analysed the largest sample so far available for a single globular cluster of 18 932 spectra from 12 307 stars in NGC 6397. We derived a mean radial velocity of vrad = 17.84 ± 0.07 km s-1 and a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.120 ± 0.002, with the latter seemingly varying with temperature for stars on the red giant branch (RGB). We determine Teff and [Fe/H] from the spectra, and log g from HST photometry. This is the first very comprehensive Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) for a globular cluster based on the analysis of several thousands of stellar spectra, ranging from the main sequence to the tip of the RGB. Furthermore, two interesting objects were identified; one is a post-AGB star and the other is a possible millisecond-pulsar companion. Data products are available at http://muse-vlt.eu/scienceBased on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programme ID 60.A-9100(C)).

  9. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  10. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, George H.; Marco, Orsola De; Davies, James

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrainmore » its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M {sub ⊙} for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M {sub ⊙}) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and H α emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2.« less

  11. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  12. NuSTAR Captures the Beat of a Dead Star Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-08

    The brightest pulsar detected to date is shown in this frame from an animation that flips back and forth between images captured by NASA NuSTAR. A pulsar is a type of neutron star, the leftover core of a star that exploded in a supernova.

  13. Central stars of planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Puls, J.; Méndez, R. H.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hoffmann, T. L.; McCarthy, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. Aims: By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. Methods: We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius dependent quantities are obtained from both the known distances and from evolutionary tracks, and the results from both approaches are compared. Results: The major result of the present investigation is that the derived spectroscopic distances depend crucially on the applied reddening law. Assuming either standard reddening or values based on radio-Hβ extinctions, we find a mean distance of 9.0±1.6 kpc and 12.2±2.1 kpc, respectively. An “average extinction law” leads to a distance of 10.7±1.2 kpc, which is still considerably larger than the Galactic center distance of 8 kpc. In all cases, however, we find a remarkable internal agreement of the individual spectroscopic distances of our sample objects, within ±10% to ±15% for the different reddening laws. Conclusions: Due to the uncertain reddening correction, the analysis presented here cannot yet be regarded as a consistency check for our method, and a rigorous test of the CSPN

  14. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  15. (F)UV Spectral Analysis of 15 Hot, Hydrogen-Rich Central Stars of PNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Marc

    2013-07-01

    the sample are still too small to start gravitational settling. For the elements C, N, O, Si, P, and S we find increasing abundances with increasing log(Teff^4/g), while the abundances for Ar and Fe decrease. The latter is unexpected as the higher the Teff^4/g ratio, the more the radiative force dominates the gravitational force and, thus, the elements should be kept in the atmosphere. The determined abundances were compared with previous literature values, with abundances predicted from diusion calculations, with abundances from Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis calculations, and, if available, with abundances found for the corresponding nebulae. The agreement was of mixed quality. The derived Teff and log g values confirmed some literature values while others had to be revised (e.g. for LSS 1362 and NGC1360). However, most of them agree with the previous literature values within the error limits. No difference in Teff can be found for DAO and O(H)-type stars, but O(H)-type stars have a lower log g (5.4 - 6.0) compared to the DAOs (6.5 - 7.4). The exception is the O(H)-type central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) of Lo 1 with log g = 7.0. A comparison of the positions of each object with stellar evolutionary tracks for post-AGB stars in the log Teff - log g diagram lead to the respective stellar masses. The derived mean mass of the analyzed sample (M = 0.536 ± 0.023 Msol) agrees within the error limits with the expected mean mass for these objects. In the literature M = 0.638 - 0.145 Msol can be found for DA-type white dwarfs, the immediate successors of DAO-type white dwarfs. For two objects (A 35, Sh 2-174) extremely low masses were found. For A35 the derived mass (M_A35 = 0.523 ± 0.05Msol) lies at the lower end of possible masses predicted for post-AGB stars. The very low mass of Sh 2-174 (M_Sh 2-174 = 0.395 ± 0.05Msol) points at Sh 2-174 being a post-extended horizontal branch (EHB) star and not a CSPN. If a stellar mass is too low, it is

  16. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Vir systems from eclipse timings. The high incidence of circumbinary substellar objects suggests that most of the planets are formed from the remaining CE material (second generation planets). Several types of pulsating star have been discovered among hot subdwarf stars, the most common are the gravity-mode sdB pulsators (V1093 Her) and their hotter siblings, the p-mode pulsating V361 Hya stars. Another class of multi-periodic pulsating hot subdwarfs has been found in the globular cluster ω Cen that is unmatched by any field star. Asteroseismology has advanced enormously thanks to the high-precision Kepler photometry and allowed stellar rotation rates to be determined, the interior structure of gravity-mode pulsators to be probed and stellar ages to be estimated. Rotation rates turned out to be unexpectedly slow calling for very efficient angular momentum loss on the red giant branch or during the helium core flash. The convective cores were found to be larger than predicted by standard stellar evolution models requiring very efficient angular momentum transport on the red giant branch. The masses of hot subdwarf stars, both single or in binaries, are the key to understand the stars’ evolution. A few pulsating sdB stars in eclipsing binaries have been found that allow both techniques to be applied for mass determination. The results, though few, are in good agreement with predictions from binary population synthesis calculations. New classes of binaries, hosting so-called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (M < 0.3 M ⊙), have recently been discovered, filling a gap in the mosaic of binary stellar evolution. Like most sdB stars the ELM white dwarfs are the stripped cores of red giants, the known companions are either white dwarfs, neutron stars (pulsars) or F- or A-type main sequence stars (“EL CVn” stars). In the near future, the Gaia mission will provide high-precision astrometry for a large sample of subdwarf stars to disentangle the different stellar

  17. Symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.

  18. Chameleon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, 265 a, Chui Street, Bishkek, 720071; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2011-10-15

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  19. Star quality.

    PubMed

    Dent, Emma

    2007-09-20

    Around 150 wards are participating in the voluntary Star Wards scheme to provide mental health inpatients with more activities with therapeutic value. Suggested activities range from a library, to horse riding Internet access and comedy. Service users are particularly keen to have more exercise, which can be a challenge in inpatient settings.

  20. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  1. 28SiO v = 0 J = 1-0 emission from evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vicente, P.; Bujarrabal, V.; Díaz-Pulido, A.; Albo, C.; Alcolea, J.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Moreno, A.; Patino, M.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.; Vaquero, B.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Observations of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 line emission (7-mm wavelength) from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars show in some cases peculiar profiles, composed of a central intense component plus a wider plateau. Very similar profiles have been observed in CO lines from some AGB stars and most post-AGB nebulae and, in these cases, they are clearly associated with the presence of conspicuous axial symmetry and bipolar dynamics. We aim to systematically study the profile shape of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 lines in evolved stars and to discuss the origin of the composite profile structure. Methods: We present observations of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 emission in 28 evolved stars, including O-rich, C-rich, and S-type Mira-type variables, OH/IR stars, semiregular long-period variables, red supergiants and one yellow hypergiant. Most objects were observed in several epochs, over a total period of time of one and a half years. The observations were performed with the 40 m radio telescope of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) in Yebes, Spain. Results: We find that the composite core plus plateau profiles are systematically present in O-rich Miras, OH/IR stars, and red supergiants. They are also found in one S-type Mira (χ Cyg) and in two semiregular variables (X Her and RS Cnc) that are known to show axial symmetry. In the other objects, the profiles are simpler and similar to those observed in other molecular lines. The composite structure appears in the objects in which SiO emission is thought to come from the very inner circumstellar layers, prior to dust formation. The central spectral feature is found to be systematically composed of a number of narrow spikes, except for X Her and RS Cnc, in which it shows a smooth shape that is very similar to that observed in CO emission. These spikes show a significant (and mostly chaotic) time variation, while in all cases the smooth components remain constant within the uncertainties. The profile shape could come from the superposition

  2. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  3. Star ratings. Stars of wonder.

    PubMed

    Dawes, David

    2002-09-12

    Analysis of trusts that changed their star-rating over the past two years indicates that a change of chief executive was not a significant factor. The length of time in post and the experience of the chief executive were also insignificant. This has serious implications for the theory behind franchising and the evaluation of franchised trusts. Holding chief executives to account for the organisation's performance within their first 12 months is unlikely to be effective.

  4. AKARI's infrared view on nearby stars. Using AKARI infrared camera all-sky survey, 2MASS, and Hipparcos catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ita, Y.; Matsuura, M.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Takita, S.; Kataza, H.; Yamamura, I.; Matsunaga, N.; Tanabé, T.; Nakada, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Wada, T.; Onaka, T.; Matsuhara, H.

    2010-05-01

    Context. The AKARI, a Japanese infrared space mission, has performed an All-Sky Survey in six infrared-bands from 9 to 180 μm with higher spatial resolutions and better sensitivities than IRAS. Aims: We investigate the mid-infrared (9 and 18 μm) point source catalog (PSC) obtained with the infrared camera (IRC) onboard AKARI, in order to understand the infrared nature of the known objects and to identify previously unknown objects. Methods: Color-color diagrams and a color-magnitude diagram were plotted with the AKARI-IRC PSC and other available all-sky survey catalogs. We combined the Hipparcos astrometric catalog and the 2MASS all-sky survey catalog with the AKARI-IRC PSC. We furthermore searched literature and SIMBAD astronomical database for object types, spectral types, and luminosity classes. We identified the locations of representative stars and objects on the color-magnitude and color-color diagram schemes. The properties of unclassified sources can be inferred from their locations on these diagrams. Results: We found that the (B-V) vs. (V-S9W) color-color diagram is useful for identifying the stars with infrared excess emerged from circumstellar envelopes or disks. Be stars with infrared excess are separated well from other types of stars in this diagram. Whereas (J-L18W) vs. (S9W-L18W) diagram is a powerful tool for classifying several object types. Carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and OH/IR stars form distinct sequences in this color-color diagram. Young stellar objects (YSOs), pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, post-AGB stars, and planetary nebulae (PNe) have the largest mid-infrared color excess and can be identified in the infrared catalog. Finally, we plot the L18W vs. (S9W-L18W) color-magnitude diagram, using the AKARI data together with Hipparcos parallaxes. This diagram can be used to identify low-mass YSOs and AGB stars. We found that this diagram is comparable to the [24] vs. ([8.0]-[24]) diagram of Large Magellanic Cloud sources

  5. Atoms, Stars, and Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Lawrence H.

    1991-09-01

    1. Introducing stars and nebulae; 2. Stellar rainbows; 3. Atoms and molecules; 4. The climate in a stellar atmosphere; 5. Analysing the stars; 6. Dwarfs, giants, and supergiants; 7. What makes a star shine?; 8. The youth and middle age of a common star; 9. Wind, dust and pulsations; 10. A star's last hurray?; 11. The interstellar medium and gaseous nebulae; 12. Uncommon stars and their sometimes violent behaviour; 13. High energy astronomy.

  6. Review: Magnetic Fields of O-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002, strong, organized magnetic fields have been firmly detected at the surfaces of about 10 Galactic O-type stars. In this paper I will review the characteristics of the inferred fields of individual stars as well as the overall population. I will discuss the extension of the “magnetic desert,” first inferred among the A-type stars, to O stars up to 60 M⊙. I will discuss the interaction of the winds of the magnetic stars with the fields above their surfaces, generating complex “dynamical magnetosphere” structures detected in optical and UV lines, and in X-ray lines and continuum. Finally, I will discuss the detection of a small number of variable O stars in the LMC and SMC that exhibit spectral characteristics analogous to the known Galactic magnetic stars, and that almost certainly represent the first known examples of extragalactic magnetic stars.

  7. Seeing Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchin, Chris; Forrest, Robert W.

    Seeing Stars is written for astronomers, regardless of the depth of their theoretical knowledge, who are taking their first steps in observational astronomy. Chris Kitchin and Bob Forrest - both professional astronomers - take a conducted tour of the night sky and suggest suitable observing programmes for everyone from beginners to experts. How is this book different? We are all familiar with the beautiful images of planets and galaxies obtained by spacecraft and giant telescopes - but what can you really see with a small telescope? What should you expect from a small refractor or reflector? And what is the effect of observing from a site near a city? The answers are all here, with many photographs that will illustrate exactly what can be seen with different instruments (everything from the naked eye to a 300mm telescope) - and from different locations.

  8. Ice Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Ice Stars - August 4th, 2002 Description: Like distant galaxies amid clouds of interstellar dust, chunks of sea ice drift through graceful swirls of grease ice in the frigid waters of Foxe Basin near Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Sea ice often begins as grease ice, a soupy slick of tiny ice crystals on the ocean's surface. As the temperature drops, grease ice thickens and coalesces into slabs of more solid ice. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  9. A mess of stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-10

    Bursts of pink and red, dark lanes of mottled cosmic dust, and a bright scattering of stars — this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows part of a messy barred spiral galaxy known as NGC 428. It lies approximately 48 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Cetus (The Sea Monster). Although a spiral shape is still just about visible in this close-up shot, overall NGC 428’s spiral structure appears to be quite distorted and warped, thought to be a result of a collision between two galaxies. There also appears to be a substantial amount of star formation occurring within NGC 428 — another telltale sign of a merger. When galaxies collide their clouds of gas can merge, creating intense shocks and hot pockets of gas and often triggering new waves of star formation. NGC 428 was discovered by William Herschel in December 1786. More recently a type Ia supernova designated SN2013ct was discovered within the galaxy by Stuart Parker of the BOSS (Backyard Observatory Supernova Search) project in Australia and New Zealand, although it is unfortunately not visible in this image. This image was captured by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures Image Processing competition by contestants Nick Rose and the Flickr user penninecloud. Links: Nick Rose’s image on Flickr Penninecloud’s image on Flickr

  10. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  11. Metal-rich SX Phe stars in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, James M.; Balona, Luis A.; Murphy, Simon J.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2017-04-01

    A spectroscopic and photometric analysis has been carried out for 32 candidate SX Phe variable blue straggler stars in the Kepler field. Radial velocities (RVs), space motions (U, V, W), projected rotation velocities (vsin I), spectral types and atmospheric characteristics (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], ξt, ζRT, etc.) are presented for 30 of the 32 stars. Although several stars are metal-weak with extreme halo orbits, the mean [Fe/H] of the sample is near-solar, thus the stars are more metal-rich than expected for a typical sample of Pop. II stars and more like halo metal-rich A-type stars. Two-thirds of the stars are fast rotators with vsin I > 50 km s-1, including four stars with vsin I > 200 km s-1. Three of the stars have (negative) RVs > 250 km s-1, five have retrograde space motions and 21 have total speeds (relative to the Local Standard of Rest) >400 km s-1. All but one of the 30 stars have positions in a Toomre diagram consistent with the kinematics of bona fide halo stars (the exception being a thick-disc star). Observed Rømer time delays, pulsation frequency modulations and light curves suggest that at least one-third of the stars are in binary (or triple) systems with orbital periods ranging from 2.3 d to more than four years.

  12. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  13. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  14. Gravitational Interactions of White Dwarf Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, James; Robinson, Chloe; Ortiz, Bridget; Hira, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the possible role of White Dwarf stars as progenitors of Type Ia supernovas, we present computational simulations of some astrophysical phenomena associated with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.5 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We will extend our computational studies to blue giant and red giant stars in the future. Funding from National Science Foundation.

  15. Compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  16. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  17. Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, David C.; Conti, Peter S.

    1987-01-01

    The properties and evolutionary status of WR stars are examined, reviewing the results of recent observational and theoretical investigations. Topics discussed include spectral types and line strengths, magnitudes and colors, intrinsic variability, IR and radio observations, X-ray observations, the Galactic distribution of WR stars, WR stars in other galaxies, and WR binaries. Consideration is given to the inferred masses, composition, and stellar winds of WR stars; model atmospheres; WR stars and the Galactic environment; and WR stars as a phase of stellar evolution. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  18. Theoretical Study of White Dwarf Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hira, Ajit; Koetter, Ted; Rivera, Ruben; Diaz, Juan

    2015-04-01

    We continue our interest in the computational simulation of the astrophysical phenomena with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.0 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We hope to extend our computational studies to blue giant stars in the future. Research Supported by National Science Foundation.

  19. The Discovery of λ Bootis Stars: The Southern Survey I

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R. O.; Riggs, Q. S.; Newsome, I. M.

    The λ Boo stars are a class of chemically peculiar Population I A-type stars characterized by under-abundances of the refractory elements, but near-solar abundances of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. There is some evidence that λ Boo stars have higher frequencies of “bright” debris disks than normal A-type stars. The discovery of four exoplanets orbiting HR 8799, a λ Boo star with a resolved debris disk, suggests that the λ Boo phenomenon may be related to the presence of a dynamic debris disk, perhaps perturbed by migrating planets. However, only 64 λ Boo stars are known, and those stars weremore » discovered with different techniques, making it problematic to use that sample for statistical purposes, including determining the frequency of debris disks. The purpose of this paper is to derive a new sample of λ Boo stars using a technique that does not lead to biases with respect to the presence of infrared excesses. Through spectroscopic observations in the southern hemisphere, we have discovered 33 λ Boo stars and have confirmed 12 others. As a step toward determining the proportion of λ Boo stars with infrared excesses, we have used WISE data to examine the infrared properties of this sample out to 22 μ m. On this basis, we cannot conclude that λ Boo stars have a greater tendency than normal A-type stars to show infrared excesses. However, observing this sample at longer wavelengths may change that conclusion, as many λ Boo debris disks are cool and do not radiate strongly at 22 μ m.« less

  20. The Discovery of λ Bootis Stars: The Southern Survey I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, R. O.; Riggs, Q. S.; Koen, C.; Murphy, S. J.; Newsome, I. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Cheng, K.-P.; Neff, J. E.

    2017-07-01

    The λ Boo stars are a class of chemically peculiar Population I A-type stars characterized by under-abundances of the refractory elements, but near-solar abundances of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. There is some evidence that λ Boo stars have higher frequencies of “bright” debris disks than normal A-type stars. The discovery of four exoplanets orbiting HR 8799, a λ Boo star with a resolved debris disk, suggests that the λ Boo phenomenon may be related to the presence of a dynamic debris disk, perhaps perturbed by migrating planets. However, only 64 λ Boo stars are known, and those stars were discovered with different techniques, making it problematic to use that sample for statistical purposes, including determining the frequency of debris disks. The purpose of this paper is to derive a new sample of λ Boo stars using a technique that does not lead to biases with respect to the presence of infrared excesses. Through spectroscopic observations in the southern hemisphere, we have discovered 33 λ Boo stars and have confirmed 12 others. As a step toward determining the proportion of λ Boo stars with infrared excesses, we have used WISE data to examine the infrared properties of this sample out to 22 μm. On this basis, we cannot conclude that λ Boo stars have a greater tendency than normal A-type stars to show infrared excesses. However, observing this sample at longer wavelengths may change that conclusion, as many λ Boo debris disks are cool and do not radiate strongly at 22 μm.

  1. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

  2. Assembly Line of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-06

    This image from NASA Herschel, in the constellation of Vulpecula, shows an entire assembly line of newborn stars. The diffuse glow reveals the widespread cold reservoir of raw material that our Milky Way galaxy has in stock for building stars.

  3. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  4. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  5. Massive Star Makes Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    The giant star Zeta Ophiuchi, a young, large and hot star located around 370 light-years away, is having a hocking effect on the surrounding dust clouds in this infrared image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

  6. Sloshing Star Goes Supernova

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-19

    NuSTAR has provided the first observational evidence in support of a theory that says exploding stars slosh around before detonating. That theory, referred to as mild asymmetries, is shown here in a simulation by Christian Ott.

  7. AgSTAR Accomplishments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Showcases AgSTAR's accomplishments reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the agriculture sector. Through outreach, education, training, and other tools, AgSTAR continues to help evaluate, construct, and maintain anaerobic digesters on livestock farms.

  8. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  9. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  10. Another Death Star?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    Although Mimas holds the unofficial designation of Death Star moon, Tethys is seen here also vaguely resembling the space station from Star Wars. Apparently, Tethys doesnt want Mimas to have all the fun!

  11. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Haensel, Pawel; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  12. Chromospheres of Coronal Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the main results obtained from the analysis of ultraviolet emission line profiles of coronal late-type stars observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The excellent GHRS spectra provide new information on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. One exciting new result is the discovery of broad components in the transition region lines of active stars that we believe provide evidence for microflare heating in these stars.

  13. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  14. Seeing Stars in Serpens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    Infant stars are glowing gloriously in this image of the Serpens star-forming region, captured by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. The reddish-pink dots are baby stars deeply embedded in the cosmic cloud of gas and dust that collapsed to create it.

  15. Magnetized anisotropic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelea, Cristian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2018-05-01

    We extend a known solution-generating technique for isotropic fluids in order to construct more general models of anisotropic stars with poloidal magnetic fields. In particular, we discuss the magnetized versions of some well-known exact solutions describing anisotropic stars and dark energy stars, and we describe some of their properties.

  16. Managing the star performer.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Our culture seems to be endlessly fascinated with its stars in entertainment, athletics, politics, and business, and holds fast to the idea that extraordinary talent accounts for an individual's extraordinary performance. At first glance, managing a star performer in your medical practice may seem like it would be an easy task. However, there's much more to managing a star performer than many practice managers realize. The concern is how to keep the star performer happy and functioning at a high level without detriment to the rest of the medical practice team. This article offers tips for practice managers who manage star performers. It explores ways to keep the star performer motivated, while at the same time helping the star performer to meld into the existing medical practice team. This article suggests strategies for redefining the star performer's role, for holding the star performer accountable for his or her behavior, and for coaching the star performer. Finally, this article offers practical tips for keeping the star performer during trying times, for identifying and cultivating new star performers, and for managing medical practice prima donnas.

  17. Massive Star Burps, Then Explodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    evolved stars that have shed their outer envelopes. Swift XRT Image Swift XRT Image (Credit: NASA / GSFC / CXC /S.Immler) Most astronomers did not expect that a massive star would explode so soon after a major outburst, or that a Wolf-Rayet star would produce such a luminous eruption, so SN 2006jc represents a puzzle for theorists. "It challenges some aspects of our current model of stellar evolution," says Foley. "We really don't know what caused this star to have such a large eruption so soon before it went supernova." "SN 2006jc provides us with an important clue that LBV-style eruptions may be related to the deaths of massive stars, perhaps more closely than we used to think," adds coauthor and UC Berkeley astronomer Nathan Smith. "The fact that we have no well-established theory for what actually causes these outbursts is the elephant in the living room that nobody is talking about." SN 2006jc occurred in galaxy UGC 4904, located 77 million light years from Earth in the constellation Lynx. The supernova explosion, a peculiar variant of a Type Ib, was first sighted by Itagaki, American amateur astronomer Tim Puckett and Italian amateur astronomer Roberto Gorelli. See also NASA Goddard press release at: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/ 2007/supernova_imposter.html

  18. Induced Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    Overview: Induced Star Formation and Interactions Introduction Historical Background: First Hints Systematic Studies: Starbursts Interactions and Nuclear activity IRAS and Ultralumious starburst Galaxies The 1990's: HST, Supercomputers, and the Distant Universe Key Questions and Issues Organization of Lectures Star Formation Properties of Normal Galaxies Observational Techniques Results: Star Formation in Normal Galaxies Interpretation: Star Formation Histories Global Star Formation in interacting Galaxies A Gallery of Interactions and Mergers Star Formation Statistics: Guilt By Association Tests SFRs in Interacting vs Noninteracting Galaxies Kinematic Properties and Regulation of SFRs Induced Nuclear Activity and Star Formation Background: Nuclear Spectra and Classification Nuclear Star Formation and Starbursts Nuclear Star Formation and Interactions Induced AGN Activity: Statistics of Seyfert Galaxies Environments of Quasars Kinematic Clues to the Triggering of AGNs Infrared Luminous Galaxies and Starbursts Background: IR Luminous Galaxies and IRAS Infrared Luminosity Function and Spectra Infrared Structure and Morphology Interstellar Gas X-Ray Emission and Superwinds Optical, UV, and Near-Infrared Spectra Radio Continuum Emission Evidence for Interactions and Mergers The Power Source: Starbursts or Dusty AGNs? Spectral Diagnostics of Starbursts Evolutionary Synthesis Models Applications: Integrated Colors of Interacting Galaxies Applications: Hα Emission, Colors, and SFRs Applications: Spectral Modelling of Evolved Starbursts Infrared Starbursts and the IMF in starbursts Triggering and Regulation of Star Formation: The Problem Introduction: Star Formation as a Nonlinear Process The schmidt Law in Normal Galaxies Star Formation Regimes in Interacting Galaxies Summary Triggering and Regulation of Starbusts: Theoretical Ideas Gravitational Star Formation Thresholds Cloud Collision Models Radial Transport of Gas: Clues from Barred Galaxies Simulations of Starbursts

  19. The most luminous stars.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, R M; Davidson, K

    1984-01-20

    Stars with individual luminosities more than a million times that of the sun are now being studied in a variety of contexts. Observational and theoretical ideas about the most luminous stars have changed greatly in the past few years. They can be observed spectroscopically even in nearby galaxies. They are not very stable; some have had violent outbursts in which large amounts of mass were lost. Because of their instabilities, these stars do not evolve to become red superglants as less luminous stars do. Theoretical scenarios for the evolution of these most massive stars depend on the effects of turbulence and mixing combined with high radition densities.

  20. A Star Close Encounter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-03

    The potential planet-forming disk (or "protoplanetary disk") of a sun-like star is being violently ripped away by the powerful winds of a nearby hot O-type star in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. At up to 100 times the mass of sun-like stars, O stars are the most massive and energetic stars in the universe. The O star can be seen to the right of the image, as the large orange spot with the white center. To the left, the comet-like structure is actually a neighboring solar system that is being destroyed by the O star's powerful winds and intense ultraviolet light. In a process called "photoevaporation," immense output from the O star heats up the nearby protoplanetary disk so much that gas and dust boil off, and the disk can no longer hold together. Photon (or light) blasts from the O star then strip the potential planet-forming disk off its neighbor star by blowing away evaporated material. This effect is illustrated in the smaller system's comet-like structure. The system is located about 2,450 light-years away in the star-forming cloud IC 1396. The image was taken with Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer instrument at 24 microns. The picture is a pseudo-color stretch representing intensity. Yellow and white represent hot areas, whereas purple and blue represent relatively cooler, fainter regions.

  1. Ponderable soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  2. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, David

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionises the nebula producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  3. Massive stars, disks, and clustered star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeckel, Nickolas Barry

    The formation of an isolated massive star is inherently more complex than the relatively well-understood collapse of an isolated, low-mass star. The dense, clustered environment where massive stars are predominantly found further complicates the picture, and suggests that interactions with other stars may play an important role in the early life of these objects. In this thesis we present the results of numerical hydrodynamic experiments investigating interactions between a massive protostar and its lower-mass cluster siblings. We explore the impact of these interactions on the orientation of disks and outflows, which are potentially observable indications of encounters during the formation of a star. We show that these encounters efficiently form eccentric binary systems, and in clusters similar to Orion they occur frequently enough to contribute to the high multiplicity of massive stars. We suggest that the massive protostar in Cepheus A is currently undergoing a series of interactions, and present simulations tailored to that system. We also apply the numerical techniques used in the massive star investigations to a much lower-mass regime, the formation of planetary systems around Solar- mass stars. We perform a small number of illustrative planet-planet scattering experiments, which have been used to explain the eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. We add the complication of a remnant gas disk, and show that this feature has the potential to stabilize the system against strong encounters between planets. We present preliminary simulations of Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a protoplanetary disk, and consider the impact of the flow on the disk properties as well as the impact of the disk on the accretion flow.

  4. WR and LBV stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiashvili, Nino; Beradze, Sophie; Kochiashvili, Ia; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Vardosanidze, Manana

    Evolutionary scenarios of massive stars were revised in recent decades, after finding "unusual", blue progenitor of SN 1987A and after detecting the more massive stars than the accepted 120 M ⊙ maximum limit of stellar masses. A very important relation exists between WR and LBV stars. They represent the earlier, pre-SN evolutionary states of massive stars. WR and LBV stars and "classic" evolutionary scheme of the relation between the different type massive stars are discussed in this article. There also exist the newest evolutionary scenarios for low metallicity massive stars, which give us a different picture of their post main-sequence evolution. There is a rather good tradition of observations and investigations of massive stars at Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. The authors discuss the new findings on the fate of P Cygni, the LBV star. These results on the reddening of the star and about its next possible outburst in the near future were obtained on the basis of UBV long-term electrophotometric observations of P Cygni by Eugene Kharadze and Nino Magalashvili. The observations were held in 1951-1983 at Abastumani Observatory using 33-cm and 48-cm reflectors.

  5. Star Clusters within FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  6. Miras among C stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battinelli, P.; Demers, S.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Carbon stars are among the brightest intermediate-age stars. They are seen in nearly all galaxies of the Local Group. In the Milky Way they are members of the thin disk but over a hundred have been identified in the Galactic halo. Since the halo consists essentially of an old stellar population, these carbon stars warrant special attention. We believe that such stars are trespassers and belong to streams left over by disrupted dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Aims: By performing photometric monitoring we intend to identify Miras among the halo carbon stars. Methods: We obtained, over several semesters, K and J images centered on the carbon stars in order to determine their variation and periodicity. Results: We establish the variability for a number of stars and identify the Miras among them. We collect data from the literature on the Miras among various carbon star populations and show that the fraction of Miras among carbon stars is fairly constant. We demonstrate that such fractions for the halo and Sagittarius are biased because of the way targets are selected. We finally investigate the near-infrared color distribution of Miras and carbon stars. Based on observations made with the REM Telescope, INAF Chile.The observed K and J magnitudes are available only at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A100

  7. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  8. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  9. Age-Defying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    An age-defying star called IRAS 19312+1950 exhibits features characteristic of a very young star and a very old star. The object stands out as extremely bright inside a large, chemically rich cloud of material, as shown in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. IRAS 19312+1950 is the bright red star in the center of this image. A NASA-led team of scientists thinks the star -- which is about 10 times as massive as our sun and emits about 20,000 times as much energy -- is a newly forming protostar. That was a big surprise, because the region had not been known as a stellar nursery before. But the presence of a nearby interstellar bubble, which indicates the presence of a recently formed massive star, also supports this idea. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20914

  10. Nagyszombat and the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsoldos, E.

    Péter Pázmány, founder of the University of Nagyszombat, considered stars in terms inherited from medieval times. The theses, connected to the university graduation, soon left this definition, and imagined stars as made from sublunar elements. The 1753 decree of the Empress Maria Theresia ordered university professors to publish textbooks. These textbooks, together with the theses showed a definite improvement, defining stars according to contemporary knowledge.

  11. Sizing up the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.

    For the main part of this dissertation, I have executed a survey of nearby, main sequence A, F, and G-type stars with the CHARA Array, successfully measuring the angular diameters of forty-four stars to better than 4% accuracy. The results of these observations also yield empirical determinations of stellar linear radii and effective temperatures for the stars observed. In addition, these CHARA-determined temperatures, radii, and luminosities are fit to Yonsei-Yale isochrones to constrain the masses and ages of the stars. These quantities are compared to the results found in Allende Prieto & Lambert (1999), Holmberg et al. (2007), and Takeda (2007), who indirectly determine these same properties by fitting models to observed photometry. I find that for most cases, the models underestimate the radius of the star by ~ 12%, while in turn they overestimate the effective temperature by ~ 1.5-4%, when compared to my directly measured values, with no apparent correlation to the star's metallicity or color index. These overestimated temperatures and underestimated radii in these works appear to cause an additional offset in the star's surface gravity measurements, which consequently yield higher masses and younger ages, in particular for stars with masses greater than ~ 1.3 [Special characters omitted.] . Alternatively, these quantities I measure are also compared to direct measurements from a large sample of eclipsing binary stars in Andersen (1991), and excellent agreement is seen within both data sets. Finally, a multi-parameter solution is found to fit color-temperature-metallicity values of the stars in this sample to provide a new calibration of the effective temperature scale for these types of stars. Published work in the field of stellar interferometry and optical spectroscopy of early-type stars are presented in Appendix D and E, respectively. INDEX WORDS: Interferometry, Infrared, Stellar Astronomy, Fundamental Properties, Effective Temperatures, Stellar Radii

  12. RR Lyrae type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus, N. N.

    Basic observational data on RR Lyrae type stars are reviewed. It is noted that these stars are used widely to investigate the structure and kinematics of the spherical and intermediate components of the Galaxy, with correct data on the absolute magnitude of these variables being decisive. Attention is given to the relationship between the orbit eccentricity and inclination of osculating RR Lyrae type stars in the Galaxy and their metallicity index.

  13. Introduction to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  14. Strangeon and Strangeon Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyu, Lai; Renxin, Xu

    2017-06-01

    The nature of pulsar-like compact stars is essentially a central question of the fundamental strong interaction (explained in quantum chromo-dynamics) at low energy scale, the solution of which still remains a challenge though tremendous efforts have been tried. This kind of compact objects could actually be strange quark stars if strange quark matter in bulk may constitute the true ground state of the strong-interaction matter rather than 56Fe (the so-called Witten’s conjecture). From astrophysical points of view, however, it is proposed that strange cluster matter could be absolutely stable and thus those compact stars could be strange cluster stars in fact. This proposal could be regarded as a general Witten’s conjecture: strange matter in bulk could be absolutely stable, in which quarks are either free (for strange quark matter) or localized (for strange cluster matter). Strange cluster with three-light-flavor symmetry is renamed strangeon, being coined by combining “strange nucleon” for the sake of simplicity. A strangeon star can then be thought as a 3-flavored gigantic nucleus, and strangeons are its constituent as an analogy of nucleons which are the constituent of a normal (micro) nucleus. The observational consequences of strangeon stars show that different manifestations of pulsarlike compact stars could be understood in the regime of strangeon stars, and we are expecting more evidence for strangeon star by advanced facilities (e.g., FAST, SKA, and eXTP).

  15. Introduction to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M.

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts canmore » set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.« less

  16. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  17. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  18. Evolution and fate of very massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Norhasliza; Hirschi, Raphael; Meynet, Georges; Crowther, Paul A.; Ekström, Sylvia; Frischknecht, Urs; Georgy, Cyril; Abu Kassim, Hasan; Schnurr, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    comprises stars with initial masses between about 100 and 290 M⊙. All VMS in the metallicity range studied here produce either a Type Ib SN or a Type Ic SN but not a Type II SN. We estimate that the progenitor of SN 2007bi, assuming a SMC metallicity, had an initial mass between 160 and 175 M⊙. None of models presented in this grid produces gamma-ray bursts or magnetars. They lose too much angular momentum by mass loss or avoid the formation of a black hole by producing a completely disruptive PCSN.

  19. Observational Study of Morphological Changes in Medium-mass Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Sze-Ning

    2014-02-01

    Medium-mass (or intermediate-mass) stars refer to main sequence stars with masses ranging from 0.4 to 8 solar masses. These stars are believed to finally evolve into the central stars of planetary nebulae (PNe) and white dwarfs. One of the fascinating aspects of PNe is their diverse morphology. To understand the mechanisms of the morphological changes from spherical circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to those forming highly diversified PNe, it is necessary to investigate the true three-dimensional (3D) morphology of PNe from two-dimensional images, and the short transition phase in-between the two phases should also be explored. "Water Fountain" (WF) sources belong to transition phase objects; they are AGB or post-AGB stars with collimated jets traced by high velocity water maser emissions in their CSEs. This thesis comprises of four chapters. The results can be divided into two major parts. Chapter 1 is the introduction on the related fields with brief reviews of previous observational studies on PNe and the rapidly evolving transition phase objects. Basic theories necessary for understanding the next chapters were also described, including those explaining the commonly observed Hα emission in PNe, the formation of multipolar PNe, the maser emission and the role of shock in circumstellar materials. The first major part of the results, about the morphological classification of multipolar PNe, is presented in Chapter 2. At the beginning of the chapter, the problems on the previous classification methods were pointed out. Then a three-lobed model was introduced. By changing the combination of the orientations of the three pairs of lobes, simulations using the model produced statistical results in classification and quantified the errors of misidentification. Assuming that all PNe observed have the true structure of three lobes, due to projection effect, only 49% of them would be correctly classified. 46% and 5% of them would be

  20. Identifying Young, Nearby Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better

  1. Merging strangeon stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Yun-Wei; Zhou, En-Ping; Li, Yun-Yang; Xu, Ren-Xin

    2018-02-01

    The state of supranuclear matter in compact stars remains puzzling, and it is argued that pulsars could be strangeon stars. What would happen if binary strangeon stars merge? This kind of merger could result in the formation of a hyper-massive strangeon star, accompanied by bursts of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation (and even a strangeon kilonova explained in the paper). The tidal polarizability of binary strangeon stars is different from that of binary neutron stars, because a strangeon star is self-bound on the surface by the fundamental strong force while a neutron star by the gravity, and their equations of state are different. Our calculation shows that the tidal polarizability of merging binary strangeon stars is favored by GW170817. Three kinds of kilonovae (i.e., of neutron, quark and strangeon) are discussed, and the light curve of the kilonova AT 2017 gfo following GW170817 could be explained by considering the decaying strangeon nuggets and remnant star spin-down. Additionally, the energy ejected to the fireball around the nascent remnant strangeon star, being manifested as a gamma-ray burst, is calculated. It is found that, after a prompt burst, an X-ray plateau could follow in a timescale of 102 ‑ 103 s. Certainly, the results could be tested also by further observational synergies between gravitational wave detectors (e.g., Advanced LIGO) and X-ray telescopes (e.g., the Chinese HXMT satellite and eXTP mission), and especially if the detected gravitational wave form is checked by peculiar equations of state provided by the numerical relativistical simulation.

  2. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  3. Stars Brewing in Cygnus X

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-10

    A bubbling cauldron of star birth is highlighted in this image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Massive stars have blown bubbles, or cavities, in the dust and gas -- a violent process that triggers both the death and birth of stars.

  4. Cooking up the First Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-10

    Scientists are simulating how the very first stars in our universe were born. The stars we see today formed out of collapsing clouds of gas and dust. In the very early universe, however, the stars had fewer ingredients available.

  5. Dusty Dead Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-29

    A composite image from NASA Chandra and Spitzer space telescopes shows the dusty remains of a collapsed star, a supernova remnant called G54.1+0.3. The white source at the center is a dead star called a pulsar.

  6. Science Through ARts (STAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph; Petersen, Ruth; Williams, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is an educational initiative designed to teach students through a multidisciplinary approach to learning. This presentation describes the STAR pilot project, which will use Mars exploration as the topic to be integrated. Schools from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and possibly eastern Europe are expected to participate in the pilot project.

  7. Star System Bonanza Illustration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-27

    This illustration shows the unusual orbit of planet Kepler-413b around a close pair of orange and red dwarf stars. The planet 66-day orbit is tilted 2.5 degrees with respect to the plane of the binary stars orbit.

  8. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  9. Science through ARts (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Marycay; Kolecki, Joseph C.; Miller, Allan; Petersen, Ruth; Terrell, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is a free, international, cross-curricular program thematically aligned with "The Vision for Space Exploration," a framework of goals and objectives published by NASA in February 2004. Through the STAR program, students in grades 5 through 12 are encouraged to apply their knowledge in creative ways as they approach a…

  10. By Draconis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    An optical spectroscopic survey of dK-M stars has resulted in the discovery of several new H-alpha emission objects. Available optical data suggest these stars have a level of chromospheric activity midway between active BY Dra stars and quiet dM's. These "marginal" BY Dra stars are single objects that have rotation velocities slightly higher than that of quiet field stars but below that of active flare/BY Dra objects. The marginal BY Dra stars provide us with a class of objects rotating very near a "trigger velocity" (believed to be 5 km/s) which appears to divide active flare/BY Dra stars from quiet dM's. UV data on Mg II emission fluxes and strength of transition region features such as C IV will serve to fix activity levels in the marginal objects and determine chromosphere and transition-region heating rates. Simultaneous optical magnetic field measures will be used to explore the connection between fieldstrength/filling-factor and atmospheric heating. Comparison of these data with published information on active and quiet dM stars will yield information on the character of the stellar dynamo as it makes a transition from "low" to "high" activity.

  11. How do stars form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscharnuter, W. M.

    1980-02-01

    Modes and model concept of star formation are reviewed, beginning with the theory of Kant (1755), via Newton's exact mathematical formulation of the laws of motion, his recognition of the universal validity of general gravitation, to modern concepts and hypotheses. Axisymmetric and spherically symmetric collapse models are discussed, and the origin of double and multiple star systems is examined.

  12. Nebraska STARS: Achieving Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschewski, Pat; Isernhagen, Jody; Dappen, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the state of Nebraska passed legislation requiring the assessment of student performance on content standards, but its requirements were very different from those of any other state. Nebraska created what has come to be known as STARS (School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System). Under STARS, each of Nebraska's nearly 500…

  13. Young Star HD 141569

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-30

    This image shows the dusty disk of planetary material surrounding the young star HD 141569, located 380 light-years away from Earth. It was taken using the vortex coronagraph on the W.M. Keck Observatory. The vortex suppressed light from the star in the center, revealing light from the innermost ring of planetary material around the star (blue). The disk around the star, made of olivine particles, extends from 23 to 70 astronomical units from the star. By comparison, Uranus is over 19 astronomical units from our sun, and Neptune about 30 astronomical units. One astronomical unit is the distance between Earth and our sun. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21090

  14. 'Marginal' BY Draconis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of 52 dK-dM stars, obtained at 640-665 nm (with spectral resolution 70-90 pm) using CCD detectors on the coude-feed telescope at KPNO since 1982, are reported. Data for four stars found to have diluted absorption or weak emission above continuum at H-alpha are presented in tables and spectra and discussed in detail. These objects (Gliese numbers 256, 425A, 900, and 907.1) are shown to be 'marginal' BY Dra stars, single objects of age 2.5-3 Gyr with activity and rotational velocity (3-5 km/s) between those of normal dM stars and those of true BY Dra stars. An explanation based on evolution from the BY Dra stage through marginal BY Dra to inactive dM is proposed.

  15. Rotating stars in relativity.

    PubMed

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  16. Activity Cycles in Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Starspots and stellar activity can be detected in other stars using high precision photometric and spectrometric measurements. These observations have provided some surprises (starspots at the poles - sunspots are rarely seen poleward of 40 degrees) but more importantly they reveal behaviors that constrain our models of solar-stellar magnetic dynamos. The observations reveal variations in cycle characteristics that depend upon the stellar structure, convection zone dynamics, and rotation rate. In general, the more rapidly rotating stars are more active. However, for stars like the Sun, some are found to be inactive while nearly identical stars are found to be very active indicating that periods like the Sun's Maunder Minimum (an inactive period from 1645 to 1715) are characteristic of Sun-like stars.

  17. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakis, P. E.; Avgeropoulos, A.; Freire, J. J.; Kosmas, M.; Vlahos, C.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  19. Making star teams out of star players.

    PubMed

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing.

  20. Dense Axion Stars.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-16

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  1. Heartbeat Stars Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-21

    This artist's concept depicts "heartbeat stars," which have been detected by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope and others. The illustration shows two heartbeat stars swerving close to one another in their closest approach along their highly elongated orbits around one another. The mutual gravitation of the two stars would cause the stars themselves to become slightly ellipsoidal in shape. A third, more distant star in the system is shown in the upper left. Astronomers speculate that such unseen companions may exist in some of these heartbeat star systems, and could be responsible for maintaining these oddly stretched-out orbits. The overlaid curve depicts the inferred cyclic change in velocities in one such system, called KIC 9965691, looking something like the graph of an electrocardiogram (hence the name "heartbeat stars"). The solid points represent measurements made by the HIRES instrument at the W.M. Keck Observatory, and the curve is the best fit model for the motions of this system. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21075

  2. Highly-evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The ways in which the IUE has proved useful in studying highly evolved stars are reviewed. The importance of high dispersion spectra for abundance analyses of the sd0 stars and for studies of the wind from the central star of NGC 6543 and the wind from the 0 type component of Vela X-1 is shown. Low dispersion spectra are used for absolute spectrophotometry of the dwarf nova, Ex Hya. Angular resolution is important for detecting and locating UV sources in globular clusters.

  3. The Physical Nature of Subdwarf A Stars: White Dwarf Impostors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.

    2017-04-01

    We address the physical nature of subdwarf A-type (sdA) stars and their possible link to extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs). The two classes of objects are confused in low-resolution spectroscopy. However, colors and proper motions indicate that sdA stars are cooler and more luminous, and thus larger in radius, than published ELM WDs. We demonstrate that surface gravities derived from pure hydrogen models suffer a systematic ˜1 dex error for sdA stars, likely explained by metal line blanketing below 9000 K. A detailed study of five eclipsing binaries with radial velocity orbital solutions and infrared excess establishes that these sdA stars are metal-poor ≃1.2 M ⊙ main sequence stars with ≃0.8 M ⊙ companions. While WDs must exist at sdA temperatures, only ˜1% of a magnitude-limited sdA sample should be ELM WDs. We conclude that the majority of sdA stars are metal-poor A-F type stars in the halo, and that recently discovered pulsating ELM WD-like stars with no obvious radial velocity variations may be SX Phe variables, not pulsating WDs.

  4. The Physical Nature of Subdwarf A Stars: White Dwarf Impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu

    We address the physical nature of subdwarf A-type (sdA) stars and their possible link to extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs). The two classes of objects are confused in low-resolution spectroscopy. However, colors and proper motions indicate that sdA stars are cooler and more luminous, and thus larger in radius, than published ELM WDs. We demonstrate that surface gravities derived from pure hydrogen models suffer a systematic ∼1 dex error for sdA stars, likely explained by metal line blanketing below 9000 K. A detailed study of five eclipsing binaries with radial velocity orbital solutions and infrared excess establishes thatmore » these sdA stars are metal-poor ≃1.2 M {sub ⊙} main sequence stars with ≃0.8 M {sub ⊙} companions. While WDs must exist at sdA temperatures, only ∼1% of a magnitude-limited sdA sample should be ELM WDs. We conclude that the majority of sdA stars are metal-poor A–F type stars in the halo, and that recently discovered pulsating ELM WD-like stars with no obvious radial velocity variations may be SX Phe variables, not pulsating WDs.« less

  5. AgSTAR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    AgSTAR promotes biogas recovery projects, which generate renewable energy and other beneficial products from the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure and organic wastes while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector.

  6. Planets Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

  7. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  8. Tabby's Star (Illustration)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-04

    This illustration depicts a hypothetical uneven ring of dust orbiting KIC 8462852, also known as Boyajian's Star or Tabby's Star. Astronomers have found the dimming of the star over long periods appears to be weaker at longer infrared wavelengths of light and stronger at shorter ultraviolet wavelengths. Such reddening is characteristic of dust particles and inconsistent with more fanciful "alien megastructure" concepts, which would evenly dim all wavelengths of light. By studying observations from NASA's Spitzer and Swift telescopes, as well as the Belgian AstroLAB IRIS observatory, the researchers have been able to better constrain the size of the dust particles. This places them within the range found in dust disks orbiting stars, and larger than the particles typically found in interstellar dust. The system is portrayed with a couple of comets, consistent with previous studies that have found evidence for cometary activity within the system. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22081

  9. Winds from cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral observations of cool stars enable study of the presence and character of winds and the mass loss process in objects with effective temperatures, gravities, and atmospheric compositions which differ from that of the Sun. A wealth of recent spectroscopic measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer complement high resolution ground-based measures in the optical and infrared spectral regions. Such observations when combined with realistic semi-empirical atmospheric modeling allow us to estimate the physical conditions in the atmospheres and winds of many classes of cool stars. Line profiles support turbulent heating and mass motions. In low gravity stars, evidence is found for relatively fast (approximately 200 km s(exp -1)), warm winds with rapid acceleration occurring in the chromosphere. In some cases outflows commensurate with stellar escape velocities are present. Our current understanding of cool star winds will be reviewed including the implications of stellar observations for identification of atmospheric heating and acceleration processes.

  10. Guide star probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soneira, R. M.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities are calculated for acquiring suitable guide stars (GS) with the fine guidance system (FGS) of the space telescope. A number of the considerations and techniques described are also relevant for other space astronomy missions. The constraints of the FGS are reviewed. The available data on bright star densities are summarized and a previous error in the literature is corrected. Separate analytic and Monte Carlo calculations of the probabilities are described. A simulation of space telescope pointing is carried out using the Weistrop north galactic pole catalog of bright stars. Sufficient information is presented so that the probabilities of acquisition can be estimated as a function of position in the sky. The probability of acquiring suitable guide stars is greatly increased if the FGS can allow an appreciable difference between the (bright) primary GS limiting magnitude and the (fainter) secondary GS limiting magnitude.

  11. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  12. Corkscrew Structures and Precessing Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2005-07-01

    Collimated jets are one of the most intriguing, yet poorly understood phenomena in astrophysics. Jets have been found in a wide variety of object classes which include AGNs, YSOs, massive X-ray binaries {e.g. SS433}, black hole X-ray transients, symbiotic stars, supersoft X-ray sources, and finally, planetary and preplanetary nebulae {PNs & PPNs}. In the case of PNs and PPNs, we have propsoed that wobbling collimated jets are the universal mechanism which can shape the wide variety of bipolar and multipolar morphologies seen in these objects. Most of our knowledge of post-AGB jets is indirectly inferred from their effects on the circumstellar envelopes of the progenitor AGB stars and, for that reason, these jets remain very poorly understood. Thus the mechanism that powers and collimates these jet-like post-AGB outflows remains as one of the most important, unsolved issues in post-AGB evolution. We propose an archival study of two bipolar PPNs, motivated by two recent discoveries which indicate that precessing jets are likely to be operational in them, and that the properties of the jets and the bipolar lobes produced by them, may be directly measured. One of these is IRAS16342-3814 {IRAS1634}, previously imaged with WPFC2, in which new Adaptive Optics {AO} observations at near-IR wavelengths show a remarkable corkscrew-shaped structure, the tell-tale signature of a precessing jet. Inspection of WFPC2 images of another PPN, OH231.8+4.2 in which we have recently discovered a A-type companion to the central mass-losing star, shows a sinuous nebulosity in a broad-band continuum image, resembling a corkscrew structure. We will use the latter to constrain the phsyical properties of the jet {precession period, opening angle, jet beam diameter, temporal history} in OH231.8. Using the multi-wavelength data on both sources, we will build models of the density distribution of the lobes and their interiors. In the case of IRAS1634, these models will be used to investigate the

  13. Catch a Star 2008!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education have just launched the 2008 edition of 'Catch a Star', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its sixth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. CAS logo The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. In teams, students investigate an astronomical topic of their choice and write a report about it. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) or future telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) could contribute to investigations of the topic. Students may also include practical activities such as observations or experiments. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star' also offers an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. Last year, hundreds of students from across Europe and beyond took part in 'Catch a Star', submitting astronomical projects and artwork. "'Catch a Star' gets students thinking about the wonders of the Universe and the science of astronomy, with a chance of winning great prizes. It's easy to take part, whether by writing about astronomy or creating astronomically inspired artwork," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. As well as the top prize - a trip to ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile - visits to observatories in Austria and Spain, and many other prizes, can also be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners

  14. Sounds of a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  15. Chaotic Star Birth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Poster VersionClick on the image for IRAS 4B Inset

    Located 1,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Perseus, a reflection nebula called NGC 1333 epitomizes the beautiful chaos of a dense group of stars being born. Most of the visible light from the young stars in this region is obscured by the dense, dusty cloud in which they formed. With NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists can detect the infrared light from these objects. This allows a look through the dust to gain a more detailed understanding of how stars like our sun begin their lives.

    The young stars in NGC 1333 do not form a single cluster, but are split between two sub-groups. One group is to the north near the nebula shown as red in the image. The other group is south, where the features shown in yellow and green abound in the densest part of the natal gas cloud. With the sharp infrared eyes of Spitzer, scientists can detect and characterize the warm and dusty disks of material that surround forming stars. By looking for differences in the disk properties between the two subgroups, they hope to find hints of the star and planet formation history of this region.

    The knotty yellow-green features located in the lower portion of the image are glowing shock fronts where jets of material, spewed from extremely young embryonic stars, are plowing into the cold, dense gas nearby. The sheer number of separate jets that appear in this region is unprecedented. This leads scientists to believe that by stirring up the cold gas, the jets may contribute to the eventual dispersal of the gas cloud, preventing more stars from forming in NGC 1333.

    In contrast, the upper portion of the image is dominated by the infrared light from warm dust, shown as red.

  16. Recent highlights from STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Wangmei

    2018-02-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment takes advantage of its excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities at mid-rapidity to explore the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter created in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. The STAR collaboration presented 7 parallel and 2 plenary talks at Strangeness in Quark Matter 2017 and covered various topics including heavy flavor measurements, bulk observables, electro-magnetic probes and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  17. Star of Bethlehem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The biblical Star of Bethlehem, which heralded the birth of Jesus Christ, is only mentioned in the Gospel of St Matthew 2. The astrologically significant 7 bc triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in the constellation of Pisces is the most likely candidate, although a comet/nova in 5 bc and a comet in 4 bc cannot be ruled out. There is also the possibility that the star was simply fictitious....

  18. Bubbly Little Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this processed Spitzer Space Telescope image, baby star HH 46/47 can be seen blowing two massive 'bubbles.' The star is 1,140 light-years away from Earth.

    The infant star can be seen as a white spot toward the center of the Spitzer image. The two bubbles are shown as hollow elliptical shells of bluish-green material extending from the star. Wisps of green in the image reveal warm molecular hydrogen gas, while the bluish tints are formed by starlight scattered by surrounding dust.

    These bubbles formed when powerful jets of gas, traveling at 200 to 300 kilometers per second, or about 120 to 190 miles per second, smashed into the cosmic cloud of gas and dust that surrounds HH 46/47. The red specks at the end of each bubble show the presence of hot sulfur and iron gas where the star's narrow jets are currently crashing head-on into the cosmic cloud's gas and dust material.

    Whenever astronomers observe a star, or snap a stellar portrait, through the lens of any telescope, they know that what they are seeing is slightly blurred. To clear up the blurring in Spitzer images, astronomers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed an image processing technique for Spitzer called Hi-Res deconvolution.

    This process reduces blurring and makes the image sharper and cleaner, enabling astronomers to see the emissions around forming stars in greater detail. When scientists applied this image processing technique to the Spitzer image of HH 46/47, they were able to see winds from the star and jets of gas that are carving the celestial bubbles.

    This infrared image is a three-color composite, with data at 3.6 microns represented in blue, 4.5 and 5.8 microns shown in green, and 24 microns represented as red.

  19. Astro STARS Camp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-28

    Tom Nicolaides, an aerospace technologist in the Engineering & Test Directorate at Stennis Space Center, looks on as 2011 Astro STARS participants take turns gazing at the sun through a special telescope. The sun-gazing activity was part of the Astro STARS (Spaceflight, Technology, Astronomy & Robotics at Stennis) camp for 13-to-15-year-olds June 27 - July 1. The weeklong science and technology camp is held each year onsite at the rocket engine test facility.

  20. Mimetic compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, D.; Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Gholizade, H.; Myrzakulov, R.

    Modified gravity models have been constantly proposed with the purpose of evading some standard gravity shortcomings. Recently proposed by Chamseddine and Mukhanov, the Mimetic Gravity arises as an optimistic alternative. Our purpose in this work is to derive Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and solutions for such a gravity theory. We solve them numerically for quark star and neutron star cases. The results are carefully discussed.

  1. Multiplicity of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, Hans

    We review the multiplicity of massive stars by compiling the abstracts of the most relevant papers in the field. We start by discussing the massive stars in the Orion Trapezium Cluster and in other Galactic young clusters and OB associations, and end with the R136 cluster in the LMC. The multiplicity of field O-stars and runaway OB stars is also reviewed. The results of both visual and spectroscopic surveys are presented, as well as data for eclipsing systems. Among the latter, we find the most massive known binary system WR20a, with two ~,80M_⊙ components in a 3 day orbit. Some 80% of the wide visual binaries in stellar associations are in fact hierarchical triple systems, where typically the more massive of the binary components is itself a spectroscopic or even eclipsing binary pair. The multiplicity (number of companions) of massive star primaries is significantly higher than for low-mass solar-type primaries or for young low-mass T Tauri stars. There is also a striking preponderance of very close nearly equal mass binary systems (the origin of which has recently been explained in an accretion scenario). Finally, we offer a new idea as to the origin of massive Trapezium systems, frequently found in the centers of dense young clusters.

  2. Seeing Stars in Serpens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Infant stars are glowing gloriously in this infrared image of the Serpens star-forming region, captured by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The reddish-pink dots are baby stars deeply embedded in the cosmic cloud of gas and dust that collapsed to create it. A dusty disk of cosmic debris, or 'protoplanetary disk,' that may eventually form planets, surrounds the infant stars.

    Wisps of green throughout the image indicate the presence of carbon rich molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. On Earth, these molecules can be found on charred barbecue grills and in automobile exhaust. Blue specks sprinkled throughout the image are background stars in our Milky Way galaxy.

    The Serpens star-forming region is located approximately 848 light-years away in the Serpens constellation.

    The image is a three-channel, false-color composite, where emission at 4.5 microns is blue, emission at 8.0 microns is green, and 24 micron emission is red.

  3. Young Stars with SALT

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, Adric R.; Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members ofmore » moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups.« less

  4. A robust star identification algorithm with star shortlisting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Deval Samirbhai; Chen, Shoushun; Low, Kay Soon

    2018-05-01

    A star tracker provides the most accurate attitude solution in terms of arc seconds compared to the other existing attitude sensors. When no prior attitude information is available, it operates in "Lost-In-Space (LIS)" mode. Star pattern recognition, also known as star identification algorithm, forms the most crucial part of a star tracker in the LIS mode. Recognition reliability and speed are the two most important parameters of a star pattern recognition technique. In this paper, a novel star identification algorithm with star ID shortlisting is proposed. Firstly, the star IDs are shortlisted based on worst-case patch mismatch, and later stars are identified in the image by an initial match confirmed with a running sequential angular match technique. The proposed idea is tested on 16,200 simulated star images having magnitude uncertainty, noise stars, positional deviation, and varying size of the field of view. The proposed idea is also benchmarked with the state-of-the-art star pattern recognition techniques. Finally, the real-time performance of the proposed technique is tested on the 3104 real star images captured by a star tracker SST-20S currently mounted on a satellite. The proposed technique can achieve an identification accuracy of 98% and takes only 8.2 ms for identification on real images. Simulation and real-time results depict that the proposed technique is highly robust and achieves a high speed of identification suitable for actual space applications.

  5. An Introduction to the Sun and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Simon F.; Jones, Mark H.

    2015-02-01

    Introduction; 1. Seeing the Sun; 2. The working Sun; 3. Measuring stars; 4. Comparing stars; 5. The formation of stars; 6. The main sequence life of stars; 7. The life of stars beyond the main sequence; 8. The death of stars; 9. The remnants of stars; Conclusion; Answers and comments; Appendices; Glossary; Further reading; Acknowledgements; Figure references; Index.

  6. Models of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedjung, Michael

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important features of symbiotic stars is the coexistence of a cool spectral component that is apparently very similar to the spectrum of a cool giant, with at least one hot continuum, and emission lines from very different stages of ionization. The cool component dominates the infrared spectrum of S-type symbiotics; it tends to be veiled in this wavelength range by what appears to be excess emission in D-type symbiotics, this excess usually being attributed to circumstellar dust. The hot continuum (or continua) dominates the ultraviolet. X-rays have sometimes also been observed. Another important feature of symbiotic stars that needs to be explained is the variability. Different forms occur, some variability being periodic. This type of variability can, in a few cases, strongly suggest the presence of eclipses of a binary system. One of the most characteristic forms of variability is that characterizing the active phases. This basic form of variation is traditionally associated in the optical with the veiling of the cool spectrum and the disappearance of high-ionization emission lines, the latter progressively appearing (in classical cases, reappearing) later. Such spectral changes recall those of novae, but spectroscopic signatures of the high-ejection velocities observed for novae are not usually detected in symbiotic stars. However, the light curves of the 'symbiotic nova' subclass recall those of novae. We may also mention in this connection that radio observations (or, in a few cases, optical observations) of nebulae indicate ejection from symbiotic stars, with deviations from spherical symmetry. We shall give a historical overview of the proposed models for symbiotic stars and make a critical analysis in the light of the observations of symbiotic stars. We describe the empirical approach to models and use the observational data to diagnose the physical conditions in the symbiotics stars. Finally, we compare the results of this empirical

  7. Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Sander, Andreas; Todt, Helge

    Nearly 150 years ago, the French astronomers Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet described stars with very conspicuous spectra that are dominated by bright and broad emission lines. Meanwhile termed Wolf-Rayet Stars after their discoverers, those objects turned out to represent important stages in the life of massive stars. As the first conference in a long time that was specifically dedicated to Wolf-Rayet stars, an international workshop was held in Potsdam, Germany, from 1.-5. June 2015. About 100 participants, comprising most of the leading experts in the field as well as as many young scientists, gathered for one week of extensive scientific exchange and discussions. Considerable progress has been reported throughout, e.g. on finding such stars, modeling and analyzing their spectra, understanding their evolutionary context, and studying their circumstellar nebulae. While some major questions regarding Wolf-Rayet stars still remain open 150 years after their discovery, it is clear today that these objects are not just interesting stars as such, but also keystones in the evolution of galaxies. These proceedings summarize the talks and posters presented at the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet workshop. Moreover, they also include the questions, comments, and discussions emerging after each talk, thereby giving a rare overview not only about the research, but also about the current debates and unknowns in the field. The Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) included Alceste Bonanos (Athens), Paul Crowther (Sheffield), John Eldridge (Auckland), Wolf-Rainer Hamann (Potsdam, Chair), John Hillier (Pittsburgh), Claus Leitherer (Baltimore), Philip Massey (Flagstaff), George Meynet (Geneva), Tony Moffat (Montreal), Nicole St-Louis (Montreal), and Dany Vanbeveren (Brussels).

  8. The discovery of nonthermal radio emission from magnetic Bp-Ap stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Abbott, David C.; Bastian, T. S.; Bieging, J. H.; Churchwell, E.

    1987-01-01

    In a VLA survey of chemically peculiar B- and A-type stars with strong magnetic fields, five of the 34 stars observed have been identified as 6 cm continuum sources. Three of the detections are helium-strong early Bp stars (Sigma Ori E, HR 1890, and Delta Ori C), and two are helium weak, silicon-strong stars with spectral types near A0p (IQ Aur = HD 34452, Babcock's star = HD 215441). The 6 cm luminosities L6 (ergs/s Hz) range from log L6 = 16.2 to 17.9, somewhat less than the OB supergiants and W-R stars. Three-frequency observations indicate that the helium-strong Bp stars are variable nonthermal sources.

  9. Origin of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    1999-12-01

    The origin of the concept of neutron stars can be traced to two brief, incredibly insightful publications. Work on the earlier paper by Lev Landau (Phys. Z. Sowjetunion, 1, 285, 1932) actually predated the discovery of neutrons. Nonetheless, Landau arrived at the notion of a collapsed star with the density of a nucleus (really a "nucleus star") and demonstrated (at about the same time as, and independent of, Chandrasekhar) that there is an upper mass limit for dense stellar objects of about 1.5 solar masses. Perhaps even more remarkable is the abstract of a talk presented at the December 1933 meeting of the American Physical Society published by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in 1934 (Phys. Rev. 45, 138). It followed the discovery of the neutron by just over a year. Their report, which was about the same length as the present abstract: (1) invented the concept and word supernova; (2) suggested that cosmic rays are produced by supernovae; and (3) in the authors own words, proposed "with all reserve ... the view that supernovae represent the transitions from ordinary stars to neutron stars (italics), which in their final stages consist of extremely closely packed neutrons." The abstract by Baade and Zwicky probably contains the highest density of new, important (and correct) ideas in high energy astrophysics ever published in a single paper. In this talk, we will discuss some of the facts and myths surrounding these two publications.

  10. Circulation of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  11. The turbulent formation of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federrath, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    How stars are born from clouds of gas is a rich physics problem whose solution will inform our understanding of not just stars but also planets, galaxies, and the universe itself. Star formation is stupendously inefficient. Take the Milky Way. Our galaxy contains about a billion solar masses of fresh gas available to form stars-and yet it produces only one solar mass of new stars a year. Accounting for that inefficiency is one of the biggest challenges of modern astrophysics. Why should we care about star formation? Because the process powers the evolution of galaxies and sets the initial conditions for planet formation and thus, ultimately, for life.

  12. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  13. Blurred Star Image Processing for Star Sensors under Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weina; Quan, Wei; Guo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The precision of star point location is significant to identify the star map and to acquire the aircraft attitude for star sensors. Under dynamic conditions, star images are not only corrupted by various noises, but also blurred due to the angular rate of the star sensor. According to different angular rates under dynamic conditions, a novel method is proposed in this article, which includes a denoising method based on adaptive wavelet threshold and a restoration method based on the large angular rate. The adaptive threshold is adopted for denoising the star image when the angular rate is in the dynamic range. Then, the mathematical model of motion blur is deduced so as to restore the blurred star map due to large angular rate. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which is suitable for blurred star image processing and practical for attitude determination of satellites under dynamic conditions. PMID:22778666

  14. GRACE star camera noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  15. Collapse of axion stars

    DOE PAGES

    Eby, Joshua; Leembruggen, Madelyn; Suranyi, Peter; ...

    2016-12-15

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Here, heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present inmore » the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. In the last moments of collapse, the binding energy of the axion star grows rapidly, and we provide evidence that a large amount of its energy is lost through rapid emission of relativistic axions.« less

  16. Dynamical boson stars.

    PubMed

    Liebling, Steven L; Palenzuela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons , but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars . Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  17. Heavy Metal Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    La Silla Telescope Detects Lots of Lead in Three Distant Binaries Summary Very high abundances of the heavy element Lead have been discovered in three distant stars in the Milky Way Galaxy . This finding strongly supports the long-held view that roughly half of the stable elements heavier than Iron are produced in common stars during a phase towards the end of their life when they burn their Helium - the other half results from supernova explosions. All the Lead contained in each of the three stars weighs about as much as our Moon. The observations show that these "Lead stars" - all members of binary stellar systems - have been more enriched with Lead than with any other chemical element heavier than Iron. This new result is in excellent agreement with predictions by current stellar models about the build-up of heavy elements in stellar interiors. The new observations are reported by a team of Belgian and French astronomers [1] who used the Coude Echelle Spectrometer on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). PR Photo 26a/01 : A photo of HD 196944 , one of the "Lead stars". PR Photo 26b/01 : A CES spectrum of HD 196944 . The build-up of heavy elements Astronomers and physicists denote the build-up of heavier elements from lighter ones as " nucleosynthesis ". Only the very lightest elements (Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium [2]) were created at the time of the Big Bang and therefore present in the early universe. All the other heavier elements we now see around us were produced at a later time by nucleosynthesis inside stars. In those "element factories", nuclei of the lighter elements are smashed together whereby they become the nuclei of heavier ones - this process is known as nuclear fusion . In our Sun and similar stars, Hydrogen is being fused into Helium. At some stage, Helium is fused into Carbon, then Oxygen, etc. The fusion process requires positively charged nuclei to move very close to each other before they can unite. But with increasing

  18. Giant star seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekker, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2017-06-01

    The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.

  19. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  20. Really Hot Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this process bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the hot star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the hot Wolf-Rayet star BAT99

  1. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed

  2. Chemical Evolution of Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.

    2013-02-01

    Energy generation by nuclear fusion is the fundamental process that prevents stars from collapsing under their own gravity. Fusion in the core of a star converts hydrogen to heavier elements from helium to uranium. The signature of this nucleosynthesis is often visible in a single star only for a very short time, for example while the star is a red giant or, in massive stars, when it explodes. Contrarily, in a binary system nuclear-processed matter can captured by a secondary star which remains chemically polluted long after its more massive companion star has evolved and died. By probing old, low-mass stars we gain vital insight into the complex nucleosynthesis that occurred when our Galaxy was much younger than it is today. Stellar evolution itself is also affected by the presence of a companion star. Thermonuclear novae and type Ia supernovae result from mass transfer in binary stars, but big questions still surround the nature of their progenitors. Stars may even merge and one of the challenges for the future of stellar astrophysics is to quantitatively understand what happens in such extreme systems. Binary stars offer unique insights into stellar, galactic and extragalactic astrophysics through their plethora of exciting phenomena. Understanding the chemical evolution of binary stars is thus of high priority in modern astrophysics.

  3. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  4. Mesopotamian Star Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Wayne

    Sumerian and Akkadian names of stars and constellations occur in cuneiform texts for over 2,000 years, from the third millennium BC down to the death of cuneiform in the early first millennium AD, but no fully comprehensive list was ever compiled in antiquity. Lists of stars and constellations are available in both the lexical tradition and astronomical-astrological tradition of the cuneiform scribes. The longest list in the former is that in the series Urra = hubullu, in the latter, those in Mul-Apin.

  5. A Star on Earth

    ScienceCinema

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2018-02-14

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  6. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  7. NuSTAR Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-30

    Yunjin Kim, NuSTAR project manager at the Jet Propulsion Laborartory (JPL), talks about NASA's Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuStar) during a briefing, Wednesday, May 30, 2012, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Imaging light in the high-energy, short-wavelength X-ray range, the telescope will aim to study how black holes form and evolve along with galaxies. The instrument, packed aboard an Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is set to launch from a plane in midair no earlier than June 13 from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. VPP Star recognition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-09

    Stennis Space Center Deputy Director Rick Gilbrech (right) accepts a plaque designating the test facility as a Voluntary Protection Program Star site. Presenting the plaque is Clyde Payne, area director for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in Jackson, Miss. OSHA established VPP in 1982 as a proactive safety management model to recognize excellence in safety and health. Since then, more than 2,000 organizations have been designated VPP Star sites. To reach that goal, an organization must demonstrate comprehensive and successful safety and health management programs in the workplace.

  9. A Real Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

    This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

    The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

    As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

    Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

    Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira

  10. The Carbon Stars Adventure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Gioia; Paladini, C.; Hron, J.; Aringer, B.; Eriksson, K.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Nowotny, W.

    We compare in a systematic way spectrometric, photometric and mid-infrared (VLTI/MIDI) interferometric measurements with different types of model atmospheres. Self-consistent dynamic model atmospheres in particular were used to interpret in a consistent way the dynamic behavior of gas and dust. The results underline how the joint use of different kind of observations, as photometry, spectroscopy and interferometry, is essential to understand the atmospheres of pulsating C-rich AGB stars. The sample of C-rich stars discussed in this work provides crucial constraints for the atmospheric structure.

  11. The Drifting Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  12. Hidden Milky Way star clusters hosting Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtev, R.; Borissova, J.; Ivanov, V. D.; Georgiev, L.

    2009-05-01

    A noticeable fraction of the hidden young star clusters contain WR and O stars providing us with unique laboratories to study the evolution of these rare objects and their maternity places. We are reporting the reddening, the distance and age of two new members of the family of massive young Galactic clusters, hosting WR stars - Glimpse 23 and Glimpse 30.

  13. Dead Star Warps Light of Red Star Artist Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-04

    This artist concept depicts an ultra-dense dead star, called a white dwarf, passing in front of a small red star. NASA planet-hunting Kepler was able to detect gravitational lensing by measuring a strangely subtle dip in the star brightness.

  14. The Ages of A-Stars. I. Interferometric Observations and Age Estimates for Stars in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E.; Ireland, M.; Patience, J.; ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed and spatially resolved a set of seven A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group with the Classic, CLIMB, and PAVO beam combiners on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array. At least four of these stars have large rotational velocities (v{sin}i ≳ 170 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements, the stars’ observed photometric energy distributions, and v{sin}i values are used to computationally construct model oblate stars from which stellar properties (inclination, rotational velocity, and the radius and effective temperature as a function of latitude, etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine masses and ages. The value of this new technique is that it enables the estimation of the fundamental properties of rapidly rotating stars without the need to fully image the star. It can thus be applied to stars with sizes comparable to the interferometric resolution limit as opposed to those that are several times larger than the limit. Under the assumption of coevality, the spread in ages can be used as a test of both the prescription presented here and the MESA evolutionary code for rapidly rotating stars. With our validated technique, we combine these age estimates and determine the age of the moving group to be 414 ± 23 Myr, which is consistent with, but much more precise than previous estimates.

  15. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  16. The Death of a Star

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Kip S.

    1971-01-01

    Theories associated with the gravitational collapse of a star into black holes" are described. Suggests that the collapse and compression might go through the stages from white dwarf star to neutron core to black hole." (TS)

  17. Water Around a Carbon Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-01

    This ESA Herschel image shows IRC+10216, also known as CW Leonis, a star rich in carbon where astronomers were surprised to find water. This color-coded image shows the star, surrounded by a clumpy envelope of dust.

  18. Understand B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    When observations of B stars made from space are added to observations made from the ground and the total body of observational information is confronted with theoretical expectations about B stars, it is clear that nonthermal phenomena occur in the atmospheres of B stars. The nature of these phenomena and what they imply about the physical state of a B star and how a B star evolves are examined using knowledge of the spectrum of a B star as a key to obtaining an understanding of what a B star is like. Three approaches to modeling stellar structure (atmospheres) are considered, the characteristic properties of a mantle, and B stars and evolution are discussed.

  19. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  20. The Evolution of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. Josephine

    1993-04-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the nature of the carbon stars, unusual late-type stars in which the abundance of carbon in the photosphere is greater than that of oxygen. Data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey has shown that carbon stars which were identified from optical surveys and those identified from the SiC dust features in their IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer LRS spectra have different IRAS colours. The former (which will be referred to as visual carbon stars) are visually bright and have large excesses at 6 microns, while the latter group (which will be referred to as infrared carbon stars) have blackbody energy distributions. The origin of visual carbon stars has been discussed by Chan and Kwok (1988) based on the hypothesis of Willems and de Jong (1988). A complete sample of visual carbon stars detected by IRAS with 12 microns flux densities greater than 5 Jy was selected, and 207 LRS spectra were extracted for those sources without previous \\lrs data. Of these, 152 sources had new LRS spectra with reasonably good signal-to-noise ratio and 575 sources had previously released LRS spectra. All these spectra have been classified with the scheme of Volk and Cohen (1989). When the LRS spectra of these 727 IRAS CCGCS sources were examined, 15 were found to show the 9.7 microns silicate emission feature which is expected to occur only in an oxygen-rich circumstellar shell. Eight of these are reported for the first time in this dissertation. This group of visual carbon stars (hereafter called silicate carbon stars) may represent transition objects between oxygen-rich and carbon stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) because the photosphere is carbon-rich while the circumstellar material resembles that from a typical M-type star. A radiative transfer dust shell model for these silicate carbon stars is presented. The model spectra produce excellent fits to the observed energy distributions of these silicate carbon stars. The J

  1. Radio Emission from Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Stellar radio emission is most common in double star systems where each star provides something essential in producing the large amounts of radio radiation needed for it to be detectable by RADIO TELESCOPES. They transfer mass, supply energy or, when one of the stars is a NEUTRON STAR or BLACK HOLE, have the strong gravitational fields needed for the energetic particles and magnetic fields needed...

  2. Distances of Dwarf Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Subasavage, John P.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Canzian, Blaise J.; Levine, Stephen E.; Monet, Alice B.; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Stone, Ronald C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hartkopf, William I.

    2018-06-01

    Parallaxes are presented for a sample of 20 nearby dwarf carbon stars. The inferred luminosities cover almost two orders of magnitude. Their absolute magnitudes and tangential velocities confirm prior expectations that some originate in the Galactic disk, although more than half of this sample are halo stars. Three stars are found to be astrometric binaries, and orbital elements are determined; their semimajor axes are 1–3 au, consistent with the size of an AGB mass-transfer donor star.

  3. High-resolution abundance analysis of the metallic-line star HR 7250

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmaslı, Aslı; Ünal, Kübraözge; Çalışkan, Şeyma

    2018-07-01

    We estimated the stellar parameters and chemical abundances of the highly neglected A-type star HR 7250. The star's high resolution spectrum, spanning a wavelength range from 3900 to 7900 Å, was obtained at the TÜBİTAK National Observatory. We derived the abundances of 14 elements (O, Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, and Ba) for HR 7250 from the unblended lines of the star's spectrum. Our analysis shows that HR 7250 is a chemically peculiar Am star. We also estimated its age and mass as 400 ± 70 Myr and 3.25 ± 0.17 M⊙ from evolutionary tracks and isochrones.

  4. Trek to the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    "Star Trek", which was aired on television for three years, brought the creatures and conflicts of the "outer reaches" of space into our living rooms. Here its new episodes and reruns are analyzed by elementary students as part of a social studies/elementary science curriculum. (Author/RK)

  5. Millet's Shooting Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  6. NuStar

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) Chemical Assessment Summary U.S . Environmental Protection Agency National Center for Environmental Assessment This IRIS Summary has been removed from the IRIS database and is available for historical reference purposes . ( July 2016NuStar ; CASRN 85509 -

  7. The Astounding Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Angela; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studying about stellar constellations provides children with an opportunity to learn about ancient myths and mathematics at the same time. An interdisciplinary teaching unit combines information about myths associated with the zodiac signs and instructions for plotting the coordinates of stars. (PP)

  8. Sleeping under the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirkel, Jack

    Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson went on a camping trip. As they lay down for the night, Holmes said, “Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see.”Watson:“! see millions and millions of stars.”

  9. Housing Star Schools Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tushnet, Naida C.

    The Star Schools Program has funded projects to explore innovative educational applications of technology in distance education. Funded projects have applied a variety of technologies, including videodisks, compressed data transmission, fiber optic technology, and computer networks. Program evaluation is a mandated aspect of the program. This…

  10. Physics of the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, G. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how astrophysics can be a do-it-yourself project within a school boy's budget and background, by giving detailed instruction on equipment construction. In addition, this article describes many experiments to undertake, with the equipment, such as determining color temperature, star spectra, chemical composition and others. (BR)

  11. Reading Stars. 2013 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Literacy Trust's Premier League Reading Stars has now been running for 10 years. During this time, hundreds of thousands of children and families have been inspired by the power of football to develop a love of reading. Although the programme has grown and evolved over this period, the premise remains the same: harnessing the…

  12. Reaching for the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  13. StarLogo TNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfer, Eric; Scheintaub, Hal; Huang, Wendy; Wendel, Daniel

    Computational approaches to science are radically altering the nature of scientific investigatiogn. Yet these computer programs and simulations are sparsely used in science education, and when they are used, they are typically “canned” simulations which are black boxes to students. StarLogo The Next Generation (TNG) was developed to make programming of simulations more accessible for students and teachers. StarLogo TNG builds on the StarLogo tradition of agent-based modeling for students and teachers, with the added features of a graphical programming environment and a three-dimensional (3D) world. The graphical programming environment reduces the learning curve of programming, especially syntax. The 3D graphics make for a more immersive and engaging experience for students, including making it easy to design and program their own video games. Another change to StarLogo TNG is a fundamental restructuring of the virtual machine to make it more transparent. As a result of these changes, classroom use of TNG is expanding to new areas. This chapter is concluded with a description of field tests conducted in middle and high school science classes.

  14. Dusty Beginnings of a Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-23

    Are brown dwarfs born like stars, as in this rendering, or do they form like planets orbiting another star? A study by researchers using data from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has led to the preliminary conclusion that they are formed much like a star.

  15. The evolution of massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The hypotheses underlying theoretical studies of the evolution of massive model stars with and without mass loss are summarized. The evolutionary tracks followed by the models across theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams are compared with the observed distribution of B stars in an HR diagram. The pulsational properties of models of massive star are also described.

  16. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keek, L.

    2008-12-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one second the entire surface is burned, which is observable as a sharp rise in the emitted X-ray flux: a type I X-ray burst. Afterwards the neutron star surface cools down on a timescale of ten to one hundred seconds. During these bursts the surface of an accreting neutron star can be observed directly, which makes them instrumental for studying this type of stars. We have studied rare kinds of X-ray bursts. One such rare burst is the superburst, which lasts a thousand times longer than an ordinary burst. Superbursts are thought to result from the explosive burning of a thick carbon layer, which lies deeper inside the neutron star, close to a layer known as the crust. A prerequisite for the occurrence of a superburst is a high enough temperature, which is set by the temperature of the crust and the heat conductivity of the envelope. The latter is lowered by the presence of heavy elements that are produced during normal X-ray bursts. Using a large set of observations from the Wide Field Camera's onboard the BeppoSAX satellite, we find that, at high accretion rate, sources which do not exhibit normal bursts likely have a longer superburst recurrence time, than the observed superburst recurrence time of one burster. We analyze in detail the first superburst from a transient source, which went into outburst only 55 days before the superburst. Recent models of the neutron star crust predict that this is too small a time to heat the crust sufficiently for superburst ignition, indicating

  17. Do All O Stars Form in Star Clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, C.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    The question whether or not massive stars can form in isolation or only in star clusters is of great importance for the theory of (massive) star formation as well as for the stellar initial mass function of whole galaxies (IGIMF-theory). While a seemingly easy question it is rather difficult to answer. Several physical processes (e.g. star-loss due to stellar dynamics or gas expulsion) and observational limitations (e.g. dust obscuration of young clusters, resolution) pose severe challenges to answer this question. In this contribution we will present the current arguments in favour and against the idea that all O stars form in clusters.

  18. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in

  19. Hubble Finds Supernova Companion Star after Two Decades of Searching

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This is an artist's impression of supernova 1993J, an exploding star in the galaxy M81 whose light reached us 21 years ago. The supernova originated in a double-star system where one member was a massive star that exploded after siphoning most of its hydrogen envelope to its companion star. After two decades, astronomers have at last identified the blue helium-burning companion star, seen at the center of the expanding nebula of debris from the supernova. The Hubble Space Telescope identified the ultraviolet glow of the surviving companion embedded in the fading glow of the supernova. More info: Using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have discovered a companion star to a rare type of supernova. The discovery confirms a long-held theory that the supernova, dubbed SN 1993J, occurred inside what is called a binary system, where two interacting stars caused a cosmic explosion. "This is like a crime scene, and we finally identified the robber," said Alex Filippenko, professor of astronomy at University of California (UC) at Berkeley. "The companion star stole a bunch of hydrogen before the primary star exploded." SN 1993J is an example of a Type IIb supernova, unusual stellar explosions that contains much less hydrogen than found in a typical supernova. Astronomers believe the companion star took most of the hydrogen surrounding the exploding main star and continued to burn as a super-hot helium star. “A binary system is likely required to lose the majority of the primary star’s hydrogen envelope prior to the explosion. The problem is that, to date, direct observations of the predicted binary companion star have been difficult to obtain since it is so faint relative to the supernova itself,” said lead researcher Ori Fox of UC Berkeley. Read more: 1.usa.gov/1Az5Qb9 Credit: NASA, ESA, G. Bacon (STScI) NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar

  20. A Vanishing Star Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    VLT Observations of an Unusual Stellar System Reinhold Häfner of the Munich University Observatory (Germany) is a happy astronomer. In 1988, when he was working at a telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory, he came across a strange star that suddenly vanished off the computer screen. He had to wait for more than a decade to get the full explanation of this unusual event. On June 10-11, 1999, he observed the same star with the first VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope (ANTU) and the FORS1 astronomical instrument at Paranal [1]. With the vast power of this new research facility, he was now able to determine the physical properties of a very strange stellar system in which two planet-size stars orbit each other. One is an exceedingly hot white dwarf star , weighing half as much as the Sun, but only twice as big as the Earth. The other is a much cooler and less massive red dwarf star , one-and-a-half times the size of planet Jupiter. Once every three hours, the hot star disappears behind the other, as seen from the Earth. For a few minutes, the brightness of the system drops by a factor of more than 250 and it "vanishes" from view in telescopes smaller than the VLT. A variable star named NN Serpentis ESO PR Photo 30a/99 ESO PR Photo 30a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 468 pix - 152k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 936 pix - 576k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2304 x 2695 pix - 4.4M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 30a/99 : The sky field around the 17-mag variable stellar system NN Serpentis , as seen in a 5 sec exposure through a V(isual) filter with VLT ANTU and FORS1. It was obtained just before the observation of an eclipse of this unsual object and served to centre the telescope on the corresponding sky position. The field shown here measures 4.5 x 4.5 armin 2 (1365 x 1365 pix 2 ; 0.20 arcsec/pix). The field is somewhat larger than that shown in Photo 30b/99 and has the same orientation to allow comparison: North is about 20° anticlockwise from the top and East is 90° clockwise from that direction. The

  1. CEMP Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thidemann Hansen, Terese

    2018-06-01

    Exploration of the metal-poor stellar halo population of the Milky Way over the past decades has revealed a large number of stars strongly enhanced in carbon (CEMP stars). However, these stars are not as commonly detected in the dwarf galaxy satellites of the Milky Way (MW). The present-day satellites are thought to be similar to systems from which the MW and in particular its halo was formed via hierarchical mergers. I will present the results of abundance analysis for new samples of extremely metal-poor stars in Sculptor and Carina exploring the fraction of CEMP stars at low metallicity in these systems. I will also present the detailed abundance analyses of six CEMP stars detected in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Five of these stars also show enhancement in slow neutron-capture elements and can thus be classified as CEMP-s stars, while the most metal-poor star with [Fe/H]=-2.5 shows no such enhancement and belongs to the CEMP-no class. The detection of CEMP stars in dwarf galaxies supports the hierarchical assembly of the MW halo and by providing a birth environment, can help to further constrain the formation of these stars.

  2. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  3. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  4. Dead Star Rumbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite of Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A This Spitzer Space Telescope composite shows the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (white ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (gray, orange and blue). It consists of two processed images taken one year apart. Dust features that have not changed over time appear gray, while those that have changed are colored blue or orange. Blue represents an earlier time and orange, a later time.

    These observations illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago.

    Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia.

    An infrared echo is created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. This apparent motion can be seen here by the shift in colored dust clumps.

    Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars.

    This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons.

    Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen.

    The earlier Spitzer image was taken on November 30

  5. Flattest Star Ever Seen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    VLT Interferometer Measurements of Achernar Challenge Stellar Theory Summary To a first approximation, planets and stars are round. Think of the Earth we live on. Think of the Sun, the nearest star, and how it looks in the sky. But if you think more about it, you realize that this is not completely true. Due to its daily rotation, the solid Earth is slightly flattened ("oblate") - its equatorial radius is some 21 km (0.3%) larger than the polar one. Stars are enormous gaseous spheres and some of them are known to rotate quite fast, much faster than the Earth. This would obviously cause such stars to become flattened. But how flat? Recent observations with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the ESO Paranal Observatory have allowed a group of astronomers [1] to obtain by far the most detailed view of the general shape of a fast-spinning hot star, Achernar (Alpha Eridani) , the brightest in the southern constellation Eridanus (The River). They find that Achernar is much flatter than expected - its equatorial radius is more than 50% larger than the polar one! In other words, this star is shaped very much like the well-known spinning-top toy, so popular among young children. The high degree of flattening measured for Achernar - a first in observational astrophysics - now poses an unprecedented challenge for theoretical astrophysics . The effect cannot be reproduced by common models of stellar interiors unless certain phenomena are incorporated, e.g. meridional circulation on the surface ("north-south streams") and non-uniform rotation at different depths inside the star. As this example shows, interferometric techniques will ultimately provide very detailed information about the shapes, surface conditions and interior structure of stars . PR Photo 15a/03 : The VLT Interferometer configuration for the Achernar measurements PR Photo 15b/03 : Achernar's "profile" , as measured by the VLTI. PR Photo 15c/03 : Models of Achernar's spatial shape. VLTI observations of Achernar

  6. Wink of a Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-19

    NASA's New Horizons team trained mobile telescopes on an unnamed star (circled) from a remote area of Argentina on July 17, 2017. A Kuiper Belt object 4.1 billion miles from Earth -- known as 2014 MU69 -- briefly blocked the light from the background star, in what's known as an occultation. The time difference between frames is 200 milliseconds, or 0.2 seconds. This data will help scientists better measure the shape, size and environment around the object. The New Horizons spacecraft will fly by this ancient relic of solar system formation on Jan. 1, 2019. It will be the most distant object ever explored by a spacecraft. A video is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21865

  7. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  8. Interacting Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieles, M.

    2013-06-01

    The early evolution of star cluster formation is a complicated phase in which several astrophysical processes with different time-scales operate simultaneously. From kinematical data of the young massive cluster R136 it was recently found that the cluster is in virial equilibrium; despite its young age it has already settled in a dynamical equilibrium. Somewhat surprisigly, about a quarter of the (kinetic) energy is in a rotational component. From HST observations of R136 a small clump of stars to the North-East of R136 was found, with indications that this clump is interacting/merging with R136. In this talk I will discuss whether these two observational results should be connected, i.e. whether the rotation signal is due to an ongoing "dry" interaction. The results are illustrated with a suite of N-body simulations of R136 like systems.

  9. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

    Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old.

    The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at

    http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope.

    The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars.

    Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the

  10. Digital Imaging Star Camera

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    NRL Code 8221) is the Lead Thermal Engineer for heater and blanket design for the mission. WORK COMPLETED The program developed a briefing...development of such science-enabling technology is critical for space-flight mission on small spacecraft , such as CubeSats, that cannot afford the mass, power...critical for space-flight mission on small spacecraft , such as CubeSats, that cannot afford the mass, power or cost of traditional star trackers but

  11. RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Bryan L.; Stewart, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design functionality. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this exploratory archival study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateralfull-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions and their occurrence rates. Full-lateral adherence was generally greater than Full-lateralfull-vertical, but the difference between the rates was not always consistent. Full-lateralfull-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0 in KDEN (Denver) to 21 in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0 to nearly 100 for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  12. Astro STARS Camp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-15

    Summer is a time of educational activity at Stennis Space Center. In June 2012, 25 young people age 13-15 attended the annual Astro STARS (Spaceflight, Technology, Astronomy and Robotics at Stennis) camp at the rocket engine test facility. During the five-day camp, participants engaged in hands-on experiences in a variety of areas, including engineering and robotics. On the final day, campers launched model rockets they had assembled.

  13. Star-triangle and star-star relations in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.J.

    1997-01-20

    The homogeneous three-layer Zamolodchikov model is equivalent to a four-state model on the checkerboard lattice which closely resembles the four-state critical Potts model, but with some of its Boltzmann weights negated. Here the author shows that it satisfies a star-to-reverse-star (or simply star-star) relation, even though they know of no star-triangle relation for this model. For any nearest-neighbor checkerboard model, they show that this star-star relation is sufficient to ensure that the decimated model (where half the spins have been summed over) satisfies a twisted Yang-Baxter relation. This ensures that the transfer matrices of the original model commute in pairs,more » which is an adequate condition for solvability.« less

  14. Wish Upon a Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-05

    What's that bright point of light in the outer A ring? It's a star, bright enough to be visible through the ring! Quick, make a wish! This star -- seen in the lower right quadrant of the image -- was not captured by coincidence, it was part of a stellar occultation. By monitoring the brightness of stars as they pass behind the rings, scientists using this powerful observation technique can inspect detailed structures within the rings and how they vary with location. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 44 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Oct. 8, 2013. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from the rings and at a Sun-Rings-Spacecraft, or phase, angle of 96 degrees. Image scale is 6.8 miles (11 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18297

  15. RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Michael J.; Matthews, Bryan L.

    2017-01-01

    In this exploratory archival study we mined the performance of 24 major US airports area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs) over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We investigated STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed altitudes and their frequencies of occurrence for altitude restrictions. Full-lateral compliance was generally greater than Full-lateral/full-vertical, but the delta between the rates was not always consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical usage medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0 in KDEN (Denver) to 21 in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0 to nearly 100 for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systemic amounts in 1000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This work is a preliminary investigation into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track how procedural concepts and design intervention function. In addition, this tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  16. Spheroidal Populated Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    2008-10-01

    Globular clusters and low-ellipticity early-type galaxies can be treated as systems populated by a large number of stars and whose structures can be schematized as spherically symmetric. Their studies profit from the synthesis of stellar populations. The computation of synthetic models makes use of various contributions from star evolution and stellar dynamics. In the first sections of the paper we present a short review of our results on the occurrence of galactic winds in star systems ranging from globular clusters to elliptical galaxies, and the dynamical evolution of a typical massive globular cluster. In the subsequent sections we describe our approach to the problem of the stellar populations in elliptical galaxies. The projected radial behaviours of spectro-photometric indices for a sample of eleven galaxies are compared with preliminary model results. The best agreement between observation and theory shows that our galaxies share a certain degree of heterogeneity. The gas energy dissipation varies from moderate to large, the metal yield ranges from solar to significantly oversolar, the dispersion of velocities is isotropic in most of the cases and anisotropic in the remaining instances.

  17. Be Stars in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Matthew L.; Wisniewski, John; Choi, Yumi; Williams, Ben; Lomax, Jamie; Bjorkman, Karen; Durbin, Meredith; Johnson, Lent Cliff; Lewis, Alexia; Lutz, Julie; Sigut, Aaron; Wallach, Aislynn; Dalcanton, Julianne

    2018-01-01

    We identify Be candidate stars in M31 using two-epoch F625W + F658N photometry from HST/ACS+WFC3 combined with the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) Catalog. Using the PHAT catalog allows us to extract stellar parameters such as surface temperature and gravity, thereby allowing us to identify the main sequence B type stars in the field of view. Be candidate stars are identified by comparing their HST narrow-band Hα excess magnitudes with that predicted by Kurucz spectra. We find 314 Be candidate stars out of 5699 B + Be candidate stars (5.51%) in our first epoch and 301 Be candidate stars out of 5769 B + Be candidate stars (5.22%) in our second epoch. Our Be fraction, while lower than that of the SMC, LMC, and MW, is possibly consistent with the fact the M31 has a higher metallicity than the other galaxies because Be fraction varies inversely with metallicity. We note that earlier spectral types have the largest Be fraction, and that the Be fraction strictly declines as the spectral type increases to later types. We then match our Be candidate stars with clusters, establishing that 39 of 314 are cluster stars in epoch one and 36 of 301 stars are cluster stars in epoch two. We assign ages, using the cluster age to characterize cluster Be candidate stars and star formation histories to characterize field Be candidate stars. Finally, we determine which Be candidate stars exhibited disk loss or disk growth between epochs, finding that, of the Be stars that did not show source confusion or low SNR in one of the epochs, 65 / 265 (24.5%) showed disk loss or renewal, while 200 / 265 (75.5%) showed only small changes in Hα excess. Our research provides context for the parameters of candidate Be stars in M31, which will be useful in further determining the nature of Be stars. This paper was supported by a grant from STScI via GO-13857.

  18. The binarity of Galactic dwarf stars along with effective temperature and metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuang; Zhao, He; Yang, Hang; Gao, Ran

    2017-07-01

    The fraction of binary stars fb is one of most valuable tools to probe the star formation and evolution of multiple systems in the Galaxy. We focus on the relationship between fb and stellar metallicity [Fe/H] by employing the differential radial velocity (DRV) method and the large sample observed by the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). Main-sequence stars from A- to K-type in the third data release of LAMOST are selected to estimate fb. Contributions to a profile of DRV from the radial velocity (RV) error of single stars σRV and the orbital motion of binary stars are evaluated from the DRV profile. We employ 365 911 stars with randomly repeating spectral observations to present a detailed analysis of fb and σRV in the two-dimensional space of Teff and [Fe/H]. The A-type stars are more likely to be companions in binary star systems than other stars. Furthermore, the reverse correlation between fb and [Fe/H] can be shown statistically, which suggests that fb is a joint function of Teff and [Fe/H]. At the same time, σRV of the sample are fitted for different Teff and [Fe/H]. Metal-rich cold stars in our sample have the best RV measurement.

  19. THE TWO CENTRAL STARS OF NGC 1514: CAN THEY ACTUALLY BE RELATED?

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez, Roberto H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Urbaneja, Miguel A., E-mail: mendez@ifa.hawaii.edu

    The central star of the planetary nebula NGC 1514 is among the visually brightest central stars in the sky ( V = 9.5). It has long been known to show a composite spectrum, consisting of an A-type star and a much hotter star responsible for the ionization of the surrounding nebula. These two stars have always been assumed to form a binary system. High-resolution spectrograms obtained with Espadons at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope on Maunakea have allowed us to measure good radial velocities for both stars: they differ by 13 ± 2 km s{sup −1}. The stellar velocities were unchanged aftermore » 500 days. We have also estimated the metallicity of the cooler star. Combining these data with other information available in the literature, we conclude that, unless all the published nebular radial velocities are systematically wrong, the cooler star is just a chance alignment, and the two stars are not orbiting each other. The cooler star cannot have played any role in the formation of NGC 1514.« less

  20. A new family of magnetic stars: the Am stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.

    2016-12-01

    We presented the discovery of an ultra-weak field in three Am stars, β UMa, θ Leo, and Alhena, thanks to ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations. Two of the three stars of this study shown peculiar magnetic signatures with prominent positive lobes like the one of Sirius A that are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. Alhena, contrary to Sirius A, β UMa and θ Leo, show normal signatures. These detections of ultra-weak fields in Am stars suggest the existence of a new family of magnetic intermediate-mass stars: the Am stars. However the various shapes of the signatures required further observation to identify the physical processes at work in these stars. A preliminary explanation is based on microturbulence.

  1. Young Star Clusters: Keys to Understanding Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B.

    2012-12-01

    Young, coeval clusters of stars provide the perfect laboratory in which to test our understanding of how massive stars evolve. Early optical observations limited us to a handful of low-mass clusters within 1kpc. However, thanks to the recent progress in infrared astronomy, the Milky Way's population of young massive star clusters is now beginning to be revealed. Here, I will review the recent progress made in this field, what it has told us about the evolution of massive stars to supernova and beyond, the prospects for this field, and some issues that should be taken into account when interpreting the results.

  2. Star centroiding error compensation for intensified star sensors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Xiong, Kun; Yu, Wenbo; Yan, Jinyun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-12-26

    A star sensor provides high-precision attitude information by capturing a stellar image; however, the traditional star sensor has poor dynamic performance, which is attributed to its low sensitivity. Regarding the intensified star sensor, the image intensifier is utilized to improve the sensitivity, thereby further improving the dynamic performance of the star sensor. However, the introduction of image intensifier results in star centroiding accuracy decrease, further influencing the attitude measurement precision of the star sensor. A star centroiding error compensation method for intensified star sensors is proposed in this paper to reduce the influences. First, the imaging model of the intensified detector, which includes the deformation parameter of the optical fiber panel, is established based on the orthographic projection through the analysis of errors introduced by the image intensifier. Thereafter, the position errors at the target points based on the model are obtained by using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization method. Last, the nearest trigonometric interpolation method is presented to compensate for the arbitrary centroiding error of the image plane. Laboratory calibration result and night sky experiment result show that the compensation method effectively eliminates the error introduced by the image intensifier, thus remarkably improving the precision of the intensified star sensors.

  3. Hardy Star Survives Supernova Blast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    This composite image contains data from Chandra (purple) that provides evidence for the survival of a companion star from the blast of a supernova explosion. Chandra's X-rays reveal a point-like source in the supernova remnant at the location of a massive star. The data suggest that mass is being pulled away from the massive star towards a neutron star or a black hole companion. If confirmed, this would be only the third binary system containing both a massive star and a neutron star or black hole ever found in the aftermath of a supernova. This supernova remnant is found embedded in clouds of ionized hydrogen, which are shown in optical light (yellow and cyan) from the MCELS survey, along with additional optical data from the DSS (white).

  4. The physics of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, J M; Prakash, M

    2004-04-23

    Neutron stars are some of the densest manifestations of massive objects in the universe. They are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of dense matter physics and provide connections among nuclear physics, particle physics, and astrophysics. Neutron stars may exhibit conditions and phenomena not observed elsewhere, such as hyperon-dominated matter, deconfined quark matter, superfluidity and superconductivity with critical temperatures near 10(10) kelvin, opaqueness to neutrinos, and magnetic fields in excess of 10(13) Gauss. Here, we describe the formation, structure, internal composition, and evolution of neutron stars. Observations that include studies of pulsars in binary systems, thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, glitches from pulsars, and quasi-periodic oscillations from accreting neutron stars provide information about neutron star masses, radii, temperatures, ages, and internal compositions.

  5. Strange Stars, Neutron Stars and Pulsar Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha conjeturado que una partlecula de dieciocho quarks, sin Carga, sin espi'n y sin colar (quark-alfa) podri'a ser estable a ba5as tern peraturas y presiones aiTh COfl respecto a materia extrafla. Presentamos en este trabajo la estmctura de estrellas extraflas incluyendo los efectos y apariencia de parti'culas uark-alfa en las capas exteriores. La estruc tura interna ya no es hoinogenea del centro a la superficie, sino que muestra un centro de materia extrafla, capas s6lidas y una costra delgada de materia normal en la superficie. La superficie de materia nonnal permite la fornaci6n de una magnetosfera, la que se piensa sea el sitlo en donde ocurre la emisi6n del pulsar. La superficie de superflui'do ayuda a explicar el fen6rneno de `glitch', el cual ba sido observado en muchos pulsares. Se discute la ecuaci6n de estado para rnateria quark-alfa relevante en este regimen. ABSTIZACT:It has been conjectured that an quark, uncharged, spinless and colorless particle Cquark-alpha) could be stable at low pressures and temperatures even with respect to strange matter. We present in work tlie structure of stars including the effects of the appearance of quark-alpi' particles ii their outer layers. The internal structure is no longer from tlie center to the surface, but show a strange matter core, a solid and superfluid layers and a thin crust of normal matter at the surface. The normal matter surface allows tlie fon tion of a magnetosphere, whicl is to be tl place where pulsar emission occurs. A superfluid layer helps to explain tlie glitch , wlflch has been observed in . equation of state for quark-alpha matter relevant in regime is also discussed. Keq LA)OtL : ARY S - OF STATF - ?.ACT

  6. Variable Star Observing in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizser, Attila

    1986-12-01

    Astronomy and variable star observing has a long history in Hungary, dating back to the private observatories erected by the Hungarian nobility in the late 19th Century. The first organized network of amateur variable star observers, the Variable Star Section of the new Hungarian Astronomical Association, was organized around the Urania Observatory in Budapest in 1948. Other groups, dedicated to various types of variables, have since been organized.

  7. Space Science in Action: Stars [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording shows students the many ways scientists look at the stars and how they can use what they see to answer questions such as What are stars made of?, How far away are they?, and How old are the stars? Students learn about the life span of stars and the various stages they pass through from protostar to main sequence star to…

  8. QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

  9. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the-loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 deg each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is two to eight visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arcsec. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arcsec and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arcsec. The purpose of this paper is to describe the IPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  10. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  11. Rotation of Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  12. Contact binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet and X-ray surveys of the W Ursae Majoris type stars are reviewed. These systems exhibit extended coronas and transition regions that are confined close to the optically determined surfaces. Correlations of X-ray activity with period or rotational velocity indicate a turn-over or saturation of emission at the short periods or high velocities found in the W UMa-type systems. For a number of systems, ultraviolet emission appears to be anti-correlated with the strength of X-ray emission. These observations are discussed in terms of solar structures, activity, and evolution.

  13. Chemistry between the stars.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M

    1987-01-01

    Life--as we know it--is a chemical process, based on water and carbon compounds. Complex organic molecules are made primarily from the biogenic elements--carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur--that formed deep within massive ancient stars. How did these elements travel from their stellar birthplaces across time and space to make up the life-form that is reading these words? In this article, we'll take a look at the chemical processes that set the stage for the origin of life.

  14. Finding the Onset of Convection in Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the work performed under this grant was to locate, if possible, the onset of subphotospheric convection zones in normal main sequence stars by using the presence of emission in high temperature lines in far ultraviolet spectra from the FUSE spacecraft as a proxy for convection. The change in stellar structure represented by this boundary between radiative and convective stars has always been difficult to find by other empirical means. A search was conducted through observations of a sample of A-type stars, which were somewhat hotter and more massive than the Sun, and which were carefully chosen to bridge the theoretically expected radiative/convective boundary line along the main sequence.

  15. Photometry of Standard Stars and Open Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferies, Amanda; Frinchaboy, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Photometric CCD observations of open star clusters and standard stars were carried out at the McDonald Observatory in Fort Davis, Texas. This data was analyzed using aperture photometry algorithms (DAOPHOT II and ALLSTAR) and the IRAF software package. Color-magnitude diagrams of these clusters were produced, showing the evolution of each cluster along the main sequence.

  16. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed towardmore » core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.« less

  17. WNL Stars - the Most Massive Stars in the Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Olivier; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; St-Louis, Nicole; Skalkowski, Gwenael; Niemela, Virpi; Shara, Michael M.

    2001-08-01

    We propose to carry out an intensive and complete time-dependent spectroscopic study of all 47 known WNL stars in the LMC, an ideal laboratory to study the effect of lower ambient metallicity, Z, on stellar evolution. WNL stars are luminous, cooler WR stars of the nitrogen sequence. This will allow us to: 1) determine the binary frequency. The Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) mechanism in close binaries is predicted to be responsible for the formation of a significant fraction of WR stars in low Z environments such as the LMC. 2) determine the masses. Since some of these stars (denoted WNL(h) or WNLh) are supposed to be hydrogen-burning and thus main-sequence stellar objects of the highest luminosity, they may be the most massive stars known. 3) study wind-wind collision (WWC) effects in WR+O binaries involving very luminous WNL stars with strong winds. Interesting in itself as a high-energy phenomenon, WWC is in competition with conservative RLOF (i.e. mass transfer to the secondary star), and therefore has to be taken into account in this context.

  18. WNLh Stars - The Most Massive Stars in the Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Olivier; St-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Foellmi, Cedric

    2002-08-01

    We propose to conclude our intensive and complete time-dependent spectroscopic study of all 47 known WNL stars in the LMC, an ideal laboratory to study the effect of lower ambient metallicity, Z, on stellar evolution. WNL stars are luminous, cooler WR stars of the nitrogen sequence. This will allow us to: 1) determine the binary frequency. The Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) mechanism in close binaries is predicted to be responsible for the formation of a significant fraction of WR stars in low Z environments such as the LMC. 2) determine the masses. Since some of these stars (denoted WNL(h) or WNLh) are supposed to be hydrogen-burning and thus main-sequence stellar objects of the highest luminosity, they may be the most massive stars known. 3) study wind-wind collision (WWC) effects in WR+O binaries involving very luminous WNL stars with strong winds. Interesting in itself as a high-energy phenomenon, WWC is in competition with conservative RLOF (i.e. mass transfer to the secondary star), and therefore has to be taken into account in this context.

  19. I-Love relations for incompressible stars and realistic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. K.; Chan, AtMa P. O.; Leung, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    In spite of the diversity in the equations of state of nuclear matter, the recently discovered I-Love-Q relations [Yagi and Yunes, Science 341, 365 (2013), 10.1126/science.1236462], which relate the moment of inertia, tidal Love number (deformability), and the spin-induced quadrupole moment of compact stars, hold for various kinds of realistic neutron stars and quark stars. While the physical origin of such universality is still a current issue, the observation that the I-Love-Q relations of incompressible stars can well approximate those of realistic compact stars hints at a new direction to approach the problem. In this paper, by establishing recursive post-Minkowskian expansion for the moment of inertia and the tidal deformability of incompressible stars, we analytically derive the I-Love relation for incompressible stars and show that the so-obtained formula can be used to accurately predict the behavior of realistic compact stars from the Newtonian limit to the maximum mass limit.

  20. Stars For Citizens With Urban Star Parks and Lighting Specialists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-08-01

    General contextOne hundred years ago, almost nobody imagine a life without stars every night even in the urban areas. Now, to see a starry sky is a special event for urban citizens.It is possible to see the stars even inside cities? Yes, but for that we need star parks and lighting specialists as partners.Educational aspectThe citizens must be able to identify the planets, constellations and other celestial objects in their urban residence. This is part of a basic education. The number of the people living in the urban area who never see the main constellations or important stars increase every year. We must do something for our urban community.What is an urban star park?An urban public park where we can see the main constellations can be considered an urban star park. There can be organized a lot of activities as practical lessons of astronomy, star parties, etc.Classification of the urban star parksA proposal for classification of the urban star parks taking in consideration the quality of the sky and the number of the city inhabitants:Two categories:- city star parks for cities with < 100.000 inhabitants- metropolis star parks for cities with > 100.000 inhabitantsFive levels of quality:- 1* level = can see stars of at least 1 magnitude with the naked eyes- 2* level = at least 2 mag- 3* level = at least 3 mag- 4* level= at least 4 mag- 5* level = at least 5 magThe urban star urban park structure and lighting systemA possible structure of a urban star park and sky-friend lighting including non-electric illumination are descripted.The International Commission on IlluminationA description of this structure which has as members national commissions from all over the world.Dark-sky activists - lighting specialistsNational Commissions on Illumination organize courses of lighting specialist. Dark-sky activists can become lighting specialists. The author shows his experience in this aspect as a recent lighting specialist and his cooperation with the Romanian National

  1. A home for old stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-14

    This image, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows the globular cluster Terzan 1. Lying around 20 000 light-years from us in the constellation of Scorpius (The Scorpion), it is one of about 150 globular clusters belonging to our galaxy, the Milky Way. Typical globular clusters are collections of around a hundred thousand stars, held together by their mutual gravitational attraction in a spherical shape a few hundred light-years across. It is thought that every galaxy has a population of globular clusters. Some, like the Milky Way, have a few hundred, while giant elliptical galaxies can have several thousand. They contain some of the oldest stars in a galaxy, hence the reddish colours of the stars in this image — the bright blue ones are foreground stars, not part of the cluster. The ages of the stars in the globular cluster tell us that they were formed during the early stages of galaxy formation! Studying them can also help us to understand how galaxies formed. Terzan 1, like many globular clusters, is a source of X-rays. It is likely that these X-rays come from binary star systems that contain a dense neutron star and a normal star. The neutron star drags material from the companion star, causing a burst of X-ray emission. The system then enters a quiescent phase in which the neutron star cools, giving off X-ray emission with different characteristics, before enough material from the companion builds up to trigger another outburst.

  2. Stars and Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    'Estrelas e Planetas' (Stars and Planets) project was developed during the academic year 2009/2010 and was tested on three 3rd grade classes of one school in Quarteira, Portugal. The aim was to encourage the learning of science and the natural and physical phenomena through the construction and manipulation of materials that promote these themes - in this case astronomy. Throughout the project the students built a small book containing three themes of astronomy: differences between stars and planets, the solar system and the phases of the Moon. To each topic was devoted two sessions of about an hour each: the first to teach the theoretical aspects of the theme and the second session to assembly two pages of the book. All materials used (for theoretical sessions and for the construction of the book) and videos of the finished book are available for free use in www.miguelneta.pt/estrelaseplanetas. So far there is only a Portuguese version but soon will be published in English as well. This project won the Excellency Prize 2011 of Casa das Ciências, a portuguese site for teachers supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Fundation (www.casadasciencias.org).

  3. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  4. The Stars of Heaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    2004-05-01

    Do a little armchair space travel, rub elbows with alien life forms, and stretch your mind to the furthest corners of our uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, you don't have to be an astronomer to explore the mysteries of stars and their profound meaning for human existence. Clifford A. Pickover tackles a range of topics from stellar evolution to the fundamental reasons why the universe permits life to flourish. He alternates sections that explain the mysteries of the cosmos with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialog between futuristic humans and their alien peers (who embark on a journey beyond the reader's wildest imagination). This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers. Told in Pickover's inimitable blend of fascinating state-of-the-art science and whimsical science fiction, and packed with numerous diagrams and illustrations, The Stars of Heaven unfolds a world of paradox and mystery, one that will intrigue anyone who has ever pondered the night sky with wonder.

  5. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as

  6. Chemical Composition of Galactic Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T. V.; Basak, N. Yu.; Gorbaneva, T. I.; Soubiran, C.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

    Abundances of Na, Al, Ca, in the stars of galactic disks are obtained. The separation of thin and stars on cinematic criterion was made early. The behavior of chemical element abundances with metallicity for studied stars was presented.

  7. A Star on the Run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Usually stars that are born together tend to move together but sometimes stars can go rogue and run away from their original birthplace. A pair of astronomers have now discovered the first runaway red supergiant (RSG) ever identified in another galaxy. With a radial velocity discrepancy of 300 km/s, its also the fastest runaway massive star known. Discrepant Speeds: When massive stars form in giant molecular clouds, they create what are known as OB associations: groups of hot, massive, short-lived stars that have similar velocities because theyre moving through space together. But sometimes stars that appear to be part of an OB association dont have the same velocity as the rest of the group. These stars are called runaways.What causes an OB star to run away is still debated, but we know that a fairly significant fraction of OB stars are runaways. In spite of this, surprisingly few runaways have been found that are evolved massive stars i.e., the post-main-sequence state of OB stars. This is presumably because these evolved stars have had more time to move away from their birthplace, and its more difficult to identify a runaway without the context of its original group. An Evolved Runaway: Difference between observed velocity and expected velocity, plotted as a function of expected velocity. The black points are foreground stars. The red points are expected RSGs, clustered around a velocity difference of zero. The green pentagon is the runaway RSG J004330.06+405258.4. [Evans Massey 2015]Despite this challenge, a recent survey of RSGs in the galaxy M31 has led to the detection of a massive star on the run! Kate Evans (Lowell Observatory and California Institute of Technology) and Philip Massey (Lowell Observatory and Northern Arizona University) discovered that RSG J004330.06+405258.4 is moving through the Andromeda Galaxy with a radial velocity thats off by about 300 km/s from the radial velocity expected for its location.Evans and Massey discovered this rogue star

  8. The circumstellar environments of dusty main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrim, Antonio S. Hales

    Our current understanding of the formation of planetary systems is strongly linked to astronomical observations of gas and dust around young stars. This thesis is dedicated to studying the physical conditions acting in the circumstellar environments of pre-main sequence and early main sequence dusty stars. These early stellar ages correspond to the timescales over which planets are thought to be formed. The first part of this work is dedicated to a search for dusty early A-type stars in the northern galactic plane. Data from the IPHAS Ha survey is first used to select a sample of galactic A-type stars. This sample is then correlated with data from the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to search for 8 microns and 24 microns excesses associated with warm dust orbiting the stars. The improved photometric sensitivities of these new galactic surveys allow the list of known galactic 'Vega-like' sources to be extended to unexplored optical magnitude ranges (13.5 < r < 18.5 mags). Only 1.1% of a sample of 3062 A-type stars with available optical to mid-infrared spectral energy distributions showed detectable excesses at 8 microns. Searching over 1860 stars observed at 24 microns yielded similar statistical results (1.2%). Only 10 stars have both 8 and 24 micron excesses. These results support the idea that warm dust located relatively close to the stars is rare in main sequence systems. Follow-up observations of this new sample of dust-excess stars will provide better insights into the properties of the systems. Resolved images are crucial for understanding the dynamics and evolution of proto-planetary disks. Observing the detailed disk structure requires high-contrast, high-spatial resolution imaging very close to the bright central star. As a consequence, only a handful of these systems have yet been resolved. The second part of this work shows how near-infrared Polarimetric Imaging on the 3.8 meter United Kingdom Infrared Telescope can be used to obtain reflected

  9. Stars get dizzy after lunch

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Michael; Penev, Kaloyan

    2014-06-01

    Exoplanet searches have discovered a large number of {sup h}ot Jupiters{sup —}high-mass planets orbiting very close to their parent stars in nearly circular orbits. A number of these planets are sufficiently massive and close-in to be significantly affected by tidal dissipation in the parent star, to a degree parameterized by the tidal quality factor Q {sub *}. This process speeds up their star's rotation rate while reducing the planet's semimajor axis. In this paper, we investigate the tidal destruction of hot Jupiters. Because the orbital angular momenta of these planets are a significant fraction of their star's rotational angular momenta,more » they spin up their stars significantly while spiraling to their deaths. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we predict that for Q {sub *} = 10{sup 6}, 3.9 × 10{sup –6} of stars with the Kepler Target Catalog's mass distribution should have a rotation period shorter than 1/3 day (8 hr) due to accreting a planet. Exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HATnet, HATsouth, and KELT have already produced light curves of millions of stars. These two facts suggest that it may be possible to search for tidally destroyed planets by looking for stars with extremely short rotational periods, then looking for remnant planet cores around those candidates, anomalies in the metal distribution, or other signatures of the recent accretion of the planet.« less

  10. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts.

    PubMed

    Chamel, Nicolas; Haensel, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of May 1, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=audio_dvd.pr_crit_audio_dvd

  12. Star Formation Everywhere You Look

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-24

    This image from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer highlights several star-forming regions. There are five distinct centers of star birth in this one image alone. The largest, brightest cloud, in the upper right is known as Gum 22.

  13. Kinesthetic Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinfeld, Erika L.; Hartman, Mark A.

    We present a kinesthetic approach to learning about the life cycle of stars. Using a simplified two-layer model for stellar structure, learners recreate kinesthetically the birth, life, and death of low- and high-mass stars. Examples of how this activity has been used in several settings outside school time provide additional resources for extending student learning about this topic.

  14. STARS: A Year in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System[TM] (STARS) is a program of AASHE, the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. AASHE is a member-driven organization with a mission to empower higher education to lead the sustainability transformation. STARS was developed by AASHE with input and insight from…

  15. Star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2009-03-15

    We develop a simple semianalytic model of the star formation rate as a function of time. We estimate the star formation rate for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  16. Socket stars: UBVRJIK radial profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1995-05-01

    Visual inspectin of stars embedded in H II nebulae has shown a significant fraction to be surrounded by nearly symmetric extended regions within which the nebular brightness is apparently significantly fainter than is typical for the surrounding area. These 'socket stars' might be caused by a bubble in the nebula blown out by a stellar wind or they might be caused by a circumstellar envelope of dust hiding the emission behind the star. As such, the sockets could be the first manifestation of a previously unknown component of pre-main-sequence stars. Unfortunately, no quantitative proof of the existence of sockets has been presented. To fill this need, I have imaged 10 socket stars and six background stars with CCD cameras and infrared array cameras. From these images, I have constructed radial plots which should reveal dips in brightness immediately outside the seeing disk. The radial plots do not show any evidence for the existence of sockets. A detailed examination of the photographs orginally used to identify the sockets show that the causes of these reports are (1) artifacts resulting from the photographic process of dodging and (2) random coincidence of stars with local minima in nebular brightness. Thus, I conclude that 'socket stars' do not exist.

  17. Hubble Friday - Heavy Metal Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Hubble rocks out with heavy metal stars! This 10.5-billion-year-old globular cluster, NGC 6496, is home to heavy-metal stars of a celestial kind! The stars comprising this spectacular spherical cluster are enriched with much higher proportions of metals — elements heavier than hydrogen and helium are curiously known as metals in astronomy — than stars found in similar clusters. A handful of these high-metallicity stars are also variable stars, meaning that their brightness fluctuates over time. NGC 6496 hosts a selection of long-period variables — giant pulsating stars whose brightness can take up to, and even over, a thousand days to change — and short-period eclipsing binaries, which dim when eclipsed by a stellar companion. The nature of the variability of these stars can reveal important information about their mass, radius, luminosity, temperature, composition, and evolution, providing astronomers with measurements that would be difficult or even impossible to obtain through other methods. NGC 6496 was discovered in 1826 by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop. The cluster resides at about 35,000 light-years away in the southern constellation of Scorpius (The Scorpion). Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt Text credit: European Space Agency Read more: go.nasa.gov/1U2wqGW

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of October 1, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=vent_fans.pr_crit_vent_fans

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ceiling_fans.pr_crit_ceiling_fans

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are effective as of March 1, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  1. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research activities related to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sky survey. About 745 luminous stars were examined for the presence of interstellar dust heated by a nearby star. The 'cirrus' discovered by IRAS is thermal radiation from interstellar dust at moderate and high galactic latitudes. The IRAS locates the dust which must (at some level) scatter ultraviolet starlight, although it was expected that thermal emission would be found around virtually every star, most stars shown no detectable emission. And the emission found is not uniform. It is not that the star is embedded in 'an interstellar medium', but rather what is found are discrete clouds that are heated by starlight. An exception is the dearth of clouds near the very hottest stars, implying that the very hottest stars play an active role with respect to destroying or substantially modifying the dust clouds over time. The other possibility is simply that the hottest stars are located in regions lacking in dust, which is counter-intuitive. A bibliography of related journal articles is attached.

  2. Grand unification of neutron stars

    PubMed Central

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  3. Dark stars in Starobinsky's model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Lopes, Ilídio

    2018-01-01

    In the present work we study non-rotating dark stars in f (R ) modified theory of gravity. In particular, we have considered bosonic self-interacting dark matter modeled inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate, while as far as the modified theory of gravity is concerned we have assumed Starobinsky's model R +a R2. We solve the generalized structure equations numerically, and we obtain the mass-to-ratio relation for several different values of the parameter a , and for two different dark matter equation-of-states. Our results show that the dark matter stars become more compact in the R-squared gravity compared to general relativity, while at the same time the highest star mass is slightly increased in the modified gravitational theory. The numerical value of the highest star mass for each case has been reported.

  4. Physics of primordial star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    The study of primordial star formation has a history of nearly sixty years. It is generally thought that primordial stars are one of the key elements in a broad range of topics in astronomy and cosmology, from Galactic chemical evolution to the formation of super-massive blackholes. We review recent progress in the theory of primordial star formation. The standard theory of cosmic structure formation posits that the present-day rich structure of the Universe developed through gravitational amplification of tiny matter density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang. It has become possible to study primordial star formation rigorously within the framework of the standard cosmological model. We first lay out the key physical processes in a primordial gas. Then, we introduce recent developments in computer simulations. Finally, we discuss prospects for future observations of the first generation of stars.

  5. Massive Stars in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Peters, Matthew; Wisniewski, John; Dalcanton, Julianne; Williams, Benjamin; Lutz, Julie; Choi, Yumi; Sigut, Aaron

    2017-11-01

    Massive stars are intrinsically rare and therefore present a challenge to understand from a statistical perspective, especially within the Milky Way. We recently conducted follow-up observations to the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey that were designed to detect more than 10,000 emission line stars, including WRs, by targeting regions in M31 previously known to host large numbers of young, massive clusters and very young stellar populations. Because of the existing PHAT data, we are able to derive an effective temperature, bolarimetric luminosity, and extinction for each of our detected stars. We report on preliminary results of the massive star population of our dataset and discuss how our results compare to previous studies of massive stars in M31.

  6. Weighing the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Anthony; Schnurr, Olivier; Chené, André-Nicolas; St-Louis, Nicole

    2005-08-01

    HR diagrams of the brightest stars in nearby galaxies indicate that there exists an upper luminosity limit to star formation. One can assign real masses of stars at that limit, although with low confidence because of uncertainties in current stellar models. Understanding the physics of massive stars is important because these stars dominate the light and ecology of the Universe, not only at the present epoch, but also and especially during the first generation of stars (pop III), expected to be dominated by stars in the range 100-1000 solar masses. The only viable way to determine (or calibrate) masses is by "weighing" them in binary systems. The most massive stars are expected to be formed in the most massive, densest young stellar clusters, like the core R136 of 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud or its much closer clone NGC 3603 in the Galaxy. Telescopes in space or adaptive-optics systems on large groundbased telescopes are needed to cleanly resolve such stars in order to obtain the necessary high-precision radial velocities and light curves to define the orbits and obtain the masses. We discuss recent progress on this topic, with emphasis on our own attempt to determine the masses of the components of the brightest star (A1, a known main-sequence eclipsing system of type WN6ha + O3: and period 3.7724 d) in the core of NGC 3603, first using HST/STIS (instrument failure) then using VLT/SINFONI (in progress). With A1 being one magnitude intrinsically brighter than the current record holder WR20a (WN6ha + WN6ha, P = 3.686 d, 83 + 82 solar mass), we expect masses for A1 of ~ 100 solar mass if L .M3, or more likely, ~200 solar mass if L . M

  7. Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Star formation is a fundamental astrophysical process; it controls phenomena ranging from the evolution of galaxies and nucleosynthesis to the origins of planetary systems and abodes for life. The WFC3, optimized at both UV and IR wavelengths and equipped with an extensive array of narrow-band filters, brings unique capabilities to this area of study. The WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee {SOC} proposes an integrated program on star formation in the nearby universe which will fully exploit these new abilities. Our targets range from the well-resolved R136 in 30 Dor in the LMC {the nearest super star cluster} and M82 {the nearest starbursting galaxy} to about half a dozen other nearby galaxies that sample a wide range of star-formation rates and environments. Our program consists of broad-band multiwavelength imaging over the entire range from the UV to the near-IR, aimed at studying the ages and metallicities of stellar populations, revealing young stars that are still hidden by dust at optical wavelengths, and showing the integrated properties of star clusters. Narrow-band imaging of the same environments will allow us to measure star-formation rates, gas pressure, chemical abundances, extinction, and shock morphologies. The primary scientific issues to be addressed are: {1} What triggers star formation? {2} How do the properties of star-forming regions vary among different types of galaxies and environments of different gas densities and compositions? {3} How do these different environments affect the history of star formation? {4} Is the stellar initial mass function universal or determined by local conditions?

  8. StarGuides Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    StarGuides Plus represents the most comprehensive and accurately validated collection of practical data on organizations involved in astronomy, related space sciences and other related fields. This invaluable reference source (and its companion volume, StarBriefs Plus) should be on the reference shelf of every library, organization or individual with any interest in these areas. The coverage includes relevant universities, scientific committees, institutions, associations, societies, agencies, companies, bibliographic services, data centers, museums, dealers, distributors, funding organizations, journals, manufacturers, meteorological services, national norms & standard institutes, parent associations & societies, publishers, software producers & distributors, and so on. Besides astronomy and associated space sciences, related fields such as aeronautics, aeronomy, astronautics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, communications, computer sciences, data processing, education, electronics, engineering, energetics, environment, geodesy, geophysics, information handling, management, mathematics, meteorology, optics, physics, remote sensing, and so on, are also covered where appropriate. After some thirty years in continuous compilation, verification and updating, StarGuides Plus currently gathers together some 6,000 entries from 100 countries. The information is presented in a clear, uncluttered manner for direct and easy use. For each entry, all practical data are listed: city, postal and electronic-mail addresses, telephone and fax numbers, URLs for WWW access, foundation years, numbers of members and/or numbers of staff, main activities, publications titles (with frequencies, ISS-Numbers and circulations), names and geographical coordinates of observing sites, names of planetariums, awards (prizes and/or distinctions) granted, etc. The entries are listed alphabetically in each country. An exhaustive index gives a breakdown not only by different designations and

  9. A Missing Link in Galaxy Evolution: The Mysteries of Dissolving Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Anne; Meyer, Martin; Harris, Jason; Calzetti, Daniela

    2007-05-01

    Star-forming events in starbursts and normal galaxies have a direct impact on the global stellar content of galaxies. These events create numerous compact clusters where stars are produced in great number. These stars eventually end up in the star field background where they are smoothly distributed. However, due to instrumental limitations such as spatial resolution and sensitivity, the processes involved during the transition phase from the compact clusters to the star field background as well as the impact of the environment (spiral waves, bars, starburst) on the lifetime of clusters are still poorly constrained observationally. I will present our latest results on the physical properties of dissolving clusters directly detected in HST/ACS archival images of the three nearby galaxies IC 2574, NGC 1313, and IC 10 (D < 5 Mpc). The ACS has the capability to detect and spatially resolve individual stars in nearby galaxies within a large field-of-view. For all ACS images obtained in three filters (F435W, F555W or F606W, and F814W), we performed PSF stellar photometry in crowded field. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) allow us to identify the most massive stars more likely to be part of dissolving clusters (A-type and earlier), and to isolate them from the star field background. We then adapt and use a clustering algorithm on the selected stars to find groups of stars to reveal and quantify the properties of all star clusters (compactness, size, age, mass). With this algorithm, even the less compact clusters are revealed while they are being destroyed. Our sample of three galaxies covers an interesting range in gravitational potential well and explores a variety of galaxy morphological types, which allows us to discuss the dissolving cluster properties as a function of the host galaxy characteristics. The properties of the star field background will also be discussed.

  10. Massive Stars and Star Clusters in the Era of JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard

    Massive stars lie at the center of the web of physical processes that has shaped the universe as we know it, governing the evolution of the interstellar medium of galaxies, producing a majority of the heavy elements, and thereby determining the evolution of galaxies. Massive stars are also important as signposts, since they produce most of the light and almost all the ionizing radiation in regions of active star formation. A significant fraction of all stars form in massive clusters, which will be observable throughout the visible universe with JWST. Their luminosities are so high that the pressure of their light on interstellar dust grains is likely the dominant feedback mechanism regulating their formation. While this process has been studied in the local Universe, much less attention has been focused on how it behaves at high redshift, where the dust abundance is much lower due to the overall lower abundance of heavy elements. The high redshift Universe also differs from the nearby one in that observations imply that high redshift star formation occurs at significantly higher densities than are typically found locally. We propose to simulate the formation of individual massive stars from the high redshift universe to the present day universe spanning metallicities ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 and column densities from 0.1to 30.0 g/cm2 focusing on how the process depends on both the dust abundance and on the density of the star-forming gas. These simulations will be among the first to treat the formation of Population II stars, which form in regions of low metallicity. Based on these results, we shall then simulate the formation of clusters of stars across also cosmic time, both of moderate mass, such as the Orion Nebula Cluster, and of high mass, such as the super star clusters seen in starburst galaxies. These state-of-the-art simulations will be carried out using our newly developed advanced techniques in our radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic AMR code ORION, for

  11. 1969 to 2010: Multicolor Photometric Observations of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, A. G. D.

    2011-04-01

    From 1969 to 2010 I have been involved in a photometric study of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars and published several papers on this topic in BOTT from 1967 thru 1972. I started by making Strömgren four-color observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory and then at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. I had taken spectral plates of all my selected areas on which I marked all the A-type stars. These stars were then observed photometrically. New FHB stars could be identified by their large c indices, caused by their greater (u-b) colors. Later four new filters were added (U, V, B, S). With Richard Boyle of the Vatican Observatory we observed on Mt. Graham (Arizona) on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We are making follow-up observations of the new FHB stars found.

  12. 1969 - 2010: Multicolor Photometric Observations of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, A. G. Davis

    2010-05-01

    From 1969 to 2010 I have been involved in a photometric study of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch stars. I started by making Stromgren four-color observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory and then Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. I had taken spectral plates of all my selected areas on which I marked all the A-type stars. These stars were then observed photometrically. New FHB stars could be identified by their large c1 indices, caused by their greater (u-b) colors. Later four new filters were added ( U V B S ). With Richard Boyle of the Vatican Observatory we observed on Mt. Graham (Arizona) on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope.We plan follow-up observations of the new FHB stars found.

  13. Computer Code Gives Astrophysicists First Full Simulation of Star's Final Hours

    ScienceCinema

    Andy Nonaka

    2017-12-09

    The precise conditions inside a white dwarf star in the hours leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova are one of the mysteries confronting astrophysicists studying these massive stellar explosions. But now, a team of researchers, composed of three applied mathematicians at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and two astrophysicists, has created the first full-star simulation of the hours preceding the largest thermonuclear explosions in the universe.

  14. To Touch the Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-15

    NASA astronaut Scott Tingle’s son wrote, produced, and sent to him in space the song “To Touch the Stars” in honor of his family's journey to reach his dreams. The video shows footage from Tingle’s mission to the International Space Station as part of Expedition 54/55. He launched aboard a Soyuz spacecraft on December 17, 2017 and returned to Earth on June 3, 2018. This mission was the first for Tingle. He and his crew completed hundreds of experiments, including materials testing, a study of the effect of microgravity on the bone marrow and research into plant growth in space. He also completed one spacewalk. “To Touch the Stars” Writer, Producer, Musician: Sean Tingle Vocals: Madison Deadman To learn more about the International Space Station, visit: www.nasa.gov/station HD download: https://archive.org/details/To-Touch-The-Stars

  15. Surface abundances of ON stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient or when mass transfer in binary systems occurs, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. Aims: ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determined the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measured the projected rotational velocities. We compared the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. Results: We show that ON stars are usually rich in helium. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Mass transfer is therefore not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. Conclusions: We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present. Based on observations obtained 1) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; 3) at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997; 4) the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  16. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  17. "Catch a Star !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    ESO and EAAE Launch Web-based Educational Programme for Europe's Schools Catch a star!... and discover all its secrets! This is the full title of an innovative educational project, launched today by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It welcomes all students in Europe's schools to an exciting web-based programme with a competition. It takes place within the context of the EC-sponsored European Week of Science and Technology (EWST) - 2002 . This unique project revolves around a web-based competition and is centred on astronomy. It is specifically conceived to stimulate the interest of young people in various aspects of this well-known field of science, but will also be of interest to the broad public. What is "Catch a Star!" about? [Go to Catch a Star Website] The programme features useful components from the world of research, but it is specifically tailored to (high-)school students. Younger participants are also welcome. Groups of up to four persons (e.g., three students and one teacher) have to select an astronomical object - a bright star, a distant galaxy, a beautiful comet, a planet or a moon in the solar system, or some other celestial body. Like detectives, they must then endeavour to find as much information as possible about "their" object. This information may be about the position and visibility in the sky, the physical and chemical characteristics, particular historical aspects, related mythology and sky lore, etc. They can use any source available, the web, books, newspaper and magazine articles, CDs etc. for this work. The group members must prepare a (short) summarising report about this investigation and "their" object, with their own ideas and conclusions, and send it to ESO (email address: eduinfo@eso.org). A jury, consisting of specialists from ESO and the EAAE, will carefully evaluate these reports. All projects that are found to fulfill the stipulated requirements, including a

  18. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  19. A new method for determining which stars are near a star sensor field-of-view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Russell E., Jr.; Vedder, John D.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is described for determining which stars in a navigation star catalog are near a star sensor field of view (FOV). This method assumes that an estimate of spacecraft inertial attitude is known. Vector component ranges for the star sensor FOV are computed, so that stars whose vector components lie within these ranges are near the star sensor FOV. This method requires no presorting of the navigation star catalog, and is more efficient than tradition methods.

  20. Hubble Sees a "Mess of Stars"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-14

    Bursts of pink and red, dark lanes of mottled cosmic dust, and a bright scattering of stars — this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows part of a messy barred spiral galaxy known as NGC 428. It lies approximately 48 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Cetus (The Sea Monster). Although a spiral shape is still just about visible in this close-up shot, overall NGC 428’s spiral structure appears to be quite distorted and warped, thought to be a result of a collision between two galaxies. There also appears to be a substantial amount of star formation occurring within NGC 428 — another telltale sign of a merger. When galaxies collide their clouds of gas can merge, creating intense shocks and hot pockets of gas, and often triggering new waves of star formation. NGC 428 was discovered by William Herschel in December 1786. More recently a type of supernova designated SN2013ct was discovered within the galaxy by Stuart Parker of the BOSS (Backyard Observatory Supernova Search) project in Australia and New Zealand, although it is unfortunately not visible in this image. This image was captured by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Image credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA and S. Smartt (Queen's University Belfast), Acknowledgements: Nick Rose and Flickr user pennine cloud NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkotas, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    Neutron stars are the densest objects in the present Universe, attaining physical conditions of matter that cannot be replicated on Earth. These unique and irreproducible laboratories allow us to study physics in some of its most extreme regimes. More importantly, however, neutron stars allow us to formulate a number of fundamental questions that explore, in an intricate manner, the boundaries of our understanding of physics and of the Universe. The multifaceted nature of neutron stars involves a delicate interplay among astrophysics, gravitational physics, and nuclear physics. The research in the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars is expected to flourish and thrive in the next decade. The imminent direct detection of gravitational waves will turn gravitational physics into an observational science, and will provide us with a unique opportunity to make major breakthroughs in gravitational physics, in particle and high-energy astrophysics. These waves, which represent a basic prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity but have yet to be detected directly, are produced in copious amounts, for instance, by tight binary neutron star and black hole systems, supernovae explosions, non-axisymmetric or unstable spinning neutron stars. The focus of the talk will be on the neutron star instabilities induced by rotation and the magnetic field. The conditions for the onset of these instabilities and their efficiency in gravitational waves will be presented. Finally, the dependence of the results and their impact on astrophysics and especially nuclear physics will be discussed.

  2. Star-forming Filament Models

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu

    2017-03-20

    New models of star-forming filamentary clouds are presented in order to quantify their properties and to predict their evolution. These 2D axisymmetric models describe filaments that have no core, one low-mass core, and one cluster-forming core. They are based on Plummer-like cylinders and spheroids that are bounded by a constant-density surface of finite extent. In contrast to 1D Plummer-like models, they have specific values of length and mass, they approximate observed column density maps, and their distributions of column density ( N -pdfs) are pole-free. Each model can estimate the star-forming potential of a core-filament system by identifying the zonemore » of gas dense enough to form low-mass stars and by counting the number of enclosed thermal Jeans masses. This analysis suggests that the Musca central filament may be near the start of its star-forming life, with enough dense gas to make its first ∼3 protostars, while the Coronet filament is near the midpoint of its star formation, with enough dense gas to add ∼8 protostars to its ∼20 known stars. In contrast, L43 appears to be near the end of its star-forming life, since it lacks enough dense gas to add any new protostars to the two young stellar objectsalready known.« less

  3. Pulsation in Chemically Peculiar Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.

    2015-04-01

    Chemically peculiar stars offer the opportunity to study the interaction of strong magnetic fields, rotation, and pulsation. The rapidly oscillating chemically peculiar A stars (roAp) are a subgroup of the chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. They are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators. Until recently, the classical asteroseismic analysis, i.e., frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through the access to the uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from the MOST, COROT, and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years, the studies of roAp stars have been altered drastically from the observational point of view through the usage of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsation characteristics, caused by the interplay between short vertical lengths of pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper a review of the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars is presented.

  4. Dust and gas around young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine Hsiao-Ching

    To understand how asteroids, planets, and comets form in circumstellar disks of gas and dust, we have carried out a high resolution mid-infrared imaging study and a high resolution ultra violet spectroscopic study of the dust and gas around nearby pre-main sequence Herbig Ae stars and dusty main sequence stars. We have used the Keck I telescope to image at 11.7 μm and 17.9 μm the dust emission around ζ Lep, a main sequence A-type star with an infrared excess, 21.5 pc from the Sun. The excess is at most marginally resolved at 17.9 μm. The dust distance from the star is probably ≤6 AU, although some dust may extend to 9 AU. The mass of observed dust is ˜10 22 g. Since the lifetime of dust particles is about 104 yr because of the Poynting- Robertson effect, we robustly estimate at least 4 × 1026 g must reside in parent bodies which may be asteroids if the system is in a steady state and has an age of ˜300 Myr. This mass is approximately 200 times that contained within the main asteroid belt in our solar system. We have obtained FUSE spectra of σ Her, a nearby binary system, with a main sequence primary, that has a Vega-like infrared excess. We observe absorption in the excited fine structure lines C II* at 1037 Å, N II* at 1085 Å, and N II** at 1086 Å that are blueshifted by as much as ˜30 km/sec with respect to the star. Since these features are considerably narrower than the stellar lines and broader than interstellar features, the C II and N II are circumstellar. Since σ Her has a high luminosity, we suggest that there is a radiatively driven wind, arising from the circumstellar matter, rather than accretion as occurs around β Pic. Assuming that the gas is liberated by collisions between parent bodies at 20 AU, the approximate distance at which blackbody grains are in radiative equilibrium with the star and at which 3-body orbits become unstable, we infer dM/dt ˜6 × 10-12 M⊙ yr-1. This wind depletes the minimum mass of parent bodies in less than

  5. The Serpent Star-Forming Cloud Spawns Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    Studied by astronomers, Serpens Cloud Core is one of the youngest collections of stars ever seen in our galaxy. This infrared image combines data from NASA Spitzer with shorter-wavelength observations from the Two Micron All Sky Survey.

  6. Accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Pines, D

    1980-02-08

    During the past 8 years, extended temporal and broadband spectroscopic studies carried out by x-ray astronomical satellites have led to the identification of specific compact x-ray sources as accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars in close binary systems. Such sources provide a unique opportunity to study matter under extreme conditions not accessible in the terrestrial laboratory. Quantitative theoretical models have been developed which demonstrate that detailed studies of these sources will lead to a greatly increased understanding of dense and superdense hadron matter, hadron superfluidity, high-temperature plasma in superstrong magnetic fields, and physical processes in strong gravitational fields. Through a combination of theory and observation such studies will make possible the determination of the mass, radius, magnetic field, and structure of neutron stars and degenerate dwarf stars and the identification of further candidate black holes, and will contribute appreciably to our understanding of the physics of accretion by compact astronomical objects.

  7. Neutron star moments of inertia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.

  8. Commission 42: Close Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.; Ribas, Ignasi; Giménez, Alvaro; Harmanec, Petr; Hilditch, Ronald W.; Kaluzny, Janusz; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Nordström, Birgitta; Oláh, Katalin; Richards, Mercedes T.; Scarfe, Colin D.; Sion, Edward M.; Torres, Guillermo; Vrielmann, Sonja

    Two meetings of interest to close binaries took place during the reporting period: A full day session on short-period binary stars mostly CV's (Milone et al. 2008) during the 2006 AAS Spring meeting in Calgary and the very broadly designed IAU Symposium No. 240 on Binary Stars as Critical Tools and Tests in Contemporary Astrophysics in Prague, 2006, with many papers on close binaries [Hartkopf et al. 2007]. In addition, the book by Eggleton (2006), which is a comprehensive summary of evolutionary processes in binary and multiple stars, was published.

  9. Spectroscopy of γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.; Kilmartin, P. M.

    2014-02-01

    The musician programme at the University of Canterbury has been successfully identifying pulsation modes in many γ Doradus stars using hundreds of ground-based spectroscopic observations. This paper describes some of the successful mode identifications and emerging patterns of the programme. The hybrid γ Doradus/δ Scuti star HD 49434 remains an enigma, despite the analysis of more than 1700 multi-site high-resolution spectra. A new result for this star is apparently distinct line-profile variations for the γ Doradus and δ Scuti frequencies.

  10. Star-disk interaction in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speights, Christa Marie

    2012-09-01

    The question of the mechanism of certain types of stars is important. Classical T Tauri (CTTS) stars accrete magnetospherically, and Herbig Ae/Be stars (higher-mass analogs to CTTS) are thought to also accrete magnetospherically, but the source of a kG magnetic field is unknown, since these stars have radiative interiors. For magnetospheric accretion, an equation has been derived (Hartmann, 2001) which relates the truncation radius, stellar radius, stellar mass, mass accretion rate and magnetic field strength. Currently the magnetic field of Herbig stars is known to be somewhere between 0.1 kG and 10 kG. One goal of this research is to further constrain the magnetic field. In order to do that, I use the magnetospheric accretion equation. For CTTS, all of the variables used in the equation can be measured, so I gather this data from the literature and test the equation and find that it is consistent. Then I apply the equation to Herbig Ae stars and find that the error introduced from using random inclinations is too large to lower the current upper limit of the magnetic field range. If Herbig Ae stars are higher-mass analogs to CTTS, then they should have a similar magnetic field distribution. I compare the calculated Herbig Ae magnetic field distribution to several typical magnetic field distributions using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and find that the data distribution does not match any of the distributions used. This means that Herbig Ae stars do not have well ordered kG fields like CTTS.

  11. Tidal resonances in binary star systems. II - Slowly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. E.

    1988-12-01

    The potential energy of tidal interactions in a binary system with rotating components is formulated as a perturbation Hamiltonian which self-consistently couples the dynamics of the rotating stars' oscillations and orbital motion. The action-angle formalism used to discuss tidal resonances in the nonrotating case (Alexander, 1987) is extended to rotating stars. The behavior of a two-mode system and the procedure for treating an arbitrary number of modes are discussed.

  12. Kepler Diamond Mine of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-16

    This image from NASA Kepler mission shows the telescope full field of view an expansive star-rich patch of sky in the constellations Cygnus and Lyra stretching across 100 square degrees, or the equivalent of two side-by-side dips of the Big Dipper. A cluster of stars, called NGC 6791, and a star with a known planet, called TrES-2, are outlined. The cluster is eight billion years old, and located 13,000 light-years from Earth. It is called an open cluster because its stars are loosely bound and have started to spread out. TrES-2 is a hot Jupiter-like planet known to cross in front of, or transit, its star every 2.5 days. Kepler will hunt for transiting planets that are as small as Earth. Kepler was designed to hunt for planets like Earth. Of the approximately 4.5 million stars in the region pictured here, more than 100,000 were selected as candidates for Kepler's search. The mission will spend the next three-and-a-half years staring at these target stars, looking for periodic dips in brightness. Such dips occur when planets cross in front of their stars from our point of view in the galaxy, partially blocking the starlight. The area in the lower right of the image is brighter because it is closer to the plane of our galaxy and is jam-packed with stars. The area in upper left is farther from the galactic plane and contains fewer stars. The image has been color-coded so that brighter stars appear white, and fainter stars, red. It is a 60-second exposure, taken on April 8, 2009, one day after the spacecraft's dust cover was jettisoned. To achieve the level of precision needed to spot planets as small as Earth, Kepler's images are intentionally blurred slightly. This minimizes the number of saturated stars. Saturation, or "blooming," occurs when the brightest stars overload the individual pixels in the detectors, causing the signal to spill out into nearby pixels. These spills can be seen in the image as fine white lines extending above and below some of the brightest

  13. Approximate universal relations for neutron stars and quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-01

    Neutron stars and quark stars are ideal laboratories to study fundamental physics at supra nuclear densities and strong gravitational fields. Astrophysical observables, however, depend strongly on the star's internal structure, which is currently unknown due to uncertainties in the equation of state. Universal relations, however, exist among certain stellar observables that do not depend sensitively on the star's internal structure. One such set of relations is between the star's moment of inertia (I), its tidal Love number (Love) and its quadrupole moment (Q), the so-called I-Love-Q relations. Similar relations hold among the star's multipole moments, which resemble the well-known black hole no-hair theorems. Universal relations break degeneracies among astrophysical observables, leading to a variety of applications: (i) X-ray measurements of the nuclear matter equation of state, (ii) gravitational wave measurements of the intrinsic spin of inspiraling compact objects, and (iii) gravitational and astrophysical tests of General Relativity that are independent of the equation of state. We here review how the universal relations come about and all the applications that have been devised to date.

  14. Star-formation rate in compact star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotova, I. Y.; Izotov, Y. I.

    2018-03-01

    We use the data for the Hβ emission-line, far-ultraviolet (FUV) and mid-infrared 22 μm continuum luminosities to estimate star formation rates < SFR > averaged over the galaxy lifetime for a sample of about 14000 bursting compact star-forming galaxies (CSFGs) selected from the Data Release 12 (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The average coefficient linking < SFR > and the star formation rate SFR0 derived from the Hβ luminosity at zero starburst age is found to be 0.04. We compare < SFR > s with some commonly used SFRs which are derived adopting a continuous star formation during a period of {˜} 100 Myr, and find that the latter ones are 2-3 times higher. It is shown that the relations between SFRs derived using a geometric mean of two star-formation indicators in the UV and IR ranges and reduced to zero starburst age have considerably lower dispersion compared to those with single star-formation indicators. We suggest that our relations for < SFR > determination are more appropriate for CSFGs because they take into account a proper temporal evolution of their luminosities. On the other hand, we show that commonly used SFR relations can be applied for approximate estimation within a factor of {˜} 2 of the < SFR > averaged over the lifetime of the bursting compact galaxy.

  15. The Stars behind the Curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    ESO is releasing a magnificent VLT image of the giant stellar nursery surrounding NGC 3603, in which stars are continuously being born. Embedded in this scenic nebula is one of the most luminous and most compact clusters of young, massive stars in our Milky Way, which therefore serves as an excellent "local" analogue of very active star-forming regions in other galaxies. The cluster also hosts the most massive star to be "weighed" so far. NGC 3603 is a starburst region: a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust. Located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun, it is the closest region of this kind known in our galaxy, providing astronomers with a local test bed for studying intense star formation processes, very common in other galaxies, but hard to observe in detail because of their great distance from us. The nebula owes its shape to the intense light and winds coming from the young, massive stars which lift the curtains of gas and clouds revealing a multitude of glowing suns. The central cluster of stars inside NGC 3603 harbours thousands of stars of all sorts (eso9946): the majority have masses similar to or less than that of our Sun, but most spectacular are several of the very massive stars that are close to the end of their lives. Several blue supergiant stars crowd into a volume of less than a cubic light-year, along with three so-called Wolf-Rayet stars - extremely bright and massive stars that are ejecting vast amounts of material before finishing off in glorious explosions known as supernovae. Using another recent set of observations performed with the SINFONI instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have confirmed that one of these stars is about 120 times more massive than our Sun, standing out as the most massive star known so far in the Milky Way [1]. The clouds of NGC 3603 provide us with a family picture of stars in different stages of their life, with gaseous structures that are

  16. The Neutron Star Zoo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  17. The mystery of a supposed massive star exploding in a brightest cluster galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin

    2017-08-01

    Most of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae results from late-stage mass loss by their progenitor stars. Supernovae that interact with circumstellar material (CSM) are a particularly good probe of these last stages of stellar evolution. Type Ibn supernovae are a rare and poorly understood class of hydrogen-poor explosions that show signs of interaction with helium-rich CSM. The leading hypothesis is that they are explosions of very massive Wolf-Rayet stars in which the supernova ejecta excites material previously lost by stellar winds. These massive stars have very short lifetimes, and therefore should only found in actively star-forming galaxies. However, PS1-12sk is a Type Ibn supernova found on the outskirts of a giant elliptical galaxy. As this is extraordinary unlikely, we propose to obtain deep UV images of the host environment of PS1-12sk in order to map nearby star formation and/or find a potential unseen star-forming host. If star formation is detected, its amount and location will provide deep insights into the progenitor picture for the poorly-understood Type Ibn class. If star formation is still not detected, these observations would challenge the well-accepted hypothesis that these are core-collapse supernovae at all.

  18. Boron Abundances in A and B-type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Boron abundances in A- and B-type stars may be a successful way to track evolutionary effects in these hot stars. The light elements - Li, Be, and B - are tracers of exposure to temperatures more moderate than those in which the H-burning CN-cycle operates. Thus, any exposure of surface stellar layers to deeper layers will affect these light element abundances. Li and Be are used in this role in investigations of evolutionary processes in cool stars, but are not observable in hotter stars. An investigation of boron, however, is possible through the B II 1362 A resonance line. We have gathered high resolution spectra from the IUE database of A- and B-type stars near 10 solar mass for which nitrogen abundances have been determined. The B II 1362 A line is blended throughout; the temperature range of this program, requiring spectrum syntheses to recover the boron abundances. For no star could we synthesize the 1362 A region using the meteoritic/solar boron abundance of log e (B) = 2.88; a lower boron abundance was necessary which may reflect evolutionary effects (e.g., mass loss or mixing near the main-sequence), the natal composition of the star forming regions, or a systematic error in the analyses (e.g., non-LTE effects). Regardless of the initial boron abundance, and despite the possibility of non-LTE effects, it seems clear that boron is severely depleted in some stars. It may be that the nitrogen and boron abundances are anticorrelated, as would be expected from mixing between the H-burning and outer stellar layers. If, as we suspect, a residue of boron is present in the A-type supergiants, we may exclude a scenario in which mixing occurs continuously between the surface and the deep layers operating the CN-cycle. Further exploitation of the B II 1362 A line as an indicator of the evolutionary status of A- and B-type stars will require a larger stellar sample to be observed with higher signal-to-noise as attainable with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  19. Star formation across galactic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason

    I present here parallel investigations of star formation in typical and extreme galaxies. The typical galaxies are selected to be free of active galactic nuclei (AGN), while the extreme galaxies host quasars (the most luminous class of AGN). These two environments are each insightful in their own way; quasars are among the most violent objects in the universe, literally reshaping their host galaxies, while my sample of AGN-free star-forming galaxies ranges from systems larger than the Milky Way to small galaxies which are forming stars at unsustainably high rates. The current paradigm of galaxy formation and evolution suggests that extreme circumstances are key stepping stones in the assembly of galaxies like our Milky Way. To test this paradigm and fully explore its ramifications, this dual approach is needed. My sample of AGN-free galaxies is drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. This Halpha-selected, volume-limited survey was designed to detect star-forming galaxies without a bias toward continuum luminosity. This type of selection ensures that this sample is not biased toward galaxies that are large or nearby. My work studies the KISS galaxies in the mid- and far-infrared using photometry from the IRAC and MIPS instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. These infrared bands are particularly interesting for star formation studies because the ultraviolet light from young stars is reprocessed into thermal emission in the far-infrared (24mum MIPS) by dust and into vibrational transitions features in the mid-infrared (8.0mum IRAC) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The work I present here examines the efficiencies of PAH and thermal dust emission as tracers of star-formation rates over a wide range of galactic stellar masses. I find that the efficiency of PAH as a star-formation tracer varies with galactic stellar mass, while thermal dust has a highly variable efficiency that does not systematically depend on galactic stellar mass

  20. Hybrid Stars and Coronal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2004-01-01

    This program addresses the evolution of stellar coronas by comparing a solar-like corona in the supergiant Dra (G2 Ib-IIa) to the corona in the allegedly more evolved state of a hybrid star, TrA (K2 11-111). Because the hybrid star has a massive wind, it appears likely that the corona will be cooler and less dense as the magnetic loop structures are no longer closed. By analogy with solar coronal holes, when the topology of the magnetic field is configured with open magnetic structures, both the coronal temperature and density are lower than in atmospheres dominated by closed loops. The hybrid stars assume a pivotal role in the definition of coronal evolution, atmospheric heating processes and mechanisms to drive winds of cool stars.

  1. A Lesson in Counting Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-19

    These two photographs were made by combining data from NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer spacecraft and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile to learn that not all galaxies make stars of different sizes in the same quantities.

  2. Sleuthing the Isolated Compact Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, J. J.

    2004-08-01

    In the early 1990's, isolated thermally-emitting neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium were predicted to show up in their thousands in the ROSAT soft X-ray all-sky survey. The glut of sources would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the equation of state of ultra-dense matter. Only seven objects have been firmly identified to date. The reasons for this discrepency are discussed and recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations of these objects are described. Spectra of the brightest of the isolated neutron star candidates, RX J1856.5-3754, continue to present interpretational difficulties for current neutron star model atmospheres and alternative models are briefly discussed. RX J1856.5-3754 remains a valid quark star candidate.

  3. A STAR in the making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-05-01

    Entrepreneur Richard Dinan - a former star of the UK reality-TV programme Made in Chelsea - founded the firm Applied Fusion Systems in 2014. The company has now released its first blueprint for a spherical fusion tokamak.

  4. Neutron star evolution and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, R. I.; Edwards, B. C.; Haines, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors investigated the evolution and radiation characteristics of individual neutron stars and stellar systems. The work concentrated on phenomena where new techniques and observations are dramatically enlarging the understanding of stellar phenomena. Part of this project was a study of x-ray and gamma-ray emission from neutron stars and other compact objects. This effort included calculating the thermal x-ray emission from young neutron stars, deriving the radio and gamma-ray emission from active pulsars and modeling intense gamma-ray bursts in distant galaxies. They also measured periodic optical and infrared fluctuations from rotating neutron stars and search for high-energy TeV gamma rays from discrete celestial sources.

  5. Why stars become red giants

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.H.

    1988-06-01

    It is shown that a radiative envelope in which the Kramers opacity law holds cannot transport a luminosity larger than a critical value, and it is argued that the transition to red giant structure is triggered by the star's luminosity exceeding the critical value. If the Kramers law is used for all temperatures and densities, the radius of the star diverges as the critical luminosity is approached. In real stars the radiative envelope expands as the luminosity increases until the star intersects the Hayashi track. Once on the Hayashi track, luminosities in excess of the critical luminosity can be accommodatedmore » by forcing most of the mass of the envelope into the convection zone. 17 references.« less

  6. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal

  7. Collisions in Compact Star Clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    The high stellar densities in young compact star clusters, such as the star cluster R136 in the 30 Doradus region, may lead to a large number of stellar collisions. Such collisions were recently found to be much more frequent than previous estimates. The number of collisions scales with the number of stars for clusters with the same initial relaxation time. These collisions take place in a few million years. The collision products may finally collapse into massive black holes. The fraction of the total mass in the star cluster which ends up in a single massive object scales with the total mass of the cluster and its relaxation time. This mass fraction is rather constant, within a factor two or so. Wild extrapolation from the relatively small masses of the studied systems to the cores of galactic nuclei may indicate that the massive black holes in these systems have formed in a similar way.

  8. Dark Star-Making Factory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-02

    In this infrared view from the Herschel Observatory, a European Space Agency mission, blue shows the warmest dust, and red, the coolest. The choppy clouds of gas and dust are just starting to condense into new stars.

  9. Cracking on anisotropic neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, A. M.; Sulaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of cracking of a local anisotropic neutron star (NS) due to small density fluctuations. It is assumed that the neutron star core consists of leptons, nucleons and hyperons. The relativistic mean field model is used to describe the core of equation of state (EOS). For the crust, we use the EOS introduced by Miyatsu et al. [1]. Furthermore, two models are used to describe pressure anisotropic in neutron star matter. One is proposed by Doneva-Yazadjiev (DY) [2] and the other is proposed by Herrera-Barreto (HB) [3]. The anisotropic parameter of DY and HB models are adjusted in order the predicted maximum mass compatible to the mass of PSR J1614-2230 [4] and PSR J0348+0432 [5]. We have found that cracking can potentially present in the region close to the neutron star surface. The instability due cracking is quite sensitive to the NS mass and anisotropic parameter used.

  10. A Star-Formation Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-13

    The dwarf galaxy NGC 4214 is ablaze with young stars and gas clouds. Located around 10 million light-years away in the constellation of Canes Venatici (The Hunting Dogs), the galaxy's close proximity, combined with the wide variety of evolutionary stages among the stars, make it an ideal laboratory to research the triggers of star formation and evolution. Intricate patterns of glowing hydrogen formed during the star-birthing process, cavities blown clear of gas by stellar winds, and bright stellar clusters of NGC 4214 can be seen in this optical and near-infrared image. Observations of this dwarf galaxy have also revealed clusters of much older red supergiant stars. Additional older stars can be seen dotted all across the galaxy. The variety of stars at different stages in their evolution indicates that the recent and ongoing starburst periods are not the first, and the galaxy's abundant supply of hydrogen means that star formation will continue into the future. This color image was taken using the Wide Field Camera 3 in December 2009. Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration Acknowledgment: R. O'Connell (University of Virginia) and the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Keepers of the double stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-03-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Early catalogues by the Herschels, Struves, and others began with their own discoveries. In 1906 court reporter and amateur astronomer Sherburne Wesley Burnham published a massive double star catalogue containing data from many observers on more than 13,000 systems. Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken produced a much larger catalogue in 1932 and coordinated with Robert Innes of Johannesburg, who catalogued the southern systems. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham's records of observations on handwritten file cards, and eventually turned them over to the Lick Observatory, where astrometrist Hamilton Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and together they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford had the new 120-inch reflector, the world's second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the United States Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley, and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,200,000 measures of more than 125

  12. From Supernovae to Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai

    A core-collapse supernova is a generation site of a neutron star as well as one of the largest explosions in the universe. This article gives a brief overview of the studies on supernova explosion mechanism. Basic picture of the explosion mechanism, the method to solve neutrino transfer equation, the impact of the nuclear equation of state on the explosion, and long-term simulation of neutron star evolution from the onset of the explosion are presented.

  13. Neutron star news and puzzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-08-01

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. This article gives a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Focus is placed on the significant strides on neutron star research made by the group at Stony Brook, which Gerry built from scratch. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  14. How Far Are the Stars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Edward; Bell, Randy L.

    2005-01-01

    On any night, the stars seen in the sky can be as close to Earth as a few light-years or as distant as a few thousand light-years. Distances this large are hard to comprehend. The stars are so far away that the fastest spacecraft would take tens of thousands of years to reach even the nearest one. Yet, astronomers have been able to accurately…

  15. Search for faint nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. T.; Maza, J.; Mendez, R.; Wischnjewsky, M.

    1988-09-01

    The possibility that the 'missing mass' in the solar neighborhood may be accounted for by the existence in sufficiently great numbers of such very low mass stars as brown dwarfs, as well as very old dead stars now observable as cold, low-luminosity degenerates, is presently addressed observationally with a search through ESO R Survey plates using a stereocomparator. Attention is given to ESO area 439, where four low-luminosity degenerates have been discovered by the present study.

  16. The Problem of Spectral Mimicry of Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, V. G.; Chentsov, E. L.

    2018-01-01

    The phenomenon of spectral mimicry refers to the fact that hypergiants and post-AGB supergiants—stars of different masses in fundamentally different stages of their evolution—have similar optical spectra, and also share certain other characteristics (unstable extended atmospheres, expanding dust-gas envelopes, high IR excesses). As a consequence, it is not always possible to distinguish post-AGB stars from hypergiants based on individual spectral observations in the optical. Examples of spectral mimicry are analyzed using uniform, high-quality spectral material obtained on the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in the course of long-term monitoring of high-luminosity stars. It is shown that unambiguously resolving the mimicry problem for individual stars requires the determination of a whole set of parameters: luminosity, wind parameters, spectral energy distribution, spectral features, velocity field in the atmosphere and circumstellar medium, behavior of the parameters with time, and the chemical composition of the atmosphere.

  17. Resonance Production at Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Eugene T.

    2002-03-01

    We present the first measurement of mid-rapidity ϕ vector meson production in Au + Au collisions at RHIC (√ {sNN}= 130\\ GeV) from the STAR detector. For the 11% most central collisions, the slope parameter from an exponential fit to the transverse mass distribution is T= 379 ± 51(stat) ± 45(syst) MeV, the yield dN/dy = 5.73 ± 0.37(stat) ± 0.57(syst) per event and the ratio Nϕ/Nh- is found to be 0.021 ± 0.001(stat) ± 0.004(syst). We currently place the value of the Nϕ/NK- ratio between 0.10 and 0.16. The measured ratios Nϕ/Nh- and Nϕ/NK-, as well as T for the ϕ meson at mid-rapidity do not change for the selected centrality bins.

  18. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surfacemore » rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.« less

  19. EM Cep: The Be Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiashvili, N.; Kochiashvili, I.; Natsvlishvili, R.; Vardosanidze, M.; Beradze, S.

    2017-07-01

    On the basis of UBVR photometric data, obtained in the Abastumani Observatory during 1991-1999, very interesting and unusual flare of EM Cep has been revealed. Duration of the flare was over two hours. We estimated the percentage of brightness increase during the flare and brightness decrease of the corresponding anti- flare and the minimum amount of the lost mass during this event. We have solved the light curves of the star using the Wilson-Devinney code. But the resulting fraction of calculated brightness of the companion star was not in accordance with spectral data. Then we decided to check the idea of a pulsating single star using new spectral data. Together with our Buyrakan colleagues we obtained and analyzed spectra of the star. We could not find spectral lines of a companion star or any traces of the radial velocities using this data. Hence, we concluded that we need the higher resolution spectra for final resolution of the matter. On the basis of the latest spectral data of Bulgarian astronomers they concluded that EM Cep is a single star. This makes it possible to suggest, that the question of stellar pulsation could be solved using additional photometric observations.

  20. First stars and reionization: Spinstars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, C.

    2013-06-01

    Soon after the Big Bang, the appearance of the first stellar generations (hereafter, first stars) drastically changed the course of the history of the Universe by enriching the primordial gas with elements heavier than helium (referred to as metals) through both stellar winds and supernova explosions. High-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of the first stars suggest these objects to have formed in dark matter mini-halos, and to have played a key role in the formation of the first galaxies. Today these stars are (most likely) long dead, and even though next generation facilities will push the observational frontier to extremely high redshifts, with the aim of discovering the first galaxies, the first stars will still lie beyond reach. Thus, the only way to constrain our theoretical understanding of the formation of the first stars is to search for their imprints left in the oldest, still surviving, stars in our own backyard: the Milky Way and its satellites. Which imprints are we looking for, and where can we find them? We address these questions in the present review.

  1. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  2. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  3. Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Supernova Propels Companion Star through Interstellar Space The following success story is a classical illustration of scientific progress through concerted interplay of observation and theory. It concerns a 35-year old mystery which has now been solved by means of exciting observations of a strange double star. An added touch is the successive involvement of astronomers connected to the European Southern Observatory. For many years, astronomers have been puzzled by the fact that, among the thousands of very young, hot and heavy stars which have been observed in the Milky Way, there are some that move with exceptionally high velocities. In some cases, motions well above 100 km/sec, or ten times more than normal for such stars, have been measured. How is this possible? Which mechanism is responsible for the large amounts of energy needed to move such heavy bodies at such high speeds? Could it be that these stars are accelerated during the powerful explosion of a companion star as a supernova? Such a scenario was proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw [1], but until now, observational proof has been lacking. Now, however, strong supporting evidence for this mechanism has become available from observations obtained at the ESO La Silla observatory. The mysterious runaway stars OB-runaway stars [2] are heavy stars that travel through interstellar space with an anomalously high velocity. They have been known for several decades, but it has always been a problem to explain their high velocities. Although most OB-runaway stars are located at distances of several thousands of lightyears, their high velocity results in a measurable change in position on sky photos taken several years apart. The velocity component in the direction of the Earth can be measured very accurately from a spectrogram. From a combination of such observations, it is possible to measure the space velocity of OB-runaways. Bow shocks reveal runaway stars It has also been found that some OB-runaways display

  4. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) - Hot Stars": The High Definition UV Spectrum of the Ap Star HR 465

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Ayres, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. V.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Adelman, S. J.; Cowley, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Hot Stars" is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cycle 21 Treasury Program (GO-13346: Ayres PI). It is designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution ( 30,000-100,000), high signal/noise (S/N>100), and full UV coverage 1200 - 3000 A) spectra of 21 early-type stars, utilizing the high-performance Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The targets span the range of spectral types between early-O and early-A, including both main sequence and evolved stars, fast and slow rotators, as well as chemically peculiar (CP) and magnetic objects. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra will be available from the HST archive and, in post-processed and merged form, at http://casa.colorado.edu ayres/ASTRAL/. The UV "atlases" produced by this program will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years to come. We offer a first look at one of the earliest datasets to come out of this observing program, a "high definition" UV spectrum of the Ap star HR 465, which was chosen as a prototypical example of an A-type magnetic CP star. HR 465 has a global magnetic field of ~2200 Gauss. Earlier analyses of IUE spectra show strong iron-peak element lines, along with heavy elements such as Ga and Pt, while being deficient in the abundance of some ions of low atomic number, such as carbon. We demonstrate the high quality of the ASTRAL data and present the identification of spectral lines for a number of elements. By comparison of the observed spectra with calculated spectra, we also provide estimates of element abundances, emphasizing heavy elements, and place these measurements in the context of earlier results for this and other Ap stars.

  5. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  6. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  7. VLA observations of dwarf M flare stars and magnetic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.; Foster, P.

    1988-01-01

    The VLA has been used to search for 6 cm emission from 16 nearby dwarf M stars, leading to the detection of only one of them - Gliese 735. The dwarf M flare stars AD Leonis and YZ Canis Minoris were also monitored at 6 cm and 20 cm wavelength in order to study variability. Successive oppositely circularly polarized bursts were detected from AD Leo at 6 cm, suggesting the presence of magnetic fields of both magnetic polarities. An impulsive 20-cm burst from YZ CMi preceded slowly varying 6-cm emission. The VLA was also used, unsuccessfully, to search for 6-cm emission from 13 magnetic Ap stars, all of which exhibit kG magnetic fields. Although the Ap magnetic stars have strong dipolar magnetic fields, the failure to detect gyroresonant radiation suggests that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The quiescent microwave emission from GL 735 is probably due to nonthermal radiation, since unusually high (H = 50 kG or greater) surface magnetic fields are inferred under the assumption that the 6-cm radiation is the gyroresonant radiation of thermal electrons.

  8. Course 6: Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natta, A.

    Contents 1 Introduction 2 Collapse of molecular cores 2.1 Giant molecular clouds and cores 2.2 Conditions for collapse 2.3 Free-fall collapse 2.4 Collapse of an isothermal sphere of gas 2.5 Collapse of a slowly rotating core 3 Observable properties of protostars 3.1 Evidence of infall from molecular line profiles 3.2 SEDs of protostars 3.3 The line spectrumof a protostar 4 Protostellar and pre-main-sequence evolution 4.1 The protostellar phase 4.2 Pre-main-sequence evolution 4.3 The birthline 5 Circumstellar disks 5.1 Accretion disks 5.2 Properties of steady accretion disks 5.3 Reprocessing disks 5.4 Disk-star interaction 6 SEDs of disks 6.1 Power-law disks 6.2 Long-wavelength flux and disk mass 6.3 Comparison with TTS observations: Heating mechanism 7 Disk properties from observations 7.1 Mass accretion rate 7.2 Inner radius 7.3 Masses 7.4 Sizes 8 Disk lifetimes 8.1 Ground-based near and mid-infrared surveys 8.2 Mid-infrared ISOCAMsurveys 8.3 ISOPHOT 60 microm survey 8.4 Surveys at millimeter wavelengths 9 Disk evolution 9.1 Can we observe the early planet formation phase? 9.2 Evidence for grain growth 9.3 Evidence of planetesimals 9.4 Where is the diskmass? 10 Secondary or debris disks 11 Summary

  9. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Very Large Telescope Finds Planet-Sized Transiting Star Summary An international team of astronomers have accurately determined the radius and mass of the smallest core-burning star known until now. The observations were performed in March 2004 with the FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). They are part of a large programme aimed at measuring accurate radial velocities for sixty stars for which a temporary brightness "dip" has been detected during the OGLE survey. The astronomers find that the dip seen in the light curve of the star known as OGLE-TR-122 is caused by a very small stellar companion, eclipsing this solar-like star once every 7.3 days. This companion is 96 times heavier than planet Jupiter but only 16% larger. It is the first time that direct observations demonstrate that stars less massive than 1/10th of the solar mass are of nearly the same size as giant planets. This fact will obviously have to be taken into account during the current search for transiting exoplanets. In addition, the observations with the Very Large Telescope have led to the discovery of seven new eclipsing binaries, that harbour stars with masses below one-third the mass of the Sun, a real bonanza for the astronomers. PR Photo 06a/05: Brightness "Dip" and Velocity Variations of OGLE-TR-122. PR Photo 06b/05: Properties of Low-Mass Stars and Planets. PR Photo 06c/05: Comparison Between OGLE-TR-122b, Jupiter and the Sun. The OGLE Survey When a planet happens to pass in front of its parent star (as seen from the Earth), it blocks a small fraction of the star's light from our view [1]. These "planetary transits" are of great interest as they allow astronomers to measure in a unique way the mass and the radius of exoplanets. Several surveys are therefore underway which attempt to find these faint signatures of other worlds. One of these programmes is the OGLE survey which was originally devised to detect microlensing

  10. Magnetic and pulsational variability of Przybylski's star (HD 101065)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Järvinen, S. P.; Madej, J.; Bychkov, V. D.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Bychkova, L. V.

    2018-07-01

    Since its discovery more than half a century ago Przybylski's star (HD 101065) continues to excite the astronomical community by the unusual nature of its spectrum, exhibiting exotic element abundances. This star was also the first magnetic chemically peculiar A-type star for which the presence of rapid oscillations was established. Our analysis of newly acquired and historic longitudinal magnetic field measurements indicates that Przybylski's star is also unusual with respect to its extremely slow rotation. Adopting a dipolar structure for the magnetic field and using a sine wave fit to all reported longitudinal magnetic field values over the last 43 yr, we find a probable rotation period Prot ≈ 188 yr, which however has to be considered tentative as it does not represent a unique solution and has to be verified by future observations. Additionally, based on our own spectropolarimetric material obtained with HARPSpol, we discuss the impact of the anomalous structure of its atmosphere, in particular of the non-uniform horizontal and vertical distributions of chemical elements on the magnetic field measurements and the pulsational variability. Anomalies related to the vertical abundance stratification of Pr and Nd are for the first time used to establish the presence of a radial magnetic field gradient.

  11. Magnetic and pulsational variability of Przybylski's star (HD 101065)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Järvinen, S. P.; Madej, J.; Bychkov, V. D.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Bychkova, L. V.

    2018-04-01

    Since its discovery more than half a century ago Przybylski's star (HD 101065) continues to excite the astronomical community by the unusual nature of its spectrum, exhibiting exotic element abundances. This star was also the first magnetic chemically peculiar A-type star for which the presence of rapid oscillations was established. Our analysis of newly acquired and historic longitudinal magnetic field measurements indicates that Przybylski's star is also unusual with respect to its extremely slow rotation. Adopting a dipolar structure for the magnetic field and using a sine wave fit to all reported longitudinal magnetic field values over the last 43 yr, we find a probable rotation period Prot ≈ 188 yr, which however has to be considered tentative as it does not represent a unique solution and has to be verified by future observations. Additionally, based on our own spectropolarimetric material obtained with HARPSpol, we discuss the impact of the anomalous structure of its atmosphere, in particular of the non-uniform horizontal and vertical distributions of chemical elements on the magnetic field measurements and the pulsational variability. Anomalies related to the vertical abundance stratification of Pr and Nd are for the first time used to establish the presence of a radial magnetic field gradient.

  12. Shape of a slowly rotating star measured by asteroseismology

    PubMed Central

    Gizon, Laurent; Sekii, Takashi; Takata, Masao; Kurtz, Donald W.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Bazot, Michael; Benomar, Othman; Birch, Aaron C.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2016-01-01

    Stars are not perfectly spherically symmetric. They are deformed by rotation and magnetic fields. Until now, the study of stellar shapes has only been possible with optical interferometry for a few of the fastest-rotating nearby stars. We report an asteroseismic measurement, with much better precision than interferometry, of the asphericity of an A-type star with a rotation period of 100 days. Using the fact that different modes of oscillation probe different stellar latitudes, we infer a tiny but significant flattening of the star’s shape of ΔR/R = (1.8 ± 0.6) × 10−6. For a stellar radius R that is 2.24 times the solar radius, the difference in radius between the equator and the poles is ΔR = 3 ± 1 km. Because the observed ΔR/R is only one-third of the expected rotational oblateness, we conjecture the presence of a weak magnetic field on a star that does not have an extended convective envelope. This calls to question the origin of the magnetic field. PMID:28138541

  13. Common Warm Dust Temperatures Around Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Farisa; Rieke, George; Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Bryden, Geoffrey; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We compare the properties of warm dust emission from a sample of main-sequence A-type stars (B8-A7) to those of dust around solar-type stars (F5-KO) with similar Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph/MIPS data and similar ages. Both samples include stars with sources with infrared spectral energy distributions that show evidence of multiple components. Over the range of stellar types considered, we obtain nearly the same characteristic dust temperatures (∼ 190 K and ∼60 K for the inner and outer dust components, respectively)-slightly above the ice evaporation temperature for the inner belts. The warm inner dust temperature is readily explained if populations of small grains are being released by sublimation of ice from icy planetesimals. Evaporation of low-eccentricity icy bodies at ∼ 150 K can deposit particles into an inner/warm belt, where the small grains are heated to dust Temperatures of -190 K. Alternatively, enhanced collisional processing of an asteroid belt-like system of parent planetesimals just interior to the snow line may account for the observed uniformity in dust temperature. The similarity in temperature of the warmer dust across our B8-KO stellar sample strongly suggests that dust-producing planetesimals are not found at similar radial locations around all stars, but that dust production is favored at a characteristic temperature horizon.

  14. Cannonballs Shoot from Star (Artist Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-06

    This four-panel graphic illustrates how the binary-star system V Hydrae is launching balls of plasma into space. Panel 1 shows the two stars orbiting each other. One of the stars is nearing the end of its life and has swelled in size, becoming a red giant. In panel 2, the smaller star's orbit carries the star into the red giant's expanded atmosphere. As the star moves through the atmosphere, it gobbles up material from the red giant that settles into a disk around the star. The buildup of material reaches a tipping point and is eventually ejected as blobs of hot plasma along the star's spin axis, as shown in panel 3. This ejection process is repeated every eight years, which is the time it takes for the orbiting star to make another pass through the bloated red giant's envelope, as shown in panel 4. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21071

  15. Far-infrared properties of flare stars and dM stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.; Stencel, R. E.; Backman, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a search of the IRAS data base for flare stars and for a control sample of dM stars. At 12 microns, 70-80 percent of both samples have been detected. The K-12 colors of flare stars are significantly different from those of dM stars: for a given K magnitude, a flare star is about 70 percent brighter at 12 microns than a dM star. At 100 microns, 27 percent of the flare stars which are sources at 12 microns have been detected, while none of the comparable dM stars has been detected. Implications for microflaring are discussed.

  16. The Type IIn Supernova SN 2010bt: The Explosion of a Star in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Benetti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico; Smith, Nathan; Kotak, Rubina; Turatto, Massimo; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Pignata, Giuliano; Fox, Ori D.; Galbany, Lluis; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Miluzio, Matteo; Monard, L. A. G.; Ergon, Mattias

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that massive stars (M > 8 M ⊙) evolve up to the collapse of the stellar core, resulting in most cases in a supernova (SN) explosion. Their heterogeneity is related mainly to different configurations of the progenitor star at the moment of the explosion and to their immediate environments. We present photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2010bt, which was classified as a Type IIn SN from a spectrum obtained soon after discovery and was observed extensively for about 2 months. After the seasonal interruption owing to its proximity to the Sun, the SN was below the detection threshold, indicative of a rapid luminosity decline. We can identify the likely progenitor with a very luminous star (log L/L ⊙ ≈ 7) through comparison of Hubble Space Telescope images of the host galaxy prior to explosion with those of the SN obtained after maximum light. Such a luminosity is not expected for a quiescent star, but rather for a massive star in an active phase. This progenitor candidate was later confirmed via images taken in 2015 (∼5 yr post-discovery), in which no bright point source was detected at the SN position. Given these results and the SN behavior, we conclude that SN 2010bt was likely a Type IIn SN and that its progenitor was a massive star that experienced an outburst shortly before the final explosion, leading to a dense H-rich circumstellar environment around the SN progenitor.

  17. Ancient Guest Stars as harbingers of neutron star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Ru

    The well-known AD 1006, 1054, 1572, and 1604 were described as "Guest Stars" by Chinese, Japanese and Korean. In most cases, it might thus be possible to expect a Guest Star to be a term for supernova or nova. There are a lot of records concerning ancient Guest Stars in Chinese historical books. Two catalogues were compiled by Xi (1955) and Xi and Bo (1965, 1966) that listed 90 probable novae or supernovae observed between 1400 BC and AD 1700. Clark and Stephenson (1977), Ho (1962) and Kanda (1935) collected more or less similar records. Among all the historical records more than 80% are from China. The discussion presented in this paper is based on them.

  18. Old and new neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, amore » substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.« less

  19. Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert, Ulrich R. M. E.

    The thermal evolution of neutron stars is a subject of intense research, both theoretical and observational. The evolution depends very sensitively on the state of dense matter at supranuclear densities, which essentially controls the neutrino emission. The evolution depends, too, on the structure of the stellar outer layers which control the photon emission. Various internal heating processes and the magnetic field strength and structure will influence the thermal evolution. Of great importance for the cooling processes is also whether, when, and where superfluidity and superconductivity appear within the neutron star. This article describes and discusses these issues and presents neutron star cooling calculations based on a broad collection of equations of state for neutron star matter and internal magnetic field geometries. X-ray observations provide reliable data, which allow conclusions about the surface temperatures of neutron stars. To verify the thermal evolution models, the results of model calculations are compared with the body of observed surface temperatures and their distribution. Through these comparisons, a better understanding can be obtained of the physical processes that take place under extreme conditions in the interior of neutron

  20. e-Stars Template Builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    2003-01-01

    e-Stars Template Builder is a computer program that implements a concept of enabling users to rapidly gain access to information on projects of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The information about a given project is not stored in a data base, but rather, in a network that follows the project as it develops. e-Stars Template Builder resides on a server computer, using Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts to create what are called "e-STARS node templates," which are software constructs that allow for project-specific configurations. The software resides on the server and does not require specific software on the user machine except for an Internet browser. A user's computer need not be equipped with special software (other than an Internet-browser program). e-Stars Template Builder is compatible with Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX operating systems. A user invokes e-Stars Template Builder from a browser window. Operations that can be performed by the user include the creation of child processes and the addition of links and descriptions of documentation to existing pages or nodes. By means of this addition of "child processes" of nodes, a network that reflects the development of a project is generated.

  1. Chemical Soups Around Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This artist's conception shows a young, hypothetical planet around a cool star. A soupy mix of potentially life-forming chemicals can be seen pooling around the base of the jagged rocks. Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope hint that planets around cool stars the so-called M-dwarfs and brown dwarfs that are widespread throughout our galaxy might possess a different mix of life-forming, or prebiotic, chemicals than our young Earth.

    Life on our planet is thought to have arisen out of a pond-scum-like mix of chemicals. Some of these chemicals are thought to have come from a planet-forming disk of gas and dust that swirled around our young sun. Meteorites carrying the chemicals might have crash-landed on Earth.

    Astronomers don't know if these same life-generating processes are taking place around stars that are cooler than our sun, but the Spitzer observations show their disk chemistry is different. Spitzer detected a prebiotic molecule, called hydrogen cyanide, in the disks around yellow stars like our sun, but found none around cooler, less massive, reddish stars. Hydrogen cyanide is a carbon-containing, or organic compound. Five hydrogen cyanide molecules can join up to make adenine a chemical element of the DNA molecule found in all living organisms on Earth.

  2. The Michigan Binary Star Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Rudi P.

    2007-07-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, William J. Hussey and Robert G. Aitken, both at Lick Observatory, began a systematic search for unrecorded binary stars with the aid of the 12" and 36" refracting telescopes at Lick Observatory. Aitken's work (and book on binary stars) are well known, Hussey's contributions less so. In 1905 Hussey, a Michigan engineering graduate, returned to direct the Ann Arbor astronomy program, and immediately he began to design new instrumentation for the study of binary stars and to train potential observers. For a time, he spent six months a year at the La Plata Observatory, where he discovered a number of new pairs and decided upon a major southern hemisphere campaign. He spent a decade obtaining the lenses for a large refractor, through the vicissitudes of war and depression. Finally, he obtained a site in South Africa, a 26" refractor, and a small corps of observers, but he died in London en route to fulfill his dream. His right hand man, Richard Rossiter, established the observatory and spent the next thirty years discovering and measuring binary stars: his personal total is a record for the field. This talk is an account of the methods, results, and utility of the extraordinary binary star factory in the veldt.

  3. Cooling of hypernuclear compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raduta, Adriana R.; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2018-04-01

    We study the thermal evolution of hypernuclear compact stars constructed from covariant density functional theory of hypernuclear matter and parametrizations which produce sequences of stars containing two-solar-mass objects. For the input in the simulations, we solve the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer gap equations in the hyperonic sector and obtain the gaps in the spectra of Λ, Ξ0, and Ξ- hyperons. For the models with masses M/M⊙ ≥ 1.5 the neutrino cooling is dominated by hyperonic direct Urca processes in general. In the low-mass stars the (Λp) plus leptons channel is the dominant direct Urca process, whereas for more massive stars the purely hyperonic channels (Σ-Λ) and (Ξ-Λ) are dominant. Hyperonic pairing strongly suppresses the processes on Ξ-s and to a lesser degree on Λs. We find that intermediate-mass 1.5 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 1.8 models have surface temperatures which lie within the range inferred from thermally emitting neutron stars, if the hyperonic pairing is taken into account. Most massive models with M/M⊙ ≃ 2 may cool very fast via the direct Urca process through the (Λp) channel because they develop inner cores where the S-wave pairing of Λs and proton is absent.

  4. Unsupervised classification of variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Lucas; Pichara, Karim

    2018-03-01

    During the past 10 years, a considerable amount of effort has been made to develop algorithms for automatic classification of variable stars. That has been primarily achieved by applying machine learning methods to photometric data sets where objects are represented as light curves. Classifiers require training sets to learn the underlying patterns that allow the separation among classes. Unfortunately, building training sets is an expensive process that demands a lot of human efforts. Every time data come from new surveys; the only available training instances are the ones that have a cross-match with previously labelled objects, consequently generating insufficient training sets compared with the large amounts of unlabelled sources. In this work, we present an algorithm that performs unsupervised classification of variable stars, relying only on the similarity among light curves. We tackle the unsupervised classification problem by proposing an untraditional approach. Instead of trying to match classes of stars with clusters found by a clustering algorithm, we propose a query-based method where astronomers can find groups of variable stars ranked by similarity. We also develop a fast similarity function specific for light curves, based on a novel data structure that allows scaling the search over the entire data set of unlabelled objects. Experiments show that our unsupervised model achieves high accuracy in the classification of different types of variable stars and that the proposed algorithm scales up to massive amounts of light curves.

  5. Hubble View: Wolf-Rayet Stars, Intense and Short-Lived

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Hubble Space Telescope picture shows a galaxy named SBS 1415+437 (also called SDSS CGB 12067.1), located about 45 million light-years from Earth. SBS 1415+437 is a Wolf-Rayet galaxy, a type of star-bursting galaxy with an unusually high number of extremely hot and massive stars known as Wolf-Rayet stars. These stars can be around 20 times as massive as the sun, but seem to be on a mission to shed surplus mass as quickly as possible — they blast substantial winds of particles out into space, causing them to dwindle at a rapid rate. A typical star of this type can lose a mass equal to that of our sun in just 100,000 years! These massive stars are also incredibly hot, with surface temperatures some 10 to 40 times that of the sun, and very luminous, glowing at tens of thousands to several million times the brightness of the sun. Many of the brightest and most massive stars in the Milky Way are Wolf-Rayet stars. Because these stars are so intense they do not last very long, burning up their fuel and blasting their bulk out into the cosmos on very short timescale — only a few hundred thousand years. Because of this it is unusual to find more than a few of these stars per galaxy — except in Wolf-Rayet galaxies, like the one in this image. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram Credit: NOAA/NASA GOES Project

  6. Mass loss from solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.

    1985-01-01

    The present picture of mass loss from solar-type (low-mass) stars is described, with special emphasis on winds from pre-main-sequence stars. Attention is given to winds from T Tauri stars and to angular momentum loss. Prospects are good for further advances in our understanding of the powerful mass loss observed from young stars; ultraviolet spectra obtainable with the Space Telescope should provide better estimates of mass loss rates and a clearer picture of physical conditions in the envelopes of these stars. To understand the mass ejection from old, slowly rotating main-sequence stars, we will have to study the sun.

  7. A reflection model for eclipsing binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    A highly accurate reflection model has been developed which emphasizes efficiency of computer calculation. It is assumed that the heating of the irradiated star must depend upon the following properties of the irradiating star: (1) effective temperature; (2) apparent area as seen from a point on the surface of the irradiated star; (3) limb darkening; and (4) zenith distance of the apparent centre as seen from a point on the surface of the irradiated star. The algorithm eliminates the need to integrate over the irradiating star while providing a highly accurate representation of the integrated bolometric flux, even for gravitationally distorted stars.

  8. Exploding Stars and Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of a pattern of X-ray "stripes" in the remains of an exploded star may provide the first direct evidence that a cosmic event can accelerate particles to energies a hundred times higher than achieved by the most powerful particle accelerator on Earth. This result comes from a very long observation of the Tycho supernova remnant with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. It could explain how some of the extremely energetic particles bombarding the Earth, called cosmic rays, are produced. "We've seen lots of intriguing structures in supernova remnants, but we've never seen stripes before," said Kristoffer Eriksen, a postdoctoral researcher at Rutgers University who led the study. "This made us think very hard about what's happening in the blast wave of this powerful explosion." This latest study from Chandra provides support for a theory about how magnetic fields can be dramatically amplified in such blast waves. In this theory, the magnetic fields become highly tangled and the motions of the particles very turbulent near the expanding supernova shock wave at the front edge of the supernova remnant. High-energy charged particles can bounce back and forth across the shock wave repeatedly, gaining energy with each crossing. Theoretical models of the motion of the most energetic particles -- which are mostly protons -- are predicted to leave a messy network of holes and dense walls corresponding to weak and strong regions of magnetic fields, respectively. The X-ray stripes discovered by the Chandra researchers are thought to be regions where the turbulence is greater and the magnetic fields more tangled than surrounding areas, and may be the walls predicted by the theory. Electrons become trapped in these regions and emit X-rays as they spiral around the magnetic field lines. However, the regular and almost periodic pattern of the X-ray stripes was not predicted by the theory. "It was a big surprise to find such a neatly arranged set of stripes," said co

  9. A linguist's angle on the Star of Bethlehem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Richard

    2008-10-01

    There is no shortage of suggestions for the astronomical events that may have given rise to the Bible's descriptions of the Star of Bethlehem. In this account, I consider the question from a linguist's point of view, focusing on the language used to describe phenomena in the sky around 2000 years ago. What would an astrologer have meant by ``we have seen his star in the East''? And what events might have been both visible in the conditions described, and considered of significance? Scholars working in this area cluster in groups: the comet group, the planetary group, the supernova group, and so on. None has yet succeeded in delivering a fatal blow to the others' accounts. I may be in a group of one for the time being: the astrological group. I present here a type of argument that may reconcile astronomical events, astrological learning of 2000 years ago and biblical accounts.

  10. Star Formation in Dusty Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumsden, Stuart; Croom, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Quasar mode feedback is thought to be a crucial ingredient in galaxy formation for luminous merging and star-bursting systems at high redshift. The energy from the active nucleus should cause significant gas outflows, reducing the available free gas reservoir for future star formation. It is currently unknown which observational state best corresponds to the stage at which this "blowout" should occur. We intend to test one possible source population for this transition phase, by studying the molecular gas content in a small, statistically complete sample of 3 K-band selected reddened quasars from the AUS survey. All lie in the redshift range 2stars for form as well.

  11. Barium Stars and Thermohaline Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Husti, Laura

    2008-01-24

    Barium stars are formed in binary systems through mass transfer from the carbon and s-element rich primary in the AGB phase, to the secondary star which is in a less evolved evolutionary stage. The mixing of the accreted material from the AGB donor with the envelope of the secondary results in a dilution of the s-element abundances. Dilution in red giants is explained by the occurence of the first dredge up, while in case of dwarfs thermohaline mixing would determine it. A comparison between the theoretical predictions of the AGB stellar models and the spectroscopical observations of a large samplemore » of barium stars has been made. Dilution due to thermohaline mixing was taken into account when searching for best fits of the observational data. The importance of thermohaline mixing in barium dwarfs is discussed.« less

  12. Heavy Elements and Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Norris, Ryan P.

    2008-01-01

    We report on progress in the analysis of high-resolution near-IR spectra of alpha Orionis (M2 Iab) and other cool, luminous stars. Using synthetic spectrum techniques, we search for atomic absorption lines in the stellar spectra and evaluate the available line parameter data for use in our abundance analyses. Our study concentrates on the post iron-group elements copper through zirconium as a means of investigating the slow neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis in massive stars and the mechanisms that transport recently processed material up into the photospheric region. We discuss problems with the atomic data and model atmospheres that need to be addressed before theoretically derived elemental abundances from pre-supernova nucleosynthesis calculations can be tested by comparison with abundances determined from observations of cool, massive stars.

  13. Lightweight Double Neutron Star Found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    More than forty years after the first discovery of a double neutron star, we still havent found many others but a new survey is working to change that.The Hunt for PairsThe observed shift in the Hulse-Taylor binarys orbital period over time as it loses energy to gravitational-wave emission. [Weisberg Taylor, 2004]In 1974, Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor discovered the first double neutron star: two compact objects locked in a close orbit about each other. Hulse and Taylors measurements of this binarys decaying orbit over subsequent years led to a Nobel prize and the first clear evidence of gravitational waves carrying energy and angular momentum away from massive binaries.Forty years later, we have since confirmed the existence of gravitational waves directly with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Nonetheless, finding and studying pre-merger neutron-star binaries remains a top priority. Observing such systems before they merge reveals crucial information about late-stage stellar evolution, binary interactions, and the types of gravitational-wave signals we expect to find with current and future observatories.Since the Hulse-Taylor binary, weve found a total of 16 additional double neutron-star systems which represents only a tiny fraction of the more than 2,600 pulsars currently known. Recently, however, a large number of pulsar surveys are turning their eyes toward the sky, with a focus on finding more double neutron stars and at least one of them has had success.The pulse profile for PSR J1411+2551 at 327 MHz. [Martinez et al. 2017]A Low-Mass DoubleConducted with the 1,000-foot Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, the Arecibo 327 MHz Drift Pulsar Survey has enabled the recent discovery of dozens of pulsars and transients. Among them, as reported by Jose Martinez (Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy) and coauthors in a recent publication, is PSR J1411+2551: a new double neutron star with one of the lowest masses ever measured

  14. A Sparkling Spray of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    The festive season has arrived for astronomers at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in the form of this dramatic new image. It shows the swirling gas around the region known as NGC 2264 -- an area of sky that includes the sparkling blue baubles of the Christmas Tree star cluster. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 48/08 NGC 2264 and the Christmas Tree cluster NGC 2264 lies about 2600 light-years from Earth in the obscure constellation of Monoceros, the Unicorn, not far from the more familiar figure of Orion, the Hunter. The image shows a region of space about 30 light-years across. William Herschel discovered this fascinating object during his great sky surveys in the late 18th century. He first noticed the bright cluster in January 1784 and the brightest part of the visually more elusive smudge of the glowing gas clouds at Christmas nearly two years later. The cluster is very bright and can easily be seen with binoculars. With a small telescope (whose lenses will turn the view upside down) the stars resemble the glittering lights on a Christmas tree. The dazzling star at the top is even bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It is a massive multiple star system that only emerged from the dust and gas a few million years ago. As well as the cluster there are many interesting and curious structures in the gas and dust. At the bottom of the frame, the dark triangular feature is the evocative Cone Nebula, a region of molecular gas flooded by the harsh light of the brightest cluster members. The region to the right of the brightest star has a curious, fur-like texture that has led to the name Fox Fur Nebula. Much of the image appears red because the huge gas clouds are glowing under the intense ultra-violet light coming from the energetic hot young stars. The stars themselves appear blue as they are hotter, younger and more massive than our own Sun. Some of this blue light is scattered by dust, as can be seen occurring in the upper part of the image. This

  15. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    DOE PAGES

    Kaminski, Matthias; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Bleicher, Marcus; ...

    2016-06-28

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. Here, the resulting chiral transportmore » effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.« less

  16. Polar orbits around binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Oks proposes the existence of a new class of stable planetary orbits around binary stars, in the shape of a helix on a conical surface whose axis of symmetry coincides with the interstellar axis, and rotates with the same orbital frequency as the binary pair. We show that this claim relies on the inappropriate use of an effective potential that is only applicable when the stars are held motionless. We also present numerical evidence that the only planetary orbits whose planes are initially orthogonal to the interstellar axis that remain stable on the time scale of the stellar orbit are ordinary polar orbits around one of the stars, and that the perturbations due to the binary companion do not rotate the plane of the orbit to maintain a fixed relationship with the axis.

  17. Multifrequency observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of symbiotic stars is described, and the results of multifrequency observations made during the past two decades are presented. Observational data identify symbiotic stars as long-period binary systems that can be divided into two basic physical classes: detached symbiotics containing a red giant (or a Mira variable), and semidetached symbiotics containing a lobe-filling red giant and a solar-type main sequence star. Three components are typically observed: (1) the cool giant component with an effective temperature of 2500-4000 K, which can be divided by the IR spectral classification into normal M giants (S-types) and heavily reddened Mira variables (D-types); (2) the hot companion displaying a bright blue continuum at UV wavelengths, which is sometimes also an X-ray source; and (3) a gaseous nebula enveloping the binary.

  18. PRISM Polarimetry of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkstra, Brennan; Lomax, Jamie R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Skiff, Brian; Covey, Kevin R.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We present the early results from our long-term, multi-epoch filter polarization survey of massive stars in and around young Galactic clusters. These BVRI polarization data were obtained using the PRISM instrument mounted on the 1.8m Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory. We first detail the creation of our new semi-automated polarization data reduction pipeline that we developed to process these data. Next, we present our analysis of the instrumental polarization properties of the PRISM instrument, via observations of polarized and unpolarized standard stars. Finally, we present early results on the total and intrinsic polarization behavior of several isolated, previously suggested classical Be stars, and discuss these results in the context of the larger project.BK acknowledges support from a NSF/REU at the University of Oklahoma. This program was also supported by NSF-AST 11411563, 1412110, and 1412135.

  19. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  20. A brightness-referenced star identification algorithm for APS star trackers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-10-08

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4~5 times that of the pyramid method and 35~37 times that of the geometric method.

  1. DEBRIS DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS: OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Sierchio, J. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.

    2010-04-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS observations at 24 {mu}m of 37 solar-type stars in the Pleiades and combine them with previous observations to obtain a sample of 71 stars. We report that 23 stars, or 32% +- 6.8%, have excesses at 24 {mu}m at least 10% above their photospheric emission. We compare our results with studies of debris disks in other open clusters and with a study of A stars to show that debris disks around solar-type stars at 115 Myr occur at nearly the same rate as around A-type stars. We analyze the effects of binarity and X-ray activity onmore » the excess flux. Stars with warm excesses tend not to be in equal-mass binary systems, possibly due to clearing of planetesimals by binary companions in similar orbits. We find that the apparent anti-correlations in the incidence of excess and both the rate of stellar rotation and also the level of activity as judged by X-ray emission are statistically weak.« less

  2. Silicate Crystal Formation in the Disk of an Erupting Star Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-13

    This artist's concept illustrates how silicate crystals like those found in comets can be created by an outburst from a growing star. The image shows a young sun-like star encircled by its planet-forming disk of gas and dust. The silicate that makes up most of the dust would have begun as non-crystallized, amorphous particles. Streams of material are seen spiraling from the disk onto the star increasing its mass and causing the star to brighten and heat up dramatically. The outburst causes temperatures to rise in the star's surrounding disk. The animation (figure 1) zooms into the disk to show close-ups of silicate particles. When the disk warms from the star's outburst, the amorphous particles of silicate melt. As they cool off, they transform into forsterite (figure 2), a type of silicate crystal often found in comets in our solar system. In April 2008, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope detected evidence of this process taking place on the disk of a young sun-like star called EX Lupi. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12008

  3. A Search for Circumstellar Gas-Disk Variability in F-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Ally; Montgomery, Sharon Lynn; Welsh, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Over the past six years, short-term (night-to-night) variability in the CaII K-line (3933Å) absorption has been detected towards 22 rapidly-rotating A-type stars, all but four of them discovered by us. Most of these stars are young (age < 100 million years) and possess dusty debris disks as evidenced by their infrared excesses. The variability is thought to be due to kilometer-sized planetesimals (i.e., exocomets) that release gas during their catastrophic in-falls towards their central star. To expand the relatively small number of systems showing this type of variability, we conducted a search amongst nearby, rapidly-rotating, F-type stars. Here, we present high signal-to-noise, medium-resolution spectral observations of the CaII K-line absorption (R≈60,000) recorded towards seven F-type stars. Six of these stars were observed multiple times over the course of our seven-night run on the 2.1-meter Otto Struve Telescope (McDonald Observatory) during June 2017. The appearance or absence of similar short-lived, Doppler-shifted absorption in F-type stars serves as a test of our understanding of the underlying phenomena.

  4. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is

  5. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Worley, C. C.; Pancino, E.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Magrini, L.; Bergemann, M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Hill, V.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lind, K.; Masseron, T.; Montes, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Nordlander, T.; Recio Blanco, A.; Sobeck, J.; Sordo, R.; Sousa, S. G.; Tabernero, H.; Vallenari, A.; Van Eck, S.

    2014-04-01

    Context. To calibrate automatic pipelines that determine atmospheric parameters of stars, one needs a sample of stars, or "benchmark stars", with well-defined parameters to be used as a reference. Aims: We provide detailed documentation of the iron abundance determination of the 34 FGK-type benchmark stars that are selected to be the pillars for calibration of the one billion Gaia stars. They cover a wide range of temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities. Methods: Up to seven different methods were used to analyze an observed spectral library of high resolutions and high signal-to-noise ratios. The metallicity was determined by assuming a value of effective temperature and surface gravity obtained from fundamental relations; that is, these parameters were known a priori and independently from the spectra. Results: We present a set of metallicity values obtained in a homogeneous way for our sample of benchmark stars. In addition to this value, we provide detailed documentation of the associated uncertainties. Finally, we report a value of the metallicity of the cool giant ψ Phe for the first time. Based on NARVAL and HARPS data obtained within the Gaia DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group and on data retrieved from the ESO-ADP database.Tables 6-76 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A133

  6. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  7. The Fate of Merging Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    A rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron star is one possible outcome when two smaller neutron stars merge. [Casey Reed/Penn State University]When two neutron stars collide, the new object that they make can reveal information about the interior physics of neutron stars. New theoretical work explores what we should be seeing, and what it can teach us.Neutron Star or Black Hole?So far, the only systems from which weve detected gravitational waves are merging black holes. But other compact-object binaries exist and are expected to merge on observable timescales in particular, binary neutron stars. When two neutron stars merge, the resulting object falls into one of three categories:a stable neutron star,a black hole, ora supramassive neutron star, a large neutron star thats supported by its rotation but will eventually collapse to a black hole after it loses angular momentum.Histograms of the initial (left) and final (right) distributions of objects in the authors simulations, for five different equations of state. Most cases resulted primarily in the formation of neutron stars (NSs) or supramassive neutron stars (sNSs), not black holes (BHs). [Piro et al. 2017]Whether a binary-neutron-star merger results in another neutron star, a black hole, or a supramassive neutron star depends on the final mass of the remnant and what the correct equation of state is that describes the interiors of neutron stars a longstanding astrophysical puzzle.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Anthony Piro (Carnegie Observatories) estimated which of these outcomes we should expect for mergers of binary neutron stars. The teams results along with future observations of binary neutron stars may help us to eventually pin down the equation of state for neutron stars.Merger OutcomesPiro and collaborators used relativistic calculations of spinning and non-spinning neutron stars to estimate the mass range that neutron stars would have for several different realistic equations of

  8. A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host.

    PubMed

    Gaudi, B Scott; Stassun, Keivan G; Collins, Karen A; Beatty, Thomas G; Zhou, George; Latham, David W; Bieryla, Allyson; Eastman, Jason D; Siverd, Robert J; Crepp, Justin R; Gonzales, Erica J; Stevens, Daniel J; Buchhave, Lars A; Pepper, Joshua; Johnson, Marshall C; Colon, Knicole D; Jensen, Eric L N; Rodriguez, Joseph E; Bozza, Valerio; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; D'Ago, Giuseppe; Dumont, Mary T; Ellis, Tyler; Gaillard, Clement; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David H; Fukui, Akihiko; Gregorio, Joao; Ito, Ayaka; Kielkopf, John F; Manner, Mark; Matt, Kyle; Narita, Norio; Oberst, Thomas E; Reed, Phillip A; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Stephens, Denice C; Yeigh, Rex R; Zambelli, Roberto; Fulton, B J; Howard, Andrew W; James, David J; Penny, Matthew; Bayliss, Daniel; Curtis, Ivan A; DePoy, D L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Gould, Andrew; Joner, Michael D; Kuhn, Rudolf B; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B; Marshall, Jennifer L; McLeod, Kim K; Pogge, Richard W; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, T G; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2017-06-22

    The amount of ultraviolet irradiation and ablation experienced by a planet depends strongly on the temperature of its host star. Of the thousands of extrasolar planets now known, only six have been found that transit hot, A-type stars (with temperatures of 7,300-10,000 kelvin), and no planets are known to transit the even hotter B-type stars. For example, WASP-33 is an A-type star with a temperature of about 7,430 kelvin, which hosts the hottest known transiting planet, WASP-33b (ref. 1); the planet is itself as hot as a red dwarf star of type M (ref. 2). WASP-33b displays a large heat differential between its dayside and nightside, and is highly inflated-traits that have been linked to high insolation. However, even at the temperature of its dayside, its atmosphere probably resembles the molecule-dominated atmospheres of other planets and, given the level of ultraviolet irradiation it experiences, its atmosphere is unlikely to be substantially ablated over the lifetime of its star. Here we report observations of the bright star HD 195689 (also known as KELT-9), which reveal a close-in (orbital period of about 1.48 days) transiting giant planet, KELT-9b. At approximately 10,170 kelvin, the host star is at the dividing line between stars of type A and B, and we measure the dayside temperature of KELT-9b to be about 4,600 kelvin. This is as hot as stars of stellar type K4 (ref. 5). The molecules in K stars are entirely dissociated, and so the primary sources of opacity in the dayside atmosphere of KELT-9b are probably atomic metals. Furthermore, KELT-9b receives 700 times more extreme-ultraviolet radiation (that is, with wavelengths shorter than 91.2 nanometres) than WASP-33b, leading to a predicted range of mass-loss rates that could leave the planet largely stripped of its envelope during the main-sequence lifetime of the host star.

  9. Pipsqueak Star Unleashes Monster Flare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA release date May 9, 2008 An artist depicts the incredibly powerful flare that erupted from the red dwarf star EV Lacertae. Credit: Casey Reed/NASA To read more about this image go to: www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/pipsqueak_star.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. Star-Shaped Conjugated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Detert, Heiner; Lehmann, Matthias; Meier, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The present review deals with the preparation and the properties of star-shaped conjugated compounds. Three, four or six conjugated arms are attached to cross-conjugated cores, which consist of single atoms (B, C+, N), benzene or azine rings or polycyclic ring systems, as for example triphenylene or tristriazolotriazine. Many of these shape-persistent [n]star compounds tend to π-stacking and self-organization, and exhibit interesting properties in materials science: Linear and non-linear optics, electrical conductivity, electroluminescence, formation of liquid crystalline phases, etc.

  11. Neutrino Processes in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of these lectures is to introduce basic processes responsible for cooling of neutron stars and to show how to calculate the neutrino production rate in dense strongly interacting nuclear medium. The formalism is presented that treats on equal footing one-nucleon and multiple-nucleon processes and reactions with virtual bosonic modes and condensates. We demonstrate that neutrino emission from dense hadronic component in neutron stars is subject of strong modifications due to collective effects in the nuclear matter. With the most important in-medium processes incorporated in the cooling code an overall agreement with available soft X ray data can be easily achieved. With these findings the so-called “standard” and “non-standard” cooling scenarios are replaced by one general “nuclear medium cooling scenario” which relates slow and rapid neutron star coolings to the star masses (interior densities). The lectures are split in four parts. Part I: After short introduction to the neutron star cooling problem we show how to calculate neutrino reaction rates of the most efficient one-nucleon and two-nucleon processes. No medium effects are taken into account in this instance. The effects of a possible nucleon pairing are discussed. We demonstrate that the data on neutron star cooling cannot be described without inclusion of medium effects. It motivates an assumption that masses of the neutron stars are different and that neutrino reaction rates should be strongly density dependent. Part II: We introduce the Green’s function diagram technique for systems in and out of equilibrium and the optical theorem formalism. The latter allows to perform calculations of production rates with full Green’s functions including all off-mass-shell effects. We demonstrate how this formalism works within the quasiparticle approximation. Part III: The basic concepts of the nuclear Fermi liquid approach are introduced. We show how strong interaction effects can be

  12. RS CVn stars - Chromospheric phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    The observational information regarding chromospheric emission features in surface-active RS CVn stars is reviewed. Three optical features are considered in detail: Ca II H and K, Balmer H-alpha and He I 10830 A. While the qualitative behavior of these lines is in accord with solar-analogy/rotation-activity ideas, the quantitative variation and scaling are very poorly understood. In many cases, the spectroscopic observations with sufficient SNR and resolution to decide these questions have simply not yet been made. The FK Com stars, in particular, present extreme examples of rotation that may well tax present understanding of surface activity to its limits.

  13. Star City, Russia Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Senter, Cedric H.; Roden, Sean K.; Gilmore, Stevan; Powers, William E.; Alexander, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the NASA/Mir missions, NASA has had astronauts in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, with crewmembers currently there to train for the International Space Station missions. Agreements have been reached with all International Partners that allow the crewmember's parent agency to provide a flight surgeon to oversee crewmember health and safety during training away from home. NASA Medical Operations through the Bioastronautics Contract employs flight surgeons to provide medical support for U.S. crewmembers and their support staff. This poster presentation reviews the aspects of NASA medical operations at Star City.

  14. Reconnaissance of the Nearby Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Todd

    1999-01-01

    Accomplishments by the PI during this grant period include: 1. Creating, enhancing, and testing the NStars Database website. During the spring and summer of 1999, the PI performed roughly a dozen extensive "stress tests" of the website. Each test included checking data for individual stars and conducting searches that produced lists of stars from the Database to verify that each entry was correct. In the process, errors were discovered and rectified before the website was made public in July 1999. 2. "Advertising" NStars as a Project to astronomers worldwide. 3. Providing data that has been incorporated into the NStars Database. 4. Observations in Support of the NStars Project.

  15. MMT HYPERVELOCITY STAR SURVEY. II. FIVE NEW UNBOUND STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of five new unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) in the outer Milky Way halo. Using a conservative estimate of Galactic escape velocity, our targeted spectroscopic survey has now identified 16 unbound HVSs as well as a comparable number of HVSs ejected on bound trajectories. A Galactic center origin for the HVSs is supported by their unbound velocities, the observed number of unbound stars, their stellar nature, their ejection time distribution, and their Galactic latitude and longitude distribution. Other proposed origins for the unbound HVSs, such as runaway ejections from the disk or dwarf galaxy tidal debris, cannotmore » be reconciled with the observations. An intriguing result is the spatial anisotropy of HVSs on the sky, which possibly reflects an anisotropic potential in the central 10-100 pc region of the Galaxy. Further progress requires measurement of the spatial distribution of HVSs over the southern sky. Our survey also identifies seven B supergiants associated with known star-forming galaxies; the absence of B supergiants elsewhere in the survey implies there are no new star-forming galaxies in our survey footprint to a depth of 1-2 Mpc.« less

  16. College Students' Preinstructional Ideas about Stars and Star Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Prather, Edward E.; Johnson, Bruce; Slater, Timothy F.

    2009-01-01

    This study (Note 1) investigated the beliefs about stars that students hold when they enter an undergraduate introductory astronomy course for nonscience majors. Students' preinstructional ideas were investigated through the use of several student-supplied-response (SSR) surveys, which asked students to describe their ideas about topics such as…

  17. Massive binary stars as a probe of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.

    2010-10-01

    Massive stars are among the largest and most influential objects we know of on a sub-galactic scale. Binary systems, composed of at least one of these stars, may be responsible for several types of phenomena, including type Ib/c supernovae, short and long gamma ray bursts, high-velocity runaway O and B-type stars, and the density of the parent star clusters. Our understanding of these stars has met with limited success, especially in the area of their formation. Current formation theories rely on the accumulated statistics of massive binary systems that are limited because of their sample size or the inhomogeneous environments from which the statistics are collected. The purpose of this work is to provide a higher-level analysis of close massive binary characteristics using the radial velocity information of 113 massive stars (B3 and earlier) and binary orbital properties for the 19 known close massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. This work provides an analysis using the largest amount of massive star and binary information ever compiled for an O-star rich cluster like Cygnus OB2, and compliments other O-star binary studies such as NGC 6231, NGC 2244, and NGC 6611. I first report the discovery of 73 new O or B-type stars and 13 new massive binaries by this survey. This work involved the use of 75 successful nights of spectroscopic observation at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory in addition to observations obtained using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph at WIYN, the HIRES echelle spectrograph at KECK, and the Hamilton spectrograph at LICK. I use these data to estimate the spectrophotometric distance to the cluster and to measure the mean systemic velocity and the one-sided velocity dispersion of the cluster. Finally, I compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo models, the results of which indicate that the binary fraction of the cluster is 57 +/- 5% and that the indices for the power law distributions, describing the log of the periods, mass

  18. Gravitational Waves from Fallback Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Thrane, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Massive stars generally end their lives as neutron stars (NSs) or black holes (BHs), with NS formation typically occurring at the low-mass end and collapse to a BH more likely at the high-mass end. In an intermediate regime, with a mass range that depends on the uncertain details of rotation and mass loss during the star's life, an NS is initially formed, which then experiences fallback accretion and collapse to a BH. The electromagnetic consequence of such an event is not clear. Depending on the progenitor's structure, possibilities range from a long gamma-ray burst to a Type II supernova (which may or may not be jet powered) to a collapse with a weak electromagnetic signature. Gravitational waves (GWs) provide the exciting opportunity to peer through the envelope of a dying massive star and directly probe what is occurring inside. We explore whether fallback onto young NSs can be detected by ground-based interferometers. When the incoming material has sufficient angular momentum to form a disk, the accretion spins up the NS sufficiently to produce non-axisymmetric instabilities and gravitational radiation at frequencies of ~700-2400 Hz for ~30-3000 s until collapse to a BH occurs. Using a realistic excess cross-power search algorithm, we show that such events are detectable by Advanced LIGO out to ≈17 Mpc. From the rate of nearby core-collapse supernovae in the past five years, we estimate that there will be ~1-2 events each year that are worth checking for fallback GWs. The observation of these unique GW signatures coincident with electromagnetic detections would identify the transient events that are associated with this channel of BH formation, while providing information about the protoneutron star progenitor.

  19. Spitzer Digs Up Hidden Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 3-Panel Version Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible Light Figure 2 Infrared (IRAC) Figure 3 Combined Figure 4

    Two rambunctious young stars are destroying their natal dust cloud with powerful jets of radiation, in an infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The stars are located approximately 600 light-years away in a cosmic cloud called BHR 71. In visible light (left panel), BHR 71 is just a large black structure. The burst of yellow light toward the bottom of the cloud is the only indication that stars might be forming inside. In infrared light (center panel), the baby stars are shown as the bright yellow smudges toward the center. Both of these yellow spots have wisps of green shooting out of them. The green wisps reveal the beginning of a jet. Like a rainbow, the jet begins as green, then transitions to orange, and red toward the end. The combined visible-light and infrared composite (right panel) shows that a young star's powerful jet is responsible for the rupture at the bottom of the dense cloud in the visible-light image. Astronomers know this because burst of light in the visible-light image overlaps exactly with a jet spouting-out of the left star, in the infrared image.

    The jets' changing colors reveal a cooling effect, and may suggest that the young stars are spouting out radiation in regular bursts. The green tints at the beginning of the jet reveal really hot hydrogen gas, the orange shows warm gas, and the reddish wisps at the end represent the coolest gas. The fact that gas toward the beginning of the jet is hotter than gas near the middle suggests that the stars must give off regular bursts of energy -- and the material closest to the star is being heated by shockwaves from a recent stellar outburst. Meanwhile, the tints of orange reveal gas that is

  20. Star formation: Sibling rivalry begins at birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution astronomical observations of a nearby molecular gas cloud have revealed a quadruplet of stars in the act of formation. The system is arguably the youngest multiple star system detected so far. See Letter p.213

  1. Lighting up a Dead Star Layers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-26

    This image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope shows the scattered remains of an exploded star named Cassiopeia A. Spitzer infrared detectors picked through these remains and found that much of the star original layering had been preserved.

  2. Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    M16 (the Eagle Nebula) is a striking star forming region, with a complex morphology of gas and dust sculpted by the massive stars in NGC 6611. Detailed studies of the famous ``elephant trunks'' dramatically increased our understanding of the massive star feedback into the parent molecular cloud. A rich young stellar population (2-3 Myr) has been identified, from massive O-stars down to substellar masses. Deep into the remnant molecular material, embedded protostars, Herbig-Haro objects and maser sources bear evidence of ongoing star formation in the nebula, possibly triggered by the massive cluster members. M 16 is a excellent template for the study of star formation under the hostile environment created by massive O-stars. This review aims at providing an observational overview not only of the young stellar population but also of the gas remnant of the star formation process.

  3. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  4. Stray Stars Scattered in Space Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    This artist concept shows a view of a number of galaxies sitting in huge halos of stars. The stars are too distant to be seen individually and instead are seen as a diffuse glow, colored yellow in this illustration.

  5. Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.

    2018-05-01

    Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  6. Hubble View of a Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-21

    This image of a dying star, protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306, containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. Taken by NASA Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

  7. Multiplicity among chemically peculiar stars. II. Cool magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, F.; North, P.; Udry, S.; Babel, J.

    2002-10-01

    We present new orbits for sixteen Ap spectroscopic binaries, four of which might in fact be Am stars, and give their orbital elements. Four of them are SB2 systems: HD 5550, HD 22128, HD 56495 and HD 98088. The twelve other stars are: HD 9996, HD 12288, HD 40711, HD 54908, HD 65339, HD 73709, HD 105680, HD 138426, HD 184471, HD 188854, HD 200405 and HD 216533. Rough estimates of the individual masses of the components of HD 65339 (53 Cam) are given, combining our radial velocities with the results of speckle interferometry and with Hipparcos parallaxes. Considering the mass functions of 74 spectroscopic binaries from this work and from the literature, we conclude that the distribution of the mass ratio is the same for cool Ap stars and for normal G dwarfs. Therefore, the only differences between binaries with normal stars and those hosting an Ap star lie in the period distribution: except for the case of HD 200405, all orbital periods are longer than (or equal to) 3 days. A consequence of this peculiar distribution is a deficit of null eccentricities. There is no indication that the secondary has a special nature, like e.g. a white dwarf. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France. Tables 1 to 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/394/151 Appendix B is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  8. Weighing Ultra-Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    Large Ground-Based Telescopes and Hubble Team-Up to Perform First Direct Brown Dwarf Mass Measurement [1] Summary Using ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal and a suite of ground- and space-based telescopes in a four-year long study, an international team of astronomers has measured for the first time the mass of an ultra-cool star and its companion brown dwarf. The two stars form a binary system and orbit each other in about 10 years. The team obtained high-resolution near-infrared images; on the ground, they defeated the blurring effect of the terrestrial atmosphere by means of adaptive optics techniques. By precisely determining the orbit projected on the sky, the astronomers were able to measure the total mass of the stars. Additional data and comparison with stellar models then yield the mass of each of the components. The heavier of the two stars has a mass around 8.5% of the mass of the Sun and its brown dwarf companion is even lighter, only 6% of the solar mass. Both objects are relatively young with an age of about 500-1,000 million years. These observations represent a decisive step towards the still missing calibration of stellar evolution models for very-low mass stars. PR Photo 19a/04: Orbit of the ultra-cool stars in 2MASSW J0746425+2000321. PR Photo 19b/04: Animated Gif of the orbital motion. Telephone number star Even though astronomers have found several hundreds of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, the fundamental properties of these extreme objects, such as masses and surface temperatures, are still not well known. Within the cosmic zoo, these ultra-cool stars represent a class of "intermediate" objects between giant planets - like Jupiter - and "normal" stars less massive than our Sun, and to understand them well is therefore crucial to the field of stellar astrophysics. The problem with these ultra-cool stars is that contrary to normal stars that burn hydrogen in their central core, no unique relation exists between the luminosity of the

  9. Search of massive star formation with COMICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko K.

    2004-04-01

    Mid-infrared observations is useful for studies of massive star formation. Especially COMICS offers powerful tools: imaging survey of the circumstellar structures of forming massive stars such as massive disks and cavity structures, mass estimate from spectroscopy of fine structure lines, and high dispersion spectroscopy to census gas motion around formed stars. COMICS will open the next generation infrared studies of massive star formation.

  10. The problem of the barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  11. Mode identification in Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aizenmen, M. L.; Lesh, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The essential observational characteristics related to mode identification are summarized. Major emphasis is placed on the following: both light and velocity amplitudes; typical periods in both light and radial velocity; the light curve for Beta Cephei stars in comparison to the classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars; the van Hoof effect with respect to the radial velocity curves in many Beta Cephei stars; and the line profiles of many Beta Cephei stars.

  12. Location of WR stars in NGC 6744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibby, Joanne; Crowther, Paul; Sandford, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Following our recent survey of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in NGC 6744 we present a preliminary investigation into the location of these stars. Using high spatial resolution Hα images we find that the majority of WR stars are associated with nebular emission, albeit faint in many cases. We can use this HII association to constrain the lifetime and mass of the WR star since HII regions are such short-lived.

  13. UTILIZING SYNTHETIC VISIBLE SPECTRA TO EXPLORE THE PHYSICAL BASIS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAMBDA BOÖTIS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.

    Since the peculiar nature of Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, the Lambda Boo stars have been recognized as a group of peculiar A-type stars. They are Population I dwarfs that show deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but have near-solar C, N, O, and S abundances. In a previous paper, we used both observed and synthetic ultraviolet spectra to demonstrate that the C i 1657 Å/Al ii 1671 Å equivalent width ratio can help distinguish between Lambda Boo stars and other metal-weak stars hotter than 8000 K. In this paper, using observed and synthetic visible (4000–6800more » Å) spectra, we demonstrate that the C i 5052.17 Å/Mg ii 4481 Å equivalent width ratio can be used as a quantitative diagnostic for cooler Lambda Boo stars.« less

  14. Utilizing Synthetic Visible Spectra to Explore the Physical Basis for the Classification of Lambda Boötis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.; Romo, Christopher A.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the peculiar nature of Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, the Lambda Boo stars have been recognized as a group of peculiar A-type stars. They are Population I dwarfs that show deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but have near-solar C, N, O, and S abundances. In a previous paper, we used both observed and synthetic ultraviolet spectra to demonstrate that the C I 1657 Å/Al II 1671 Å equivalent width ratio can help distinguish between Lambda Boo stars and other metal-weak stars hotter than 8000 K. In this paper, using observed and synthetic visible (4000-6800 Å) spectra, we demonstrate that the C I 5052.17 Å/Mg II 4481 Å equivalent width ratio can be used as a quantitative diagnostic for cooler Lambda Boo stars.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Variable stars in M31 and M33. V. HR diagram (Humphreys+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, R. M.; Davidson, K.; Hahn, D.; Martin, J. C.; Weis, K.

    2017-09-01

    We use the large data set published by Massey+ (2016, J/AJ/152/62), together with our own spectral classifications from Papers II (Humphreys+, 2014, J/ApJ/790/48; III (Gordon+, 2016, J/ApJ/825/50), and IV (Humphreys+, 2017, J/ApJ/836/64), to create a catalog of luminous O-, B-, and A-type stars representative of the hot star populations in M31 and M33. (2 data files).

  16. Catching a Falling Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    , etc. This image was obtained by MASCOT on August 25, 2002 and shows a meteor caught in the act. (Note that this is not the meteor whose spectrum was recorded). The Milky Way is also clearly visible in the centre. A popular saying states that when you see a meteor, you may make a wish. While astronomers cannot promise that it will be realised, a team of astronomers [1] have indeed seen a dream come true! On May 12, 2002, they were lucky to record the spectrum of a bright meteor when it happened - by sheer chance and against all reasonable odds - to cross the narrow slit of the FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope. At the time of this unlikely event, the telescope was performing a series of 20-minute spectroscopic exposures of a supernova in a distant galaxy in order to establish constraints on the dark energy content of the Universe (see e.g. ESO PR 21/98). Thanks to its enormous light-collecting and magnifying power, the VLT recorded the spectrum of the meteor trail perpendicular to its path on one of these exposures. "We really hit the jackpot", says ESO astronomer Emmanuel Jehin: "Chances of capturing a meteor in the narrow slit of the FORS1 spectrograph are about as big as for me winning the national lottery." Meteor spectra have on occasion been obtained serendipitously during photographic star spectra surveys. But this is now maybe the only meteor spectrum recorded with a large telescope and a modern spectrograph. The spectrum covers the wavelength range from 637 to 1050 nm, which is dominated by emissions from air atoms and molecules in the meteor path and teach us about the collision processes in the wake of a meteoroid. The rapid motion of the meteor across the sky resulted in a very brief exposure while crossing the narrow spectrograph slit - only 1/50 of a millisecond! - and despite the relative brightness of the meteor it was only thanks to the VLT's great light-gathering power that any record was procured. The meteor was estimated at magnitude

  17. Washington STAR Events Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Homemakers of America, Olympia, WA. Washington Association.

    This manual specifies the criteria for all STAR (Students Taking Action for Recognition) events available to Future Homemakers of America or Home Economics Related Occupations (HERO) chapters and chapter members in Washington State. The first section covers the following topics: general guidelines and requirements, adviser information, tips,…

  18. Dilute and dense axion stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinelli, Luca; Baum, Sebastian; Redondo, Javier; Freese, Katherine; Wilczek, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Axion stars are hypothetical objects formed of axions, obtained as localized and coherently oscillating solutions to their classical equation of motion. Depending on the value of the field amplitude at the core |θ0 | ≡ | θ (r = 0) |, the equilibrium of the system arises from the balance of the kinetic pressure and either self-gravity or axion self-interactions. Starting from a general relativistic framework, we obtain the set of equations describing the configuration of the axion star, which we solve as a function of |θ0 |. For small |θ0 | ≲ 1, we reproduce results previously obtained in the literature, and we provide arguments for the stability of such configurations in terms of first principles. We compare qualitative analytical results with a numerical calculation. For large amplitudes |θ0 | ≳ 1, the axion field probes the full non-harmonic QCD chiral potential and the axion star enters the dense branch. Our numerical solutions show that in this latter regime the axions are relativistic, and that one should not use a single frequency approximation, as previously applied in the literature. We employ a multi-harmonic expansion to solve the relativistic equation for the axion field in the star, and demonstrate that higher modes cannot be neglected in the dense regime. We interpret the solutions in the dense regime as pseudo-breathers, and show that the life-time of such configurations is much smaller than any cosmological time scale.

  19. Precision star-tracking telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbank, W. M.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The design, construction, and preliminary testing of a new high accuracy star tracking telescope for the laboratory model of the Stanford gyro relativity experiment are described. The function of the telescope in the final flight experiment is to define (by reference to a suitable star) a direction in space for comparison with the relativistic precession of a group of gyroscopes. The design of the telescope has been strongly affected by designs for other portions of the overall experiments, for example the gyroscopes, the attitude control system of the satellite, and the instrumentation system used in processing relativity data. Main goals for the star tracker are: (1) independent readout of angular position in two planes; (2) absolute null stability over a one year period of mechanical parts; (3) readout linear to 0.001 arc-seconds over + or - 0.05 arc-second; (4) noise performance leading to a resolution of 0.05 arc-second in 0.1 second observation time of the chosen reference star; and (5) provision for automatic gain control capable of matching the gains of the gyroscopes and telescope readouts to 1% or better.

  20. How Massive Can Stars Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinochet, Jorge; Van Sint Jan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical assessment of the upper limit of a star's mass is a difficult problem which lies at the frontier of astrophysical research. In this article we develop a simple and plausible argument to estimate this value. The value at which we arrive is ~228 solar masses; well within the range of predicted accepted theoretical values. Towards the end…

  1. Jets from Merging Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    With the recent discovery of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes, its especially important to understand the electromagnetic signals resulting from mergers of compact objects. New simulations successfully follow a merger of two neutron stars that produces a short burst of energy via a jet consistent with short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) detections.Still from the authors simulation showing the two neutron stars, and their magnetic fields, before merger. [Adapted from Ruiz et al. 2016]Challenging SystemWe have long suspected that sGRBs are produced by the mergers of compact objects, but this model has been difficult to prove. One major hitch is that modeling the process of merger and sGRB launch is very difficult, due to the fact that these extreme systems involve magnetic fields, fluids and full general relativity.Traditionally, simulations are only able to track such mergers over short periods of time. But in a recent study, Milton Ruiz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Industrial University of Santander, Colombia) and coauthors Ryan Lang, Vasileios Paschalidis and Stuart Shapiro have modeled a binary neutron star system all the way through the process of inspiral, merger, and the launch of a jet.A Merger TimelineHow does this happen? Lets walk through one of the teams simulations, in which dipole magnetic field lines thread through the interior of each neutron star and extend beyond its surface(like magnetic fields found in pulsars). In this example, the two neutron stars each have a mass of 1.625 solar masses.Simulation start (0 ms)Loss of energy via gravitational waves cause the neutron stars to inspiral.Merger (3.5 ms)The neutron stars are stretched by tidal effects and make contact. Their merger produces a hypermassive neutron star that is supported against collapse by its differential (nonuniform) rotation.Delayed collapse into a black hole (21.5 ms)Once the differential rotation is redistributed by magnetic fields and partially

  2. StarBright Learning Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article features StarBright Learning Exchange, a program that provides a cross-cultural exchange between Australian and South African early childhood educators. The program was originated when its president, Carol Allen, and her colleague, Karen Williams, decided that they could no longer sit by and watch the unfolding social catastrophe that…

  3. TW Hydrae Family of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-19

    A sky map taken by NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, shows the location of the TW Hydrae family, or association, of stars, which lies about 175 light-years from Earth and is centered in the Hydra constellation.

  4. Slowly rotating supercompact Schwarzschild stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posada, Camilo

    2017-06-01

    The Schwarzschild interior solution, or 'Schwarzschild star', which describes a spherically symmetric homogeneous mass with a constant energy density, shows a divergence in pressure when the radius of the star reaches the Schwarzschild-Buchdahl bound. Recently, Mazur and Mottola showed that this divergence is integrable through the Komar formula, inducing non-isotropic transverse stresses on a surface of some radius R0. When this radius approaches the Schwarzschild radius Rs = 2 M, the interior solution becomes one of negative pressure evoking a de Sitter space-time. This gravitational condensate star, or gravastar, is an alternative solution to the idea of a black hole as the ultimate state of gravitational collapse. Using Hartle's model to calculate equilibrium configurations of slowly rotating masses, we report results of surface and integral properties for a Schwarzschild star in the very little studied region Rs < R < (9/8)Rs. We found that in the gravastar limit, the angular velocity of the fluid relative to the local inertial frame tends to zero, indicating rigid rotation. Remarkably, the normalized moment of inertia I/MR2 and the mass quadrupole moment Q approach the corresponding values for the Kerr metric to second order in Ω. These results provide a solution to the problem of the source of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole.

  5. Mapping Stars with TI-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsager, Bjorn

    2001-01-01

    Describes a mathematics and science project designed to help students gain some familiarity with constellations and trigonometry by using the TI-83 calculator as a tool. Specific constellations such as the Big Dipper (Plough) and other sets of stars are located using stereographic projection and graphed using scatterplots. (MM)

  6. Phantom stars and topology change

    SciTech Connect

    DeBenedictis, Andrew; Garattini, Remo; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2008-11-15

    In this work, we consider time-dependent dark-energy star models, with an evolving parameter {omega} crossing the phantom divide {omega}=-1. Once in the phantom regime, the null energy condition is violated, which physically implies that the negative radial pressure exceeds the energy density. Therefore, an enormous negative pressure in the center may, in principle, imply a topology change, consequently opening up a tunnel and converting the dark-energy star into a wormhole. The criteria for this topology change are discussed and, in particular, we consider a Casimir energy approach involving quasilocal energy difference calculations that may reflect or measure the occurrence ofmore » a topology change. We denote these exotic geometries consisting of dark-energy stars (in the phantom regime) and phantom wormholes as phantom stars. The final product of this topological change, namely, phantom wormholes, have far-reaching physical and cosmological implications, as in addition to being used for interstellar shortcuts, an absurdly advanced civilization may manipulate these geometries to induce closed timelike curves, consequently violating causality.« less

  7. Beastly Stars and a Bubble

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-28

    A star-forming region shines from the considerable distance of more than 30,000 light-years away in the upper left of this image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. This image is a combination of data from Spitzer and the Two Micron All Sky Survey.

  8. Imaging Variable Stars with HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2011-05-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of astronomical sources, ranging from objects in our solar system to objects in the early Universe, have revolutionized our knowledge of the Universe its origins and contents.I will highlight results from HST observations of variable stars obtained during the past twenty or so years. Multiwavelength observations of numerous variable stars and stellar systems were obtained using the superb HST imaging capabilities and its unprecedented angular resolution, especially in the UV and optical. The HST provided the first detailed images probing the structure of variable stars including their atmospheres and circumstellar environments. AAVSO observations and light curves have been critical for scheduling of many of these observations and provided important information and context for understanding of the imaging results of many variable sources. I will describe the scientific results from the imaging observations of variable stars including AGBs, Miras, Cepheids, semi-regular variables (including supergiants and giants), YSOs and interacting stellar systems with a variable stellar components. These results have led to an unprecedented understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these objects and their place in the stellar evolutionary chains, and in the larger context of the dynamic evolving Universe.

  9. Imaging Variable Stars with HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karovska, M.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of astronomical sources, ranging from objects in our solar system to objects in the early Universe, have revolutionized our knowledge of the Universe its origins and contents. I highlight results from HST observations of variable stars obtained during the past twenty or so years. Multiwavelength observations of numerous variable stars and stellar systems were obtained using the superb HST imaging capabilities and its unprecedented angular resolution, especially in the UV and optical. The HST provided the first detailed images probing the structure of variable stars including their atmospheres and circumstellar environments. AAVSO observations and light curves have been critical for scheduling of many of these observations and provided important information and context for understanding of the imaging results of many variable sources. I describe the scientific results from the imaging observations of variable stars including AGBs, Miras, Cepheids, semiregular variables (including supergiants and giants), YSOs and interacting stellar systems with a variable stellar components. These results have led to an unprecedented understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these objects and their place in the stellar evolutionary chains, and in the larger context of the dynamic evolving Universe.

  10. Nuclear Physics of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarewicz, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    One of the overarching questions posed by the recent community report entitled ``Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter'' asks How Does Subatomic Matter Organize Itself and What Phenomena Emerge? With their enormous dynamic range in both density and neutron-proton asymmetry, neutron stars provide ideal laboratories to answer this critical challenge. Indeed, a neutron star is a gold mine for the study of physical phenomena that cut across a variety of disciplines, from particle physics to general relativity. In this presentation--targeted at non-experts--I will focus on the essential role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the dynamics, structure, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I will discuss some of the many exotic states of matter that are speculated to exist in a neutron star and the impact of nuclear-physics experiments on elucidating their fascinating nature. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-FD05-92ER40750.

  11. The Politics of Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  12. STAR: A Number Writing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boom, Susan E.; Fine, Elaine

    1995-01-01

    The STAR (Stop, Think, Ask, Recite) strategy was developed to help a kindergarten student write numerals. The child was encouraged to recite a "saying" while he formed each numeral. For example, to make a "5," the child would say "the man went down the street, around the corner, and his hat blew off." (JDD)

  13. NICER Eyes on Bursting Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    What happens to a neutron stars accretion disk when its surface briefly explodes? A new instrument recently deployed at the International Space Station (ISS) is now watching bursts from neutron stars and reporting back.Deploying a New X-Ray MissionLaunch of NICER aboard a Falcon 9 rocket in June 2017. [NASA/Tony Gray]In early June of 2017, a SpaceX Dragon capsule on a Falcon 9 rocket launched on a resupply mission to the ISS. The pressurized interior of the Dragon contained the usual manifest of crew supplies, spacewalk equipment, and vehicle hardware. But the unpressurized trunk of the capsule held something a little different: the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER).In the two weeks following launch, NICER was extracted from the SpaceX Dragon capsule and installed on the ISS. And by the end of the month, the instrument was already collecting its first data set: observations of a bright X-ray burst from Aql X-1, a neutron star accreting matter from a low-mass binary companion.Impact of BurstsNICERs goal is to provide a new view of neutron-star physics at X-ray energies of 0.212 keV a window that allows us to explore bursts of energy that neutron stars sometimes emit from their surfaces.Artists impression of an X-ray binary, in which a compact object accretes material from a companion star. [ESA/NASA/Felix Mirabel]In X-ray burster systems, hydrogen- and helium-rich material from a low-mass companion star piles up in an accretion disk around the neutron star. This material slowly funnels onto the neutron stars surface, forming a layer that gravitationally compresses and eventually becomes so dense and hot that runaway nuclear fusion ignites.Within seconds, the layer of material is burned up, producing a burst of emission from the neutron star that outshines even the inner regions of the hot accretion disk. Then more material funnels onto the neutron star and the process begins again.Though we have a good picture of the physics that causes these bursts

  14. Obstructions for twist star products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Esposito, Chiara; Waldmann, Stefan; Weber, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    In this short note, we point out that not every star product is induced by a Drinfel'd twist by showing that not every Poisson structure is induced by a classical r-matrix. Examples include the higher genus symplectic Pretzel surfaces and the symplectic sphere S^2.

  15. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    More than 700 luminous stars in the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Skyflux plates were examined for the presence of dust heated by a nearby star. This dust may be distinguished from the ubiquitous cool cirrus by its higher temperature and thus enhanced 60 micron emission. More than 120 dust clouds were found around only 106 of the stars with a volume filling factor of 0.006 and an intercloud separation of 46 pc. A region of dust smoothly distributed through the volume of space heated by the star could not be found and hence an upper limit of 0.05 cm(exp -3) is placed on the equivalent gas density in the intercloud regions. The clouds have an average density of 0.22 cm(exp -3) and a radius of 1.9 pc, albeit with wide variations in their properties. Two different scale heights of 140 and 540 pc were found. This was interpreted as evidence for different distributions of dust in and out of the galactic disk.

  16. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  17. Active star formation in NGC 2264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, P. R.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Odenwald, S. F.; Glaccum, W.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Wolf, G.

    1985-01-01

    The region of NGC 2264 near the cone nebula is the site of active star formation in a rotating ring seen nearly edge on as a two lobed source. Allen's infrared source (IRS 1) surrounds a B3V star still embedded in the southern lobe of the cloud. The northern lobe, IRS 2, also probably contains young stars.

  18. Speed-Demon Star Creates a Shock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-10

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer captured this image of the star Alpha Camelopardalis, or Alpha Cam speeding through the sky like a motorcyclist zipping through rush-hour traffic. The supergiant star Alpha Cam is the bright star in the middle.

  19. DENIS, 2MASS and VLM stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Neill

    1994-01-01

    To a first approximation, every star is an M dwarf - but there are still considerable gaps in our understanding of these stars, particularly in the space density of the lowest mass stars. Fortunately, the 2 micrometer sky surveys are likely to change this state of affairs. In this paper, I review briefly the likely impact of these surveys.

  20. Magnetic Stars After the Hayashi Phase. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2016-06-01

    The problems of the origin and evolution of magnetic stars based on analysis of observational data are discussed. It is assumed that magnetic stars acquire their major properties during the protostellar collapse stage. The properties of magnetic stars after the Hayashi phase are examined in detail.

  1. From Luminous Hot Stars to Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Crowther, Paul A.; Leitherer, Claus

    2012-10-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Observed properties; 3. Stellar atmospheres; 4. Stellar winds; 5. Evolution of single stars; 6. Binaries; 7. Birth of massive stars and star clusters; 8. The interstellar environment; 9. From giant HII regions to HII galaxies; 10. Starburst phenomena; 11. Cosmological implications; References; Index.

  2. The mass distribution of Population III stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Casey, A. R.; Gilmore, G.; Heger, A.; Chan, C.

    2017-06-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are uniquely informative on the nature of massive Population III stars. Modulo a few elements that vary with stellar evolution, the present-day photospheric abundances observed in EMP stars are representative of their natal gas cloud composition. For this reason, the chemistry of EMP stars closely reflects the nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae from massive Population III stars. Here we collate detailed abundances of 53 EMP stars from the literature and infer the masses of their Population III progenitors. We fit a simple initial mass function (IMF) to a subset of 29 of the inferred Population III star masses, and find that the mass distribution is well represented by a power-law IMF with exponent α = 2.35^{+0.29}_{-0.24}. The inferred maximum progenitor mass for supernovae from massive Population III stars is M_{max} = 87^{+13}_{-33} M⊙, and we find no evidence in our sample for a contribution from stars with masses above ˜120 M⊙. The minimum mass is strongly consistent with the theoretical lower mass limit for Population III supernovae. We conclude that the IMF for massive Population III stars is consistent with the IMF of present-day massive stars and there may well have formed stars much below the supernova mass limit that could have survived to the present day.

  3. Massive Young Star and its Cradle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-14

    This star-forming region, captured by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, is dominated by the bright, young star IRAS 13481-6124; it is the first massive baby star for which astronomers could obtain a detailed look at the dusty disk closely encircling it.

  4. WISE Catches a Runaway Star in Flames

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-24

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey captured this view of a runaway star racing away from its original home. Surrounded by a glowing cloud of gas and dust, the star AE Aurigae appears on fire. Appropriately, the cloud is called the Flaming Star nebula.

  5. Formative Assessment Probes: Where Are the Stars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    Gazing at the night sky is a familiar experience for many elementary students. Depending on where children live, they can often look out a window and see the Moon and stars. Children may have seen the Moon and stars in television shows, movies, posters, or children's picture books. Regardless of whether they see the Moon and stars firsthand or…

  6. Geneva mechanism. [including star wheel and driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. H.; Kenney, R. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved Geneva mechanism is characterized by a driven star-wheel having a segmented cam-follower surface. Star-wheel driver includes a restraining cam having a segmented cam surface for engaging the cam-follower surface of the star-wheel and antifriction rollers pinned to the restraining cam for engaging the cam-follower surface.

  7. Observations of southern emission-line stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.

    1976-01-01

    A catalog of 1929 stars showing H-alpha emission on photographic plates is presented which covers the entire southern sky south of declination -25 deg to a red limiting magnitude of about 11.0. The catalog provides previous designations of known emission-line stars equatorial (1900) and galactic coordinates, visual and photographic magnitudes, H-alpha emission parameters, spectral types, and notes on unusual spectral features. The objects listed include 16 M stars, 25 S stars, 37 carbon stars, 20 symbiotic stars, 40 confirmed or suspected T Tauri stars, 16 novae, 14 planetary nebulae, 11 P Cygni stars, 9 Bep stars, 87 confirmed or suspected Wolf-Rayet stars, and 26 'peculiar' stars. Two new T associations are discovered, one in Lupus and one in Chamaeleon. Objects with variations in continuum or H-alpha intensity are noted, and the distribution by spectral type is analyzed. It is found that the sky distribution of these emission-line stars shows significant concentrations in the region of the small Sagittarius cloud and in the Carina region.

  8. "europe Towards the Stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    spectrograph, fitted with the associated detector). In the instrument documentation, you describe the instrument, its design, construction and the test results." A Future Space Mission - Designing an on-board Instrument. "You design an instrument for a future space mission to the outer Solar System. The purpose is to carry out observations of Pluto and Transneptunian Objects. Describe the design, the physical/chemical principles of the instrument and the observations to be made with it. Give examples of some possible results." Theory - Looking into the Future. "You describe a stable planetary system around another star. Your report contains a description of the conditions (inner structure, composition, surface features, atmosphere) of the planets. What are the technical requirements for observing this system from the Earth? Which kind of observations of these objects can be done with available instruments?" None of these subjects are easy to treat, but experience has shown that thanks to very dedicated teachers, the teaching of astronomy takes place at a surprisingly high level at many of Europe's schools. The establishment of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) last year has also resulted in a Europe-wide, increasing interest in these matters and many EAAE members actively promote the present contest and participate in the organisation. Many good entries are therefore expected. The participation is open to pupils in their last or second-to-last year before baccalaureate. In each country, a National Committee has been established that will organise the contest and evaluate the responses. In most cases, the closing date is early October 1995, and the national award ceremonies will take place in early November. Detailed information about this programme may be obtained from the National Committees at the addresses below. A VISIT TO ESO The members of the winning teams from each country will be invited to spend an exciting and informative week at the ESO

  9. A hybrid method for accurate star tracking using star sensor and gyros.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Lie; Zhang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    Star tracking is the primary operating mode of star sensors. To improve tracking accuracy and efficiency, a hybrid method using a star sensor and gyroscopes is proposed in this study. In this method, the dynamic conditions of an aircraft are determined first by the estimated angular acceleration. Under low dynamic conditions, the star sensor is used to measure the star vector and the vector difference method is adopted to estimate the current angular velocity. Under high dynamic conditions, the angular velocity is obtained by the calibrated gyros. The star position is predicted based on the estimated angular velocity and calibrated gyros using the star vector measurements. The results of the semi-physical experiment show that this hybrid method is accurate and feasible. In contrast with the star vector difference and gyro-assisted methods, the star position prediction result of the hybrid method is verified to be more accurate in two different cases under the given random noise of the star centroid.

  10. Anatomy of a Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    A close-up view of a star racing through space faster than a speeding bullet can be seen in this image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The star, called Mira (pronounced My-rah), is traveling at 130 kilometers per second, or 291,000 miles per hour. As it hurls along, it sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life.

    In this image, Mira is moving from left to right. It is visible as the pinkish dot in the bulb shape at right. The yellow dot below is a foreground star. Mira is traveling so fast that it's creating a bow shock, or build-up of gas, in front of it, as can be seen here at right.

    Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a wake.

    Why is the wake of material glowing? When the hydrogen gas is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process called fluorescence. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer has special instruments that can detect this ultraviolet light.

    A similar fluorescence process is responsible for the Northern Lights -- a glowing, green aurora that can be seen from northern latitudes. However, in that case nitrogen and oxygen gas are fluorescing with visible light.

    Streams and a loop of material can also be seen coming off Mira. Astronomers are still investigating what these streams are, but they suspect that they are denser parts of Mira's wind perhaps flowing out of the star's poles.

    This image consists of data captured by both the far- and near-ultraviolet detectors on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer between November 18 and December 15, 2006. It has a total exposure time of about 3 hours.

  11. Coronal Structures in Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2005-01-01

    We have extended our study of the structure of coronas in cool stars to very young stars still accreting from their surrounding disks. In addition we are pursing the connection between coronal X-rays and a powerful diagnostic line in the infrared, the He I 10830Angstrom transition of helium. Highlights of these are summarized below including publications during this reporting period and presentations. Spectroscopy of the infrared He I (lambda10830) line with KECK/NIRSPEC and IRTF/CSHELL and of the ultraviolet C III (lambda977) and O VI (lambda1032) emission with FUSE reveals that the classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae exhibits P Cygni profiles, line asymmetries, and absorption indicative of a continuous, fast (approximately 400 kilometers per second), hot (approximately 300,000 K) accelerating outflow with a mass loss rate approximately 10(exp -11)-10(exp -12) solar mass yr(sup -1) or larger. Spectra of T Tauri N appear consistent with such a wind. The source of the emission and outflow seems restricted to the stars themselves. Although the mass accretion rate is an order of magnitude less for TW Hya than for T Tau, the outflow reaches higher velocities at chromospheric temperatures in TW Hya. Winds from young stellar objects may be substantially hotter and faster than previously thought. The ultraviolet emission lines, when corrected for absorption are broad. Emission associated with the accretion flow and shock is likely to show turbulent broadening. We note that the UV line widths are significantly larger than the X-ray line widths. If the X-rays from TW Hya are generated at the accretion shock, the UV lines may not be directly associated with the shock. On the other hand, studies of X-ray emission in young star clusters, suggest that the strength of the X-ray emission is correlated with stellar rotation, thus casting doubt on an accretion origin for the X-rays. We are beginning to access the infrared spectral region where the He I 108308Angstroms transition

  12. Star Formation in Henize 206

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] IRA-MIPS Composite

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] IRAC

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] MIPS

    The LMC is a small satellite galaxy gravitationally bound to our own Milky Way. Yet the gravitational effects are tearing the companion to shreds in a long-playing drama of 'intergalactic cannibalism.' These disruptions lead to a recurring cycle of star birth and star death.

    Astronomers are particularly interested in the LMC because its fractional content of heavy metals is two to five times lower than is seen in our solar neighborhood. [In this context, 'heavy elements' refer to those elements not present in the primordial universe. Such elements as carbon, oxygen and others are produced by nucleosynthesis and are ejected into the interstellar medium via mass loss by stars, including supernova explosions.] As such, the LMC provides a nearby cosmic laboratory that may resemble the distant universe in its chemical composition.

    The primary Spitzer image, showing the wispy filamentary structure of Henize 206, is a four-color composite mosaic created by combining data from an infrared array camera (IRAC) at near-infrared wavelengths and the mid-infrared data from a multiband imaging photometer (MIPS). Blue represents invisible infrared light at wavelengths of 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Note that most of the stars in the field of view radiate primarily at these short infrared wavelengths. Cyan denotes emission at 5.8 microns, green depicts the 8.0 micron light, and red is used to trace the thermal emission from dust at 24 microns. The separate instrument images are included as insets to the main composite.

    An inclined ring of emission dominates the central and upper regions of the image. This delineates a bubble of hot, x-ray emitting gas that was blown into space when a massive star died in a supernova

  13. Star Formation in Henize 206

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-08

    This image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, shows the wispy filamentary structure of Henize 206, is a four-color composite mosaic created by combining data from an infrared array camera IRAC. The LMC is a small satellite galaxy gravitationally bound to our own Milky Way. Yet the gravitational effects are tearing the companion to shreds in a long-playing drama of 'intergalactic cannibalism.' These disruptions lead to a recurring cycle of star birth and star death. Astronomers are particularly interested in the LMC because its fractional content of heavy metals is two to five times lower than is seen in our solar neighborhood. [In this context, 'heavy elements' refer to those elements not present in the primordial universe. Such elements as carbon, oxygen and others are produced by nucleosynthesis and are ejected into the interstellar medium via mass loss by stars, including supernova explosions.] As such, the LMC provides a nearby cosmic laboratory that may resemble the distant universe in its chemical composition. The primary Spitzer image, showing the wispy filamentary structure of Henize 206, is a four-color composite mosaic created by combining data from an infrared array camera (IRAC) at near-infrared wavelengths and the mid-infrared data from a multiband imaging photometer (MIPS). Blue represents invisible infrared light at wavelengths of 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Note that most of the stars in the field of view radiate primarily at these short infrared wavelengths. Cyan denotes emission at 5.8 microns, green depicts the 8.0 micron light, and red is used to trace the thermal emission from dust at 24 microns. The separate instrument images are included as insets to the main composite. An inclined ring of emission dominates the central and upper regions of the image. This delineates a bubble of hot, x-ray emitting gas that was blown into space when a massive star died in a supernova explosion millions of years ago. The shock waves from that explosion impacted a

  14. End of the Line for a Star like Ours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Stars of different masses have varying life spans, with the more massive stars "burning out" more quickly than stars of lower masses. How or what they do when they burn out also varies, depending on the mass of the star. All stars are called "main sequence stars" as they continue fusing hydrogen and staying in a state of equilibrium--a balance…

  15. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  16. Characterizing Intermediate-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Stars via X-Ray Emision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze Nunez, Evan; Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene; Broos, Patrick; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2018-01-01

    The X-ray emission from intermediate-mass, pre-main-sequence stars (IMPS) can provide useful constraints on the ages of very young (${<}5$~Myr) massive star forming regions. IMPS have masses between 2 and 8 $M_{\\odot}$ and are getting power from the gravitational contraction of the star. Main-sequence late-B and A-type stars are not expected to be strong X-ray emitters, because they lack the both strong winds of more massive stars and the magneto-coronal activity of lower-mass stars. There is, however, mounting evidence that IMPS are powerful intrinsic x-ray emitters during their convection-dominated early evolution, before the development and rapid growth of a radiation zone. We present our prime candidates for intrinsic, coronal X-ray emission from IMPS identified in the Chandra Carina Complex Project. The Carina massive star-forming complex is of special interest due to the wide variation of star formation stages within the region. Candidate IMPS were identified using infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) models. X-ray properties, including thermal plasma temperatures and absorption-corrected fluxes, were derived from XSPEC fits performed using absorption ($N_{H}$) constrained by the extinction values returned by the infrared SED fits. We find that IMPS have systematically higher X-ray luminosities compared to their lower-mass cousins, the TTauri stars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CAREER-1454334 and by NASA through Chandra Award 18200040.

  17. Design and application of star map simulation system for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Shen, Weimin; Zhu, Xifang; Chen, Yuheng; Xu, Qinquan

    2013-12-01

    Modern star sensors are powerful to measure attitude automatically which assure a perfect performance of spacecrafts. They achieve very accurate attitudes by applying algorithms to process star maps obtained by the star camera mounted on them. Therefore, star maps play an important role in designing star cameras and developing procession algorithms. Furthermore, star maps supply significant supports to exam the performance of star sensors completely before their launch. However, it is not always convenient to supply abundant star maps by taking pictures of the sky. Thus, star map simulation with the aid of computer attracts a lot of interests by virtue of its low price and good convenience. A method to simulate star maps by programming and extending the function of the optical design program ZEMAX is proposed. The star map simulation system is established. Firstly, based on analyzing the working procedures of star sensors to measure attitudes and the basic method to design optical system by ZEMAX, the principle of simulating star sensor imaging is given out in detail. The theory about adding false stars and noises, and outputting maps is discussed and the corresponding approaches are proposed. Then, by external programming, the star map simulation program is designed and produced. Its user interference and operation are introduced. Applications of star map simulation method in evaluating optical system, star image extraction algorithm and star identification algorithm, and calibrating system errors are presented completely. It was proved that the proposed simulation method provides magnificent supports to the study on star sensors, and improves the performance of star sensors efficiently.

  18. False star detection and isolation during star tracking based on improved chi-square tests.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yanxiong; Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Guohua

    2017-08-01

    The star sensor is a precise attitude measurement device for a spacecraft. Star tracking is the main and key working mode for a star sensor. However, during star tracking, false stars become an inevitable interference for star sensor applications, which may result in declined measurement accuracy. A false star detection and isolation algorithm in star tracking based on improved chi-square tests is proposed in this paper. Two estimations are established based on a Kalman filter and a priori information, respectively. The false star detection is operated through adopting the global state chi-square test in a Kalman filter. The false star isolation is achieved using a local state chi-square test. Semi-physical experiments under different trajectories with various false stars are designed for verification. Experiment results show that various false stars can be detected and isolated from navigation stars during star tracking, and the attitude measurement accuracy is hardly influenced by false stars. The proposed algorithm is proved to have an excellent performance in terms of speed, stability, and robustness.

  19. Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. S., III

    2014-09-01

    The Magellanic Clouds (MC) are prime locations for studies of star clusters covering a full range in age and mass. This contribution briefly reviews selected properties of Magellanic star clusters, by focusing first on young systems that show evidence for hierarchical star formation. The structures and chemical abundance patterns of older intermediate age star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are a second topic. These suggest a complex history has affected the chemical enrichment in the SMC and that low tidal stresses in the SMC foster star cluster survival.

  20. Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.