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Sample records for a-type potassium channel

  1. Dendritic A-type potassium channel subunit expression in CA1 hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Menegola, M; Misonou, H; Vacher, H; Trimmer, J S

    2008-06-26

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and potassium channel interacting protein (KChIP) 1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal Ammon's horn (CA1) neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 mum rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with a unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs.

  2. Modulation of A-type potassium channels by a family of calcium sensors.

    PubMed

    An, W F; Bowlby, M R; Betty, M; Cao, J; Ling, H P; Mendoza, G; Hinson, J W; Mattsson, K I; Strassle, B W; Trimmer, J S; Rhodes, K J

    2000-02-03

    In the brain and heart, rapidly inactivating (A-type) voltage-gated potassium (Kv) currents operate at subthreshold membrane potentials to control the excitability of neurons and cardiac myocytes. Although pore-forming alpha-subunits of the Kv4, or Shal-related, channel family form A-type currents in heterologous cells, these differ significantly from native A-type currents. Here we describe three Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) that bind to the cytoplasmic amino termini of Kv4 alpha-subunits. We find that expression of KChIP and Kv4 together reconstitutes several features of native A-type currents by modulating the density, inactivation kinetics and rate of recovery from inactivation of Kv4 channels in heterologous cells. All three KChIPs co-localize and co-immunoprecipitate with brain Kv4 alpha-subunits, and are thus integral components of native Kv4 channel complexes. The KChIPs have four EF-hand-like domains and bind calcium ions. As the activity and density of neuronal A-type currents tightly control responses to excitatory synaptic inputs, these KChIPs may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium.

  3. Isoflurane depolarizes bronchopulmonary C neurons by inhibiting transient A-type and delayed rectifier potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of isoflurane (ISO), a widely used volatile anesthetic, can produce clinical tachypnea. In dogs, this response is reportedly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), but the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of transient A-type potassium current (IA) channels and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) channels hyperpolarizes neurons, and inhibition of both channels by ISO increases neural firing. Due to the presence of these channels in the cell bodies of rat PCFs, we determined whether ISO could stimulate PCFs to produce tachypnea in anesthetized rats, and, if so, whether this response resulted from ISO-induced depolarization of the pulmonary C neurons via the inhibition of IA and IK. We recorded ventilatory responses to 5% ISO exposure in anesthetized rats before and after blocking PCF conduction and the responses of pulmonary C neurons (extracellularly recorded) to ISO exposure. ISO-induced (1mM) changes in pulmonary C neuron membrane potential and IA/IK were tested using the perforated patch clamp technique. We found that: (1) ISO inhalation evoked a brief tachypnea (∼7s) and that this response disappeared after blocking PCF conduction; (2) the ISO significantly elevated (by 138%) the firing rate of most pulmonary C neurons (17 out of 21) in the nodose ganglion; and (3) ISO perfusion depolarized the pulmonary C neurons in the vitro and inhibited both IA and IK, and this evoked-depolarization was largely diminished after blocking both IA and IK. Our results suggest that ISO is able to stimulate PCFs to elicit tachypnea in rats, at least partly, via inhibiting IA and IK, thereby depolarizing the pulmonary C neurons. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Molecular physiology and modulation of somatodendritic A-type potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Henry H; Pfaffinger, Paul J; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    The somatodendritic subthreshold A-type K+ current (ISA) in nerve cells is a critical component of the ensemble of voltage-gated ionic currents that determine somatodendritic signal integration. The underlying K+ channel belongs to the Shal subfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels. Most Shal channels across the animal kingdom share a high degree of structural conservation, operate in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials, and exhibit relatively fast inactivation and recovery from inactivation. Mammalian Shal K+ channels (Kv4) undergo preferential closed-state inactivation with features that are generally inconsistent with the classical mechanisms of inactivation typical of Shaker K+ channels. Here, we review (1) the physiological and genetic properties of ISA, 2 the molecular mechanisms of Kv4 inactivation and its remodeling by a family of soluble calcium-binding proteins (KChIPs) and a membrane-bound dipeptidase-like protein (DPPX), and (3) the modulation of Kv4 channels by protein phosphorylation.

  5. Elimination of fast inactivation in Kv4 A-type potassium channels by an auxiliary subunit domain.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Mats H; Cao, Jie; Hernandez-Pineda, Ricardo; Jacobson, Michael D; Carroll, Karen I; Sung, M Amy; Betty, Maria; Ge, Pei; Gilbride, Kevin J; Brown, Melissa E; Jurman, Mark E; Lawson, Deborah; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Xie, Yu; Covarrubias, Manuel; Rhodes, Kenneth J; Distefano, Peter S; An, W Frank

    2002-01-22

    The Kv4 A-type potassium currents contribute to controlling the frequency of slow repetitive firing and back-propagation of action potentials in neurons and shape the action potential in heart. Kv4 currents exhibit rapid activation and inactivation and are specifically modulated by K-channel interacting proteins (KChIPs). Here we report the discovery and functional characterization of a modular K-channel inactivation suppressor (KIS) domain located in the first 34 aa of an additional KChIP (KChIP4a). Coexpression of KChIP4a with Kv4 alpha-subunits abolishes fast inactivation of the Kv4 currents in various cell types, including cerebellar granule neurons. Kinetic analysis shows that the KIS domain delays Kv4.3 opening, but once the channel is open, it disrupts rapid inactivation and slows Kv4.3 closing. Accordingly, KChIP4a increases the open probability of single Kv4.3 channels. The net effects of KChIP4a and KChIP1-3 on Kv4 gating are quite different. When both KChIP4a and KChIP1 are present, the Kv4.3 current shows mixed inactivation profiles dependent on KChIP4a/KChIP1 ratios. The KIS domain effectively converts the A-type Kv4 current to a slowly inactivating delayed rectifier-type potassium current. This conversion is opposite to that mediated by the Kv1-specific "ball" domain of the Kv beta 1 subunit. Together, these results demonstrate that specific auxiliary subunits with distinct functions actively modulate gating of potassium channels that govern membrane excitability.

  6. KChIPs and Kv4 alpha subunits as integral components of A-type potassium channels in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Kenneth J; Carroll, Karen I; Sung, M Amy; Doliveira, Lisa C; Monaghan, Michael M; Burke, Sharon L; Strassle, Brian W; Buchwalder, Lynn; Menegola, Milena; Cao, Jie; An, W Frank; Trimmer, James S

    2004-09-08

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels from the Kv4, or Shal-related, gene family underlie a major component of the A-type potassium current in mammalian central neurons. We recently identified a family of calcium-binding proteins, termed KChIPs (Kv channel interacting proteins), that bind to the cytoplasmic N termini of Kv4 family alpha subunits and modulate their surface density, inactivation kinetics, and rate of recovery from inactivation (An et al., 2000). Here, we used single and double-label immunohistochemistry, together with circumscribed lesions and coimmunoprecipitation analyses, to examine the regional and subcellular distribution of KChIPs1-4 and Kv4 family alpha subunits in adult rat brain. Immunohistochemical staining using KChIP-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that the KChIP polypeptides are concentrated in neuronal somata and dendrites where their cellular and subcellular distribution overlaps, in an isoform-specific manner, with that of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3. For example, immunoreactivity for KChIP1 and Kv4.3 is concentrated in the somata and dendrites of hippocampal, striatal, and neocortical interneurons. Immunoreactivity for KChIP2, KChIP4, and Kv4.2 is concentrated in the apical and basal dendrites of hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal cells. Double-label immunofluorescence labeling revealed that throughout the forebrain, KChIP2 and KChIP4 are frequently colocalized with Kv4.2, whereas in cortical, hippocampal, and striatal interneurons, KChIP1 is frequently colocalized with Kv4.3. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirmed that all KChIPs coassociate with Kv4 alpha subunits in brain membranes, indicating that KChIPs 1-4 are integral components of native A-type Kv channel complexes and are likely to play a major role as modulators of somatodendritic excitability.

  7. Postnatal development of A-type and Kv1- and Kv2-mediated potassium channel currents in neocortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Dongxu; Horton, Leslie R.; Armstrong, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate numerous aspects of neuronal excitability, and several voltage-gated K+ channel subunits have been identified in pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. Previous studies have either considered the development of outward current as a whole or divided currents into transient, A-type and persistent, delayed rectifier components but did not differentiate between current components defined by α-subunit type. To facilitate comparisons of studies reporting K+ currents from animals of different ages and to understand the functional roles of specific current components, we characterized the postnatal development of identified Kv channel-mediated currents in pyramidal neurons from layers II/III from rat somatosensory cortex. Both the persistent/slowly inactivating and transient components of the total K+ current increased in density with postnatal age. We used specific pharmacological agents to test the relative contributions of putative Kv1- and Kv2-mediated currents (100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 600 nM stromatoxin, respectively). A combination of voltage protocol, pharmacology, and curve fitting was used to isolate the rapidly inactivating A-type current. We found that the density of all identified current components increased with postnatal age, approaching a plateau at 3–5 wk. We found no significant changes in the relative proportions or kinetics of any component between postnatal weeks 1 and 5, except that the activation time constant for A-type current was longer at 1 wk. The putative Kv2-mediated component was the largest at all ages. Immunocytochemistry indicated that protein expression for Kv4.2, Kv4.3, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 increased between 1 wk and 4–5 wk of age. PMID:21451062

  8. Postnatal development of A-type and Kv1- and Kv2-mediated potassium channel currents in neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dongxu; Horton, Leslie R; Armstrong, William E; Foehring, Robert C

    2011-06-01

    Potassium channels regulate numerous aspects of neuronal excitability, and several voltage-gated K(+) channel subunits have been identified in pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. Previous studies have either considered the development of outward current as a whole or divided currents into transient, A-type and persistent, delayed rectifier components but did not differentiate between current components defined by α-subunit type. To facilitate comparisons of studies reporting K(+) currents from animals of different ages and to understand the functional roles of specific current components, we characterized the postnatal development of identified Kv channel-mediated currents in pyramidal neurons from layers II/III from rat somatosensory cortex. Both the persistent/slowly inactivating and transient components of the total K(+) current increased in density with postnatal age. We used specific pharmacological agents to test the relative contributions of putative Kv1- and Kv2-mediated currents (100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 600 nM stromatoxin, respectively). A combination of voltage protocol, pharmacology, and curve fitting was used to isolate the rapidly inactivating A-type current. We found that the density of all identified current components increased with postnatal age, approaching a plateau at 3-5 wk. We found no significant changes in the relative proportions or kinetics of any component between postnatal weeks 1 and 5, except that the activation time constant for A-type current was longer at 1 wk. The putative Kv2-mediated component was the largest at all ages. Immunocytochemistry indicated that protein expression for Kv4.2, Kv4.3, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 increased between 1 wk and 4-5 wk of age.

  9. Potassium Channels in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Köhling, Rüdiger; Wolfart, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This review attempts to give a concise and up-to-date overview on the role of potassium channels in epilepsies. Their role can be defined from a genetic perspective, focusing on variants and de novo mutations identified in genetic studies or animal models with targeted, specific mutations in genes coding for a member of the large potassium channel family. In these genetic studies, a demonstrated functional link to hyperexcitability often remains elusive. However, their role can also be defined from a functional perspective, based on dynamic, aggravating, or adaptive transcriptional and posttranslational alterations. In these cases, it often remains elusive whether the alteration is causal or merely incidental. With ∼80 potassium channel types, of which ∼10% are known to be associated with epilepsies (in humans) or a seizure phenotype (in animals), if genetically mutated, a comprehensive review is a challenging endeavor. This goal may seem all the more ambitious once the data on posttranslational alterations, found both in human tissue from epilepsy patients and in chronic or acute animal models, are included. We therefore summarize the literature, and expand only on key findings, particularly regarding functional alterations found in patient brain tissue and chronic animal models. PMID:27141079

  10. PKA modulation of Kv4.2-encoded A-type potassium channels requires formation of a supramolecular complex.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Laura A; Anderson, Anne E; Mayne, Amber; Pfaffinger, Paul J; Sweatt, John David

    2002-12-01

    A-type channels, encoded by the pore-forming alpha-subunits of the Kv4.x family, are particularly important in regulating membrane excitability in the CNS and the heart. Given the key role of modulation of A currents by kinases, we sought to investigate the protein structure-function relationships underlying the regulation of these currents by PKA. We have previously shown the existence of two PKA phosphorylation sites in the Kv4.2 sequence; therefore, we focused this study on the Kv4.2 primary subunit. In the present studies we made the surprising finding that PKA phosphorylation of the Kv4.2 alpha-subunit is necessary but not sufficient for channel modulation; channel modulation by PKA required the presence of an ancillary subunit, the K+ channel interacting protein (KChIP3). Therefore, these findings indicate a surprising complexity to kinase regulation of A currents, in that an interaction of two separate molecular events, alpha-subunit phosphorylation and the association of an ancillary subunit (KChIP3), are necessary for phosphorylation-dependent regulation of Kv4.2-encoded A channels by PKA. Overall, our studies indicate that PKA must of necessity act on a supramolecular complex of pore-forming alpha-subunits plus ancillary subunits to alter channel properties.

  11. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  12. Neuroplasticity of A-type potassium channel complexes induced by chronic alcohol exposure enhances dendritic calcium transients in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Spencer, Kathryn B; Hu, Wei; Kroener, Sven; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcohol-induced cognitive impairments and maladaptive plasticity of glutamatergic synapses are well-documented. However, it is unknown if prolonged alcohol exposure affects dendritic signaling that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in alcoholics. Back-propagation of action potentials (bAPs) into apical dendrites of hippocampal neurons provides distance-dependent signals that modulate dendritic and synaptic plasticity. The amplitude of bAPs decreases with distance from the soma that is thought to reflect an increase in the density of Kv4.2 channels toward distal dendrites. The aim of this study was to quantify changes in hippocampal Kv4.2 channel function and expression using electrophysiology, Ca(2+) imaging, and western blot analyses in a well-characterized in vitro model of chronic alcohol exposure. Chronic alcohol exposure significantly decreased expression of Kv4.2 channels and KChIP3 in hippocampus. This reduction was associated with an attenuation of macroscopic A-type K(+) currents in CA1 neurons. Chronic alcohol exposure increased bAP-evoked Ca(2+) transients in the distal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The enhanced bAP-evoked Ca(2+) transients induced by chronic alcohol exposure were not related to synaptic targeting of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors or morphological adaptations in apical dendritic arborization. These data suggest that chronic alcohol-induced decreases in Kv4.2 channel function possibly mediated by a downregulation of KChIP3 drive the elevated bAP-associated Ca(2+) transients in distal apical dendrites. Alcohol-induced enhancement of bAPs may affect metaplasticity and signal integration in apical dendrites of hippocampal neurons leading to alterations in hippocampal function.

  13. Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II modulates Kv4.2 channel expression and upregulates neuronal A-type potassium currents.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrew W; Yuan, Li-Lian; Anderson, Anne E; Schrader, Laura A; Wu, Gang-Yi; Gatchel, Jennifer R; Johnston, Daniel; Sweatt, J David

    2004-04-07

    Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has a long history of involvement in synaptic plasticity, yet little focus has been given to potassium channels as CaMKII targets despite their importance in repolarizing EPSPs and action potentials and regulating neuronal membrane excitability. We now show that Kv4.2 acts as a substrate for CaMKII in vitro and have identified CaMKII phosphorylation sites as Ser438 and Ser459. To test whether CaMKII phosphorylation of Kv4.2 affects channel biophysics, we expressed wild-type or mutant Kv4.2 and the K(+) channel interacting protein, KChIP3, with or without a constitutively active form of CaMKII in Xenopus oocytes and measured the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation in each of these conditions. CaMKII phosphorylation had no effect on channel biophysical properties. However, we found that levels of Kv4.2 protein are increased with CaMKII phosphorylation in transfected COS cells, an effect attributable to direct channel phosphorylation based on site-directed mutagenesis studies. We also obtained corroborating physiological data showing increased surface A-type channel expression as revealed by increases in peak K(+) current amplitudes with CaMKII phosphorylation. Furthermore, endogenous A-currents in hippocampal pyramidal neurons were increased in amplitude after introduction of constitutively active CaMKII, which results in a decrease in neuronal excitability in response to current injections. Thus CaMKII can directly modulate neuronal excitability by increasing cell-surface expression of A-type K(+) channels.

  14. Altered expression and localization of hippocampal A-type potassium channel subunits in the pilocarpine-induced model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, M M; Menegola, M; Vacher, H; Rhodes, K J; Trimmer, J S

    2008-10-15

    Altered ion channel expression and/or function may contribute to the development of certain human epilepsies. In rats, systemic administration of pilocarpine induces a model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, wherein a brief period of status epilepticus (SE) triggers development of spontaneous recurrent seizures that appear after a latency of 2-3 weeks. Here we investigate changes in expression of A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, which control neuronal excitability and regulate action potential propagation and neurotransmitter release, in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of component subunits of somatodendritic (Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIPl and KChIP2) and axonal (Kv1.4) A-type Kv channels in hippocampi of pilocarpine-treated rats that entered SE. We found that Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and KChIP2 staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus changes from being uniformly distributed across the molecular layer to concentrated in just the outer two-thirds. We also observed a loss of KChIP1 immunoreactive interneurons, and a reduction of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 staining in stratum radiatum of CA1. These changes begin to appear 1 week after pilocarpine treatment and persist or are enhanced at 4 and 12 weeks. As such, these changes in Kv channel distribution parallel the acquisition of recurrent spontaneous seizures as observed in this model. We also found temporal changes in Kv1.4 immunoreactivity matching those in Timm's stain, being expanded in stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer. Among pilocarpine-treated rats, changes were only observed in those that entered SE. These changes in A-type Kv channel expression may contribute to hyperexcitability of dendrites in the associated hippocampal circuits as observed in previous studies of the effects of pilocarpine-induced SE.

  15. Potassium channels in articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali; Lewis, Rebecca; Ferreira-Mendes, Alexandrina; Rufino, Ana; Dart, Caroline; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chondrocytes are the resident cells of cartilage, which synthesize and maintain the extracellular matrix. The range of known potassium channels expressed by these unique cells is continually increasing. Since chondrocytes are non-excitable, and do not need to be repolarized following action potentials, the function of potassium channels in these cells has, until recently, remained completely unknown. However, recent advances in both traditional physiology and “omic” technologies have enhanced our knowledge and understanding of the chondrocyte channelome. A large number of potassium channels have been identified and a number of putative, but credible, functions have been proposed. Members of each of the potassium channel sub-families (calcium activated, inward rectifier, voltage-gated and tandem pore) have all been identified. Mechanotransduction, cell volume regulation, apoptosis and chondrogenesis all appear to involve potassium channels. Since evidence suggests that potassium channel gene transcription is altered in osteoarthritis, future studies are needed that investigate potassium channels as potential cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for treatment of degenerative joint conditions. PMID:23064164

  16. Down-regulation of A-type potassium channel in gastric-specific DRG neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Chen, J D Z

    2014-07-01

    Although without evidence of organic structural abnormalities, pain or discomfort is a prominent symptom of functional dyspepsia and considered to reflect visceral hypersensitivity whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we studied electrophysiological properties and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia induced by neonatal gastric irritation. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10-day old received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA) or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days and studied at adulthood. Retrograde tracer-labeled gastric-specific T8 -T12 DRG neurons were harvested for the patch-clamp study in voltage and current-clamp modes and protein expression of K(+) channel in T8 -T12 DRGs was examined by western blotting. (1) Gastric specific but not non-gastric DRG neurons showed an enhanced excitability in neonatal IA-treated rats compared to the control: depolarized resting membrane potentials, a lower current threshold for action potential (AP) activation, and an increase in the number of APs in response to current stimulation. (2) The current density of tetraethylammonium insensitive (transiently inactivating A-type current), but not the tetraethylammonium sensitive (slow-inactivating delayed rectifier K(+) currents), was significantly smaller in IA-treated rats (65.4 ± 6.9 pA/pF), compared to that of control (93.1 ± 8.3 pA/pF). (3) Protein expression of KV 4.3 was down-regulated in IA-treated rats. A-type potassium channels are significantly down-regulated in the gastric-specific DRG neurons in adult rats with mild neonatal gastric irritation, which in part contribute to the enhanced DRG neuron excitabilities that leads to the development of gastric hypersensitivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Solution structure for Pandinus toxin K-alpha (PiTX-K alpha), a selective blocker of A-type potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Tenenholz, T C; Rogowski, R S; Collins, J H; Blaustein, M P; Weber, D J

    1997-03-11

    PiTX-K alpha, a 35-residue peptide recently isolated from the venom of Pandinus imperator, blocks the rapidly inactivating (A-type) K+ channel(s) in rat brain synaptosomes and the cloned Kv 1.2 potassium channel at very low toxin concentrations (6 nM and 32 pM, respectively) [Rogowski, R. S., Collins, J. H., O'Neil, T. J., Gustafson, T. A., Werkman, T. A., Rogawski, M. A., Tenenholz, T. C., Weber, D. J., & Blaustein, M. P. (1996) Mol. Pharmacol. 50, 1167-1177]. The three-dimensional structure of PiTX-K alpha was determined using NMR spectroscopy in order to understand its selectivity and affinity toward K+ channels. PiTX-K alpha was found to have an alpha-helix from residues 10 to 21 and two beta-strands (betaI, 26-28; betaII, 33-35) connected by a type II beta-turn to form a small antiparallel beta-sheet. Three disulfide bonds, which are conserved in all members of the charybdotoxin family (alpha-K toxins), anchor one face of the alpha-helix to the beta-sheet. The N-terminal portion of PiTX-K alpha has three fewer residues than other alpha-K toxins such as charybdotoxin. Rather than forming a third beta-strand as found for other alpha-K toxins, the N-terminal region of PiTX-K alpha adopts an extended conformation. This structural difference in PiTX-K alpha together with differences in sequence at Pro-10, Tyr-14, and Asn-25 (versus Ser-10, Trp-14, and Arg-25 in CTX) may explain why PiTX-K alpha does not block maxi-K+ channels. Differences in three-dimensional structure between PiTX-K alpha and charybdotoxin are also observed in both the tight turn and the loop that connects the first beta-strand to the alpha-helix. As a result, side chains of two residues (Tyr-23 and Arg-31) are in regions of PiTX-K alpha that probably interact with rapidly inactivating A-type K+ channels. The analogous residues in charybdotoxin are positioned differently on the toxin surface. Thus, the locations of Tyr-23 and Arg-31 side chains in PiTX-K alpha could explain why this toxin blocks A-type

  18. A-type potassium channels differentially tune afferent pathways from rat solitary tract nucleus to caudal ventrolateral medulla or paraventricular hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T W; Hermes, S M; Whittier, K L; Aicher, S A; Andresen, M C

    2007-01-01

    The solitary tract nucleus (NTS) conveys visceral information to diverse central networks involved in homeostatic regulation. Although afferent information content arriving at various CNS sites varies substantially, little is known about the contribution of processing within the NTS to these differences. Using retrograde dyes to identify specific NTS projection neurons, we recently reported that solitary tract (ST) afferents directly contact NTS neurons projecting to caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) but largely only indirectly contact neurons projecting to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Since intrinsic properties impact information transmission, here we evaluated potassium channel expression and somatodendritic morphology of projection neurons and their relation to afferent information output directed to PVN or CVLM pathways. In slices, tracer-identified projection neurons were classified as directly or indirectly (polysynaptically) coupled to ST afferents by EPSC latency characteristics (directly coupled, jitter < 200 μs). In each neuron, voltage-dependent potassium currents (IK) were evaluated and, in representative neurons, biocytin-filled structures were quantified. Both CVLM- and PVN-projecting neurons had similar, tetraethylammonium-sensitive IK. However, only PVN-projecting NTS neurons displayed large transient, 4aminopyridine-sensitive, A-type currents (IKA). PVN-projecting neurons had larger cell bodies with more elaborate dendritic morphology than CVLM-projecting neurons. ST shocks faithfully (> 75%) triggered action potentials in CVLM-projecting neurons but spike output was uniformly low (< 20%) in PVN-projecting neurons. Pre-conditioning hyperpolarization removed IKA inactivation and attenuated ST-evoked spike generation along PVN but not CVLM pathways. Thus, multiple differences in structure, organization, synaptic transmission and ion channel expression tune the overall fidelity of afferent signals that reach these destinations

  19. Coexpression of the KCNA3B gene product with Kv1.5 leads to a novel A-type potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Leicher, T; Bähring, R; Isbrandt, D; Pongs, O

    1998-12-25

    Shaker-related voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels may be heterooligomers consisting of membrane-integral alpha-subunits associated with auxiliary cytoplasmic beta-subunits. In this study we have cloned the human Kvbeta3.1 subunit and the corresponding KCNA3B gene. Identification of sequence-tagged sites in the gene mapped KCNA3B to band p13.1 of human chromosome 17. Comparison of the KCNA1B, KCNA2B, and KCNA3B gene structures showed that the three Kvbeta genes have very disparate lengths varying from >/=350 kb (KCNA1B) to approximately 7 kb (KCNA3B). Yet, the exon patterns of the three genes, which code for the seven known mammalian Kvbeta subunits, are very similar. The Kvbeta1 and Kvbeta2 splice variants are generated by alternative use of 5'-exons. Mouse Kvbeta4, a potential splice variant of Kvbeta3, is a read-through product where the open reading frame starts within the sequence intervening between Kvbeta3 exons 7 and 8. The human KCNA3B sequence does not contain a mouse Kvbeta4-like open reading frame. Human Kvbeta3 mRNA is specifically expressed in the brain, where it is predominantly detected in the cerebellum. The heterologous coexpression of human Kv1.5 and Kvbeta3.1 subunits in Chinese hamster ovary cells yielded a novel Kv channel mediating very fast inactivating (A-type) outward currents upon depolarization. Thus, the expression of Kvbeta3.1 subunits potentially extends the possibilities to express diverse A-type Kv channels in the human brain.

  20. Altered Expression and Localization of Hippocampal A-Type Potassium Channel Subunits in the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Michael M.; Menegola, Milena; Vacher, Helene; Rhodes, Kenneth J.; Trimmer, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Altered ion channel expression and/or function may contribute to the development of certain human epilepsies. In rats, systemic administration of pilocarpine induces a model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, wherein a brief period of status epilepticus (SE) triggers development of spontaneous recurrent seizures that appear after a latency of two-three weeks. Here we investigate changes in expression of A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, which control neuronal excitability and regulate action potential propagation and neurotransmitter release, in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of component subunits of somatodendritic (Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIPl and KChIP2) and axonal (Kv1.4) A-type Kv channels in hippocampi of pilocarpine-treated rats that entered SE. We found that Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and KChIP2 staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus changes from being uniformly distributed across the molecular layer to concentrated in just the outer two-thirds. We also observed a loss of KChIP1 immunoreactive interneurons, and a reduction of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 staining in stratum radiatum of CA1. These changes begin to appear 1 week after pilocarpine treatment and persist or are enhanced at 4 and 12 weeks. As such, these changes in Kv channel distribution parallel the acquisition of recurrent spontaneous seizures as observed in this model. We also found temporal changes in Kv1.4 immunoreactivity matching those in Timm's stain, being expanded in stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer. Among pilocarpine-treated rats, changes were only observed in those that entered SE. These changes in A-type Kv channel expression may contribute to hyperexcitability of dendrites in the associated hippocampal circuits as observed in previous studies of the effects of pilocarpine-induced SE. PMID:18727953

  1. Multiple modes of a-type potassium current regulation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shi-Qing; Li, Wenchao; Sesti, Federico

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-dependent potassium (K+) channels (Kv) regulate cell excitability by controlling the movement of K+ ions across the membrane in response to changes in the cell voltage. The Kv family, which includes A-type channels, constitute the largest group of K+ channel genes within the superfamily of Na+, Ca2+ and K+ voltage-gated channels. The name "A-type" stems from the typical profile of these currents that results form the opposing effects of fast activation and inactivation. In neuronal cells, A-type currents (I(A)), determine the interval between two consecutive action potentials during repetitive firing. In cardiac muscle, A-type currents (I(to)), control the initial repolarization of the myocardium. Structurally, A-type channels are tetramers of alpha-subunits each containing six putative transmembrane domains including a voltage-sensor. A-type channels can be modulated by means of protein-protein interactions with so-called beta-subunits that control inactivation voltage sensitivity and other properties, and by post-transcriptional modifications such as phosphorylation or oxidation. Recently a new mode of A-type regulation has been discovered in the form of a class of hybrid beta-subunits that posses their own enzymatic activity. Here, we review the biophysical and physiological properties of these multiple modes of A-type channel regulation.

  2. Loss of Functional A-Type Potassium Channels in the Dendrites of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons from a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Routh, Brandy N.; Johnston, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Despite the critical importance of voltage-gated ion channels in neurons, very little is known about their functional properties in Fragile X syndrome: the most common form of inherited cognitive impairment. Using three complementary approaches, we investigated the physiological role of A-type K+ currents (IKA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from fmr1-/y mice. Direct measurement of IKA using cell-attached patch-clamp recordings revealed that there was significantly less IKA in the dendrites of CA1 neurons from fmr1-/y mice. Interestingly, the midpoint of activation for A-type K+ channels was hyperpolarized for fmr1-/y neurons compared with wild-type, which might partially compensate for the lower current density. Because of the rapid time course for recovery from steady-state inactivation, the dendritic A-type K+ current in CA1 neurons from both wild-type and fmr1-/y mice is likely mediated by KV4 containing channels. The net effect of the differences in IKA was that back-propagating action potentials had larger amplitudes producing greater calcium influx in the distal dendrites of fmr1-/y neurons. Furthermore, CA1 pyramidal neurons from fmr1-/y mice had a lower threshold for LTP induction. These data suggest that loss of IKA in hippocampal neurons may contribute to dendritic pathophysiology in Fragile X syndrome. PMID:24336711

  3. Delayed Rectifier and A-Type Potassium Channels Associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 Expression in Embryonic Rat Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dean O.; Rosenheimer, Julie L.; Kalil, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Because of the importance of voltage-activated K+ channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and βIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K+ currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells. PMID:18270591

  4. Delayed rectifier and A-type potassium channels associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 expression in embryonic rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean O; Rosenheimer, Julie L; Kalil, Ronald E

    2008-02-13

    Because of the importance of voltage-activated K(+) channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and betaIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K(+) currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells.

  5. Potassium channels: the importance of transport signals.

    PubMed

    Griffith, L C

    2001-03-20

    The number, type and distribution of ion channels on a neuron's surface determine its electrical response to stimulation. One way that a cell determines how many molecules of each channel type are sent to the surface has been eludicated in a recent study of intrinsic protein transport signals within potassium channels.

  6. Differential contribution of Kv4-containing channels to A-type, voltage-gated potassium currents in somatic and visceral dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Takakazu; Takimoto, Koichi; Kita, Kaori; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Naito, Seiji; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2014-11-15

    Little is known about electrophysiological differences of A-type transient K(+) (KA) currents in nociceptive afferent neurons that innervate somatic and visceral tissues. Staining with isolectin B4 (IB4)-FITC classifies L6-S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons into three populations with distinct staining intensities: negative to weak, moderate, and intense fluorescence signals. All IB4 intensely stained cells are negative for a fluorescent dye, Fast Blue (FB), injected into the bladder wall, whereas a fraction of somatic neurons labeled by FB, injected to the external urethral dermis, is intensely stained with IB4. In whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings, phrixotoxin 2 (PaTx2), a voltage-gated K(+) (Kv)4 channel blocker, exhibits voltage-independent inhibition of the KA current in IB4 intensely stained cells but not the one in bladder-innervating cells. The toxin also shows voltage-independent inhibition of heterologously expressed Kv4.1 current, whereas its inhibition of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 currents is voltage dependent. The swapping of four amino acids at the carboxyl portion of the S3 region between Kv4.1 and Kv4.2 transfers this characteristic. RT-PCRs detected Kv4.1 and the long isoform of Kv4.3 mRNAs without significant Kv4.2 mRNA in L6-S1 DRGs. Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNA levels were higher in laser-captured, IB4-stained neurons than in bladder afferent neurons. These results indicate that PaTx2 acts differently on channels in the Kv4 family and that Kv4.1 and possibly Kv4.3 subunits functionally participate in the formation of KA channels in a subpopulation of somatic C-fiber neurons but not in visceral C-fiber neurons innervating the bladder. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Differential contribution of Kv4-containing channels to A-type, voltage-gated potassium currents in somatic and visceral dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Takakazu; Takimoto, Koichi; Kita, Kaori; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Naito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about electrophysiological differences of A-type transient K+ (KA) currents in nociceptive afferent neurons that innervate somatic and visceral tissues. Staining with isolectin B4 (IB4)-FITC classifies L6-S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons into three populations with distinct staining intensities: negative to weak, moderate, and intense fluorescence signals. All IB4 intensely stained cells are negative for a fluorescent dye, Fast Blue (FB), injected into the bladder wall, whereas a fraction of somatic neurons labeled by FB, injected to the external urethral dermis, is intensely stained with IB4. In whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings, phrixotoxin 2 (PaTx2), a voltage-gated K+ (Kv)4 channel blocker, exhibits voltage-independent inhibition of the KA current in IB4 intensely stained cells but not the one in bladder-innervating cells. The toxin also shows voltage-independent inhibition of heterologously expressed Kv4.1 current, whereas its inhibition of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 currents is voltage dependent. The swapping of four amino acids at the carboxyl portion of the S3 region between Kv4.1 and Kv4.2 transfers this characteristic. RT-PCRs detected Kv4.1 and the long isoform of Kv4.3 mRNAs without significant Kv4.2 mRNA in L6-S1 DRGs. Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNA levels were higher in laser-captured, IB4-stained neurons than in bladder afferent neurons. These results indicate that PaTx2 acts differently on channels in the Kv4 family and that Kv4.1 and possibly Kv4.3 subunits functionally participate in the formation of KA channels in a subpopulation of somatic C-fiber neurons but not in visceral C-fiber neurons innervating the bladder. PMID:25143545

  8. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  9. [Voltage-gated potassium channels and human neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2002-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) is the largest, most complex in potassium channel superfamily. It can be divided into Kv alpha subunit and auxiliary two groups. The roles of some Kv channels types, e.g. rapidly inactivating (A-Type channel) and muscarine sensitive channels (M-type channel) are beginning to be understood. They are prominent in nervous system, acting in delicate and accurate ways to control or modify many physiological and pathological functions including membrane excitability, neurotransmitter release, cell proliferation or degeneration, signal transduction in neuronal network. Many human neurological disease pathogenesis are found to be related to mutant of Kv-channels subunit or subtype, such as, learning and memory impairing, ataxia, epilepsy, deafness, etc.

  10. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels.

    PubMed

    de Los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-), and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels.

  11. Solution structure and function of the "tandem inactivation domain" of the neuronal A-type potassium channel Kv1.4.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, Ralph; Bildl, Wolfgang; Oliver, Dominik; Beyermann, Michael; Kalbitzer, Hans-Robert; Bentrop, Detlef; Fakler, Bernd

    2003-05-02

    Cumulative inactivation of voltage-gated (Kv) K(+) channels shapes the presynaptic action potential and determines timing and strength of synaptic transmission. Kv1.4 channels exhibit rapid "ball-and-chain"-type inactivation gating. Different from all other Kvalpha subunits, Kv1.4 harbors two inactivation domains at its N terminus. Here we report the solution structure and function of this "tandem inactivation domain" using NMR spectroscopy and patch clamp recordings. Inactivation domain 1 (ID1, residues 1-38) consists of a flexible N terminus anchored at a 5-turn helix, whereas ID2 (residues 40-50) is a 2.5-turn helix made up of small hydrophobic amino acids. Functional analysis suggests that only ID1 may work as a pore-occluding ball domain, whereas ID2 most likely acts as a "docking domain" that attaches ID1 to the cytoplasmic face of the channel. Deletion of ID2 slows inactivation considerably and largely impairs cumulative inactivation. Together, the concerted action of ID1 and ID2 may promote rapid inactivation of Kv1.4 that is crucial for the channel function in short term plasticity.

  12. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of this Discovery Award is to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet ...have examining the impact of the ketogenic diet on mice in which the gene that encodes Kvβ2 has been deleted (Kvβ2 KO mice) using an in vitro model of

  13. Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hover, Samantha; King, Barnabas; Hall, Bradley; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Taqi, Hussah; Daly, Janet; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Schnettler, Esther; McKimmie, Clive; Kohl, Alain; Barr, John N; Mankouri, Jamel

    2016-02-12

    Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K(+)) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K(+) channel modulating agents demonstrated that K(+) channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K(+) channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, two-pore domain K(+) channels (K2P) were identified as the K(+) channel family mediating BUNV K(+) channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. A-type potassium currents in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Gregory C; Koh, Sang Don; Imaizumi, Yuji; Ohya, Susumu; Sanders, Kenton M

    2003-03-01

    A-type currents are voltage-gated, calcium-independent potassium (Kv) currents that undergo rapid activation and inactivation. Commonly associated with neuronal and cardiac cell-types, A-type currents have also been identified and characterized in vascular, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. This review examines the molecular identity, biophysical properties, pharmacology, regulation, and physiological function of smooth muscle A-type currents. In general, this review is intended to facilitate the comparison of A-type currents present in different smooth muscles by providing a comprehensive report of the literature to date. This approach should also aid in the identification of areas of research requiring further attention.

  15. Voltage Sensor Inactivation in Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Bähring, Robert; Barghaan, Jan; Westermeier, Regina; Wollberg, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels membrane depolarization causes movement of a voltage sensor domain. This conformational change of the protein is transmitted to the pore domain and eventually leads to pore opening. However, the voltage sensor domain may interact with two distinct gates in the pore domain: the activation gate (A-gate), involving the cytoplasmic S6 bundle crossing, and the pore gate (P-gate), located externally in the selectivity filter. How the voltage sensor moves and how tightly it interacts with these two gates on its way to adopt a relaxed conformation when the membrane is depolarized may critically determine the mode of Kv channel inactivation. In certain Kv channels, voltage sensor movement leads to a tight interaction with the P-gate, which may cause conformational changes that render the selectivity filter non-conductive (“P/C-type inactivation”). Other Kv channels may preferably undergo inactivation from pre-open closed-states during voltage sensor movement, because the voltage sensor temporarily uncouples from the A-gate. For this behavior, known as “preferential” closed-state inactivation, we introduce the term “A/C-type inactivation”. Mechanistically, P/C- and A/C-type inactivation represent two forms of “voltage sensor inactivation.” PMID:22654758

  16. Intractable hyperkalemia due to nicorandil induced potassium channel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, Vivek; Mohanty, B B

    2015-01-01

    Nicorandil is a commonly used antianginal agent, which has both nitrate-like and ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel activator properties. Activation of potassium channels by nicorandil causes expulsion of potassium ions into the extracellular space leading to membrane hyperpolarization, closure of voltage-gated calcium channels and finally vasodilatation. However, on the other hand, being an activator of K ATP channel, it can expel K + ions out of the cells and can cause hyperkalemia. Here, we report a case of nicorandil induced hyperkalemia unresponsive to medical treatment in a patient with diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this chapter, we will review the molecular identities and biophysical properties of these channels. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the possibility and prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:27261823

  18. A human intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T M; Silvia, C; Hirschberg, B; Bond, C T; Adelman, J P; Maylie, J

    1997-10-14

    An intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, hIK1, was cloned from human pancreas. The predicted amino acid sequence is related to, but distinct from, the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel subfamily, which is approximately 50% conserved. hIK1 mRNA was detected in peripheral tissues but not in brain. Expression of hIK1 in Xenopus oocytes gave rise to inwardly rectifying potassium currents, which were activated by submicromolar concentrations of intracellular calcium (K0.5 = 0.3 microM). Although the K0.5 for calcium was similar to that of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, the slope factor derived from the Hill equation was significantly reduced (1.7 vs. 3. 5). Single-channel current amplitudes reflected the macroscopic inward rectification and revealed a conductance level of 39 pS in the inward direction. hIK1 currents were reversibly blocked by charybdotoxin (Ki = 2.5 nM) and clotrimazole (Ki = 24.8 nM) but were minimally affected by apamin (100 nM), iberiotoxin (50 nM), or ketoconazole (10 microM). These biophysical and pharmacological properties are consistent with native intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, including the erythrocyte Gardos channel.

  19. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this article, we will review their molecular identities and biophysical properties. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Roderick MacKinnon and Ion Channels - Potassium Channels and Sodium

    Science.gov Websites

    very first potassium channel structure, which revealed the way that positively charged potassium ions explain how a fundamental feedback loop worked. Now, with the structure of the voltage-dependent ion channel, based on research carried out at The Rockefeller University, the National Synchrotron Light

  1. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains.

    PubMed

    Islas, León D

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology.

  2. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains

    PubMed Central

    Islas, León D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology. PMID:26794852

  3. Coulomb interaction rules timescales in potassium ion channel tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De March, N.; Prado, S. D.; Brunnet, L. G.

    2018-06-01

    Assuming the selectivity filter of KcsA potassium ion channel may exhibit quantum coherence, we extend a previous model by Vaziri and Plenio (2010 New J. Phys. 12 085001) to take into account Coulomb repulsion between potassium ions. We show that typical ion transit timescales are determined by this interaction, which imposes optimal input/output parameter ranges. Also, as observed in other examples of quantum tunneling in biological systems, the addition of moderate noise helps coherent ion transport.

  4. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    PubMed Central

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  5. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  6. Functional conversion between A-type and delayed rectifier K+ channels by membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Dominik; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Soom, Malle; Baukrowitz, Thomas; Jonas, Peter; Fakler, Bernd

    2004-04-09

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels control action potential repolarization, interspike membrane potential, and action potential frequency in excitable cells. It is thought that the combinatorial association between distinct alpha and beta subunits determines whether Kv channels function as non-inactivating delayed rectifiers or as rapidly inactivating A-type channels. We show that membrane lipids can convert A-type channels into delayed rectifiers and vice versa. Phosphoinositides remove N-type inactivation from A-type channels by immobilizing the inactivation domains. Conversely, arachidonic acid and its amide anandamide endow delayed rectifiers with rapid voltage-dependent inactivation. The bidirectional control of Kv channel gating by lipids may provide a mechanism for the dynamic regulation of electrical signaling in the nervous system.

  7. [Decreased A-type potassium current mediates the hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons in the chronically compressed dorsal root ganglia].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Li, Xiao-Han; Cheng, Qi; Yan, Jin; Ni, Xin; Sun, Ji-Hu

    2007-04-25

    The excitability of nociceptive neurons increases in the intact dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after a chronic compression, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the ionic mechanisms underlying the hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons in the compressed ganglion. Chronic compression of DRG (CCD) was produced in adult rats by inserting two rods through the intervertebral foramina to compress the L4 DRG and the ipsilateral L5 DRG. After 5-7 d, DRG somata were dissociated and placed in culture for 12-18 h. In sharp electrode recording model, the lower current threshold and the depolarized membrane potential in the acutely dissociated CCD neurons were detected, indicating that hyperexcitability is intrinsic to the soma. Since voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels in the primary sensory neurons are important for the regulation of excitability, we hypothesized that CCD would alter K(+) current properties in the primary sensory neurons. We examined the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a specific antagonist of A-type potassium channel, on the excitability of the control DRG neurons. With 4-AP in the external solution, the control DRG neurons depolarized (with discharges in some cells) and their current threshold decreased as the CCD neurons demonstrated, indicating the involvement of decreased A-type potassium current in the hyperexcitability of the injured neurons. Furthermore, the alteration of A-type potassium current in nociceptive neurons in the compressed ganglion was investigated with the whole-cell patch-clamp recording model. CCD significantly decreased A-type potassium current density in nociceptive DRG neurons. These data suggest that a reduction in A-type potassium current contributes, at least in part, to the increase in neuron excitability that may lead to the development of pain and hyperalgesia associated with CCD.

  8. Thylakoid potassium channel is required for efficient photosynthesis in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Checchetto, Vanessa; Segalla, Anna; Allorent, Guillaume; La Rocca, Nicoletta; Leanza, Luigi; Giacometti, Giorgio Mario; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Finazzi, Giovanni; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Szabò, Ildikò

    2012-07-03

    A potassium channel (SynK) of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a photoheterotrophic model organism for the study of photosynthesis, has been recently identified and demonstrated to function as a potassium selective channel when expressed in a heterologous system and to be located predominantly to the thylakoid membrane in cyanobacteria. To study its physiological role, a SynK-less knockout mutant was generated and characterized. Fluorimetric experiments indicated that SynK-less cyanobacteria cannot build up a proton gradient as efficiently as WT organisms, suggesting that SynK might be involved in the regulation of the electric component of the proton motive force. Accordingly, measurements of flash-induced cytochrome b(6)f turnover and respiration pointed to a reduced generation of ΔpH and to an altered linear electron transport in mutant cells. The lack of the channel did not cause an altered membrane organization, but decreased growth and modified the photosystem II/photosystem I ratio at high light intensities because of enhanced photosensitivity. These data shed light on the function of a prokaryotic potassium channel and reports evidence, by means of a genetic approach, on the requirement of a thylakoid ion channel for optimal photosynthesis.

  9. Oxidative Stress and Maxi Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F.; Weiger, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    All cells contain ion channels in their outer (plasma) and inner (organelle) membranes. Ion channels, similar to other proteins, are targets of oxidative impact, which modulates ion fluxes across membranes. Subsequently, these ion currents affect electrical excitability, such as action potential discharge (in neurons, muscle, and receptor cells), alteration of the membrane resting potential, synaptic transmission, hormone secretion, muscle contraction or coordination of the cell cycle. In this chapter we summarize effects of oxidative stress and redox mechanisms on some ion channels, in particular on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels which play an outstanding role in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions in almost all cells and tissues. We first elaborate on some general features of ion channel structure and function and then summarize effects of oxidative alterations of ion channels and their functional consequences. PMID:26287261

  10. Neuronal and Cardiovascular Potassium Channels as Therapeutic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Edward S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium (K+) channels, with their diversity, often tissue-defined distribution, and critical role in controlling cellular excitability, have long held promise of being important drug targets for the treatment of dysrhythmias in the heart and abnormal neuronal activity within the brain. With the exception of drugs that target one particular class, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, very few selective K+ channel activators or inhibitors are currently licensed for clinical use in cardiovascular and neurological disease. Here we review what a range of human genetic disorders have told us about the role of specific K+ channel subunits, explore the potential of activators and inhibitors of specific channel populations as a therapeutic strategy, and discuss possible reasons for the difficulty in designing clinically relevant K+ channel modulators. PMID:26303307

  11. Sodium and potassium competition in potassium-selective and non-selective channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, David B.; Zeng, Weizhong; Canty, John; Lam, Yeeling; Jiang, Youxing

    2013-11-01

    Potassium channels selectively conduct K+, primarily to the exclusion of Na+, despite the fact that both ions can bind within the selectivity filter. Here we perform crystallographic titration and single-channel electrophysiology to examine the competition of Na+ and K+ binding within the filter of two NaK channel mutants; one is the potassium-selective NaK2K mutant and the other is the non-selective NaK2CNG, a CNG channel pore mimic. With high-resolution structures of these engineered NaK channel constructs, we explicitly describe the changes in K+ occupancy within the filter upon Na+ competition by anomalous diffraction. Our results demonstrate that the non-selective NaK2CNG still retains a K+-selective site at equilibrium, whereas the NaK2K channel filter maintains two high-affinity K+ sites. A double-barrier mechanism is proposed to explain K+ channel selectivity at low K+ concentrations.

  12. Chloride and potassium channels in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.; Liedtke, Carole M.

    1986-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis, the most common lethal genetic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by a decreased permeability in sweat gland duct and airway epithelia. In sweat duct epithelium, a decreased Cl- permeability accounts for the abnormally increased salt content of sweat1. In airway epithelia a decreased Cl- permeability, and possibly increased sodium absorption, may account for the abnormal respiratory tract fluid2,3. The Cl- impermeability has been localized to the apical membrane of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells4. The finding that hormonally regulated Cl- channels make the apical membrane Cl- permeable in normal airway epithelial cells5 suggested abnormal Cl- channel function in cystic fibrosis. Here we report that excised, cell-free patches of membrane from cystic fibrosis epithelial cells contain Cl- channels that have the same conductive properties as Cl- channels from normal cells. However, Cl- channels from cystic fibrosis cells did not open when they were attached to the cell. These findings suggest defective regulation of Cl- channels in cystic fibrosis epithelia; to begin to address this issue, we performed two studies. First, we found that isoprenaline, which stimulates Cl- secretion, increases cellular levels of cyclic AMP in a similar manner in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis epithelial cells. Second, we show that adrenergic agonists open calcium-activated potassium channels, indirectly suggesting that calcium-dependent stimulus-response coupling is intact in cystic fibrosis. These data suggest defective regulation of Cl- channels at a site distal to cAMP accumulation.

  13. Mechanism of Electromechanical Coupling in Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Blunck, Rikard; Batulan, Zarah

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels play a central role in the generation of action potentials in the nervous system. They are selective for one type of ion – sodium, calcium, or potassium. Voltage-gated ion channels are composed of a central pore that allows ions to pass through the membrane and four peripheral voltage sensing domains that respond to changes in the membrane potential. Upon depolarization, voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) undergo conformational changes driven by positive charges in the S4 segment and aided by pairwise electrostatic interactions with the surrounding voltage sensor. Structure-function relations of Kv channels have been investigated in detail, and the resulting models on the movement of the voltage sensors now converge to a consensus; the S4 segment undergoes a combined movement of rotation, tilt, and vertical displacement in order to bring 3–4e+ each through the electric field focused in this region. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the voltage sensor movement leads to pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, is still not fully understood. Thus, recently, electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels has been investigated with a multitude of techniques including electrophysiology, 3D crystal structures, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Evidently, the S4–S5 linker, the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore, plays a crucial role. The linker transfers the energy from the voltage sensor movement to the pore domain via an interaction with the S6 C-termini, which are pulled open during gating. In addition, other contact regions have been proposed. This review aims to provide (i) an in-depth comparison of the molecular mechanisms of electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels; (ii) insight as to how the voltage sensor and pore domain influence one another; and (iii) theoretical predictions on the movement of the cytosolic face of the Kv channels during

  14. Expression and distribution of Kv4 potassium channel subunits and potassium channel interacting proteins in subpopulations of interneurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, J; Rainnie, D G

    2010-12-15

    The Kv4 potassium channel α subunits, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3, determine some of the fundamental physiological properties of neurons in the CNS. Kv4 subunits are associated with auxiliary β-subunits, such as the potassium channel interacting proteins (KChIP1 - 4), which are thought to regulate the trafficking and gating of native Kv4 potassium channels. Intriguingly, KChIP1 is thought to show cell type-selective expression in GABA-ergic inhibitory interneurons, while other β-subunits (KChIP2-4) are associated with principal glutamatergic neurons. However, nothing is known about the expression of Kv4 family α- and β-subunits in specific interneurons populations in the BLA. Here, we have used immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, and Western Blotting to determine the relative expression of KChIP1 in the different interneuron subtypes within the BLA, and its co-localization with one or more of the Kv4 α subunits. We show that all three α-subunits of Kv4 potassium channel are found in rat BLA neurons, and that the immunoreactivity of KChIP1 closely resembles that of Kv4.3. Indeed, Kv4.3 showed almost complete co-localization with KChIP1 in the soma and dendrites of a distinct subpopulation of BLA neurons. Dual-immunofluorescence studies revealed this to be in BLA interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin, cholecystokin-8, and somatostatin. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that KChIP1 was associated with all three Kv4 α subunits. Together our results suggest that KChIP1 is selectively expressed in BLA interneurons where it may function to regulate the activity of A-type potassium channels. Hence, KChIP1 might be considered as a cell type-specific regulator of GABAergic inhibitory circuits in the BLA. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ion Conduction through the hERG Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Andrea; Recanatini, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    The inward rectifier voltage-gated potassium channel hERG is of primary importance for the regulation of the membrane potential of cardiomyocytes. Unlike most voltage-gated K+-channels, hERG shows a low elementary conductance at physiological voltage and potassium concentration. To investigate the molecular features underlying this unusual behavior, we simulated the ion conduction through the selectivity filter at a fully atomistic level by means of molecular dynamics-based methods, using a homology-derived model. According to our calculations, permeation of potassium ions can occur along two pathways, one involving site vacancies inside the filter (showing an energy barrier of about 6 kcal mol−1), and the other characterized by the presence of a knock-on intermediate (about 8 kcal mol−1). These barriers are indeed in accordance with a low conductance behavior, and can be explained in terms of a series of distinctive structural features displayed by the hERG ion permeation pathway. PMID:23133669

  16. Expression, purification and functional reconstitution of slack sodium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yangyang; Yang, Youshan; Bian, Shumin; Sigworth, Fred J

    2012-11-01

    The slack (slo2.2) gene codes for a potassium-channel α-subunit of the 6TM voltage-gated channel family. Expression of slack results in Na(+)-activated potassium channel activity in various cell types. We describe the purification and reconstitution of Slack protein and show that the Slack α-subunit alone is sufficient for potassium channel activity activated by sodium ions as assayed in planar bilayer membranes and in membrane vesicles.

  17. Quasi-specific access of the potassium channel inactivation gate

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Gaurav; Srikumar, Deepa; Holmgren, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Many voltage-gated potassium channels open in response to membrane depolarization and then inactivate within milliseconds. Neurons use these channels to tune their excitability. In Shaker K+ channels, inactivation is caused by the cytoplasmic amino terminus, termed the inactivation gate. Despite having four such gates, inactivation is caused by the movement of a single gate into a position that occludes ion permeation. The pathway that this single inactivation gate takes into its inactivating position remains unknown. Here we show that a single gate threads through the intracellular entryway of its own subunit, but the tip of the gate has sufficient freedom to interact with all four subunits deep in the pore, and does so with equal probability. This pathway demonstrates that flexibility afforded by the inactivation peptide segment at the tip of the N-terminus is used to mediate function. PMID:24909510

  18. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Mikio; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K+ channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K+ channels in pancreatic duct cells, including KCNN4 (KCa3.1), KCNMA1 (KCa1.1), KCNQ1 (Kv7.1), KCNH2 (Kv11.1), KCNH5 (Kv10.2), KCNT1 (KCa4.1), KCNT2 (KCa4.2), and KCNK5 (K2P5.1). We will give an overview of K+ channels with respect to their electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics and regulation, which we know from other cell types, preferably in epithelia, and, where known, their identification and functions in pancreatic ducts and in adenocarcinoma cells. We conclude by pointing out some outstanding questions and future directions in pancreatic K+ channel research with respect to the physiology of secretion and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K+ channels may be of importance. PMID:23962792

  19. A new pH-sensitive rectifying potassium channel in mitochondria from the embryonic rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kajma, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam

    2012-10-01

    Patch-clamp single-channel studies on mitochondria isolated from embryonic rat hippocampus revealed the presence of two different potassium ion channels: a large-conductance (288±4pS) calcium-activated potassium channel and second potassium channel with outwardly rectifying activity under symmetric conditions (150/150mM KCl). At positive voltages, this channel displayed a conductance of 67.84pS and a strong voltage dependence at holding potentials from -80mV to +80mV. The open probability was higher at positive than at negative voltages. Patch-clamp studies at the mitoplast-attached mode showed that the channel was not sensitive to activators and inhibitors of mitochondrial potassium channels but was regulated by pH. Moreover, we demonstrated that the channel activity was not affected by the application of lidocaine, an inhibitor of two-pore domain potassium channels, or by tertiapin, an inhibitor of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. In summary, based on the single-channel recordings, we characterised for the first time mitochondrial pH-sensitive ion channel that is selective for cations, permeable to potassium ions, displays voltage sensitivity and does not correspond to any previously described potassium ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of potassium channel modulators in mouse forced swimming test

    PubMed Central

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Ghelardini, Carla; Caldari, Bernardetta; Bartolini, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of different potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium, apamin, charybdotoxin, gliquidone), potassium channel openers (pinacidil, minoxidil, cromakalim) and aODN to mKv1.1 on immobility time was evaluated in the mouse forced swimming test, an animal model of depression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 μg per mouse i.c.v.), apamin (3 ng per mouse i.c.v.), charybdotoxin (1 μg per mouse i.c.v.) and gliquidone (6 μg per mouse i.c.v.) administered 20 min before the test produced anti-immobility comparable to that induced by the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline (15 mg kg−1 s.c.) and imipramine (30 mg kg−1 s.c.). By contrast pinacidil (10–20 μg per mouse i.c.v.), minoxidil (10–20 μg per mouse i.c.v.) and cromakalim (20–30 μg per mouse i.c.v.) increased immobility time when administered in the same experimental conditions. Repeated administration of an antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) to the mKv1.1 gene (1 and 3 nmol per single i.c.v. injection) produced a dose-dependent increase in immobility time of mice 72 h after the last injection. At day 7, the increasing effect produced by aODN disappeared. A degenerate mKv1.1 oligonucleotide (dODN), used as control, did not produce any effect in comparison with saline- and vector-treated mice. At the highest effective dose, potassium channels modulators and the mKv1.1 aODN did not impair motor coordination, as revealed by the rota rod test, nor did they modify spontaneous motility as revealed by the Animex apparatus. These results suggest that modulation of potassium channels plays an important role in the regulation of immobility time in the mouse forced swimming test. PMID:10323599

  1. Voltage-Dependent Gating of hERG Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yen May; Claydon, Tom W.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which voltage-gated channels sense changes in membrane voltage and energetically couple this with opening of the ion conducting pore has been the source of significant interest. In voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, much of our knowledge in this area comes from Shaker-type channels, for which voltage-dependent gating is quite rapid. In these channels, activation and deactivation are associated with rapid reconfiguration of the voltage-sensing domain unit that is electromechanically coupled, via the S4–S5 linker helix, to the rate-limiting opening of an intracellular pore gate. However, fast voltage-dependent gating kinetics are not typical of all Kv channels, such as Kv11.1 (human ether-à-go-go related gene, hERG), which activates and deactivates very slowly. Compared to Shaker channels, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying slow hERG gating is much poorer. Here, we present a comparative review of the structure–function relationships underlying activation and deactivation gating in Shaker and hERG channels, with a focus on the roles of the voltage-sensing domain and the S4–S5 linker that couples voltage sensor movements to the pore. Measurements of gating current kinetics and fluorimetric analysis of voltage sensor movement are consistent with models suggesting that the hERG activation pathway contains a voltage independent step, which limits voltage sensor transitions. Constraints upon hERG voltage sensor movement may result from loose packing of the S4 helices and additional intra-voltage sensor counter-charge interactions. More recent data suggest that key amino acid differences in the hERG voltage-sensing unit and S4–S5 linker, relative to fast activating Shaker-type Kv channels, may also contribute to the increased stability of the resting state of the voltage sensor. PMID:22586397

  2. MinK-dependent internalization of the IKs potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Kanda, Vikram A; Choi, Eun; Panaghie, Gianina; Roepke, Torsten K; Gaeta, Stephen A; Christini, David J; Lerner, Daniel J; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2009-06-01

    KCNQ1-MinK potassium channel complexes (4alpha:2beta stoichiometry) generate IKs, the slowly activating human cardiac ventricular repolarization current. The MinK ancillary subunit slows KCNQ1 activation, eliminates its inactivation, and increases its unitary conductance. However, KCNQ1 transcripts outnumber MinK transcripts five to one in human ventricles, suggesting KCNQ1 also forms other heteromeric or even homomeric channels there. Mechanisms governing which channel types prevail have not previously been reported, despite their significance: normal cardiac rhythm requires tight control of IKs density and kinetics, and inherited mutations in KCNQ1 and MinK can cause ventricular fibrillation and sudden death. Here, we describe a novel mechanism for this control. Whole-cell patch-clamping, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, antibody feeding, biotin feeding, fluorescent transferrin feeding, and protein biochemistry techniques were applied to COS-7 cells heterologously expressing KCNQ1 with wild-type or mutant MinK and dynamin 2 and to native IKs channels in guinea-pig myocytes. KCNQ1-MinK complexes, but not homomeric KCNQ1 channels, were found to undergo clathrin- and dynamin 2-dependent internalization (DDI). Three sites on the MinK intracellular C-terminus were, in concert, necessary and sufficient for DDI. Gating kinetics and sensitivity to XE991 indicated that DDI decreased cell-surface KCNQ1-MinK channels relative to homomeric KCNQ1, decreasing whole-cell current but increasing net activation rate; inhibiting DDI did the reverse. The data redefine MinK as an endocytic chaperone for KCNQ1 and present a dynamic mechanism for controlling net surface Kv channel subunit composition-and thus current density and gating kinetics-that may also apply to other alpha-beta type Kv channel complexes.

  3. A potent potassium channel blocker from Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Zhu, Shunyi

    2010-12-01

    Scorpion venom-derived peptidyl toxins are valuable pharmacological tools for investigating the structure-function relationship of ion channels. Here, we report the purification, sequencing and functional characterization of a new K(+) channel blocker (MeuKTX) from the venom of the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus. Effects of MeuKTX on ten cloned potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes were evaluated using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings. MeuKTX is the orthologue of BmKTX (α-KTx3.6), a known Kv1.3 blocker from the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii, and classified as α-KTx3.13. MeuKTX potently blocks rKv1.1, rKv1.2 and hKv1.3 channels with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 203.15 ± 4.06 pM, 8.92 ± 2.3 nM and 171 ± 8.56 pM, respectively, but does not affect rKv1.4, rKv1.5, hKv3.1, rKv4.3, and hERG channels even at 2 μM concentration. At this high concentration, MeuKTX is also active on rKv1.6 and Shaker IR. Our results also demonstrate that MeuKTX and BmKTX have the same channel spectrum and similar pharmacological potency. Analysis of the structure-function relationships of α-KTx3 subfamily toxins allows us to recognize several key sites which may be useful for designing toxins with improved activity on hKv1.3, an attractive target for T-cell mediated autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-pore Electrostatics in Inward-rectifier Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Janice L.; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels differ from the canonical K+ channel structure in that they possess a long extended pore (∼85 Å) for ion conduction that reaches deeply into the cytoplasm. This unique structural feature is presumably involved in regulating functional properties specific to Kir channels, such as conductance, rectification block, and ligand-dependent gating. To elucidate the underpinnings of these functional roles, we examine the electrostatics of an ion along this extended pore. Homology models are constructed based on the open-state model of KirBac1.1 for four mammalian Kir channels: Kir1.1/ROMK, Kir2.1/IRK, Kir3.1/GIRK, and Kir6.2/KATP. By solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the electrostatic free energy of a K+ ion is determined along each pore, revealing that mammalian Kir channels provide a favorable environment for cations and suggesting the existence of high-density regions in the cytoplasmic domain and cavity. The contribution from the reaction field (the self-energy arising from the dielectric polarization induced by the ion's charge in the complex geometry of the pore) is unfavorable inside the long pore. However, this is well compensated by the electrostatic interaction with the static field arising from the protein charges and shielded by the dielectric surrounding. Decomposition of the static field provides a list of residues that display remarkable correspondence with existing mutagenesis data identifying amino acids that affect conduction and rectification. Many of these residues demonstrate interactions with the ion over long distances, up to 40 Å, suggesting that mutations potentially affect ion or blocker energetics over the entire pore. These results provide a foundation for understanding ion interactions in Kir channels and extend to the study of ion permeation, block, and gating in long, cation-specific pores. PMID:19001143

  5. Potassium Channels Mediate Killing by Human Natural Killer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichter, Lyanne; Sidell, Neil; Hagiwara, Susumu

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. However, no direct evidence exists for ion channels in NK cells or in their target cells. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, we found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. We tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na+ current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. We could not find any evidence of a Ca2+ current in target cells or in NK cells; therefore, our results cannot explain the Ca dependence of killing. Our findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process. In contrast, the endogenous channel type in the target cell is probably not a factor in determining target cell

  6. Slo1 is the principal potassium channel of human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Mannowetz, Nadja; Naidoo, Natasha M; Choo, Seung-A Sara; Smith, James F; Lishko, Polina V

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa gain competence to fertilize an oocyte as they travel through the female reproductive tract. This process is accompanied by an elevation of sperm intracellular calcium and a membrane hyperpolarization. The latter is evoked by K+ efflux; however, the molecular identity of the potassium channel of human spermatozoa (hKSper) is unknown. Here, we characterize hKSper, reporting that it is regulated by intracellular calcium but is insensitive to intracellular alkalinization. We also show that human KSper is inhibited by charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin, and paxilline, while mouse KSper is insensitive to these compounds. Such unique properties suggest that the Slo1 ion channel is the molecular determinant for hKSper. We show that Slo1 is localized to the sperm flagellum and is inhibited by progesterone. Inhibition of hKSper by progesterone may depolarize the spermatozoon to open the calcium channel CatSper, thus raising [Ca2+] to produce hyperactivation and allowing sperm to fertilize an oocyte. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01009.001 PMID:24137539

  7. Sleep disturbances in voltage-gated potassium channel antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barone, Daniel A; Krieger, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are a family of membrane proteins responsible for controlling cell membrane potential. The presence of antibodies (Ab) against neuronal VGKC complexes aids in the diagnosis of idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune neurologic disorders. The diagnosis of VGKC Ab-associated encephalopathy (VCKC Ab syndrome) should be suspected in patients with subacute onset of disorientation, confusion, and memory loss in the presence of seizures or a movement disorder. VGKC Ab syndrome may present with sleep-related symptoms, and the purpose of this communication is to alert sleep and neurology clinicians of this still-under-recognized condition. In this case, we are presenting the VGKC Ab syndrome which improved after treatment with solumedrol. The prompt recognition and treatment of this condition may prevent the morbidity associated with cerebral atrophy and the mortality associated with intractable seizures and electrolyte disturbances. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The renal TRPV4 channel is essential for adaptation to increased dietary potassium

    PubMed Central

    Mamenko, Mykola; Boukelmoune, Nabila; Tomilin, Viktor; Zaika, Oleg; Jensen, V. Behrana; O’Neil, Roger G.; Pochynyuk, Oleh

    2016-01-01

    To maintain potassium homeostasis, kidneys exert flow-dependent potassium secretion to facilitate kaliuresis in response to elevated dietary potassium intake. This process involves stimulation of calcium-activated large conductance maxi-K (BK) channels in the distal nephron, namely the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that the TRPV4 channel is a critical determinant of flow-dependent intracellular calcium elevations in these segments of the renal tubule. Here, we demonstrate that elevated dietary potassium intake (five percent potassium) increases renal TRPV4 mRNA and protein levels in an aldosterone-dependent manner and causes redistribution of the channel to the apical plasma membrane in native collecting duct cells. This, in turn, leads to augmented TRPV4-mediated flow-dependent calcium ion responses in freshly isolated split-opened collecting ducts from mice fed the high potassium diet. Genetic TRPV4 ablation greatly diminished BK channel activity in collecting duct cells pointing to a reduced capacity to excrete potassium. Consistently, elevated potassium intake induced hyperkalemia in TRPV4 knockout mice due to deficient renal potassium excretion. Thus, regulation of TRPV4 activity in the distal nephron by dietary potassium is an indispensable component of whole body potassium balance. PMID:28187982

  9. The renal TRPV4 channel is essential for adaptation to increased dietary potassium.

    PubMed

    Mamenko, Mykola V; Boukelmoune, Nabila; Tomilin, Viktor N; Zaika, Oleg L; Jensen, V Behrana; O'Neil, Roger G; Pochynyuk, Oleh M

    2017-06-01

    To maintain potassium homeostasis, kidneys exert flow-dependent potassium secretion to facilitate kaliuresis in response to elevated dietary potassium intake. This process involves stimulation of calcium-activated large conductance maxi-K (BK) channels in the distal nephron, namely the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that the TRPV4 channel is a critical determinant of flow-dependent intracellular calcium elevations in these segments of the renal tubule. Here, we demonstrate that elevated dietary potassium intake (five percent potassium) increases renal TRPV4 mRNA and protein levels in an aldosterone-dependent manner and causes redistribution of the channel to the apical plasma membrane in native collecting duct cells. This, in turn, leads to augmented TRPV4-mediated flow-dependent calcium ion responses in freshly isolated split-opened collecting ducts from mice fed the high potassium diet. Genetic TRPV4 ablation greatly diminished BK channel activity in collecting duct cells pointing to a reduced capacity to excrete potassium. Consistently, elevated potassium intake induced hyperkalemia in TRPV4 knockout mice due to deficient renal potassium excretion. Thus, regulation of TRPV4 activity in the distal nephron by dietary potassium is an indispensable component of whole body potassium balance. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Free RCK arrangement in Kch, a putative escherichia coli potassium channel, as suggested by electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qie; Purhonen, Pasi; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Koeck, Philip J B; Hebert, Hans

    2015-01-06

    The ligand-gated potassium channels are stimulated by various kinds of messengers. Previous studies showed that ligand-gated potassium channels containing RCK domains (the regulator of the conductance of potassium ion) form a dimer of tetramer structure through the RCK octameric gating ring in the presence of detergent. Here, we have analyzed the structure of Kch, a channel of this type from Escherichia coli, in a lipid environment using electron crystallography. By combining information from the 3D map of the transmembrane part of the protein and docking of an atomic model of a potassium channel, we conclude that the RCK domains face the solution and that an RCK octameric gating ring arrangement does not form under our crystallization condition. Our findings may be applied to other potassium channels that have an RCK gating ring arrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nicotine depresses the functions of multiple cardiac potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Shi, H; Wang, Z

    1999-01-01

    Nicotine is the main constituent of tobacco smoke responsible for the elevated risk of the cardiovascular disease and sudden coronary death associated with smoking, presumably by provoking cardiac arrhythmias. The cellular mechanisms may be related to the ability of nicotine to prolong action potentials and to depolarize membrane potential. However, the underlying ionic mechanisms remained unknown. We showed here that nicotine blocked multiple types of K+ currents, including the native currents in canine ventricular myocytes and the cloned channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes: A-type K+ currents (I(to)/Kv4.3), delayed rectifier K+ currents (I(Kr)/HERG) and inward rectifier K+ currents (I(K1)/Kir2.1). Most noticeably, nicotine at a concentration as low as of 10 nM significantly suppressed I(to) and Kv4.3 by approximately 20%. The effects of nicotine were independent of nicotinic receptor simulation or catecholamine release. Our results indicate that nicotine is a non-specific blocker of K+ channels and the inhibitory effects are the consequence of direct interactions between nicotine molecules and the channel proteins. Our study provided for the first time the evidence for the direct inhibition of cardiac K+ channels by nicotine and established a novel aspect of nicotine pharmacology.

  12. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease with vomiting and diarrhea) and drugs, especially diuretics ('water pills'), remove potassium from the body. Potassium ... captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec),and lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril); diuretics ('water pills'); and vitamins. Do not take potassium ...

  13. Kalium: a database of potassium channel toxins from scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I; Krylov, Nikolay A; Chugunov, Anton O; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    Kalium (http://kaliumdb.org/) is a manually curated database that accumulates data on potassium channel toxins purified from scorpion venom (KTx). This database is an open-access resource, and provides easy access to pages of other databases of interest, such as UniProt, PDB, NCBI Taxonomy Browser, and PubMed. General achievements of Kalium are a strict and easy regulation of KTx classification based on the unified nomenclature supported by researchers in the field, removal of peptides with partial sequence and entries supported by transcriptomic information only, classification of β-family toxins, and addition of a novel λ-family. Molecules presented in the database can be processed by the Clustal Omega server using a one-click option. Molecular masses of mature peptides are calculated and available activity data are compiled for all KTx. We believe that Kalium is not only of high interest to professional toxinologists, but also of general utility to the scientific community.Database URL:http://kaliumdb.org/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Effect of tyrphostin AG879 on Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose A-type potassium channels (IA) are important proteins for modulating neuronal membrane excitability. The expression and activity of Kv4.2 channels are critical for neurological functions and pharmacological inhibitors of Kv4.2 channels may have therapeutic potential for Fragile X syndrome. While screening various compounds, we identified tyrphostin AG879, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a Kv4.2 inhibitor from. In the present study we characterized the effect of AG879 on cloned Kv4.2/Kv channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) channels. Experimental Approach To screen the library of pharmacologically active compounds, the thallium flux assay was performed on HEK-293 cells transiently-transfected with Kv4.2 cDNA using the Maxcyte transfection system. The effects of AG879 were further examined on CHO-K1 cells expressing Kv4.2/KChIP2 channels using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Key Results Tyrphostin AG879 selectively and dose-dependently inhibited Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels. In Kv4.2/KChIP2 channels, AG879 induced prominent acceleration of the inactivation rate, use-dependent block and slowed the recovery from inactivation. AG879 induced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of the steady-state inactivation of Kv4.2 channels without apparent effect on the V1/2 of the voltage-dependent activation. The blocking effect of AG879 was enhanced as channel inactivation increased. Furthermore, AG879 significantly inhibited the A-type potassium currents in the cultured hippocampus neurons. Conclusion and Implications AG879 was identified as a selective and potent inhibitor the Kv4.2 channel. AG879 inhibited Kv4.2 channels by preferentially interacting with the open state and further accelerating their inactivation. PMID:25752739

  15. Effect of tyrphostin AG879 on Kv 4.2 and Kv 4.3 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Min

    2015-07-01

    A-type potassium channels (IA) are important proteins for modulating neuronal membrane excitability. The expression and activity of Kv 4.2 channels are critical for neurological functions and pharmacological inhibitors of Kv 4.2 channels may have therapeutic potential for Fragile X syndrome. While screening various compounds, we identified tyrphostin AG879, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a Kv 4.2 inhibitor from. In the present study we characterized the effect of AG879 on cloned Kv 4.2/Kv channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) channels. To screen the library of pharmacologically active compounds, the thallium flux assay was performed on HEK-293 cells transiently-transfected with Kv 4.2 cDNA using the Maxcyte transfection system. The effects of AG879 were further examined on CHO-K1 cells expressing Kv 4.2/KChIP2 channels using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Tyrphostin AG879 selectively and dose-dependently inhibited Kv 4.2 and Kv 4.3 channels. In Kv 4.2/KChIP2 channels, AG879 induced prominent acceleration of the inactivation rate, use-dependent block and slowed the recovery from inactivation. AG879 induced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of the steady-state inactivation of Kv 4.2 channels without apparent effect on the V1/2 of the voltage-dependent activation. The blocking effect of AG879 was enhanced as channel inactivation increased. Furthermore, AG879 significantly inhibited the A-type potassium currents in the cultured hippocampus neurons. AG879 was identified as a selective and potent inhibitor the Kv 4.2 channel. AG879 inhibited Kv 4.2 channels by preferentially interacting with the open state and further accelerating their inactivation. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Overexpression of the rice AKT1 potassium channel affects potassium nutrition and rice drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Izhar; Mian, Afaq; Maathuis, Frans J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K+) is the most important cationic nutrient for all living organisms and has roles in most aspects of plant physiology. To assess the impact of one of the main K+ uptake components, the K+ inward rectifying channel AKT1, we characterized both loss of function and overexpression of OsAKT1 in rice. In many conditions, AKT1 expression correlated with K+ uptake and tissue K+ levels. No salinity-related growth phenotype was observed for either loss or gain of function mutants. However, a correlation between AKT1 expression and root Na+ when the external Na/K ratio was high suggests that there may be a role for AKT1 in Na+ uptake in such conditions. In contrast to findings with Arabidopsis thaliana, we did not detect any change in growth of AKT1 loss of function mutants in the presence of NH4 +. Nevertheless, NH4 +-dependent inhibition was detected during K+ uptake assays in loss of function and wild type plants, depending on pre-growth conditions. The most prominent result of OsAKT1 overexpression was a reduction in sensitivity to osmotic/drought stress in transgenic plants: the data suggest that AKT1 overexpression improved rice osmotic and drought stress tolerance by increasing tissue levels of K+, especially in the root. PMID:26969743

  17. G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium channels involved in corticostriatal presynaptic modulation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, David; Mateos, Verónica; Islas, Gustavo; Barral, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Presynaptic modulation has been associated mainly with calcium channels but recent data suggests that inward rectifier potassium channels (K(IR)) also play a role. In this work we set to characterize the role of presynaptic K(IR) channels in corticostriatal synaptic transmission. We elicited synaptic potentials in striatum by stimulating cortical areas and then determined the synaptic responses of corticostriatal synapsis by using paired pulse ratio (PPR) in the presence and absence of several potassium channel blockers. Unspecific potassium channels blockers Ba(2+) and Cs(+) reduced the PPR, suggesting that these channels are presynaptically located. Further pharmacological characterization showed that application of tertiapin-Q, a specific K(IR)3 channel family blocker, also induced a reduction of PPR, suggesting that K(IR)3 channels are present at corticostriatal terminals. In contrast, exposure to Lq2, a specific K(IR)1.1 inward rectifier potassium channel, did not induce any change in PPR suggesting the absence of these channels in the presynaptic corticostriatal terminals. Our results indicate that K(IR)3 channels are functionally expressed at the corticostriatal synapses, since blockage of these channels result in PPR decrease. Our results also help to explain how synaptic activity may become sensitive to extracellular signals mediated by G-protein coupled receptors. A vast repertoire of receptors may influence neurotransmitter release in an indirect manner through regulation of K(IR)3 channels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Involvement of Potassium and Cation Channels in Hippocampal Abnormalities of Embryonic Ts65Dn and Tc1 Trisomic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Shani; Segal, Menahem; Moses, Elisha

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) mouse models exhibit cognitive deficits, and are used for studying the neuronal basis of DS pathology. To understand the differences in the physiology of DS model neurons, we used dissociated neuronal cultures from the hippocampi of Ts65Dn and Tc1 DS mice. Imaging of [Ca2+]i and whole cell patch clamp recordings were used to analyze network activity and single neuron properties, respectively. We found a decrease of ~ 30% in both fast (A-type) and slow (delayed rectifier) outward potassium currents. Depolarization of Ts65Dn and Tc1 cells produced fewer spikes than diploid cells. Their network bursts were smaller and slower than diploids, displaying a 40% reduction in Δf / f0 of the calcium signals, and a 30% reduction in propagation velocity. Additionally, Ts65Dn and Tc1 neurons exhibited changes in the action potential shape compared to diploid neurons, with an increase in the amplitude of the action potential, a lower threshold for spiking, and a sharp decrease of about 65% in the after-hyperpolarization amplitude. Numerical simulations reproduced the DS measured phenotype by variations in the conductance of the delayed rectifier and A-type, but necessitated also changes in inward rectifying and M-type potassium channels and in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. We therefore conducted whole cell patch clamp measurements of M-type potassium currents, which showed a ~ 90% decrease in Ts65Dn neurons, while HCN measurements displayed an increase of ~ 65% in Ts65Dn cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicates overexpression of 40% of KCNJ15, an inward rectifying potassium channel, contributing to the increased inhibition. We thus find that changes in several types of potassium channels dominate the observed DS model phenotype. PMID:26501103

  19. The Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack Is Required for Optimal Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    "Kcnt1" encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual…

  20. Modulatory mechanisms and multiple functions of somatodendritic A-type K+ channel auxiliary subunits

    PubMed Central

    Jerng, Henry H.; Pfaffinger, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Auxiliary subunits are non-conducting, modulatory components of the multi-protein ion channel complexes that underlie normal neuronal signaling. They interact with the pore-forming α-subunits to modulate surface distribution, ion conductance, and channel gating properties. For the somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium (ISA) channel based on Kv4 α-subunits, two types of auxiliary subunits have been extensively studied: Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPLPs). KChIPs are cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins that interact with intracellular portions of the Kv4 subunits, whereas DPLPs are type II transmembrane proteins that associate with the Kv4 channel core. Both KChIPs and DPLPs genes contain multiple start sites that are used by various neuronal populations to drive the differential expression of functionally distinct N-terminal variants. In turn, these N-terminal variants generate tremendous functional diversity across the nervous system. Here, we focus our review on (1) the molecular mechanism underlying the unique properties of different N-terminal variants, (2) the shaping of native ISA properties by the concerted actions of KChIPs and DPLP variants, and (3) the surprising ways that KChIPs and DPLPs coordinate the activity of multiple channels to fine-tune neuronal excitability. Unlocking the unique contributions of different auxiliary subunit N-terminal variants may provide an important opportunity to develop novel targeted therapeutics to treat numerous neurological disorders. PMID:24723849

  1. Modulatory mechanisms and multiple functions of somatodendritic A-type K (+) channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Henry H; Pfaffinger, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Auxiliary subunits are non-conducting, modulatory components of the multi-protein ion channel complexes that underlie normal neuronal signaling. They interact with the pore-forming α-subunits to modulate surface distribution, ion conductance, and channel gating properties. For the somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium (ISA) channel based on Kv4 α-subunits, two types of auxiliary subunits have been extensively studied: Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPLPs). KChIPs are cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins that interact with intracellular portions of the Kv4 subunits, whereas DPLPs are type II transmembrane proteins that associate with the Kv4 channel core. Both KChIPs and DPLPs genes contain multiple start sites that are used by various neuronal populations to drive the differential expression of functionally distinct N-terminal variants. In turn, these N-terminal variants generate tremendous functional diversity across the nervous system. Here, we focus our review on (1) the molecular mechanism underlying the unique properties of different N-terminal variants, (2) the shaping of native ISA properties by the concerted actions of KChIPs and DPLP variants, and (3) the surprising ways that KChIPs and DPLPs coordinate the activity of multiple channels to fine-tune neuronal excitability. Unlocking the unique contributions of different auxiliary subunit N-terminal variants may provide an important opportunity to develop novel targeted therapeutics to treat numerous neurological disorders.

  2. Free energy dissipation of the spontaneous gating of a single voltage-gated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Zeng; Wang, Rui-Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Potassium channels mainly contribute to the resting potential and re-polarizations, with the potassium electrochemical gradient being maintained by the pump Na + /K + -ATPase. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model mimicking the kinetics of a potassium channel, which integrates temporal evolving of the membrane voltage and the spontaneous gating of the channel. Its stationary probability density functions (PDFs) are found to be singular at the boundaries, which result from the fact that the evolving rates of voltage are greater than the gating rates of the channel. We apply PDFs to calculate the power dissipations of the potassium current, the leakage, and the gating currents. On a physical perspective, the essential role of the system is the K + -battery charging the leakage (L-)battery. A part of power will inevitably be dissipated among the process. So, the efficiency of energy transference is calculated.

  3. Free energy dissipation of the spontaneous gating of a single voltage-gated potassium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Zeng; Wang, Rui-Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Potassium channels mainly contribute to the resting potential and re-polarizations, with the potassium electrochemical gradient being maintained by the pump Na+/K+-ATPase. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model mimicking the kinetics of a potassium channel, which integrates temporal evolving of the membrane voltage and the spontaneous gating of the channel. Its stationary probability density functions (PDFs) are found to be singular at the boundaries, which result from the fact that the evolving rates of voltage are greater than the gating rates of the channel. We apply PDFs to calculate the power dissipations of the potassium current, the leakage, and the gating currents. On a physical perspective, the essential role of the system is the K+-battery charging the leakage (L-)battery. A part of power will inevitably be dissipated among the process. So, the efficiency of energy transference is calculated.

  4. Automated Patch-Clamp Methods for the hERG Cardiac Potassium Channel.

    PubMed

    Houtmann, Sylvie; Schombert, Brigitte; Sanson, Camille; Partiseti, Michel; Bohme, G Andrees

    2017-01-01

    The human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene (hERG) product has been identified as a central ion channel underlying both familial forms of elongated QT interval on the electrocardiogram and drug-induced elongation of the same QT segment. Indeed, reduced function of this potassium channel involved in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential can produce a type of life-threatening cardiac ventricular arrhythmias called Torsades de Pointes (TdP). Therefore, hERG inhibitory activity of newly synthetized molecules is a relevant structure-activity metric for compound prioritization and optimization in medicinal chemistry phases of drug discovery. Electrophysiology remains the gold standard for the functional assessment of ion channel pharmacology. The recent years have witnessed automatization and parallelization of the manual patch-clamp technique, allowing higher throughput screening on recombinant hERG channels. However, the multi-well plate format of automatized patch-clamp does not allow visual detection of potential micro-precipitation of poorly soluble compounds. In this chapter we describe bench procedures for the culture and preparation of hERG-expressing CHO cells for recording on an automated patch-clamp workstation. We also show that the sensitivity of the assay can be improved by adding a surfactant to the extracellular medium.

  5. G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels are targets of alcohol action.

    PubMed

    Lewohl, J M; Wilson, W R; Mayfield, R D; Brozowski, S J; Morrisett, R A; Harris, R A

    1999-12-01

    G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are important for regulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal firing rates. Because of their key role in brain function, we asked if these potassium channels are targets of alcohol action. Ethanol enhanced function of cerebellar granule cell GIRKs coupled to GABAB receptors. Enhancement of GIRK function by ethanol was studied in detail using Xenopus oocytes expressing homomeric or heteromeric channels. Function of all GIRK channels was enhanced by intoxicating concentrations of ethanol, but other, related inwardly rectifying potassium channels were not affected. GIRK2/IRK1 chimeras and GIRK2 truncation mutants were used to identify a region of 43 amino acids in the carboxyl (C) terminus that is critical for the action of ethanol on these channels.

  6. Big Potassium (BK) ion channels in biology, disease and possible targets for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil T.; Wilson, Zechariah; Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Kong, Xia-Tang; Tajhya, Rajeev B.; Beeton, Christine; Jadus, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    The Big Potassium (BK) ion channel is commonly known by a variety of names (Maxi-K, KCNMA1, slo, Stretch-activated potassium channels, KCa1.1). Each name reflects a different physical property displayed by this single ion channel. This transmembrane channel is found on nearly every cell type of the body and has its own distinctive roles for that tissue type. The BKα channel contains the pore that releases potassium ions from intracellular stores. This ion channel is found on the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and mitochondria. Complex splicing pathways produce different isoforms. The BKα channels can be phosphorylated, palmitoylated and myristylated. BK is composed of a homo-tetramer that interacts with β and γ chains. These accessory proteins provide a further modulating effect on the functions of BKα channels. BK channels play important roles in cell division and migration. In this review, we will focus on the biology of BK channels, especially its role, and that it has in the immune response towards cancer. Recent proteomic studies have linked BK channels with various proteins. Some of these interactions offer further insight into the role that BK channels have with cancers, especially with brain tumors. This review shows that BK channels have a complex interplay with intracellular components of cancer cells and still have plenty of secrets to be discovered. PMID:25027630

  7. Modulation of hERG potassium channel gating normalizes action potential duration prolonged by dysfunctional KCNQ1 potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Moretti, Alessandra; Wang, Xiaoying; Yan, Wei; Babcock, Joseph J.; Bellin, Milena; McManus, Owen B.; Tomaselli, Gordon; Nan, Fajun; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic disease characterized by a prolonged QT interval in an electrocardiogram (ECG), leading to higher risk of sudden cardiac death. Among the 12 identified genes causal to heritable LQTS, ∼90% of affected individuals harbor mutations in either KCNQ1 or human ether-a-go-go related genes (hERG), which encode two repolarizing potassium currents known as IKs and IKr. The ability to quantitatively assess contributions of different current components is therefore important for investigating disease phenotypes and testing effectiveness of pharmacological modulation. Here we report a quantitative analysis by simulating cardiac action potentials of cultured human cardiomyocytes to match the experimental waveforms of both healthy control and LQT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) action potentials. The quantitative evaluation suggests that elevation of IKr by reducing voltage sensitivity of inactivation, not via slowing of deactivation, could more effectively restore normal QT duration if IKs is reduced. Using a unique specific chemical activator for IKr that has a primary effect of causing a right shift of V1/2 for inactivation, we then examined the duration changes of autonomous action potentials from differentiated human cardiomyocytes. Indeed, this activator causes dose-dependent shortening of the action potential durations and is able to normalize action potentials of cells of patients with LQT1. In contrast, an IKr chemical activator of primary effects in slowing channel deactivation was not effective in modulating action potential durations. Our studies provide both the theoretical basis and experimental support for compensatory normalization of action potential duration by a pharmacological agent. PMID:22745159

  8. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channel Function and Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Human cardiomyocytes express 3 distinct types of delayed rectifier potassium channels. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels conduct the rapidly activating current IKr; KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels conduct the slowly activating current IKs; and Kv1.5 channels conduct an ultrarapid activating current IKur. Here the authors provide a general overview of the mechanistic and structural basis of ion selectivity, gating, and pharmacology of the 3 types of cardiac delayed rectifier potassium ion channels. Most blockers bind to S6 residues that line the central cavity of the channel, whereas activators interact with the channel at 4 symmetric binding sites outside the cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Delayed rectifier potassium channels are involved in SO2 derivative-induced hippocampal neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies implicate the possible neurotoxicity of SO(2), however, its mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated SO(2) derivative-induced effect on delayed rectifier potassium channels (I(K)) and cellular death/apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. The results demonstrate that SO(2) derivatives (NaHSO(3) and Na(2)SO(3), 3:1M/M) effectively augmented I(K) and promoted the activation of delayed rectifier potassium channels. Also, SO(2) derivatives increased neuronal death percentage and contributed to the formation of DNA ladder in concentration-dependent manners. Interestingly, the neuronal death and DNA ladder formation, caused by SO(2) derivatives, could be attenuated by the delayed rectifier potassium channel blocker (tetraethylammonium, TEA), but not by the transient outward potassium channel blocker (4-aminopyridine, 4-AP). It implies that stimulating delayed rectifier potassium channels were involved in SO(2) derivative-caused hippocampal neuronal insults, and blocking these channels might be one of the possibly clinical treatment for SO(2)-caused neuronal dysfunction.

  10. Age-dependent axonal expression of potassium channel proteins during development in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Prüss, Harald; Grosse, Gisela; Brunk, Irene; Veh, Rüdiger W; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun

    2010-03-01

    The development of the hippocampal network requires neuronal activity, which is shaped by the differential expression and sorting of a variety of potassium channels. Parallel to their maturation, hippocampal neurons undergo a distinct development of their ion channel profile. The age-dependent dimension of ion channel occurrence is of utmost importance as it is interdependently linked to network formation. However, data regarding the exact temporal expression of potassium channels during postnatal hippocampal development are scarce. We therefore studied the expression of several voltage-gated potassium channel proteins during hippocampal development in vivo and in primary cultures, focusing on channels that were sorted to the axonal compartment. The Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.4, and Kv3.4 proteins showed a considerable temporal variation of axonal localization among neuronal subpopulations. It is possible, therefore, that hippocampal neurons possess cell type-specific mechanisms for channel compartmentalization. Thus, age-dependent axonal sorting of the potassium channel proteins offers a new approach to functionally distinguish classes of hippocampal neurons and may extend our understanding of hippocampal circuitry and memory processing.

  11. Role of ER Export Signals in Controlling Surface Potassium Channel Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dzwokai; Zerangue, Noa; Lin, Yu-Fung; Collins, Anthony; Yu, Mei; Jan, Yuh Nung; Yeh Jan, Lily

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the identity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export signals and how they are used to regulate the number of proteins on the cell surface. Here, we describe two ER export signals that profoundly altered the steady-state distribution of potassium channels and were required for channel localization to the plasma membrane. When transferred to other potassium channels or a G protein-coupled receptor, these ER export signals increased the number of functional proteins on the cell surface. Thus, ER export of membrane proteins is not necessarily limited by folding or assembly, but may be under the control of specific export signals.

  12. The dipole moment of membrane proteins: potassium channel protein and beta-subunit.

    PubMed

    Takashima, S

    2001-12-25

    The mechanism of ion channel opening is one of the most fascinating problems in membrane biology. Based on phenomenological studies, early researchers suggested that the elementary process of ion channel opening may be the intramembrane charge movement or the orientation of dipolar proteins in the channel. In spite of the far reaching significance of these hypotheses, it has not been possible to formulate a comprehensive molecular theory for the mechanism of channel opening. This is because of the lack of the detailed knowledge on the structure of channel proteins. In recent years, however, the research on the structure of channel proteins made marked advances and, at present, we are beginning to have sufficient information on the structure of some of the channel proteins, e.g. potassium-channel protein and beta-subunits. With these new information, we are now ready to have another look at the old hypothesis, in particular, the dipole moment of channel proteins being the voltage sensor for the opening and closing of ion channels. In this paper, the dipole moments of potassium channel protein and beta-subunit, are calculated using X-ray diffraction data. A large dipole moment was found for beta-subunits while the dipole moment of K-channel protein was found to be considerably smaller than that of beta-subunits. These calculations were conducted as a preliminary study of the comprehensive research on the dipolar structure of channel proteins in excitable membranes, above all, sodium channel proteins.

  13. Potassium intake modulates the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) activity via the Kir4.1 potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Xiao; Cuevas, Catherina A; Su, Xiao-Tong; Wu, Peng; Gao, Zhong-Xiuzi; Lin, Dao-Hong; McCormick, James A; Yang, Chao-Ling; Wang, Wen-Hui; Ellison, David H

    2018-04-01

    Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4.1 and whether this is essential for mediating the effect of potassium diet on NCC. High potassium intake inhibited the basolateral 40 pS potassium channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule, decreased basolateral potassium conductance, and depolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane in Kcnj10flox/flox mice, herein referred to as control mice. In contrast, low potassium intake activated Kir4.1, increased potassium currents, and hyperpolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane. These effects of dietary potassium intake on the basolateral potassium conductance and membrane potential in the distal convoluted tubule were completely absent in inducible kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice. Furthermore, high potassium intake decreased, whereas low potassium intake increased the abundance of NCC expression only in the control but not in kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice. Renal clearance studies demonstrated that low potassium augmented, while high potassium diminished, hydrochlorothiazide-induced natriuresis in control mice. Disruption of Kir4.1 significantly increased basal urinary sodium excretion but it abolished the natriuretic effect of hydrochlorothiazide. Finally, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis in kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice were exacerbated by potassium restriction and only partially corrected by a high-potassium diet. Thus, Kir4.1 plays an essential role in mediating the effect of dietary potassium intake on NCC activity and potassium homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels: A Structural Examination of Selectivity and Gating

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dorothy M.; Nimigean, Crina M.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels play a fundamental role in the generation and propagation of the action potential. The discovery of these channels began with predictions made by early pioneers, and has culminated in their extensive functional and structural characterization by electrophysiological, spectroscopic, and crystallographic studies. With the aid of a variety of crystal structures of these channels, a highly detailed picture emerges of how the voltage-sensing domain reports changes in the membrane electric field and couples this to conformational changes in the activation gate. In addition, high-resolution structural and functional studies of K+ channel pores, such as KcsA and MthK, offer a comprehensive picture on how selectivity is achieved in K+ channels. Here, we illustrate the remarkable features of voltage-gated potassium channels and explain the mechanisms used by these machines with experimental data. PMID:27141052

  15. Pharmacological rescue of trafficking-impaired ATP-sensitive potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gregory M.; Chen, Pei-Chun; Devaraneni, Prasanna; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2013-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels link cell metabolism to membrane excitability and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including hormone secretion, control of vascular tone, and protection of cardiac and neuronal cells against ischemic injuries. In pancreatic β-cells, KATP channels play a key role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and gain or loss of channel function results in neonatal diabetes or congenital hyperinsulinism, respectively. The β-cell KATP channel is formed by co-assembly of four Kir6.2 inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunits encoded by KCNJ11 and four sulfonylurea receptor 1 subunits encoded by ABCC8. Many mutations in ABCC8 or KCNJ11 cause loss of channel function, thus, congenital hyperinsulinism by hampering channel biogenesis and hence trafficking to the cell surface. The trafficking defects caused by a subset of these mutations can be corrected by sulfonylureas, KATP channel antagonists that have long been used to treat type 2 diabetes. More recently, carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant that is thought to target primarily voltage-gated sodium channels has been shown to correct KATP channel trafficking defects. This article reviews studies to date aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which mutations impair channel biogenesis and trafficking and the mechanisms by which pharmacological ligands overcome channel trafficking defects. Insight into channel structure-function relationships and therapeutic implications from these studies are discussed. PMID:24399968

  16. Grafting voltage and pharmacological sensitivity in potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xi; Fan, Chunyan; Ji, Wei; Tian, Fuyun; Xu, Tao; Gao, Zhaobing

    2016-08-01

    A classical voltage-gated ion channel consists of four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). However, the roles of each VSD in the channels remain elusive. We developed a GVTDT (Graft VSD To Dimeric TASK3 channels that lack endogenous VSDs) strategy to produce voltage-gated channels with a reduced number of VSDs. TASK3 channels exhibit a high host tolerance to VSDs of various voltage-gated ion channels without interfering with the intrinsic properties of the TASK3 selectivity filter. The constructed channels, exemplified by the channels grafted with one or two VSDs from Kv7.1 channels, exhibit classical voltage sensitivity, including voltage-dependent opening and closing. Furthermore, the grafted Kv7.1 VSD transfers the potentiation activity of benzbromarone, an activator that acts on the VSDs of the donor channels, to the constructed channels. Our study indicates that one VSD is sufficient to voltage-dependently gate the pore and provides new insight into the roles of VSDs.

  17. Functional role of A-type potassium currents in rat presympathetic PVN neurones

    PubMed Central

    Sonner, Patrick M; Stern, Javier E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurones innervating the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play important roles in the control of sympathetic function both in physiological and pathological conditions, the precise mechanisms controlling their activity are still incompletely understood. In the present study, we evaluated whether the transient outward potassium current IA is expressed in PVN-RVLM neurones, characterized its biophysical and pharmacological properties, and determined its role in shaping action potentials and firing discharge in these neurones. Patch-clamp recordings obtained from retrogradely labelled, PVN-RVLM neurones indicate that a 4-AP sensitive, TEA insensitive current, with biophysical properties consistent with IA, is present in these neurones. Pharmacological blockade of IA depolarized resting Vm and prolonged Na+ action potential duration, by increasing its width and by slowing down its decay time course. Interestingly, blockade of IA either increased or decreased the firing activity of PVN-RVLM neurones, supporting the presence of subsets of PVN-RVLM neurones differentially modulated by IA. In all cases, the effects of IA on firing activity were prevented by a broad spectrum Ca2+ channel blocker. Immunohistochemical studies suggest that IA in PVN-RVLM neurons is mediated by Kv1.4 and/or Kv4.3 channel subunits. Overall, our results demonstrate the presence of IA in PVN-RVLM neurones, which actively modulates their action potential waveform and firing activity. These studies support IA as an important intrinsic mechanism controlling neuronal excitability in this central presympathetic neuronal population. PMID:17525115

  18. Novel treatment strategies for smooth muscle disorders: Targeting Kv7 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Haick, Jennifer M; Byron, Kenneth L

    2016-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells provide crucial contractile functions in visceral, vascular, and lung tissues. The contractile state of smooth muscle is largely determined by their electrical excitability, which is in turn influenced by the activity of potassium channels. The activity of potassium channels sustains smooth muscle cell membrane hyperpolarization, reducing cellular excitability and thereby promoting smooth muscle relaxation. Research over the past decade has indicated an important role for Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of the excitability of smooth muscle cells. Expression of multiple Kv7 channel subtypes has been demonstrated in smooth muscle cells from viscera (gastrointestinal, bladder, myometrial), from the systemic and pulmonary vasculature, and from the airways of the lung, from multiple species, including humans. A number of clinically used drugs, some of which were developed to target Kv7 channels in other tissues, have been found to exert robust effects on smooth muscle Kv7 channels. Functional studies have indicated that Kv7 channel activators and inhibitors have the ability to relax and contact smooth muscle preparations, respectively, suggesting a wide range of novel applications for the pharmacological tool set. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the physiological functions of Kv7 channels in smooth muscle, and highlights potential therapeutic applications based on pharmacological targeting of smooth muscle Kv7 channels throughout the body. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Oxidative Modulation of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Nirakar; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated K+ channels are a large family of K+-selective ion channel protein complexes that open on membrane depolarization. These K+ channels are expressed in diverse tissues and their function is vital for numerous physiological processes, in particular of neurons and muscle cells. Potentially reversible oxidative regulation of voltage-gated K+ channels by reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents a contributing mechanism of normal cellular plasticity and may play important roles in diverse pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: Studies using various protocols of oxidative modification, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural and kinetic modeling provide a broader phenomenology and emerging mechanistic insights. Critical Issues: Physicochemical mechanisms of the functional consequences of oxidative modifications of voltage-gated K+ channels are only beginning to be revealed. In vivo documentation of oxidative modifications of specific amino-acid residues of various voltage-gated K+ channel proteins, including the target specificity issue, is largely absent. Future Directions: High-resolution chemical and proteomic analysis of ion channel proteins with respect to oxidative modification combined with ongoing studies on channel structure and function will provide a better understanding of how the function of voltage-gated K+ channels is tuned by ROS and the corresponding reducing enzymes to meet cellular needs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 933–952. PMID:24040918

  20. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of potassium: U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for potassium ( ...

  1. Involvement of WNK1-mediated potassium channels in the sexual dimorphism of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guofeng; Cheng, Mengting; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    Potassium homeostasis plays an essential role in the control of blood pressure. It is unknown, however, whether potassium balance is involved in the gender-associated blood pressure differences. We therefore investigated the possible mechanism of sexual dimorphism in blood pressure regulation by measuring the blood pressure, plasma potassium, renal actions of potassium channels and upstream regulator in male and female mice. Here we found that female mice exhibited lower blood pressure and higher plasma K + level as compared to male littermates. Western blot analyses of mouse kidney extract revealed a significant decrease in renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel expression, while large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (BK) channel and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) as well as the upstream regulator with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1) enhanced in female mice under normal condition. Surprisingly, both dietary K + loading and K + depletion eliminated the differences in plasma K + and blood pressure between females and males, and the differences of renal K + channels and WNK1 also attenuated in both groups of mice. These findings indicated the existence of a close correlation between K + homeostasis and sex-associated blood pressure. Moreover, the differential regulation of ROMK, BK-α and NKCC2 between female and male mice, at least, were partly mediated via WNK1 pathway, which may contribute to the sexual dimorphism of plasma K + and blood pressure control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential effect of brief electrical stimulation on voltage-gated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Morven A; Al Abed, Amr; Buskila, Yossi; Dokos, Socrates; Lovell, Nigel H; Morley, John W

    2017-05-01

    Electrical stimulation of neuronal tissue is a promising strategy to treat a variety of neurological disorders. The mechanism of neuronal activation by external electrical stimulation is governed by voltage-gated ion channels. This stimulus, typically brief in nature, leads to membrane potential depolarization, which increases ion flow across the membrane by increasing the open probability of these voltage-gated channels. In spiking neurons, it is activation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V channels) that leads to action potential generation. However, several other types of voltage-gated channels are expressed that also respond to electrical stimulation. In this study, we examine the response of voltage-gated potassium channels (K V channels) to brief electrical stimulation by whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and computational modeling. We show that nonspiking amacrine neurons of the retina exhibit a large variety of responses to stimulation, driven by different K V -channel subtypes. Computational modeling reveals substantial differences in the response of specific K V -channel subtypes that is dependent on channel kinetics. This suggests that the expression levels of different K V -channel subtypes in retinal neurons are a crucial predictor of the response that can be obtained. These data expand our knowledge of the mechanisms of neuronal activation and suggest that K V -channel expression is an important determinant of the sensitivity of neurons to electrical stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This paper describes the response of various voltage-gated potassium channels (K V channels) to brief electrical stimulation, such as is applied during prosthetic electrical stimulation. We show that the pattern of response greatly varies between K V channel subtypes depending on activation and inactivation kinetics of each channel. Our data suggest that problems encountered when artificially stimulating neurons such as cessation in firing at high frequencies, or

  3. Differential effect of brief electrical stimulation on voltage-gated potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Al Abed, Amr; Buskila, Yossi; Dokos, Socrates; Lovell, Nigel H.; Morley, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of neuronal tissue is a promising strategy to treat a variety of neurological disorders. The mechanism of neuronal activation by external electrical stimulation is governed by voltage-gated ion channels. This stimulus, typically brief in nature, leads to membrane potential depolarization, which increases ion flow across the membrane by increasing the open probability of these voltage-gated channels. In spiking neurons, it is activation of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV channels) that leads to action potential generation. However, several other types of voltage-gated channels are expressed that also respond to electrical stimulation. In this study, we examine the response of voltage-gated potassium channels (KV channels) to brief electrical stimulation by whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and computational modeling. We show that nonspiking amacrine neurons of the retina exhibit a large variety of responses to stimulation, driven by different KV-channel subtypes. Computational modeling reveals substantial differences in the response of specific KV-channel subtypes that is dependent on channel kinetics. This suggests that the expression levels of different KV-channel subtypes in retinal neurons are a crucial predictor of the response that can be obtained. These data expand our knowledge of the mechanisms of neuronal activation and suggest that KV-channel expression is an important determinant of the sensitivity of neurons to electrical stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This paper describes the response of various voltage-gated potassium channels (KV channels) to brief electrical stimulation, such as is applied during prosthetic electrical stimulation. We show that the pattern of response greatly varies between KV channel subtypes depending on activation and inactivation kinetics of each channel. Our data suggest that problems encountered when artificially stimulating neurons such as cessation in firing at high frequencies, or

  4. Cytoplasmic Domains and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Francisco; Domínguez, Pedro; de la Peña, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The basic architecture of the voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv channels) corresponds to a transmembrane protein core in which the permeation pore, the voltage-sensing components and the gating machinery (cytoplasmic facing gate and sensor–gate coupler) reside. Usually, large protein tails are attached to this core, hanging toward the inside of the cell. These cytoplasmic regions are essential for normal channel function and, due to their accessibility to the cytoplasmic environment, constitute obvious targets for cell-physiological control of channel behavior. Here we review the present knowledge about the molecular organization of these intracellular channel regions and their role in both setting and controlling Kv voltage-dependent gating properties. This includes the influence that they exert on Kv rapid/N-type inactivation and on activation/deactivation gating of Shaker-like and eag-type Kv channels. Some illustrative examples about the relevance of these cytoplasmic domains determining the possibilities for modulation of Kv channel gating by cellular components are also considered. PMID:22470342

  5. Role of A-type potassium currents in excitability, network synchronicity and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fransén, Erik; Tigerholm, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    A range of ionic currents have been suggested to be involved in distinct aspects of epileptogenesis. Based on pharmacological and genetic studies, potassium currents have been implicated, in particular the transient A-type potassium current (KA). Epileptogenic activity comprises a rich repertoire of characteristics, one of which is synchronized activity of principal cells as revealed by occurrences of for instance fast ripples. Synchronized activity of this kind is particularly efficient in driving target cells into spiking. In the recipient cell, this synchronized input generates large brief compound EPSPs. The fast activation and inactivation of KA lead us to hypothesize a potential role in suppression of such EPSPs. In this work, using computational modeling, we have studied the activation of KA by synaptic inputs of different levels of synchronicity. We find that KA participates particularly in suppressing inputs of high synchronicity. We also show that the selective suppression stems from the current's ability to become activated by potentials with high slopes. We further show that KA suppresses input mimicing the activity of a fast ripple. Finally, we show that the degree of selectivity of KA can be modified by changes to its kinetic parameters, changes of the type that are produced by the modulatory action of KChIPs and DPPs. We suggest that the wealth of modulators affecting KA might be explained by a need to control cellular excitability in general and suppression of responses to synchronicity in particular. We also suggest that compounds changing KA-kinetics may be used to pharmacologically improve epileptic status. PMID:19777555

  6. MicroRNA cluster miR-17-92 regulates multiple functionally related voltage-gated potassium channels in chronic neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Atsushi; Saitow, Fumihito; Maruyama, Motoyo; Miyake, Noriko; Miyake, Koichi; Shimada, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    miR-17-92 is a microRNA cluster with six distinct members. Here, we show that the miR-17-92 cluster and its individual members modulate chronic neuropathic pain. All cluster members are persistently upregulated in primary sensory neurons after nerve injury. Overexpression of miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b and miR-92a cluster members elicits mechanical allodynia in rats, while their blockade alleviates mechanical allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Plausible targets for the miR-17-92 cluster include genes encoding numerous voltage-gated potassium channels and their modulatory subunits. Single-cell analysis reveals extensive co-expression of miR-17-92 cluster and its predicted targets in primary sensory neurons. miR-17-92 downregulates the expression of potassium channels, and reduced outward potassium currents, in particular A-type currents. Combined application of potassium channel modulators synergistically alleviates mechanical allodynia induced by nerve injury or miR-17-92 overexpression. miR-17-92 cluster appears to cooperatively regulate the function of multiple voltage-gated potassium channel subunits, perpetuating mechanical allodynia. PMID:28677679

  7. Potassium Channels in Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Potassium channels importantly contribute to the regulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction and growth. They are the dominant ion conductance of the VSM cell membrane and importantly determine and regulate membrane potential. Membrane potential, in turn, regulates the open-state probability of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC), Ca2+ influx through VGCC, intracellular Ca2+ and VSM contraction. Membrane potential also affects release of Ca2+ from internal stores and the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile machinery such that K+ channels participate in all aspects of regulation of VSM contraction. Potassium channels also regulate proliferation of VSM cells through membrane potential-dependent and membrane potential-independent mechanisms. Vascular smooth muscle cells express multiple isoforms of at least five classes of K+ channels contribute to the regulation of contraction and cell proliferation (growth). This review will examine the structure, expression and function of large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa3.1) channels, multiple isoforms of voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, and inward-rectifier K+ (KIR) channels in both contractile and proliferating VSM cells. PMID:28212804

  8. CNS Schwann cells display oligodendrocyte precursor-like potassium channel activation and antigenic expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Kristel; Imbschweiler, Ilka; Ulrich, Reiner; Kovermann, Peter; Fahlke, Christoph; Deschl, Ulrich; Kalkuhl, Arno; Baumgärnter, Wolfgang; Wewetzer, Konstantin

    2014-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury triggers production of myelinating Schwann cells from endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs). These CNS Schwann cells may be attractive candidates for novel therapeutic strategies aiming to promote endogenous CNS repair. However, CNS Schwann cells have been so far mainly characterized in situ regarding morphology and marker expression, and it has remained enigmatic whether they display functional properties distinct from peripheral nervous system (PNS) Schwann cells. Potassium channels (K+) have been implicated in progenitor and glial cell proliferation after injury and may, therefore, represent a suitable pharmacological target. In the present study, we focused on the function and expression of voltage-gated K+ channels Kv(1-12) and accessory β-subunits in purified adult canine CNS and PNS Schwann cell cultures using electrophysiology and microarray analysis and characterized their antigenic phenotype. We show here that K+ channels differed significantly in both cell types. While CNS Schwann cells displayed prominent K D-mediated K+ currents, PNS Schwann cells elicited K(D-) and K(A-type) K+ currents. Inhibition of K+ currents by TEA and Ba2+ was more effective in CNS Schwann cells. These functional differences were not paralleled by differential mRNA expression of Kv(1-12) and accessory β-subunits. However, O4/A2B5 and GFAP expressions were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in CNS than in PNS Schwann cells. Taken together, this is the first evidence that CNS Schwann cells display specific properties not shared by their peripheral counterpart. Both Kv currents and increased O4/A2B5 expression were reminiscent of OLPs suggesting that CNS Schwann cells retain OLP features during maturation.

  9. Inward rectifier potassium channels control rotor frequency in ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Jalife, José

    2009-11-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the most important cause of sudden cardiac death. While traditionally thought to result from random activation of the ventricles by multiple independent wavelets, recent evidence suggests that VF may be determined by the sustained activation of a relatively small number of reentrant sources. In addition, recent experimental data in various species as well as computer simulations have provided important clues about its ionic and molecular mechanisms, particularly in regards to the role of potassium currents in such mechanisms. The results strongly argue that the inward rectifier current, I(K1,) is an important current during functional reentry because it mediates the electrotonic interactions between the unexcited core and its immediate surroundings. In addition, I(K1) is a stabilizer of reentry due to its ability to shorten action potential duration and reduce conduction velocity near the center of rotation. Increased I(K1) prevents wave front-wave tail interactions and thus averts rotor destabilization and breakup. Other studies have shown that while the slow component of the delayed rectifier potassium current I(Ks) does not significantly modify rotor frequency or stability, it plays a major role in postrepolarization refractoriness and wave break formation. Therefore, the interplay between I(K1) and the rapid sodium inward current (I(Na)) is a major factor in the control of cardiac excitability and thus the stability and frequency of reentry, while I(Ks) is an important determinant of fibrillatory conduction.

  10. Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels Control Rotor Frequency in Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Jalife, José

    2009-01-01

    Summary Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the most important cause of sudden cardiac death. While traditionally thought to result from random activation of the ventricles by multiple independent wavelets, recent evidence suggests that VF may be determined by the sustained activation of a relatively small number of reentrant sources. In addition, recent experimental data in various species as well as computer simulations have provided important clues about its ionic and molecular mechanisms, particularly in regards to the role of potassium currents in such mechanisms. The results strongly argue that the inward rectifier current, Ik1, is an important current during functional reentry because it mediates the electrotonic interactions between the unexcited core and its immediate surroundings. In addition, IK1 is a stabilizer of reentry due to its ability to shorten action potential duration and reducing conduction velocity near the center of rotation. Increased I K1 prevents wavefront-wavetail interactions and thus averts rotor destabilization and breakup. Other studies have shown that while the slow component of the delayed rectifier potassium current, IKs, does not significantly modify rotor frequency or stability, it plays a major role in post-repolarization refractoriness and wavebreak formation. Therefore, the interplay between IK1 and the rapid sodium inward current (INa) is a major factor in the control of cardiac excitability and therefore the stability and frequency of reentry while IKs is an important determinant of fibrillatory conduction. PMID:19880073

  11. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels at Nodes of Ranvier Secure Axonal Spike Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gründemann, Jan; Clark, Beverley A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Functional connectivity between brain regions relies on long-range signaling by myelinated axons. This is secured by saltatory action potential propagation that depends fundamentally on sodium channel availability at nodes of Ranvier. Although various potassium channel types have been anatomically localized to myelinated axons in the brain, direct evidence for their functional recruitment in maintaining node excitability is scarce. Cerebellar Purkinje cells provide continuous input to their targets in the cerebellar nuclei, reliably transmitting axonal spikes over a wide range of rates, requiring a constantly available pool of nodal sodium channels. We show that the recruitment of calcium-activated potassium channels (IK, KCa3.1) by local, activity-dependent calcium (Ca2+) influx at nodes of Ranvier via a T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current provides a powerful mechanism that likely opposes depolarizing block at the nodes and is thus pivotal to securing continuous axonal spike propagation in spontaneously firing Purkinje cells. PMID:26344775

  12. Escitalopram block of hERG potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yun Ju; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hong Joon; Kim, In-Beom; Choi, Jin-Sung; Sung, Ki-Wug; Hahn, Sang June

    2014-01-01

    Escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is the pharmacologically active S-enantiomer of the racemic mixture of RS-citalopram and is widely used in the treatment of depression. The effects of escitalopram and citalopram on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in human embryonic kidney cells were investigated using voltage-clamp and Western blot analyses. Both drugs blocked hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 2.6 μM for escitalopram and an IC50 value of 3.2 μM for citalopram. The blocking of hERG by escitalopram was voltage-dependent, with a steep increase across the voltage range of channel activation. However, voltage independence was observed over the full range of activation. The blocking by escitalopram was frequency dependent. A rapid application of escitalopram induced a rapid and reversible blocking of the tail current of hERG. The extent of the blocking by escitalopram during the depolarizing pulse was less than that during the repolarizing pulse, suggesting that escitalopram has a high affinity for the open state of the hERG channel, with a relatively lower affinity for the inactivated state. Both escitalopram and citalopram produced a reduction of hERG channel protein trafficking to the plasma membrane but did not affect the short-term internalization of the hERG channel. These results suggest that escitalopram blocked hERG currents at a supratherapeutic concentration and that it did so by preferentially binding to both the open and the inactivated states of the channels and by inhibiting the trafficking of hERG channel protein to the plasma membrane.

  13. Study of the interaction of potassium ion channel protein with micelle by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantappa, Anil; Talukdar, Keka

    2018-04-01

    Ion channels are proteins forming pore inside the body of all living organisms. This potassium ion channel known as KcsA channel and it is found in the each cell and nervous system. Flow of various ions is regulated by the function of the ion channels. The nerve ion channel protein with protein data bank entry 1BL8, which is basically an ion channel protein in Streptomyces Lividans and which is taken up to form micelle-protein system and the system is analyzed by using molecular dynamics simulation. Firstly, ion channel pore is engineered by CHARMM potential and then Micelle-protein system is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation. For some specific micelle concentration, the protein unfolding is observed.

  14. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  15. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  16. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  17. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  18. Differential distribution of the sodium‐activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Hans‐Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sodium‐activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high‐conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093–2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587966

  19. Atomic basis for therapeutic activation of neuronal potassium channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Robin Y.; Yau, Michael C.; Galpin, Jason D.; Seebohm, Guiscard; Ahern, Christopher A.; Pless, Stephan A.; Kurata, Harley T.

    2015-09-01

    Retigabine is a recently approved anticonvulsant that acts by potentiating neuronal M-current generated by KCNQ2-5 channels, interacting with a conserved Trp residue in the channel pore domain. Using unnatural amino-acid mutagenesis, we subtly altered the properties of this Trp to reveal specific chemical interactions required for retigabine action. Introduction of a non-natural isosteric H-bond-deficient Trp analogue abolishes channel potentiation, indicating that retigabine effects rely strongly on formation of a H-bond with the conserved pore Trp. Supporting this model, substitution with fluorinated Trp analogues, with increased H-bonding propensity, strengthens retigabine potency. In addition, potency of numerous retigabine analogues correlates with the negative electrostatic surface potential of a carbonyl/carbamate oxygen atom present in most KCNQ activators. These findings functionally pinpoint an atomic-scale interaction essential for effects of retigabine and provide stringent constraints that may guide rational improvement of the emerging drug class of KCNQ channel activators.

  20. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets

    PubMed Central

    Noujaim, Sami F.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Ferrer-Villada, Tania; López-Izquierdo, Angelica; Pandit, Sandeep; Calvo, Conrado J.; Grzeda, Krzysztof R.; Berenfeld, Omer; Sánchez Chapula, José A.; Jalife, José

    2010-01-01

    Atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias can be perpetuated by up-regulation of inward rectifier potassium channels. Thus, it may be beneficial to block inward rectifier channels under conditions in which their function becomes arrhythmogenic (e.g., inherited gain-of-function mutation channelopathies, ischemia, and chronic and vagally mediated atrial fibrillation). We hypothesize that the antimalarial quinoline chloroquine exerts potent antiarrhythmic effects by interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of Kir2.1 (IK1), Kir3.1 (IKACh), or Kir6.2 (IKATP) and reducing inward rectifier potassium currents. In isolated hearts of three different mammalian species, intracoronary chloroquine perfusion reduced fibrillatory frequency (atrial or ventricular), and effectively terminated the arrhythmia with resumption of sinus rhythm. In patch-clamp experiments chloroquine blocked IK1, IKACh, and IKATP. Comparative molecular modeling and ligand docking of chloroquine in the intracellular domains of Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir6.2 suggested that chloroquine blocks or reduces potassium flow by interacting with negatively charged amino acids facing the ion permeation vestibule of the channel in question. These results open a novel path toward discovering antiarrhythmic pharmacophores that target specific residues of the cytoplasmic domain of inward rectifier potassium channels.—Noujaim, S. F., Stuckey, J. A., Ponce-Balbuena, D., Ferrer-Villada, T., López-Izquierdo, A., Pandit, S., Calvo, C. J., Grzeda, K. R., Berenfeld, O., Sánchez Chapula, J. A., Jalife, J. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets. PMID:20585026

  1. Tetrameric subunit structure of the native brain inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir 2.2.

    PubMed

    Raab-Graham, K F; Vandenberg, C A

    1998-07-31

    Strongly inwardly rectifying potassium channels of the Kir 2 subfamily (IRK1, IRK2, and IRK3) are involved in maintenance and modulation of cell excitability in brain and heart. Electrophysiological studies of channels expressed in heterologous systems have suggested that the pore-conducting pathway contains four subunits. However, inferences from electrophysiological studies have not been tested on native channels and do not address the possibility of nonconducting auxiliary subunits. Here, we investigate the subunit stoichiometry of endogenous inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir 2.2 (IRK2) from rat brain. Using chemical cross-linking, immunoprecipitiation, and velocity sedimentation, we report physical evidence demonstrating the tetrameric organization of the native channel. Kir 2.2 was sequentially cross-linked to produce bands on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis corresponding in size to monomer, dimer, trimer, and three forms of tetramer. Fully cross-linked channel was present as a single band of tetrameric size. Immunoprecipitation of biotinylated membranes revealed a single band corresponding to Kir 2.2, suggesting that the channel is composed of a single type of subunit. Hydrodynamic properties of 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonic acid-solubilized channel were used to calculate the molecular mass of the channel. Velocity sedimentation in H2O or D2O gave a sharp peak with a sedimentation coefficient of 17.3 S. Gel filtration yielded a Stokes radius of 5.92 nm. These data indicate a multisubunit protein with a molecular mass of 193 kDa, calculated to contain 3.98 subunits. Together, these results demonstrate that Kir 2.2 channels are formed by the homotetrameric association of Kir 2.2 subunits and do not contain tightly associated auxiliary subunits. These studies suggest that Kir 2.2 channels differ in structure from related heterooctomeric ATP-sensitive K channels and heterotetrameric G-protein-regulated inward rectifier K

  2. The cooperative voltage sensor motion that gates a potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Medha; Kurtz, Lisa; Tombola, Francesco; Isacoff, Ehud

    2005-01-01

    The four arginine-rich S4 helices of a voltage-gated channel move outward through the membrane in response to depolarization, opening and closing gates to generate a transient ionic current. Coupling of voltage sensing to gating was originally thought to operate with the S4s moving independently from an inward/resting to an outward/activated conformation, so that when all four S4s are activated, the gates are driven to open or closed. However, S4 has also been found to influence the cooperative opening step (Smith-Maxwell et al., 1998a), suggesting a more complex mechanism of coupling. Using fluorescence to monitor structural rearrangements in a Shaker channel mutant, the ILT channel (Ledwell and Aldrich, 1999), that energetically isolates the steps of activation from the cooperative opening step, we find that opening is accompanied by a previously unknown and cooperative movement of S4. This gating motion of S4 appears to be coupled to the internal S6 gate and to two forms of slow inactivation. Our results suggest that S4 plays a direct role in gating. While large transmembrane rearrangements of S4 may be required to unlock the gating machinery, as proposed before, it appears to be the gating motion of S4 that drives the gates to open and close.

  3. The Cooperative Voltage Sensor Motion that Gates a Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Medha; Kurtz, Lisa; Tombola, Francesco; Isacoff, Ehud

    2005-01-01

    The four arginine-rich S4 helices of a voltage-gated channel move outward through the membrane in response to depolarization, opening and closing gates to generate a transient ionic current. Coupling of voltage sensing to gating was originally thought to operate with the S4s moving independently from an inward/resting to an outward/activated conformation, so that when all four S4s are activated, the gates are driven to open or closed. However, S4 has also been found to influence the cooperative opening step (Smith-Maxwell et al., 1998a), suggesting a more complex mechanism of coupling. Using fluorescence to monitor structural rearrangements in a Shaker channel mutant, the ILT channel (Ledwell and Aldrich, 1999), that energetically isolates the steps of activation from the cooperative opening step, we find that opening is accompanied by a previously unknown and cooperative movement of S4. This gating motion of S4 appears to be coupled to the internal S6 gate and to two forms of slow inactivation. Our results suggest that S4 plays a direct role in gating. While large transmembrane rearrangements of S4 may be required to unlock the gating machinery, as proposed before, it appears to be the gating motion of S4 that drives the gates to open and close. PMID:15623895

  4. In vivo Expression of a Light-activatable Potassium Channel Using Unnatural Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji-Yong; Kawaguchi, Daichi; Coin, Irene; Xiang, Zheng; O’Leary, Dennis D. M.; Slesinger, Paul A.; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Optical control of protein function provides excellent spatial-temporal resolution for studying proteins in situ. Although light-sensitive exogenous proteins and ligands have been employed to manipulate neuronal activity, a method for optical control of neuronal proteins using unnatural amino acids (Uaa) in vivo is lacking. Here, we describe the genetic incorporation of a photoreactive Uaa into the pore of an inwardly-rectifying potassium channel Kir2.1. The Uaa occluded the pore, rendering the channel non-conducting, and upon brief light illumination, was released to permit outward K+ current. Expression of this photo-inducible inwardly rectifying potassium (PIRK) channel in rat hippocampal neurons created a light-activatable PIRK switch for suppressing neuronal firing. We also expressed PIRK channels in embryonic mouse neocortex in vivo and demonstrated a light-activated PIRK current in cortical neurons. The principles applied here to a potassium channel could be generally expanded to other proteins expressed in the brain to enable optical regulation. PMID:24139041

  5. Developmental Expression of Kv Potassium Channels at the Axon Initial Segment of Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ponce, Diana; DeFelipe, Javier; Garrido, Juan José; Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Axonal outgrowth and the formation of the axon initial segment (AIS) are early events in the acquisition of neuronal polarity. The AIS is characterized by a high concentration of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels. However, the specific ion channel subunits present and their precise localization in this axonal subdomain vary both during development and among the types of neurons, probably determining their firing characteristics in response to stimulation. Here, we characterize the developmental expression of different subfamilies of voltage-gated potassium channels in the AISs of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, including subunits Kv1.2, Kv2.2 and Kv7.2. In contrast to the early appearance of voltage-gated sodium channels and the Kv7.2 subunit at the AIS, Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunits were tethered at the AIS only after 10 days in vitro. Interestingly, we observed different patterns of Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunit expression, with each confined to distinct neuronal populations. The accumulation of Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunits at the AIS was dependent on ankyrin G tethering, it was not affected by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and it was resistant to detergent extraction, as described previously for other AIS proteins. This distribution of potassium channels in the AIS further emphasizes the heterogeneity of this structure in different neuronal populations, as proposed previously, and suggests corresponding differences in action potential regulation. PMID:23119056

  6. Coupling of activation and inactivation gate in a K+-channel: potassium and ligand sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ader, Christian; Schneider, Robert; Hornig, Sönke; Velisetty, Phanindra; Vardanyan, Vitya; Giller, Karin; Ohmert, Iris; Becker, Stefan; Pongs, Olaf; Baldus, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Potassium (K+)-channel gating is choreographed by a complex interplay between external stimuli, K+ concentration and lipidic environment. We combined solid-state NMR and electrophysiological experiments on a chimeric KcsA–Kv1.3 channel to delineate K+, pH and blocker effects on channel structure and function in a membrane setting. Our data show that pH-induced activation is correlated with protonation of glutamate residues at or near the activation gate. Moreover, K+ and channel blockers distinctly affect the open probability of both the inactivation gate comprising the selectivity filter of the channel and the activation gate. The results indicate that the two gates are coupled and that effects of the permeant K+ ion on the inactivation gate modulate activation-gate opening. Our data suggest a mechanism for controlling coordinated and sequential opening and closing of activation and inactivation gates in the K+-channel pore. PMID:19661921

  7. Biophysical Properties of ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels in CA3 Hippocampal Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obregón-Herrera, Armando; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Onetti, Carlos G.

    2004-09-01

    Single-channel activity of glucose-sensitive channels from CA3 neurons of the rat hippocampus, was studied in cell-attached membrane patches. Single-channel activity was totally abolished at 20 mM external glucose. Glucose-sensitive channels were selective to K+ ions; the unitary conductance was 170 pS in 140 mM K+, and the K+ permeability was 3.86×10-13 cmṡs-1. The open-state probability (PO) increased with membrane depolarization as a result of mean open time enhancement and shortening of the closure periods. The activation midpoint was -79 mV. Glucose-sensitive K+ channel of CA3 neurons could be considered as an ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

  8. Artificial phosphorylation sites modulate the activity of a voltage-gated potassium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The KvAP potassium channel is representative of a family of voltage-gated ion channels where the membrane potential is sensed by a transmembrane helix containing several positively charged arginines. Previous work by Wang and Zocchi [A. Wang and G. Zocchi, PLoS ONE 6, e18598 (2011), 10.1371/journal.pone.0018598] showed how a negatively charged polyelectrolyte attached in proximity to the voltage sensing element can bias the opening probability of the channel. Here we introduce three phosphorylation sites at the same location and show that the response curve of the channel shifts by about 20 mV upon phosphorylation, while other characteristics such as the single-channel conductance are unaffected. In summary, we construct an artificial phosphorylation site which confers allosteric regulation to the channel.

  9. Neuroprotective role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong-shuo; Feng, Zhong-ping

    2013-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are weak, inward rectifiers that couple metabolic status to cell membrane electrical activity, thus modulating many cellular functions. An increase in the ADP/ATP ratio opens KATP channels, leading to membrane hyperpolarization. KATP channels are ubiquitously expressed in neurons located in different regions of the brain, including the hippocampus and cortex. Brief hypoxia triggers membrane hyperpolarization in these central neurons. In vivo animal studies confirmed that knocking out the Kir6.2 subunit of the KATP channels increases ischemic infarction, and overexpression of the Kir6.2 subunit reduces neuronal injury from ischemic insults. These findings provide the basis for a practical strategy whereby activation of endogenous KATP channels reduces cellular damage resulting from cerebral ischemic stroke. KATP channel modulators may prove to be clinically useful as part of a combination therapy for stroke management in the future. PMID:23123646

  10. Direct block of inward rectifier potassium channels by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Yang, B; Zhang, L; Xu, D; Wang, Z

    2000-04-01

    Nicotine has been shown to depolarize membrane potential and to lengthen action potential duration in isolated cardiac preparations. To investigate whether this is a consequence of direct interaction of nicotine with inward rectifier K(+) channels which are a key determinant of membrane potentials, we assessed the effects of nicotine on two cloned human inward rectifier K(+) channels, Kir2.1 and Kir2.2, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the native inward rectifier K(+) current I(K1) in canine ventricular myocytes. Nicotine suppressed Kir2.1-expressed currents at varying potentials negative to -20 mV, with more pronounced effects on the outward current between -70 and -20 mV relative to the inward current at hyperpolarized potentials (below -70 mV). The inhibition was concentration dependent. For the outward currents recorded at -50 mV, the IC50 was 165 +/- 18 microM. Similar effects of nicotine were observed for Kir2.2. A more potent effect was seen with I(K1) in canine myocytes. Significant blockade ( approximately 60%) was found at a concentration as low as 0.5 microM and the IC50 was 4.0 +/- 0.4 microM. The effects in both oocytes and myocytes were partially reversible upon washout of nicotine. Antagonists of nicotinic receptors (mecamylamine, 100 microM), muscarinic receptors (atropine, 1 microM), and beta-adrenergic receptors (propranolol, 1 microM) all failed to restore the depressed currents, suggesting that nicotine acted directly on Kir channels, independent of catecholamine release. This property of nicotine may explain its membrane-depolarizing and action potential duration-prolonging effects in cardiac cells and may contribute in part to its ability to promote propensity for cardiac arrhythmias. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Role of potassium channels in chlorogenic acid-induced apoptotic volume decrease and cell cycle arrest in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yun, JiEun; Lee, Dong Gun

    2017-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CRA) is an abundant phenolic compound in the human diet. CRA has a potent antifungal effect, inducing cell death in Candida albicans. However, there are no further studies to investigate the antifungal mechanism of CRA, associated with ion channels. To evaluate the inhibitory effects on CRA-induced cell death, C. albicans cells were pretreated with potassium and chloride channel blockers, separately. Flow cytometry was carried out to detect several hallmarks of apoptosis, such as cell cycle arrest, caspase activation, and DNA fragmentation, after staining of the cells with SYTOX green, FITC-VAD-FMK, and TUNEL. CRA caused excessive potassium efflux, and an apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) was observed. This change, in turn, induced cytosolic calcium uptake and cell cycle arrest in C. albicans. Moreover, CRA induced caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, which are considered apoptotic markers. In contrast, the potassium efflux and proapoptotic changes were inhibited when potassium channels were blocked, whereas there was no inhibitory effect when chloride channels were blocked. CRA induces potassium efflux, leading to AVD and G2/M cell cycle arrest in C. albicans. Therefore, potassium efflux via potassium channels regulates the CRA-induced apoptosis, stimulating several apoptotic processes. This study improves the understanding of the antifungal mechanism of CRA and its association with ion homeostasis, thereby pointing to a role of potassium channels in CRA-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Slick (Kcnt2) Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels Limit Peptidergic Nociceptor Excitability and Hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Danielle L; Hurley, Edward; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2017-01-01

    The Slick (Kcnt2) sodium-activated potassium (K Na ) channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV)-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane. Behavioral studies in Slick knockout (KO) mice indicated increased basal heat detection and exacerbated thermal hyperalgesia compared with wild-type littermate controls during neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Electrophysiologic recordings of DRG neurons from Slick KO mice revealed that Slick channels contribute to outward current, propensity to fire action potentials (APs), and to AP properties. Our data suggest that Slick channels restrain the excitability of CGRP-containing neurons, diminishing pain behavior after inflammation and injury.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane potassium channel dysfunction in high fat diet induced stress in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Khodaee, Naser; Ghasemi, Maedeh; Saghiri, Reza; Eliassi, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we reported the presence of a large conductance K+ channel in the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from rat hepatocytes. The channel open probability (Po) appeared voltage dependent and reached to a minimum 0.2 at +50 mV. Channel activity in this case was found to be totally inhibited at ATP concentration 2.5 mM, glibenclamide 100 µM and tolbutamide 400 µM. Existing evidence indicates an impairment of endoplasmic reticulum functions in ER stress condition. Because ER potassium channels have been involved in several ER functions including cytoprotection, apoptosis and calcium homeostasis, a study was carried out to consider whether the ER potassium channel function is altered in a high fat diet model of ER stress. Male Wistar rats were made ER stress for 2 weeks with a high fat diet. Ion channel incorporation of ER stress model into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Our results indicate that the channel Po was significantly increased at voltages above +30 mV. Interestingly, addition of ATP 7.5 mM, glibenclamide 400 µM and tolbutamide 2400 µM totally inhibited the channel activities, 3-fold, 4-fold and 6-fold higher than that in the control groups, respectively. Our results thus demonstrate a modification in the ER K+ channel gating properties and decreased sensitivity to drugs in membrane preparations coming from ER high fat model of ER stress, an effect potentially linked to a change in ER K+ channel subunits in ER stress condition. Our results may provide new insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying ER dysfunctions in ER stress. PMID:26417322

  14. A bursting potassium channel in isolated cholinergic synaptosomes of Torpedo electric organ.

    PubMed Central

    Edry-Schiller, J; Ginsburg, S; Rahamimoff, R

    1991-01-01

    1. Pinched-off cholinergic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) prepared from the electric organ of Torpedo ocelata were fused into large structures (greater than 20 microns) using dimethyl sulphoxide and polyethylene glycol 1500, as previously described for synaptic vesicles from the same organ. 2. The giant fused synaptosomes were easily amenable to the patch clamp technique and 293 seals with a resistance greater than 4 G omega were obtained in the 'cell-attached' configuration. In a large fraction of the experiments, an 'inside-out' patch configuration was achieved. 3. Several types of unitary ionic currents were observed. This study describes the most frequently observed single-channel activity which was found in 247 out of the 293 membrane patches (84.3%). 4. The single-channel current-voltage relation was linear between -60 and 20 mV and showed a slope conductance of 23.8 +/- 1.3 pS when the pipette contained 350-390 mM-Na+ and the bath facing the inside of the synaptosomal membrane contained 390 mM-K+. 5. From extrapolated reversal potential measurements, it was concluded that this channel has a large selectivity for K+ over Na+ (70.4 +/- 11.5, mean +/- S.E.M.). Chloride ions are not transported significantly through this potassium channel. 6. This potassium channel has a low probability of opening. The probability of being in the open state increases upon depolarization and reaches about 1% when the inside of the patch is 20 mV positive compared to the pipette side. 7. The mean channel open time increases with depolarization; thus the product current x time (= charge) also increases upon depolarization, showing properties of an outward rectifier. 8. The potassium channel in the giant synaptosome membrane has a bursting behaviour. Open-time distribution, closed-time distribution and a Poisson analysis indicate that the minimal kinetic scheme requires one open state and three closed states. PMID:1654418

  15. Pharmacological Conversion of a Cardiac Inward Rectifier into an Outward Rectifier Potassium Channel.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G; Sanchez-Chapula, Jose A; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A

    2016-09-01

    Potassium (K(+)) channels are crucial for determining the shape, duration, and frequency of action-potential firing in excitable cells. Broadly speaking, K(+) channels can be classified based on whether their macroscopic current outwardly or inwardly rectifies, whereby rectification refers to a change in conductance with voltage. Outwardly rectifying K(+) channels conduct greater current at depolarized membrane potentials, whereas inward rectifier channels conduct greater current at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Under most circumstances, outward currents through inwardly rectifying K(+) channels are reduced at more depolarized potentials. However, the acetylcholine-gated K(+) channel (KACh) conducts current that inwardly rectifies when activated by some ligands (such as acetylcholine), and yet conducts current that outwardly rectifies when activated by other ligands (for example, pilocarpine and choline). The perplexing and paradoxical behavior of KACh channels is due to the intrinsic voltage sensitivity of the receptor that activates KACh channels, the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Emerging evidence reveals that the affinity of M2R for distinct ligands varies in a voltage-dependent and ligand-specific manner. These intrinsic receptor properties determine whether current conducted by KACh channels inwardly or outwardly rectifies. This review summarizes the most recent concepts regarding the intrinsic voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors and the consequences of this intriguing behavior on cardiac physiology and pharmacology of KACh channels. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNELS AT THE CROSSROADS OF NEURONAL FUNCTION, ISCHEMIC TOLERANCE, AND NEURODEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Niyathi Hegde; Aizenman, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, and are crucial mediators of neuronal excitability. Importantly, these channels also actively participate in cellular and molecular signaling pathways that regulate the life and death of neurons. Injury-mediated increased K+ efflux through Kv2.1 channels promotes neuronal apoptosis, contributing to widespread neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and stroke. In contrast, some forms of neuronal activity can dramatically alter Kv2.1 channel phosphorylation levels and influence their localization. These changes are normally accompanied by modifications in channel voltage-dependence, which may be neuroprotective within the context of ischemic injury. Kv1 and Kv7 channel dysfunction leads to neuronal hyperexcitability that critically contributes to the pathophysiology of human clinical disorders such as episodic ataxia and epilepsy. This review summarizes the neurotoxic, neuroprotective, and neuroregulatory roles of Kv channels, and highlights the consequences of Kv channel dysfunction on neuronal physiology. The studies described in this review thus underscore the importance of normal Kv channel function in neurons, and emphasize the therapeutic potential of targeting Kv channels in the treatment of a wide range of neurological diseases. PMID:24323720

  17. Inwardly rectifying potassium channels influence Drosophila wing morphogenesis by regulating Dpp release.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Giri Raj; Pradhan, Sarala Joshi; Bates, Emily Anne

    2017-08-01

    Loss of embryonic ion channel function leads to morphological defects, but the underlying reason for these defects remains elusive. Here, we show that inwardly rectifying potassium (Irk) channels regulate release of the Drosophila bone morphogenetic protein Dpp in the developing fly wing and that this is necessary for developmental signaling. Inhibition of Irk channels decreases the incidence of distinct Dpp-GFP release events above baseline fluorescence while leading to a broader distribution of Dpp-GFP. Work by others in different cell types has shown that Irk channels regulate peptide release by modulating membrane potential and calcium levels. We found calcium transients in the developing wing, and inhibition of Irk channels reduces the duration and amplitude of calcium transients. Depolarization with high extracellular potassium evokes Dpp release. Taken together, our data implicate Irk channels as a requirement for regulated release of Dpp, highlighting the importance of the temporal pattern of Dpp presentation for morphogenesis of the wing. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channels Negatively Regulate Aldosterone Secretion in Human Adrenocortical Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liang, Qingnan; Shi, Yingtang; Mei, Yan-Ai; Barrett, Paula Q; Hu, Changlong

    2016-09-01

    Aldosterone, which plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte balance, is produced by zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex. Autonomous overproduction of aldosterone from zona glomerulosa cells causes primary hyperaldosteronism. Recent clinical studies have highlighted the pathological role of the KCNJ5 potassium channel in primary hyperaldosteronism. Our objective was to determine whether small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) channels may also regulate aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells. We found that apamin, the prototypic inhibitor of SK channels, decreased membrane voltage, raised intracellular Ca(2+) and dose dependently increased aldosterone secretion from human adrenocortical H295R cells. By contrast, 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone, an agonist of SK channels, antagonized apamin's action and decreased aldosterone secretion. Commensurate with an increase in aldosterone production, apamin increased mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and aldosterone synthase that control the early and late rate-limiting steps in aldosterone biosynthesis, respectively. In addition, apamin increased angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone secretion, whereas 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone suppressed both angiotensin II- and high K(+)-stimulated production of aldosterone in H295R cells. These findings were supported by apamin-modulation of basal and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone secretion from acutely prepared slices of human adrenals. We conclude that SK channel activity negatively regulates aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells. Genetic association studies are necessary to determine whether mutations in SK channel subtype 2 genes may also drive aldosterone excess in primary hyperaldosteronism. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Interaction of the scorpion toxin discrepin with Kv4.3 channels and A-type K(+) channels in cerebellum granular cells.

    PubMed

    Picco, Cristiana; Corzo, Gerardo; Possani, Lourival D; Prestipino, Gianfranco

    2014-09-01

    The peptide discrepin from the α-KTx15 subfamily of scorpion toxins preferentially affects transient A-type potassium currents, which regulate many aspects of neuronal function in the central nervous system. However, the specific Kv channel targeted by discrepin and the molecular mechanism of interaction are still unknown. Different variant peptides of discrepin were chemically synthesized and their effects were studied using patch clamp technique on rat cerebellum granular cells (CGC) and HEK cells transiently expressing Kv4.3 channels. Functional analysis indicated that nanomolar concentrations of native discrepin blocked Kv4.3 expressed channels, as previously observed in CGC. Similarly, the apparent affinities of all mutated peptides for Kv4.3 expressed channels were analogous to those found in CGC. In particular, in the double variant [V6K, D20K] the apparent affinity increased about 10-fold, whereas in variants carrying a deletion (ΔK13) or substitution (K13A) at position K13, the blockage was removed and the apparent affinity decreased more than 20-fold. These results indicate that Kv4.3 is likely the target of discrepin and highlight the importance of the basic residue K13, located in the α-helix of the toxin, for current blockage. We report the first example of a Kv4 subfamily potassium channel blocked by discrepin and identify the amino acid residues responsible for the blockage. The availability of discrepin variant peptides stimulates further research on the functions and pharmacology of neuronal Kv4 channels and on their possible roles in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stereoselective Inhibition of the hERG1 Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Liliana Sintra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Abriel, Hugues

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of drugs have been shown to prolong cardiac repolarization, predisposing individuals to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias known as Torsades de Pointes. Most of these drugs are known to interfere with the human ether à-gogo related gene 1 (hERG1) channel, whose current is one of the main determinants of action potential duration. Prolonged repolarization is reflected by lengthening of the QT interval of the electrocardiogram, as seen in the suitably named drug-induced long QT syndrome. Chirality (presence of an asymmetric atom) is a common feature of marketed drugs, which can therefore exist in at least two enantiomers with distinct three-dimensional structures and possibly distinct biological fates. Both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties can differ between enantiomers, as well as also between individuals who take the drug due to metabolic polymorphisms. Despite the large number of reports about drugs reducing the hERG1 current, potential stereoselective contributions have only been scarcely investigated. In this review, we present a non-exhaustive list of clinically important molecules which display chiral toxicity that may be related to hERG1-blocking properties. We particularly focus on methadone cardiotoxicity, which illustrates the importance of the stereoselective effect of drug chirality as well as individual variations resulting from pharmacogenetics. Furthermore, it seems likely that, during drug development, consideration of chirality in lead optimization and systematic assessment of the hERG1 current block with all enantiomers could contribute to the reduction of the risk of drug-induced LQTS. PMID:21833176

  1. Effects of haloperidol on Kv4.3 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Joon; Sung, Ki-Wug; Hahn, Sang June

    2014-10-05

    Haloperidol is commonly used in clinical practice to treat acute and chronic psychosis, but it also has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events. We investigated the effects of haloperidol on Kv4.3 currents stably expressed in CHO cells using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Haloperidol did not significantly inhibit the peak amplitude of Kv4.3, but accelerated the decay rate of inactivation of Kv4.3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, the effects of haloperidol on Kv4.3 were estimated from the integral of the Kv4.3 currents during the depolarization pulse. The Kv4.3 was decreased by haloperidol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 3.6 μM. Haloperidol accelerated the decay rate of Kv4.3 inactivation and activation kinetics in a concentration-dependent manner, thereby decreasing the time-to-peak. Haloperidol shifted the voltage dependence of the steady-state activation and inactivation of Kv4.3 in a hyperpolarizing direction. Haloperidol also caused an acceleration of the closed-state inactivation of Kv4.3. Haloperidol produced a use-dependent block of Kv4.3, which was accompanied by a slowing of recovery from the inactivation of Kv4.3. These results suggest that haloperidol blocks Kv4.3 by both interacting with the open state of Kv4.3 channels during depolarization and accelerating the closed-state inactivation at subthreshold membrane potentials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of genes from pattern formation, tyrosine kinase, and potassium channel families by DNA amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Kamb, A.; Weir, M.; Rudy, B.

    1989-06-01

    The study of gene family members has been aided by the isolation of related genes on the basis of DNA homology. The authors have adapted the polymerase chain reaction to screen animal genomes very rapidly and reliably for likely gene family members. Using conserved amino acid sequences to design degenerate oligonucleotide primers, they have shown that the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains sequences homologous to many Drosophila genes involved in pattern formation, including the segment polarity gene wingless (vertebrate int-1), and homeobox sequences characteristic of the Antennapedia, engrailed, and paired families. In addition, they have used this methodmore » to show that C. elegans contains at least five different sequences homologous to genes in the tyrosine kinase family. Lastly, they have isolated six potassium channel sequences from humans, a result that validates the utility of the method with large genomes and suggests that human potassium channel gene diversity may be extensive.« less

  3. Potassium channel gene associations with joint processing speed and white matter impairments in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, H A; Kochunov, P; Paciga, S A; Hyde, C L; Chen, X; Xie, Z; Zhang, B; Xi, H S; O'Donnell, P; Whelan, C; Schubert, C R; Bellon, A; Ament, S A; Shukla, D K; Du, X; Rowland, L M; O'Neill, H; Hong, L E

    2017-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show decreased processing speed on neuropsychological testing and decreased white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, two traits shown to be both heritable and genetically associated indicating that there may be genes that influence both traits as well as schizophrenia disease risk. The potassium channel gene family is a reasonable candidate to harbor such a gene given the prominent role potassium channels play in the central nervous system in signal transduction, particularly in myelinated axons. We genotyped members of the large potassium channel gene family focusing on putatively functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a population of 363 controls, 194 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) and 28 patients with affective disorders with psychotic features who completed imaging and neuropsychological testing. We then performed three association analyses using three phenotypes - processing speed, whole-brain white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis. We extracted SNPs showing an association at a nominal P value of <0.05 with all three phenotypes in the expected direction: decreased processing speed, decreased FA and increased risk of SSD. A single SNP, rs8234, in the 3' untranslated region of voltage-gated potassium channel subfamily Q member 1 (KCNQ1) was identified. Rs8234 has been shown to affect KCNQ1 expression levels, and KCNQ1 levels have been shown to affect neuronal action potentials. This exploratory analysis provides preliminary data suggesting that KCNQ1 may contribute to the shared risk for diminished processing speed, diminished white mater integrity and increased risk of schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager

    PubMed Central

    Langille, Megan M.; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition. PMID:26019428

  5. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Langille, Megan M; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  6. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High temperature sensitivity is intrinsic to voltage-gated potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Zheng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are members of the large tetrameric cation channels superfamily but are considered to be uniquely sensitive to heat, which has been presumed to be due to the existence of an unidentified temperature-sensing domain. Here we report that the homologous voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels also exhibit high temperature sensitivity comparable to that of TRPV1, which is detectable under specific conditions when the voltage sensor is functionally decoupled from the activation gate through either intrinsic mechanisms or mutations. Interestingly, mutations could tune Shaker channel to be either heat-activated or heat-deactivated. Therefore, high temperature sensitivity is intrinsic to both TRP and Kv channels. Our findings suggest important physiological roles of heat-induced variation in Kv channel activities. Mechanistically our findings indicate that temperature-sensing TRP channels may not contain a specialized heat-sensor domain; instead, non-obligatory allosteric gating permits the intrinsic heat sensitivity to drive channel activation, allowing temperature-sensitive TRP channels to function as polymodal nociceptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03255.001 PMID:25030910

  8. [Water regulation in the cochlea : Do molecular water channels facilitate potassium-dependent sound transduction?].

    PubMed

    Eckhard, A; Löwenheim, H

    2014-06-01

    Sound transduction in the cochlea critically depends on the circulation of potassium ions (K(+)) along so-called "K(+) recycling routes" between the endolymph and perilymph. These K(+) currents generate high ionic and osmotic gradients, which potentially impair the excitability of sensory hair cells and threaten cell survival in the entire cochlear duct. Molecular water channels-aquaporins (AQP)-are expressed in all cochlear supporting cells along the K(+) recycling routes; however, their significance for osmotic equilibration in cochlear duct cells is unknown. The diffusive and osmotic water permeabilies of Reissner's membrane, the organ of Corti and the entire cochlear duct epithelium were determined. Expression of the potassium channel Kir4.1 and the water channel AQP4 in the cochlear duct was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The calculated water permeability values indicate the extent of AQP-facilitated water flux across the cochlear duct epithelium. Immunohistochemically, Kir4.1 and AQP4 were found to colocalize in distinct membrane domains of supporting cells along the K(+)-recycling routes. These observations suggest the presence of a rapid AQP-mediated water exchange between the endolymph, the cells of the cochlear duct and the perilymph. The subcellular colocalization of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in epithelial supporting cells indicates functional coupling of potassium and water flow in the cochlea. Finally, this offers an explanation for the hearing impairment observed in individuals with mutations in the AQP4 gene.

  9. Disruption of the potassium channel regulatory subunit KCNE2 causes iron-deficient anemia

    PubMed Central

    Salsbury, Grace; Cambridge, Emma L.; McIntyre, Zoe; Arends, Mark J.; Karp, Natasha A.; Isherwood, Christopher; Shannon, Carl; Hooks, Yvette; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Adams, David J.; White, Jacqueline K.; Speak, Anneliese O.

    2014-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is a dynamic process that is tightly controlled to balance iron uptake, storage, and export. Reduction of dietary iron from the ferric to the ferrous form is required for uptake by solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 2 (Slc11a2) into the enterocytes. Both processes are proton dependent and have led to the suggestion of the importance of acidic gastric pH for the absorption of dietary iron. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E, member 2 (KCNE2), in combination with potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1), form a gastric potassium channel essential for gastric acidification. Deficiency of either Kcne2 or Kcnq1 results in achlorhydia, gastric hyperplasia, and neoplasia, but the impact on iron absorption has not, to our knowledge, been investigated. Here we report that Kcne2-deficient mice, in addition to the previously reported phenotypes, also present with iron-deficient anemia. Interestingly, impaired function of KCNQ1 results in iron-deficient anemia in Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome patients. We speculate that impaired function of KCNE2 could result in the same clinical phenotype. PMID:25127743

  10. Ion conduction in the KcsA potassium channel analyzed with a minimal kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Mafé, Salvador; Pellicer, Julio

    2005-02-01

    We use a model by Nelson to study the current-voltage and conductance-concentration curves of bacterial potassium channel KcsA without assuming rapid ion translocation. Ion association to the channel filter is rate controlling at low concentrations, but dissociation and transport in the filter can limit conduction at high concentration for ions other than K+. The absolute values of the effective rate constants are tentative but the relative changes in these constants needed to qualitatively explain the experiments should be of significance.

  11. Block of voltage-gated potassium channels by Pacific ciguatoxin-1 contributes to increased neuronal excitability in rat sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Birinyi-Strachan, Liesl C.; Gunning, Simon J.; Lewis, Richard J.

    2005-04-15

    The present study investigated the actions of the polyether marine toxin Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on neuronal excitability in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, bath application of 2-20 nM P-CTX-1 caused a rapid, concentration-dependent depolarization of the resting membrane potential in neurons expressing tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (Na{sub v}) channels. This action was completely suppressed by the addition of 200 nM TTX to the external solution, indicating that this effect was mediated through TTX-sensitive Na{sub v} channels. In addition, P-CTX-1 also prolonged action potential and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) duration. In a subpopulation of neurons,more » P-CTX-1 also produced tonic action potential firing, an effect that was not accompanied by significant oscillation of the resting membrane potential. Conversely, in neurons expressing TTX-resistant Na{sub v} currents, P-CTX-1 failed to alter any parameter of neuronal excitability examined in this study. Under voltage-clamp conditions in rat DRG neurons, P-CTX-1 inhibited both delayed-rectifier and 'A-type' potassium currents in a dose-dependent manner, actions that occurred in the absence of alterations to the voltage dependence of activation. These actions appear to underlie the prolongation of the action potential and AHP, and contribute to repetitive firing. These data indicate that a block of potassium channels contributes to the increase in neuronal excitability, associated with a modulation of Na{sub v} channel gating, observed clinically in response to ciguatera poisoning.« less

  12. Role of inward rectifier potassium channels in salivary gland function and sugar feeding of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The arthropod salivary gland is of critical importance for horizontal transmission of pathogens, yet a detailed understanding of the ion conductance pathways responsible for saliva production and excretion is lacking. A superfamily of potassium ion channels, known as inward rectifying potassium (Ki...

  13. The potent insulin secretagogue effect of betulinic acid is mediated by potassium and chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Gomes Castro, Allisson Jhonatan; Cazarolli, Luisa Helena; Bretanha, Lizandra C; Sulis, Paola Miranda; Rey Padilla, Diana Patricia; Aragón Novoa, Diana Marcela; Dambrós, Betina Fernanda; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Mena Barreto Silva, Fátima Regina

    2018-06-15

    Betulinic acid (BA) has been described as an insulin secretagogue which may explain its potent antihyperglycemic effect; however, the exact role of BA as an insulinogenic agent is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of BA on calcium influx and static insulin secretion in pancreatic islets isolated from euglycemic rats. We found that BA triggers calcium influx by a mechanism dependent on ATP-dependent potassium channels and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. Additionally, the voltage-dependent and calcium-dependent chloride channels are also involved in the mechanism of BA, probably due to an indirect stimulation of calcium entry and increased intracellular calcium. Additionally, the downstream activation of PKC, which is necessary for the effect of BA on calcium influx, is involved in the full stimulatory response of the triterpene. BA stimulated the static secretion of insulin in pancreatic islets, indicating that the abrupt calcium influx may be a key step in its secretagogue effect. As such, BA stimulates insulin secretion through the activation of electrophysiological mechanisms, such as the closure of potassium channels and opening of calcium and chloride channels, inducing cellular depolarization associated with metabolic-biochemical effects, in turn activating PKC and ensuring the secretion of insulin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histidine phosphorylation relieves copper inhibition in the mammalian potassium channel KCa3.1

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shekhar; Panda, Saswati; Li, Zhai; Fuhs, Stephen R; Hunter, Tony; Thiele, Dennis J; Hubbard, Stevan R; Skolnik, Edward Y

    2016-01-01

    KCa2.1, KCa2.2, KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 constitute a family of mammalian small- to intermediate-conductance potassium channels that are activated by calcium-calmodulin. KCa3.1 is unique among these four channels in that activation requires, in addition to calcium, phosphorylation of a single histidine residue (His358) in the cytoplasmic region, by nucleoside diphosphate kinase-B (NDPK-B). The mechanism by which KCa3.1 is activated by histidine phosphorylation is unknown. Histidine phosphorylation is well characterized in prokaryotes but poorly understood in eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of His358 activates KCa3.1 by antagonizing copper-mediated inhibition of the channel. Furthermore, we show that activated CD4+ T cells deficient in intracellular copper exhibit increased KCa3.1 histidine phosphorylation and channel activity, leading to increased calcium flux and cytokine production. These findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for a mammalian potassium channel and for T-cell activation, and highlight a unique feature of histidine versus serine/threonine and tyrosine as a regulatory phosphorylation site. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16093.001 PMID:27542194

  15. Modulation of inward rectifier potassium channel by toosendanin, a presynaptic blocker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z F; Shi, Y L

    2001-07-01

    The effect of toosendanin, a presynaptic blocker, on the inward rectifier potassium channel (K(Kir)) of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of rats was studied by the single-channel patch-clamp technique. The results showed that toosendanin had an inhibitory effect on K(Kir) in an excised inside-out patch of the neuron under a symmetrical 150 mM K(+) condition. By decreasing the slower open time constant and increasing the slower close time constant, toosendanin (1x10(-6)-1x10(-4) g/ml) significantly reduced the open probability of the channel in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, a dose-dependent reduction in unitary conductance of the channel was also detected after toosendanin application. These data offer an explanation for toosendanin-induced facilitation of neurotransmitter release and antibotulismic effect of the drug.

  16. Physical and functional interaction between integrins and hERG potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, A; Becchetti, A; Cherubini, A; Crociani, O; Defilippi, P; Guasti, L; Hofmann, G; Pillozzi, S; Olivotto, M; Wanke, E

    2004-11-01

    Integrins are adhesion receptors capable of transmitting intracellular signals that regulate many different cellular functions. Among integrin-mediated signals, the activation of ion channels can be included. We demonstrated that a long-lasting activation of hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) potassium channels occurs in both human neuroblastoma and leukaemia cells after the activation of the beta1 integrin subunit. This activation is apparently a determining factor inducing neurite extension and osteoclastic differentiation in both the cell types. More recently, we provided evidences that beta1 integrins and hERG channels co-precipitate in both the cell types. Preliminary results suggest that a macromolecular signalling complex indeed occurs between integrins and the hERG1 protein and that hERG channel activity can modulate integrin downstream signalling.

  17. [Research progress in the role of aquaproin-4 and inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 in spinal cord edema].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiege; Dang, Yuexiu; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Dongliang; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Haihong

    2018-05-28

    Spinal edema is a very important pathophysiological basis for secondary spinal cord injury, which affects the repair and prognosis of spinal cord injury. Aquaporin-4 is widely distributed in various organs of the body, and is highly expressed in the brain and spinal cord. Inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 is a protein found in astrocytes of central nervous system. It interacts with aquaporins in function. Aquaporin-4 and inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 play an important role in the formation and elimination of spinal cord edema, inhibition of glial scar formation and promotion of excitotoxic agents exclusion. The distribution and function of aquaporin-4 and inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 in the central nervous system and their expression after spinal cord injury have multiple effects on spinal edema. Studies of aquaporin-4 and inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 in the spinal cord may provide new ideas for the elimination and treatment of spinal edema.

  18. A novel crystallization method for visualizing the membrane localization of potassium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Lopatin, A N; Makhina, E N; Nichols, C G

    1998-01-01

    The high permeability of K+ channels to monovalent thallium (Tl+) ions and the low solubility of thallium bromide salt were used to develop a simple yet very sensitive approach to the study of membrane localization of potassium channels. K+ channels (Kir1.1, Kir2.1, Kir2.3, Kv2.1), were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and loaded with Br ions by microinjection. Oocytes were then exposed to extracellular thallium. Under conditions favoring influx of Tl+ ions (negative membrane potential under voltage clamp, or high concentration of extracellular Tl+), crystals of TlBr, visible under low-power microscopy, formed under the membrane in places of high density of K+ channels. Crystals were not formed in uninjected oocytes, but were formed in oocytes expressing as little as 5 microS K+ conductance. The number of observed crystals was much lower than the estimated number of functional channels. Based on the pattern of crystal formation, K+ channels appear to be expressed mostly around the point of cRNA injection when injected either into the animal or vegetal hemisphere. In addition to this pseudopolarized distribution of K+ channels due to localized microinjection of cRNA, a naturally polarized (animal/vegetal side) distribution of K+ channels was also frequently observed when K+ channel cRNA was injected at the equator. A second novel "agarose-hemiclamp" technique was developed to permit direct measurements of K+ currents from different hemispheres of oocytes under two-microelectrode voltage clamp. This technique, together with direct patch-clamping of patches of membrane in regions of high crystal density, confirmed that the localization of TlBr crystals corresponded to the localization of functional K+ channels and suggested a clustered organization of functional channels. With appropriate permeant ion/counterion pairs, this approach may be applicable to the visualization of the membrane distribution of any functional ion channel. PMID:9591643

  19. A novel crystallization method for visualizing the membrane localization of potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Lopatin, A N; Makhina, E N; Nichols, C G

    1998-05-01

    The high permeability of K+ channels to monovalent thallium (Tl+) ions and the low solubility of thallium bromide salt were used to develop a simple yet very sensitive approach to the study of membrane localization of potassium channels. K+ channels (Kir1.1, Kir2.1, Kir2.3, Kv2.1), were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and loaded with Br ions by microinjection. Oocytes were then exposed to extracellular thallium. Under conditions favoring influx of Tl+ ions (negative membrane potential under voltage clamp, or high concentration of extracellular Tl+), crystals of TlBr, visible under low-power microscopy, formed under the membrane in places of high density of K+ channels. Crystals were not formed in uninjected oocytes, but were formed in oocytes expressing as little as 5 microS K+ conductance. The number of observed crystals was much lower than the estimated number of functional channels. Based on the pattern of crystal formation, K+ channels appear to be expressed mostly around the point of cRNA injection when injected either into the animal or vegetal hemisphere. In addition to this pseudopolarized distribution of K+ channels due to localized microinjection of cRNA, a naturally polarized (animal/vegetal side) distribution of K+ channels was also frequently observed when K+ channel cRNA was injected at the equator. A second novel "agarose-hemiclamp" technique was developed to permit direct measurements of K+ currents from different hemispheres of oocytes under two-microelectrode voltage clamp. This technique, together with direct patch-clamping of patches of membrane in regions of high crystal density, confirmed that the localization of TlBr crystals corresponded to the localization of functional K+ channels and suggested a clustered organization of functional channels. With appropriate permeant ion/counterion pairs, this approach may be applicable to the visualization of the membrane distribution of any functional ion channel.

  20. Noble Gas Xenon Is a Novel Adenosine Triphosphate-sensitive Potassium Channel Opener

    PubMed Central

    Bantel, Carsten; Maze, Mervyn; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Background Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in brain are involved in neuroprotective mechanisms. Pharmacologic activation of these channels is seen as beneficial, but clinical exploitation by using classic K+ channel openers is hampered by their inability to cross the blood–brain barrier. This is different with the inhalational anesthetic xenon, which recently has been suggested to activate KATP channels; it partitions freely into the brain. Methods To evaluate the type and mechanism of interaction of xenon with neuronal-type KATP channels, these channels, consisting of Kir6.2 pore-forming subunits and sulfonylurea receptor-1 regulatory subunits, were expressed in HEK293 cells and whole cell, and excised patch-clamp recordings were performed. Results Xenon, in contrast to classic KATP channel openers, acted directly on the Kir6.2 subunit of the channel. It had no effect on the closely related, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-regulated Kir1.1 channel and failed to activate an ATP-insensitive mutant version of Kir6.2. Furthermore, concentration–inhibition curves for ATP obtained from inside-out patches in the absence or presence of 80% xenon revealed that xenon reduced the sensitivity of the KATP channel to ATP. This was reflected in an approximately fourfold shift of the concentration causing half-maximal inhibition (IC50) from 26 ± 4 to 96 ± 6 μm. Conclusions Xenon represents a novel KATP channel opener that increases KATP currents independently of the sulfonylurea receptor-1 subunit by reducing ATP inhibition of the channel. Through this action and by its ability to readily partition across the blood–brain barrier, xenon has considerable potential in clinical settings of neuronal injury, including stroke. PMID:20179498

  1. Identification of quaternary ammonium compounds as potent inhibitors of hERG potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Shahane, Sampada; Huang, Ruili; Titus, Steven A.; Shum, Enoch; Zhao, Yong; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a member of a family of voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels, plays a critical role in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. The reduction of hERG channel activity as a result of adverse drug effects or genetic mutations may cause QT interval prolongation and potentially lead to acquired long QT syndrome. Thus, screening for hERG channel activity is important in drug development. Cardiotoxicity associated with the inhibition of hERG channels by environmental chemicals is also a public health concern. To assess the inhibitory effects of environmental chemicals on hERG channel function, we screened the National Toxicology Program (NTP) collection of 1408 compounds by measuring thallium influx into cells through hERG channels. Seventeen compounds with hERG channel inhibition were identified with IC50 potencies ranging from 0.26 to 22 μM. Twelve of these compounds were confirmed as hERG channel blockers in an automated whole cell patch clamp experiment. In addition, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of seven compounds belonging to the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) series on hERG channel inhibition. Among four active QAC compounds, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide was the most potent with an IC50 value of 260 nM in the thallium influx assay and 80 nM in the patch clamp assay. The potency of this class of hERG channel inhibitors appears to depend on the number and length of their aliphatic side-chains surrounding the charged nitrogen. Profiling environmental compound libraries for hERG channel inhibition provides information useful in prioritizing these compounds for cardiotoxicity assessment in vivo. PMID:21362439

  2. Modulation of nucleotide sensitivity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Shyng, S L; Barbieri, A; Gumusboga, A; Cukras, C; Pike, L; Davis, J N; Stahl, P D; Nichols, C G

    2000-01-18

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) regulate cell excitability in response to metabolic changes. K(ATP) channels are formed as a complex of a sulfonylurea receptor (SURx), a member of the ATP-binding cassette protein family, and an inward rectifier K(+) channel subunit (Kir6.x). Membrane phospholipids, in particular phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), activate K(ATP) channels and antagonize ATP inhibition of K(ATP) channels when applied to inside-out membrane patches. To examine the physiological relevance of this regulatory mechanism, we manipulated membrane PIP(2) levels by expressing either the wild-type or an inactive form of PI-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) in COSm6 cells and examined the ATP sensitivity of coexpressed K(ATP) channels. Channels from cells expressing the wild-type PIP5K have a 6-fold lower ATP sensitivity (K(1/2), the half maximal inhibitory concentration, approximately 60 microM) than the sensitivities from control cells (K(1/2) approximately 10 microM). An inactive form of the PIP5K had little effect on the K(1/2) of wild-type channels but increased the ATP-sensitivity of a mutant K(ATP) channel that has an intrinsically lower ATP sensitivity (from K(1/2) approximately 450 microM to K(1/2) approximately 100 microM), suggesting a decrease in membrane PIP(2) levels as a consequence of a dominant-negative effect of the inactive PIP5K. These results show that PIP5K activity, which regulates PIP(2) and PI-3,4,5-P(3) levels, is a significant determinant of the physiological nucleotide sensitivity of K(ATP) channels.

  3. Modulation of nucleotide sensitivity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Shyng, S.-L.; Barbieri, A.; Gumusboga, A.; Cukras, C.; Pike, L.; Davis, J. N.; Stahl, P. D.; Nichols, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) regulate cell excitability in response to metabolic changes. KATP channels are formed as a complex of a sulfonylurea receptor (SURx), a member of the ATP-binding cassette protein family, and an inward rectifier K+ channel subunit (Kir6.x). Membrane phospholipids, in particular phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), activate KATP channels and antagonize ATP inhibition of KATP channels when applied to inside-out membrane patches. To examine the physiological relevance of this regulatory mechanism, we manipulated membrane PIP2 levels by expressing either the wild-type or an inactive form of PI-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) in COSm6 cells and examined the ATP sensitivity of coexpressed KATP channels. Channels from cells expressing the wild-type PIP5K have a 6-fold lower ATP sensitivity (K1/2, the half maximal inhibitory concentration, ≈ 60 μM) than the sensitivities from control cells (K1/2 ≈ 10 μM). An inactive form of the PIP5K had little effect on the K1/2 of wild-type channels but increased the ATP-sensitivity of a mutant KATP channel that has an intrinsically lower ATP sensitivity (from K1/2 ≈ 450 μM to K1/2 ≈ 100 μM), suggesting a decrease in membrane PIP2 levels as a consequence of a dominant-negative effect of the inactive PIP5K. These results show that PIP5K activity, which regulates PIP2 and PI-3,4,5-P3 levels, is a significant determinant of the physiological nucleotide sensitivity of KATP channels. PMID:10639183

  4. Expression and Stress-Dependent Induction of Potassium Channel Transcripts in the Common Ice Plant1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua; Golldack, Dortje; Katsuhara, Maki; Zhao, Chengsong; Bohnert, Hans J.

    2001-01-01

    We have characterized transcripts for three potassium channel homologs in the AKT/KAT subfamily (Shaker type) from the common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), with a focus on their expression during salt stress (up to 500 mm NaCl). Mkt1 and 2, Arabidopsis AKT homologs, and Kmt1, a KAT homolog, are members of small gene families with two to three isoforms each. Mkt1 is root specific; Mkt2 is found in leaves, flowers, and seed capsules; and Kmt1 is expressed in leaves and seed capsules. Mkt1 is present in all cells of the root, and in leaves a highly conserved isoform is detected present in all cells with highest abundance in the vasculature. MKT1 for which antibodies were made is localized to the plasma membrane. Following salt stress, MKT1 (transcripts and protein) is drastically down-regulated, Mkt2 transcripts do not change significantly, and Kmt1 is strongly and transiently (maximum at 6 h) up-regulated in leaves and stems. The detection and stress-dependent behavior of abundant transcripts representing subfamilies of potassium channels provides information about tissue specificity and the complex regulation of genes encoding potassium uptake systems in a halophytic plant. PMID:11161018

  5. Kv7 potassium channel subunits and M currents in cultured hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Grigorov, Alexej; Moskalyuk, Anastasia; Kravchenko, Mykola; Veselovsky, Nikolai; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Fedulova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    Potassium channels of the Kv7 family that mediate the non-inactivating M current regulate the excitability of many types of neurons in the central nervous system, including some in the hippocampus. We report here that individual interneurons from newborn rat hippocampi in long-term culture strongly express messenger RNA specific for Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 and, to a lesser extent, Kv7.5 channel subunits but not for the Kv7.4 subunit. An M-like current was electrophysiologically identified in two subpopulations of interneurons distinct in their spiking behaviour (regular or fast spiking). The M-channel enhancer retigabine reduced interneuronal excitability by constraining the number of action potentials generated during imposed depolarisations; this effect was inhibited by specific the M-channel blocking drugs. In paired synaptically connected interneuron-target cell recordings, anatomically localised applications of retigabine indicated that M channels were present in both the interneuron soma and its GABA-ergic inhibitory axon. We conclude that M-channel subunits and functional M channels are broadly expressed in hippocampal interneurons and their axons and are potentially capable of strongly regulating their firing properties.

  6. Potassium Channels in Peripheral Pain Pathways: Expression, Function and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaona; Gamper, Nikita

    2013-01-01

    Electrical excitation of peripheral somatosensory nerves is a first step in generation of most pain signals in mammalian nervous system. Such excitation is controlled by an intricate set of ion channels that are coordinated to produce a degree of excitation that is proportional to the strength of the external stimulation. However, in many disease states this coordination is disrupted resulting in deregulated peripheral excitability which, in turn, may underpin pathological pain states (i.e. migraine, neuralgia, neuropathic and inflammatory pains). One of the major groups of ion channels that are essential for controlling neuronal excitability is potassium channel family and, hereby, the focus of this review is on the K+ channels in peripheral pain pathways. The aim of the review is threefold. First, we will discuss current evidence for the expression and functional role of various K+ channels in peripheral nociceptive fibres. Second, we will consider a hypothesis suggesting that reduced functional activity of K+ channels within peripheral nociceptive pathways is a general feature of many types of pain. Third, we will evaluate the perspectives of pharmacological enhancement of K+ channels in nociceptive pathways as a strategy for new analgesic drug design. PMID:24396338

  7. Ion channel profile of TRPM8 cold receptors reveals a novel role of TASK-3 potassium channels in thermosensation

    PubMed Central

    Morenilla-Palao, Cruz; Luis, Enoch; Fernández-Peña, Carlos; Quintero, Eva; Weaver, Janelle L.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Viana, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Summary Animals sense cold ambient temperatures through the activation of peripheral thermoreceptors that express TRPM8, a cold- and menthol-activated ion channel. These receptors can discriminate a very wide range of temperatures from innocuous to noxious. The molecular mechanism responsible for the variable sensitivity of individual cold receptors to temperature is unclear. To address this question, we performed a detailed ion channel expression analysis of cold sensitive neurons, combining BAC transgenesis with a molecular profiling approach in FACS purified TRPM8 neurons. We found that TASK-3 leak potassium channels are highly enriched in a subpopulation of these sensory neurons. The thermal threshold of TRPM8 cold neurons is decreased during TASK-3 blockade and in mice lacking TASK-3 and, most importantly, these mice display hypersensitivity to cold. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TASK-3 channels in thermosensation, showing that a channel-based combinatorial strategy in TRPM8 cold thermoreceptors leads to molecular specialization and functional diversity. PMID:25199828

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Honokiol on the Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels in Freshly Isolated Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Anqi; Zhang, Yan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Guangqin

    2018-02-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K V ) currents, subdivided into rapidly inactivating A-type currents (I A ) and slowly inactivating delayed rectifier currents (I K ), play a fundamental role in modulating pain by controlling neuronal excitability. The effects of Honokiol (Hon), a natural biphenolic compound derived from Magnolia officinalis, on K V currents were investigated in freshly isolated mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results showed that Hon inhibited I A and I K in concentration-dependent manner. The IC 50 values for block of I A and I K were 30.5 and 25.7 µM, respectively. Hon (30 µM) shifted the steady-state activation curves of I A and I K to positive potentials by 17.6 and 16.7 mV, whereas inactivation and recovery from the inactivated state of I A were unaffected. These results suggest that Hon preferentially interacts with the active states of the I A and I K channels, and has no effect on the resting state and inactivated state of the I A channel. Blockade on K + channels by Hon may contribute to its antinociceptive effect, especially anti-inflammatory pain.

  9. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Samira; Stein, Matthias; Elinder, Fredrik; Andersson, Magnus; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD), the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins. PMID:26751683

  10. ATP-sensitive potassium channels participate in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takashi; Minami, Kohtaro; Zhang, Li; Morita, Mizuo; Gonoi, Tohru; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Seino, Susumu

    2002-12-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are known to be critical in the control of both insulin and glucagon secretion, the major hormones in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. The involvement of K(ATP) channels in glucose uptake in the target tissues of insulin, however, is not known. We show here that Kir6.2(-/-) mice lacking Kir6.2, the pore-forming subunit of these channels, have no K(ATP) channel activity in their skeletal muscles. A 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose uptake experiment in vivo showed that the basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipose tissues of Kir6.2(-/-) mice is enhanced compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, in vitro measurement of glucose uptake indicates that disruption of the channel increases the basal glucose uptake in Kir6.2(-/-) extensor digitorum longus and the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in Kir6.2(-/-) soleus muscle. In contrast, glucose uptake in adipose tissue, measured in vitro, was similar in Kir6.2(-/-) and WT mice, suggesting that the increase in glucose uptake in Kir6.2(-/-) adipocytes is mediated by altered extracellular hormonal or neuronal signals altered by disruption of the K(ATP) channels.

  11. Toxin-induced conformational changes in a potassium channel revealed by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Adam; Giller, Karin; Hornig, Sönke; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Pongs, Olaf; Becker, Stefan; Baldus, Marc

    2006-04-01

    The active site of potassium (K+) channels catalyses the transport of K+ ions across the plasma membrane-similar to the catalytic function of the active site of an enzyme-and is inhibited by toxins from scorpion venom. On the basis of the conserved structures of K+ pore regions and scorpion toxins, detailed structures for the K+ channel-scorpion toxin binding interface have been proposed. In these models and in previous solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies using detergent-solubilized membrane proteins, scorpion toxins were docked to the extracellular entrance of the K+ channel pore assuming rigid, preformed binding sites. Using high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy, here we show that high-affinity binding of the scorpion toxin kaliotoxin to a chimaeric K+ channel (KcsA-Kv1.3) is associated with significant structural rearrangements in both molecules. Our approach involves a combined analysis of chemical shifts and proton-proton distances and demonstrates that solid-state NMR is a sensitive method for analysing the structure of a membrane protein-inhibitor complex. We propose that structural flexibility of the K+ channel and the toxin represents an important determinant for the high specificity of toxin-K+ channel interactions.

  12. Functional significance of M-type potassium channels in nociceptive cutaneous sensory endings

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Gayle M.; Reilly, Joanne M.; Thakur, Matthew; Keasberry, Vanessa N.; Marsh, Stephen J.; Dickenson, Anthony H.; Brown, David A.

    2012-01-01

    M-channels carry slowly activating potassium currents that regulate excitability in a variety of central and peripheral neurons. Functional M-channels and their Kv7 channel correlates are expressed throughout the somatosensory nervous system where they may play an important role in controlling sensory nerve activity. Here we show that Kv7.2 immunoreactivity is expressed in the peripheral terminals of nociceptive primary afferents. Electrophysiological recordings from single afferents in vitro showed that block of M-channels by 3 μM XE991 sensitized Aδ- but not C-fibers to noxious heat stimulation and induced spontaneous, ongoing activity at 32°C in many Aδ-fibers. These observations were extended in vivo: intraplantar injection of XE991 selectively enhanced the response of deep dorsal horn (DH) neurons to peripheral mid-range mechanical and higher range thermal stimuli, consistent with a selective effect on Aδ-fiber peripheral terminals. These results demonstrate an important physiological role of M-channels in controlling nociceptive Aδ-fiber responses and provide a rationale for the nocifensive behaviors that arise following intraplantar injection of the M-channel blocker XE991. PMID:22593734

  13. The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack is required for optimal cognitive flexibility in mice.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Anne E; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Kcnt1 encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual development. In particular, recent findings have shown that human Slack mutations produce very severe intellectual disability and that Slack channels interact directly with the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a protein that when missing or mutated results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and autism in humans. We have now analyzed a recently developed Kcnt1 null mouse model in several behavioral tasks to assess which aspects of memory and learning are dependent on Slack. We demonstrate that Slack deficiency results in mildly altered general locomotor activity, but normal working memory, reference memory, as well as cerebellar control of motor functions. In contrast, we find that Slack channels are required for cognitive flexibility, including reversal learning processes and the ability to adapt quickly to unfamiliar situations and environments. Our data reveal that hippocampal-dependent spatial learning capabilities require the proper function of Slack channels. © 2015 Bausch et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack is required for optimal cognitive flexibility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2015-01-01

    Kcnt1 encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual development. In particular, recent findings have shown that human Slack mutations produce very severe intellectual disability and that Slack channels interact directly with the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a protein that when missing or mutated results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and autism in humans. We have now analyzed a recently developed Kcnt1 null mouse model in several behavioral tasks to assess which aspects of memory and learning are dependent on Slack. We demonstrate that Slack deficiency results in mildly altered general locomotor activity, but normal working memory, reference memory, as well as cerebellar control of motor functions. In contrast, we find that Slack channels are required for cognitive flexibility, including reversal learning processes and the ability to adapt quickly to unfamiliar situations and environments. Our data reveal that hippocampal-dependent spatial learning capabilities require the proper function of Slack channels. PMID:26077685

  15. Scorpion Toxins Specific for Potassium (K+) Channels: A Historical Overview of Peptide Bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Zachary L.; Bingham, Jon-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion toxins have been central to the investigation and understanding of the physiological role of potassium (K+) channels and their expansive function in membrane biophysics. As highly specific probes, toxins have revealed a great deal about channel structure and the correlation between mutations, altered regulation and a number of human pathologies. Radio- and fluorescently-labeled toxin isoforms have contributed to localization studies of channel subtypes in expressing cells, and have been further used in competitive displacement assays for the identification of additional novel ligands for use in research and medicine. Chimeric toxins have been designed from multiple peptide scaffolds to probe channel isoform specificity, while advanced epitope chimerization has aided in the development of novel molecular therapeutics. Peptide backbone cyclization has been utilized to enhance therapeutic efficiency by augmenting serum stability and toxin half-life in vivo as a number of K+-channel isoforms have been identified with essential roles in disease states ranging from HIV, T-cell mediated autoimmune disease and hypertension to various cardiac arrhythmias and Malaria. Bioengineered scorpion toxins have been monumental to the evolution of channel science, and are now serving as templates for the development of invaluable experimental molecular therapeutics. PMID:23202307

  16. Lower KV7.5 Potassium Channel Subunit Expression in an Animal Model of Paroxysmal Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Sander, Svenja E; Diwan, Mustansir; Raymond, Roger; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a hyperkinetic disabling movement disorder. In the dt(sz) hamster, a model of paroxysmal dystonia, pronounced antidystonic effects of the KV7.2-5 potassium channel opener retigabine and aggravation of dystonia by a selective KV7.2-5 blocker indicated a pathophysiological role of an abnormal expression of KV7 channels. We therefore investigated the expression of KV7 subunits in brains of dystonic hamsters. While KV7.2 and KV7.3 subunits were unaltered, lower KV7.5 mRNA levels became evident in motor areas and in limbic structures of dystonic hamsters. The KV7.2/3 subunit-preferring channel opener N-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3,4- difluorobenzamide (ICA 27243; 10-30 mg/kg i.p.) failed to reduce the severity of dystonia in mutant hamsters, suggesting that the previously observed antidystonic action of retigabine is mediated by the activation of KV7.5 channels. The experiments indicate a functional relevance for KV7.5 channels in paroxysmal dystonia. We suggest that compounds highly selective for subtypes of KV7 channels, i.e. for KV7.5, may provide new therapeutic approaches.

  17. Suppression of KV7/KCNQ potassium channel enhances neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Najing; Huang, Sha; Li, Li; Huang, Dongyang; Yan, Yunli; Du, Xiaona; Zhang, Hailin

    2016-10-01

    Membrane potential shift driven by electrical activity is critical in determining the cell fate of proliferation or differentiation. As such, the ion channels that underlie the membrane electrical activity play an important role in cell proliferation/differentiation. KV7/KCNQ potassium channels are critical in determining the resting membrane potentials in many neuronal cells. However, the role of these channels in cell differentiation is not well studied. In the present study, we used PC12 cells as well as primary cultured rat cortical neurons to study the role and mechanism of KV7/KCNQ in neuronal differentiation. NGF induced PC12 cell differentiation into neuron-like cells with growth of neurites showing typical growth cone-like extensions. The Kv7/KCNQ blocker XE991 promoted NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, whereas Kv7/KCNQ opener retigabine (RTG) inhibited outgrowth. M-type Kv7 channels are likely involved in regulating neurite growth because overexpression of KCNQ2/Q3 inhibited neurite growth whereas suppression of KCNQ2/Q3 with shRNA promoted neurite growth. Membrane depolarization possibly underpins enhanced neurite growth induced by the suppression of Kv7/KCNQ. Additionally, high extracellular K(+) likely induced membrane depolarization and also promoted neurite growth. Finally, T-type Ca(2+) channels may be involved in membrane-depolarization-induced neurite growth. This study provides a new perspective for understanding neuronal differentiation as well as KV7/KCNQ channel function. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Trial of the Potassium Channel Activator Diazoxide for Major Depressive Disorder Halted Due to Intolerability.

    PubMed

    Kadriu, Bashkim; Yuan, Shiwen; Farmer, Cristan; Nugent, Allison C; Lener, Marc S; Niciu, Mark J; Park, Minkyung; Yazdian, Aaron; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Henn, Fritz A; Henter, Ioline D; Park, Lawrence T; Zarate, Carlos A

    2018-06-01

    Some glutamatergic modulators have demonstrated rapid and relatively sustained antidepressant properties in patients with major depressive disorder. Because the potassium channel activator diazoxide increases glutamate uptake via potassium channel activation, we hypothesized that it might exert antidepressant effects by increasing the removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft, thereby reducing excessive glutamate transmission. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-site inpatient clinical study was conducted at the National Institute of Mental Health to assess the efficacy and safety of a 3-week course of diazoxide (200-400 mg daily, twice a day) versus a 3-week course of placebo in 6 participants with treatment-refractory major depressive disorder. The primary clinical outcome measure was change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score from baseline to posttreatment. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, as well as concomitant imaging measures (electroencephalography, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography), were used as potential surrogate markers of target (KATP channel) engagement. The study was halted due to severe adverse effects. Given the small sample size, statistical evaluation of the effect of diazoxide on Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores or the imaging measures was not pursued. Visual inspection of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index test revealed no evidence of target engagement. Although the results are negative, they are an important addition to the literature in this rapidly changing field.

  19. Reciprocal voltage sensor-to-pore coupling leads to potassium channel C-type inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Luca; Renhorn, Jakob; Gabrielsson, Anders; Turesson, Fredrik; Liin, Sara I.; Lindahl, Erik; Elinder, Fredrik

    2016-06-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels open at depolarized membrane voltages. A prolonged depolarization causes a rearrangement of the selectivity filter which terminates the conduction of ions - a process called slow or C-type inactivation. How structural rearrangements in the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) cause alteration in the selectivity filter, and vice versa, are not fully understood. We show that pulling the pore domain of the Shaker potassium channel towards the VSD by a Cd2+ bridge accelerates C-type inactivation. Molecular dynamics simulations show that such pulling widens the selectivity filter and disrupts the K+ coordination, a hallmark for C-type inactivation. An engineered Cd2+ bridge within the VSD also affect C-type inactivation. Conversely, a pore domain mutation affects VSD gating-charge movement. Finally, C-type inactivation is caused by the concerted action of distant amino acid residues in the pore domain. All together, these data suggest a reciprocal communication between the pore domain and the VSD in the extracellular portion of the channel.

  20. Remote and reversible inhibition of neurons and circuits by small molecule induced potassium channel stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Auffenberg, Eva; Jurik, Angela; Mattusch, Corinna; Stoffel, Rainer; Genewsky, Andreas; Namendorf, Christian; Schmid, Roland M.; Rammes, Gerhard; Biel, Martin; Uhr, Manfred; Moosmang, Sven; Michalakis, Stylianos; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Thoeringer, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the function of neurons and circuits that translate electrical and chemical signals into behavior represents a major challenges in neuroscience. In addition to optogenetic methods using light-activatable channels, pharmacogenetic methods with ligand induced modulation of cell signaling and excitability have been developed. However, they are largely based on ectopic expression of exogenous or chimera proteins. Now, we describe the remote and reversible expression of a Kir2.1 type potassium channel using the chemogenetic technique of small molecule induced protein stabilization. Based on shield1-mediated shedding of a destabilizing domain fused to a protein of interest and inhibition of protein degradation, this principle has been adopted for biomedicine, but not in neuroscience so far. Here, we apply this chemogenetic approach in brain research for the first time in order to control a potassium channel in a remote and reversible manner. We could show that shield1-mediated ectopic Kir2.1 stabilization induces neuronal silencing in vitro and in vivo in the mouse brain. We also validated this novel pharmacogenetic method in different neurobehavioral paradigms.The DD-Kir2.1 may complement the existing portfolio of pharmaco- and optogenetic techniques for specific neuron manipulation, but it may also provide an example for future applications of this principle in neuroscience research. PMID:26757616

  1. Reciprocal voltage sensor-to-pore coupling leads to potassium channel C-type inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Luca; Renhorn, Jakob; Gabrielsson, Anders; Turesson, Fredrik; Liin, Sara I; Lindahl, Erik; Elinder, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels open at depolarized membrane voltages. A prolonged depolarization causes a rearrangement of the selectivity filter which terminates the conduction of ions – a process called slow or C-type inactivation. How structural rearrangements in the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) cause alteration in the selectivity filter, and vice versa, are not fully understood. We show that pulling the pore domain of the Shaker potassium channel towards the VSD by a Cd2+ bridge accelerates C-type inactivation. Molecular dynamics simulations show that such pulling widens the selectivity filter and disrupts the K+ coordination, a hallmark for C-type inactivation. An engineered Cd2+ bridge within the VSD also affect C-type inactivation. Conversely, a pore domain mutation affects VSD gating-charge movement. Finally, C-type inactivation is caused by the concerted action of distant amino acid residues in the pore domain. All together, these data suggest a reciprocal communication between the pore domain and the VSD in the extracellular portion of the channel. PMID:27278891

  2. SLO BK Potassium Channels Couple Gap Junctions to Inhibition of Calcium Signaling in Olfactory Neuron Diversification.

    PubMed

    Alqadah, Amel; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Schumacher, Jennifer A; Wang, Xiaohong; Merrill, Sean A; Millington, Grethel; Bayne, Brittany; Jorgensen, Erik M; Chuang, Chiou-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The C. elegans AWC olfactory neuron pair communicates to specify asymmetric subtypes AWCOFF and AWCON in a stochastic manner. Intercellular communication between AWC and other neurons in a transient NSY-5 gap junction network antagonizes voltage-activated calcium channels, UNC-2 (CaV2) and EGL-19 (CaV1), in the AWCON cell, but how calcium signaling is downregulated by NSY-5 is only partly understood. Here, we show that voltage- and calcium-activated SLO BK potassium channels mediate gap junction signaling to inhibit calcium pathways for asymmetric AWC differentiation. Activation of vertebrate SLO-1 channels causes transient membrane hyperpolarization, which makes it an important negative feedback system for calcium entry through voltage-activated calcium channels. Consistent with the physiological roles of SLO-1, our genetic results suggest that slo-1 BK channels act downstream of NSY-5 gap junctions to inhibit calcium channel-mediated signaling in the specification of AWCON. We also show for the first time that slo-2 BK channels are important for AWC asymmetry and act redundantly with slo-1 to inhibit calcium signaling. In addition, nsy-5-dependent asymmetric expression of slo-1 and slo-2 in the AWCON neuron is necessary and sufficient for AWC asymmetry. SLO-1 and SLO-2 localize close to UNC-2 and EGL-19 in AWC, suggesting a role of possible functional coupling between SLO BK channels and voltage-activated calcium channels in AWC asymmetry. Furthermore, slo-1 and slo-2 regulate the localization of synaptic markers, UNC-2 and RAB-3, in AWC neurons to control AWC asymmetry. We also identify the requirement of bkip-1, which encodes a previously identified auxiliary subunit of SLO-1, for slo-1 and slo-2 function in AWC asymmetry. Together, these results provide an unprecedented molecular link between gap junctions and calcium pathways for terminal differentiation of olfactory neurons.

  3. Carbamazepine as a novel small molecule corrector of trafficking-impaired ATP-sensitive potassium channels identified in congenital hyperinsulinism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Chun; Olson, Erik M; Zhou, Qing; Kryukova, Yelena; Sampson, Heidi M; Thomas, David Y; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2013-07-19

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels consisting of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) and the potassium channel Kir6.2 play a key role in insulin secretion by coupling metabolic signals to β-cell membrane potential. Mutations in SUR1 and Kir6.2 that impair channel trafficking to the cell surface lead to loss of channel function and congenital hyperinsulinism. We report that carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant, corrects the trafficking defects of mutant KATP channels previously identified in congenital hyperinsulinism. Strikingly, of the 19 SUR1 mutations examined, only those located in the first transmembrane domain of SUR1 responded to the drug. We show that unlike that reported for several other protein misfolding diseases, carbamazepine did not correct KATP channel trafficking defects by activating autophagy; rather, it directly improved the biogenesis efficiency of mutant channels along the secretory pathway. In addition to its effect on channel trafficking, carbamazepine also inhibited KATP channel activity. Upon subsequent removal of carbamazepine, however, the function of rescued channels was recovered. Importantly, combination of the KATP channel opener diazoxide and carbamazepine led to enhanced mutant channel function without carbamazepine washout. The corrector effect of carbamazepine on mutant KATP channels was also demonstrated in rat and human β-cells with an accompanying increase in channel activity. Our findings identify carbamazepine as a novel small molecule corrector that may be used to restore KATP channel expression and function in a subset of congenital hyperinsulinism patients.

  4. [Spinocerebellar ataxias in infancy: pathogenesis of potassium and calcium channels' diseases, clinical features and therapeutical approach].

    PubMed

    Bozzola, E; Savasta, S; Peruzzi, C; Bozzola, M; Bona, G

    2007-04-01

    In infancy, the autosomal dominant inherited ataxias are severe neurological diseases, due to inherited mutations of ion channels. The main forms are: episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1), episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). EA1 is due to a mutation in KCNA1, the gene encoding human Kv1.1 on chromosome 12p13, which contributes as a subunit to the formation of potassium channels in motor nerve terminals and in many central nervous system neurones. To date, there are fifteen different mutations, which affect potassium channel's properties and lead to phenotypic variability and to different responses to therapy. EA2 can result from mutations in the CACNA1A gene, encoding calcium channels on chromosome 19p13.1 and widely distributed throughout the central nervous system. To date, associated with EA2, in the CACNA1A gene thirty different mutations have been described, resulting in altered or truncated protein products and, as a consequence, in nonfunctional calcium channels. There is phenotypic variability, also inside the same family, without correlation genotype-phenotype. SCA6 is a progressive neurodegenerative disease due to mutations of the CACNA1A gene. CACNA1A is responsible for both EA2 and SCA6. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of the two diseases is different: SCA6 is associated with small expansion of a CAGn repeat, while EA2 is due to point mutations. Clinically, SCA6 is characterized by a slowly progressive development and by an inverse correlation between the number of repeats and the severity of the disease.

  5. Targeting solid tumours with potassium channel activators. A return to fundamentals?

    PubMed

    Trechot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    From a pharmacological point of view nicotinamide and minoxidil are potassium channel activators. Nicotinamide is used as a radiosensitizer in ARCON (accelerated radiotherapy combined with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide) therapeutic strategy with promising results but not confirmed so far. Minoxidil has never been considered by radiotherapists. Based from recent pathophysiological considerations we suggest a new perspective for the use of these two "old" molecules in order to target solid tumours. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. Voltage-dependent gating and gating charge measurements in the Kv1.2 potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Itzel G.; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Carrasco-Zanini, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned about the voltage sensors of ion channels since the x-ray structure of the mammalian voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.2 was published in 2005. High resolution structural data of a Kv channel enabled the structural interpretation of numerous electrophysiological findings collected in various ion channels, most notably Shaker, and permitted the development of meticulous computational simulations of the activation mechanism. The fundamental premise for the structural interpretation of functional measurements from Shaker is that this channel and Kv1.2 have the same characteristics, such that correlation of data from both channels would be a trivial task. We tested these assumptions by measuring Kv1.2 voltage-dependent gating and charge per channel. We found that the Kv1.2 gating charge is near 10 elementary charges (eo), ∼25% less than the well-established 13–14 eo in Shaker. Next, we neutralized positive residues in the Kv1.2 S4 transmembrane segment to investigate the cause of the reduction of the gating charge and found that, whereas replacing R1 with glutamine decreased voltage sensitivity to ∼50% of the wild-type channel value, mutation of the subsequent arginines had a much smaller effect. These data are in marked contrast to the effects of charge neutralization in Shaker, where removal of the first four basic residues reduces the gating charge by roughly the same amount. In light of these differences, we propose that the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of Kv1.2 and Shaker might undergo the same physical movement, but the septum that separates the aqueous crevices in the VSD of Kv1.2 might be thicker than Shaker’s, accounting for the smaller Kv1.2 gating charge. PMID:25779871

  7. Strontium and barium in aqueous solution and a potassium channel binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2018-06-01

    Ion hydration structure and free energy establish criteria for understanding selective ion binding in potassium (K+) ion channels and may be significant to understanding blocking mechanisms as well. Recently, we investigated the hydration properties of Ba2+, the most potent blocker of K+ channels among the simple metal ions. Here, we use a similar method of combining ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, statistical mechanical theory, and electronic structure calculations to probe the fundamental hydration properties of Sr2+, which does not block bacterial K+ channels. The radial distribution of water around Sr2+ suggests a stable 8-fold geometry in the local hydration environment, similar to Ba2+. While the predicted hydration free energy of -331.8 kcal/mol is comparable with the experimental result of -334 kcal/mol, the value is significantly more favorable than the -305 kcal/mol hydration free energy of Ba2+. When placed in the innermost K+ channel blocking site, the solvation free energies and lowest energy structures of both Sr2+ and Ba2+ are nearly unchanged compared with their respective hydration properties. This result suggests that the block is not attributable to ion trapping due to +2 charge, and differences in blocking behavior arise due to free energies associated with the exchange of water ligands for channel ligands instead of free energies of transfer from water to the binding site.

  8. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the piracetam induced blockade of opioid effects.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal; Jindal, Seema

    2007-12-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on morphine/ buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats and effect of piracetam on morphine or minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Nociceptive threshold was measured by the tail flick test in rats. The cumulative dose responses of morphine or minoxidil were recorded in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Piracetam attenuated buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats. Piracetam significantly reduced the morphine and minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation suggesting that piracetam interferes with opioid receptor and ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener mediated responses in vitro. Thus, it may be suggested that piracetam attenuates opioid effects by an opioid receptor-KATP channel linked mechanism.

  9. Fragile X syndrome: mechanistic insights and therapeutic avenues regarding the role of potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Young; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2012-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common form of mental disability and one of the known causes of autism. The mutation responsible for FXS is a large expansion of the trinucleotide CGG repeats that leads to DNA methylation of the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 (FMR1) and transcriptional silencing, resulting in the absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an mRNA binding protein. Although it is widely known that FMRP is critical for metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD), which has provided a general theme for developing pharmacological drugs for FXS, specific downstream targets of FMRP may also be of therapeutic value. Since alterations in potassium channel expression level or activity could underlie neuronal network defects in FXS, here we describe recent findings on how these channels might be altered in mouse models of FXS and the possible therapeutic avenues for treating FXS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The secret life of ion channels: Kv1.3 potassium channels and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, M Teresa; Cidad, Pilar; López-López, José R

    2018-01-01

    Kv1.3 channels are involved in the switch to proliferation of normally quiescent cells, being implicated in the control of cell cycle in many different cell types and in many different ways. They modulate membrane potential controlling K + fluxes, sense changes in potential, and interact with many signaling molecules through their intracellular domains. From a mechanistic point of view, we can describe the role of Kv1.3 channels in proliferation with at least three different models. In the "membrane potential model," membrane hyperpolarization resulting from Kv1.3 activation provides the driving force for Ca 2+ influx required to activate Ca 2+ -dependent transcription. This model explains most of the data obtained from several cells from the immune system. In the "voltage sensor model," Kv1.3 channels serve mainly as sensors that transduce electrical signals into biochemical cascades, independently of their effect on membrane potential. Kv1.3-dependent proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) could fit this model. Finally, in the "channelosome balance model," the master switch determining proliferation may be related to the control of the Kv1.3 to Kv1.5 ratio, as described in glial cells and also in VSMCs. Since the three mechanisms cannot function independently, these models are obviously not exclusive. Nevertheless, they could be exploited differentially in different cells and tissues. This large functional flexibility of Kv1.3 channels surely gives a new perspective on their functions beyond their elementary role as ion channels, although a conclusive picture of the mechanisms involved in Kv1.3 signaling to proliferation is yet to be reached.

  11. Kir2 potassium channels in rat striatum are strategically localized to control basal ganglia function.

    PubMed

    Prüss, Harald; Wenzel, Mareike; Eulitz, Dirk; Thomzig, Achim; Karschin, Andreas; Veh, Rüdiger W

    2003-02-20

    Parkinson's disease is the most frequent movement disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Intentions to avoid side effects of the conventional therapy should aim to identify additional targets for potential pharmacological intervention. In principle, every step of a signal transduction cascade such as presynaptic transmitter release, type and occupation of postsynaptic receptors, G protein-mediated effector mechanisms, and the alterations of pre- or postsynaptic potentials as determined by the local ion channel composition, have to be considered. Due to their diversity and their widespread but distinct localizations, potassium channels represent interesting candidates for new therapeutic strategies. As a first step, the present report aimed to study in the striatum the cellular and subcellular distribution of the individual members of the Kir2 family, a group of proteins forming inwardly rectifying potassium channels. For this purpose polyclonal monospecific affinity-purified antibodies against the less conserved carboxyterminal sequences from the Kir2.1, Kir2.2, Kir2.3, and Kir2.4 proteins were prepared. All subunits of the Kir2 family were detected on somata and dendrites of most striatal neurons. However, the distribution of two of them was not homogeneous. Striatal patch areas were largely devoid of the Kir2.3 protein, and the Kir2.4 subunit was most prominently expressed on the tonically active, giant cholinergic interneurons of the striatum. These two structures are among the key players in regulating dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission within the striatum, and therefore are of major importance for the output of the basal ganglia. The heterogeneous localization of the Kir2.3 and the Kir2.4 subunits with respect to these strategic structures pinpoints to these channel proteins as promising targets for future pharmacological efforts.

  12. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xin; Meng, Xiang-Min; Wu, Yi-Song; Lu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Kim, Young-chul; Xu, Wen-Xie

    2014-01-01

    Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV) was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV) to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  13. Disulfide mapping the voltage-sensing mechanism of a voltage-dependent potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ozawa, Shin-Ichiro; Harada, Hitomi; Kimura, Tomomi; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2016-11-17

    Voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels allow for the selective permeability of potassium ions in a membrane potential dependent manner, playing crucial roles in neurotransmission and muscle contraction. Kv channel is a tetramer, in which each subunit possesses a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and a pore domain (PD). Although several lines of evidence indicated that membrane depolarization is sensed as the movement of helix S4 of the VSD, the detailed voltage-sensing mechanism remained elusive, due to the difficulty of structural analyses at resting potential. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive disulfide locking analysis of the VSD using 36 double Cys mutants, in order to identify the proximal residue pairs of the VSD in the presence or absence of a membrane potential. An intramolecular SS-bond was formed between 6 Cys pairs under both polarized and depolarized environment, and one pair only under depolarized environment. The multiple conformations captured by the SS-bond can be divided by two states, up and down, where S4 lies on the extracellular and intracellular sides of the membrane, respectively, with axial rotation of 180°. The transition between these two states is caused by the S4 translocation of 12 Å, enabling allosteric regulation of the gating at the PD.

  14. Loss of Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack and FMRP Differentially Affect Social Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Anne E; Ehinger, Rebekka; Straubinger, Julia; Zerfass, Patrick; Nann, Yvette; Lukowski, Robert

    2018-05-31

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Slo2.2) is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons where it is supposed to shape firing properties important for neuronal excitability. Slack activity is enhanced by interaction with the Fragile-X-Mental-Retardation-Protein (FMRP) and loss of FMRP leads to decreased sodium-activated potassium currents in medial nucleus of the trapezoid body neurons of the Fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse representing a mouse model of the human Fragile-X-Syndrome (FXS) and autism. Autism is a frequent comorbidity of FXS, but it is unclear whether Slack is involved in autistic or related conditions of FXS in vivo. By applying a wide range of behavioral tests, we compared social and autism-related behaviors in Slack- and FMRP-deficient mice. In our hands, as expected, FMRP-deficiency causes autism-related behavioral changes in nesting and in a marble-burying test. In contrast, Slack-deficient males exhibited specific abnormalities in sociability in direct and indirect social interaction tests. Hence, we show for the first time that a proper Slack channel function is mandatory for normal social behavior in mice. Nevertheless, as deficits in social behaviors seem to occur independently from each other in FMRP and Slack null mutants, we conclude that Slack is not involved in the autistic phenotype of FMRP KO mice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Progesterone inhibits contraction and increases TREK-1 potassium channel expression in late pregnant rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zongzhi; Li, Yun; He, Wenzhu; Li, Dan; Li, Hongyan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Bing; Wang, Xi; Cao, Yunxia; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism by which progesterone regulates uterine contraction in late pregnant rats Results Progesterone caused concentration-dependent relaxation of uterine strips that was enhanced compared with control nontreated uterine strips. Uterine strips incubated with progesterone showed a significant increase in TREK-1 mRNA expression and protein level. TREK-1 inhibitor L-methionine partly reversed uterine relaxation caused by the progesterone, while TREK-1 activator arachidonic acid did not cause significant change in progesterone-induced relaxation. Conclusions Progesterone inhibits uterine contraction and induces uterine relaxation in late pregnancy. The progesterone-induced inhibition of uterine contraction appears to partly involve increased potassium channel TREK-1 expression/activity. Materials and Methods Uterus from late-pregnant rats (gestational day 19) was isolated, and uterine strips were prepared for isometric contraction measurement. Oxytocin-induced contraction was compared in uterine strips pretreated with different concentration of progesterone. TREK-1 potassium channel inhibitor L-methionine and TREK-1 agonist arachidonic acid were used to determine whether the changes caused by progesterone involve changes in TREK-1 activity. The mRNA and protein expression of TREK-1 in uterine tissues were measured using qPCR and Western blot. PMID:29416642

  16. Interleukin-4 activates large-conductance, calciumactivated potassium (BKCa) channels in human airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gilles; O’Connell, Robert J.; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z.; Treistman, Steven N.; Ethier, Michael F.; Madison, J. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels are regulated by voltage and near-membrane calcium concentrations and are determinants of membrane potential and excitability in airway smooth muscle cells. Since the T helper–2 (Th2) cytokine, interleukin (IL)-4, is an important mediator of airway inflammation, we investigated whether IL-4 rapidly regulated BKCa activity in normal airway smooth muscle cells. On-cell voltage clamp recordings were made on subconfluent, cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). Interleukin-4 (50 ng ml−1), IL-13 (50 ng ml−1) or histamine (10 μm) was added to the bath during the recordings. Immunofluorescence studies with selective antibodies against the α and β1 subunits of BKCa were also performed. Both approaches demonstrated that HBSMC membranes contained large-conductance channels (>200 pS) with both calcium and voltage sensitivity, all of which is characteristic of the BKCa channel. Histamine caused a rapid increase in channel activity, as expected. A new finding was that perfusion with IL-4 stimulated rapid, large increases in BKCa channel activity (77.2 ± 63.3-fold increase, P < 0.05, n = 18). This large potentiation depended on the presence of external calcium. In contrast, IL-13 (50 ng ml−1) had little effect on BKCa channel activity, but inhibited the effect of IL-4. Thus, HBSMC contain functional BKCa channels whose activity is rapidly potentiated by the cytokine, IL-4, but not by IL-13.These findings are consistent with a model in which IL-4 rapidly increases near-membrane calcium concentrations to regulate BKCa activity. PMID:18403443

  17. Distribution of the messenger RNA for the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SK3 in the adult rat brain and correlation with immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, S; Carletti, R; Bunnemann, B; Plumpton, C; Merlo Pich, E; Terstappen, G C

    2001-01-01

    Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are voltage independent potassium channels which modulate the firing patterns of neurons by activating the slow component of the afterhyperpolarization. The genes encoding a family of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels have been cloned and up to now three known members have been described and named small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 1, small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 2 and small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 3; the distribution of their messenger RNA in the rat CNS has already been performed but only in a limited detail. The present study represents the first detailed analysis of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 3 mRNA distribution in the adult rat brain and resulted in a strong to moderate expression of signal in medial habenular nucleus, substantia nigra compact part, suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, lateral septum, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Immunohistological experiments were also performed and confirmed the presence of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 3 protein in medial habenular nucleus, locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe. Given the importance of dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area for serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission respectively, our results pose the morphological basis for further studies on the action of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 3 in serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission.

  18. Coupling between the Voltage-sensing and Pore Domains in a Voltage-gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Schow, Eric V.; Freites, J. Alfredo; Nizkorodov, Alex; White, Stephen H.; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-dependent potassium (Kv), sodium (Nav), and calcium channels open and close in response to changes in transmembrane (TM) potential, thus regulating cell excitability by controlling ion flow across the membrane. An outstanding question concerning voltage gating is how voltage-induced conformational changes of the channel voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are coupled through the S4-S5 interfacial linking helices to the opening and closing of the pore domain (PD). To investigate the coupling between the VSDs and the PD, we generated a closed Kv channel configuration from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) using atomistic simulations with experiment-based restraints on the VSDs. Full closure of the channel required, in addition to the experimentally determined TM displacement, that the VSDs be displaced both inwardly and laterally around the PD. This twisting motion generates a tight hydrophobic interface between the S4-S5 linkers and the C-terminal ends of the pore domain S6 helices in agreement with available experimental evidence. PMID:22425907

  19. Coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains in a voltage-gated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Schow, Eric V; Freites, J Alfredo; Nizkorodov, Alex; White, Stephen H; Tobias, Douglas J

    2012-07-01

    Voltage-dependent potassium (Kv), sodium (Nav), and calcium channels open and close in response to changes in transmembrane (TM) potential, thus regulating cell excitability by controlling ion flow across the membrane. An outstanding question concerning voltage gating is how voltage-induced conformational changes of the channel voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are coupled through the S4-S5 interfacial linking helices to the opening and closing of the pore domain (PD). To investigate the coupling between the VSDs and the PD, we generated a closed Kv channel configuration from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) using atomistic simulations with experiment-based restraints on the VSDs. Full closure of the channel required, in addition to the experimentally determined TM displacement, that the VSDs be displaced both inwardly and laterally around the PD. This twisting motion generates a tight hydrophobic interface between the S4-S5 linkers and the C-terminal ends of the pore domain S6 helices in agreement with available experimental evidence.

  20. Mechanism and Energetics of Charybdotoxin Unbinding from a Potassium Channel from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-chia; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2009-01-01

    Ion channel-toxin complexes are ideal systems for computational studies of protein-ligand interactions, because, in most cases, the channel axis provides a natural reaction coordinate for unbinding of a ligand and a wealth of physiological data is available to check the computational results. We use a recently determined structure of a potassium channel-charybdotoxin complex in molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the mechanism and energetics of unbinding. Pairs of residues on the channel protein and charybdotoxin that are involved in the binding are identified, and their behavior is traced during umbrella-sampling simulations as charybdotoxin is moved away from the binding site. The potential of mean force for the unbinding of charybdotoxin is constructed from the umbrella sampling simulations using the weighted histogram analysis method, and barriers observed are correlated with specific breaking of interactions and influx of water molecules into the binding site. Charybdotoxin is found to undergo conformational changes as a result of the reaction coordinate choice—a nontrivial decision for larger ligands—which we explore in detail, and for which we propose solutions. Agreement between the calculated and the experimental binding energies is obtained once the energetic consequences of these conformational changes are included in the calculations. PMID:19348743

  1. Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein–gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Bodhinathan, Karthik; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) produces a wide range of pharmacological effects on the nervous system through its actions on ion channels. The molecular mechanism underlying ethanol modulation of ion channels is poorly understood. Here we used a unique method of alcohol-tagging to demonstrate that alcohol activation of a G-protein–gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channel is mediated by a defined alcohol pocket through changes in affinity for the membrane phospholipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Surprisingly, hydrophobicity and size, but not the canonical hydroxyl, were important determinants of alcohol-dependent activation. Altering levels of G protein Gβγ subunits, conversely, did not affect alcohol-dependent activation, suggesting a fundamental distinction between receptor and alcohol gating of GIRK channels. The chemical properties of the alcohol pocket revealed here might extend to other alcohol-sensitive proteins, revealing a unique protein microdomain for targeting alcohol-selective therapeutics in the treatment of alcoholism and addiction. PMID:24145411

  2. Aberrant modulation of a delayed rectifier potassium channel by glutamate in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Markakis, Ioannis; Davaki, Panagiota; Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Rombos, Antonis; Hatzimanolis, Alexandros; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2010-02-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), potassium channel abnormalities have been reported in both neural and peripheral tissues. Herein, using whole-cell patch-clamp, we demonstrate an aberrant glutamate-dependent modulation of K(V)1.3 channels in T lymphocytes of AD patients. Although intrinsic K(V)1.3 properties in patients were similar to healthy individuals, glutamate (1-1000 microM) failed to yield the hyperpolarizing shift normally observed in K(V)1.3 steady-state inactivation (-4.4+/-2.7 mV in AD vs. -14.3+/-2.5 mV in controls, 10 microM glutamate), resulting in a 4-fold increase of resting channel activity. Specific agonist and antagonist data indicate that this abnormality is due to dysfunction of cognate group II mGluRs. Given that glutamate is present in plasma and that both mGluRs and K(V)1.3 channels regulate T-lymphocyte responsiveness, our finding may account for the presence of immune-associated alterations in AD. Furthermore, if this aberration reflects a corresponding one in neural tissue, it could provide a potential target in AD pathogenesis.

  3. Probing the Energy Landscape of Activation Gating of the Bacterial Potassium Channel KcsA

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Tobias; de Groot, Bert L.; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial potassium channel KcsA, which has been crystallized in several conformations, offers an ideal model to investigate activation gating of ion channels. In this study, essential dynamics simulations are applied to obtain insights into the transition pathways and the energy profile of KcsA pore gating. In agreement with previous hypotheses, our simulations reveal a two phasic activation gating process. In the first phase, local structural rearrangements in TM2 are observed leading to an intermediate channel conformation, followed by large structural rearrangements leading to full opening of KcsA. Conformational changes of a highly conserved phenylalanine, F114, at the bundle crossing region are crucial for the transition from a closed to an intermediate state. 3.9 µs umbrella sampling calculations reveal that there are two well-defined energy barriers dividing closed, intermediate, and open channel states. In agreement with mutational studies, the closed state was found to be energetically more favorable compared to the open state. Further, the simulations provide new insights into the dynamical coupling effects of F103 between the activation gate and the selectivity filter. Investigations on individual subunits support cooperativity of subunits during activation gating. PMID:23658510

  4. Involvement of a Gardos-type potassium channel in head activator-induced mitosis of BON cells.

    PubMed

    Kayser, S T; Ulrich, H; Schaller, H C

    1998-06-01

    The human neuroendocrine cell line BON was used to study second messengers involved in signal transduction for entry into mitosis. BON cells produce the neuropeptide head activator (HA) and use it as autocrine growth factor. HA stimulates BON cell proliferation by triggering entry into mitosis. HA-induced mitosis is mediated by an inhibitory G protein, the action of which is blocked by pertussis toxin. HA signaling requires inhibition of the cAMP pathway, calcium influx, and hyperpolarization of cells. The latter is a very important and sensitive step involving a calcium-activated potassium channel. Cell cycle progression and proliferation of BON cells are most efficiently inhibited with specific inhibitors of this potassium channel. Pharmacology and RNA analysis suggest identity with the recently cloned Gardos-type potassium channel.

  5. Naringin directly activates inwardly rectifying potassium channels at an overlapping binding site to tertiapin-Q

    PubMed Central

    Yow, Tin T; Pera, Elena; Absalom, Nathan; Heblinski, Marika; Johnston, Graham AR; Hanrahan, Jane R; Chebib, Mary

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR3) channels are important proteins that regulate numerous physiological processes including excitatory responses in the CNS and the control of heart rate. Flavonoids have been shown to have significant health benefits and are a diverse source of compounds for identifying agents with novel mechanisms of action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The flavonoid glycoside, naringin, was evaluated on recombinant human KIR3.1–3.4 and KIR3.1–3.2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp methods. In addition, we evaluated the activity of naringin alone and in the presence of the KIR3 channel blocker tertiapin-Q (0.5 nM, 1 nM and 3 nM) at recombinant KIR3.1–3.4 channels. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify amino acids within the M1–M2 loop of the KIR3.1F137S mutant channel important for naringin's activity. KEY RESULTS Naringin (100 µM) had minimal effect on uninjected oocytes but activated KIR3.1–3.4 and KIR3.1–3.2 channels. The activation by naringin of KIR3.1–3.4 channels was inhibited by tertiapin-Q in a competitive manner. An alanine-scan performed on the KIR3.1F137S mutant channel, replacing one by one aromatic amino acids within the M1–M2 loop, identified tyrosines 148 and 150 to be significantly contributing to the affinity of naringin as these mutations reduced the activity of naringin by 20- and 40-fold respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results show that naringin is a direct activator of KIR3 channels and that tertiapin-Q shares an overlapping binding site on the KIR3.1–3.4. This is the first example of a ligand that activates KIR3 channels by binding to the extracellular M1–M2 linker of the channel. PMID:21391982

  6. Mitragynine and its potential blocking effects on specific cardiac potassium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, Yea Lu; Teah, Yi Fan; Chong, Yoong Min

    2016-08-15

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac I{sub Kr} current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. On the other hand, I{sub K1}, a Kir current mediated by Kir2.1 channel and I{sub KACh}, a receptor-activated Kir current mediated by GIRK channel are also known to be important in maintaining the cardiac function. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on themore » current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The effects on Kir2.1 and GIRK channels currents were also determined in the oocytes. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were inhibited by mitragynine with an IC{sub 50} value of 1.62 μM and 1.15 μM in the transfected cell line and Xenopus oocytes, respectively. The S6 point mutations of Y652A and F656A attenuated the inhibitor effects of mitragynine, indicating that mitragynine interacts with these high affinity drug-binding sites in the hERG channel pore cavity which was consistent with the molecular docking simulation. Interestingly, mitragynine does not affect the hERG expression at the transcriptional level but inhibits the protein expression. Mitragynine is also found to inhibit I{sub KACh} current with an IC{sub 50} value of 3.32 μM but has no significant effects on I{sub K1}. Blocking of both hERG and GIRK channels may cause additive cardiotoxicity risks. - Highlights: • The potential cardiac potassium channel blocking properties of mitragynine were investigated. • Mitragynine blocks hERG channel and I{sub Kr} in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and hERG cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes. • Mitragynine inhibits the hERG protein but not the mRNA expression.

  7. Conformational dynamics of the inner pore helix of voltage-gated potassium channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Seungho; Grabe, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels control the electrical excitability of neurons and muscles. Despite this key role, how these channels open and close or gate is not fully understood. Gating is usually attributed to the bending and straightening of pore-lining helices at glycine and proline residues. In this work we focused on the role of proline in the Pro-Val-Pro (PVP) motif of the inner S6 helix in the Kv1.2 channel. We started by developing a simple hinged-rod model to fully explore the configurational space of bent helices and we related these configurations to the degree of pore opening. We then carried out fully atomistic simulations of the S6 helices and compared these simulations to the hinged-rod model. Both methods suggest that Kv1 channels are not tightly closed when the inner helices are straight, unlike what is seen in the non-PVP containing channels KcsA and KirBac. These results invite the possibility that the S6 helices may be kinked when Kv1 channels are closed. Our simulations indicate that the wild-type helix adopts multiple spatially distinct configurations, which is consistent with its role in adopting a closed state and an open state. The two most dominant configurational basins correspond to a 6 Å movement of the helix tail accompanied by the PVP region undergoing a local α-helix to 310-helix transition. We explored how single point mutations affect the propensity of the S6 helix to adopt particular configurations. Interestingly, mutating the first proline, P405 (P473 in Shaker), to alanine completely removed the bistable nature of the S6 helix possibly explaining why this mutation compromises the channel. Next, we considered four other mutations in the area known to affect channel gating and we saw similarly dramatic changes to the helix's dynamics and range of motion. Our results suggest a possible mechanism of helix pore closure and they suggest differences in the closed state of glycine-only channels, like KcsA, and PVP containing

  8. Interaction with caveolin-1 modulates vascular ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Lowri M; Purves, Gregor I; Barrett-Jolley, Richard; Dart, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) of arterial smooth muscle are important regulators of arterial tone, and hence blood flow, in response to vasoactive transmitters. Recent biochemical and electron microscopic evidence suggests that these channels localise to small vesicular invaginations of the plasma membrane, known as caveolae, and interact with the caveolae-associated protein, caveolin. Here we report that interaction with caveolin functionally regulates the activity of the vascular subtype of KATP channel, Kir6.1/SUR2B. Pinacidil-evoked recombinant whole-cell Kir6.1/SUR2B currents recorded in HEK293 cells stably expressing caveolin-1 (69.6 ± 8.3 pA pF−1, n= 8) were found to be significantly smaller than currents recorded in caveolin-null cells (179.7 ± 35.9 pA pF−1, n= 6; P < 0.05) indicating that interaction with caveolin may inhibit channel activity. Inclusion in the pipette-filling solution of a peptide corresponding to the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1 had a similar inhibitory effect on whole-cell Kir6.1/SUR2B currents as co-expression with full-length caveolin-1, while a scrambled version of the same peptide had no effect. Interestingly, intracellular dialysis of vascular smooth muscle cells with the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (SDP) also caused inhibition of pinacidil-evoked native whole-cell KATP currents, indicating that a significant proportion of vascular KATP channels are susceptible to block by exogenously applied SDP. In cell-attached recordings of Kir6.1/SUR2B single channel activity, the presence of caveolin-1 significantly reduced channel open probability (from 0.05 ± 0.01 to 0.005 ± 0.001; P < 0.05) and the amount of time spent in a relatively long-lived open state. These changes in kinetic behaviour can be explained by a caveolin-induced shift in the channel's sensitivity to its physiological regulator MgADP. Our findings thus suggest that interaction with caveolin-1 suppresses vascular-type KATP channel

  9. Pharmacological Correction of Trafficking Defects in ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels Caused by Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory M; Rex, Emily A; Devaraneni, Prasanna; Denton, Jerod S; Boodhansingh, Kara E; DeLeon, Diva D; Stanley, Charles A; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2016-10-14

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels play a key role in mediating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by coupling metabolic signals to β-cell membrane potential. Loss of K ATP channel function due to mutations in ABCC8 or KCNJ11, genes encoding the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) or the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir6.2, respectively, results in congenital hyperinsulinism. Many SUR1 mutations prevent trafficking of channel proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Channel inhibitors, including sulfonylureas and carbamazepine, have been shown to correct channel trafficking defects. In the present study, we identified 13 novel SUR1 mutations that cause channel trafficking defects, the majority of which are amenable to pharmacological rescue by glibenclamide and carbamazepine. By contrast, none of the mutant channels were rescued by K ATP channel openers. Cross-linking experiments showed that K ATP channel inhibitors promoted interactions between the N terminus of Kir6.2 and SUR1, whereas channel openers did not, suggesting the inhibitors enhance intersubunit interactions to overcome channel biogenesis and trafficking defects. Functional studies of rescued mutant channels indicate that most mutants rescued to the cell surface exhibited WT-like sensitivity to ATP, MgADP, and diazoxide. In intact cells, recovery of channel function upon trafficking rescue by reversible sulfonylureas or carbamazepine was facilitated by the K ATP channel opener diazoxide. Our study expands the list of K ATP channel trafficking mutations whose function can be recovered by pharmacological ligands and provides further insight into the structural mechanism by which channel inhibitors correct channel biogenesis and trafficking defects. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Pharmacological Correction of Trafficking Defects in ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels Caused by Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gregory M.; Rex, Emily A.; Devaraneni, Prasanna; Denton, Jerod S.; Boodhansingh, Kara E.; DeLeon, Diva D.; Stanley, Charles A.; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2016-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play a key role in mediating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by coupling metabolic signals to β-cell membrane potential. Loss of KATP channel function due to mutations in ABCC8 or KCNJ11, genes encoding the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) or the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir6.2, respectively, results in congenital hyperinsulinism. Many SUR1 mutations prevent trafficking of channel proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Channel inhibitors, including sulfonylureas and carbamazepine, have been shown to correct channel trafficking defects. In the present study, we identified 13 novel SUR1 mutations that cause channel trafficking defects, the majority of which are amenable to pharmacological rescue by glibenclamide and carbamazepine. By contrast, none of the mutant channels were rescued by KATP channel openers. Cross-linking experiments showed that KATP channel inhibitors promoted interactions between the N terminus of Kir6.2 and SUR1, whereas channel openers did not, suggesting the inhibitors enhance intersubunit interactions to overcome channel biogenesis and trafficking defects. Functional studies of rescued mutant channels indicate that most mutants rescued to the cell surface exhibited WT-like sensitivity to ATP, MgADP, and diazoxide. In intact cells, recovery of channel function upon trafficking rescue by reversible sulfonylureas or carbamazepine was facilitated by the KATP channel opener diazoxide. Our study expands the list of KATP channel trafficking mutations whose function can be recovered by pharmacological ligands and provides further insight into the structural mechanism by which channel inhibitors correct channel biogenesis and trafficking defects. PMID:27573238

  11. The amiodarone derivative KB130015 activates hERG1 potassium channels via a novel mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Guido; Macianskiene, Regina; Starkus, John G.; Schönherr, Roland; Heinemann, Stefan H.

    2010-01-01

    Human ether à go-go related gene (hERG1) potassium channels underlie the repolarizing IKr current in the heart. Since they are targets of various drugs with cardiac side effects we tested whether the amiodarone derivative 2-methyl-3-(3,5-diiodo-4-carboxymethoxybenzyl)benzofuran (KB130015) blocks hERG1 channels like its parent compound. Using patch-clamp and two-electrode voltage-clamp techniques we found that KB130015 blocks native and recombinant hERG1 channels at high voltages, but it activates them at low voltages. The activating effect has an apparent EC50 value of 12 μM and is brought about by an about 4-fold acceleration of activation kinetics and a shift in voltage-dependent activation by −16 mV. Channel activation was not use-dependent and was independent of inactivation gating. KB130015 presumably binds to the hERG1 pore from the cytosolic side and functionally competes with hERG1 block by amiodarone, E4031 (N-[4-[[1-[2-(6-methyl-2-pyridinyl)ethyl] -4-piperidinyl] carbonyl] phenyl] methanesulfonamide dihydrochloride), and sertindole. Vice versa, amiodarone attenuates hERG1 activation by KB130015. Based on synergic channel activation by mallotoxin and KB130015 we conclude that the hERG1 pore contains at least two sites for activators that are functionally coupled among each other and to the cavity-blocker site. KB130015 and amiodarone may serve as lead structures for the identification of hERG1 pore-interacting drugs favoring channel activation vs. block. PMID:20097192

  12. Molecular characterization of genes encoding inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in the bed bug (Cimex lectularius).

    PubMed

    Mamidala, Praveen; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Jones, Susan C; Piermarini, Peter M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-04-01

    The molecular genetics of inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in insects is poorly understood. To date, Kir channel genes have been characterized only from a few representative dipterans (i.e., fruit flies and mosquitoes). The goal of the present study was to characterize Kir channel cDNAs in a hemipteran, the bed bug (Cimex lectularius). Using our previously reported bed bug transcriptome (RNA-seq), we identified two cDNAs that encode putative Kir channels. One was a full-length cDNA that encodes a protein belonging to the insect 'Kir3' clade, which we designate as 'ClKir3'. The other was a partial cDNA that encodes a protein with similarity to both the insect 'Kir1' and 'Kir2' clades, which we designate as 'ClKir1/2'. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ClKir1/2 and ClKir3 exhibited peak expression levels in late-instar nymphs and early-instar nymphs, respectively. Furthermore, ClKir3, but not ClKir1/2, showed tissue-specific expression in Malpighian tubules of adult bed bugs. Lastly, using an improved procedure for delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to male and female bed bugs (via the cervical membrane) we demonstrate rapid and systemic knockdown of ClKir3 transcripts. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the bed bug possesses at least two genes encoding Kir channels, and that RNAi is possible for at least Kir3, thereby offering a potential approach for elucidating the roles of Kir channel genes in bed bug physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulation of human cardiac potassium channels by full-length KCNE3 and KCNE4.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2016-12-06

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels comprise pore-forming α subunits and a multiplicity of regulatory proteins, including the cardiac-expressed and cardiac arrhythmia-linked transmembrane KCNE subunits. After recently uncovering novel, N-terminally extended (L) KCNE3 and KCNE4 isoforms and detecting their transcripts in human atrium, reported here are their functional effects on human cardiac Kv channel α subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. As previously reported for short isoforms KCNE3S and KCNE4S, KCNE3L inhibited hERG; KCNE4L inhibited Kv1.1; neither form regulated the HCN1 pacemaker channel. Unlike KCNE4S, KCNE4L was a potent inhibitor of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3; co-expression of cytosolic β subunit KChIP2, which regulates Kv4 channels in cardiac myocytes, partially relieved Kv4.3 but not Kv4.2 inhibition. Inhibition of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 by KCNE3L was weaker, and its inhibition of Kv4.2 abolished by KChIP2. KCNE3L and KCNE4L also exhibited subunit-specific effects on Kv4 channel complex inactivation kinetics, voltage dependence and recovery. Further supporting the potential physiological significance of the robust functional effects of KCNE4L on Kv4 channels, KCNE4L protein was detected in human atrium, where it co-localized with Kv4.3. The findings establish functional effects of novel human cardiac-expressed KCNE isoforms and further contribute to our understanding of the potential mechanisms influencing cardiomyocyte repolarization.

  14. Calcium-activated potassium channels as potential early markers of human cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Ana; Vera, Eunice; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Lambert, Paul; Gariglio, Patricio; Camacho, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality in women in developing countries. Thus, novel early markers are required. Ion channels have gained great interest as tumor markers, including cervical cancer. The calcium-activated potassium channel KCNMA1 (subunit α-1 from subfamily M) has been associated with different malignancies, including tumors such as breast and ovarian cancer that are influenced by hormones. The KCNMA1 channel blocker iberiotoxin decreases the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells. Nevertheless, KCNMA1 channel expression during cervical carcinogenesis remains elusive. Therefore, KCNMA1 expression was studied in cervical cancer development. FVB transgenic mice expressing the E7-oncogene of high-risk human papilloma virus, and non-transgenic mice were treated with estradiol-releasing pellets during 3 or 6 months to induce cervical lesions. Twenty-four human cervical biopsies from non-cancerous, low- or high-grade intraepithelial lesions, or cervical cancer were also studied. mRNA and protein expression was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Cervical dysplasia and carcinoma were observed only in the transgenic mice treated with estradiol for 3 and 6 months, respectively. Estradiol treatment increased KCNMA1 mRNA and protein expression in all groups; however, the highest levels were observed in the transgenic mice with carcinoma. KCNMA1 protein expression in the squamous cells of the transformation zone was observed only in the transgenic mice with cervical dysplasia or cancer. Human biopsies from non-cancerous cervix did not display KCNMA1 protein expression; in contrast, the majority of the tissues with cervical lesions (16/18) displayed KCNMA1 protein expression. The lowest channel immunostaining intensity was observed in biopsies from low-grade dysplasia and the strongest in the carcinoma tissues. These results suggest KCNMA1 channels as

  15. Potassium channels cloned from neuroblastoma cells display slowly inactivating outward currents in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Yokoyama, S; Higashida, H

    1992-05-22

    Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) specific for NGK1 and NGK2 potassium channels were synthesized from complementary DNAs (cDNAs) that had been cloned from mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells. Outward pottasium currents were evoked by 5 s depolarizing voltage commands in Xenopus oocytes injected with NGK1- or NGK2-specific mRNAs. The NGK1 or NGK2 currents showed different activation and inactivation kinetics, and different pharmacological sensitivities. The threshold potential for activation of the NGK2 current (-14 mV) was more positive than that for the NGK1 (-36 mV). The NGK2 current showed faster inactivation during a 5 s depolarizing pulse than did the NGK1 current. Inactivation was best fit by time constants of 0.37, 1.5 and 19 s for the NGK2 current and 4.4 and 19 s for NGK1. Extracellularly applied tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) was 1000 times more potent on the NGK2 current than the NGK1 current. Furthermore we examined outward current following co-injection of an equal amount of mRNAs for NGK1 and NGK2. The timecourse of inactivation differed from either alone or from a simple sum of the two individual currents. TEA sensitivity could not be explained by summation of the two homomultimeric channels. These findings suggest that both NGK1 and NGK2 proteins assemble to form heteromultimeric K+ channels in addition to homomultimeric K+ channels. NGK2 channels and the heteromultimeric channels may be responsible for the native transient outward current with slow inactivation in NG108-15 hybrid cells.

  16. Regulation of neuronal excitability by interaction of fragile X mental retardation protein with slack potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalan; Brown, Maile R; Hyland, Callen; Chen, Yi; Kronengold, Jack; Fleming, Matthew R; Kohn, Andrea B; Moroz, Leonid L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2012-10-31

    Loss of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) represents the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Studies with heterologous expression systems indicate that FMRP interacts directly with Slack Na(+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Na)), producing an enhancement of channel activity. We have now used Aplysia bag cell (BC) neurons, which regulate reproductive behaviors, to examine the effects of Slack and FMRP on excitability. FMRP and Slack immunoreactivity were colocalized at the periphery of isolated BC neurons, and the two proteins could be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated. Intracellular injection of FMRP lacking its mRNA binding domain rapidly induced a biphasic outward current, with an early transient tetrodotoxin-sensitive component followed by a slowly activating sustained component. The properties of this current matched that of the native Slack potassium current, which was identified using an siRNA approach. Addition of FMRP to inside-out patches containing native Aplysia Slack channels increased channel opening and, in current-clamp recordings, produced narrowing of action potentials. Suppression of Slack expression did not alter the ability of BC neurons to undergo a characteristic prolonged discharge in response to synaptic stimulation, but prevented recovery from a prolonged inhibitory period that normally follows the discharge. Recovery from the inhibited period was also inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. Our studies indicate that, in BC neurons, Slack channels are required for prolonged changes in neuronal excitability that require new protein synthesis, and raise the possibility that channel-FMRP interactions may link changes in neuronal firing to changes in protein translation.

  17. Inward rectifier potassium (Kir2.1) channels as end-stage boosters of endothelium-dependent vasodilators.

    PubMed

    Sonkusare, Swapnil K; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Bonev, Adrian D; Nelson, Mark T

    2016-06-15

    Increase in endothelial cell (EC) calcium activates calcium-sensitive intermediate and small conductance potassium (IK and SK) channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Endothelial cells express inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels, but their role in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is not clear. In the mesenteric arteries, only ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, displayed Kir currents that were predominantly mediated by the Kir2.1 isoform. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in response to muscarinic receptor, TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) channel and IK/SK channel agonists were highly attenuated by Kir channel inhibitors and by Kir2.1 channel knockdown. These results point to EC Kir channels as amplifiers of vasodilatation in response to increases in EC calcium and IK/SK channel activation and suggest that EC Kir channels could be targeted to treat endothelial dysfunction, which is a hallmark of vascular disorders. Endothelium-dependent vasodilators, such as acetylcholine, increase intracellular Ca(2+) through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels in the plasma membrane and inositol trisphosphate receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to stimulation of Ca(2+) -sensitive intermediate and small conductance K(+) (IK and SK, respectively) channels. Although strong inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels have been reported in the native endothelial cells (ECs) their role in EC-dependent vasodilatation is not clear. Here, we test the idea that Kir channels boost the EC-dependent vasodilatation of resistance-sized arteries. We show that ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, of small mesenteric arteries have Kir currents, which are substantially reduced in EC-specific Kir2.1 knockdown (EC-Kir2.1(-/-) ) mice. Elevation of extracellular K(+) to 14 mm caused vasodilatation of pressurized arteries, which was prevented by endothelial denudation and Kir channel

  18. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel holds the key to the conundrum of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Kang, Sun-Yang; Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Seung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant channelopathy characterized by episodic attacks of muscle weakness and hypokalemia. Mutations in the calcium channel gene, CACNA1S, or the sodium channel gene, SCN4A, have been found to be responsible for HOKPP; however, the mechanism that causes hypokalemia remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of this mechanism by investigating the expression of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel genes in HOKPP patients. Methods We measured the intracellular calcium concentration with fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester in skeletal muscle cells of HOKPP patients and healthy individuals. We examined the mRNA and protein expression of KCa channel genes (KCNMA1, KCNN1, KCNN2, KCNN3, and KCNN4) in both cell types. Results Patient cells exhibited higher cytosolic calcium levels than normal cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the mRNA levels of the KCa channel genes did not significantly differ between patient and normal cells. However, western blot analysis showed that protein levels of the KCNMA1 gene, which encodes KCa1.1 channels (also called big potassium channels), were significantly lower in the membrane fraction and higher in the cytosolic fraction of patient cells than normal cells. When patient cells were exposed to 50 mM potassium buffer, which was used to induce depolarization, the altered subcellular distribution of BK channels remained unchanged. Conclusion These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the development of hypokalemia and paralysis in HOKPP and demonstrate a connection between disease-associated mutations in calcium/sodium channels and pathogenic changes in nonmutant potassium channels. PMID:25379045

  19. Kv7 potassium channel activation with ICA-105665 reduces photoparoxysmal EEG responses in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorotheé G A; Biton, Victor; French, Jacqueline A; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Rosenfeld, William E; Diventura, Bree; Moore, Elizabeth L; Hetherington, Seth V; Rigdon, Greg C

    2013-08-01

    To assess the effects of ICA-105665, an agonist of neuronal Kv7 potassium channels, on epileptiform EEG discharges, evoked by intermittent photic stimulation (IPS), the so-called photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs) in patients with epilepsy. Male and female patients aged 18-60 years with reproducible PPRs were eligible for enrollment. The study was conducted as a single-blind, single-dose, multiple-cohort study. Four patients were enrolled in each of the first three cohorts. Six patients were enrolled in the fourth cohort and one patient was enrolled in the fifth cohort. PPR responses to 14 IPS frequencies (steps) were used to determine the standard photosensitivity range (SPR) following placebo on day 1 and ICA-105665 on day 2. The SPR was quantified for three eye conditions (eyes closing, eyes closed, and eyes open), and the most sensitive condition was used for assessment of efficacy. A partial response was defined as a reduction in the SPR of at least three units at three separate time points following ICA-105665 compared to the same time points following placebo with no time points with more than three units of increase. Complete suppression was defined by no PPRs in any eye condition at one or more time points. Six individual patients participated in the first three cohorts (100, 200, and 400 mg). Six patients participated in the fourth cohort (500 mg), and one patient participated in the fifth cohort (600 mg). Decreases in SPR occurred in one patient at 100 mg, two patients receiving 400 mg ICA-105665 (complete abolishment of SPR occurred in one patient at 400 mg), and in four of six patients receiving 500 mg. The most common adverse events (AEs) were those related to the nervous system, and dizziness appeared to be the first emerging AE. The single patient in the 600 mg cohort developed a brief generalized seizure within 1 h of dosing, leading to the discontinuation of additional patients at this dose, per the predefined protocol stopping rules. ICA-105665

  20. Modeling the concentration-dependent permeation modes of the KcsA potassium ion channel.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2003-12-01

    The potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans (KcsA) is an integral membrane protein with sequence similarity to all known potassium channels, particularly in the selectivity filter region. A recently proposed model for ion channels containing either n or (n-1) single-file ions in their selectivity filters [P. H. Nelson, J. Chem. Phys. 177, 11396 (2002)] is applied to published KcsA channel K+ permeation data that exhibit a high-affinity process at low concentrations and a low-affinity process at high concentrations [M. LeMasurier et al., J. Gen. Physiol. 118, 303 (2001)]. The kinetic model is shown to provide a reasonable first-order explanation for both the high- and low-concentration permeation modes observed experimentally. The low-concentration mode ([K+]<200 mM) has a 200-mV dissociation constant of 56 mM and a conductance of 88 pS. The high-concentration mode ([K+]>200 mM) has a 200-mV dissociation constant of 1100 mM and a conductance of 500 pS. Based on the permeation model, and x-ray analysis [J. H. Morais-Cabral et al., Nature (London) 414, 37 (2001)], it is suggested that the experimentally observed K+ permeation modes correspond to an n=3 mechanism at high concentrations and an n=2 mechanism at low concentrations. The ratio of the electrical dissociation distances for the high- and low-concentration modes is 3:2, also consistent with the proposed n=3 and n=2 modes. Model predictions for K+ channels that exhibit asymmetric current-voltage (I-V) curves are presented, and further validation of the kinetic model via molecular simulation and experiment is discussed. The qualitatively distinct I-V characteristics exhibited experimentally by Tl+, NH+4, and Rb+ ions at 100 mM concentration can also be explained using the model, but more extensive experimental tests are required for quantitative validation of the model predictions.

  1. Modeling the concentration-dependent permeation modes of the KcsA potassium ion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2003-12-01

    The potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans (KcsA) is an integral membrane protein with sequence similarity to all known potassium channels, particularly in the selectivity filter region. A recently proposed model for ion channels containing either n or (n-1) single-file ions in their selectivity filters [P. H. Nelson, J. Chem. Phys. 177, 11396 (2002)] is applied to published KcsA channel K+ permeation data that exhibit a high-affinity process at low concentrations and a low-affinity process at high concentrations [M. LeMasurier et al., J. Gen. Physiol. 118, 303 (2001)]. The kinetic model is shown to provide a reasonable first-order explanation for both the high- and low-concentration permeation modes observed experimentally. The low-concentration mode ([K+]<200 mM) has a 200-mV dissociation constant of 56 mM and a conductance of 88 pS. The high-concentration mode ([K+]>200 mM) has a 200-mV dissociation constant of 1100 mM and a conductance of 500 pS. Based on the permeation model, and x-ray analysis [J. H. Morais-Cabral et al., Nature (London) 414, 37 (2001)], it is suggested that the experimentally observed K+ permeation modes correspond to an n=3 mechanism at high concentrations and an n=2 mechanism at low concentrations. The ratio of the electrical dissociation distances for the high- and low-concentration modes is 3:2, also consistent with the proposed n=3 and n=2 modes. Model predictions for K+ channels that exhibit asymmetric current-voltage (I-V) curves are presented, and further validation of the kinetic model via molecular simulation and experiment is discussed. The qualitatively distinct I-V characteristics exhibited experimentally by Tl+, NH+4, and Rb+ ions at 100 mM concentration can also be explained using the model, but more extensive experimental tests are required for quantitative validation of the model predictions.

  2. Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels Are Encoded by Duplicate slo1 Genes in Teleost Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Deitcher, David L.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium-activated, large conductance potassium (BK) channels in tetrapods are encoded by a single slo1 gene, which undergoes extensive alternative splicing. Alternative splicing generates a high level of functional diversity in BK channels that contributes to the wide range of frequencies electrically tuned by the inner ear hair cells of many tetrapods. To date, the role of BK channels in hearing among teleost fishes has not been investigated at the molecular level, although teleosts account for approximately half of all extant vertebrate species. We identified slo1 genes in teleost and nonteleost fishes using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence databases. In contrast to tetrapods, all teleosts examined were found to express duplicate slo1 genes in the central nervous system, whereas nonteleosts that diverged prior to the teleost whole-genome duplication event express a single slo1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses further revealed that whereas other slo1 duplicates were the result of a single duplication event, an independent duplication occurred in a basal teleost (Anguilla rostrata) following the slo1 duplication in teleosts. A third, independent slo1 duplication (autotetraploidization) occurred in salmonids. Comparison of teleost slo1 genomic sequences to their tetrapod orthologue revealed a reduced number of alternative splice sites in both slo1 co-orthologues. For the teleost Porichthys notatus, a focal study species that vocalizes with maximal spectral energy in the range electrically tuned by BK channels in the inner ear, peripheral tissues show the expression of either one (e.g., vocal muscle) or both (e.g., inner ear) slo1 paralogues with important implications for both auditory and vocal physiology. Additional loss of expression of one slo1 paralogue in nonneural tissues in P. notatus suggests that slo1 duplicates were retained via subfunctionalization. Together, the results predict that teleost fish achieve a diversity of BK channel subfunction via

  3. Calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are encoded by duplicate slo1 genes in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Rohmann, Kevin N; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2009-07-01

    Calcium-activated, large conductance potassium (BK) channels in tetrapods are encoded by a single slo1 gene, which undergoes extensive alternative splicing. Alternative splicing generates a high level of functional diversity in BK channels that contributes to the wide range of frequencies electrically tuned by the inner ear hair cells of many tetrapods. To date, the role of BK channels in hearing among teleost fishes has not been investigated at the molecular level, although teleosts account for approximately half of all extant vertebrate species. We identified slo1 genes in teleost and nonteleost fishes using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence databases. In contrast to tetrapods, all teleosts examined were found to express duplicate slo1 genes in the central nervous system, whereas nonteleosts that diverged prior to the teleost whole-genome duplication event express a single slo1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses further revealed that whereas other slo1 duplicates were the result of a single duplication event, an independent duplication occurred in a basal teleost (Anguilla rostrata) following the slo1 duplication in teleosts. A third, independent slo1 duplication (autotetraploidization) occurred in salmonids. Comparison of teleost slo1 genomic sequences to their tetrapod orthologue revealed a reduced number of alternative splice sites in both slo1 co-orthologues. For the teleost Porichthys notatus, a focal study species that vocalizes with maximal spectral energy in the range electrically tuned by BK channels in the inner ear, peripheral tissues show the expression of either one (e.g., vocal muscle) or both (e.g., inner ear) slo1 paralogues with important implications for both auditory and vocal physiology. Additional loss of expression of one slo1 paralogue in nonneural tissues in P. notatus suggests that slo1 duplicates were retained via subfunctionalization. Together, the results predict that teleost fish achieve a diversity of BK channel subfunction via

  4. Inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels regulate pacemaker activity in spinal nociceptive circuits during early life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Blankenship, Meredith L.; Baccei, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Pacemaker neurons in neonatal spinal nociceptive circuits generate intrinsic burst-firing and are distinguished by a lower “leak” membrane conductance compared to adjacent, non-bursting neurons. However, little is known about which subtypes of leak channels regulate the level of pacemaker activity within the developing rat superficial dorsal horn (SDH). Here we demonstrate that a hallmark feature of lamina I pacemaker neurons is a reduced conductance through inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels at physiological membrane potentials. Differences in the strength of inward rectification between pacemakers and non-pacemakers indicate the presence of functionally distinct Kir currents in these two populations at room temperature. However, Kir currents in both groups showed high sensitivity to block by extracellular Ba2+ (IC50 ~ 10 µM), which suggests the presence of ‘classical’ Kir (Kir2.x) channels in the neonatal SDH. The reduced Kir conductance within pacemakers is unlikely to be explained by an absence of particular Kir2.x isoforms, as immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 within spontaneously bursting neurons. Importantly, Ba2+ application unmasked rhythmic burst-firing in ~42% of non-bursting lamina I neurons, suggesting that pacemaker activity is a latent property of a sizeable population of SDH cells during early life. In addition, the prevalence of spontaneous burst-firing within lamina I was enhanced in the presence of high internal concentrations of free Mg2+, consistent with its documented ability to block Kir channels from the intracellular side. Collectively, the results indicate that Kir channels are key modulators of pacemaker activity in newborn central pain networks. PMID:23426663

  5. Location of the β4 transmembrane helices in the BK potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Roland S.; Chudasama, Neelesh; Zakharov, Sergey I.; Doshi, Darshan; Motoike, Howard; Liu, Guoxia; Yao, Yongneng; Niu, Xiaowei; Deng, Shi-Xian; Landry, Donald W.; Karlin, Arthur; Marx, Steven O.

    2009-01-01

    Large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-gated potassium (BK) channels control excitability in a number of cell types. BK channels are composed of α subunits, which contain the voltage-sensor domains and the Ca2+- sensor domains, and form the pore, and often one of four types of β subunits, which modulate the channel in a cell-specific manner. β4 is expressed in neurons throughout the brain. Deletion of β4 in mice causes temporal lobe epilepsy. Compared to channels composed of α alone, channels composed of α and β4 activate and deactivate more slowly. We inferred the locations of the two β4 transmembrane (TM) helices, TM1 and TM2, relative to the seven αTM helices, S0-S6, from the extent of disulfide bond formation between cysteines substituted in the extracellular flanks of these TM helices. We found that β4 TM2 is close to α S0 and that β4 TM1 is close to both α S1 and S2. At least at their extracellular ends, TM1 and TM2 are not close to S3 through S6. In six of eight of the most highly crosslinked cysteine pairs, four crosslinks from TM2 to S0 and one each from TM1 to S1 and S2 had small effects on the V50 and on the rates of activation and deactivation. That disulfide crosslinking caused only small functional perturbations is consistent with the proximity of the extracellular ends of TM2 to S0 and of TM1 to S1 and to S2, in both the open and closed states. PMID:19571123

  6. Kv10.1 potassium channel: from the brain to the tumors.

    PubMed

    Cázares-Ordoñez, V; Pardo, L A

    2017-10-01

    The KCNH1 gene encodes the Kv10.1 (Eag1) ion channel, a member of the EAG (ether-à-go-go) family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Recent studies have demonstrated that KCHN1 mutations are implicated in Temple-Baraitser and Zimmermann-Laband syndromes and other forms of developmental deficits that all present with mental retardation and epilepsy, suggesting that Kv10.1 might be important for cognitive development in humans. Although the Kv10.1 channel is mainly expressed in the mammalian brain, its ectopic expression occurs in 70% of human cancers. Cancer cells and tumors expressing Kv10.1 acquire selective advantages that favor cancer progression through molecular mechanisms that involve several cellular pathways, indicating that protein-protein interactions may be important for Kv10.1 influence in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Several studies on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of Kv10.1 expression have shown interesting mechanistic insights about Kv10.1 role in oncogenesis, increasing the importance of identifying the cellular factors that regulate Kv10.1 expression in tumors.

  7. Molecular interactions involved in proton-dependent gating in KcsA potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Posson, David J.; Thompson, Ameer N.; McCoy, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial potassium channel KcsA is gated open by the binding of protons to amino acids on the intracellular side of the channel. We have identified, via channel mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography, two pH-sensing amino acids and a set of nearby residues involved in molecular interactions that influence gating. We found that the minimal mutation of one histidine (H25) and one glutamate (E118) near the cytoplasmic gate completely abolished pH-dependent gating. Mutation of nearby residues either alone or in pairs altered the channel’s response to pH. In addition, mutations of certain pairs of residues dramatically increased the energy barriers between the closed and open states. We proposed a Monod–Wyman–Changeux model for proton binding and pH-dependent gating in KcsA, where H25 is a “strong” sensor displaying a large shift in pKa between closed and open states, and E118 is a “weak” pH sensor. Modifying model parameters that are involved in either the intrinsic gating equilibrium or the pKa values of the pH-sensing residues was sufficient to capture the effects of all mutations. PMID:24218397

  8. Diminished A-type potassium current and altered firing properties in presympathetic PVN neurones in renovascular hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Sonner, Patrick M; Filosa, Jessica A; Stern, Javier E

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a contribution of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to sympathoexcitation and elevated blood pressure in renovascular hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in altered neuronal function in hypertensive rats remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to address whether the transient outward potassium current (IA) in identified rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN neurones is altered in hypertensive rats, and whether such changes affected single and repetitive action potential properties and associated changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels. Patch-clamp recordings obtained from PVN-RVLM neurons showed a reduction in IA current magnitude and single channel conductance, and an enhanced steady-state current inactivation in hypertensive rats. Morphometric reconstructions of intracellularly labelled PVN-RVLM neurons showed a diminished dendritic surface area in hypertensive rats. Consistent with a diminished IA availability, action potentials in PVN-RVLM neurons in hypertensive rats were broader, decayed more slowly, and were less sensitive to the K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. Simultaneous patch clamp recordings and confocal Ca2+ imaging demonstrated enhanced action potential-evoked intracellular Ca2+ transients in hypertensive rats. Finally, spike broadening during repetitive firing discharge was enhanced in PVN-RVLM neurons from hypertensive rats. Altogether, our results indicate that diminished IA availability constitutes a contributing mechanism underlying aberrant central neuronal function in renovascular hypertension. PMID:18238809

  9. Angiotensin II Inhibits the ROMK-like Small Conductance K Channel in Renal Cortical Collecting Duct during Dietary Potassium Restriction*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuan; Zavilowitz, Beth; Satlin, Lisa M.; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Base-line urinary potassium secretion in the distal nephron is mediated by small conductance rat outer medullary K (ROMK)-like channels. We used the patch clamp technique applied to split-open cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) isolated from rats fed a normal potassium (NK) or low potassium (LK) diet to test the hypothesis that AngII directly inhibits ROMK channel activity. We found that AngII inhibited ROMK channel activity in LK but not NK rats in a dose-dependent manner. The AngII-induced reduction in channel activity was mediated by AT1 receptor (AT1R) binding, because pretreatment of CCDs with losartan but not PD123319 AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, respectively, blocked the response. Pretreatment of CCDs with U73122 and calphostin C, inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC), respectively, abolished the AngII-induced decrease in ROMK channel activity, confirming a role of the PLC-PKC pathway in this response. Studies by others suggest that AngII stimulates an Src family protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) via PKC-NADPH oxidase. PTK has been shown to regulate the ROMK channel. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with diphenyliodonium abolished the inhibitory effect of AngII or the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on ROMK channels. Suppression of PTK by herbimycin A significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of AngII on ROMK channel activity. We conclude that AngII inhibits ROMK channel activity through PKC-, NADPH oxidase-, and PTK-dependent pathways under conditions of dietary potassium restriction. PMID:17194699

  10. Angiotensin II inhibits the ROMK-like small conductance K channel in renal cortical collecting duct during dietary potassium restriction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuan; Zavilowitz, Beth; Satlin, Lisa M; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2007-03-02

    Base-line urinary potassium secretion in the distal nephron is mediated by small conductance rat outer medullary K (ROMK)-like channels. We used the patch clamp technique applied to split-open cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) isolated from rats fed a normal potassium (NK) or low potassium (LK) diet to test the hypothesis that AngII directly inhibits ROMK channel activity. We found that AngII inhibited ROMK channel activity in LK but not NK rats in a dose-dependent manner. The AngII-induced reduction in channel activity was mediated by AT1 receptor (AT1R) binding, because pretreatment of CCDs with losartan but not PD123319 AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, respectively, blocked the response. Pretreatment of CCDs with U73122 and calphostin C, inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC), respectively, abolished the AngII-induced decrease in ROMK channel activity, confirming a role of the PLC-PKC pathway in this response. Studies by others suggest that AngII stimulates an Src family protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) via PKC-NADPH oxidase. PTK has been shown to regulate the ROMK channel. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with diphenyliodonium abolished the inhibitory effect of AngII or the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on ROMK channels. Suppression of PTK by herbimycin A significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of AngII on ROMK channel activity. We conclude that AngII inhibits ROMK channel activity through PKC-, NADPH oxidase-, and PTK-dependent pathways under conditions of dietary potassium restriction.

  11. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes suppress potassium channel activities in PC12 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haifei; Bai, Juan; Meng, Jie; Hao, Wei; Xu, Haiyan; Cao, Ji-Min

    2009-07-01

    The advancement in nanotechnology has produced technological and conceptual breakthroughs but the effects nanomaterials have on organisms at the cellular level are poorly understood. Here we report that carboxyl-terminated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as antagonists of three types of potassium channels as assessed by whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology on undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results showed that carboxyl-terminated MWCNTs suppress the current densities of Ito, IK and IK1 in a time-dependent and irreversible manner. The suppressions were most distinct 24 h after incubation with MWCNTs. However, MWCNTs did not significantly change the expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or intracellular free calcium and also did not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in PC12 cells. These results suggest that oxidative stress was not involved in the MWCNTs suppression of Ito, IK and IK1 current densities. Nonetheless, the suppression of potassium currents by MWCNTs will impact on electrical signaling of excitable cells such as neurons and muscles.

  12. Identification of potential novel interaction partners of the sodium-activated potassium channels Slick and Slack in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Sandra; Schwarzer, Christoph; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H; Knaus, Hans-Günther

    2015-12-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are paralogous channels of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. Slick and Slack channels are widely distributed in the mammalian CNS and they play a role in slow afterhyperpolarization, generation of depolarizing afterpotentials and in setting and stabilizing the resting potential. In the present study we used a combined approach of (co)-immunoprecipitation studies, Western blot analysis, double immunofluorescence and mass spectrometric sequencing in order to investigate protein-protein interactions of the Slick and Slack channels. The data strongly suggest that Slick and Slack channels co-assemble into identical cellular complexes. Double immunofluorescence experiments revealed that Slick and Slack channels co-localize in distinct mouse brain regions. Moreover, we identified the small cytoplasmic protein beta-synuclein and the transmembrane protein 263 (TMEM 263) as novel interaction partners of both, native Slick and Slack channels. In addition, the inactive dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP 10) and the synapse associated protein 102 (SAP 102) were identified as constituents of the native Slick and Slack channel complexes in the mouse brain. This study presents new insights into protein-protein interactions of native Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain.

  13. Presence of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody in a case of genetic prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Jammoul, Adham; Lederman, Richard J; Tavee, Jinny; Li, Yuebing

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated encephalitis is a recently recognised entity which has been reported to mimic the clinical presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Testing for the presence of this neuronal surface autoantibody in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathy is therefore crucial as it may both revoke the bleak diagnosis of prion disease and allow institution of potentially life-saving immunotherapy. Tempering this optimistic view is the rare instance when a positive VGKC complex antibody titre occurs in a definite case of prion disease. We present a pathologically and genetically confirmed case of CJD with elevated serum VGKC complex antibody titres. This case highlights the importance of interpreting the result of a positive VGKC complex antibody with caution and in the context of the overall clinical manifestation. PMID:24903967

  14. High grade glioma mimicking voltage gated potassium channel complex associated antibody limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Athauda, Dilan; Delamont, R S; Pablo-Fernandez, E De

    2014-01-01

    Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE). This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  15. Presence of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody in a case of genetic prion disease.

    PubMed

    Jammoul, Adham; Lederman, Richard J; Tavee, Jinny; Li, Yuebing

    2014-06-05

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated encephalitis is a recently recognised entity which has been reported to mimic the clinical presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Testing for the presence of this neuronal surface autoantibody in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathy is therefore crucial as it may both revoke the bleak diagnosis of prion disease and allow institution of potentially life-saving immunotherapy. Tempering this optimistic view is the rare instance when a positive VGKC complex antibody titre occurs in a definite case of prion disease. We present a pathologically and genetically confirmed case of CJD with elevated serum VGKC complex antibody titres. This case highlights the importance of interpreting the result of a positive VGKC complex antibody with caution and in the context of the overall clinical manifestation. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Inhibitory effects of pimozide on cloned and native voltage-gated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hao; Lee, Yan T; Rhodes, Kenneth; Wang, Kewei; Argentieri, Thomas M; Wang, Qiang

    2003-07-04

    The primary goal of this study was to use the cloned neuronal Kv channels to test if pimozide (PMZD), an antipsychotic drug, modulates the activity of Kv channels. In CHO cells, PMZD blocked Kv2.1, a major neuronal delayed rectifier, in a manner that depends upon time and concentration. The estimated IC50 was 4.2 microM at +50 mV. Tail current analysis shows that PMZD reduced the amplitude of the currents, with no effect on the steady-state activation curve (V(1/2) from 14.1 to 11.1 mV) or the slope (16.7 vs. 14.0 mV). From -120 to -20 mV, PMZD did not impact the deactivation kinetics of Kv2.1. PMZD also blocked Kv1.1, another neuronal delayed rectifier, with 16.1 microM of IC50. When Kv1.1 was co-expressed with Kvbeta1, approximately 50% of the Kv1.1 were converted into an inactivating A-type current and the Kv1.1/Kvbeta1 A-type currents were insensitive to PMZD. PMZD (10 microM) had minimal effect on Kv1.4, and had no effect on the M-current candidates, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 when co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In hippocampal neurons, PMZD inhibited the delayed rectifiers by approximately 60%, and A-type currents were insensitive to PMZD. The results suggest that PMZD inhibits certain neuronal Kv channels in heterologous expression systems and in hippocampal neurons. PMZD was less effective on A-type currents, presumably because its ability to block requires a prolonged opening of the K channels. It is thus conceivable that the time-dependent and/or subunit-specific inhibition of Kv channels may increase the release of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and glutamate.

  17. Emerging psychiatric syndromes associated with antivoltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies.

    PubMed

    Prüss, Harald; Lennox, Belinda R

    2016-11-01

    Antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) were first recognised as having a potential pathogenic role in disorders of the central nervous system in 2001, with VGKC antibodies described in patients with limbic encephalitis, and the subsequent seminal paper describing the clinical phenotype and immunotherapy treatment responsiveness in 13 patients with VGKC antibodies and limbic encephalitis in 2004. These initial case descriptions were of a progressive neuropsychiatric syndrome with abnormalities of mood, sleep and cognition recognised alongside the neurological symptoms of seizures and autonomic instability. The clinical syndromes associated with VGKC complex (VGKCC) antibodies have broadened considerably over the last 15 years, with multiple cases of more restricted 'formes fruste' presentations associated with VGKCC antibodies being described. However, the relevance of antibodies in these cases has remained controversial. The understanding of the pathogenic nature of VGKC antibodies has further advanced since 2010 with the discovery that VGKC antibodies are not usually antibodies against the VGKC subunits themselves, but instead to proteins that are complexed with the potassium channel, in particular leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2). Antibodies against these proteins have been associated with particular, although overlapping, clinical phenotypes, each also including neuropsychiatric features. Our aim is to critically review the association between VGKCC, LGI1 and Caspr2 antibodies with isolated psychiatric presentations-with a focus on cognitive impairment, mood disorders and psychosis. We recommend that screening for VGKCC, LGI1 and Caspr2 antibodies be considered for those with neuropsychiatric presentations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Voltage-gated potassium channel-complex autoimmunity and associated clinical syndromes.

    PubMed

    Irani, Sarosh R; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies are defined by the radioimmunoprecipitation of Kv1 potassium channel subunits from brain tissue extracts and were initially discovered in patients with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH). Subsequently, they were found in patients with PNH plus psychosis, insomnia, and dysautonomia, collectively termed Morvan's syndrome (MoS), and in a limbic encephalopathy (LE) with prominent amnesia and frequent seizures. Most recently, they have been described in patients with pure epilepsies, especially in patients with the novel and distinctive semiology termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). In each of these conditions, there is a close correlation between clinical measures and antibody levels. The VGKC-complex is a group of proteins that are strongly associated in situ and after extraction in mild detergent. Two major targets of the autoantibodies are leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2). The patients with PNH or MoS are most likely to have CASPR2 antibodies, whereas LGI1 antibodies are found characteristically in patients with FBDS and LE. Crucially, each of these conditions has a good response to immunotherapies, often corticosteroids and plasma exchange, although optimal regimes require further study. VGKC-complex antibodies have also been described in neuropathic pain syndromes, chronic epilepsies, a polyradiculopathy in porcine abattoir workers, and some children with status epilepticus. Increasingly, however, the antigenic targets in these patients are not defined and in some cases the antibodies may be secondary rather than the primary cause. Future serologic studies should define all the antigenic components of the VGKC-complex, and further inform mechanisms of antibody pathogenicity and related inflammation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Opening of the inward rectifier potassium channel alleviates maladaptive tissue repair following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengfang; Liu, Enli; Luo, Tiane; Zhang, Weifang; He, Rongli

    2016-08-01

    Activation of the inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) channel has been reported to be associated with suppression of ventricular arrhythmias. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that opening of the IK1 channel with zacopride (ZAC) was involved in the modulation of tissue repair after myocardial infarction. Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to coronary artery ligation and ZAC was administered intraperitoneally (15 µg/kg/day) for 28 days. Compared with the ischemia group, treatment with ZAC significantly reduced the ratio of heart/body weight and the cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes, suggesting less cardiac hypertrophy. ZAC reduced the accumulation of collagen types I and III, accompanied with decrease of collagen area, which were associated with a reduction of collagen deposition in the fibrotic myocardium. Echocardiography showed improved cardiac function, evidenced by the reduced left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic dimension, and the increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening in ZAC-treated animals (all P < 0.05 vs. ischemia group). In coincidence with these changes, ZAC up-regulated the protein level of the IK1 channel and down-regulated the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 (p70S6) kinase. Administration of chloroquine alone, an IK1 channel antagonist, had no effect on all the parameters measured, but significantly blocked the beneficial effects of ZAC on cardiac repair. In conclusion, opening of the IK1 channel with ZAC inhibits maladaptive tissue repair and improves cardiac function, potentially mediated by the inhibition of ischemia-activated mTOR-p70S6 signaling pathway via the IK1 channel. So the development of pharmacological agents specifically targeting the activation of the IK1 channel may protect the heart against myocardial ischemia-induced cardiac dysfunction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  20. Molecular mechanism underlying β1 regulation in voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Karen; Contreras, Gustavo F.; Pupo, Amaury; Torres, Yolima P.; Neely, Alan; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found. By measuring gating currents in BK channels coexpressed with chimeras between β1 and β3 or β2 auxiliary subunits, we were able to identify that the cytoplasmic regions of β1 are responsible for the modulation of the voltage sensors. In addition, we narrowed down the structural determinants to the N terminus of β1, which contains two lysine residues (i.e., K3 and K4), which upon substitution virtually abolished the effects of β1 on charge movement. The mechanism by which K3 and K4 stabilize the voltage sensor is not electrostatic but specific, and the α (BK)-residues involved remain to be identified. This is the first report, to our knowledge, where the regulatory effects of the β1-subunit have been clearly assigned to a particular segment, with two pivotal amino acids being responsible for this modulation. PMID:25825713

  1. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  2. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  3. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  4. Macrolides selectively inhibit mutant KCNJ5 potassium channels that cause aldosterone-producing adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Ute I.; Abriola, Laura; Zhang, Chengbiao; Reimer, Esther N.; Plummer, Mark; Zhang, Junhui; Hoyer, Denton; Merkel, Jane S.; Wang, Wenhui; Lifton, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide. These mutations alter channel selectivity to allow abnormal Na+ conductance, resulting in membrane depolarization, calcium influx, aldosterone production, and cell proliferation. Because APA diagnosis requires a difficult invasive procedure, patients often remain undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Inhibitors of KCNJ5MUT could allow noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of APAs carrying KCNJ5 mutations. Here, we developed a high-throughput screen for rescue of KCNJ5MUT-induced lethality and identified a series of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. Electrophysiology demonstrated direct KCNJ5MUT inhibition. In human aldosterone-producing adrenocortical cancer cell lines, roxithromycin inhibited KCNJ5MUT-induced induction of CYP11B2 (encoding aldosterone synthase) expression and aldosterone production. Further exploration of macrolides showed that KCNJ5MUT was similarly selectively inhibited by idremcinal, a macrolide motilin receptor agonist, and by synthesized macrolide derivatives lacking antibiotic or motilide activity. Macrolide-derived selective KCNJ5MUT inhibitors thus have the potential to advance the diagnosis and treatment of APAs harboring KCNJ5MUT. PMID:28604387

  5. Discrete change in volatile anesthetic sensitivity in mice with inactivated tandem pore potassium ion channel TRESK.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yun Jeong; Zhang, Jianan; Au, Paul; Sabbadini, Marta; Xie, Guo-Xi; Yost, C Spencer

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the role of tandem pore potassium ion channel (K2P) TRESK in neurobehavioral function and volatile anesthetic sensitivity in genetically modified mice. Exon III of the mouse TRESK gene locus was deleted by homologous recombination using a targeting vector. The genotype of bred mice (wild type, knockout, or heterozygote) was determined using polymerase chain reaction. Morphologic and behavioral evaluations of TRESK knockout mice were compared with wild-type littermates. Sensitivity of bred mice to isoflurane, halothane, sevoflurane, and desflurane were studied by determining the minimum alveolar concentration preventing movement to tail clamping in 50% of each genotype. With the exception of decreased number of inactive periods and increased thermal pain sensitivity (20% decrease in latency with hot plate test), TRESK knockout mice had healthy development and behavior. TRESK knockout mice showed a statistically significant 8% increase in isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration compared with wild-type littermates. Sensitivity to other volatile anesthetics was not significantly different. Spontaneous mortality of TRESK knockout mice after initial anesthesia testing was nearly threefold higher than that of wild-type littermates. TRESK alone is not critical for baseline central nervous system function but may contribute to the action of volatile anesthetics. The inhomogeneous change in anesthetic sensitivity corroborates findings in other K2P knockout mice and supports the theory that the mechanism of volatile anesthetic action involves multiple targets. Although it was not shown in this study, a compensatory effect by other K2P channels may also contribute to these observations.

  6. Hsp40 Chaperones Promote Degradation of the hERG Potassium Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Valerie E.; Wong, Michael J. H.; Atanasiu, Roxana; Hantouche, Christine; Young, Jason C.; Shrier, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the hERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene or KCNH2) potassium channel underlie the proarrhythmic cardiac long QT syndrome type 2. Most often this is a consequence of defective trafficking of hERG mutants to the cell surface, with channel retention and degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we identify the Hsp40 type 1 chaperones DJA1 (DNAJA1/Hdj2) and DJA2 (DNAJA2) as key modulators of hERG degradation. Overexpression of the DJAs reduces hERG trafficking efficiency, an effect eliminated by the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin or with DJA mutants lacking their J domains essential for Hsc70/Hsp70 activation. Both DJA1 and DJA2 cause a decrease in the amount of hERG complexed with Hsc70, indicating a preferential degradation of the complex. Similar effects were observed with the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. Both the DJAs and CHIP reduce hERG stability and act differentially on folding intermediates of hERG and the disease-related trafficking mutant G601S. We propose a novel role for the DJA proteins in regulating degradation and suggest that they act at a critical point in secretory pathway quality control. PMID:19940115

  7. Macrolides selectively inhibit mutant KCNJ5 potassium channels that cause aldosterone-producing adenoma.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Ute I; Abriola, Laura; Zhang, Chengbiao; Reimer, Esther N; Plummer, Mark; Kazmierczak, Barbara I; Zhang, Junhui; Hoyer, Denton; Merkel, Jane S; Wang, Wenhui; Lifton, Richard P

    2017-06-30

    Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide. These mutations alter channel selectivity to allow abnormal Na+ conductance, resulting in membrane depolarization, calcium influx, aldosterone production, and cell proliferation. Because APA diagnosis requires a difficult invasive procedure, patients often remain undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Inhibitors of KCNJ5MUT could allow noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of APAs carrying KCNJ5 mutations. Here, we developed a high-throughput screen for rescue of KCNJ5MUT-induced lethality and identified a series of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. Electrophysiology demonstrated direct KCNJ5MUT inhibition. In human aldosterone-producing adrenocortical cancer cell lines, roxithromycin inhibited KCNJ5MUT-induced induction of CYP11B2 (encoding aldosterone synthase) expression and aldosterone production. Further exploration of macrolides showed that KCNJ5MUT was similarly selectively inhibited by idremcinal, a macrolide motilin receptor agonist, and by synthesized macrolide derivatives lacking antibiotic or motilide activity. Macrolide-derived selective KCNJ5MUT inhibitors thus have the potential to advance the diagnosis and treatment of APAs harboring KCNJ5MUT.

  8. Dynamic memory of a single voltage-gated potassium ion channel: A stochastic nonequilibrium thermodynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kinshuk, E-mail: kbpchem@gmail.com

    2015-05-14

    In this work, we have studied the stochastic response of a single voltage-gated potassium ion channel to a periodic external voltage that keeps the system out-of-equilibrium. The system exhibits memory, resulting from time-dependent driving, that is reflected in terms of dynamic hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. The hysteresis loop area has a maximum at some intermediate voltage frequency and disappears in the limits of low and high frequencies. However, the (average) dissipation at long-time limit increases and finally goes to saturation with rising frequency. This raises the question: how diminishing hysteresis can be associated with growing dissipation? To answer this,more » we have studied the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the system and analyzed different thermodynamic functions which also exhibit hysteresis. Interestingly, by applying a temporal symmetry analysis in the high-frequency limit, we have analytically shown that hysteresis in some of the periodic responses of the system does not vanish. On the contrary, the rates of free energy and internal energy change of the system as well as the rate of dissipative work done on the system show growing hysteresis with frequency. Hence, although the current-voltage hysteresis disappears in the high-frequency limit, the memory of the ion channel is manifested through its specific nonequilibrium thermodynamic responses.« less

  9. Kcnh1 Voltage-gated Potassium Channels Are Essential for Early Zebrafish Development*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Rayk; Rivera-Milla, Eric; Sahoo, Nirakar; Ebert, Christina; Bollig, Frank; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Schönherr, Roland; Englert, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The Kcnh1 gene encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel highly expressed in neurons and involved in tumor cell proliferation, yet its physiological roles remain unclear. We have used the zebrafish as a model to analyze Kcnh1 function in vitro and in vivo. We found that the kcnh1 gene is duplicated in teleost fish (i.e. kcnh1a and kcnh1b) and that both genes are maternally expressed during early development. In adult zebrafish, kcnh1a and kcnh1b have distinct expression patterns but share expression in brain and testis. Heterologous expression of both genes in Xenopus oocytes revealed a strong conservation of characteristic functional properties between human and fish channels, including a unique sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+/calmodulin and modulation of voltage-dependent gating by extracellular Mg2+. Using a morpholino antisense approach, we demonstrate a strong kcnh1 loss-of-function phenotype in developing zebrafish, characterized by growth retardation, delayed hindbrain formation, and embryonic lethality. This late phenotype was preceded by transcriptional up-regulation of known cell-cycle inhibitors (p21, p27, cdh2) and down-regulation of pro-proliferative factors, including cyclin D1, at 70% epiboly. These results reveal an unanticipated basic activity of kcnh1 that is crucial for early embryonic development and patterning. PMID:22927438

  10. Oestrogen promotes KCNQ1 potassium channel endocytosis and postendocytic trafficking in colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rapetti-Mauss, Raphael; O'Mahony, Fiona; Sepulveda, Francisco V; Urbach, Valerie; Harvey, Brian J

    2013-06-01

    The cAMP-regulated potassium channel KCNQ1:KCNE3 plays an essential role in transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. Recycling of K(+) across the basolateral membrane provides the driving force necessary to maintain apical Cl(-) secretion. The steroid hormone oestrogen (17β-oestradiol; E2), produces a female-specific antisecretory response in rat distal colon through the inhibition of the KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel. It has previously been shown that rapid inhibition of the channel conductance results from E2-induced uncoupling of the KCNE3 regulatory subunit from the KCNQ1 channel pore complex. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism required for sustained inhibition of the channel function. We found that E2 plays a role in regulation of KCNQ1 cell membrane abundance by endocytosis. Ussing chamber experiments have shown that E2 inhibits both Cl(-) secretion and KCNQ1 current in a colonic cell line, HT29cl.19A, when cultured as a confluent epithelium. Following E2 treatment, KCNQ1 was retrieved from the plasma membrane by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which involved the association between KCNQ1 and the clathrin adaptor, AP-2. Following endocytosis, KCNQ1 was accumulated in early endosomes. Following E2-induced endocytosis, rather than being degraded, KCNQ1 was recycled by a biphasic mechanism involving Rab4 and Rab11. Protein kinase Cδ and AMP-dependent kinase were rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2 on their activating phosphorylation sites, Ser643 and Thr172, respectively (as previously shown). Both kinases are necessary for the E2-induced endocytosis, because E2 failed to induce KCNQ1 internalization following pretreatment with specific inhibitors of both protein kinase Cδ and AMP-dependent kinase. The ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2 binds KCNQ1 in response to E2 to induce channel internalization. This study has provided the first demonstration of hormonal regulation of KCNQ1 trafficking. In conclusion, we propose that internalization of KCNQ1 is a key

  11. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy increases the sensitivity of lumbar Aδ primary afferent neurons along with voltage-dependent potassium channels in rats.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Sadayoshi; Watanabe, Lisa; Doi, Seira; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Narita, Minoru

    2012-02-01

    Subdiaphragmatic vagal dysfunction causes chronic pain. To verify whether this chronic pain is accompanied by enhanced peripheral nociceptive sensitivity, we evaluated primary afferent neuronal excitability in subdiaphragmatic vagotomized (SDV) rats. SDV rats showed a decrease in the electrical stimuli-induced hind limb-flexion threshold at 250 Hz, but showed no similar effect at 5 or 2000 Hz, which indicated that lumbar primary afferent Aδ sensitivity was enhanced in SDV rats. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique also revealed the hyper-excitability of acutely dissociated medium-sized lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from SDV rats. The contribution of changes in voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels was assessed, and transient A-type K(+) (I(A) ) current density was apparently decreased. Moreover, Kv4.3 immunoreactivity in medium-sized DRG neurons was significantly reduced in SDV rats compared to sham. These results indicate that SDV causes hyper-excitability of lumbar primary Aδ afferent neurons, which may be induced along with suppressing I(A) currents via the decreased expression of Kv4.3. Thus, peripheral Aδ neuroplasticity may contribute to the chronic lower limb pain caused by SDV. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The effects of pure potassium channel blocker nifekalant and sodium channel blocker mexiletine on malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Otuki, Sou; Hasegawa, Kanae; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Katsuumi, Goro; Yagihara, Nobue; Iijima, Kenichi; Sato, Akinori; Izumi, Daisuke; Furushima, Hiroshi; Chinushi, Masaomi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Minamino, Tohru

    Patients with repetitive ventricular tachyarrhythmias - so-called electrical storm - frequently require antiarrhythmic drugs. Amiodarone is widely used for the treatment of electrical storm but is ineffective in some patients. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of stepwise administration of nifekalant, a pure potassium channel blocker, and mexiletine for electrical storm. This study included 44 patients with repetitive ventricular tachyarrhythmias who received stepwise therapy with nifekalant and mexiletine for electrical storm. Nifekalant was initially administered, and mexiletine was subsequently added if nifekalant failed to control ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Nifekalant completely suppressed recurrences of ventricular arrhythmias in 28 patients (64%), including 6 patients in whom oral amiodarone failed to control arrhythmias. In 9 of 16 patients in whom nifekalant was partially effective but failed to suppress ventricular arrhythmias, mexiletine was added. The addition of mexiletine prevented recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 5 of these 9 patients (56%). There was no death associated with electrical storm. In total, the stepwise treatment with nifekalant and mexiletine was effective in preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 33 of 44 patients (75%). There was no difference in cycle length of the ventricular tachycardia, QRS interval, QT interval, or left ventricular ejection fraction between patients who responded to antiarrhythmic drugs and those who did not. During follow-up, 8 patients had repetitive ventricular tachyarrhythmia recurrences, and the stepwise treatment was effective in 6 of these 8 patients (75%). The stepwise treatment with nifekalant and mexiletine was highly effective in the suppression of electrical storm. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Chlorogenic acid alters the voltage-gated potassium channel currents of trigeminal ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Song, Ning; Kou, Liang; Wu, Min-Ke; Liu, Fei; Wang, Hang; Shen, Jie-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, CGA) is a phenolic compound that is found ubiquitously in plants, fruits and vegetables and is formed via the esterification of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In addition to its notable biological functions against cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and inflammatory conditions, CGA was recently hypothesized to be an alternative for the treatment of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and neuropathic pain disorders. However, its mechanism of action is unclear. Voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) is a crucial factor in the electro-physiological processes of sensory neurons. Kv has also been identified as a potential therapeutic target for inflammation and neuropathic pain disorders. In this study, we analysed the effects of CGA on the two main subtypes of Kv in trigeminal ganglion neurons, namely, the IK,A and IK,V channels. Trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons were acutely disassociated from the rat TRG, and two different doses of CGA (0.2 and 1 mmol⋅L−1) were applied to the cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to observe alterations in the activation and inactivation properties of the IK,A and IK,V channels. The results demonstrated that 0.2 mmol⋅L−1 CGA decreased the peak current density of IK,A. Both 0.2 mmol⋅L−1 and 1 mmol⋅L−1 CGA also caused a significant reduction in the activation and inactivation thresholds of IK,A and IK,V. CGA exhibited a strong effect on the activation and inactivation velocities of IK,A and IK,V. These findings provide novel evidence explaining the biological effects of CGA, especially regarding its neurological effects. PMID:25394592

  14. Down-state model of the voltage-sensing domain of a potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Schow, Eric V; Freites, J Alfredo; Gogna, Karun; White, Stephen H; Tobias, Douglas J

    2010-06-16

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels undergo a series of conformational changes upon membrane depolarization, from a down state when the channel is at rest to an up state, all of which lead to the opening of the channel pore. The crystal structures reported to date reveal the pore in an open state and the VSDs in an up state. To gain insights into the structure of the down state, we used a set of experiment-based restraints to generate a model of the down state of the KvAP VSD using molecular-dynamics simulations of the VSD in a lipid bilayer in excess water. The equilibrated VSD configuration is consistent with the biotin-avidin accessibility and internal salt-bridge data used to generate it, and with additional biotin-avidin accessibility data. In the model, both the S3b and S4 segments are displaced approximately 10 A toward the intracellular side with respect to the up-state configuration, but they do not move as a rigid body. Arginine side chains that carry the majority of the gating charge also make large excursions between the up and down states. In both states, arginines interact with water and participate in salt bridges with acidic residues and lipid phosphate groups. An important feature that emerges from the down-state model is that the N-terminal half of the S4 segment adopts a 3(10)-helical conformation, which appears to be necessary to satisfy a complex salt-bridge network. (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppression of the Eag1 potassium channel sensitizes glioblastoma cells to injury caused by temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Sales, Thais Torquato; Resende, Fernando Francisco Borges; Chaves, Natália Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Simoneide Souza; Báo, Sônia Nair; Brettas, Marcella Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of human primary brain tumor. The standard treatment protocol includes radiotherapy in combination with temozolomide (TMZ). Despite advances in GBM treatment, the survival time of patients diagnosed with glioma is 14.5 months. Regarding tumor biology, various types of cancer cell overexpress the ether à go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channel. Therefore, the present study examined the role of Eag1 in the cell damage caused by TMZ on the U87MG glioblastoma cell line. Eag1 was inhibited using a channel blocker (astemizole) or silenced by a short-hairpin RNA expression vector (pKv10.1-3). pKv10.1-3 (0.2 µg) improved the Eag1 silencing caused by 250 µM TMZ, as determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, inhibiting Eag1 with the vector or astemizole (5 µM) reduced glioblastoma cell viability and sensitized cells to TMZ. Cell viability decreased by 63% for pKv10.1-3 + TMZ compared with 34% for TMZ alone, and by 77% for astemizole + TMZ compared with 46% for TMZ alone, as determined by MTT assay. In addition, both the vector and astemizole increased the apoptosis rate of glioblastoma cells triggered by TMZ, as determined by an Annexin V apoptosis assay. Collectively, the current data reveal that Eag1 has a role in the damage caused to glioblastoma by TMZ. Furthermore, suppression of this channel can improve the action of TMZ on U87MG glioblastoma cells. Thus, silencing Eag1 is a promising strategy to improve GBM treatment and merits additional studies in animal models of glioma.

  16. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Majoie, H J Marian; de Baets, Mark; Renier, Willy; Lang, Bethan; Vincent, Angela

    2006-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of antibodies to ion channels in patients with long standing epilepsy. Although the CNS is thought to be protected from circulating antibodies by the blood brain barrier, glutamate receptor antibodies have been reported in Rasmussen's encephalitis, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies have been found in a few patients with epilepsy, and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) have been found in a non-paraneoplastic form of limbic encephalitis (with amnesia and seizures) that responds to immunosuppressive therapy. We retrospectively screened sera from female epilepsy patients (n=106) for autoantibodies to VGKC (Kv 1.1, 1.2 or 1.6), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) (P/Q-type), and GAD. All positive results, based on the values of control data [McKnight, K., Jiang, Y., et al. (2005). Serum antibodies in epilepsy and seizure-associated disorders. Neurology 65, 1730-1735], were retested at lower serum concentrations, and results compared with previously published control data. Demographics, medical history, and epilepsy related information was gathered. The studied group consisted predominantly of patients with long standing drug resistant epilepsy. VGKC antibodies were raised (>100 pM) in six patients. VGCC antibodies (>45 pM) were slightly raised in only one patient. GAD antibodies were <3 U/ml in all patients. The clinical features of the patients with VGKC antibodies differed from previously described patients with limbic encephalitis-like syndrome, and were not different with respect to seizure type, age at first seizure, duration of epilepsy, or use of anti-epileptic drugs from the VGKC antibody negative patients. The results demonstrate that antibodies to VGKC are present in 6% of patients with typical long-standing epilepsy, but whether these antibodies are pathogenic or secondary to the primary disease process needs to be determined.

  17. Down-State Model of the Voltage-Sensing Domain of a Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Schow, Eric V.; Freites, J. Alfredo; Gogna, Karun; White, Stephen H.; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels undergo a series of conformational changes upon membrane depolarization, from a down state when the channel is at rest to an up state, all of which lead to the opening of the channel pore. The crystal structures reported to date reveal the pore in an open state and the VSDs in an up state. To gain insights into the structure of the down state, we used a set of experiment-based restraints to generate a model of the down state of the KvAP VSD using molecular-dynamics simulations of the VSD in a lipid bilayer in excess water. The equilibrated VSD configuration is consistent with the biotin-avidin accessibility and internal salt-bridge data used to generate it, and with additional biotin-avidin accessibility data. In the model, both the S3b and S4 segments are displaced ∼10 Å toward the intracellular side with respect to the up-state configuration, but they do not move as a rigid body. Arginine side chains that carry the majority of the gating charge also make large excursions between the up and down states. In both states, arginines interact with water and participate in salt bridges with acidic residues and lipid phosphate groups. An important feature that emerges from the down-state model is that the N-terminal half of the S4 segment adopts a 310-helical conformation, which appears to be necessary to satisfy a complex salt-bridge network. PMID:20550898

  18. Changes in the mRNA levels of delayed rectifier potassium channels in human atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lai, L P; Su, M J; Lin, J L; Lin, F Y; Tsai, C H; Chen, Y S; Tseng, Y Z; Lien, W P; Huang, S K

    1999-01-01

    We measured mRNA levels of delayed rectifier potassium channels in human atrial tissue to investigate the mechanism of the shortening of the atrial effective refractory period and the loss of rate-adaptive shortening of the atrial effective refractory period in human atrial fibrillation. A total of 34 patients undergoing open heart surgery were included. Atrial tissue was obtained from the right atrial free wall, right atrial appendage, left atrial free wall and left atrial appendage, respectively. The mRNA amounts of KVLQT1 (IKs), minK (beta-subunit of IKs), HERG (IKr), and KV1.5 (IKur) were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and normalized to the mRNA amount of GAPDH. We found that the mRNA levels of KV1.5, HERG and KVLQT1 were all significantly decreased in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation for more than 3 months. In contrast, the mRNA level of minK was significantly increased in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation for more than 3 months. We further showed that these changes were independent of the underlying cardiac disease, atrial filling pressure, gender and age. We also found that there was no spatial dispersion of mRNA levels among the four atrial sampling sites. Because the decrease in potassium currents results in a prolonged action potential, the shortening of the atrial effective refractory period in atrial fibrillation should be attributed to other factors. However, the decrease in IKs might contribute, at least in part, to the loss of rate-adaptive shortening of the atrial refractory period.

  19. Toxic effects of environmental rare earth elements on delayed outward potassium channels and their mechanisms from a microscopic perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; He, Jingfang; Xia, Ao; Cheng, Mengzhu; Yang, Qing; Du, Chunlei; Wei, Haiyan; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2017-08-01

    The wide applications cause a large amount of rare earth elements (REEs) to be released into the environment, and ultimately into the human body through food chain. Toxic effects of REEs on humans have been extensively studied, but their toxic effects and binding targets in cells are not understood. Delayed outward potassium channels (K + channels) are good targets for exogenous substances or clinical drugs. To evaluate cellular toxicities of REEs and clarify toxic mechanisms, the toxicities of REEs on the K + channel and their structural basis were investigated. The results showed that delayed outward potassium channels on the plasma membrane are the targets of REEs acting on living organisms, and the changes in the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of the K + channel are the reasons of diseases induced by REEs. Two types of REEs, a light REE La 3+ and a heavy REE Tb 3+ , displayed different intensity of toxicities on the K + channel, in which the toxicity of Tb 3+ was stronger than that of La 3+ . More interestingly, in comparison with that of heavy metal Cd 2+ , the cytotoxicities of the light and heavy REEs showed discriminative differences, and the cytotoxicity of Tb 3+ was higher than that of Cd 2+ , while the cytotoxicity of La 3+ was lower than that of Cd 2+ . These different cytotoxicities of La 3+ , Tb 3+ and Cd 2+ on human resulted from the varying binding abilities of the metals to this channel protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Study of the Energetics of Ion Permeation in Kv1.2 and KcsA Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Baştuğ, Turgut; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Biological ion channels rely on a multi-ion transport mechanism for fast yet selective permeation of ions. The crystal structure of the KcsA potassium channel provided the first microscopic picture of this process. A similar mechanism is assumed to operate in all potassium channels, but the validity of this assumption has not been well investigated. Here, we examine the energetics of ion permeation in Shaker Kv1.2 and KcsA channels, which exemplify the six-transmembrane voltage-gated and two-transmembrane inward-rectifier channels. We study the feasibility of binding a third ion to the filter and the concerted motion of ions in the channel by constructing the potential of mean force for K+ ions in various configurations. For both channels, we find that a pair of K+ ions can move almost freely within the filter, but a relatively large free-energy barrier hinders the K+ ion from stepping outside the filter. We discuss the effect of the CMAP dihedral energy correction that was recently incorporated into the CHARMM force field on ion permeation dynamics. PMID:21281577

  1. Conformational heterogeneity in closed and open states of the KcsA potassium channel in lipid bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dorothy M.; Dikiy, Igor; Upadhyay, Vikrant; Posson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The process of ion channel gating—opening and closing—involves local and global structural changes in the channel in response to external stimuli. Conformational changes depend on the energetic landscape that underlies the transition between closed and open states, which plays a key role in ion channel gating. For the prokaryotic, pH-gated potassium channel KcsA, closed and open states have been extensively studied using structural and functional methods, but the dynamics within each of these functional states as well as the transition between them is not as well understood. In this study, we used solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the conformational transitions within specific functional states of KcsA. We incorporated KcsA channels into lipid bicelles and stabilized them into a closed state by using either phosphatidylcholine lipids, known to favor the closed channel, or mutations designed to trap the channel shut by disulfide cross-linking. A distinct state, consistent with an open channel, was uncovered by the addition of cardiolipin lipids. Using selective amino acid labeling at locations within the channel that are known to move during gating, we observed at least two different slowly interconverting conformational states for both closed and open channels. The pH dependence of these conformations and the predictable disruptions to this dependence observed in mutant channels with altered pH sensing highlight the importance of conformational heterogeneity for KcsA gating. PMID:27432996

  2. Inhibitors of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in guinea pig isolated ischemic hearts.

    PubMed

    Weyermann, A; Vollert, H; Busch, A E; Bleich, M; Gögelein, H

    2004-04-01

    During heart ischemia, ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the sarcolemmal membrane (sarcK(ATP)) open and cause shortening of the action potential duration. This creates heterogeneity of repolarization, being responsible for the development of re-entry arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, the aim is to develop selective blockers of the cardiac sarcK(ATP) channel. In the present study we established an in vitro model and classified 5 K(ATP) channel inhibitors with respect to their potency and selectivity between cardiomyocytes and the coronary vasculature and compared the results with inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR2A channels expressed in HEK293 cells, recorded with the Rb(+)-efflux methods. We used Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts, where low-flow ischemia plus hypoxia was performed by reducing the coronary flow (CF) to 1.2 ml/min and by gassing the perfusion solution with N(2) instead of O(2). Throughout the experiment, the monophasic action potential duration at 90% repolarization (MAPD(90)) was recorded. In separate experiments, high-flow hypoxia was produced by oxygen reduction in the perfusate from 95% to 20%, which caused an increase in the coronary flow. Under normoxic conditions, the substances glibenclamide, repaglinide, meglitinide, HMR 1402 and HMR 1098 (1 microM each) reduced the CF by 34%, 38%, 19%, 12% and 5%, respectively. The hypoxia-induced increase in CF was inhibited by the compounds half-maximally at 25 nM, approximately 200 nM, 600 nM, approximately 9 microM and >100 microM, respectively. In control experiments after 5 min low-flow ischemia plus hypoxia, the MAPD(90) shortened from 121+/-2 to 99+/-2 ms ( n=29). This shortening was half-maximally inhibited by the substances at concentrations of 95 nM, 74 nM, 400 nM, 110 nM and 550 nM, respectively. In HEK293 cells the Rb(+)-efflux through KIR6.2/SUR2A channels was inhibited by the compounds with IC(50) values of 21 nM, 67 nM, 205 nM, 60 nM and 181 nM, respectively. In summary, the

  3. Kinetic modeling of ion conduction in KcsA potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Mafé, Salvador; Pellicer, Julio; Cervera, Javier

    2005-05-22

    KcsA constitutes a potassium channel of known structure that shows both high conduction rates and selectivity among monovalent cations. A kinetic model for ion conduction through this channel that assumes rapid ion transport within the filter has recently been presented by Nelson. In a recent, brief communication, we used the model to provide preliminary explanations to the experimental current-voltage J-V and conductance-concentration g-S curves obtained for a series of monovalent ions (K(+),Tl(+), and Rb(+)). We did not assume rapid ion transport in the calculations, since ion transport within the selectivity filter could be rate limiting for ions other than native K(+). This previous work is now significantly extended to the following experimental problems. First, the outward rectification of the J-V curves in K(+) symmetrical solutions is analyzed using a generalized kinetic model. Second, the J-V and g-S curves for NH(4) (+) are obtained and compared with those of other ions (the NH(4) (+) J-V curve is qualitatively different from those of Rb(+) and Tl(+)). Third, the effects of Na(+) block on K(+) and Rb(+) currents through single KcsA channels are studied and the different blocking behavior is related to the values of the translocation rate constants characteristic of ion transport within the filter. Finally, the significantly decreased K(+) conductance caused by mutation of the wild-type channel is also explained in terms of this rate constant. In order to keep the number of model parameters to a minimum, we do not allow the electrical distance (an empirical parameter of kinetic models that controls the exponential voltage dependence of the dissociation rate) to vary with the ionic species. Without introducing the relatively high number of adjustable parameters of more comprehensive site-based models, we show that ion association to the filter is rate controlling at low concentrations, but ion dissociation from the filter and ion transport within the filter

  4. The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack is modulated by hypercapnia and acidosis.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, V A; Gu, X Q; Zhou, D; Douglas, R M; Sun, X; Trouth, C O; Haddad, G G

    2008-01-24

    Slack (Slo 2.2), a member of the Slo potassium channel family, is activated by both voltage and cytosolic factors, such as Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) and Cl(-) ([Cl(-)](i)). Since the Slo family is known to play a role in hypoxia, and since hypoxia/ischemia is associated with an increase in H(+) and CO(2) intracellularly, we hypothesized that the Slack channel may be affected by changes in intracellular concentrations of CO(2) and H(+). To examine this, we expressed the Slack channel in Xenopus oocytes and the Slo 2.2 protein was allowed to be inserted into the plasma membrane. Inside-out patch recordings were performed to examine the response of Slack to different CO(2) concentrations (0.038%, 5%, 12%) and to different pH levels (6.3, 6.8, 7.3, 7.8, 8.3). In the presence of low [Na(+)](i) (5 mM), the Slack channel open probability decreased when exposed to decreased pH or increased CO(2) in a dose-dependent fashion (from 0.28+/-0.03, n=3, at pH 7.3 to 0.006+/-0.005, n=3, P=0.0004, at pH 6.8; and from 0.65+/-0.17, n=3, at 0.038% CO(2) to 0.22+/-0.07, n=3, P=0.04 at 12% CO(2)). In the presence of high [Na(+)](i) (45 mM), Slack open probability increased (from 0.03+/-0.01 at 5 mM [Na(+)](i), n=3, to 0.11+/-0.01, n=3, P=0.01) even in the presence of decreased pH (6.3). Since Slack activity increases significantly when exposed to increased [Na(+)](i), even in presence of increased H(+), we propose that Slack may play an important role in pathological conditions during which there is an increase in the intracellular concentrations of both acid and Na(+), such as in ischemia/hypoxia.

  5. Terbinafine is a novel and selective activator of the two-pore domain potassium channel TASK3.

    PubMed

    Wright, Paul D; Veale, Emma L; McCoull, David; Tickle, David C; Large, Jonathan M; Ococks, Emma; Gothard, Gemma; Kettleborough, Catherine; Mathie, Alistair; Jerman, Jeffrey

    2017-11-04

    Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2Ps) are characterized by their four transmembrane domain and two-pore topology. They carry background (or leak) potassium current in a variety of cell types. Despite a number of important roles there is currently a lack of pharmacological tools with which to further probe K2P function. We have developed a cell-based thallium flux assay, using baculovirus delivered TASK3 (TWIK-related acid-sensitive K + channel 3, KCNK9, K2P9.1) with the aim of identifying novel, selective TASK3 activators. After screening a library of 1000 compounds, including drug-like and FDA approved molecules, we identified Terbinafine as an activator of TASK3. In a thallium flux assay a pEC50 of 6.2 ( ±0.12) was observed. When Terbinafine was screened against TASK2, TREK2, THIK1, TWIK1 and TRESK no activation was observed in thallium flux assays. Several analogues of Terbinafine were also purchased and structure activity relationships examined. To confirm Terbinafine's activation of TASK3 whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology was carried out and clear potentiation observed in both the wild type channel and the pathophysiological, Birk-Barel syndrome associated, G236R TASK3 mutant. No activity at TASK1 was observed in electrophysiology studies. In conclusion, we have identified the first selective activator of the two-pore domain potassium channel TASK3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertebrate rod photoreceptors express both BK and IK calcium-activated potassium channels, but only BK channels are involved in receptor potential regulation.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Moriondo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    In salamander rods, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current (I(KCa)) provides an effective "clamp" of the dark membrane potential to its normal resting level. By a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and immunohistochemical approaches, we show that salamander rods functionally express large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channel and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent potassium (IK) channel, but not small-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent potassium channel (SK) subtypes. Application of 100 nM iberiotoxin and 100 nM clotrimazole reduced net I(KCa) to 36% and 63%, respectively, whereas the current was unaffected by application of 1 microM apamin. Consistently, anti- SK1, -SK2, and -SK3 antibodies were unable to stain rod photoreceptors, whereas both anti-BK and -SK4/ IK1 antibodies heavily stained the ellipsoid region of the inner segments of the rods. Moreover, by using current-clamp experiments, it was clearly seen that the strong clamping effect of the total I(KCa) was lost when IbTx, but not CLTZ, was applied to the bath. This behavior strongly suggests that of BK and IK channels, only the former are responsible for the clamping effect on the photoreceptor membrane potential.

  7. Modeling-independent elucidation of inactivation pathways in recombinant and native A-type Kv channels.

    PubMed

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D; Ritter, David M; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2012-11-01

    A-type voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na(+) channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously

  8. Modeling-independent elucidation of inactivation pathways in recombinant and native A-type Kv channels

    PubMed Central

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D.; Ritter, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A-type voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na+ channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously

  9. Voltage-dependent gating of KCNH potassium channels lacking a covalent link between voltage-sensing and pore domains.

    PubMed

    Lörinczi, Éva; Gómez-Posada, Juan Camilo; de la Peña, Pilar; Tomczak, Adam P; Fernández-Trillo, Jorge; Leipscher, Ulrike; Stühmer, Walter; Barros, Francisco; Pardo, Luis A

    2015-03-30

    Voltage-gated channels open paths for ion permeation upon changes in membrane potential, but how voltage changes are coupled to gating is not entirely understood. Two modules can be recognized in voltage-gated potassium channels, one responsible for voltage sensing (transmembrane segments S1 to S4), the other for permeation (S5 and S6). It is generally assumed that the conversion of a conformational change in the voltage sensor into channel gating occurs through the intracellular S4-S5 linker that provides physical continuity between the two regions. Using the pathophysiologically relevant KCNH family, we show that truncated proteins interrupted at, or lacking the S4-S5 linker produce voltage-gated channels in a heterologous model that recapitulate both the voltage-sensing and permeation properties of the complete protein. These observations indicate that voltage sensing by the S4 segment is transduced to the channel gate in the absence of physical continuity between the modules.

  10. Voltage-dependent gating of KCNH potassium channels lacking a covalent link between voltage-sensing and pore domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lörinczi, Éva; Gómez-Posada, Juan Camilo; de La Peña, Pilar; Tomczak, Adam P.; Fernández-Trillo, Jorge; Leipscher, Ulrike; Stühmer, Walter; Barros, Francisco; Pardo, Luis A.

    2015-03-01

    Voltage-gated channels open paths for ion permeation upon changes in membrane potential, but how voltage changes are coupled to gating is not entirely understood. Two modules can be recognized in voltage-gated potassium channels, one responsible for voltage sensing (transmembrane segments S1 to S4), the other for permeation (S5 and S6). It is generally assumed that the conversion of a conformational change in the voltage sensor into channel gating occurs through the intracellular S4-S5 linker that provides physical continuity between the two regions. Using the pathophysiologically relevant KCNH family, we show that truncated proteins interrupted at, or lacking the S4-S5 linker produce voltage-gated channels in a heterologous model that recapitulate both the voltage-sensing and permeation properties of the complete protein. These observations indicate that voltage sensing by the S4 segment is transduced to the channel gate in the absence of physical continuity between the modules.

  11. The polar T1 interface is linked to conformational changes that open the voltage-gated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Minor, D L; Lin, Y F; Mobley, B C; Avelar, A; Jan, Y N; Jan, L Y; Berger, J M

    2000-09-01

    Kv voltage-gated potassium channels share a cytoplasmic assembly domain, T1. Recent mutagenesis of two T1 C-terminal loop residues implicates T1 in channel gating. However, structural alterations of these mutants leave open the question concerning direct involvement of T1 in gating. We find in mammalian Kv1.2 that gating depends critically on residues at complementary T1 surfaces in an unusually polar interface. An isosteric mutation in this interface causes surprisingly little structural alteration while stabilizing the closed channel and increasing the stability of T1 tetramers. Replacing T1 with a tetrameric coiled-coil destabilizes the closed channel. Together, these data suggest that structural changes involving the buried polar T1 surfaces play a key role in the conformational changes leading to channel opening.

  12. β Subunits Control the Effects of Human Kv4.3 Potassium Channel Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2017-01-01

    The transient outward K + current, I to , activates early in the cardiac myocyte action potential, to begin repolarization. Human I to is generated primarily by two Kv4.3 potassium channel α subunit splice variants (Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S) that diverge only by a C-terminal, membrane-proximal, 19-residue stretch unique to Kv4.3L. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of threonine 504 within the Kv4.3L-specific 19-residues mediates α-adrenergic inhibition of I to in human heart. Kv4.3 is regulated in human heart by various β subunits, including cytosolic KChIP2b and transmembrane KCNEs, yet their impact on the functional effects of human Kv4.3 phosphorylation has not been reported. Here, this gap in knowledge was addressed using human Kv4.3 splice variants, T504 mutants, and human β subunits. Subunits were co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and analyzed by two-electrode voltage-clamp, using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to stimulate PKC. Unexpectedly, KChIP2b removed the inhibitory effect of PKC on Kv4.3L (but not Kv4.3L threonine phosphorylation by PKC per-se ), while co-expression with KCNE2, but not KCNE4, restored PKC-dependent inhibition of Kv4.3L-KChIP2b to quantitatively resemble previously reported effects of α-adrenergic modulation of human ventricular I to . In addition, PKC accelerated recovery from inactivation of Kv4.3L-KChIP2b channels and, interestingly, of both Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S alone. Thus, β subunits regulate the response of human Kv4.3 to PKC phosphorylation and provide a potential mechanism for modifying the response of I to to α-adrenergic regulation in vivo .

  13. β Subunits Control the Effects of Human Kv4.3 Potassium Channel Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    The transient outward K+ current, Ito, activates early in the cardiac myocyte action potential, to begin repolarization. Human Ito is generated primarily by two Kv4.3 potassium channel α subunit splice variants (Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S) that diverge only by a C-terminal, membrane-proximal, 19-residue stretch unique to Kv4.3L. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of threonine 504 within the Kv4.3L-specific 19-residues mediates α-adrenergic inhibition of Ito in human heart. Kv4.3 is regulated in human heart by various β subunits, including cytosolic KChIP2b and transmembrane KCNEs, yet their impact on the functional effects of human Kv4.3 phosphorylation has not been reported. Here, this gap in knowledge was addressed using human Kv4.3 splice variants, T504 mutants, and human β subunits. Subunits were co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and analyzed by two-electrode voltage-clamp, using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to stimulate PKC. Unexpectedly, KChIP2b removed the inhibitory effect of PKC on Kv4.3L (but not Kv4.3L threonine phosphorylation by PKC per-se), while co-expression with KCNE2, but not KCNE4, restored PKC-dependent inhibition of Kv4.3L-KChIP2b to quantitatively resemble previously reported effects of α-adrenergic modulation of human ventricular Ito. In addition, PKC accelerated recovery from inactivation of Kv4.3L-KChIP2b channels and, interestingly, of both Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S alone. Thus, β subunits regulate the response of human Kv4.3 to PKC phosphorylation and provide a potential mechanism for modifying the response of Ito to α-adrenergic regulation in vivo. PMID:28919864

  14. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibodies in Slow-Progression Motor Neuron Disease.

    PubMed

    Godani, Massimiliano; Zoccarato, Marco; Beronio, Alessandro; Zuliani, Luigi; Benedetti, Luana; Giometto, Bruno; Del Sette, Massimo; Raggio, Elisa; Baldi, Roberta; Vincent, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of autoimmune neurological diseases associated with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies (Abs) ranges from peripheral nerve disorders to limbic encephalitis. Recently, low titers of VGKC-complex Abs have also been reported in neurodegenerative disorders, but their clinical relevance is unknown. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of VGKC-complex Abs in slow-progression motor neuron disease (MND). We compared 11 patients affected by slow-progression MND with 9 patients presenting typical progression illness. Sera were tested for VGKC-complex Abs by radioimmunoassay. The distribution of VGKC-complex Abs was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the mean values in the study and control groups. A case with long-survival MND harboring VGKC-complex Abs and treated with intravenous immunoglobulins is described. Although VGKC-complex Abs are not likely to be pathogenic, these results could reflect the coexistence of an immunological activation in patients with slow disease progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Delayed LGI1 seropositivity in voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibody limbic encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Michael; Galli, Jonathan; McNally, Scott; Tebo, Anne; Haven, Thomas; Thulin, Perla; Clardy, Stacey L

    2017-01-01

    We utilise a clinical case to highlight why exclusion of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex autoantibody testing in serological evaluation of patients may delay or miss the diagnosis. A 68-year-old man presented with increasing involuntary movements consistent with faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Initial evaluation demonstrated VGKC antibody seropositivity with leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) seronegativity. Aggressive immunotherapy with methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis was started early in the course of his presentation. Following treatment with immunotherapy, the patient demonstrated clinical improvement. Repeat serum evaluation 4 months posthospitalisation remained seropositive for VGKC-complex antibodies, with development of LGI1 autoantibody seropositivity. VGKC-complex and LGI1 antibodies remained positive 12 months posthospitalisation. Our findings suggest that clinical symptoms can predate the detection of the antibody. We conclude that when suspicion for autoimmune encephalitis is high in the setting of VGKC autoantibody positivity, regardless of LGI1 or CASPR2 seropositivity, early immunotherapy and repeat testing should be considered. PMID:28432047

  16. Delayed LGI1 seropositivity in voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibody limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Michael; Galli, Jonathan; McNally, Scott; Tebo, Anne; Haven, Thomas; Thulin, Perla; Clardy, Stacey L

    2017-04-20

    We utilise a clinical case to highlight why exclusion of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex autoantibody testing in serological evaluation of patients may delay or miss the diagnosis. A 68-year-old man presented with increasing involuntary movements consistent with faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Initial evaluation demonstrated VGKC antibody seropositivity with leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) seronegativity. Aggressive immunotherapy with methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis was started early in the course of his presentation. Following treatment with immunotherapy, the patient demonstrated clinical improvement. Repeat serum evaluation 4 months posthospitalisation remained seropositive for VGKC-complex antibodies, with development of LGI1 autoantibody seropositivity. VGKC-complex and LGI1 antibodies remained positive 12 months posthospitalisation. Our findings suggest that clinical symptoms can predate the detection of the antibody. We conclude that when suspicion for autoimmune encephalitis is high in the setting of VGKC autoantibody positivity, regardless of LGI1 or CASPR2 seropositivity, early immunotherapy and repeat testing should be considered. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. The value of LGI1, Caspr2 and voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies in encephalitis.

    PubMed

    van Sonderen, Agnes; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Dalmau, Josep; Titulaer, Maarten J

    2017-05-01

    The discovery, in 2010, of autoantibodies against the extracellular proteins LGI1 and Caspr2 facilitated a change of view regarding the clinical importance of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies. Currently, these antibodies are all classified as VGKC-complex antibodies, and are commonly considered to have a similar clinical value. However, studies from the past few years show that the immune responses mediated by these antibodies have differing clinical relevance. Here, we review the clinical importance of these immune responses in three settings: patients with anti-LGI1 antibodies, patients with anti-Caspr2 antibodies, and patients with antibodies against the VGKC complex that lack LGI1 and Caspr2 specificity. Antibodies against LGI1 and Caspr2 are associated with different but well-defined syndromes, whereas the clinical importance of VGKC-complex antibodies without LGI1 and Caspr2 specificity is questionable. We describe each of these syndromes, discuss the function of the target antigens and review the limited paediatric literature on the topic. The findings emphasize the importance of defining these disorders according to the molecular identity of the targets (LGI1 or Caspr2), and caution against the use of VGKC-complex antibodies for the diagnosis and treatment of patients without further definition of the antigen.

  18. More than Memory Impairment in Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bettcher, Brianne M.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.; Irani, Sarosh R.; Neuhaus, John; Forner, Sven; Hess, Christopher P.; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autoimmune encephalopathies (AE) are a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders that affect cognition. Although memory difficulties are commonly endorsed, few reports of AE inclusively assess all cognitive domains in detail. Our aim was to perform an unbiased cognitive evaluation of AE patients with voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies (VGKCC-Abs) in order to delineate cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Methods We assessed serial VGKCC-Abs AE subjects (n=12) with a comprehensive evaluation of memory, executive functions, visuospatial skills, and language. Clinical MRI (n=10/12) was evaluated. Five subjects had serial cognitive testing available, permitting descriptive analysis of change. Results Subjects demonstrated mild to moderate impairment in memory (mean Z=−1.9) and executive functions (mean Z=−1.5), with variable impairments in language and sparing of visuospatial skills. MRI findings showed T2 hyperintensities in medial temporal lobe (10/10) and basal ganglia (2/10). Serial cognitive examination revealed heterogeneity in cognitive function; whereas most patients improved in one or more domains, residual impairments were observed in some patients. Conclusions This study augments prior neuropsychological analyses in VGKCC-Ab AE by identifying not only memory and executive function deficits, but also language impairments, with preservation of visuospatial functioning. This study further highlights the importance of domain-specific testing to parse out the complex cognitive phenotypes of VGKCC-Ab AE. PMID:24981998

  19. [Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel-Complex Antibodies Associated Encephalopathy and Related Diseases].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibodies are auto-antibodies, initially identified in acquired neuromyotonia (aNMT; Isaacs' syndrome), which cause muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. Subsequently, these antibodies were found in patients presenting with aNMT along with psychosis, insomnia, and dysautonomia, collectively termed Morvan's syndrome (MoS), and in a limbic encephalopathy (LE) patient with prominent amnesia and frequent seizures. Typical LE cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). The VGKC complex is a group of proteins that are strongly associated in situ and after extraction in the mild detergent digitonin. Recent studies indicated that the VGKC complex antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI1, Caspr2) that complex with VGKCs themselves. Patients with aNMT or MoS are most likely to have Caspr2 antibodies, whereas LGI1 antibodies are found characteristically in patients with FBDS and LE. We systematically identified and quantified autoantibodies in patient sera with VGKC-complex antibody associated encephalopathy and showed the relationship between individual antibodies and patient's symptoms. Furthermore, we revealed how autoantibodies disrupt the physiological functions of target proteins. LGI1 antibodies neutralize the interaction between LGI1 and ADAM22, reducing the synaptic AMPA receptors.

  20. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Urbach, H; Rauer, S; Mader, I; Paus, S; Wagner, J; Malter, M P; Prüss, H; Lewerenz, J; Kassubek, J; Hegen, H; Auer, M; Deisenhammer, F; Ufer, F; Bien, C G; Baumgartner, A

    2015-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE.

  1. Anti-voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.4 antibodies in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Romi, Fredrik; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Norihiro; Petzold, Axel; Plant, Gordon T; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2012-07-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by skeletal muscle weakness mainly caused by acetylcholine receptor antibodies. MG can be divided into generalized and ocular, and into early-onset (<50 years of age) and late-onset (≥50 years of age). Anti-Kv1.4 antibodies targeting α-subunits (Kv1.4) of the voltage-gated potassium K(+) channel occurs frequently among patients with severe MG, accounting for 18% of a Japanese MG population. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features and serological associations of anti-Kv1.4 antibodies in a Caucasian MG population with mild and localized MG. Serum samples from 129 Caucasian MG patients with mainly ocular symptoms were tested for the presence of anti-Kv1.4 antibodies and compared to clinical and serological parameters. There were 22 (17%) anti-Kv1.4 antibody-positive patients, most of them women with late-onset MG, and all of them with mild MG. This contrasts to the Japanese anti-Kv1.4 antibody-positive patients who suffered from severe MG with bulbar symptoms, myasthenic crisis, thymoma, myocarditis and prolonged QT time on electrocardiography, despite equal anti-Kv1.4 antibody occurrence in both populations. No other clinical or serological parameters influenced anti-Kv1.4 antibody occurrence.

  2. Mechanism of inhibition of mouse Slo3 (KCa 5.1) potassium channels by quinine, quinidine and barium.

    PubMed

    Wrighton, David C; Muench, Stephen P; Lippiat, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    The Slo3 (KCa 5.1) channel is a major component of mammalian KSper (sperm potassium conductance) channels and inhibition of these channels by quinine and barium alters sperm motility. The aim of this investigation was to determine the mechanism by which these drugs inhibit Slo3 channels. Mouse (m) Slo3 (KCa 5.1) channels or mutant forms were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and currents recorded with 2-electrode voltage-clamp. Gain-of-function mSlo3 mutations were used to explore the state-dependence of the inhibition. The interaction between quinidine and mSlo3 channels was modelled by in silico docking. Several drugs known to block KSper also affected mSlo3 channels with similar levels of inhibition. The inhibition induced by extracellular barium was prevented by increasing the extracellular potassium concentration. R196Q and F304Y mutations in the mSlo3 voltage sensor and pore, respectively, both increased channel activity. The F304Y mutation did not alter the effects of barium, but increased the potency of inhibition by both quinine and quinidine approximately 10-fold; this effect was not observed with the R196Q mutation. Block of mSlo3 channels by quinine, quinidine and barium is not state-dependent. Barium inhibits mSlo3 outside the cell by interacting with the selectivity filter, whereas quinine and quinidine act from the inside, by binding in a hydrophobic pocket formed by the S6 segment of each subunit. Furthermore, we propose that the Slo3 channel activation gate lies deep within the pore between F304 in the S6 segment and the selectivity filter. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels Kv1.3--Potentially New Molecular Target in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Teisseyre, Andrzej; Gąsiorowska, Justyna; Michalak, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels, Kv1.3, which were discovered in 1984, are integral membrane proteins which are activated ("open") upon change of the cell membrane potential, enabling a passive flux of potassium ions across the cell membrane. The channels are expressed in many different tissues, both normal and cancer. Since 2005 it has been known that the channels are expressed not only in the plasma membrane, but also in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The activity of Kv1.3 channels plays an important role, among others, in setting the cell resting membrane potential, cell proliferation, apoptosis and volume regulation. For some years, these channels have been considered a potentially new molecular target in both the diagnostics and therapy of some cancer diseases. This review article focuses on: 1) changes of expression of the channels in cancer disorders with special regard to correlations between the channels' expression and stage of the disease, 2) influence of inhibitors of Kv1.3 channels on proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, 3) possible future applications of Kv1.3 channels' inhibitors in therapy of some cancer diseases. In the last section, the results of studies performed in our Laboratory of Bioelectricity on the influence of selected biologically active plant-derived compounds from the groups of flavonoids and stilbenes and their natural and synthetic derivatives on the activity of Kv1.3 channels in normal and cancer cells are reviewed. A possible application of some compounds from these groups to support therapy of cancer diseases, such as breast, colon and lymph node cancer, and melanoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), is announced.

  4. Distribution, expression and functional effects of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) channels in rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Noble, Karen; Floyd, Rachel; Shmygol, Andre; Shmygol, Anatoly; Mobasheri, A; Wray, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels are important in a variety of smooth muscles, contributing to excitability and contractility. In the myometrium previous work has focussed on the large conductance channels (BK), and the role of small conductance channels (SK) has received scant attention, despite the finding that over-expression of an SK channel isoform (SK3) results in uterine dysfunction and delayed parturition. This study therefore characterises the expression of the three SK channel isoforms (SK1-3) in rat myometrium throughout pregnancy and investigates their effect on cytosolic [Ca] and force and compares this with that of BK channels. Consistent expression of all SK isoform transcripts and clear immunostaining of SK1-3 was found. Inhibition of SK1-3 channels (apamin, scyllatoxin) significantly inhibited outward current, caused membrane depolarisation and elicited action potentials in previously quiescent cells. Apamin or scyllatoxin increased the amplitude of [Ca] and force in spontaneously contracting myometrial strips throughout gestation. The functional effect of SK inhibition was larger than that of BK channel inhibition. Thus we show for the first time that SK1-3 channels are expressed and translated throughout pregnancy and contribute to outward current, regulate membrane potential and hence Ca signals in pregnant rat myometrium. They contribute more to quiescence that BK channels. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of inter-residue contacts reveals folding stabilizers in P-loops of potassium, sodium, and TRPV channels.

    PubMed

    Korkosh, V S; Zhorov, B S; Tikhonov, D B

    2016-05-01

    The family of P-loop channels includes potassium, sodium, calcium, cyclic nucleotide-gated and TRPV channels, as well as ionotropic glutamate receptors. Despite vastly different physiological and pharmacological properties, the channels have structurally conserved folding of the pore domain. Furthermore, crystallographic data demonstrate surprisingly similar mutual disposition of transmembrane and membrane-diving helices. To understand determinants of this conservation, here we have compared available high-resolution structures of sodium, potassium, and TRPV1 channels. We found that some residues, which are in matching positions of the sequence alignment, occur in different positions in the 3D alignment. Surprisingly, we found 3D mismatches in well-packed P-helices. Analysis of energetics of individual residues in Monte Carlo minimized structures revealed cyclic patterns of energetically favorable inter- and intra-subunit contacts of P-helices with S6 helices. The inter-subunit contacts are rather conserved in all the channels, whereas the intra-subunit contacts are specific for particular types of the channels. Our results suggest that these residue-residue contacts contribute to the folding stabilization. Analysis of such contacts is important for structural and phylogenetic studies of homologous proteins.

  6. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. C. Nomenclature and Properties of Calcium-Activated and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Aldrich, Richard W; Chandy, K George; Grissmer, Stephan; Wei, Aguan D; Wulff, Heike

    2017-01-01

    A subset of potassium channels is regulated primarily by changes in the cytoplasmic concentration of ions, including calcium, sodium, chloride, and protons. The eight members of this subfamily were originally all designated as calcium-activated channels. More recent studies have clarified the gating mechanisms for these channels and have documented that not all members are sensitive to calcium. This article describes the molecular relationships between these channels and provides an introduction to their functional properties. It also introduces a new nomenclature that differentiates between calcium- and sodium-activated potassium channels. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Roles of somatic A-type K(+) channels in the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoon-Sil; Kim, Kyeong-Deok; Eun, Su-Yong; Jung, Sung-Cherl

    2014-06-01

    In the mammalian brain, information encoding and storage have been explained by revealing the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at various levels in the central nervous system, including the hippocampus and the cerebral cortices. The modulatory mechanisms of synaptic excitability that are correlated with neuronal tasks are fundamental factors for synaptic plasticity, and they are dependent on intracellular Ca(2+)-mediated signaling. In the present review, the A-type K(+) (IA) channel, one of the voltage-dependent cation channels, is considered as a key player in the modulation of Ca(2+) influx through synaptic NMDA receptors and their correlated signaling pathways. The cellular functions of IA channels indicate that they possibly play as integral parts of synaptic and somatic complexes, completing the initiation and stabilization of memory.

  8. Effects of Potassium Channel Blockers on the Negative Inotropic Responses Induced by Cromakalim and Pinacidil in Guinea Pig Atrium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    RD-A2•4 875 EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS ON THE NEGATIVE 1/1 INOTROPIC RESPONSES INDUCED BY CRONAKALIM RND PINACIDIL IN GUINEA PIG ATRIUM(U...INOTROPICTRSPONSES INDUCED BY CROMAKAUM AND PINACIDILIN GUINEA PIG ATRIUM a AUTHOR WAI-MAN LAU 7 FORMING ORG NAMES/ADDRESSES DEFENCE SCIENCE AND a...and Technology Organisaio Aot Val. Negative Inotropic Responses Victoria. Australia Induced by Cromakalim and Pinacidil in Guinea Pig Atrium Key

  9. A novel muscarinic receptor-independent mechanism of KCNQ2/3 potassium channel blockade by Oxotremorine-M.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Ruud; Reed, Hannah; Clarke, Sophie; Sher, Emanuele

    2016-11-15

    Inhibition of KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channels by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors has been well established, and the ion currents through these channels have been long known as M-currents. We found that this cross-talk can be reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes by co-transfection of human recombinant muscarinic M1 receptors and KCNQ2/3 potassium channels. Application of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist Oxotremorine-methiodide (Oxo-M) between voltage pulses to activate KCNQ2/3 channels caused inhibition of the subsequent KCNQ2/3 responses. This effect of Oxo-M was blocked by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. We also found that KCNQ2/3 currents were inhibited when Oxo-M was applied during an ongoing KCNQ2/3 response, an effect that was not blocked by atropine, suggesting that Oxo-M inhibits KCNQ2/3 channels directly. Indeed, also in oocytes that were transfected with only KCNQ2/3 channels, but not with muscarinic M1 receptors, Oxo-M inhibited the KCNQ2/3 response. These results show that besides the usual muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated inhibition, Oxo-M also inhibits KCNQ2/3 channels by a direct mechanism. We subsequently tested xanomeline, which is a chemically distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, and oxotremorine, which is a close analogue of Oxo-M. Both compounds inhibited KCNQ2/3 currents via activation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors but, in contrast to Oxo-M, they did not directly inhibit KCNQ2/3 channels. Xanomeline and oxotremorine do not contain a positively charged trimethylammonium moiety that is present in Oxo-M, suggesting that such a charged moiety could be a crucial component mediating this newly described direct inhibition of KCNQ2/3 channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic, nonlinear feedback regulation of slow pacemaking by A-type potassium current in ventral tegmental area neurons.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Zayd M; Bean, Bruce P

    2008-10-22

    We analyzed ionic currents that regulate pacemaking in dopaminergic neurons of the mouse ventral tegmental area by comparing voltage trajectories during spontaneous firing with ramp-evoked currents in voltage clamp. Most recordings were made in brain slice, with key experiments repeated using acutely dissociated neurons, which gave identical results. During spontaneous firing, net ionic current flowing between spikes was calculated from the time derivative of voltage multiplied by cell capacitance, signal-averaged over many firing cycles to enhance resolution. Net inward interspike current had a distinctive nonmonotonic shape, reaching a minimum (generally <1 pA) between -60 and -55 mV. Under voltage clamp, ramps over subthreshold voltages elicited a time- and voltage-dependent outward current that peaked near -55 mV. This current was undetectable with 5 mV/s ramps and increased steeply with depolarization rate over the range (10-50 mV/s) typical of natural pacemaking. Ramp-evoked subthreshold current was resistant to alpha-dendrotoxin, paxilline, apamin, and tetraethylammonium but sensitive to 4-aminopyridine and 0.5 mM Ba2+, consistent with A-type potassium current (I(A)). Same-cell comparison of currents elicited by various ramp speeds with natural spontaneous depolarization showed how the steep dependence of I(A) on depolarization rate results in small net inward currents during pacemaking. These results reveal a mechanism in which subthreshold I(A) is near zero at steady state, but is engaged at depolarization rates >10 mV/s to act as a powerful, supralinear feedback element. This feedback mechanism explains how net ionic current can be constrained to <1-2 pA but reliably inward, thus enabling slow, regular firing.

  11. Sodium-dependent potassium channels of a Slack-like subtype contribute to the slow afterhyperpolarization in lamprey spinal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wallén, Peter; Robertson, Brita; Cangiano, Lorenzo; Löw, Peter; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Grillner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) following the action potential is the main determinant of spike frequency regulation. The sAHP after single action potentials in neurons of the lamprey locomotor network is largely due to calcium-dependent K+ channels (80%), activated by calcium entering the cell during the spike. The residual (20%) component becomes prominent during high level activity (50% of the sAHP). It is not Ca2+ dependent, has a reversal potential like that of potassium, and is not affected by chloride injection. It is not due to rapid activation of Na+/K+-ATPase. This non-KCa-sAHP is reduced markedly in amplitude when sodium ions are replaced by lithium ions, and is thus sodium dependent. Quinidine also blocks this sAHP component, further indicating an involvement of sodium-dependent potassium channels (KNa). Modulators tested do not influence the KNa-sAHP amplitude. Immunofluorescence labelling with an anti-Slack antibody revealed distinct immunoreactivity of medium-sized and large neurons in the grey matter of the lamprey spinal cord, suggesting the presence of a Slack-like subtype of KNa channel. The results strongly indicate that a KNa potassium current contributes importantly to the sAHP and thereby to neuronal frequency regulation during high level burst activity as during locomotion. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a functional role for the Slack gene in contributing to the slow AHP. PMID:17884929

  12. The role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cellular function and protection in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Andrew; Aziz, Qadeer; Thomas, Alison

    2014-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) are widely distributed and present in a number of tissues including muscle, pancreatic beta cells and the brain. Their activity is regulated by adenine nucleotides, characteristically being activated by falling ATP and rising ADP levels. Thus, they link cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. Recent studies using genetically modified mice and genomic studies in patients have implicated K(ATP) channels in a number of physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we focus on their role in cellular function and protection particularly in the cardiovascular system. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Rhynchophylline from Uncaria rhynchophylla functionally turns delayed rectifiers into A-Type K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chun-Hsiao; Gong, Chi-Li; Chao, Chia-Chia; Lin, Chia-Huei; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2009-05-22

    Rhynchophylline (1), a neuroprotective agent isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Uncaria rhynchophylla, was shown to affect voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel slow inactivation in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells. Extracellular 1 (30 microM) accelerated the slow decay of Kv currents and shifted the steady-state inactivation curve to the left. Intracellular dialysis of 1 did not accelerate the slow current decay, suggesting that this compound acts extracellularly. In addition, the percent blockage of Kv currents by this substance was independent of the degree of depolarization and the intracellular K(+) concentration. Therefore, 1 did not appear to directly block the outer channel pore, with the results obtained suggesting that it drastically accelerated Kv channel slow inactivation. Interestingly, 1 also shifted the activation curve to the left. This alkaloid also strongly accelerated slow inactivation and caused a left shift of the activation curve of Kv1.2 channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Thus, this compound functionally turned delayed rectifiers into A-type K(+) channels.

  14. Identification of a key residue in Kv7.1 potassium channel essential for sensing external potassium ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenying; Flores, Maria Cristina Perez; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Zhang, Yinuo; Doyle, Karen J; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Yamoah, Ebenezer N

    2015-03-01

    Kv7.1 voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are present in the apical membranes of marginal cells of the stria vascularis of the inner ear, where they mediate K(+) efflux into the scala media (cochlear duct) of the cochlea. As such, they are exposed to the K(+)-rich (∼ 150 mM of external K(+) (K(+) e)) environment of the endolymph. Previous studies have shown that Kv7.1 currents are substantially suppressed by high K(+) e (independent of the effects of altering the electrochemical gradient). However, the molecular basis for this inhibition, which is believed to involve stabilization of an inactivated state, remains unclear. Using sequence alignment of S5-pore linkers of several Kv channels, we identified a key residue, E290, found in only a few Kv channels including Kv7.1. We used substituted cysteine accessibility methods and patch-clamp analysis to provide evidence that the ability of Kv7.1 to sense K(+) e depends on E290, and that the charge at this position is essential for Kv7.1's K(+) e sensitivity. We propose that Kv7.1 may use this feedback mechanism to maintain the magnitude of the endocochlear potential, which boosts the driving force to generate the receptor potential of hair cells. The implications of our findings transcend the auditory system; mutations at this position also result in long QT syndrome in the heart. © 2015 Wang et al.

  15. The Segregated Expression of Voltage-Gated Potassium and Sodium Channels in Neuronal Membranes: Functional Implications and Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Duménieu, Maël; Oulé, Marie; Kreutz, Michael R.; Lopez-Rojas, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells with apparent functional and morphological differences between dendrites and axon. A critical determinant for the molecular and functional identity of axonal and dendritic segments is the restricted expression of voltage-gated ion channels (VGCs). Several studies show an uneven distribution of ion channels and their differential regulation within dendrites and axons, which is a prerequisite for an appropriate integration of synaptic inputs and the generation of adequate action potential (AP) firing patterns. This review article will focus on the signaling pathways leading to segmented expression of voltage-gated potassium and sodium ion channels at the neuronal plasma membrane and the regulatory mechanisms ensuring segregated functions. We will also discuss the relevance of proper ion channel targeting for neuronal physiology and how alterations in polarized distribution contribute to neuronal pathology. PMID:28484374

  16. Molecular basis for the toxin insensitivity of scorpion voltage-gated potassium channel MmKv1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuangeng; Xie, Zili; Li, Xinxin; Chen, Jing; Feng, Jing; Lang, Yange; Yang, Weishan; Li, Wenxin; Chen, Zongyun; Yao, Jing; Cao, Zhijian; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-05-01

    Scorpions are insensitive to their own venoms, which contain various neurotoxins specific for mammalian or insect ion channels, whose molecular mechanism remains unsolved. Using MmKv1, a potassium channel identified from the genome of the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii, channel kinetic experiments showed that MmKv1 was a classical voltage-gated potassium channel with a voltage-dependent fast activation and slow inactivation. Compared with the human Kv1.3 channel (hKv1.3), the MmKv1 channel exhibited a remarkable insensitivity to both scorpion venom and toxin. The chimaeric channels of MmKv1 and hKv1.3 revealed that both turret and filter regions of the MmKv1 channel were critical for the toxin insensitivity of MmKv1. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the chimaeric channel indicated that two basic residues (Arg(399) and Lys(403)) in the MmKv1 turret region and Arg(425) in the MmKv1 filter region significantly affected its toxin insensitivity. Moreover, when these three basic residues of MmKv1 were simultaneously substituted with the corresponding residues from hKv1.3, the MmKv1-R399T/K403S/R425H mutant channels exhibited similar sensitivity to both scorpion venom and toxin to hKv1.3, which revealed the determining role of these three basic residues in the toxin insensitivity of the MmKv1 channel. More strikingly, a similar triad sequence structure is present in all Shaker-like channels from venomous invertebrates, which suggested a possible convergent functional evolution of these channels to enable them to resist their own venoms. Together, these findings first illustrate the mechanism by which scorpions are insensitive to their own venoms at the ion channel receptor level and enrich our knowledge of the insensitivity of scorpions and other venomous animals to their own venoms. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Vascular ATP-sensitive potassium channels are over-expressed and partially regulated by nitric oxide in experimental septic shock.

    PubMed

    Collin, Solène; Sennoun, Nacira; Dron, Anne-Gaëlle; de la Bourdonnaye, Mathilde; Montemont, Chantal; Asfar, Pierre; Lacolley, Patrick; Meziani, Ferhat; Levy, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    To study the activation and expression of vascular (aorta and small mesenteric arteries) potassium channels during septic shock with or without modulation of the NO pathway. Septic shock was induced in rats by peritonitis. Selective inhibitors of vascular K(ATP) (PNU-37883A) or BK(Ca) [iberiotoxin (IbTX)] channels were used to demonstrate their involvement in vascular hyporeactivity. Vascular response to phenylephrine was measured on aorta and small mesenteric arteries mounted on a wire myograph. Vascular expression of potassium channels was studied by PCR and Western blot, in the presence or absence of 1400W, an inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor. Aortic activation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Arterial pressure as well as in vivo and ex vivo vascular reactivity were reduced by sepsis and improved by PNU-37883A but not by IbTX. Sepsis was associated with an up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of vascular K(ATP) channels, while expression of vascular BK(Ca) channels remained unchanged. Selective iNOS inhibition blunted the sepsis-induced increase in aortic NO, decreased NF-κB activation, and down-regulated vascular K(ATP) channel expression. Vascular K(ATP) but not BK(Ca) channels are activated, over-expressed, and partially regulated by NO via NF-κB activation during septic shock. Their selective inhibition restores arterial pressure and vascular reactivity and decreases lactate concentration. The present data suggest that selective vascular K(ATP) channel inhibitors offer potential therapeutic perspectives for septic shock.

  18. [Current Perspective on Voltage-gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibody Associated Diseases].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2018-04-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex auto-antibodies were initially identified in Isaacs' syndrome (IS), which is characterized by muscle cramps and neuromyotonia. These antibodies were subsequently identified in patients with Morvan's syndrome (MoS), which includes IS in conjunction with psychosis, insomnia, and dysautonomia. The antibodies have also been detected in a patient with limbic encephalopathy (LE) presenting with prominent amnesia and frequent seizures. Typical cases of LE have adult-onset, with frequent, brief dystonic seizures that predominantly affect the arms and ipsilateral face, and has recently been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Autoantibodies against the extracellular domains of VGKC complex proteins, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), and contactin-associated protein-2 (Caspr2), occur in patients with IS, MoS, and LE. However, routine testing has detected VGKC complex antibodies without LGI1 or Caspr2 reactivities (double-negative) in patients with other diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, double-negative VGKC complex antibodies are often directed against cytosolic epitopes of Kv1 subunits. Therefore, these antibodies should no longer be classified as neuronal-surface antibodies and lacking pathogenic potential. Novel information has been generated regarding autoantibody disruption of the physiological functions of target proteins. LGI1 antibodies neutralize the interaction between LGI1 and ADAM22, thereby reducing the synaptic AMPA receptors. It may be that the main action is on inhibitory neurons, explaining why the loss of AMPA receptors causes amnesia, neuronal excitability and seizures.

  19. MicroRNA-210 contributes to preeclampsia by downregulating potassium channel modulatory factor 1.

    PubMed

    Luo, Rongcan; Shao, Xuan; Xu, Peng; Liu, Yanlei; Wang, Yongqing; Zhao, Yangyu; Liu, Ming; Ji, Lei; Li, Yu-Xia; Chang, Cheng; Qiao, Jie; Peng, Chun; Wang, Yan-Ling

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as the initial cause of the disorder. Recently, microRNA-210 (miR-210) has been found to be upregulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal placentas, indicating a possible association of this small molecule with the placental pathology of preeclampsia. However, the function of miR-210 in the development of the placenta remains elusive. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanism of preeclampsia development by examining the role of miR-210. In this study, miR-210 and potassium channel modulatory factor 1 (KCMF1) expressions were compared in placentas from healthy pregnant individuals and patients with preeclampsia, and the role of miR-210 in trophoblast cell invasion via the downregulation of KCMF1 was investigated in the immortal trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo. The levels of KCMF1 were significantly lower in preeclamptic placenta tissues than in gestational week-matched normal placentas, which was inversely correlated with the level of miR-210. KCMF1 was validated as the direct target of miR-210 using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and dual luciferase assay in HTR8/SVneo cells. miR-210 inhibited the invasion of trophoblast cells, and this inhibition was abrogated by the overexpression of KCMF1. The inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor-α could upregulate miR-210 while suppressing KCMF1 expression in HTR8/SVneo cells. This is the first report on the function of KCMF1 in human placental trophoblast cells, and the data indicate that aberrant miR-210 expression may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia by interfering with KCMF1-mediated signaling in the human placenta. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Chronic pain as a manifestation of potassium channel-complex autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Vanda A.; Aston, Paula A.; McKeon, Andrew; Pittock, Sean J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autoantibodies targeting voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complexes cause a spectrum of neuronal hyperexcitability disorders. We investigated pain as a manifestation of VGKC-complex autoimmunity. Methods: We reviewed the prevalence and characteristics of pain in VGKC-complex-immunoglobulin G (IgG)–seropositive patients in 25 months of comprehensive service testing for neural autoantibodies, subtyped positive sera for LGI1-IgG and CASPR2-IgG specificities, and reviewed pain prevalence in autoimmune control patients. Results: VGKC-complex-IgG was identified in 1,992 patients of 54,853 tested (4%). Of 316 evaluated neurologically at Mayo Clinic, 159 (50%) had pain, in isolation (28%) or with accompanying neurologic manifestations (72%), and not attributable to alternative cause. Pain was subacute in onset, chronic in course, neuropathic, nociceptive, regional, or diffuse and sometimes attributed to fibromyalgia (6%) or psychogenic cause (13%). Most patients had normal peripheral nervous system function, measured by neuropathy impairment scores and nerve conduction. Evidence of neuronal hyperexcitability (hyperhidrosis, quantitative heat-pain hyperalgesia, or electromyographic excitability) was 25-fold more common in pain patients. Pain management required multiple medications in 70% (narcotics, 30%); 13 of 16 patients reported pain relief with immunotherapy. Pain was significantly associated with CASPR2-IgG-positivity (16% positive with pain, 7% without pain; p = 0.014) but not with LGI1-IgG. Less than 10% of 167 patients with neural autoantibodies other than VGKC-complex-IgG reported pain. Conclusions: Chronic idiopathic pain is a syndromic manifestation of VGKC-complex autoimmunity. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways is implicated. CASPR2-IgG significantly associates with pain, but in most patients the antigenic VGKC-complex molecule remains to be determined. VGKC-complex autoimmunity represents an important new direction for pain research

  1. Clinical spectrum and diagnostic value of antibodies against the potassium channel-related protein complex☆

    PubMed Central

    Montojo, M.T.; Petit-Pedrol, M.; Graus, F.; Dalmau, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antibodies against a protein complex that includes voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) have been reported in patients with limbic encephalitis, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, Morvan's syndrome, and a large variety of neurological syndromes. Review summary In this article, a review is presented of the syndromes associated with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins and the main antigens of this protein complex, the proteins LGI1 (leucine rich glioma inactivated protein 1) and Caspr2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2). The conceptual problems and clinical implications of the description of antibodies against VGKC-related proteins other than LGI1 and Caspr2 are also discussed. Although initial studies indicated the occurrence of antibodies against VGKC, recent investigations have shown that the main antigens are a neuronal secreted protein known as LGI1 which modulates synaptic excitability, and a protein called Caspr2 located on the cell surface and processes of neurons of different brain regions, and at the juxtaparanodal region of myelinated axons. While antibodies against LGI1 preferentially associate with classical limbic encephalitis, antibodies against Caspr2 associate with a wider spectrum of symptoms, including Morvan's syndrome, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or neuromyotonia, and limbic or more extensive encephalitis. In addition there are reports of patients with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins that are different from LGI1 or Caspr2. In these cases, the identity and location of the antigens are unknown, the syndrome association is not specific, and the response to treatment uncertain. Conclusions The discovery of antigens such as LGI1 and Caspr2 has resulted in a clinical and molecular definition of the broad group of diseases previously attributed to antibodies against VGKC. Considering the literature that describes the presence of antibodies against VGKC other than LGI1 and Caspr2 proteins, we propose a practical

  2. Clinical utility of seropositive voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody.

    PubMed

    Jammoul, Adham; Shayya, Luay; Mente, Karin; Li, Jianbo; Rae-Grant, Alexander; Li, Yuebing

    2016-10-01

    Antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex are implicated in the pathogenesis of acquired neuromyotonia, limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizure, and Morvan syndrome. Outside these entities, the clinical value of VGKC-complex antibodies remains unclear. We conducted a single-center review of patients positive for VGKC-complex antibodies over an 8-year period. Among 114 patients positive for VGKC-complex antibody, 11 (9.6%) carrying the diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (n = 9) or neuromyotonia (n = 2) constituted the classic group, and the remaining 103 cases of various neurologic and non-neurologic disorders comprised the nonclassic group. The median titer for the classic group was higher than the nonclassic group ( p < 0.0001). A total of 90.9% of the patients in the classic and 21.4% in the nonclassic group possessed high (>0.25 nM) VGKC-complex antibody levels ( p < 0.0001). A total of 75.0% of the patients in the high-level group had definite or probable autoimmune basis, while nonautoimmune disorders were seen in 75.6% of patients from the low-level group ( p < 0.0001). A total of 26.3% of patients were found with active or remote solid organ or hematologic malignancy, but no antibody titer difference was observed among subgroups of absent, active, or remote malignancy. Compared to age-matched US national census, rates of active cancer in our cohort were higher in patients older than 45 years. High VGKC-complex antibody titers are more likely found in patients with classically associated syndromes and other autoimmune conditions. Low-level VGKC-complex antibodies can be detected in nonspecific and mostly nonautoimmune disorders. The presence of VGKC-complex antibody, rather than its level, may serve as a marker of malignancy.

  3. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Autoimmunity Mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Tan, K. Meng; Lennon, Vanda A.; Barajas, Ramon F.; Haman, Aissa; Klein, Christopher J.; Josephson, S. Andrew; Pittock, Sean J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapidly progressive dementia has a variety of causes, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and neuronal voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) autoantibody–associated encephalopathy. Objective To describe patients thought initially to have CJD but found subsequently to have immunotherapy-responsive VGKC autoimmunity. Design Observational, prospective case series. Setting Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, and the Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco. Patients A clinical serologic cohort of 15 patients referred for paraneoplastic autoantibody evaluation. Seven patients were evaluated clinically by at least one of us. Clinical information for the remaining patients was obtained by physician interview or medical record review. Main Outcome Measures Clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, electroencephalographic patterns, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and responses to immunomodulatory therapy. Results All the patients presented subacutely with neurologic manifestations, including rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, extrapyramidal dysfunction, visual hallucinations, psychiatric disturbance, and seizures; most (60%) satisfied World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for CJD. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities included cerebral cortical diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintensities. Electroencephalographic abnormalities included diffuse slowing, frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity, and focal epileptogenic activity but not periodic sharp wave complexes. Cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein or neuron-specific enolase levels were elevated in 5 of 8 patients. Hyponatremia was common (60%). Neoplasia was confirmed histologically in 5 patients (33%) and was suspected in another 5. Most patients’ conditions (92%) improved after immunomodulatory therapy. Conclusions Clinical, radiologic, electrophysiologic, and laboratory findings in VGKC autoantibody–associated encephalopathy may be

  4. Chronic pain as a manifestation of potassium channel-complex autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christopher J; Lennon, Vanda A; Aston, Paula A; McKeon, Andrew; Pittock, Sean J

    2012-09-11

    Autoantibodies targeting voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complexes cause a spectrum of neuronal hyperexcitability disorders. We investigated pain as a manifestation of VGKC-complex autoimmunity. We reviewed the prevalence and characteristics of pain in VGKC-complex-immunoglobulin G (IgG)-seropositive patients in 25 months of comprehensive service testing for neural autoantibodies, subtyped positive sera for LGI1-IgG and CASPR2-IgG specificities, and reviewed pain prevalence in autoimmune control patients. VGKC-complex-IgG was identified in 1,992 patients of 54,853 tested (4%). Of 316 evaluated neurologically at Mayo Clinic, 159 (50%) had pain, in isolation (28%) or with accompanying neurologic manifestations (72%), and not attributable to alternative cause. Pain was subacute in onset, chronic in course, neuropathic, nociceptive, regional, or diffuse and sometimes attributed to fibromyalgia (6%) or psychogenic cause (13%). Most patients had normal peripheral nervous system function, measured by neuropathy impairment scores and nerve conduction. Evidence of neuronal hyperexcitability (hyperhidrosis, quantitative heat-pain hyperalgesia, or electromyographic excitability) was 25-fold more common in pain patients. Pain management required multiple medications in 70% (narcotics, 30%); 13 of 16 patients reported pain relief with immunotherapy. Pain was significantly associated with CASPR2-IgG-positivity (16% positive with pain, 7% without pain; p = 0.014) but not with LGI1-IgG. Less than 10% of 167 patients with neural autoantibodies other than VGKC-complex-IgG reported pain. Chronic idiopathic pain is a syndromic manifestation of VGKC-complex autoimmunity. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways is implicated. CASPR2-IgG significantly associates with pain, but in most patients the antigenic VGKC-complex molecule remains to be determined. VGKC-complex autoimmunity represents an important new direction for pain research and therapy.

  5. Magnolol and honokiol regulate the calcium-activated potassium channels signaling pathway in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanli; Han, Xuefeng; Tang, Shaoxun; Xiao, Wenjun; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinghe

    2015-05-15

    To explore the regulatory mechanisms of magnolol and honokiol on calcium-activated potassium channels signaling pathway in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced diarrhea mice, the concentrations of serum chloride ion (Cl(-)), sodium ion (Na(+)), potassium ion (K(+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) were measured. Additionally, the mRNA expressions of calmodulin 1 (CaM), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKIIα) and beta subunit (CaMKIIβ), ryanodine receptor 1, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 receptors), protein kinases C (PKC), potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channels (SK) and potassium large conductance calcium-activated channels(BK)were determined. A diarrhea mouse model was established using ETEC suspensions (3.29×10(9)CFU/ml) at a dosage of 0.02ml/g live body weight (BW). Magnolol or honokiol was intragastrically administered at dosages of 100 (M100 or H100), 300 (M300 or H300) and 500 (M500 or H500) mg/kg BW according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement. Magnolol and honokiol increased the Cl(-) and K(+) concentrations, further, upregulated the CaM, BKα1 and BKβ3 mRNA levels but downregulated the IP3 receptors 1, PKC, SK1, SK2, SK3, SK4 and BKβ4 mRNA expressions. Magnolol and honokiol did not alter the CaMKIIα, CaMKIIβ, ryanodine receptor 1, IP3 receptor 2, IP3 receptor 3, BKβ1 and BKβ2 mRNA expressions. These results clarify that magnolol and honokiol, acting through Ca(2+) channel blockade, inhibit the activation of IP3 receptor 1 to regulate the IP3-Ca(2+) store release, activate CaM to inhibit SK channels, and effectively suppress PKC kinases to promote BKα1 and BKβ3 channels opening and BKβ4 channel closing, which modulates the intestinal ion secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microelectrode array measurement of potassium ion channel remodeling on the field action potential duration in rapid atrial pacing rabbits model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Yan, Huang; Wugeti, Najina; Guo, Yujun; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Mei; Guo, Xingui; Jiao, Changan; Xu, Wenli; Li, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) arises from abnormalities in atrial structure and electrical activity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) is a real-time, nondestructive measurement of the resting and action potential signal, from myocardial cells, to the peripheral circuit of electrophysiological activity. This study examined the field action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) by MEA in rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in the right atrium of rabbits. In addition, this study also investigated the effect of potassium ion channel blockers on fAPD. 40 New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the control, 2) potassium ion channel blocker (TEA, 4-Ap and BaCl2), and 3) amiodarone groups. The hearts were quickly removed and right atrial appendage sectioned (slice thickness 500 μm). Each slice was perfused with Tyrode's solution and continuously stimulated for 30 minutes. Sections from the control group were superfused with Tyrode's solution for 10 minutes, while the blocker groups and amiodarone were both treated with their respective compounds for 10 minutes each. The fAPD of RAA and action field action potential morphology were measured using MEA. In non-pace (control) groups, fAPD was 188.33 ± 18.29 ms after Tyrode's solution superfusion, and 173.91 ± 6.83 ms after RAP. In pace/potassium ion channel groups, TEA and BaCl2 superfusion prolonged atrial field action potential (fAPD) (control vs blocker: 176.67 ± 8.66 ms vs 196.11 ± 10.76 ms, 182.22 ± 12.87 ms vs 191.11 ± 13.09 ms with TEA and BaCl2 superfusion, respectively, P < 0.05). 4-AP superfusion significantly prolonged FAPD. In pace/amiodarone groups, 4-Ap superfusion extended fAPD. MEA was a sensitive and stable reporter for the measurement of the tissue action potential in animal heart slices. After superfusing potassium ion channel blockers, fAPD was prolonged. These results suggest that Ito, IKur and IK1 remodel and mediate RAP-induced atrial electrical

  7. Diverse Roles for Auxiliary Subunits in Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of Mammalian Brain Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vacher, Helene; Trimmer, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are a diverse family of signaling proteins that mediate rapid electrical signaling events. Among these, voltage-gated potassium or Kv channels are the most diverse, in part due to the large number of principal (or α) subunits and auxiliary subunits that can assemble in different combinations to generate Kv channel complexes with distinct structures and functions. The diversity of Kv channels underlies much of the variability in the active properties between different mammalian central neurons, and the dynamic changes that lead to experience-dependent plasticity in intrinsic excitability. Recent studies have revealed that Kv channel α subunits and auxiliary subunits are extensively phosphorylated, contributing to additional structural and functional diversity. Here we highlight recent studies that show that auxiliary subunits exert some of their profound effects on dendritic Kv4 and axonal Kv1 channels through phosphorylation-dependent mechanisms, either due to phosphorylation on the auxiliary subunit itself, or by influencing the extent and/or impact of α subunit phosphorylation. The complex effects of auxiliary subunits and phosphorylation provide a potent mechanism to generate additional diversity in the structure and function of Kv4 and Kv1 channels, as well as allowing for dynamic reversible regulation of these important ion channels. PMID:21822597

  8. Dual-color quantum dot detection of a heterotetrameric potassium channel (hKCa3.1).

    PubMed

    Waschk, Daniel E J; Fabian, Anke; Budde, Thomas; Schwab, Albrecht

    2011-04-01

    Potassium channels play a key role in establishing the cell membrane potential and are expressed ubiquitously. Today, more than 70 mammalian K(+) channel genes are known. The diversity of K(+) channels is further increased by the fact that different K(+) channel family members may assemble to form heterotetramers. We present a method based on fluorescence microscopy to determine the subunit composition of a tetrameric K(+) channel. We generated artificial "heteromers" of the K(+) channel hK(Ca)3.1 by coexpressing two differently tagged hK(Ca)3.1 constructs containing either an extracellular hemagglutinin (HA) or an intracellular V5 epitope. hK(Ca)3.1 channel subunits were detected in the plasma membrane of MDCK-F cells or HEK293 cells by labeling the extra- and intracellular epitopes with differently colored quantum dots (QDs). As previously shown for the extracellular part of hK(Ca)3.1 channels, its intracellular domain can also bind only one QD label at a time. When both channel subunits were coexpressed, 27.5 ± 1.8% and 24.9 ± 2.1% were homotetramers consisting of HA- and V5-tagged subunits, respectively. 47.6 ± 3.2% of the channels were heteromeric and composed of both subunits. The frequency distribution of HA- and V5-tagged homo- and heteromeric hK(Ca)3.1 channels is reminiscent of the binomial distribution (a + b)(2) = a(2) + 2ab + b(2). Along these lines, our findings are consistent with the notion that hK(Ca)3.1 channels are assembled from two homomeric dimers and not randomly from four independent subunits. We anticipate that our technique will be applicable to other heteromeric membrane proteins, too.

  9. S-acylation dependent post-translational cross-talk regulates large conductance calcium- and voltage- activated potassium (BK) channels

    PubMed Central

    Shipston, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms that control surface expression and/or activity of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are important determinants of their (patho)physiological function. Indeed, BK channel dysfunction is associated with major human disorders ranging from epilepsy to hypertension and obesity. S-acylation (S-palmitoylation) represents a major reversible, post-translational modification controlling the properties and function of many proteins including ion channels. Recent evidence reveals that both pore-forming and regulatory subunits of BK channels are S-acylated and control channel trafficking and regulation by AGC-family protein kinases. The pore-forming α-subunit is S-acylated at two distinct sites within the N- and C-terminus, each site being regulated by different palmitoyl acyl transferases (zDHHCs) and acyl thioesterases (APTs). S-acylation of the N-terminus controls channel trafficking and surface expression whereas S-acylation of the C-terminal domain determines regulation of channel activity by AGC-family protein kinases. S-acylation of the regulatory β4-subunit controls ER exit and surface expression of BK channels but does not affect ion channel kinetics at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, a significant number of previously identified BK-channel interacting proteins have been shown, or are predicted to be, S-acylated. Thus, the BK channel multi-molecular signaling complex may be dynamically regulated by this fundamental post-translational modification and thus S-acylation likely represents an important determinant of BK channel physiology in health and disease. PMID:25140154

  10. Functional coupling between sodium-activated potassium channels and voltage-dependent persistent sodium currents in cricket Kenyon cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Izumi; Yoshino, Masami

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examined the functional coupling between Na(+)-activated potassium (KNa) channels and Na(+) influx through voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Single-channel activity of KNa channels was recorded with the cell-attached patch configuration. The open probability (Po) of KNa channels increased with increasing Na(+) concentration in a bath solution, whereas it decreased by the substitution of Na(+) with an equimolar concentration of Li(+). The Po of KNa channels was also found to be reduced by bath application of a high concentration of TTX (1 μM) and riluzole (100 μM), which inhibits both fast (INaf) and persistent (INaP) Na(+) currents, whereas it was unaffected by a low concentration of TTX (10 nM), which selectively blocks INaf. Bath application of Cd(2+) at a low concentration (50 μM), as an inhibitor of INaP, also decreased the Po of KNa channels. Conversely, bath application of the inorganic Ca(2+)-channel blockers Co(2+) and Ni(2+) at high concentrations (500 μM) had little effect on the Po of KNa channels, although Cd(2+) (500 μM) reduced the Po of KNa channels. Perforated whole cell clamp analysis further indicated the presence of sustained outward currents for which amplitude was dependent on the amount of Na(+) influx. Taken together, these results indicate that KNa channels could be activated by Na(+) influx passing through voltage-dependent persistent Na(+) channels. The functional significance of this coupling mechanism was discussed in relation to the membrane excitability of Kenyon cells and its possible role in the formation of long-term memory. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Inward rectifier potassium (Kir2.1) channels as end‐stage boosters of endothelium‐dependent vasodilators

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Bonev, Adrian D.; Nelson, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Increase in endothelial cell (EC) calcium activates calcium‐sensitive intermediate and small conductance potassium (IK and SK) channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization and endothelium‐dependent vasodilatation.Endothelial cells express inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels, but their role in endothelium‐dependent vasodilatation is not clear.In the mesenteric arteries, only ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, displayed Kir currents that were predominantly mediated by the Kir2.1 isoform.Endothelium‐dependent vasodilatations in response to muscarinic receptor, TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) channel and IK/SK channel agonists were highly attenuated by Kir channel inhibitors and by Kir2.1 channel knockdown.These results point to EC Kir channels as amplifiers of vasodilatation in response to increases in EC calcium and IK/SK channel activation and suggest that EC Kir channels could be targeted to treat endothelial dysfunction, which is a hallmark of vascular disorders. Abstract Endothelium‐dependent vasodilators, such as acetylcholine, increase intracellular Ca2+ through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels in the plasma membrane and inositol trisphosphate receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to stimulation of Ca2+‐sensitive intermediate and small conductance K+ (IK and SK, respectively) channels. Although strong inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channels have been reported in the native endothelial cells (ECs) their role in EC‐dependent vasodilatation is not clear. Here, we test the idea that Kir channels boost the EC‐dependent vasodilatation of resistance‐sized arteries. We show that ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, of small mesenteric arteries have Kir currents, which are substantially reduced in EC‐specific Kir2.1 knockdown (EC‐Kir2.1 −/−) mice. Elevation of extracellular K+ to 14 mm caused vasodilatation of pressurized arteries, which was prevented by endothelial

  12. Desensitization of chemical activation by auxiliary subunits: convergence of molecular determinants critical for augmenting KCNQ1 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaobing; Xiong, Qiaojie; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Min

    2008-08-15

    Chemical openers for KCNQ potassium channels are useful probes both for understanding channel gating and for developing therapeutics. The five KCNQ isoforms (KCNQ1 to KCNQ5, or Kv7.1 to Kv7.5) are differentially localized. Therefore, the molecular specificity of chemical openers is an important subject of investigation. Native KCNQ1 normally exists in complex with auxiliary subunits known as KCNE. In cardiac myocytes, the KCNQ1-KCNE1 (IsK or minK) channel is thought to underlie the I(Ks) current, a component critical for membrane repolarization during cardiac action potential. Hence, the molecular and pharmacological differences between KCNQ1 and KCNQ1-KCNE1 channels have been important topics. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPy) is a newly identified KCNQ channel opener, which potently activates KCNQ2, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5. However, the ZnPy effects on cardiac KCNQ1 potassium channels remain largely unknown. Here we show that ZnPy effectively augments the KCNQ1 current, exhibiting an increase in current amplitude, reduction of inactivation, and slowing of both activation and deactivation. Some of these are reminiscent of effects by KCNE1. In addition, neither the heteromultimeric KCNQ1-KCNE1 channels nor native I(Ks) current displayed any sensitivity to ZnPy, indicating that the static occupancy by a KCNE subunit desensitizes the reversible effects by a chemical opener. Site-directed mutagenesis of KCNQ1 reveals that residues critical for the potentiation effects by either ZnPy or KCNE are clustered together in the S6 region overlapping with the critical gating determinants. Thus, the convergence of potentiation effects and molecular determinants critical for both an auxiliary subunit and a chemical opener argue for a mechanistic overlap in causing potentiation.

  13. Selection of Inhibitor-Resistant Viral Potassium Channels Identifies a Selectivity Filter Site that Affects Barium and Amantadine Block

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Arrigoni, Cristina; Domigan, Courtney; Ferrara, Giuseppina; Pantoja, Carlos; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna; Minor, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the interactions between ion channels and blockers remains an important goal that has implications for delineating the basic mechanisms of ion channel function and for the discovery and development of ion channel directed drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic selection methods to probe the interaction of two ion channel blockers, barium and amantadine, with the miniature viral potassium channel Kcv. Selection for Kcv mutants that were resistant to either blocker identified a mutant bearing multiple changes that was resistant to both. Implementation of a PCR shuffling and backcrossing procedure uncovered that the blocker resistance could be attributed to a single change, T63S, at a position that is likely to form the binding site for the inner ion in the selectivity filter (site 4). A combination of electrophysiological and biochemical assays revealed a distinct difference in the ability of the mutant channel to interact with the blockers. Studies of the analogous mutation in the mammalian inward rectifier Kir2.1 show that the T→S mutation affects barium block as well as the stability of the conductive state. Comparison of the effects of similar barium resistant mutations in Kcv and Kir2.1 shows that neighboring amino acids in the Kcv selectivity filter affect blocker binding. Conclusions/Significance The data support the idea that permeant ions have an integral role in stabilizing potassium channel structure, suggest that both barium and amantadine act at a similar site, and demonstrate how genetic selections can be used to map blocker binding sites and reveal mechanistic features. PMID:19834614

  14. Functional characterization of Kv11.1 (hERG) potassium channels split in the voltage-sensing domain.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Pilar; Domínguez, Pedro; Barros, Francisco

    2018-03-23

    Voltage-dependent KCNH family potassium channel functionality can be reconstructed using non-covalently linked voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and pore modules (split channels). However, the necessity of a covalent continuity for channel function has not been evaluated at other points within the two functionally independent channel modules. We find here that by cutting Kv11.1 (hERG, KCNH2) channels at the different loops linking the transmembrane spans of the channel core, not only channels split at the S4-S5 linker level, but also those split at the intracellular S2-S3 and the extracellular S3-S4 loops, yield fully functional channel proteins. Our data indicate that albeit less markedly, channels split after residue 482 in the S2-S3 linker resemble the uncoupled gating phenotype of those split at the C-terminal end of the VSD S4 transmembrane segment. Channels split after residues 514 and 518 in the S3-S4 linker show gating characteristics similar to those of the continuous wild-type channel. However, breaking the covalent link at this level strongly accelerates the voltage-dependent accessibility of a membrane impermeable methanethiosulfonate reagent to an engineered cysteine at the N-terminal region of the S4 transmembrane helix. Thus, besides that of the S4-S5 linker, structural integrity of the intracellular S2-S3 linker seems to constitute an important factor for proper transduction of VSD rearrangements to opening and closing the cytoplasmic gate. Furthermore, our data suggest that the short and probably rigid characteristics of the extracellular S3-S4 linker are not an essential component of the Kv11.1 voltage sensing machinery.

  15. The antipsychotic drug loxapine is an opener of the sodium-activated potassium channel slack (Slo2.2).

    PubMed

    Biton, B; Sethuramanujam, S; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, A; Khessibi, N; Chesney, F; Lanneau, C; Curet, O; Avenet, P

    2012-03-01

    Sodium-activated potassium (K(Na)) channels have been suggested to set the resting potential, to modulate slow after-hyperpolarizations, and to control bursting behavior or spike frequency adaptation (Trends Neurosci 28:422-428, 2005). One of the genes that encodes K(Na) channels is called Slack (Kcnt1, Slo2.2). Studies found that Slack channels were highly expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons and modulated their firing frequency (J Neurosci 30:14165-14172, 2010). Therefore, Slack channel openers are of significant interest as putative analgesic drugs. We screened the library of pharmacologically active compounds with recombinant human Slack channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, by using rubidium efflux measurements with atomic absorption spectrometry. Riluzole at 500 μM was used as a reference agonist. The antipsychotic drug loxapine and the anthelmintic drug niclosamide were both found to activate Slack channels, which was confirmed by using manual patch-clamp analyses (EC(50) = 4.4 μM and EC(50) = 2.9 μM, respectively). Psychotropic drugs structurally related to loxapine were also evaluated in patch-clamp experiments, but none was found to be as active as loxapine. Loxapine properties were confirmed at the single-channel level with recombinant rat Slack channels. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, loxapine was found to behave as an opener of native K(Na) channels and to increase the rheobase of action potential. This study identifies new K(Na) channel pharmacological tools, which will be useful for further Slack channel investigations.

  16. Dynamic redistribution of calcium sensitive potassium channels (hK(Ca)3.1) in migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Albrecht; Nechyporuk-Zloy, Volodymyr; Gassner, Birgit; Schulz, Christoph; Kessler, Wolfram; Mally, Sabine; Römer, Michael; Stock, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Calcium-sensitive potassium channels (K(Ca)3.1) are expressed in virtually all migrating cells. Their activity is required for optimal cell migration so that their blockade leads to slowing down. K(Ca)3.1 channels must be inserted into the plasma membrane in order to elicit their physiological function. However, the plasma membrane of migrating cells is subject to rapid recycling by means of endo- and exocytosis. Here, we focussed on the endocytic internalization and the intracellular transport of the human isoform hK(Ca)3.1. A hK(Ca)3.1 channel construct with an HA-tag in the extracellularly located S3-S4 linker was transfected into migrating transformed renal epithelial MDCK-F cells. Channel internalization was visualized and quantified with immunofluorescence and a cell-based ELISA. Movement of hK(Ca)3.1 channel containing vesicles as well as migration of MDCK-F cells were monitored by means of time lapse video microscopy. hK(Ca)3.1 channels are endocytosed during migration. Most of the hK(Ca)3.1 channel containing vesicles are moving at a speed of up to 2 µm/sec in a microtubule-dependent manner towards the front of MDCK-F cells. Our experiments indicate that endocytosis of hK(Ca)3.1 channels is clathrin-dependent since they colocalize with clathrin adaptor proteins and since it is impaired when a C-terminal dileucine motif is mutated. The C-terminal dileucine motif is also important for the subcellular localization of hK(Ca)3.1 channels in migrating cells. Mutated channels are no longer concentrated at the leading edge. We therefore propose that recycling of hK(Ca)3.1 channels contributes to their characteristic subcellular distribution in migrating cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Tuning the allosteric regulation of artificial muscarinic and dopaminergic ligand-gated potassium channels by protein engineering of G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Christophe J.; Revilloud, Jean; Caro, Lydia N.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Trouchet, Amandine; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Nieścierowicz, Katarzyna; Sapay, Nicolas; Crouzy, Serge; Vivaudou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels enable intercellular transmission of action potential through synapses by transducing biochemical messengers into electrical signal. We designed artificial ligand-gated ion channels by coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the Kir6.2 potassium channel. These artificial channels called ion channel-coupled receptors offer complementary properties to natural channels by extending the repertoire of ligands to those recognized by the fused receptors, by generating more sustained signals and by conferring potassium selectivity. The first artificial channels based on the muscarinic M2 and the dopaminergic D2L receptors were opened and closed by acetylcholine and dopamine, respectively. We find here that this opposite regulation of the gating is linked to the length of the receptor C-termini, and that C-terminus engineering can precisely control the extent and direction of ligand gating. These findings establish the design rules to produce customized ligand-gated channels for synthetic biology applications. PMID:28145461

  18. Potassium channels and prostacyclin contribute to vasorelaxant activities of Tridax procumbens crude aqueous leaf extract in rat superior mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Salahdeen, H M; Adebari, A O; Murtala, B A; Alada, A R A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that aqueous extract of the leaf of Tridax procuinbens is capable of lowering blood pressure through its vasodilatory effects. In the present study attempt was made to examine the biological active components of T procuinbens leaf using GC-MS methods. We further investigated the role of K+ channels in the vasorelaxation effects of Tridax procumbens using rat isolated mesenteric artery. The superior mesenteric artery isolated from healthy, young adult Wistar rats (250-300 g) were precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) (10(-7) M) and potassium chloride (KCl) (60 mM) and were treated with Various concentrations of aqueous extract ofT procumbens (0.9.0 mg/ml). The changes in arterial tension were recorded using a force-displacement transducer (Model 7004; Ugo Basil Varese, Italy) coupled to data capsule acquisition system. The results of GG-MS revealed the presence of linoleic acid. The T. procumbens extract (TPE) ranging from 0.5-9.0 mg/mI significantly (p<0.05) reduced the, contraction induced by (PE) and (KCl) in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract also antagonised the calcium-induced vasoconstriction (1(-9) - 10(-5)) in calcium-free with high concentration of potassium as well as. in calcium- and potassium free physiological solutions. The vasorelaxing effect caused by TPE was significantly (p<0.05) attenuated with preincubation of potassium channels blockers (Barium chloride and apamin), NO synthaseinhibitor (L-NAME), prostacyclin inhibitor (indomethacin), atropine; propranolol, and methylene blue while it was not affected by preincubation with glibenclamide and tetra ethyl ammonium, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and oxadiazolo quinoxalin (ODQ). The results of this study demonstrate that T procumbens extract causes vasodilatory effects by blocking calcium channels and the vasodilatory effect of the extract may also be due to stimulation of prostacyclin production and opening of small-conductance Ga2+ activated potassium channels. The

  19. KV1 and KV3 Potassium Channels Identified at Presynaptic Terminals of the Corticostriatal Synapses in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, David; Vega, Ana V.; Torres-Cruz, Francisco Miguel; Barral, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    In the last years it has been increasingly clear that KV-channel activity modulates neurotransmitter release. The subcellular localization and composition of potassium channels are crucial to understanding its influence on neurotransmitter release. To investigate the role of KV in corticostriatal synapses modulation, we combined extracellular recording of population-spike and pharmacological blockage with specific and nonspecific blockers to identify several families of KV channels. We induced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and studied the changes in paired-pulse ratio (PPR) before and after the addition of specific KV blockers to determine whether particular KV subtypes were located pre- or postsynaptically. Initially, the presence of KV channels was tested by exposing brain slices to tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine; in both cases we observed a decrease in PPR that was dose dependent. Further experiments with tityustoxin, margatoxin, hongotoxin, agitoxin, dendrotoxin, and BDS-I toxins all rendered a reduction in PPR. In contrast heteropodatoxin and phrixotoxin had no effect. Our results reveal that corticostriatal presynaptic KV channels have a complex stoichiometry, including heterologous combinations KV1.1, KV1.2, KV1.3, and KV1.6 isoforms, as well as KV3.4, but not KV4 channels. The variety of KV channels offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to regulate neurotransmitter release, providing fine-tuning mechanisms to modulate synaptic strength. PMID:27379187

  20. Alterations of sodium and potassium channels of RGCs in RCS rat with the development of retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongshan; Song, Yanping; Yao, Junping; Weng, Chuanhuang; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2013-11-01

    All know that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of hereditary retinal degenerative diseases characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptors and associated with progressive cells loss; nevertheless, little is known about how rods and cones loss affects the surviving inner retinal neurons and networks. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) process and convey visual information from retina to visual centers in the brain. The healthy various ion channels determine the normal reception and projection of visual signals from RGCs. Previous work on the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, as a kind of classical RP animal model, indicated that, at late stages of retinal degeneration in RCS rat, RGCs were also morphologically and functionally affected. Here, retrograde labeling for RGCs with Fluorogold was performed to investigate the distribution, density, and morphological changes of RGCs during retinal degeneration. Then, patch clamp recording, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to study the channels of sodium and potassium properties of RGCs, so as to explore the molecular and proteinic basis for understanding the alterations of RGCs membrane properties and firing functions. We found that the resting membrane potential, input resistance, and capacitance of RGCs changed significantly at the late stage of retinal degeneration. Action potential could not be evoked in a part of RGCs. Inward sodium current and outward potassium current recording showed that sodium current was impaired severely but only slightly in potassium current. Expressions of sodium channel protein were impaired dramatically at the late stage of retinal degeneration. The results suggested that the density of RGCs decreased, process ramification impaired, and sodium ion channel proteins destructed, which led to the impairment of electrophysiological functions of RGCs and eventually resulted in the loss of visual function.

  1. [Isolation and purification of human blood plasma proteins able to form potassium channels in artificial bilayer lipid membrane].

    PubMed

    Venediktova, N I; Kuznetsov, K V; Gritsenko, E N; Gulidova, G P; Mironova, G D

    2012-01-01

    Protein fraction able to induce K(+)-selective transport across bilayer lipid membrane was isolated from human blood plasma with the use of the detergent and proteolytic enzyme-free method developed at our laboratory. After addition of the studied sample to the artificial membrane in the presence of 100 mM KCl, a discrete current change was observed. No channel activity was recorded in the presence of calcium and sodium ions. Channel forming activity of fraction was observed only in the presence of K+. Using a threefold gradient of KCl in the presence of studied proteins the potassium-selective potential balanced by voltage of -29 mV was registered. This value is very close to the theoretical Nernst potential in this case. This means that the examined ion channel is cation-selective. According to data obtained with MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF and database NCBI three protein components were identified in isolated researched sample.

  2. Overexpression of calcium-activated potassium channels underlies cortical dysfunction in a model of PTEN-associated autism.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Junco-Clemente, Pablo; Chow, David K; Tring, Elaine; Lazaro, Maria T; Trachtenberg, Joshua T; Golshani, Peyman

    2013-11-05

    De novo phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) mutations are a cause of sporadic autism. How single-copy loss of PTEN alters neural function is not understood. Here we report that Pten haploinsufficiency increases the expression of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. The resultant augmentation of this conductance increases the amplitude of the afterspike hyperpolarization, causing a decrease in intrinsic excitability. In vivo, this change in intrinsic excitability reduces evoked firing rates of cortical pyramidal neurons but does not alter receptive field tuning. The decreased in vivo firing rate is not associated with deficits in the dendritic integration of synaptic input or with changes in dendritic complexity. These findings identify calcium-activated potassium channelopathy as a cause of cortical dysfunction in the PTEN model of autism and provide potential molecular therapeutic targets.

  3. Effects of protein-protein interactions and ligand binding on the ion permeation in KCNQ1 potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Jalily Hasani, Horia; Ganesan, Aravindhan; Ahmed, Marawan; Barakat, Khaled H

    2018-01-01

    The voltage-gated KCNQ1 potassium ion channel interacts with the type I transmembrane protein minK (KCNE1) to generate the slow delayed rectifier (IKs) current in the heart. Mutations in these transmembrane proteins have been linked with several heart-related issues, including long QT syndromes (LQTS), congenital atrial fibrillation, and short QT syndrome. Off-target interactions of several drugs with that of KCNQ1/KCNE1 ion channel complex have been known to cause fatal cardiac irregularities. Thus, KCNQ1/KCNE1 remains an important avenue for drug-design and discovery research. In this work, we present the structural and mechanistic details of potassium ion permeation through an open KCNQ1 structural model using the combined molecular dynamics and steered molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss the processes and key residues involved in the permeation of a potassium ion through the KCNQ1 ion channel, and how the ion permeation is affected by (i) the KCNQ1-KCNE1 interactions and (ii) the binding of chromanol 293B ligand and its derivatives into the complex. The results reveal that interactions between KCNQ1 with KCNE1 causes a pore constriction in the former, which in-turn forms small energetic barriers in the ion-permeation pathway. These findings correlate with the previous experimental reports that interactions of KCNE1 dramatically slows the activation of KCNQ1. Upon ligand-binding onto the complex, the energy-barriers along ion permeation path are more pronounced, as expected, therefore, requiring higher force in our steered-MD simulations. Nevertheless, pulling the ion when a weak blocker is bound to the channel does not necessitate high force in SMD. This indicates that our SMD simulations have been able to discern between strong and week blockers and reveal their influence on potassium ion permeation. The findings presented here will have some implications in understanding the potential off-target interactions of the drugs with the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel

  4. Potassium Channel KIR4.1 as an Immune Target in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rajneesh; Aslam, Muhammad; Kalluri, Sudhakar Reddy; Schirmer, Lucas; Buck, Dorothea; Tackenberg, Björn; Rothhammer, Veit; Chan, Andrew; Gold, Ralf; Berthele, Achim; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Korn, Thomas; Hemmer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Many findings suggest that the disease has an autoimmune pathogenesis; the target of the immune response is not yet known. METHODS We screened serum IgG from persons with multiple sclerosis to identify antibodies that are capable of binding to brain tissue and observed specific binding of IgG to glial cells in a subgroup of patients. Using a proteomic approach focusing on membrane proteins, we identified the ATP-sensitive inward rectifying potassium channel KIR4.1 as the target of the IgG antibodies. We used a multifaceted validation strategy to confirm KIR4.1 as a target of the autoantibody response in multiple sclerosis and to show its potential pathogenicity in vivo. RESULTS Serum levels of antibodies to KIR4.1 were higher in persons with multiple sclerosis than in persons with other neurologic diseases and healthy donors (P<0.001 for both comparisons). We replicated this finding in two independent groups of persons with multiple sclerosis or other neurologic diseases (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Analysis of the combined data sets indicated the presence of serum antibodies to KIR4.1 in 186 of 397 persons with multiple sclerosis (46.9%), in 3 of 329 persons with other neurologic diseases (0.9%), and in none of the 59 healthy donors. These antibodies bound to the first extracellular loop of KIR4.1. Injection of KIR4.1 serum IgG into the cisternae magnae of mice led to a profound loss of KIR4.1 expression, altered expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes, and activation of the complement cascade at sites of KIR4.1 expression in the cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS KIR4.1 is a target of the autoantibody response in a subgroup of persons with multiple sclerosis. (Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.) PMID:22784115

  5. Effects of several potassium channel openers and glibenclamide on the uterus of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Piper, I.; Minshall, E.; Downing, S. J.; Hollingsworth, M.; Sadraei, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. The ability of several potassium (K+) channel openers to inhibit spasm of the uterus of the nonpregnant rat and their susceptibility to antagonism by glibenclamide was assessed in vitro and in vivo. 2. In the isolated uterus exposed to oxytocin (0.2 nM), cromakalim, RP 49356 and pinacidil were of similar potency (mean pD2 = 6.4, 6.0 and 6.2 respectively) while minoxidil sulphate was of lower potency (pD2 = 4.7). Glibenclamide antagonized cromakalim and RP 49356 with the interactions consistent with competitive antagonism (mean pA2 of 6.57 and 7.00 respectively). Glibenclamide also antagonized pinacidil (pA2 = 6.22) but the slope of the Schild plot was significantly greater than -1. Neither salbutamol nor minoxidil sulphate was antagonized by glibenclamide (10 microM). 3. Cromakalim (1 and 10 microM), RP 49356 (1 and 10 microM), pinacidil (1 microM) and minoxidil sulphate (100 microM) suppressed spasm evoked by low (less than 40 mM) but not high (greater than or equal to 40 mM) KCl concentrations. Glibenclamide (10 microM) prevented cromakalim (10 microM)-, RP 49356 (10 microM)- and pinacidil (10 microM)-induced suppression of KCl (20 mM)-evoked spasm. Pinacidil (10 and 100 microM), cromakalim (100 microM) and salbutamol (0.01-1 microM) inhibited spasm evoked by all concentrations of KCl (10-80 mM). Suppression of spasm evoked by KCl (10-80 mM) by cromakalim (100 microM) and pinacidil (100 microM) was insensitive to glibenclamide (10 microM). 4. Cromakalim (0.1 mg kg-1) and RP 49356 (0.1 mg kg-1), given by i.v. bolus injection, inhibited uterine contractions, produced a fall in blood pressure and a slight tachycardia in the conscious ovariectomized rat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2128195

  6. Intracellular and non-neuronal targets of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Bethan; Makuch, Mateusz; Moloney, Teresa; Dettmann, Inga; Mindorf, Swantje; Probst, Christian; Stoecker, Winfried; Buckley, Camilla; Newton, Charles R; Leite, M Isabel; Maddison, Paul; Komorowski, Lars; Adcock, Jane; Vincent, Angela; Waters, Patrick; Irani, Sarosh R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Autoantibodies against the extracellular domains of the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex proteins, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2), are found in patients with limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, Morvan's syndrome and neuromyotonia. However, in routine testing, VGKC complex antibodies without LGI1 or CASPR2 reactivities (double-negative) are more common than LGI1 or CASPR2 specificities. Therefore, the target(s) and clinical associations of double-negative antibodies need to be determined. Methods Sera (n=1131) from several clinically defined cohorts were tested for IgG radioimmunoprecipitation of radioiodinated α-dendrotoxin (125I-αDTX)-labelled VGKC complexes from mammalian brain extracts. Positive samples were systematically tested for live hippocampal neuron reactivity, IgG precipitation of 125I-αDTX and 125I-αDTX-labelled Kv1 subunits, and by cell-based assays which expressed Kv1 subunits, LGI1 and CASPR2. Results VGKC complex antibodies were found in 162 of 1131 (14%) sera. 90 of these (56%) had antibodies targeting the extracellular domains of LGI1 or CASPR2. Of the remaining 72 double-negative sera, 10 (14%) immunoprecipitated 125I-αDTX itself, and 27 (38%) bound to solubilised co-expressed Kv1.1/1.2/1.6 subunits and/or Kv1.2 subunits alone, at levels proportionate to VGKC complex antibody levels (r=0.57, p=0.0017). The sera with LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies immunoprecipitated neither preparation. None of the 27 Kv1-precipitating samples bound live hippocampal neurons or Kv1 extracellular domains, but 16 (59%) bound to permeabilised Kv1-expressing human embryonic kidney 293T cells. These intracellular Kv1 antibodies mainly associated with non-immune disease aetiologies, poor longitudinal clinical–serological correlations and a limited immunotherapy response. Conclusions Double-negative VGKC complex antibodies are often directed against cytosolic epitopes of

  7. Intracellular and non-neuronal targets of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lang, Bethan; Makuch, Mateusz; Moloney, Teresa; Dettmann, Inga; Mindorf, Swantje; Probst, Christian; Stoecker, Winfried; Buckley, Camilla; Newton, Charles R; Leite, M Isabel; Maddison, Paul; Komorowski, Lars; Adcock, Jane; Vincent, Angela; Waters, Patrick; Irani, Sarosh R

    2017-04-01

    Autoantibodies against the extracellular domains of the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex proteins, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2), are found in patients with limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, Morvan's syndrome and neuromyotonia. However, in routine testing, VGKC complex antibodies without LGI1 or CASPR2 reactivities (double-negative) are more common than LGI1 or CASPR2 specificities. Therefore, the target(s) and clinical associations of double-negative antibodies need to be determined. Sera (n=1131) from several clinically defined cohorts were tested for IgG radioimmunoprecipitation of radioiodinated α-dendrotoxin ( 125 I-αDTX)-labelled VGKC complexes from mammalian brain extracts. Positive samples were systematically tested for live hippocampal neuron reactivity, IgG precipitation of 125 I-αDTX and 125 I-αDTX-labelled Kv1 subunits, and by cell-based assays which expressed Kv1 subunits, LGI1 and CASPR2. VGKC complex antibodies were found in 162 of 1131 (14%) sera. 90 of these (56%) had antibodies targeting the extracellular domains of LGI1 or CASPR2. Of the remaining 72 double-negative sera, 10 (14%) immunoprecipitated 125 I-αDTX itself, and 27 (38%) bound to solubilised co-expressed Kv1.1/1.2/1.6 subunits and/or Kv1.2 subunits alone, at levels proportionate to VGKC complex antibody levels (r=0.57, p=0.0017). The sera with LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies immunoprecipitated neither preparation. None of the 27 Kv1-precipitating samples bound live hippocampal neurons or Kv1 extracellular domains, but 16 (59%) bound to permeabilised Kv1-expressing human embryonic kidney 293T cells. These intracellular Kv1 antibodies mainly associated with non-immune disease aetiologies, poor longitudinal clinical-serological correlations and a limited immunotherapy response. Double-negative VGKC complex antibodies are often directed against cytosolic epitopes of Kv1 subunits and occasionally against

  8. Circadian rhythm in QT interval is preserved in mice deficient of potassium channel interacting protein 2.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Lisa A; Lubberding, Anniek; Larsen, Anders Peter; Thomsen, Morten B

    2017-01-01

    Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is suggested to be responsible for the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the hypothesis that there is no circadian rhythm in QT interval in the absence of KChIP2. Implanted telemetric devices recorded electrocardiogram continuously for 5 days in conscious wild-type mice (WT, n = 9) and KChIP2 -/- mice (n = 9) in light:dark periods and in complete darkness. QT intervals were determined from all RR intervals and corrected for heart rate (QT 100 = QT/(RR/100) 1/2 ). Moreover, QT intervals were determined from complexes within the RR range of mean-RR ± 1% in the individual mouse (QT mean-RR ). We find that RR intervals are 125 ± 5 ms in WT and 123 ± 4 ms in KChIP2 -/- (p = 0.81), and QT intervals are 52 ± 1 and 52 ± 1 ms, respectively(p = 0.89). No ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac deaths were observed. We find similar diurnal (light:dark) and circadian (darkness) rhythms of RR intervals in WT and KChIP2 -/- mice. Circadian rhythms in QT 100 intervals are present in both groups, but at physiological small amplitudes: 1.6 ± 0.2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 ms in WT and KChIP2 -/- , respectively (p = 0.15). A diurnal rhythm in QT 100 intervals was only found in WT mice. QT mean-RR intervals display clear diurnal and circadian rhythms in both WT and KChIP2 -/- . The amplitude of the circadian rhythm in QT mean-RR is 4.0 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 ms in WT and KChIP2 -/- , respectively (p = 0.16). In conclusion, KChIP2 expression does not appear to underlie the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration.

  9. Clinical spectrum and diagnostic value of antibodies against the potassium channel related protein complex.

    PubMed

    Montojo, M T; Petit-Pedrol, M; Graus, F; Dalmau, J

    2015-06-01

    Antibodies against a protein complex that includes voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) have been reported in patients with limbic encephalitis, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, Morvan's syndrome, and a large variety of neurological syndromes. In this article, a review is presented of the syndromes associated with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins and the main antigens of this protein complex, the proteins LGI1 (leucine rich glioma inactivated protein 1) and Caspr2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2). The conceptual problems and clinical implications of the description of antibodies against VGKC-related proteins other than LGI1 and Caspr2 are also discussed. Although initial studies indicated the occurrence of antibodies against VGKC, recent investigations have shown that the main antigens are a neuronal secreted protein known as LGI1 which modulates synaptic excitability, and a protein called Caspr2 located on the cell surface and processes of neurons of different brain regions, and at the juxtaparanodal region of myelinated axons. While antibodies against LGI1 preferentially associate with classical limbic encephalitis, antibodies against Caspr2 associate with a wider spectrum of symptoms, including Morvan's syndrome, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or neuromyotonia, and limbic or more extensive encephalitis. In addition there are reports of patients with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins that are different from LGI1 or Caspr2. In these cases, the identity and location of the antigens are unknown, the syndrome association is not specific, and the response to treatment uncertain. The discovery of antigens such as LGI1 and Caspr2 has resulted in a clinical and molecular definition of the broad group of diseases previously attributed to antibodies against VGKC. Considering the literature that describes the presence of antibodies against VGKC other than LGI1 and Caspr2 proteins, we propose a practical algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment

  10. Insights from LGI1 and CASPR2 potassium channel complex autoantibody subtyping.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christopher J; Lennon, Vanda A; Aston, Paula A; McKeon, Andrew; O'Toole, Orna; Quek, Amy; Pittock, Sean J

    2013-02-01

    To determine, in patients identified as seropositive for neuronal voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex autoantibodies, the spectrum of clinical presentations and frequency of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) as defined antigenic neuronal targets in the VGKC macromolecular complex. Retrospective cohort study. Clinical practice, Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory and Department of Neurology. A total of 54 853 patients were evaluated, of whom 1992 were found to be VGKC complex IgG positive. From June 1, 2008, to June 30, 2010, comprehensive service serologic evaluation performed on 54853 patients with unexplained neurologic symptoms identified 1992 patients (4%) who were positive for VGKC complex IgG (values ≥ 0.03 nmol/L). Among 316 seropositive patients evaluated clinically at our institution, 82 (26%) were seropositive for LGI1 IgG and/or CASPR2 IgG. Of these 82 patients, 27% had low (0.03-0.09 nmol/L), 51% had medium (0.10-0.99 nmol/L), and 22% had high (≥ 1.00 nmol/L) VGKC complex IgG values. Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 IgG positivity was associated with higher VGKC complex IgG values (P< .001) and cortical presentations (P< .001); CASPR2 IgG was associated with peripheral motor excitability (P= .009). However, neither autoantibody was pathognomonic for a specific neurologic presentation or correlated significantly with cancer. Neurologic phenotypes were diverse. Cerebrocortical manifestations (including cognitive impairment and seizures) were recorded in 76% of patients with LGI1 IgG alone (n=46) and 29% with CASPR2 IgG alone (n=28). Peripheral motor hyperexcitability was found in 21% of patients with CASPR2 IgG alone and 6.5% of patients with LGI1 IgG alone. The study emphasizes diverse and overlapping neurologic phenotypes across a range of VGKC complex IgG values and varying LGI1 IgG and CASPR2 IgG specificities. The frequent occurrence of LGI1 IgG and CASPR2 Ig

  11. Insights From LGI1 and CASPR2 Potassium Channel Complex Autoantibody Subtyping

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Christopher J.; Lennon, Vanda A.; Aston, Paula A.; McKeon, Andrew; O’Toole, Orna; Quek, Amy; Pittock, Sean J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine, in patients identified as sero-positive for neuronal voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex autoantibodies, the spectrum of clinical presentations and frequency of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) as defined antigenic neuronal targets in the VGKC macromolecular complex. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Clinical practice, Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory and Department of Neurology. Patients: A total of 54853 patients were evaluated, of whom 1992 were found to be VGKC complex IgG positive. Results: From June 1, 2008, to June 30, 2010, comprehensive service serologic evaluation performed on 54 853 patients with unexplained neurologic symptoms identified 1992 patients (4%) who were positive for VGKC complex IgG (values ≥0.03 nmol/L). Among 316 seropositive patients evaluated clinically at our institution, 82 (26%) were seropositive for LGI1 IgG and/or CASPR2 IgG. Of these 82 patients, 27% had low (0.03-0.09 nmol/L), 51% had medium (0.10-0.99 nmol/L), and 22% had high (≥1.00 nmol/L) VGKC complex IgG values. Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 IgG positivity was associated with higher VGKC complex IgG values (P<.001) and cortical presentations (P<.001); CASPR2 IgG was associated with peripheral motor excitability (P=.009). However, neither autoantibody was pathognomonic for a specific neurologic presentation or correlated significantly with cancer. Neurologic phenotypes were diverse. Cerebrocortical manifestations (including cognitive impairment and seizures) were recorded in 76% of patients with LGI1 IgG alone (n=46) and 29% with CASPR2 IgG alone (n=28). Peripheral motor hyperexcitability was found in 21% of patients with CASPR2 IgG alone and 6.5% of patients with LGI1 IgG alone. Conclusions: The study emphasizes diverse and overlapping neurologic phenotypes across a range of VGKC complex IgG values and varying LGI1 IgG and CASPR2 Ig

  12. Potassium channel openers and prostacyclin play a crucial role in mediating the vasorelaxant activity of Gynura procumbens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies of Gynura procumbens (G. procumbens) have shown that partially purified fractions of the leaves are capable of lowering the blood pressure of rats by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzymic activity and causing vasodilatation. The objectives of this study were therefore to further purify the active compounds that exhibited selective effects on blood vessels, determine the mechanism of actions, and to qualitatively analyse the putative compounds present. Methods The butanolic fraction (BU) of the crude ethanolic extract was purified using column chromatography to obtain several sub-fractions of different polarities. The in vitro effects of BU and the sub-fractions on vascular tension were subsequently determined using isolated rat thoracic aortic rings. The most potent sub-fraction (F1) alone was then investigated for its mechanisms of the vasorelaxant activity. In another experiment, thin-layer chromatography was used to qualitatively analyse the active compounds found in F1. Results The BU and the sub-fractions ranging from 10-7 to 10-2 g/ml significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the sustained tonic contractions induced by phenylephrine and potassium chloride in a concentration-dependent manner with various degree of potency. The most potent sub-fraction (F1) antagonised the calcium-induced vasocontractions (1 x 10-4 – 1 x 10-2 M) in calcium-free with high concentration of potassium as well as in calcium- and potassium-free Krebs-Henseleit solutions. Contractions induced by noradrenaline and caffeine were not affected by F1. The vasorelaxing effect caused by F1 was significantly attenuated with preincubation of potassium channel blockers (glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine) and prostacyclin inhibitor (indomethacin) while it was not affected by preincubation with tetraethylammonium, l-nitro-arginine methyl esther, propanolol, atropine, oxadiazolo quinoxalin one and methylene blue. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of F1

  13. A Specific Two-pore Domain Potassium Channel Blocker Defines the Structure of the TASK-1 Open Pore*

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Anne K.; Netter, Michael F.; Kempf, Franca; Walecki, Magdalena; Rinné, Susanne; Bollepalli, Murali K.; Preisig-Müller, Regina; Renigunta, Vijay; Daut, Jürgen; Baukrowitz, Thomas; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Decher, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels play a key role in setting the membrane potential of excitable cells. Despite their role as putative targets for drugs and general anesthetics, little is known about the structure and the drug binding site of K2P channels. We describe A1899 as a potent and highly selective blocker of the K2P channel TASK-1. As A1899 acts as an open-channel blocker and binds to residues forming the wall of the central cavity, the drug was used to further our understanding of the channel pore. Using alanine mutagenesis screens, we have identified residues in both pore loops, the M2 and M4 segments, and the halothane response element to form the drug binding site of TASK-1. Our experimental data were used to validate a K2P open-pore homology model of TASK-1, providing structural insights for future rational design of drugs targeting K2P channels. PMID:21362619

  14. Side Fenestrations Provide an "Anchor" for a Stable Binding of A1899 to the Pore of TASK-1 Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, David; Arévalo, Bárbara; Martínez, Gonzalo; Rinné, Susanne; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Decher, Niels; González, Wendy

    2017-07-03

    A1899 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the two-pore domain potassium (K 2P ) channel TASK-1. It was previously reported that A1899 acts as an open-channel blocker and binds to residues of the P1 and P2 regions, the M2 and M4 segments, and the halothane response element. The recently described crystal structures of K 2P channels together with the newly identified side fenestrations indicate that residues relevant for TASK-1 inhibition are not purely facing the central cavity as initially proposed. Accordingly, the TASK-1 binding site and the mechanism of inhibition might need a re-evaluation. We have used TASK-1 homology models based on recently crystallized K 2P channels and molecular dynamics simulation to demonstrate that the highly potent TASK-1 blocker A1899 requires binding to residues located in the side fenestrations. Unexpectedly, most of the previously described residues that interfere with TASK-1 blockade by A1899 project their side chains toward the fenestration lumina, underlining the relevance of these structures for drug binding in K 2P channels. Despite its hydrophobicity, A1899 does not seem to use the fenestrations to gain access to the central cavity from the lipid bilayer. In contrast, binding of A1899 to residues of the side fenestrations might provide a physical "anchor", reflecting an energetically favorable binding mode that after pore occlusion stabilizes the closed state of the channels.

  15. Basolateral localisation of KCNQ1 potassium channels in MDCK cells: molecular identification of an N-terminal targeting motif.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Grunnet, Morten; Jensen, Henrik S; Angelo, Kamilla; Dupuis, Delphine S; Vogel, Lotte K; Jorgensen, Nanna K; Klaerke, Dan A; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2004-09-01

    KCNQ1 potassium channels are expressed in many epithelial tissues as well as in the heart. In epithelia KCNQ1 channels play an important role in salt and water transport and the channel has been reported to be located apically in some cell types and basolaterally in others. Here we show that KCNQ1 channels are located basolaterally when expressed in polarised MDCK cells. The basolateral localisation of KCNQ1 is not affected by co-expression of any of the five KCNE beta-subunits. We characterise two independent basolateral sorting signals present in the N-terminal tail of KCNQ1. Mutation of the tyrosine residue at position 51 resulted in a non-polarized steady-state distribution of the channel. The importance of tyrosine 51 in basolateral localisation was emphasized by the fact that a short peptide comprising this tyrosine was able to redirect the p75 neurotrophin receptor, an otherwise apically located protein, to the basolateral plasma membrane. Furthermore, a di-leucine-like motif at residues 38-40 (LEL) was found to affect the basolateral localisation of KCNQ1. Mutation of these two leucines resulted in a primarily intracellular localisation of the channel.

  16. Ras-Association Domain of Sorting Nexin 27 Is Critical for Regulating Expression of GIRK Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Bodhinathan, Karthik; Taura, Jaume J.; Taylor, Natalie M.; Nettleton, Margaret Y.; Ciruela, Francisco; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. Sorting nexin 27b (SNX27b), which reduces surface expression of GIRK channels through a PDZ domain interaction, contains a putative Ras-association (RA) domain with unknown function. Deleting the RA domain in SNX27b (SNX27b-ΔRA) prevents the down-regulation of GIRK2c/GIRK3 channels. Similarly, a point mutation (K305A) in the RA domain disrupts regulation of GIRK2c/GIRK3 channels and reduces H-Ras binding in vitro. Finally, the dominant-negative H-Ras (S17N) occludes the SNX27b-dependent decrease in surface expression of GIRK2c/GIRK3 channels. Thus, the presence of a functional RA domain and the interaction with Ras-like G proteins comprise a novel mechanism for modulating SNX27b control of GIRK channel surface expression and cellular excitability. PMID:23536889

  17. [G-protein potentiates the activation of TNF-alpha on calcium-activated potassium channel in ECV304].

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Zheng, Y; Qu, J; Bao, G

    2000-06-01

    Observe the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on calcium-activated potassium channel in ECV304 and the possible involvement of G-protein mediation in the action of TNF-alpha. Using the cell-attached configuration of patch clamp technique. (1) the activity of high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKca) was recorded. Its conductance is (202.54 +/- 16.62) pS; (2) the activity of BKca was potentiated by 200 U/ml TNF-alpha; (3) G-protein would intensify this TNF-alpha activation. TNF-alpha acted on vascular endothelial cell ECV304 could rapidly activate the activity of BKca. Opening of BKca resulted in membrane hyper-polarization which could increase electro-chemical gradient for the resting Ca2+ influx and open leakage calcium channel, thus resting cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration could be elevated. G-protein may exert an important regulation in this process.

  18. The receptor-like pseudokinase MRH1 interacts with the voltage-gated potassium channel AKT2.

    PubMed

    Sklodowski, Kamil; Riedelsberger, Janin; Raddatz, Natalia; Riadi, Gonzalo; Caballero, Julio; Chérel, Isabelle; Schulze, Waltraud; Graf, Alexander; Dreyer, Ingo

    2017-03-16

    The potassium channel AKT2 plays important roles in phloem loading and unloading. It can operate as inward-rectifying channel that allows H + -ATPase-energized K + uptake. Moreover, through reversible post-translational modifications it can also function as an open, K + -selective channel, which taps a 'potassium battery', providing additional energy for transmembrane transport processes. Knowledge about proteins involved in the regulation of the operational mode of AKT2 is very limited. Here, we employed a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen in combination with fluorescence tagging and null-allele mutant phenotype analysis and identified the plasma membrane localized receptor-like kinase MRH1/MDIS2 (AT4G18640) as interaction partner of AKT2. The phenotype of the mrh1-1 knockout plant mirrors that of akt2 knockout plants in energy limiting conditions. Electrophysiological analyses showed that MRH1/MDIS2 failed to exert any functional regulation on AKT2. Using structural protein modeling approaches, we instead gathered evidence that the putative kinase domain of MRH1/MDIS2 lacks essential sites that are indispensable for a functional kinase suggesting that MRH1/MDIS2 is a pseudokinase. We propose that MRH1/MDIS2 and AKT2 are likely parts of a bigger protein complex. MRH1 might help to recruit other, so far unknown partners, which post-translationally regulate AKT2. Additionally, MRH1 might be involved in the recognition of chemical signals.

  19. The receptor-like pseudokinase MRH1 interacts with the voltage-gated potassium channel AKT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklodowski, Kamil; Riedelsberger, Janin; Raddatz, Natalia; Riadi, Gonzalo; Caballero, Julio; Chérel, Isabelle; Schulze, Waltraud; Graf, Alexander; Dreyer, Ingo

    2017-03-01

    The potassium channel AKT2 plays important roles in phloem loading and unloading. It can operate as inward-rectifying channel that allows H+-ATPase-energized K+ uptake. Moreover, through reversible post-translational modifications it can also function as an open, K+-selective channel, which taps a ‘potassium battery’, providing additional energy for transmembrane transport processes. Knowledge about proteins involved in the regulation of the operational mode of AKT2 is very limited. Here, we employed a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen in combination with fluorescence tagging and null-allele mutant phenotype analysis and identified the plasma membrane localized receptor-like kinase MRH1/MDIS2 (AT4G18640) as interaction partner of AKT2. The phenotype of the mrh1-1 knockout plant mirrors that of akt2 knockout plants in energy limiting conditions. Electrophysiological analyses showed that MRH1/MDIS2 failed to exert any functional regulation on AKT2. Using structural protein modeling approaches, we instead gathered evidence that the putative kinase domain of MRH1/MDIS2 lacks essential sites that are indispensable for a functional kinase suggesting that MRH1/MDIS2 is a pseudokinase. We propose that MRH1/MDIS2 and AKT2 are likely parts of a bigger protein complex. MRH1 might help to recruit other, so far unknown partners, which post-translationally regulate AKT2. Additionally, MRH1 might be involved in the recognition of chemical signals.

  20. Dysfunction of the Heteromeric KV7.3/KV7.5 Potassium Channel is Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gilling, Mette; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Calloe, Kirstine; Sequeira, Ana F; Baretto, Marta; Oliveira, Guiomar; Almeida, Joana; Lauritsen, Marlene B; Ullmann, Reinhard; Boonen, Susanne E; Brondum-Nielsen, Karen; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Tümer, Zeynep; Vicente, Astrid M; Schmitt, Nicole; Tommerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the KCNQ3 gene on chromosome 8q24 encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel KV7.3 subunit have previously been associated with rolandic epilepsy and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) including benign neonatal convulsions. We identified a de novo t(3;8) (q21;q24) translocation truncating KCNQ3 in a boy with childhood autism. In addition, we identified a c.1720C > T [p.P574S] nucleotide change in three unrelated individuals with childhood autism and no history of convulsions. This nucleotide change was previously reported in patients with rolandic epilepsy or IGE and has now been annotated as a very rare SNP (rs74582884) in dbSNP. The p.P574S KV7.3 variant significantly reduced potassium current amplitude in Xenopus laevis oocytes when co-expressed with KV7.5 but not with KV7.2 or KV7.4. The nucleotide change did not affect trafficking of heteromeric mutant KV7.3/2, KV7.3/4, or KV7.3/5 channels in HEK 293 cells or primary rat hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that dysfunction of the heteromeric KV7.3/5 channel is implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and possibly other psychiatric disorders and therefore, KCNQ3 and KCNQ5 are suggested as candidate genes for these disorders.

  1. Dysfunction of the Heteromeric KV7.3/KV7.5 Potassium Channel is Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gilling, Mette; Rasmussen, Hanne B.; Calloe, Kirstine; Sequeira, Ana F.; Baretto, Marta; Oliveira, Guiomar; Almeida, Joana; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Ullmann, Reinhard; Boonen, Susanne E.; Brondum-Nielsen, Karen; Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Tümer, Zeynep; Vicente, Astrid M.; Schmitt, Nicole; Tommerup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the KCNQ3 gene on chromosome 8q24 encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel KV7.3 subunit have previously been associated with rolandic epilepsy and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) including benign neonatal convulsions. We identified a de novo t(3;8) (q21;q24) translocation truncating KCNQ3 in a boy with childhood autism. In addition, we identified a c.1720C > T [p.P574S] nucleotide change in three unrelated individuals with childhood autism and no history of convulsions. This nucleotide change was previously reported in patients with rolandic epilepsy or IGE and has now been annotated as a very rare SNP (rs74582884) in dbSNP. The p.P574S KV7.3 variant significantly reduced potassium current amplitude in Xenopus laevis oocytes when co-expressed with KV7.5 but not with KV7.2 or KV7.4. The nucleotide change did not affect trafficking of heteromeric mutant KV7.3/2, KV7.3/4, or KV7.3/5 channels in HEK 293 cells or primary rat hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that dysfunction of the heteromeric KV7.3/5 channel is implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and possibly other psychiatric disorders and therefore, KCNQ3 and KCNQ5 are suggested as candidate genes for these disorders. PMID:23596459

  2. Human hair follicles contain two forms of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, only one of which is sensitive to minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Katie; Farjo, Nilofer P; Picksley, Steven M; Randall, Valerie A

    2008-06-01

    Hair disorders cause psychological distress but are generally poorly controlled; more effective treatments are required. Despite the long-standing use of minoxidil for balding, its mechanism is unclear; suggestions include action on vasculature or follicle cells. Similar drugs also stimulate hair, implicating ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels. To investigate whether K(ATP) channels are present in human follicles, we used organ culture, molecular biological, and immunohistological approaches. Minoxidil and tolbutamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker, opposed each other's effects on the growing phase (anagen) of scalp follicles cultured in media with and without insulin. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction identified K(ATP) channel component gene expression including regulatory sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) SUR1 and SUR2B but not SUR2A and pore-forming subunits (Kir) Kir6.1 and Kir6.2. When hair bulb tissues were examined separately, epithelial matrix expressed SUR1 and Kir6.2, whereas both dermal papilla and sheath exhibited SUR2B and Kir6.1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated similar protein distributions. Thus, human follicles respond biologically to K(ATP) channel regulators in culture and express genes and proteins for two K(ATP) channels, Kir6.2/SUR1 and Kir6.1/SUR2B; minoxidil only stimulates SUR2 channels. These findings indicate that human follicular dermal papillae contain K(ATP) channels that can respond to minoxidil and that tolbutamide may suppress hair growth clinically; novel drugs designed specifically for these channels could treat hair disorders.

  3. Regulation of Cardiac ATP-sensitive Potassium Channel Surface Expression by Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II*

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Ana; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sapay, Nicolas; Sharotri, Vikas; Kline, Crystal F.; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu; Snyder, Peter M.; Mohler, Peter J.; Anderson, Mark E.; Vivaudou, Michel; Zingman, Leonid V.; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are key sensors and effectors of the metabolic status of cardiomyocytes. Alteration in their expression impacts their effectiveness in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and resistance to injury. We sought to determine how activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a central regulator of calcium signaling, translates into reduced membrane expression and current capacity of cardiac KATP channels. We used real-time monitoring of KATP channel current density, immunohistochemistry, and biotinylation studies in isolated hearts and cardiomyocytes from wild-type and transgenic mice as well as HEK cells expressing wild-type and mutant KATP channel subunits to track the dynamics of KATP channel surface expression. Results showed that activation of CaMKII triggered dynamin-dependent internalization of KATP channels. This process required phosphorylation of threonine at 180 and 224 and an intact 330YSKF333 endocytosis motif of the KATP channel Kir6.2 pore-forming subunit. A molecular model of the μ2 subunit of the endocytosis adaptor protein, AP2, complexed with Kir6.2 predicted that μ2 docks by interaction with 330YSKF333 and Thr-180 on one and Thr-224 on the adjacent Kir6.2 subunit. Phosphorylation of Thr-180 and Thr-224 would favor interactions with the corresponding arginine- and lysine-rich loops on μ2. We concluded that calcium-dependent activation of CaMKII results in phosphorylation of Kir6.2, which promotes endocytosis of cardiac KATP channel subunits. This mechanism couples the surface expression of cardiac KATP channels with calcium signaling and reveals new targets to improve cardiac energy efficiency and stress resistance. PMID:23223335

  4. The inward rectifier potassium channel Kir2.1 is expressed in mouse neutrophils from bone marrow and liver.

    PubMed

    Masia, Ricard; Krause, Daniela S; Yellen, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Neutrophils are phagocytic cells that play a critical role in innate immunity by destroying bacterial pathogens. Channels belonging to the inward rectifier potassium channel subfamily 2 (Kir2 channels) have been described in other phagocytes (monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils) and in hematopoietic precursors of phagocytes. Their physiological function in these cells remains unclear, but some evidence suggests a role in growth factor-dependent proliferation and development. Expression of functional Kir2 channels has not been definitively demonstrated in mammalian neutrophils. Here, we show by RT-PCR that neutrophils from mouse bone marrow and liver express mRNA for the Kir2 subunit Kir2.1 but not for other subunits (Kir2.2, Kir2.3, and Kir2.4). In electrophysiological experiments, resting (unstimulated) neutrophils from mouse bone marrow and liver exhibit a constitutively active, external K(+)-dependent, strong inwardly rectifying current that constitutes the dominant current. The reversal potential is dependent on the external K(+) concentration in a Nernstian fashion, as expected for a K(+)-selective current. The current is not altered by changes in external or internal pH, and it is blocked by Ba(2+), Cs(+), and the Kir2-selective inhibitor ML133. The single-channel conductance is in agreement with previously reported values for Kir2.1 channels. These properties are characteristic of homomeric Kir2.1 channels. Current density in short-term cultures of bone marrow neutrophils is decreased in the absence of growth factors that are important for neutrophil proliferation [granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF)]. These results demonstrate that mouse neutrophils express functional Kir2.1 channels and suggest that these channels may be important for neutrophil function, possibly in a growth factor-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. The potassium channel FaTPK1 plays a critical role in fruit quality formation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Song, Miaoyu; Guo, Jiaxuan; Huang, Yun; Zhang, Fangfang; Xu, Cheng; Xiao, Yinghui; Zhang, Lusheng

    2018-03-01

    Potassium (K + ), an abundant cation in plant cells, is important in fruit development and plant resistance. However, how cellular K + is directed by potassium channels in fruit development and quality formation of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is not yet fully clear. Here, a two-pore K + (TPK) channel gene in strawberry, FaTPK1, was cloned using reverse transcription-PCR. A green fluorescent protein subcellular localization analysis showed that FaTPK1 localized in the vacuole membrane. A transcription analysis indicated that the mRNA expression level of FaTPK1 increased rapidly and was maintained at a high level in ripened fruit, which was coupled with the fruit's red colour development, suggesting that FaTPK1 is related to fruit quality formation. The down- and up-regulation of the FaTPK1 mRNA expression levels using RNA interference and overexpression, respectively, inhibited and promoted fruit ripening, respectively, as demonstrated by consistent changes in firmness and the contents of soluble sugars, anthocyanin and abscisic acid, as well as the transcript levels of ripening-regulated genes PG1 (polygalacturonase), GAL6 (beta-galactosidase), XYL2 (D-xylulose reductase), SUT1 (sucrose transporter), CHS (chalcone synthase) and CHI (chalcone flavanone isomerase). Additionally, the regulatory changes influenced fruit resistance to Botrytis cinerea. An isothermal calorimetry analysis showed that the Escherichia coli-expressed FaTPK1 recombinant protein could bind K + with a binding constant of 2.1 × 10 -3  m -1 and a dissociation constant of 476 μm. Thus, the strawberry TPK1 is a ubiquitously expressed, tonoplast-localized two-pore potassium channel that plays important roles in fruit ripening and quality formation. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Background and tandem-pore potassium channels in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the rat supraoptic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jaehee; Gnatenco, Carmen; Sladek, Celia D; Kim, Donghee

    2003-01-01

    Magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) were isolated from the supraoptic nucleus of rat hypothalamus, and properties of K+ channels that may regulate the resting membrane potential and the excitability of MNCs were studied. MNCs showed large transient outward currents, typical of vasopressin- and oxytocin-releasing neurons. K+ channels in MNCs were identified by recording K+ channels that were open at rest in cell-attached and inside-out patches in symmetrical 150 mm KCl. Eight different K+ channels were identified and could be distinguished unambiguously by their single-channel kinetics and voltage-dependent rectification. Two K+ channels could be considered functional correlates of TASK-1 and TASK-3, as judged by their single-channel kinetics and high sensitivity to pHo. Three K+ channels showed properties similar to TREK-type tandem-pore K+ channels (TREK-1, TREK-2 and a novel TREK), as judged by their activation by membrane stretch, intracellular acidosis and arachidonic acid. One K+ channel was activated by application of pressure, arachidonic acid and alkaline pHi, and showed single-channel kinetics indistinguishable from those of TRAAK. One K+ channel showed strong inward rectification and single-channel conductance similar to those of a classical inward rectifier, IRK3. Finally, a K+ channel whose cloned counterpart has not yet been identified was highly sensitive to extracellular pH near the physiological range similar to those of TASK channels, and was the most active among all K+ channels. Our results show that in MNCs at rest, eight different types of K+ channels can be found and six of them belong to the tandem-pore K+ channel family. Various physiological and pathophysiological conditions may modulate these K+ channels and regulate the excitability of MNCs. PMID:12562991

  7. Survival of Swiss-Webster mouse cerebellar granule neurons is promoted by a combination of potassium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anthony; Larson, Maureen K; Pfaff, Jilleen E; Ishmael, Jane E

    2007-06-15

    Cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) are commonly used to assess neurotoxicity, but are routinely maintained in supraphysiological (25 mM) extracellular K(+) concentrations [K(+)](o). We investigated the effect of potassium channel blockade on survival of CGN derived from Swiss-Webster mice in supraphysiological (25 mM) and physiological (5.6 mM) [K(+)](o). CGN were cultured for 5 days in 25 mM K(+), then in 5.6 mM K(+) or 25 mM K(+) (control). Viability, assayed 24 h later by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, was approximately 50% in 5.6 mM K(+) versus 25 mM K(+) (p<.001). Potassium channel blockers, 2 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 2 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 1 mM Ba(2+), individually afforded limited protection in 5.6 mM K(+). However, survival in 5.6 mM K(+) with a combination of 4-AP, TEA and Ba(2+) was similar to survival in 25 mM K(+) without blockers (p<.001 versus 5.6 mM K(+) alone). CGN survival in 25 mM K(+) was attenuated 25% by 2 microM nifedipine (p>.001), but nifedipine did not attenuate neuroprotection by K(+) channel blockers. Together, these results suggest that the survival of CGN depends on the K(+) permeability of the membrane rather than the activity of a particular type of K(+) channel, and that the mechanism of neuroprotection by K(+) channel blockers is different from that of elevated [K(+)](o).

  8. [Response of potassium channels to estrogen and progesterone in the uterine smooth muscle cells of adenomyosis in vitro].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinghua; Jin, Li; Leng, Jinhua; Lang, Jinghe

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the expression of potassium channels and the influence of estrogen and progesterone on the cultured uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC) of adenomyosis in vitro. There were 22 cases of adenomyosis hysterectomy in the adenomyosis group and 12 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III removal of the uterus in the control group. USMC were separated and cultured in vitro, incubated with different concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. We used reverse transcription-PCR to dectect the expression of large-conductance calcium- and voltage-sensitive potassium channel α subunit (BKCa α) and voltage-gated potassium channel 4.3 (Kv4.3). The mRNA expression of BKCa α and Kv4.3 in the adenomyosis group (4.43±2.05 and 4.52±1.97) were significantly higher than those in the control group (0.83±0.25 and 0.86±0.19, P<0.05). In the control group, Kv4.3 mRNA decreased after treated with 0.1 nmol/L (0.17±0.10) and 1.0 nmol/L (0.13±0.08) estrogen than before (0.55±0.29, P<0.05). In the adenomyosis group, BKCa α mRNA decreased significantly after treated with 10.0 nmol/L estrogen (0.56±0.27 versus 1.01±0.35, P<0.05). 0.1 µmol/L progesterone elevated both BKCa α mRNA (0.44±0.24 versus 0.16±0.09) and Kv4.3 mRNA (1.29±0.51 versus 0.55±0.29) in the control group (all P<0.05); however, there were no significant difference in adenomyosis group of different concentration of progestrone (P>0.05). There is an abnormal expression of potassium channels in the adenomyosis USMC, which is regulated by high concentration of estrogen and might be resistant to progesterone.

  9. Confusion, Faciobrachial Dystonic Seizures, and Critical Hyponatremia in a Patient with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is a rare cause of encephalitic disease. It is associated with various target antigens and is difficult to diagnose, and experience with its treatment is limited. This case report describes a 69-year-old man, who presented with life-threatening hyponatremia and confusion, following several months of gradually worsening faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures are a well-described feature classically observed in voltage-gated potassium channel autoimmune encephalitis. The presence of chronic hyponatremia without cognitive dysfunction, eventually culminating in an acute episode of encephalopathy and severe hyponatremia, is a pattern of natural history not previously documented in this condition. PMID:28360986

  10. Co-expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.4 with transient receptor potential channels (TRPV1 and TRPV2) and the cannabinoid receptor CB1 in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Binzen, U; Greffrath, W; Hennessy, S; Bausen, M; Saaler-Reinhardt, S; Treede, R-D

    2006-10-13

    Potassium channels contribute to basic neuronal excitability and modulation. Here, we examined expression patterns of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.4, the nociceptive transduction channels TRPV1 and TRPV2 as well as the putative anti-nociceptive cannabinoid receptor CB1 by immunofluorescence double-labelings in sections of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Kv1.4, TRPV1 and CB1 were each detected in about one third of neurons (35.7+/-0.5%, 29.4+/-1.1% and 36.4+/-0.5%, respectively, mean diameter 19.1+/-0.3 microm). TRPV2 was present in 4.4+/-0.4% of all neurons that were significantly larger in diameter (27.4+/-0.7 microm; P < 0.001). Antibody double-labeling revealed that the majority of Kv1.4-positive neurons co-expressed TRPV1 (73.9+/-1.5%) whereas none expressed TRPV2. The largest overlap was found with CB1 (93.1+/-0.1%). CB1 expression resembled that seen for Kv1.4 since the majority of neurons expressing CB1-protein also expressed TRPV1 (69.4+/-6.5%) but not TRPV2 (0.6+/-0.3%). When CB1-mRNA was detected using in situ hybridizations an additional subset of larger neurons was labeled including 82.4+/-17.7% of the TRPV2 expressing neurons. However, co-localization of Kv1.4 with CB1-mRNA (92%, mean diameter: 18.5 microm) was essentially the same as with CB1-protein. The almost complete overlap of CB1 and Kv1.4 in nociceptive DRG neurons suggests a functional synergistic action between Kv1.4 and CB1. The potassium channel may have two important roles in nociception. As the molecular basis of A-type current it could be involved in the control of repetitive discharges at peripheral terminals and as a downstream signal transduction site of CB1 in the control of presynaptic transmitter release at central terminals.

  11. Identification of the functional binding pocket for compounds targeting small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Pascal, John M.; Schumann, Marcel; Armen, Roger S.; Zhang, Ji-fang

    2012-01-01

    Small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels, activated by Ca2+-bound calmodulin, play an important role in regulating membrane excitability. These channels are also linked to clinical abnormalities. A tremendous amount of effort has been devoted to developing small molecule compounds targeting these channels. However, these compounds often suffer from low potency and lack of selectivity, hindering their potentials for clinical use. A key contributing factor is the lack of knowledge of the binding site(s) for these compounds. Here we demonstrate by X-ray crystallography that the binding pocket for the compounds of the 1-EBIO class is located at the calmodulin-channel interface. We show that, based on structure data and molecular docking, mutations of the channel can effectively change the potency of these compounds. Our results provide insight into the molecular nature of the binding pocket and its contribution to the potency and selectivity of the compounds of the 1-EBIO class. PMID:22929778

  12. Identification of the functional binding pocket for compounds targeting small-conductance Ca²⁺-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Pascal, John M; Schumann, Marcel; Armen, Roger S; Zhang, Ji-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Small- and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, activated by Ca(2+)-bound calmodulin, have an important role in regulating membrane excitability. These channels are also linked to clinical abnormalities. A tremendous amount of effort has been devoted to developing small molecule compounds targeting these channels. However, these compounds often suffer from low potency and lack of selectivity, hindering their potential for clinical use. A key contributing factor is the lack of knowledge of the binding site(s) for these compounds. Here we demonstrate by X-ray crystallography that the binding pocket for the compounds of the 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO) class is located at the calmodulin-channel interface. We show that, based on structure data and molecular docking, mutations of the channel can effectively change the potency of these compounds. Our results provide insight into the molecular nature of the binding pocket and its contribution to the potency and selectivity of the compounds of the 1-EBIO class.

  13. Voltage-dependent gating of KCNH potassium channels lacking a covalent link between voltage-sensing and pore domains

    PubMed Central

    Lörinczi, Éva; Gómez-Posada, Juan Camilo; de la Peña, Pilar; Tomczak, Adam P.; Fernández-Trillo, Jorge; Leipscher, Ulrike; Stühmer, Walter; Barros, Francisco; Pardo, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated channels open paths for ion permeation upon changes in membrane potential, but how voltage changes are coupled to gating is not entirely understood. Two modules can be recognized in voltage-gated potassium channels, one responsible for voltage sensing (transmembrane segments S1 to S4), the other for permeation (S5 and S6). It is generally assumed that the conversion of a conformational change in the voltage sensor into channel gating occurs through the intracellular S4–S5 linker that provides physical continuity between the two regions. Using the pathophysiologically relevant KCNH family, we show that truncated proteins interrupted at, or lacking the S4–S5 linker produce voltage-gated channels in a heterologous model that recapitulate both the voltage-sensing and permeation properties of the complete protein. These observations indicate that voltage sensing by the S4 segment is transduced to the channel gate in the absence of physical continuity between the modules. PMID:25818916

  14. Synergistic activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels by cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Bukiya, Anna N; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-07-01

    G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channels play a major role in the control of the heart rate, and require the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ) for activation. Recently, we have shown that the activity of the heterotetrameric Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel that underlies atrial K ACh currents was enhanced by cholesterol. Similarly, the activities of both the Kir3.4 homomer and its active pore mutant Kir3.4* (Kir3.4_S143T) were also enhanced by cholesterol. Here we employ planar lipid bilayers to investigate the crosstalk between PI(4,5)P 2 and cholesterol, and demonstrate that these two lipids act synergistically to activate Kir3.4* currents. Further studies using the Xenopus oocytes heterologous expression system suggest that PI(4,5)P 2 and cholesterol act via distinct binding sites. Whereas PI(4,5)P 2 binds to the cytosolic domain of the channel, the putative binding region of cholesterol is located at the center of the transmembrane domain overlapping the central glycine hinge region of the channel. Together, our data suggest that changes in the levels of two key membrane lipids - cholesterol and PI(4,5)P 2 - could act in concert to provide fine-tuning of Kir3 channel function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of chlorogenic acid on voltage-gated potassium channels of trigeminal ganglion neurons in an inflammatory environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Kou, Liang; Song, Ning; Wu, Min-Ke; Wang, Min; Wang, Hang; Shen, Jie-Fei

    2016-10-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) composed of coffee acid and quinic acid is an effective ingredient of many foods and medicines and widely exhibits biological effects. Recently, it is reported to have analgesic effect. However, little is known about the analgesic mechanism of CGA. In this study, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on two main subtypes (I K,A and I K,V channels) of voltage-gated potassium (K V ) channels in small-diameter(<30μm) trigemianl ganglion neurons to analyze the effects of CGA in an inflammatory environment created by Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). On one hand, the activation and inactivation V 1/2 values of I K,A and I K,V channels showed an elevation towards a depolarizing shift caused by PGE 2 . On the other hand, the activation and inactivation V 1/2 values of the two channels had a reduction towards a hyperpolarizing shift caused by CGA under PGE 2 pretreatment. Our results demonstrated that CGA may exhibited an analgesic effect by promoting K V channels activation and inactivation under inflammatory condition, which provided a novel molecular and ionic mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory pain of CGA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles gambiae inward rectifier potassium (Kir1) channels: a novel role in egg production.

    PubMed

    Raphemot, Rene; Estévez-Lao, Tania Y; Rouhier, Matthew F; Piermarini, Peter M; Denton, Jerod S; Hillyer, Julián F

    2014-08-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play essential roles in regulating diverse physiological processes. Although Kir channels are encoded in mosquito genomes, their functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the members of the Anopheles gambiae Kir gene family and began to investigate their function. Notably, we sequenced the A. gambiae Kir1 (AgKir1) gene and showed that it encodes all the canonical features of a Kir channel: an ion pore that is composed of a pore helix and a selectivity filter, two transmembrane domains that flank the ion pore, and the so-called G-loop. Heterologous expression of AgKir1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that this gene encodes a functional, barium-sensitive Kir channel. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments then showed that relative AgKir1 mRNA levels are highest in the pupal stage, and that AgKir1 mRNA is enriched in the adult ovaries. Gene silencing of AgKir1 by RNA interference did not affect the survival of female mosquitoes following a blood meal, but decreased their egg output. These data provide evidence for a new role of Kir channels in mosquito fecundity, and further validates them as promising molecular targets for the development of a new class of mosquitocides to be used in vector control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The stretch-dependent potassium channel TREK-1 and its function in murine myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Kevin; Baker, Salah A; Dwyer, Laura; Hatton, William C; Sik Park, Kyung; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2011-01-01

    Smooth muscle of the uterus stays remarkably quiescent during normal pregnancy to allow sufficient time for development of the fetus. At present the mechanisms leading to uterine quiescence during pregnancy and how the suppression of activity is relieved at term are poorly understood. Myometrial excitability is governed by ion channels, and a major hypothesis regarding the regulation of contractility during pregnancy has been that expression of certain channels is regulated by hormonal influences. We have explored the expression and function of stretch-dependent K+ (SDK) channels, which are likely to be due to TREK channels, in murine myometrial tissues and myocytes using PCR, Western blots, patch clamp, intracellular microelectrode and isometric force measurements. TREK-1 is more highly expressed than TREK-2 in myometrium, and there was no detectable expression of TRAAK. Expression of TREK-1 transcripts and protein was regulated during pregnancy and delivery. SDK channels were activated in response to negative pressure applied to patches. SDK channels were insensitive to a broad-spectrum of K+ channel blockers, including tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine, and insensitive to intracellular Ca2+. SDK channels were activated by stretch and arachidonic acid and inhibited by reagents that block TREK-1 channels, l-methionine and/or methioninol. Our data suggest that uterine excitability and contractility during pregnancy is regulated by the expression of SDK/TREK-1 channels. Up-regulation of these channels stabilizes membrane potential and controls contraction during pregnancy and down-regulation of these channels induces the onset of delivery. PMID:21224218

  18. The lysosomal potassium channel TMEM175 adopts a novel tetrameric architecture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changkeun; Guo, Jiangtao; Zeng, Weizhong; Kim, Sunghoon; She, Ji; Cang, Chunlei; Ren, Dejian; Jiang, Youxing

    2017-07-27

    TMEM175 is a lysosomal K + channel that is important for maintaining the membrane potential and pH stability in lysosomes. It contains two homologous copies of a six-transmembrane-helix (6-TM) domain, which has no sequence homology to the canonical tetrameric K + channels and lacks the TVGYG selectivity filter motif found in these channels. The prokaryotic TMEM175 channel, which is present in a subset of bacteria and archaea, contains only a single 6-TM domain and functions as a tetramer. Here, we present the crystal structure of a prokaryotic TMEM175 channel from Chamaesiphon minutus, CmTMEM175, the architecture of which represents a completely different fold from that of canonical K + channels. All six transmembrane helices of CmTMEM175 are tightly packed within each subunit without undergoing domain swapping. The highly conserved TM1 helix acts as the pore-lining inner helix, creating an hourglass-shaped ion permeation pathway in the channel tetramer. Three layers of hydrophobic residues on the carboxy-terminal half of the TM1 helices form a bottleneck along the ion conduction pathway and serve as the selectivity filter of the channel. Mutagenesis analysis suggests that the first layer of the highly conserved isoleucine residues in the filter is primarily responsible for channel selectivity. Thus, the structure of CmTMEM175 represents a novel architecture of a tetrameric cation channel whose ion selectivity mechanism appears to be distinct from that of the classical K + channel family.

  19. Does Autoimmunity have a Role in Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy? A Case Report of Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Mediated Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Sirsi, Deepa; Dolce, Alison; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Thodeson, Drew

    2017-01-01

    Background There is expanding knowledge about the phenotypic variability of patients with voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) antibody mediated neurologic disorders. The phenotypes are diverse and involve disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system manifestations described in the literature include limbic encephalitis, status epilepticus, and acute encephalitis. Patient Description We report a 4.5 year-old boy who presented with intractable Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy (MAE) or Doose syndrome and positive VGKC antibodies in serum. Treatment with steroids led to resolution of seizures and electrographic normalization. Conclusion This case widens the spectrum of etiologies for MAE to include autoimmunity, in particular VGKC auto-antibodies and CNS inflammation, as a primary or contributing factor. There is an evolving understanding of voltage gated potassium channel complex mediated autoimmunity in children and the role of inflammation and autoimmunity in MAE and other intractable pediatric epilepsy syndromes remains to be fully defined. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis and appropriate management of antibody mediated epilepsy syndromes. PMID:29308451

  20. Bickerstaff's encephalitis and Miller Fisher syndrome associated with voltage-gated potassium channel and novel anti-neuronal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, E; Kürtüncü, M; Lang, B; Içöz, S; Akman-Demir, G; Eraksoy, M; Vincent, A

    2010-10-01

    GQ1b antibody (GQ1b-Ab) is detected in approximately two-thirds of sera of patients with Bickerstaffs encephalitis (BE). Whilst some of the remaining patients have antibodies to other gangliosides, many patients with BE are reported to be seronegative. Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody (VGKC-Ab) at high titer was detected during the diagnostic work-up of one patient with BE. Sera of an additional patient with BE and nine patients with Miller Fisher syndrome (MF) (all GQ1b-Ab positive) were investigated for VGKC-Ab and other anti-neuronal antibodies by radioimmunoprecipitation using 125I-dendrotoxin-VGKC and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Two patients with MF exhibited moderate titer VGKC-Abs. Regardless of positivity for VGKC or GQ1b antibodies, serum IgG of all patients with BE and MF reacted with the molecular layer and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in a distinctive pattern. Voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies might be involved in some cases of BE or MF. The common staining pattern despite different antibody results suggests that there might be other, as yet unidentified, antibodies associated with BE and MF.

  1. Does Autoimmunity have a Role in Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy? A Case Report of Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Mediated Seizures.

    PubMed

    Sirsi, Deepa; Dolce, Alison; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Thodeson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    There is expanding knowledge about the phenotypic variability of patients with voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) antibody mediated neurologic disorders. The phenotypes are diverse and involve disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system manifestations described in the literature include limbic encephalitis, status epilepticus, and acute encephalitis. We report a 4.5 year-old boy who presented with intractable Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy (MAE) or Doose syndrome and positive VGKC antibodies in serum. Treatment with steroids led to resolution of seizures and electrographic normalization. This case widens the spectrum of etiologies for MAE to include autoimmunity, in particular VGKC auto-antibodies and CNS inflammation, as a primary or contributing factor. There is an evolving understanding of voltage gated potassium channel complex mediated autoimmunity in children and the role of inflammation and autoimmunity in MAE and other intractable pediatric epilepsy syndromes remains to be fully defined. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis and appropriate management of antibody mediated epilepsy syndromes.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhetinic Acid on the Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes and HERG Channel

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Delin; Jiang, Linqing; Wu, Hongjin; Wang, Shengqi; Zheng, Sidao; Yang, Jiyuan; Liu, Yuna; Ren, Jianxun; Chen, Xianbing

    2013-01-01

    Background. Licorice has long been used to treat many ailments including cardiovascular disorders in China. Recent studies have shown that the cardiac actions of licorice can be attributed to its active component, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). However, the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Aim. The effects of GA on the delayed rectifier potassium current (I K), the rapidly activating (I Kr) and slowly activating (I Ks) components of I K, and the HERG K+ channel expressed in HEK-293 cells were investigated. Materials and Methods. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from guinea pig myocardium using enzymolysis. The wild type HERG gene was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Whole-cell patch clamping was used to record I K (I Kr, I Ks) and the HERG K+ current. Results. GA (1, 5, and 10 μM) inhibited I K (I Kr, I Ks) and the HERG K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion. GA significantly inhibited the potassium currents in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner, suggesting that it exerts its antiarrhythmic action through the prolongation of APD and ERP owing to the inhibition of I K (I Kr, I Ks) and HERG K+ channel. PMID:24069049

  3. Kir 4.1 inward rectifier potassium channel is upregulated in astrocytes in a murine multiple sclerosis model.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Francisco; Almanza, Angélica; Rubio, Nazario; Soto, Enrique

    2018-06-11

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a high prevalence degenerative disease characterized at the cellular level by glial and neuronal cell death. The causes of cell death during the disease course are not fully understood. In this work we demonstrate that in a MS model induced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection, the inward rectifier (Kir) 4.1 potassium channel subunit is overexpressed in astrocytes. In voltage clamp experiments the inward current density from TMEV-infected astrocytes was significantly larger than in mock-infected ones. The cRNA hybridization analysis from mock- and TMEV-infected cells showed an upregulation of a potassium transport channel coding sequence. We validated this mRNA increase by RT-PCR and quantitative PCR using Kir 4.1 specific primers. Western blotting experiments confirmed the upregulation of Kir 4.1, and alignment between sequences provided the demonstration that the over-expressed gene encodes for a Kir family member. Flow cytometry showed that the Kir 4.1 protein is located mainly in the cell membrane in mock and TMEV-infected astrocytes. Our results demonstrate an increase in K + inward current in TMEV-infected glial cells, this increment may reduce the neuronal depolarization, contributing to cell resilience mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Testosterone-mediated upregulation of delayed rectifier potassium channel in cardiomyocytes causes abbreviation of QT intervals in rats.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kimiko; Takanari, Hiroki; Morishima, Masaki; Ma, FangFang; Wang, Yan; Takahashi, Naohiko; Ono, Katsushige

    2018-01-13

    Men have shorter rate-corrected QT intervals (QTc) than women, especially at the period of adolescence or later. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term effects of testosterone on cardiac excitability parameters including electrocardiogram (ECG) and potassium channel current. Testosterone shortened QT intervals in ECG in castrated male rats, not immediately after, but on day 2 or later. Expression of Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) mRNA was significantly upregulated by testosterone in cardiomyocytes of male and female rats. Short-term application of testosterone was without effect on delayed rectifier potassium channel current (I Ks ), whereas I Ks was significantly increased in cardiomyocytes treated with dihydrotestosterone for 24 h, which was mimicked by isoproterenol (24 h). Gene-selective inhibitors of a transcription factor SP1, mithramycin, abolished the effects of testosterone on Kv7.1. Testosterone increases Kv7.1-I Ks possibly through a pathway related to a transcription factor SP1, suggesting a genomic effect of testosterone as an active factor for cardiac excitability.

  5. An electrostatic potassium channel opener targeting the final voltage sensor transition

    PubMed Central

    Börjesson, Sara I.

    2011-01-01

    Free polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate the voltage dependence of voltage-gated ion channels. As an important consequence thereof, PUFAs can suppress epileptic seizures and cardiac arrhythmia. However, molecular details for the interaction between PUFA and ion channels are not well understood. In this study, we have localized the site of action for PUFAs on the voltage-gated Shaker K channel by introducing positive charges on the channel surface, which potentiated the PUFA effect. Furthermore, we found that PUFA mainly affects the final voltage sensor movement, which is closely linked to channel opening, and that specific charges at the extracellular end of the voltage sensor are critical for the PUFA effect. Because different voltage-gated K channels have different charge profiles, this implies channel-specific PUFA effects. The identified site and the pharmacological mechanism will potentially be very useful in future drug design of small-molecule compounds specifically targeting neuronal and cardiac excitability. PMID:21624947

  6. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependentmore » inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.« less

  7. Pharmacological enhancement of calcium-activated potassium channel function reduces the effects of repeated stress on fear memory

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, Derek; Hankosky, Emily R.; Gasparotto, Kaylyn; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2012-01-01

    Repeated stress impacts emotion, and can induce mood and anxiety disorders. These disorders are characterized by imbalance of emotional responses. The amygdala is fundamental in expression of emotion, and is hyperactive in many patients with mood or anxiety disorders. Stress also leads to hyperactivity of the amygdala in humans. In rodent studies, repeated stress causes hyperactivity of the amygdala, and increases fear conditioning behavior that is mediated by the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels regulate BLA neuronal activity, and evidence suggests reduced small conductance KCa (SK) channel function in male rats exposed to repeated stress. Pharmacological enhancement of SK channels reverses the BLA neuronal hyperexcitability caused by repeated stress. However, it is not known if pharmacological targeting of SK channels can repair the effects of repeated stress on amygdala-dependent behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test whether enhancement of SK channel function reverses the effects of repeated restraint on BLA-dependent auditory fear conditioning. We found that repeated restraint stress increased the expression of cued conditioned fear in male rats. However, 1-EBIO (1 or 10 mg/kg) or CyPPA (5 mg/kg) administered 30 minutes prior to testing of fear expression brought conditioned freezing to control levels, with little impact on fear expression in control handled rats. These results demonstrate that enhancement of SK channel function can reduce the abnormalities of BLA-dependent fear memory caused by repeated stress. Furthermore, this indicates that pharmacological targeting of SK channels may provide a novel target for alleviation of psychiatric symptoms associated with amygdala hyperactivity. PMID:22487247

  8. Disruption of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function in skeletal muscles promotes production and secretion of musclin

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, Ana, E-mail: ana-sierra@uiowa.edu; Subbotina, Ekaterina, E-mail: ekaterina-subbotina@uiowa.edu; Zhu, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhiyong-zhu@uiowa.edu

    Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels control skeletal muscle energy use through their ability to adjust membrane excitability and related cell functions in accordance with cellular metabolic status. Mice with disrupted skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channels exhibit reduced adipocyte size and increased fatty acid release into the circulation. As yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this link between skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channel function and adipose mobilization have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle-specific disruption of K{sub ATP} channel function in transgenic (TG) mice promotes production and secretion of musclin. Musclin is a myokine with high homology tomore » atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that enhances ANP signaling by competing for elimination. Augmented musclin production in TG mice is driven by a molecular cascade resulting in enhanced acetylation and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) – an inhibitor of transcription of the musclin encoding gene. Musclin production/secretion in TG is paired with increased mobilization of fatty acids and a clear trend toward increased circulating ANP, an activator of lipolysis. These data establish K{sub ATP} channel-dependent musclin production as a potential mechanistic link coupling “local” skeletal muscle energy consumption with mobilization of bodily resources from fat. Understanding such mechanisms is an important step toward designing interventions to manage metabolic disorders including those related to excess body fat and associated co-morbidities. - Highlights: • ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels regulate musclin production by skeletal muscles. • Lipolytic ANP signaling is promoted by augmented skeletal muscle musclin production. • Skeletal muscle musclin transcription is promoted by a CaMKII/HDAC/FOXO1 pathway. • Musclin links adipose mobilization to energy use in K{sub ATP} channel deficient skeletal

  9. Functional analysis of potassium channels in Kv7.2 G271V mutant causing early onset familial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juanjuan; Li, Yuan; Hui, Zhiyan; Cao, Min; Shi, Ruiming; Zhang, Wei; Geng, Limeng; Zhou, Xihui

    2015-08-07

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels underlying a class of voltage-gated K+ current are best known for regulating neuronal excitability. The first glycine (G) residue in the pore helix of Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) subunit is highly conserved among different classes of Kv7 channel family. A missense mutation causing the replacement of the corresponding G residues with a valine (p.G271V) in Kv7.2 was found in a large, four-generation pedigree. Here, we set out to examine the molecular pathomechanism of G271V mutants using patch clamp technology combined with biochemical and immunocytochemical techniques in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The expression of Kv7.2 protein had the same intensity for both wild type (WT) and G271V. In transfected HEK cells, G271V mutants induced large depolarizing shifts of the conductance-voltage relationships and marked slowing of current activation kinetics compared to WT. In addition, G271V mutants abolished currents in homomeric channels, and resulted in about 50% reduction of current in Kv7.2/G271V/Kv7.3 heteromultimeric condition, indicating a more severe functional defect. To test for G271V mutant channel expression in surface membrane, we performed fluorescence confocal microscopy imaging, which revealed no differences between the mutant and WT, suggesting that G271V channels fail to open in response to depolarization even though they are present in the membrane. Furthermore, pharmacologic intervention experiments revealed that upon specific incubation of transfected HEK 293 cells expressing G271V heteromultimeric channels in presence of Kv7 channel enhancer retigabine (ezogabine), the potassium currents increased significantly, suggesting the potential of retigabine as gene-specific therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gating Behavior of Endoplasmic Reticulum Potassium Channels of Rat Hepatocytes in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Maedeh; Khodaei, Naser; Salari, Sajjad; Eliassi, Afsaneh; Saghiri, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Defects in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis are common occurrences in different diseases, such as diabetes, in which the function of endoplasmic reticulum is disrupted. It is now well established that ion channels of endoplasmic reticulum membrane have a critical role in endoplasmic reticulum luminal homeostasis. Our previous studies showed the presence of an ATP-sensitive cationic channel in endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, in this study, we examined and compared the activities of this channel in control and diabetic rats using single-channel recording techniques. Method: Male Wistar rats were made diabetic for 2 weeks with a single dose injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum of diabetic hepatocytes into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Results: Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicles into the bilayer lipid revealed that the channel current-voltage (I-V) relation with a mean slope conductance of 520 ± 19 pS was unaffected in diabetes. Interestingly, the channel Po-voltage relation was significantly lower in diabetic rats at voltages above +30 mV. Conclusion: We concluded that the endoplasmic reticulum cationic channel is involved in diabetes. Also, this finding could be considered as a goal for further therapeutic plans. PMID:24842143

  11. Gating behavior of endoplasmic reticulum potassium channels of rat hepatocytes in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Maedeh; Khodaei, Naser; Salari, Sajjad; Eliassi, Afsaneh; Saghiri, Reza

    2014-07-01

    Defects in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis are common occurrences in different diseases, such as diabetes, in which the function of endoplasmic reticulum is disrupted. It is now well established that ion channels of endoplasmic reticulum membrane have a critical role in endoplasmic reticulum luminal homeostasis. Our previous studies showed the presence of an ATP-sensitive cationic channel in endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, in this study, we examined and compared the activities of this channel in control and diabetic rats using single-channel recording techniques. Male Wistar rats were made diabetic for 2 weeks with a single dose injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum of diabetic hepatocytes into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicles into the bilayer lipid revealed that the channel current-voltage (I-V) relation with a mean slope conductance of 520 ± 19 pS was unaffected in diabetes. Interestingly, the channel Po-voltage relation was significantly lower in diabetic rats at voltages above +30 mV. We concluded that the endoplasmic reticulum cationic channel is involved in diabetes. Also, this finding could be considered as a goal for further therapeutic plans.

  12. Quantitative Confocal Microscopy Analysis as a Basis for Search and Study of Potassium Kv1.x Channel Blockers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanov, Alexey V.; Kudryashova, Kseniya S.; Nekrasova, Oksana V.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Kuzmenkov, Alexey I.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Grishin, Eugene V.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

    Artificial KcsA-Kv1.x (x = 1, 3) receptors were recently designed by transferring the ligand-binding site from human Kv1.x voltage-gated potassium channels into corresponding domain of the bacterial KscA channel. We found that KcsA-Kv1.x receptors expressed in E. coli cells are embedded into cell membrane and bind ligands when the cells are transformed to spheroplasts. We supposed that E. coli spheroplasts with membrane-embedded KcsA-Kv1.x and fluorescently labeled ligand agitoxin-2 (R-AgTx2) can be used as elements of an advanced analytical system for search and study of Kv1-channel blockers. To realize this idea, special procedures were developed for measurement and quantitative treatment of fluorescence signals obtained from spheroplast membrane using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The worked out analytical "mix and read" systems supported by quantitative CLSM analysis were demonstrated to be reliable alternative to radioligand and electrophysiology techniques in the search and study of selective Kv1.x channel blockers of high scientific and medical importance.

  13. An insecticide resistance-breaking mosquitocide targeting inward rectifier potassium channels in vectors of Zika virus and malaria.

    PubMed

    Swale, Daniel R; Engers, Darren W; Bollinger, Sean R; Gross, Aaron; Inocente, Edna Alfaro; Days, Emily; Kanga, Fariba; Johnson, Reed M; Yang, Liu; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Hopkins, Corey R; Piermarini, Peter M; Denton, Jerod S

    2016-11-16

    Insecticide resistance is a growing threat to mosquito control programs around the world, thus creating the need to discover novel target sites and target-specific compounds for insecticide development. Emerging evidence suggests that mosquito inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels represent viable molecular targets for developing insecticides with new mechanisms of action. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of VU041, a submicromolar-affinity inhibitor of Anopheles (An.) gambiae and Aedes (Ae.) aegypti Kir1 channels that incapacitates adult female mosquitoes from representative insecticide-susceptible and -resistant strains of An. gambiae (G3 and Akron, respectively) and Ae. aegypti (Liverpool and Puerto Rico, respectively) following topical application. VU041 is selective for mosquito Kir channels over several mammalian orthologs, with the exception of Kir2.1, and is not lethal to honey bees. Medicinal chemistry was used to develop an analog, termed VU730, which retains activity toward mosquito Kir1 but is not active against Kir2.1 or other mammalian Kir channels. Thus, VU041 and VU730 are promising chemical scaffolds for developing new classes of insecticides to combat insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, such as Zika virus, without harmful effects on humans and beneficial insects.

  14. Zn2+ reduction induces neuronal death with changes in voltage-gated potassium and sodium channel currents.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun; He, Cong-Cong; Xu, Hui-Nan; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Gang; An, Di; Heng, Bin; Pang, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Gang; Liu, Yan-Qiang

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, cultured rat primary neurons were exposed to a medium containing N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), a specific cell membrane-permeant Zn 2+ chelator, to establish a model of free Zn 2+ deficiency in neurons. The effects of TPEN-mediated free Zn 2+ ion reduction on neuronal viability and on the performance of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and potassium channels (Kvs) were assessed. Free Zn 2+ deficiency 1) markedly reduced the neuronal survival rate, 2) reduced the peak amplitude of I Na , 3) shifted the I Na activation curve towards depolarization, 4) modulated the sensitivity of sodium channel voltage-dependent inactivation to a depolarization voltage, and 5) increased the time course of recovery from sodium channel inactivation. In addition, free Zn 2+ deficiency by TPEN notably enhanced the peak amplitude of transient outward K + currents (I A ) and delayed rectifier K + currents (I K ), as well as caused hyperpolarization and depolarization directional shifts in their steady-state activation curves, respectively. Zn 2+ supplementation reversed the effects induced by TPEN. Our results indicate that free Zn 2+ deficiency causes neuronal damage and alters the dynamic characteristics of VGSC and Kv currents. Thus, neuronal injury caused by free Zn 2+ deficiency may correlate with its modulation of the electrophysiological properties of VGSCs and Kvs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and the opioid system in the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem in mice.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mehdi; Shirzadian, Armin; Dehdashtian, Amir; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic medication that mainly exerts its function through activating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. There is some evidence that zolpidem may have anticonvulsive effects. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been elucidated yet. In the present study, we used the pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized seizure model in mice to investigate whether zolpidem can affect seizure threshold. We also further evaluated the roles of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels as well as μ-opioid receptors in the effects of zolpidem on seizure threshold. Our data showed that zolpidem in a dose-dependent manner increased the PTZ-induced seizure threshold. The noneffective (i.e., did not significantly alter the PTZ-induced seizure threshold by itself) doses of KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide) and nonselective opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone) were able to inhibit the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem. Additionally, noneffective doses of either KATP channel opener (cromakalim) or nonselective μ-opioid receptor agonist (morphine) in combination with a noneffective dose of zolpidem exerted a significant anticonvulsive effect on PTZ-induced seizures in mice. A combination of noneffective doses of naloxone and glibenclamide, which separately did not affect zolpidem effect on seizure threshold, inhibited the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. These results suggest a role for KATP channels and the opioid system, alone or in combination, in the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New Molecular Targets for Antiepileptic Drugs: α2δ, SV2A, and Kv7/KCNQ/M Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Michael A.; Bazil, Carl W.

    2008-01-01

    Many currently prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) act via voltage-gated sodium channels, through effects on γ-aminobutyric acid–mediated inhibition, or via voltage-gated calcium channels. Some newer AEDs do not act via these traditional mechanisms. The molecular targets for several of these nontraditional AEDs have been defined using cellular electrophysiology and molecular approaches. Here, we describe three of these targets: α2δ, auxiliary subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels through which the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin exert their anticonvulsant and analgesic actions; SV2A, a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle glycoprotein that may prepare vesicles for fusion and serves as the target for levetiracetam and its analog brivaracetam (which is currently in late-stage clinical development); and Kv7/KCNQ/M potassium channels that mediate the M-current, which acts a brake on repetitive firing and burst generation and serves as the target for the investigational AEDs retigabine and ICA-105665. Functionally, all of the new targets modulate neurotransmitter output at synapses, focusing attention on presynaptic terminals as critical sites of action for AEDs. PMID:18590620

  17. Connexin 43 and ATP-sensitive potassium channels crosstalk: a missing link in hypoxia/ischemia stress.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Waza, Ajaz; Ahmad Bhat, Shabir; Ul Hussain, Mahboob; Ganai, Bashir A

    2018-02-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein expressed in various tissues and organs of vertebrates. Besides functioning as a gap junction, Cx43 also regulates diverse cellular processes like cell growth and differentiation, cell migration, cell survival, etc. Cx43 is critical for normal cardiac functioning and is therefore abundantly expressed in cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels are metabolic sensors converting metabolic changes into electrical activity. These channels are important in maintaining the neurotransmitter release, smooth muscle relaxation, cardiac action potential repolarization, normal physiology of cellular repolarization, insulin secretion and immune function. Cx43 and K ATP channels are part of the same signaling pathway, regulating cell survival during stress conditions and ischemia/hypoxia preconditioning. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for their combined role in ischemia/hypoxia preconditioning is largely unknown. The current review focuses on understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for the coordinated role of Cx43 and K ATP channel protein in protecting cardiomyocytes against ischemia/hypoxia stress.

  18. Updating In Vivo and In Vitro Phosphorylation and Methylation Sites of Voltage-Gated Kv7.2 Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Fatma Asli; Salzer, Isabella; Heo, Seok; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Jung, Gangsoo; Lubec, Gert; Boehm, Stefan; Yang, Jae-Won

    2017-10-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7.2 potassium channels regulate neuronal excitability. The gating of these channels is tightly controlled by various mediators and neurotransmitters acting via G protein-coupled receptors; the underlying signaling cascades involve phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ), Ca 2+ /calmodulin, and phosphorylation. Recent studies found that the PIP 2 sensitivity of Kv7.2 channels is affected by two posttranslational modifications, phosphorylation and methylation, harboured within putative PIP 2 -binding domains. In this study, we updated phosphorylation and methylation sites in Kv7.2 either heterologously expressed in mammalian cells or as GST-fusion proteins exposed to recombinant protein kinases by using LC-MS/MS. In vitro kinase assays revealed that CDK5, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, PKA, p38 MAPK, CamKIIα, and GSK3β could mediate phosphorylation. Taken together, we provided a comprehensive map of phosphorylation and methylation in Kv7.2 within protein-protein and protein-lipid interaction domains. This may help to interpret the functional roles of individual PTM sites in Kv7.2 channels. All MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD005567. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Role of Potassium Channels in Arabidopsis thaliana Long Distance Electrical Signalling: AKT2 Modulates Tissue Excitability While GORK Shapes Action Potentials.

    PubMed

    Cuin, Tracey Ann; Dreyer, Ingo; Michard, Erwan

    2018-03-21

    Fast responses to an external threat depend on the rapid transmission of signals through a plant. Action potentials (APs) are proposed as such signals. Plant APs share similarities with their animal counterparts; they are proposed to depend on the activity of voltage-gated ion channels. Nonetheless, despite their demonstrated role in (a)biotic stress responses, the identities of the associated voltage-gated channels and transporters remain undefined in higher plants. By demonstrating the role of two potassium-selective channels in Arabidopsis thaliana in AP generation and shaping, we show that the plant AP does depend on similar Kv -like transport systems to those of the animal signal. We demonstrate that the outward-rectifying potassium-selective channel GORK limits the AP amplitude and duration, while the weakly-rectifying channel AKT2 affects membrane excitability. By computational modelling of plant APs, we reveal that the GORK activity not only determines the length of an AP but also the steepness of its rise and the maximal amplitude. Thus, outward-rectifying potassium channels contribute to both the repolarisation phase and the initial depolarisation phase of the signal. Additionally, from modelling considerations we provide indications that plant APs might be accompanied by potassium waves, which prime the excitability of the green cable.

  20. C-Terminal residues in small potassium channel blockers OdK1 and OSK3 from scorpion venom fine-tune the selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I; Peigneur, Steve; Chugunov, Anton O; Tabakmakher, Valentin M; Efremov, Roman G; Tytgat, Jan; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2017-05-01

    We report isolation, sequencing, and electrophysiological characterization of OSK3 (α-KTx 8.8 in Kalium and Uniprot databases), a potassium channel blocker from the scorpion Orthochirus scrobiculosus venom. Using the voltage clamp technique, OSK3 was tested on a wide panel of 11 voltage-gated potassium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and was found to potently inhibit Kv1.2 and Kv1.3 with IC 50 values of ~331nM and ~503nM, respectively. OdK1 produced by the scorpion Odontobuthus doriae differs by just two C-terminal residues from OSK3, but shows marked preference to Kv1.2. Based on the charybdotoxin-potassium channel complex crystal structure, a model was built to explain the role of the variable residues in OdK1 and OSK3 selectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in the expression of potassium channels during mouse T cell development

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In this report we have combined the whole-cell electrophysiological recording technique with flow microfluorometry to isolate phenotypically defined thymocytes and T lymphocytes. Results obtained showed that J11d-/Lyt-2-/L3T4- cells express none or very few delayed rectifier K+ channels, whereas most other Lyt-2-/L3T4- cells, as well as typical cortical thymocytes (Lyt-2+/L3T4+), do express K+ channels. Mature (Lyt-2+/L3T4- or Lyt-2-/L3T4+) thymocytes, which are heterogeneous for J11d expression, were also found to be heterogeneous for K+ channel expression. Consistent with this finding was the observation that the cortisone-resistant subpopulation of thymocytes, which express low levels of J11d, were enriched for cells expressing low levels of K+ channels. Mature phenotype peripheral T lymphocytes expressed very low levels of K+ channels, but upon activation with Con A were found to express high levels of K+ channels. The results suggest that K+ channel expression in T cells is developmentally regulated. Increased expression of the channel is induced in response to mitogenic signals throughout the T cell lineage. Expression of the channel, therefore, serves as a useful marker in defining steps in the T cell differentiation pathway. PMID:2431091

  2. Therapeutic targeting of two-pore-domain potassium (K(2P)) channels in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Felix; Schmidt, Constanze; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Staudacher, Ingo; Rahm, Ann-Kathrin; Seyler, Claudia; Schweizer, Patrick A; Katus, Hugo A; Thomas, Dierk

    2016-05-01

    The improvement of treatment strategies in cardiovascular medicine is an ongoing process that requires constant optimization. The ability of a therapeutic intervention to prevent cardiovascular pathology largely depends on its capacity to suppress the underlying mechanisms. Attenuation or reversal of disease-specific pathways has emerged as a promising paradigm, providing a mechanistic rationale for patient-tailored therapy. Two-pore-domain K(+) (K(2P)) channels conduct outward K(+) currents that stabilize the resting membrane potential and facilitate action potential repolarization. K(2P) expression in the cardiovascular system and polymodal K2P current regulation suggest functional significance and potential therapeutic roles of the channels. Recent work has focused primarily on K(2P)1.1 [tandem of pore domains in a weak inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (TWIK)-1], K(2P)2.1 [TWIK-related K(+) channel (TREK)-1], and K(2P)3.1 [TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) channel (TASK)-1] channels and their role in heart and vessels. K(2P) currents have been implicated in atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis and in setting the vascular tone. Furthermore, the association of genetic alterations in K(2P)3.1 channels with atrial fibrillation, cardiac conduction disorders and pulmonary arterial hypertension demonstrates the relevance of the channels in cardiovascular disease. The function, regulation and clinical significance of cardiovascular K(2P) channels are summarized in the present review, and therapeutic options are emphasized. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Potassium Channels and Uterine Vascular Adaptation to Pregnancy and Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ronghui; Xiao, DaLiao; Zhang, Lubo

    2014-01-01

    During a normal course of pregnancy, uterine vascular tone is significantly decreased resulting in a striking increase in uterine blood flow, which is essential for fetal development and fetal growth. Chronic hypoxia during gestation may adversely affect the normal adaptation of uterine vascular tone and increase the risk of preeclampsia and fetal intrauterine growth restriction. In this review, we present evidence that the regulation of K+ channels is an important mechanism in the adaptation of uterine vascular tone to pregnancy and hypoxia. There are four types of K+ channels identified in arterial smooth muscle cells: 1) voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels, 2) Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, 3) inward rectifier K+ (KIR) channels, and 4) ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. Pregnancy differentially augments the expression and activity of K+ channels via downregulation of protein kinase C signaling in uterine and other vascular beds, leading to decreased uterine vascular tone and increased uterine blood flow. Sex steroid hormones play an important role in the pregnancy-mediated alteration of K+ channels in the uterine vasculature. In addition, chronic hypoxia alters uterine vascular K+ channels expression and activities via modulation of steroid hormones/receptors-mediated signaling, resulting in increased uterine vascular tone during pregnancy. PMID:24063385

  4. Role of potassium ion channels in detrusor smooth muscle function and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Georgi V.

    2013-01-01

    Contraction and relaxation of the detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), which makes up the wall of the urinary bladder, facilitates the storage and voiding of urine. Several families of K+ channels, including voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, inward-rectifying ATP-sensitive K+ (Kir, KATP) channels, and two-pore-domain K+ (K2P) channels, are expressed and functional in DSM. They control DSM excitability and contractility by maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping the action potentials that determine the phasic nature of contractility in this tissue. Defects in DSM K+ channel proteins or in the molecules involved in their regulatory pathways may underlie certain forms of bladder dysfunction, such as overactive bladder. K+ channels represent an opportunity for novel pharmacological manipulation and therapeutic intervention in human DSM. Modulation of DSM K+ channels directly or indirectly by targeting their regulatory mechanisms has the potential to control urinary bladder function. This Review summarizes our current state of knowledge of the functional role of K+ channels in DSM in health and disease, with special emphasis on current advancements in the field. PMID:22158596

  5. Cholesterol up-regulates neuronal G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bukiya, Anna N; Durdagi, Serdar; Noskov, Sergei; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-04-14

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well known risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol-driven effects on physiology and pathophysiology derive from its ability to alter the function of a variety of membrane proteins including ion channels. Yet, the effect of cholesterol on G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels expressed in the brain is unknown. GIRK channels mediate the actions of inhibitory brain neurotransmitters. As a result, loss of GIRK function can enhance neuron excitability, whereas gain of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity. Here we show that in rats on a high-cholesterol diet, cholesterol levels in hippocampal neurons are increased. We also demonstrate that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating neuronal GIRK currents. Specifically, cholesterol enrichment of rat hippocampal neurons resulted in enhanced channel activity. In accordance, elevated currents upon cholesterol enrichment were also observed in Xenopus oocytes expressing GIRK2 channels, the primary GIRK subunit expressed in the brain. Furthermore, using planar lipid bilayers, we show that although cholesterol did not affect the unitary conductance of GIRK2, it significantly enhanced the frequency of channel openings. Last, combining computational and functional approaches, we identified two putative cholesterol-binding sites in the transmembrane domain of GIRK2. These findings establish that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating GIRK activity in the brain. Because up-regulation of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity, our findings may lead to novel approaches for prevention and therapy of cholesterol-driven neurodegenerative disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Differential sensitivity of TREK–1, TREK–2 and TRAAK background potassium channels to the polycationic dye ruthenium red

    PubMed Central

    Braun, G; Lengyel, M; Enyedi, P; Czirják, G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pharmacological separation of the background potassium currents of closely related K2P channels is a challenging problem. We previously demonstrated that ruthenium red (RR) inhibits TASK-3 (K2P9.1), but not TASK-1 (K2P3.1) channels. RR has been extensively used to distinguish between TASK currents in native cells. In the present study, we systematically investigate the RR sensitivity of a more comprehensive set of K2P channels. Experimental Approach K+ currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes and by whole-cell patch clamp in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Key Results RR differentiates between two closely related members of the TREK subfamily. TREK-2 (K2P10.1) proved to be highly sensitive to RR (IC50 = 0.2 μM), whereas TREK-1 (K2P2.1) was not affected by the compound. We identified aspartate 135 (D135) as the target of the inhibitor in mouse TREK-2c. D135 lines the wall of the extracellular ion pathway (EIP), a tunnel structure through the extracellular cap characteristic for K2P channels. TREK-1 contains isoleucine in the corresponding position. The mutation of this isoleucine (I110D) rendered TREK-1 sensitive to RR. The third member of the TREK subfamily, TRAAK (K2P4.1) was more potently inhibited by ruthenium violet, a contaminant in some RR preparations, than by RR. DRG neurons predominantly express TREK-2 and RR-resistant TREK-1 and TRESK (K2P18.1) background K+ channels. We detected the RR-sensitive leak K+ current component in DRG neurons. Conclusions and Implications We propose that RR may be useful for distinguishing TREK-2 (K2P10.1) from TREK-1 (K2P2.1) and other RR-resistant K2P channels in native cells. PMID:25409575

  7. Cholesterol up-regulates neuronal G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel activity in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bukiya, Anna N.; Noskov, Sergei; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well known risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol-driven effects on physiology and pathophysiology derive from its ability to alter the function of a variety of membrane proteins including ion channels. Yet, the effect of cholesterol on G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels expressed in the brain is unknown. GIRK channels mediate the actions of inhibitory brain neurotransmitters. As a result, loss of GIRK function can enhance neuron excitability, whereas gain of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity. Here we show that in rats on a high-cholesterol diet, cholesterol levels in hippocampal neurons are increased. We also demonstrate that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating neuronal GIRK currents. Specifically, cholesterol enrichment of rat hippocampal neurons resulted in enhanced channel activity. In accordance, elevated currents upon cholesterol enrichment were also observed in Xenopus oocytes expressing GIRK2 channels, the primary GIRK subunit expressed in the brain. Furthermore, using planar lipid bilayers, we show that although cholesterol did not affect the unitary conductance of GIRK2, it significantly enhanced the frequency of channel openings. Last, combining computational and functional approaches, we identified two putative cholesterol-binding sites in the transmembrane domain of GIRK2. These findings establish that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating GIRK activity in the brain. Because up-regulation of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity, our findings may lead to novel approaches for prevention and therapy of cholesterol-driven neurodegenerative disease. PMID:28213520

  8. Estrogens and human papilloma virus oncogenes regulate human ether-à-go-go-1 potassium channel expression.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Lorenza; Ceja-Ochoa, Irais; Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; Larrea, Fernando; Avila-Chávez, Euclides; García-Becerra, Rocío; Borja-Cacho, Elizabeth; Barrera, David; Ahumada, Elías; Gariglio, Patricio; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Garcia-Villa, Enrique; Hernández-Gallegos, Elizabeth; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Morales, Angélica; Ordaz-Rosado, David; García-Latorre, Ethel; Escamilla, Juan; Sánchez-Peña, Luz Carmen; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Vera, Eunice; Uribe-Ramírez, Marisela; Murbartián, Janet; Ortiz, Cindy Sharon; Rivera-Guevara, Claudia; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2009-04-15

    Ether-à-go-go-1 (Eag1) potassium channels are potential tools for detection and therapy of numerous cancers. Here, we show human Eag1 (hEag1) regulation by cancer-associated factors. We studied hEag1 gene expression and its regulation by estradiol, antiestrogens, and human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes (E6/E7). Primary cultures from normal placentas and cervical cancer tissues; tumor cell lines from cervix, choriocarcinoma, keratinocytes, and lung; and normal cell lines from vascular endothelium, keratinocytes, and lung were used. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) experiments and Southern blot analysis showed Eag1 expression in all of the cancer cell types, normal trophoblasts, and vascular endothelium, in contrast to normal keratinocytes and lung cells. Estradiol and antiestrogens regulated Eag1 in a cell type-dependent manner. Real-time RT-PCR experiments in HeLa cells showed that Eag1 estrogenic regulation was strongly associated with the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha. Eag1 protein was detected by monoclonal antibodies in normal placenta and placental blood vessels. Patch-clamp recordings in normal trophoblasts treated with estradiol exhibited potassium currents resembling Eag1 channel activity. Eag1 gene expression in keratinocytes depended either on cellular immortalization or the presence of HPV oncogenes. Eag1 protein was found in keratinocytes transfected with E6/E7 HPV oncogenes. Cell proliferation of E6/E7 keratinocytes was decreased by Eag1 antibodies inhibiting channel activity and by the nonspecific Eag1 inhibitors imipramine and astemizole; the latter also increased apoptosis. Our results propose novel oncogenic mechanisms of estrogen/antiestrogen use and HPV infection. We also suggest Eag1 as an early indicator of cell proliferation leading to malignancies and a therapeutic target at early stages of cellular hyperproliferation.

  9. Deletion of the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel leads to neuronal and behavioral hyperexcitability

    PubMed Central

    Speca, David J.; Ogata, Genki; Mandikian, Danielle; Bishop, Hannah I.; Wiler, Steve W.; Eum, Kenneth; Wenzel, H. Jürgen; Doisy, Emily T.; Matt, Lucas; Campi, Katharine L.; Golub, Mari S.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Hell, Johannes W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Sack, Jon T.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.; Trimmer, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel exhibits high-level expression in both principal and inhibitory neurons throughout the central nervous system, including prominent expression in hippocampal neurons. Studies of in vitro preparations suggest that Kv2.1 is a key yet conditional regulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability, mediated by changes in Kv2.1 expression, localization and function via activity-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation. Here we identify neurological and behavioral deficits in mutant (Kv2.1−/−) mice lacking this channel. Kv2.1−/− mice have grossly normal characteristics. No impairment in vision or motor coordination was apparent, although Kv2.1−/− mice exhibit reduced body weight. The anatomic structure and expression of related Kv channels in the brains of Kv2.1−/− mice appears unchanged. Delayed rectifier potassium current is diminished in hippocampal neurons cultured from Kv2.1−/− animals. Field recordings from hippocampal slices of Kv2.1−/− mice reveal hyperexcitability in response to the convulsant bicuculline, and epileptiform activity in response to stimulation. In Kv2.1−/− mice, long-term potentiation at the Schaffer collateral – CA1 synapse is decreased. Kv2.1−/− mice are strikingly hyperactive, and exhibit defects in spatial learning, failing to improve performance in a Morris Water Maze task. Kv2.1−/− mice are hypersensitive to the effects of the convulsants flurothyl and pilocarpine, consistent with a role for Kv2.1 as a conditional suppressor of neuronal activity. Although not prone to spontaneous seizures, Kv2.1−/− mice exhibit accelerated seizure progression. Together, these findings suggest homeostatic suppression of elevated neuronal activity by Kv2.1 plays a central role in regulating neuronal network function. PMID:24494598

  10. The lysosomal potassium channel TMEM175 adopts a novel tetrameric architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changkeun; Guo, Jiangtao; Zeng, Weizhong

    TMEM175 is a lysosomal K+ channel that is important for maintaining the membrane potential and pH stability in lysosomes1. It contains two homologous copies of a six-transmembrane-helix (6-TM) domain, which has no sequence homology to the canonical tetrameric K+ channels and lacks the TVGYG selectivity filter motif found in these channels2, 3, 4. The prokaryotic TMEM175 channel, which is present in a subset of bacteria and archaea, contains only a single 6-TM domain and functions as a tetramer. Here, we present the crystal structure of a prokaryotic TMEM175 channel from Chamaesiphon minutus, CmTMEM175, the architecture of which represents a completelymore » different fold from that of canonical K+ channels. All six transmembrane helices of CmTMEM175 are tightly packed within each subunit without undergoing domain swapping. The highly conserved TM1 helix acts as the pore-lining inner helix, creating an hourglass-shaped ion permeation pathway in the channel tetramer. Three layers of hydrophobic residues on the carboxy-terminal half of the TM1 helices form a bottleneck along the ion conduction pathway and serve as the selectivity filter of the channel. Mutagenesis analysis suggests that the first layer of the highly conserved isoleucine residues in the filter is primarily responsible for channel selectivity. Thus, the structure of CmTMEM175 represents a novel architecture of a tetrameric cation channel whose ion selectivity mechanism appears to be distinct from that of the classical K+ channel family.« less

  11. Kv4 Potassium Channels Modulate Hippocampal EPSP-Spike Potentiation and Spatial Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truchet, Bruno; Manrique, Christine; Sreng, Leam; Chaillan, Franck A.; Roman, Francois S.; Mourre, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Kv4 channels regulate the backpropagation of action potentials (b-AP) and have been implicated in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP). Here we showed that blockade of Kv4 channels by the scorpion toxin AmmTX3 impaired reference memory in a radial maze task. In vivo, AmmTX3 intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion increased and…

  12. Heme impairs the ball-and-chain inactivation of potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Nirakar; Goradia, Nishit; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Schönherr, Roland; Friedrich, Manfred; Plass, Winfried; Kappl, Reinhard; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2013-10-15

    Fine-tuned regulation of K(+) channel inactivation enables excitable cells to adjust action potential firing. Fast inactivation present in some K(+) channels is mediated by the distal N-terminal structure (ball) occluding the ion permeation pathway. Here we show that Kv1.4 K(+) channels are potently regulated by intracellular free heme; heme binds to the N-terminal inactivation domain and thereby impairs the inactivation process, thus enhancing the K(+) current with an apparent EC50 value of ∼20 nM. Functional studies on channel mutants and structural investigations on recombinant inactivation ball domain peptides encompassing the first 61 residues of Kv1.4 revealed a heme-responsive binding motif involving Cys13:His16 and a secondary histidine at position 35. Heme binding to the N-terminal inactivation domain induces a conformational constraint that prevents it from reaching its receptor site at the vestibule of the channel pore.

  13. Molecular characterization of voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) and its importance in functional dynamics in bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rishi Kumar; Swain, Dilip Kumar; Singh, Vijay; Anand, Mukul; Choudhury, Soumen; Yadav, Sarvajeet; Saxena, Atul; Garg, Satish Kumar

    2018-07-01

    Present study was undertaken to characterize the voltage gated potassium channel (K v 1.1) in bull spermatozoa using sixty four ejaculates collected from four Hariana bulls. Functional characterization was undertaken using a selective blocker of Kv channel, 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) while molecular presence of Kv on bull spermatozoa by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Three sets of 100 μL diluted sperm samples namely-negative control (100 μL of sperm dilution medium (SDM) containing 10 × 10 6  cells), vehicle control (99 μL of SDM containing 10 × 10 6  cells, and DMSO- 1  μL) and 4-AP treatment group (99 μL of SDM containing 10 × 10 6  cells, and drug 1 μL 4-AP) were used in the study. Immunoblotting identified a single band of 56 kDa corresponding to Kv1.1 in Hariana bull spermatozoa. Immunolocalization showed the positive immunoreactivity at head, middle piece and principal piece of the spermatozoa for Kv 1.1. Blocking of Kv using 4-AP resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reduction in sperm progressive motility, per cent capacitated spermatozoa (B-pattern) and acrosome reacted (AR-pattern) spermatozoa, while significant (P < 0.05) increase in per cent swollen spermatozoa. Blocking of Kv channels resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) increased percentage of spermatozoa with lower mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) of motion and kinematic parameters in 4-AP treated spermatozoa indicated reduction in sperm motion parameters like LIN, STR, VSL and VAP and higher ALH, VCL, and BCF indicating hyperactivity of spermatozoa. Based on our findings, it may be concluded that voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) are present on bull spermatozoa and these are associated with functional dynamics of spermatozoa. However, based on our limited study, it is not possible to deduce that how these channels are associated with induction of hyperactivity. Therefore, further studies

  14. Postsynaptic ERG potassium channels limit muscle excitability to allow distinct egg-laying behavior states in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kevin M.; Koelle, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    C. elegans regulates egg laying by alternating between an inactive phase and a serotonin-triggered active phase. We found that the conserved ERG potassium channel UNC-103 enables this two-state behavior by limiting excitability of the egg-laying muscles. Using both high-speed video recording and calcium imaging of egg-laying muscles in behaving animals, we found that the muscles appear to be excited at a particular phase of each locomotor body bend. During the inactive phase, this rhythmic excitation infrequently evokes calcium transients or contraction of the egg-laying muscles. During the serotonin-triggered active phase, however, these muscles are more excitable and each body bend is accompanied by a calcium transient that drives twitching or full contraction of the egg-laying muscles. We found that ERG null mutants lay eggs too frequently, and that ERG function is necessary and sufficient in the egg-laying muscles to limit egg laying. ERG K+ channels localize to postsynaptic sites in the egg-laying muscle, and mutants lacking ERG have more frequent calcium transients and contractions of the egg-laying muscles even during the inactive phase. Thus ERG channels set postsynaptic excitability at a threshold so that further adjustments of excitability by serotonin generate two distinct behavioral states. PMID:23303953

  15. LPS from Escherichia coli protects against indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats--role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Antoniella S; Lima, Lívia M F; Santos, Camila L; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Souza, Marcellus H L P

    2006-10-10

    The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in gastric protection has not been elucidated, but ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are known to be involved in gastric defense. We evaluated the effect of LPS administration on indomethacin-induced gastropathy, and the role of K(ATP) channels in this event. Rats received intravenous (i.v.) LPS administration. After 1/2, 6, 24 or 48 h, indomethacin was injected. 3H later, gastric damage and myeloperoxidase activity were determined. Another group received LPS and 5 h later, glibenclamide, diazoxide or glibenclamide plus diazoxide. After 1 h, the rats received indomethacin and 3 h later, gastric damage and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated. LPS reduced dose dependently gastric damage and myeloperoxidase activity induced by indomethacin. Glibenclamide reversed this LPS effect on indomethacin-induced gastropathy. Glibenclamide plus diazoxide administration did not change this LPS effect. Thus LPS has a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastropathy, probably through activation of K(ATP) channels.

  16. The voltage-sensing domain of a phosphatase gates the pore of a potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Schroeder, Indra; Romani, Giulia; Van Etten, James L; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2013-03-01

    The modular architecture of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels suggests that they resulted from the fusion of a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) to a pore module. Here, we show that the VSD of Ciona intestinalis phosphatase (Ci-VSP) fused to the viral channel Kcv creates Kv(Synth1), a functional voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying K(+) channel. Kv(Synth1) displays the summed features of its individual components: pore properties of Kcv (selectivity and filter gating) and voltage dependence of Ci-VSP (V(1/2) = +56 mV; z of ~1), including the depolarization-induced mode shift. The degree of outward rectification of the channel is critically dependent on the length of the linker more than on its amino acid composition. This highlights a mechanistic role of the linker in transmitting the movement of the sensor to the pore and shows that electromechanical coupling can occur without coevolution of the two domains.

  17. Short- and long-term inhibition of cardiac inward-rectifier potassium channel current by an antiarrhythmic drug bepridil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fangfang; Takanari, Hiroki; Masuda, Kimiko; Morishima, Masaki; Ono, Katsushige

    2016-07-01

    Bepridil is an effective antiarrhythmic drug on supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, and inhibitor of calmodulin. Recent investigations have been elucidating that bepridil exerts antiarrhythmic effects through its acute and chronic application for patients. The aim of this study was to identify the efficacy and the potential mechanism of bepridil on the inward-rectifier potassium channel in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in acute- and long-term conditions. Bepridil inhibited inward-rectifier potassium current (I K1) as a short-term effect with IC50 of 17 μM. Bepridil also reduced I K1 of neonatal cardiomyocytes when applied for 24 h in the culture medium with IC50 of 2.7 μM. Both a calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) and an inhibitor of calmodulin-kinase II (KN93) reduced I K1 when applied for 24 h as a long-term effect in the same fashion, suggesting that the long-term application of bepridil inhibits I K1 more potently than that of the short-term application through the inhibition of calmodulin kinase II pathway in cardiomyocytes.

  18. Localization of A-type K+ channel subunit Kv4.2 in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tsaur, M L; Wu, Y L; Huang, F L; Shih, Y H

    2001-09-30

    Kv4.2, a voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel subunit, has been suggested to be the key component of the subthreshold A-type K+ currents (I(SA)s) recorded from the specific subcellular compartments of certain CNS neurons. To correlate Kv4.2 localization with the I(SA)s detected, immunohistochemistry will be useful. Although the Kv4.2 immunostaining pattern in the hippocampus and cerebellum has been reported, the Kv4.2 antibody used was not specific. Furthermore, Kv4.2 localization in other brain regions remains unclear. In this report, we first demonstrated the specificity of a new Kv4.2 antibody, and then used it to examine Kv4.2 localization throughout adult rat brain by immunohistochemistry. At the cellular level, Kv4.2 was found in neurons but not glias. At the subcellular level, Kv4.2 was localized in the somatodendritic compartment of most neurons examined. Nevertheless, our preliminary data indicated that Kv4.2 might be also present in the axon/terminal compartment. At the functional level, our data indicates that Kv4.2 localization and I(SA) correlate quite well in some CNS neurons, supporting that Kv4.2 is the key component of some I(SA)s recorded in vivo.

  19. The isolated voltage sensing domain of the Shaker potassium channel forms a voltage-gated cation channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juan; Blunck, Rikard

    2016-01-01

    Domains in macromolecular complexes are often considered structurally and functionally conserved while energetically coupled to each other. In the modular voltage-gated ion channels the central ion-conducting pore is surrounded by four voltage sensing domains (VSDs). Here, the energetic coupling is mediated by interactions between the S4-S5 linker, covalently linking the domains, and the proximal C-terminus. In order to characterize the intrinsic gating of the voltage sensing domain in the absence of the pore domain, the Shaker Kv channel was truncated after the fourth transmembrane helix S4 (Shaker-iVSD). Shaker-iVSD showed significantly altered gating kinetics and formed a cation-selective ion channel with a strong preference for protons. Ion conduction in Shaker-iVSD developed despite identical primary sequence, indicating an allosteric influence of the pore domain. Shaker-iVSD also displays pronounced 'relaxation'. Closing of the pore correlates with entry into relaxation suggesting that the two processes are energetically related. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18130.001 PMID:27710769

  20. The isolated voltage sensing domain of the Shaker potassium channel forms a voltage-gated cation channel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Blunck, Rikard

    2016-10-06

    Domains in macromolecular complexes are often considered structurally and functionally conserved while energetically coupled to each other. In the modular voltage-gated ion channels the central ion-conducting pore is surrounded by four voltage sensing domains (VSDs). Here, the energetic coupling is mediated by interactions between the S4-S5 linker, covalently linking the domains, and the proximal C-terminus. In order to characterize the intrinsic gating of the voltage sensing domain in the absence of the pore domain, the Shaker Kv channel was truncated after the fourth transmembrane helix S4 (Shaker-iVSD). Shaker-iVSD showed significantly altered gating kinetics and formed a cation-selective ion channel with a strong preference for protons. Ion conduction in Shaker-iVSD developed despite identical primary sequence, indicating an allosteric influence of the pore domain. Shaker-iVSD also displays pronounced 'relaxation'. Closing of the pore correlates with entry into relaxation suggesting that the two processes are energetically related.

  1. P/Q-type calcium channels activate neighboring calcium-dependent potassium channels in mouse motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Protti, D A; Uchitel, O D

    1997-08-01

    The identity of the voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC), which trigger the Ca2+-gated K+ currents (IK(Ca)) in mammalian motor nerve terminals, was investigated by means of perineurial recordings. The effects of Ca2+ chelators with different binding kinetics on the activation of IK(Ca) were also examined. The calcium channel blockers of the P/Q family, omega-agatoxin IVA (omega-Aga-IVA) and funnel-web spider toxin (FTX), have been shown to exert a strong blocking effect on IK(Ca). In contrast, nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx) did not affect the Ca2+-activated K+ currents. The intracellular action of the fast Ca2+ buffers BAPTA and DM-BAPTA prevented the activation of the IK(Ca), while the slow Ca2+ buffer EGTA was ineffective at blocking it. These data indicate that P/Q-type VDCC mediate the Ca2+ influx which activates IK(Ca). The spatial association between Ca2+ and Ca2+-gated K+ channels is discussed, on the basis of the differential effects of the fast and slow Ca2+ chelators.

  2. Functional and molecular identification of a TASK-1 potassium channel regulating chloride secretion through CFTR channels in the shark rectal gland: implications for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Telles, Connor J; Decker, Sarah E; Motley, William W; Peters, Alexander W; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Frizzell, Raymond A; Forrest, John N

    2016-12-01

    In the shark rectal gland (SRG), apical chloride secretion through CFTR channels is electrically coupled to a basolateral K + conductance whose type and molecular identity are unknown. We performed studies in the perfused SRG with 17 K + channel inhibitors to begin this search. Maximal chloride secretion was markedly inhibited by low-perfusate pH, bupivicaine, anandamide, zinc, quinidine, and quinine, consistent with the properties of an acid-sensitive, four-transmembrane, two-pore-domain K + channel (4TM-K2P). Using PCR with degenerate primers to this family, we identified a TASK-1 fragment in shark rectal gland, brain, gill, and kidney. Using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and genomic walking, we cloned the full-length shark gene (1,282 bp), whose open reading frame encodes a protein of 375 amino acids that was 80% identical to the human TASK-1 protein. We expressed shark and human TASK-1 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes and characterized these channels using two-electrode voltage clamping. Both channels had identical current-voltage relationships (outward rectifying) and a reversal potential of -90 mV. Both were inhibited by quinine, bupivicaine, and acidic pH. The pKa for current inhibition was 7.75 for shark TASK-1 vs. 7.37 for human TASK-1, values similar to the arterial pH for each species. We identified this protein in SRG by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and detected the protein in SRG and human airway cells. Shark TASK-1 is the major K + channel coupled to chloride secretion in the SRG, is the oldest 4TM 2P family member identified, and is the first TASK-1 channel identified to play a role in setting the driving force for chloride secretion in epithelia. The detection of this potassium channel in mammalian lung tissue has implications for human biology and disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Functional and molecular identification of a TASK-1 potassium channel regulating chloride secretion through CFTR channels in the shark rectal gland: implications for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Connor J.; Decker, Sarah E.; Motley, William W.; Peters, Alexander W.; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Frizzell, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    In the shark rectal gland (SRG), apical chloride secretion through CFTR channels is electrically coupled to a basolateral K+ conductance whose type and molecular identity are unknown. We performed studies in the perfused SRG with 17 K+ channel inhibitors to begin this search. Maximal chloride secretion was markedly inhibited by low-perfusate pH, bupivicaine, anandamide, zinc, quinidine, and quinine, consistent with the properties of an acid-sensitive, four-transmembrane, two-pore-domain K+ channel (4TM-K2P). Using PCR with degenerate primers to this family, we identified a TASK-1 fragment in shark rectal gland, brain, gill, and kidney. Using 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and genomic walking, we cloned the full-length shark gene (1,282 bp), whose open reading frame encodes a protein of 375 amino acids that was 80% identical to the human TASK-1 protein. We expressed shark and human TASK-1 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes and characterized these channels using two-electrode voltage clamping. Both channels had identical current-voltage relationships (outward rectifying) and a reversal potential of −90 mV. Both were inhibited by quinine, bupivicaine, and acidic pH. The pKa for current inhibition was 7.75 for shark TASK-1 vs. 7.37 for human TASK-1, values similar to the arterial pH for each species. We identified this protein in SRG by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and detected the protein in SRG and human airway cells. Shark TASK-1 is the major K+ channel coupled to chloride secretion in the SRG, is the oldest 4TM 2P family member identified, and is the first TASK-1 channel identified to play a role in setting the driving force for chloride secretion in epithelia. The detection of this potassium channel in mammalian lung tissue has implications for human biology and disease. PMID:27653983

  4. Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cyrus S.H.; Quek, Amy M.L.

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic encephalitis in view of previous positive autoantibodies. His failure to respond to immunotherapy prompted testing for heavy metal poisoning, which was positive for Mn. This is the first report to examine an association between Mn and VGKC antibodies and the effects of Mn on functional brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). PMID:29669989

  5. Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cyrus S H; Ho, Roger C M; Quek, Amy M L

    2018-04-18

    Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic encephalitis in view of previous positive autoantibodies. His failure to respond to immunotherapy prompted testing for heavy metal poisoning, which was positive for Mn. This is the first report to examine an association between Mn and VGKC antibodies and the effects of Mn on functional brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

  6. Reversible dementia: two nursing home patients with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Reintjes, Wesley; Romijn, Marloes D M; Hollander, Daan; Ter Bruggen, Jan P; van Marum, Rob J

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (VGKC-LE) is a rare disease that is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for medical practitioners. Two patients with VGKC-LE, both developing dementia are presented. Following treatment, both patients showed remarkable cognitive and functional improvement enabling them to leave the psychogeriatric nursing homes they both were admitted to. Patients with VGKC-LE can have a major cognitive and functional improvement even after a diagnostic delay of more than 1 year. Medical practitioners who treat patients with unexplained cognitive decline, epileptic seizures, or psychiatric symptoms should be aware of LE as an underlying rare cause. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistent anterograde amnesia following limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex.

    PubMed

    Butler, Christopher R; Miller, Thomas D; Kaur, Manveer S; Baker, Ian W; Boothroyd, Georgie D; Illman, Nathan A; Rosenthal, Clive R; Vincent, Angela; Buckley, Camilla J

    2014-04-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) is a potentially reversible cause of cognitive impairment. Despite the prominence of cognitive dysfunction in this syndrome, little is known about patients' neuropsychological profile at presentation or their long-term cognitive outcome. We used a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive function longitudinally in 19 patients with VGKC-LE. Before immunotherapy, the group had significant impairment of memory, processing speed and executive function, whereas language and perceptual organisation were intact. At follow-up, cognitive impairment was restricted to the memory domain, with processing speed and executive function having returned to the normal range. Residual memory function was predicted by the antibody titre at presentation. The results show that, despite broad cognitive dysfunction in the acute phase, patients with VGKC-LE often make a substantial recovery with immunotherapy but may be left with permanent anterograde amnesia.

  8. A new mode of regulation of N-type inactivation in a Caenorhabditis elegans voltage-gated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shi-Qing; Sesti, Federico

    2007-06-22

    N-type inactivation in voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels is a widespread means to modulate neuronal excitability and signaling. Here we have shown a novel mechanism of N-type inactivation in a Caenorhabditis elegans Kv channel. The N-terminal sequence of KVS-1 contains a domain of 22 amino acids that resembles the inactivation ball in A-type channels, which is preceded by a domain of eighteen amino acids. Wild type KVS-1 currents can be described as A-type; however, their kinetics are significantly (approximately 5-fold) slower. When the putative inactivation ball is deleted, the current becomes non-inactivating. Inactivation is restored in non-inactivating channels by diffusion of the missing inactivation domain in the cytoplasm. Deletion of the domain in front of the ball speeds inactivation kinetics approximately 5-fold. We conclude that KVS-1 is the first example of a novel type of Kv channel simultaneously possessing an N-inactivating ball preceded by an N inactivation regulatory domain (NIRD) that acts to slow down inactivation through steric mechanisms.

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the renal potassium channel, ROMK, leads to type II Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Brighid M; Mackie, Timothy D; Subramanya, Arohan R; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2017-08-04

    Type II Bartter syndrome is caused by mutations in the renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease are poorly defined. To rapidly screen for ROMK function, we developed a yeast expression system and discovered that yeast cells lacking endogenous potassium channels could be rescued by WT ROMK but not by ROMK proteins containing any one of four Bartter mutations. We also found that the mutant proteins were significantly less stable than WT ROMK. However, their degradation was slowed in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor or when yeast cells contained mutations in the CDC48 or SSA1 gene, which is required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). Consistent with these data, sucrose gradient centrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that most ROMK protein was ER-localized. To translate these findings to a more relevant cell type, we measured the stabilities of WT ROMK and the ROMK Bartter mutants in HEK293 cells. As in yeast, the Bartter mutant proteins were less stable than the WT protein, and their degradation was slowed in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, we discovered that low-temperature incubation increased the steady-state levels of a Bartter mutant, suggesting that the disease-causing mutation traps the protein in a folding-deficient conformation. These findings indicate that the underlying pathology for at least a subset of patients with type II Bartter syndrome is linked to the ERAD pathway and that future therapeutic strategies should focus on correcting deficiencies in ROMK folding. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The effect of nitrazepam on depression and curiosity in behavioral tests in mice: The role of potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Azhand, Pardis; Zolfaghari, Samira; Amiri, Shayan; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Motevalian, Manijeh; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2016-11-15

    Evidence show that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are involved in depression, so the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrazepam as agonist of GABA A receptors on depression and curiosity in male mice and the role of potassium channel in antidepressant-like response. For this purpose, we studied the antidepressant-like properties of fluoxetine, nitrazepam, glibenclamide, and cromakalim by both forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Animals were injected by various doses of nitrazepam (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5mg/kg). Nitrazepam at dose of 0.5mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility time compared to control group in both FST and TST. Fluoxetine also showed such a response. Co-administration of nitrazepam (0.05mg/kg) with glibenclamide in TST (1mg/kg) and in FST (0.3, 1mg/kg) also showed antidepressant-like response. Beside, cromakalim (0.1mg/kg) could reverse the antidepressant-like effect of nitrazepam (0.5mg/kg) in both FST and TST, while cromakalim and glibenclamide alone could not change the immobility time compared to control group (P>0.05). The hole-board test revealed that nitrazepam at doses of 0.5 and 0.1mg/kg could increase the activity of the animal's head-dipping and boost the curiosity and exploration behavior of mice. The results of this study revealed that nitrazepam may possess antidepressant-like properties and this effect is dependent to potassium channels in both FST and TST. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. GPER agonist dilates mesenteric arteries via PI3K-Akt-eNOS and potassium channels in both sexes.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Pollyana; Aires, Rosária Dias; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Santos, Roger Lyrio Dos

    2017-08-15

    The action of oestrogen has traditionally been attributed to the activation of nuclear receptors (ERα and ERβ). A third receptor, the G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor (GPER), has been described as mediator of the rapid action of oestrogen. Based on the possible protective role of oestrogen in the cardiovascular system, the present study was designed to determine whether selective GPER activation induces relaxation of mesenteric resistance arteries in both sexes and which signalling pathways are involved. Third-order mesenteric arteries were isolated, and concentration-response curves were plotted following the cumulative addition of the selective GPER agonist G-1 (1nM-10μM) following induction of contraction with phenylephrine (3μM). The vasodilatory effects of G-1 were assessed before and after removal of the endothelium or incubation for 30min with nitric oxide synthase (N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester - L-NAME, 300μM) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin - INDO, 10μM) inhibitors alone or combined, PI3K-Akt pathway inhibitor (LY-294,002, 2.5μM) or a potassium channel blocker (tetraethylammonium - TEA, 5mM). GPER immunolocalisation was also performed on the investigated arteries. The tested GPER agonist induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the mesenteric resistance arteries without differences related to sex that were partially endothelium dependent, mainly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway and attenuated by nonspecific potassium channel blockade. In addition, the endothelial GPER immunolocalisation was stronger among females. This evidence provides a new perspective for understanding the mechanisms involved in the vascular responses triggered by oestrogen via GPER in both sexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biphasic Somatic A-Type K+ Channel Downregulation Mediates Intrinsic Plasticity in Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Cherl; Hoffman, Dax A.

    2009-01-01

    Since its original description, the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) has been known to be accompanied by a lasting increase in the intrinsic excitability (intrinsic plasticity) of hippocampal neurons. Recent evidence shows that dendritic excitability can be enhanced by an activity-dependent decrease in the activity of A-type K+ channels. In the present manuscript, we examined the role of A-type K+ channels in regulating intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus after synapse-specific LTP induction. In electrophysiological recordings we found that LTP induced a potentiation of excitability which was accompanied by a two-phased change in A-type K+ channel activity recorded in nucleated patches from organotypic slices of rat hippocampus. Induction of LTP resulted in an immediate but short lasting hyperpolarization of the voltage-dependence of steady-state A-type K+ channel inactivation along with a progressive, long-lasting decrease in peak A-current density. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis prevented the A-current decrease and most measures of intrinsic plasticity. These results suggest that two temporally distinct but overlapping mechanisms of A-channel downregulation together contribute to the plasticity of intrinsic excitability. Finally we show that intrinsic plasticity resulted in a global enhancement of EPSP-spike coupling. PMID:19662093

  13. Expression of Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Subunits in Native Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongli; Zhang, Xiaoming; Hughes, Bret A.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channel subunit Kir7.1 is highly expressed in bovine and human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of the 14 other members of the Kir gene family are expressed in native human RPE. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that in addition to Kir7.1, 7 other Kir channel subunits (Kir1.1, Kir2.1, Kir2.2, Kir3.1, Kir3.4, Kir4.2 and Kir6.1) are expressed in the RPE, whereas in neural retina, all 14 of the Kir channel subunits examined are expressed. The identities of RT-PCR products in the RPE were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed, however, that transcripts of these channels are significantly less abundant than Kir7.1 in the RPE. Western blot analysis of the Kir channel subunits detected in the RPE by RT-PCR revealed the expression of Kir2.1, Kir3.1, Kir3.4, Kir4.2, Kir6.1, and possibly Kir2.2, but not Kir1.1, in both human RPE and neural retina. Our results indicate that human RPE expresses at least 5 other Kir channel subtypes in addition to Kir7.1, suggesting that multiple members of the Kir channel family may function in this epithelium. PMID:18653180

  14. SLO-2 potassium channel is an important regulator of neurotransmitter release in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Chen, Bojun; Wang, Zhao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Slo2 channels are prominent K+ channels in mammalian neurons but their physiological functions are not well understood. Here we investigate physiological functions and regulation of the C. elegans homologue SLO-2 in motor neurons through electrophysiological analyses of wild-type and mutant worms. We find that SLO-2 is the primary K+ channel conducting delayed outward current in cholinergic motor neurons, and one of two K+ channels with this function in GABAergic motor neurons. Loss-of-function mutation of slo-2 increases the duration and charge transfer rate of spontaneous postsynaptic current bursts at the neuromuscular junction, which are physiological signals used by motor neurons to control muscle cells, without altering postsynaptic receptor sensitivity. SLO-2 activity in motor neurons depends on Ca2+ entry through EGL-19, an L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (CaV1), but not on other proteins implicated in either Ca2+ entry or intracellular Ca2+ release. Thus, SLO-2 is functionally coupled with CaV1 and regulates neurotransmitter release. PMID:25300429

  15. Localization and function of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens Jung; Kristensen, Michael; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens; Juel, Carsten

    2003-02-01

    The present study investigated the localization of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in human skeletal muscle and the functional importance of these channels for human muscle K+ distribution at rest and during muscle activity. Membrane fractionation based on the giant vesicle technique or the sucrose-gradient technique in combination with Western blotting demonstrated that the KATP channels are mainly located in the sarcolemma. This localization was confirmed by immunohistochemical measurements. With the microdialysis technique, it was demonstrated that local application of the KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide reduced (P < 0.05) interstitial K+ at rest from approximately 4.5 to 4.0 mM, whereas the concentration in the control leg remained constant. Glibenclamide had no effect on the interstitial K+ accumulation during knee-extensor exercise at a power output of 60 W. In contrast to in vitro conditions, the present study demonstrated that under in vivo conditions the KATP channels are active at rest and contribute to the accumulation of interstitial K+.

  16. Modulation of Excitability of Stellate Neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus of Mice by ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Bal, Ramazan; Ozturk, Gurkan; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Him, Aydin; Cengiz, Nurattin; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Yildirim, Caner; Tektemur, Ahmet

    2018-02-01

    Major voltage-activated ionic channels of stellate cells in the ventral part of cochlear nucleus (CN) were largely characterized previously. However, it is not known if these cells are equipped with other ion channels apart from the voltage-sensitive ones. In the current study, it was aimed to study subunit composition and function of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ) in stellate cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Subunits of K ATP channels, Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2, were expressed at the mRNA level and at the protein level in the mouse VCN tissue. The specific and clearly visible bands for all subunits but that for Kir6.1 were seen in Western blot. Using immunohistochemical staining technique, stellate cells were strongly labeled with SUR1 and Kir6.2 antibodies and moderately labeled with SUR2 antibody, whereas the labeling signals for Kir6.1 were too weak. In patch clamp recordings, K ATP agonists including cromakalim (50 µM), diazoxide (0.2 mM), 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ) (1 mM), 2,2-Dithiobis (5-nitro pyridine) (DTNP) (330 µM), 6-Chloro-3-isopropylamino- 4H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (NNC 55-0118) (1 µM), 6-chloro-3-(methylcyclopropyl)amino-4H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (NN414) (1 µM), and H 2 O 2 (0.88 mM) induced marked responses in stellate cells, characterized by membrane hyperpolarization which were blocked by K ATP antagonists. Blockers of K ATP channels, glibenclamide (0.2 mM), tolbutamide (0.1 mM) as well as 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (1 mM), and catalase (500 IU/ml) caused depolarization of stellate cells, increasing spontaneous action potential firing. In conclusion, K ATP channels seemed to be composed dominantly of Kir 6.2 subunit and SUR1 and SUR2 and activation or inhibition of K ATP channels regulates firing properties of stellate cells by means of influencing resting membrane potential and input resistance.

  17. The N-terminal domain of Slack determines the formation and trafficking of Slick/Slack heteromeric sodium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haijun; Kronengold, Jack; Yan, Yangyang; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Brown, Maile R; Ma, Liqun; Ferreira, Gonzalo; Yang, Youshan; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Sigworth, Fred J; Salkoff, Larry; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2009-04-29

    Potassium channels activated by intracellular Na(+) ions (K(Na)) play several distinct roles in regulating the firing patterns of neurons, and, at the single channel level, their properties are quite diverse. Two known genes, Slick and Slack, encode K(Na) channels. We have now found that Slick and Slack subunits coassemble to form heteromeric channels that differ from the homomers in their unitary conductance, kinetic behavior, subcellular localization, and response to activation of protein kinase C. Heteromer formation requires the N-terminal domain of Slack-B, one of the alternative splice variants of the Slack channel. This cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Slack-B also facilitates the localization of heteromeric K(Na) channels to the plasma membrane. Immunocytochemical studies indicate that Slick and Slack-B subunits are coexpressed in many central neurons. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for some of the diversity in reported properties of neuronal K(Na) channels.

  18. Impact of Mitochondrial Ca2+-Sensitive Potassium (mBKCa) Channels in Sildenafil-Induced Cardioprotection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Behmenburg, Friederike; Dorsch, Marianne; Huhn, Ragnar; Mally, David; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial large-conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mBKCa) channels are involved in myocardial ischemic preconditioning. Their role in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection is unknown. We investigated whether sildenafil-induced acute cardioprotection is mediated by activation of mBKCa channels in the rat heart in vitro. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were randomized and anesthetized with pentobarbital (90 mg/kg). Hearts were isolated, mounted on a Langendorff system and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at a constant pressure of 80 mmHg. Hearts underwent 30 min of global ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. At the end of the experiments infarct size was determined by TTC staining. In the control group rats were not further treated. Sildenafil (3 μM) was administered over 10 min before the beginning of ischemia. The mBKCa channel inhibitor paxilline (1 μM) was administered with and without sildenafil before the onset of ischemia. The pathway underlying sildenafil-induced cardioprotection was further investigated with the protein kinase G blocker KT5823 (1 μM). Myocardial cGMP concentration was measured by ELISA. Data (mean±SD) were analysed with a one and two-way analysis of variance as appropriate. Results In control animals infarct size was 52±8%. Sildenafil increased cGMP concentration and reduced infarct size to 35±6% (P<0.05 vs. control). Paxilline and KT5823 completely blocked sildenafil-induced cardioprotection (paxilline+sildenafil: 50±8%, KT5823+sildenafil: 45±8%; both P<0.05 vs. sildenafil). Functional heart parameters and coronary flow were not different between the study groups. Conclusion This study shows that in male rats protein kinase G-dependent opening of mBKCa channels plays a pivotal role in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection. PMID:26671662

  19. Variability of Potassium Channel Blockers in Mesobuthus eupeus Scorpion Venom with Focus on Kv1.1

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Kudryashova, Kseniya S.; Nekrasova, Oksana V.; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Feofanov, Alexey V.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    The lesser Asian scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus (Buthidae) is one of the most widely spread and dispersed species of the Mesobuthus genus, and its venom is actively studied. Nevertheless, a considerable amount of active compounds is still under-investigated due to the high complexity of this venom. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of putative potassium channel toxins (KTxs) from the cDNA library of M. eupeus venom glands, and we compare the deduced KTx structures with peptides purified from the venom. For the transcriptome analysis, we used conventional tools as well as a search for structural motifs characteristic of scorpion venom components in the form of regular expressions. We found 59 candidate KTxs distributed in 30 subfamilies and presenting the cysteine-stabilized α/β and inhibitor cystine knot types of fold. M. eupeus venom was then separated to individual components by multistage chromatography. A facile fluorescent system based on the expression of the KcsA-Kv1.1 hybrid channels in Escherichia coli and utilization of a labeled scorpion toxin was elaborated and applied to follow Kv1.1 pore binding activity during venom separation. As a result, eight high affinity Kv1.1 channel blockers were identified, including five novel peptides, which extend the panel of potential pharmacologically important Kv1 ligands. Activity of the new peptides against rat Kv1.1 channel was confirmed (IC50 in the range of 1–780 nm) by the two-electrode voltage clamp technique using a standard Xenopus oocyte system. Our integrated approach is of general utility and efficiency to mine natural venoms for KTxs. PMID:25792741

  20. Chronic fluoxetine treatment increases NO bioavailability and calcium-sensitive potassium channels activation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camila A; Ferreira, Nathanne S; Mestriner, Fabiola L; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Evora, Paulo R B; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-10-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has effects beyond its antidepressant properties, altering, e.g., mechanisms involved in blood pressure and vasomotor tone control. Although many studies have addressed the acute impact of fluoxetine on the cardiovascular system, there is a paucity of information on the chronic vascular effects of this SSRI. We tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment enhances the vascular reactivity to vasodilator stimuli by increasing nitric oxide (NO) signaling and activation of potassium (K+) channels. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (I) vehicle (water for 21 days) or (II) chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 21 days). Fluoxetine treatment increased endothelium-dependent and independent vasorelaxation (analyzed by mesenteric resistance arteries reactivity) as well as constitutive NO synthase (NOS) activity, phosphorylation of eNOS at Serine1177 and NO production, determined by western blot and fluorescence. On the other hand, fluoxetine treatment did not alter vascular expression of neuronal and inducible NOS or guanylyl cyclase (GC). Arteries from fluoxetine-treated rats exhibited increased relaxation to pinacidil. Increased acetylcholine vasorelaxation was abolished by a calcium-activated K+ channel (KCa) blocker, but not by an inhibitor of KATP channels. On the other hand, vascular responses to Bay 41-2272 and 8-bromo-cGMP were similar between the groups. In conclusion, chronic fluoxetine treatment increases endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation of mesenteric resistance arteries by mechanisms that involve increased eNOS activity, NO generation, and KCa channels activation. These effects may contribute to the cardiovascular effects associated with chronic fluoxetine treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics and molecular basis of celecoxib modulation on Kv7 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Du, XN; Zhang, X; Qi, JL; An, HL; Li, JW; Wan, YM; Fu, Y; Gao, HX; Gao, ZB; Zhan, Y; Zhang, HL

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor used for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Emerging and accumulating evidence suggests that celecoxib can affect cellular targets other than COX, such as ion channels. In this study, we characterized the effects of celecoxib on Kv7 K+ channels and compared its effects with the well-established Kv7 channel opener retigabine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH A perforated whole-cell patch technique was used to record Kv7currents expressed in HEK 293 cells and M-type currents from rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. KEY RESULTS Celecoxib enhanced Kv7.2–7.4, Kv7.2/7.3 and Kv7.3/7.5 currents but inhibited Kv7.1 and Kv7.1/KCNE1 currents and these effects were concentration dependent. The IC50 value for inhibition of Kv7.1 channels was approximately 4 µM and the EC50 values for activation of Kv7.2–7.4, Kv7.2/Kv7.3 and Kv7.3/Kv7.5 channels were approximately 2–5 µM. The effects of celecoxib were manifested by increasing current amplitudes, shifting the voltage-dependent activation curve in a more negative direction and slowing the deactivation of Kv7 currents. 2,5-Dimethyl-celecoxib, a celecoxib analogue devoid of COX inhibition activity, has similar but greater effects on Kv7currents. Kv7.2(A235T) and Kv7.2(W236L) mutant channels, which have greatly attenuated responses to retigabine, showed a reversed response to celecoxib, from activation to inhibition. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that Kv7 channels are targets of celecoxib action and provide new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of celecoxib. They also provide a new approach to developing Kv7 modulators and for studying the structure–function relationship of Kv7 channels. PMID:21564087

  2. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein, Part I: Affordances and Limitations of Ribbon Diagrams, Vines, and Hydrophobic/Polar Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This project focuses on students' understanding of three external representations of the potassium ion channel protein. This is part I of a two-part study, which focuses on the affordances and…

  3. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  4. Distinct subunit contributions to the activation of M-type potassium channels by PI(4,5)P2

    PubMed Central

    Telezhkin, Vsevolod; Brown, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Low-threshold voltage-gated M-type potassium channels (M channels) are tetraheteromers, commonly of two Kv7.2 and two Kv7.3 subunits. Though gated by voltage, the channels have an absolute requirement for binding of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to open. We have investigated the quantitative relation between the concentration of a water-soluble PI(4,5)P2 analog, dioctanoyl-PI(4,5)P2 (DiC8-PI(4,5)P2), and channel open probability (Popen) by fast application of increasing concentrations of DiC8-PI(4,5)P2 to the inside face of membrane patches excised from Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing M channels as heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 subunits. The rationale for the experiments is that this will mimic the effect of changes in membrane PI(4,5)P2 concentration. Single-channel conductances from channel current–voltage relations in cell-attached mode were 9.2 ± 0.1 pS with a 2.5-mM pipette [K+]. Plots of Popen against DiC8-PI(4,5)P2 concentration were best fitted using a two-component concentration–Popen relationship with high and low affinity, half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 1.3 ± 0.14 and 75.5 ± 2.5 µM, respectively, and Hill slopes of 1.4 ± 0.06. In contrast, homomeric channels from cells expressing only Kv7.2 or Kv7.3 constructs yielded single-component curves with EC50 values of 76.2 ± 19.9 or 3.6 ± 1.0 µM, respectively. When wild-type (WT) Kv7.2 was coexpressed with a mutated Kv7.3 subunit with >100-fold reduced sensitivity to PI(4,5)P2, the high-affinity component of the activation curve was lost. Fitting the data for WT and mutant channels to an activation mechanism with independent PI(4,5)P2 binding to two Kv7.2 and two Kv7.3 subunits suggests that the two components of the M-channel activation curve correspond to the interaction of PI(4,5)P2 with the Kv7.3 and Kv7.2 subunits, respectively, that channels can open when only the two Kv7.3 subunits have bound DiC8-PI(4,5)P2, and that maximum

  5. Molecular assembly and subcellular distribution of ATP-sensitive potassium channel proteins in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Kaneko, Kazuyoshi; Kawahara, Kohichi; Nakayama, Hitoshi

    2003-09-25

    Cardiac ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels are proposed to contribute to cardio-protection and ischemic preconditioning. Although mRNAs for all subunits of K(ATP) channels (Kir6.0 and sulfonylurea receptors SURs) were detected in hearts, subcellular localization of their proteins and the subunit combination are not well elucidated. We address these questions in rat hearts, using anti-peptide antibodies raised against each subunit. By immunoblot analysis, all of the subunits were detected in microsomal fractions including sarcolemmal membranes, while they were not detected in mitochondrial fractions at all. Immunoprecipitation and sucrose gradient sedimentation of the digitonin-solubilized microsomes indicated that Kir6.2 exclusively assembled with SUR2A. The molecular mass of the Kir6.2-SUR2A complex estimated by sucrose sedimentation was 1150 kDa, significantly larger than the calculated value for (Kir6.2)(4)-(SUR2A)(4), suggesting a potential formation of micellar complex with digitonin but no indication of hybrid channel formation under the conditions. These findings provide additional information on the structural and functional relationships of cardiac K(ATP) channel proteins involving subcellular localization and roles for cardioprotection and ischemic preconditioning.

  6. Calcium-activated potassium channels in basolateral membranes of colon epithelial cells; reconstitution and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Wiener, H; Turnheim, K

    1990-10-26

    Using differential sedimentation, isopycnic and Ficoll-400 barrier centrifugation, basolateral membrane vesicles of surface and crypt cells of the rabbit distal colon were enriched 34- and 9-fold, respectively. 86Rb(+)-uptake into these vesicles, driven by an electrical potential difference, was stimulated by submicromolar Ca2+ activities and inhibited by Ba2+. These findings indicate the presence of Ca2(+)-activated K+ channels. The K+ channels in surface and crypt cell membranes differed with respect to inhibition by the bee venom apamin, the scorpion venom charybdotoxin and tetraethylammonium and exhibited a different pH dependence. Fusion of basolateral membrane vesicles with planar phospholipid bilayers revealed the presence of high-conductance Ba2(+)-sensitive K+ channels which were activated by micromolar Ca2+ and inhibited by crude scorpion venom and trifluoperazine. These K+ channels may be involved in the coupling of apical and basolateral membrane conductances during Na+ absorption and Cl- secretion, but they may also play a role in cell volume regulation.

  7. The voltage-sensing domain of a phosphatase gates the pore of a potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Schroeder, Indra; Romani, Giulia; Van Etten, James L.; Thiel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The modular architecture of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels suggests that they resulted from the fusion of a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) to a pore module. Here, we show that the VSD of Ciona intestinalis phosphatase (Ci-VSP) fused to the viral channel Kcv creates KvSynth1, a functional voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying K+ channel. KvSynth1 displays the summed features of its individual components: pore properties of Kcv (selectivity and filter gating) and voltage dependence of Ci-VSP (V1/2 = +56 mV; z of ∼1), including the depolarization-induced mode shift. The degree of outward rectification of the channel is critically dependent on the length of the linker more than on its amino acid composition. This highlights a mechanistic role of the linker in transmitting the movement of the sensor to the pore and shows that electromechanical coupling can occur without coevolution of the two domains. PMID:23440279

  8. Broadening roles for FMRP: big news for big potassium (BK) channels.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Anis

    2013-02-20

    FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that negatively regulates translation and which is lost in fragile X syndrome. In this issue of Neuron, Deng et al. (2013) demonstrate a novel translation-independent function for FMRP as a regulator of presynaptic BK channels that modulate the dynamics of neurotransmitter release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Substance P Depolarizes Lamprey Spinal Cord Neurons by Inhibiting Background Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Thörn Pérez, Carolina; Hill, Russell H; Grillner, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Substance P is endogenously released in the adult lamprey spinal cord and accelerates the burst frequency of fictive locomotion. This is achieved by multiple effects on interneurons and motoneurons, including an attenuation of calcium currents, potentiation of NMDA currents and reduction of the reciprocal inhibition. While substance P also depolarizes spinal cord neurons, the underlying mechanism has not been resolved. Here we show that effects of substance P on background K+ channels are the main source for this depolarization. Hyperpolarizing steps induced inward currents during whole-cell voltage clamp that were reduced by substance P. These background K+ channels are pH sensitive and are selectively blocked by anandamide and AVE1231. These blockers counteracted the effect of substance P on these channels and the resting membrane potential depolarization in spinal cord neurons. Thus, we have shown now that substance P inhibits background K+ channels that in turn induce depolarization, which is likely to contribute to the frequency increase observed with substance P during fictive locomotion.

  10. Substance P Depolarizes Lamprey Spinal Cord Neurons by Inhibiting Background Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Thörn Pérez, Carolina; Hill, Russell H.; Grillner, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Substance P is endogenously released in the adult lamprey spinal cord and accelerates the burst frequency of fictive locomotion. This is achieved by multiple effects on interneurons and motoneurons, including an attenuation of calcium currents, potentiation of NMDA currents and reduction of the reciprocal inhibition. While substance P also depolarizes spinal cord neurons, the underlying mechanism has not been resolved. Here we show that effects of substance P on background K+ channels are the main source for this depolarization. Hyperpolarizing steps induced inward currents during whole-cell voltage clamp that were reduced by substance P. These background K+ channels are pH sensitive and are selectively blocked by anandamide and AVE1231. These blockers counteracted the effect of substance P on these channels and the resting membrane potential depolarization in spinal cord neurons. Thus, we have shown now that substance P inhibits background K+ channels that in turn induce depolarization, which is likely to contribute to the frequency increase observed with substance P during fictive locomotion. PMID:26197458

  11. OSR1 regulates a subset of inward rectifier potassium channels via a binding motif variant.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Clinton A; An, Sung-Wan; Kankanamalage, Sachith Gallolu; Stippec, Steve; Earnest, Svetlana; Trivedi, Ashesh T; Yang, Jonathan Zijiang; Mirzaei, Hamid; Huang, Chou-Long; Cobb, Melanie H

    2018-04-10

    The with-no-lysine (K) (WNK) signaling pathway to STE20/SPS1-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinase is an important mediator of cell volume and ion transport. SPAK and OSR1 associate with upstream kinases WNK 1-4, substrates, and other proteins through their C-terminal domains which interact with linear R-F-x-V/I sequence motifs. In this study we find that SPAK and OSR1 also interact with similar affinity with a motif variant, R-x-F-x-V/I. Eight of 16 human inward rectifier K + channels have an R-x-F-x-V motif. We demonstrate that two of these channels, Kir2.1 and Kir2.3, are activated by OSR1, while Kir4.1, which does not contain the motif, is not sensitive to changes in OSR1 or WNK activity. Mutation of the motif prevents activation of Kir2.3 by OSR1. Both siRNA knockdown of OSR1 and chemical inhibition of WNK activity disrupt NaCl-induced plasma membrane localization of Kir2.3. Our results suggest a mechanism by which WNK-OSR1 enhance Kir2.1 and Kir2.3 channel activity by increasing their plasma membrane localization. Regulation of members of the inward rectifier K + channel family adds functional and mechanistic insight into the physiological impact of the WNK pathway.

  12. Accentuated antagonism in vagal heart rate control mediated through muscarinic potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masaki; Kamiya, Atsunori; Kawada, Toru; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Shimizu, Shuji; Shishido, Toshiaki; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2008-12-01

    Although muscarinic K(+) (K(ACh)) channels contribute to a rapid heart rate (HR) response to vagal stimulation, whether background sympathetic tone affects the HR control via the K(ACh)channels remains to be elucidated. In seven anesthetized rabbits with sinoaortic denervation and vagotomy, we estimated the dynamic transfer function of the HR response by using random binary vagal stimulation (0-10 Hz). Tertiapin, a selective K(ACh) channel blocker, decreased the dynamic gain (to 2.3+/- 0.9 beats.min(-1).Hz(-1), from 4.6+/- 1.1, P < 0.01, mean+/- SD) and the corner frequency (to 0.05+/- 0.01 Hz, from 0.26+/- 0.04, P < 0.01). Under 5 Hz tonic cardiac sympathetic stimulation (CSS), tertiapin decreased the dynamic gain (to 3.6+/- 1.0 beats.min(-1).Hz(-1), from 7.3+/- 1.1, P < 0.01) and the corner frequency (to 0.06+/- 0.02 Hz, from 0.23+/- 0.06, P < 0.01). Two-way analysis of variance indicated significant interaction between the tertiapin and CSS effects on the dynamic gain. In contrast, no significant interactions were observed between the tertiapin and CSS effects on the corner frequency and the lag time. In conclusion, although a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism has been well established, an accentuated antagonism also occurred in the direct effect of ACh via the K(ACh) channels. The rapidity of the HR response obtained by the K(ACh) channel pathway was robust during the accentuated antagonism.

  13. cAMP-dependent kinase does not modulate the Slack sodium-activated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Nuwer, Megan O; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2009-09-01

    The Slack gene encodes a Na(+)-activated K(+) channel and is expressed in many different types of neurons. Like the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-gated K(+) channel MthK, Slack contains two 'regulator of K(+) conductance' (RCK) domains within its carboxy terminal, domains likely involved in Na(+) binding and channel gating. It also contains multiple consensus protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites and although regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, modulation by PKA has not been determined. To test if PKA directly regulates Slack, nystatin-perforated patch whole-cell currents were recorded from a human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line stably expressing Slack. Bath application of forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, caused a rapid and complete inhibition of Slack currents however, the inactive homolog of forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin caused a similar effect. In contrast, bath application of 8-bromo-cAMP did not affect the amplitude nor the activation kinetics of Slack currents. In excised inside-out patch recordings, direct application of the PKA catalytic subunit to patches did not affect the open probability of Slack channels nor was open probability affected by direct application of protein phosphatase 2B. Preincubation of cells with the protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720 also did not change current density. Finally, mutating the consensus phosphorylation site located between RCK domain 1 and domain 2 from serine to glutamate did not affect current activation kinetics. We conclude that unlike PKC, phosphorylation by PKA does not acutely modulate the function and gating activation kinetics of Slack channels.

  14. Kir2.1 encodes the inward rectifier potassium channel in rat arterial smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Karri K; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Bonev, Adrian D; Heppner, Thomas J; Flynn, Elaine RM; Nelson, Mark T; Horowitz, Burton

    1999-01-01

    The molecular nature of the strong inward rectifier K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle was explored by using isolated cell RT-PCR, cDNA cloning and expression techniques.RT-PCR of RNA from single smooth muscle cells of rat cerebral (basilar), coronary and mesenteric arteries revealed transcripts for Kir2.1. Transcripts for Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were not found.Quantitative PCR analysis revealed significant differences in transcript levels of Kir2.1 between the different vascular preparations (n = 3; P < 0.05). A two-fold difference was detected between Kir2.1 mRNA and β-actin mRNA in coronary arteries when compared with relative levels measured in mesenteric and basilar preparations.Kir2.1 was cloned from rat mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Currents were strongly inwardly rectifying and selective for K+.The effect of extracellular Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cs2+ ions on cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes was examined. Ba2+ and Cs+ block were steeply voltage dependent, whereas block by external Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibited little voltage dependence. The apparent half-block constants and voltage dependences for Ba2+, Cs+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were very similar for inward rectifier K+ currents from native cells and cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in oocytes.Molecular studies demonstrate that Kir2.1 is the only member of the Kir2 channel subfamily present in vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. Expression of cloned Kir2.1 in Xenopus oocytes resulted in inward rectifier K+ currents that strongly resemble those that are observed in native vascular arterial smooth muscle ce