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Sample records for a-type potassium current

  1. A-type potassium currents in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Gregory C; Koh, Sang Don; Imaizumi, Yuji; Ohya, Susumu; Sanders, Kenton M

    2003-03-01

    A-type currents are voltage-gated, calcium-independent potassium (Kv) currents that undergo rapid activation and inactivation. Commonly associated with neuronal and cardiac cell-types, A-type currents have also been identified and characterized in vascular, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. This review examines the molecular identity, biophysical properties, pharmacology, regulation, and physiological function of smooth muscle A-type currents. In general, this review is intended to facilitate the comparison of A-type currents present in different smooth muscles by providing a comprehensive report of the literature to date. This approach should also aid in the identification of areas of research requiring further attention.

  2. Multiple modes of a-type potassium current regulation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shi-Qing; Li, Wenchao; Sesti, Federico

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-dependent potassium (K+) channels (Kv) regulate cell excitability by controlling the movement of K+ ions across the membrane in response to changes in the cell voltage. The Kv family, which includes A-type channels, constitute the largest group of K+ channel genes within the superfamily of Na+, Ca2+ and K+ voltage-gated channels. The name "A-type" stems from the typical profile of these currents that results form the opposing effects of fast activation and inactivation. In neuronal cells, A-type currents (I(A)), determine the interval between two consecutive action potentials during repetitive firing. In cardiac muscle, A-type currents (I(to)), control the initial repolarization of the myocardium. Structurally, A-type channels are tetramers of alpha-subunits each containing six putative transmembrane domains including a voltage-sensor. A-type channels can be modulated by means of protein-protein interactions with so-called beta-subunits that control inactivation voltage sensitivity and other properties, and by post-transcriptional modifications such as phosphorylation or oxidation. Recently a new mode of A-type regulation has been discovered in the form of a class of hybrid beta-subunits that posses their own enzymatic activity. Here, we review the biophysical and physiological properties of these multiple modes of A-type channel regulation.

  3. Role of A-type potassium currents in excitability, network synchronicity and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fransén, Erik; Tigerholm, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    A range of ionic currents have been suggested to be involved in distinct aspects of epileptogenesis. Based on pharmacological and genetic studies, potassium currents have been implicated, in particular the transient A-type potassium current (KA). Epileptogenic activity comprises a rich repertoire of characteristics, one of which is synchronized activity of principal cells as revealed by occurrences of for instance fast ripples. Synchronized activity of this kind is particularly efficient in driving target cells into spiking. In the recipient cell, this synchronized input generates large brief compound EPSPs. The fast activation and inactivation of KA lead us to hypothesize a potential role in suppression of such EPSPs. In this work, using computational modeling, we have studied the activation of KA by synaptic inputs of different levels of synchronicity. We find that KA participates particularly in suppressing inputs of high synchronicity. We also show that the selective suppression stems from the current's ability to become activated by potentials with high slopes. We further show that KA suppresses input mimicing the activity of a fast ripple. Finally, we show that the degree of selectivity of KA can be modified by changes to its kinetic parameters, changes of the type that are produced by the modulatory action of KChIPs and DPPs. We suggest that the wealth of modulators affecting KA might be explained by a need to control cellular excitability in general and suppression of responses to synchronicity in particular. We also suggest that compounds changing KA-kinetics may be used to pharmacologically improve epileptic status. PMID:19777555

  4. [Decreased A-type potassium current mediates the hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons in the chronically compressed dorsal root ganglia].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Li, Xiao-Han; Cheng, Qi; Yan, Jin; Ni, Xin; Sun, Ji-Hu

    2007-04-25

    The excitability of nociceptive neurons increases in the intact dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after a chronic compression, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the ionic mechanisms underlying the hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons in the compressed ganglion. Chronic compression of DRG (CCD) was produced in adult rats by inserting two rods through the intervertebral foramina to compress the L4 DRG and the ipsilateral L5 DRG. After 5-7 d, DRG somata were dissociated and placed in culture for 12-18 h. In sharp electrode recording model, the lower current threshold and the depolarized membrane potential in the acutely dissociated CCD neurons were detected, indicating that hyperexcitability is intrinsic to the soma. Since voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels in the primary sensory neurons are important for the regulation of excitability, we hypothesized that CCD would alter K(+) current properties in the primary sensory neurons. We examined the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a specific antagonist of A-type potassium channel, on the excitability of the control DRG neurons. With 4-AP in the external solution, the control DRG neurons depolarized (with discharges in some cells) and their current threshold decreased as the CCD neurons demonstrated, indicating the involvement of decreased A-type potassium current in the hyperexcitability of the injured neurons. Furthermore, the alteration of A-type potassium current in nociceptive neurons in the compressed ganglion was investigated with the whole-cell patch-clamp recording model. CCD significantly decreased A-type potassium current density in nociceptive DRG neurons. These data suggest that a reduction in A-type potassium current contributes, at least in part, to the increase in neuron excitability that may lead to the development of pain and hyperalgesia associated with CCD.

  5. Functional role of A-type potassium currents in rat presympathetic PVN neurones

    PubMed Central

    Sonner, Patrick M; Stern, Javier E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurones innervating the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play important roles in the control of sympathetic function both in physiological and pathological conditions, the precise mechanisms controlling their activity are still incompletely understood. In the present study, we evaluated whether the transient outward potassium current IA is expressed in PVN-RVLM neurones, characterized its biophysical and pharmacological properties, and determined its role in shaping action potentials and firing discharge in these neurones. Patch-clamp recordings obtained from retrogradely labelled, PVN-RVLM neurones indicate that a 4-AP sensitive, TEA insensitive current, with biophysical properties consistent with IA, is present in these neurones. Pharmacological blockade of IA depolarized resting Vm and prolonged Na+ action potential duration, by increasing its width and by slowing down its decay time course. Interestingly, blockade of IA either increased or decreased the firing activity of PVN-RVLM neurones, supporting the presence of subsets of PVN-RVLM neurones differentially modulated by IA. In all cases, the effects of IA on firing activity were prevented by a broad spectrum Ca2+ channel blocker. Immunohistochemical studies suggest that IA in PVN-RVLM neurons is mediated by Kv1.4 and/or Kv4.3 channel subunits. Overall, our results demonstrate the presence of IA in PVN-RVLM neurones, which actively modulates their action potential waveform and firing activity. These studies support IA as an important intrinsic mechanism controlling neuronal excitability in this central presympathetic neuronal population. PMID:17525115

  6. Postnatal development of A-type and Kv1- and Kv2-mediated potassium channel currents in neocortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Dongxu; Horton, Leslie R.; Armstrong, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate numerous aspects of neuronal excitability, and several voltage-gated K+ channel subunits have been identified in pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. Previous studies have either considered the development of outward current as a whole or divided currents into transient, A-type and persistent, delayed rectifier components but did not differentiate between current components defined by α-subunit type. To facilitate comparisons of studies reporting K+ currents from animals of different ages and to understand the functional roles of specific current components, we characterized the postnatal development of identified Kv channel-mediated currents in pyramidal neurons from layers II/III from rat somatosensory cortex. Both the persistent/slowly inactivating and transient components of the total K+ current increased in density with postnatal age. We used specific pharmacological agents to test the relative contributions of putative Kv1- and Kv2-mediated currents (100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 600 nM stromatoxin, respectively). A combination of voltage protocol, pharmacology, and curve fitting was used to isolate the rapidly inactivating A-type current. We found that the density of all identified current components increased with postnatal age, approaching a plateau at 3–5 wk. We found no significant changes in the relative proportions or kinetics of any component between postnatal weeks 1 and 5, except that the activation time constant for A-type current was longer at 1 wk. The putative Kv2-mediated component was the largest at all ages. Immunocytochemistry indicated that protein expression for Kv4.2, Kv4.3, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 increased between 1 wk and 4–5 wk of age. PMID:21451062

  7. Postnatal development of A-type and Kv1- and Kv2-mediated potassium channel currents in neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dongxu; Horton, Leslie R; Armstrong, William E; Foehring, Robert C

    2011-06-01

    Potassium channels regulate numerous aspects of neuronal excitability, and several voltage-gated K(+) channel subunits have been identified in pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. Previous studies have either considered the development of outward current as a whole or divided currents into transient, A-type and persistent, delayed rectifier components but did not differentiate between current components defined by α-subunit type. To facilitate comparisons of studies reporting K(+) currents from animals of different ages and to understand the functional roles of specific current components, we characterized the postnatal development of identified Kv channel-mediated currents in pyramidal neurons from layers II/III from rat somatosensory cortex. Both the persistent/slowly inactivating and transient components of the total K(+) current increased in density with postnatal age. We used specific pharmacological agents to test the relative contributions of putative Kv1- and Kv2-mediated currents (100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 600 nM stromatoxin, respectively). A combination of voltage protocol, pharmacology, and curve fitting was used to isolate the rapidly inactivating A-type current. We found that the density of all identified current components increased with postnatal age, approaching a plateau at 3-5 wk. We found no significant changes in the relative proportions or kinetics of any component between postnatal weeks 1 and 5, except that the activation time constant for A-type current was longer at 1 wk. The putative Kv2-mediated component was the largest at all ages. Immunocytochemistry indicated that protein expression for Kv4.2, Kv4.3, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 increased between 1 wk and 4-5 wk of age.

  8. Dynamic, nonlinear feedback regulation of slow pacemaking by A-type potassium current in ventral tegmental area neurons.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Zayd M; Bean, Bruce P

    2008-10-22

    We analyzed ionic currents that regulate pacemaking in dopaminergic neurons of the mouse ventral tegmental area by comparing voltage trajectories during spontaneous firing with ramp-evoked currents in voltage clamp. Most recordings were made in brain slice, with key experiments repeated using acutely dissociated neurons, which gave identical results. During spontaneous firing, net ionic current flowing between spikes was calculated from the time derivative of voltage multiplied by cell capacitance, signal-averaged over many firing cycles to enhance resolution. Net inward interspike current had a distinctive nonmonotonic shape, reaching a minimum (generally <1 pA) between -60 and -55 mV. Under voltage clamp, ramps over subthreshold voltages elicited a time- and voltage-dependent outward current that peaked near -55 mV. This current was undetectable with 5 mV/s ramps and increased steeply with depolarization rate over the range (10-50 mV/s) typical of natural pacemaking. Ramp-evoked subthreshold current was resistant to alpha-dendrotoxin, paxilline, apamin, and tetraethylammonium but sensitive to 4-aminopyridine and 0.5 mM Ba2+, consistent with A-type potassium current (I(A)). Same-cell comparison of currents elicited by various ramp speeds with natural spontaneous depolarization showed how the steep dependence of I(A) on depolarization rate results in small net inward currents during pacemaking. These results reveal a mechanism in which subthreshold I(A) is near zero at steady state, but is engaged at depolarization rates >10 mV/s to act as a powerful, supralinear feedback element. This feedback mechanism explains how net ionic current can be constrained to <1-2 pA but reliably inward, thus enabling slow, regular firing.

  9. Diminished A-type potassium current and altered firing properties in presympathetic PVN neurones in renovascular hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Sonner, Patrick M; Filosa, Jessica A; Stern, Javier E

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a contribution of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to sympathoexcitation and elevated blood pressure in renovascular hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in altered neuronal function in hypertensive rats remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to address whether the transient outward potassium current (IA) in identified rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN neurones is altered in hypertensive rats, and whether such changes affected single and repetitive action potential properties and associated changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels. Patch-clamp recordings obtained from PVN-RVLM neurons showed a reduction in IA current magnitude and single channel conductance, and an enhanced steady-state current inactivation in hypertensive rats. Morphometric reconstructions of intracellularly labelled PVN-RVLM neurons showed a diminished dendritic surface area in hypertensive rats. Consistent with a diminished IA availability, action potentials in PVN-RVLM neurons in hypertensive rats were broader, decayed more slowly, and were less sensitive to the K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. Simultaneous patch clamp recordings and confocal Ca2+ imaging demonstrated enhanced action potential-evoked intracellular Ca2+ transients in hypertensive rats. Finally, spike broadening during repetitive firing discharge was enhanced in PVN-RVLM neurons from hypertensive rats. Altogether, our results indicate that diminished IA availability constitutes a contributing mechanism underlying aberrant central neuronal function in renovascular hypertension. PMID:18238809

  10. Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II modulates Kv4.2 channel expression and upregulates neuronal A-type potassium currents.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrew W; Yuan, Li-Lian; Anderson, Anne E; Schrader, Laura A; Wu, Gang-Yi; Gatchel, Jennifer R; Johnston, Daniel; Sweatt, J David

    2004-04-07

    Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has a long history of involvement in synaptic plasticity, yet little focus has been given to potassium channels as CaMKII targets despite their importance in repolarizing EPSPs and action potentials and regulating neuronal membrane excitability. We now show that Kv4.2 acts as a substrate for CaMKII in vitro and have identified CaMKII phosphorylation sites as Ser438 and Ser459. To test whether CaMKII phosphorylation of Kv4.2 affects channel biophysics, we expressed wild-type or mutant Kv4.2 and the K(+) channel interacting protein, KChIP3, with or without a constitutively active form of CaMKII in Xenopus oocytes and measured the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation in each of these conditions. CaMKII phosphorylation had no effect on channel biophysical properties. However, we found that levels of Kv4.2 protein are increased with CaMKII phosphorylation in transfected COS cells, an effect attributable to direct channel phosphorylation based on site-directed mutagenesis studies. We also obtained corroborating physiological data showing increased surface A-type channel expression as revealed by increases in peak K(+) current amplitudes with CaMKII phosphorylation. Furthermore, endogenous A-currents in hippocampal pyramidal neurons were increased in amplitude after introduction of constitutively active CaMKII, which results in a decrease in neuronal excitability in response to current injections. Thus CaMKII can directly modulate neuronal excitability by increasing cell-surface expression of A-type K(+) channels.

  11. Equatorial potassium currents in lenses.

    PubMed

    Wind, B E; Walsh, S; Patterson, J W

    1988-02-01

    Earlier work with the vibrating probe demonstrated the existence of outward potassium currents at the equator and inward sodium currents at the optical poles of the lens. By adding microelectrodes to the system, it is possible to relate steady currents (J) to the potential difference (PD) measured with a microelectrode. By injecting an outward current (I), it is possible to determine resistances and also the PD at which the steady outward potassium current becomes zero (PDJ = 0). At this PD the concentration gradient for potassium efflux and the electrical gradient for potassium influx are balanced so that there is no net flow of potassium across the membranes associated with the production of J. The PDJ = 0 for 18 rat lenses was 86 mV and that for 12 frogs lenses was -95 mV. This agrees with the potassium equilibrium potential and provides strong evidence to support the view that the outward equatorial current, J, is a potassium current. With the injection of outward current, I, the PD becomes more negative, the outward equatorial current, J, decreases, and the inward current at the optical poles increases. This suggests that there are separate electrical loops for K+ and Na+ that are partially linked by the Na, K-pump. Using Ohm's law, it is possible to calculate the input resistance (R = delta PD/I), the resistance related to the production of J (RJ = delta PD/delta J), and the effect of the combined resistances (delta J/I). The driving force for J can be estimated (PDJ = 0-PD). The relationships among currents, voltages and resistance can be used to determine the characteristics of the membranes that are associated with the outward potassium current observed at the equator. The effects of graded deformation of the lens were determined. The effects were reversible. The sites of inward and outward currents were not altered. Following deformation, the equatorial current, J, increased, and the PD became less negative. The PDJ = 0 remains the same so the ratio of K

  12. Systemic administration of anti-NGF increases A-type potassium currents and decreases pancreatic nociceptor excitability in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaohui; Mehta, Kshama; Li, Cuiping; Xu, Guang-Yin; Liu, Liansheng; Colak, Tugba; Shenoy, Mohan; Pasricha, Pankaj Jay

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that pancreatic sensory neurons in rats with chronic pancreatitis (CP) display increased excitability associated with a decrease in transient inactivating potassium currents (I(A)), thus accounting in part for the hyperalgesia associated with this condition. Because of its well known role in somatic hyperalgesia, we hypothesized a role for the nerve growth factor (NGF) in driving these changes. CP was induced by intraductal injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. After 3 wk, anti-NGF antibody or control serum was injected intra-peritoneally daily for 1 wk. This protocol was repeated in another set of experiments in control rats (receiving intraductal PBS instead of TNBS). Pancreatic nociceptors labeled with the dye Dil were identified, and patch-clamp recordings were made from acutely dissociated DRG neurons. Sensory neurons from anti-NGF-treated rats displayed a lower resting membrane potential, increased rheobase, decreased burst discharges in response to stimulatory current, and decreased input resistance compared with those treated with control serum. Under voltage-clamp condition, neuronal I(A) density was increased in anti-NGF-treated rats compared with rats treated with control serum. However, anti-NGF treatment had no effect on electrophysiological parameters in neurons from control rats. The expression of Kv-associated channel or ancillary genes Kv1.4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, and DPP6, DPP10, and KCHIPs 1-4 in pancreas-specific nociceptors was examined by laser-capture microdissection and real-time PCR quantification of mRNA levels. No significant differences were seen among those. These findings emphasize a key role for NGF in maintaining neuronal excitability in CP specifically via downregulation of I(A) by as yet unknown mechanisms.

  13. Differential contribution of Kv4-containing channels to A-type, voltage-gated potassium currents in somatic and visceral dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Takakazu; Takimoto, Koichi; Kita, Kaori; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Naito, Seiji; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2014-11-15

    Little is known about electrophysiological differences of A-type transient K(+) (KA) currents in nociceptive afferent neurons that innervate somatic and visceral tissues. Staining with isolectin B4 (IB4)-FITC classifies L6-S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons into three populations with distinct staining intensities: negative to weak, moderate, and intense fluorescence signals. All IB4 intensely stained cells are negative for a fluorescent dye, Fast Blue (FB), injected into the bladder wall, whereas a fraction of somatic neurons labeled by FB, injected to the external urethral dermis, is intensely stained with IB4. In whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings, phrixotoxin 2 (PaTx2), a voltage-gated K(+) (Kv)4 channel blocker, exhibits voltage-independent inhibition of the KA current in IB4 intensely stained cells but not the one in bladder-innervating cells. The toxin also shows voltage-independent inhibition of heterologously expressed Kv4.1 current, whereas its inhibition of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 currents is voltage dependent. The swapping of four amino acids at the carboxyl portion of the S3 region between Kv4.1 and Kv4.2 transfers this characteristic. RT-PCRs detected Kv4.1 and the long isoform of Kv4.3 mRNAs without significant Kv4.2 mRNA in L6-S1 DRGs. Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNA levels were higher in laser-captured, IB4-stained neurons than in bladder afferent neurons. These results indicate that PaTx2 acts differently on channels in the Kv4 family and that Kv4.1 and possibly Kv4.3 subunits functionally participate in the formation of KA channels in a subpopulation of somatic C-fiber neurons but not in visceral C-fiber neurons innervating the bladder. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Differential contribution of Kv4-containing channels to A-type, voltage-gated potassium currents in somatic and visceral dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Takakazu; Takimoto, Koichi; Kita, Kaori; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Naito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about electrophysiological differences of A-type transient K+ (KA) currents in nociceptive afferent neurons that innervate somatic and visceral tissues. Staining with isolectin B4 (IB4)-FITC classifies L6-S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons into three populations with distinct staining intensities: negative to weak, moderate, and intense fluorescence signals. All IB4 intensely stained cells are negative for a fluorescent dye, Fast Blue (FB), injected into the bladder wall, whereas a fraction of somatic neurons labeled by FB, injected to the external urethral dermis, is intensely stained with IB4. In whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings, phrixotoxin 2 (PaTx2), a voltage-gated K+ (Kv)4 channel blocker, exhibits voltage-independent inhibition of the KA current in IB4 intensely stained cells but not the one in bladder-innervating cells. The toxin also shows voltage-independent inhibition of heterologously expressed Kv4.1 current, whereas its inhibition of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 currents is voltage dependent. The swapping of four amino acids at the carboxyl portion of the S3 region between Kv4.1 and Kv4.2 transfers this characteristic. RT-PCRs detected Kv4.1 and the long isoform of Kv4.3 mRNAs without significant Kv4.2 mRNA in L6-S1 DRGs. Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNA levels were higher in laser-captured, IB4-stained neurons than in bladder afferent neurons. These results indicate that PaTx2 acts differently on channels in the Kv4 family and that Kv4.1 and possibly Kv4.3 subunits functionally participate in the formation of KA channels in a subpopulation of somatic C-fiber neurons but not in visceral C-fiber neurons innervating the bladder. PMID:25143545

  15. Modulation of A-type potassium channels by a family of calcium sensors.

    PubMed

    An, W F; Bowlby, M R; Betty, M; Cao, J; Ling, H P; Mendoza, G; Hinson, J W; Mattsson, K I; Strassle, B W; Trimmer, J S; Rhodes, K J

    2000-02-03

    In the brain and heart, rapidly inactivating (A-type) voltage-gated potassium (Kv) currents operate at subthreshold membrane potentials to control the excitability of neurons and cardiac myocytes. Although pore-forming alpha-subunits of the Kv4, or Shal-related, channel family form A-type currents in heterologous cells, these differ significantly from native A-type currents. Here we describe three Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) that bind to the cytoplasmic amino termini of Kv4 alpha-subunits. We find that expression of KChIP and Kv4 together reconstitutes several features of native A-type currents by modulating the density, inactivation kinetics and rate of recovery from inactivation of Kv4 channels in heterologous cells. All three KChIPs co-localize and co-immunoprecipitate with brain Kv4 alpha-subunits, and are thus integral components of native Kv4 channel complexes. The KChIPs have four EF-hand-like domains and bind calcium ions. As the activity and density of neuronal A-type currents tightly control responses to excitatory synaptic inputs, these KChIPs may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium.

  16. Dendritic A-type potassium channel subunit expression in CA1 hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Menegola, M; Misonou, H; Vacher, H; Trimmer, J S

    2008-06-26

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and potassium channel interacting protein (KChIP) 1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal Ammon's horn (CA1) neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 mum rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with a unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs.

  17. Effects of allocryptopine on outward potassium current and slow delayed rectifier potassium current in rabbit myocardium.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Liu-Yang; Li, Nan; Chen, Xi; Cai, Zhong-Qi; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Allocryptopine (ALL) is an effective alkaloid of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae and has proved to be anti-arrhythmic. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of ALL on transmural repolarizing ionic ingredients of outward potassium current (I to) and slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks). The monophasic action potential (MAP) technique was used to record the MAP duration of the epicardium (Epi), myocardium (M) and endocardium (Endo) of the rabbit heart and the whole cell patch clamp was used to record I to and I Ks in cardiomyocytes of Epi, M and Endo layers that were isolated from rabbit ventricles. The effects of ALL on MAP of Epi, M and Endo layers were disequilibrium. ALL could effectively reduce the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in rabbit transmural ventricular wall. ALL decreased the current densities of I to and I Ks in a voltage and concentration dependent way and narrowed the repolarizing differences among three layers. The analysis of gating kinetics showed ALL accelerated the channel activation of I to in M layers and partly inhibit the channel openings of I to in Epi, M and Endo cells. On the other hand, ALL mainly slowed channel deactivation of I Ks channel in Epi and Endo layers without affecting its activation. Our study gives partially explanation about the mechanisms of transmural inhibition of I to and I Ks channels by ALL in rabbit myocardium. These findings provide novel perspective regarding the anti-arrhythmogenesis application of ALL in clinical settings.

  18. Isoflurane depolarizes bronchopulmonary C neurons by inhibiting transient A-type and delayed rectifier potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of isoflurane (ISO), a widely used volatile anesthetic, can produce clinical tachypnea. In dogs, this response is reportedly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), but the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of transient A-type potassium current (IA) channels and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) channels hyperpolarizes neurons, and inhibition of both channels by ISO increases neural firing. Due to the presence of these channels in the cell bodies of rat PCFs, we determined whether ISO could stimulate PCFs to produce tachypnea in anesthetized rats, and, if so, whether this response resulted from ISO-induced depolarization of the pulmonary C neurons via the inhibition of IA and IK. We recorded ventilatory responses to 5% ISO exposure in anesthetized rats before and after blocking PCF conduction and the responses of pulmonary C neurons (extracellularly recorded) to ISO exposure. ISO-induced (1mM) changes in pulmonary C neuron membrane potential and IA/IK were tested using the perforated patch clamp technique. We found that: (1) ISO inhalation evoked a brief tachypnea (∼7s) and that this response disappeared after blocking PCF conduction; (2) the ISO significantly elevated (by 138%) the firing rate of most pulmonary C neurons (17 out of 21) in the nodose ganglion; and (3) ISO perfusion depolarized the pulmonary C neurons in the vitro and inhibited both IA and IK, and this evoked-depolarization was largely diminished after blocking both IA and IK. Our results suggest that ISO is able to stimulate PCFs to elicit tachypnea in rats, at least partly, via inhibiting IA and IK, thereby depolarizing the pulmonary C neurons. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Elimination of fast inactivation in Kv4 A-type potassium channels by an auxiliary subunit domain.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Mats H; Cao, Jie; Hernandez-Pineda, Ricardo; Jacobson, Michael D; Carroll, Karen I; Sung, M Amy; Betty, Maria; Ge, Pei; Gilbride, Kevin J; Brown, Melissa E; Jurman, Mark E; Lawson, Deborah; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Xie, Yu; Covarrubias, Manuel; Rhodes, Kenneth J; Distefano, Peter S; An, W Frank

    2002-01-22

    The Kv4 A-type potassium currents contribute to controlling the frequency of slow repetitive firing and back-propagation of action potentials in neurons and shape the action potential in heart. Kv4 currents exhibit rapid activation and inactivation and are specifically modulated by K-channel interacting proteins (KChIPs). Here we report the discovery and functional characterization of a modular K-channel inactivation suppressor (KIS) domain located in the first 34 aa of an additional KChIP (KChIP4a). Coexpression of KChIP4a with Kv4 alpha-subunits abolishes fast inactivation of the Kv4 currents in various cell types, including cerebellar granule neurons. Kinetic analysis shows that the KIS domain delays Kv4.3 opening, but once the channel is open, it disrupts rapid inactivation and slows Kv4.3 closing. Accordingly, KChIP4a increases the open probability of single Kv4.3 channels. The net effects of KChIP4a and KChIP1-3 on Kv4 gating are quite different. When both KChIP4a and KChIP1 are present, the Kv4.3 current shows mixed inactivation profiles dependent on KChIP4a/KChIP1 ratios. The KIS domain effectively converts the A-type Kv4 current to a slowly inactivating delayed rectifier-type potassium current. This conversion is opposite to that mediated by the Kv1-specific "ball" domain of the Kv beta 1 subunit. Together, these results demonstrate that specific auxiliary subunits with distinct functions actively modulate gating of potassium channels that govern membrane excitability.

  20. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease with vomiting and diarrhea) and drugs, especially diuretics ('water pills'), remove potassium from the body. Potassium ... captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec),and lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril); diuretics ('water pills'); and vitamins. Do not take potassium ...

  1. Decreased voltage-gated potassium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons after chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun; Wu, Yang; Zhao, Bo; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-20

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (KV) regulate pain transmission by controlling neuronal excitability. Changes in KV expression patterns may thus contribute toward hyperalgesia following nerve injury. The aim of this study was to characterize KV current density in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve, a robust model of post-traumatic neuropathic pain. The study examined changes in small-diameter potassium ion currents (<30 µm) in neurons in the L4-L6 DRG following CCI by whole-cell patch-clamping and the association with post-CCI mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds. Compared with the control group, 7 days after CCI, the mechanical force and temperature required to elicit ipsilateral foot withdrawal decreased significantly, indicating tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Post-CCI neurons had a significantly lower rheobase current and depolarized resting membrane potential than controls, suggesting KV current downregulation. Some ipsilateral DRG neurons also had spontaneous action potentials and repetitive firing. There was a 55% reduction in the total KV current density caused by a 55% decrease in the sustained delayed rectifier potassium ion current (IK) density and a 17% decrease in the transient A-type potassium ion current (IA) density. These results indicated that changes in DRG neuron IK and IA current density and concomitant afferent hyperexcitability may contribute toward neuropathic pain following injury. The rat CCI model may prove valuable for examining pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapies, such as KV channel modulators.

  2. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of potassium: U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for potassium ( ...

  3. Actions of bis(7)-tacrine and tacrine on transient potassium current in rat DRG neurons and potassium current mediated by K(V)4.2 expressed in Xenopus oocyte.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Dai, Jia-Pei; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Li, Zhi-Wang

    2010-03-08

    Bis(7)-tacrine [bis(7)-tetrahydroaminacrine] is a dimeric AChE inhibitor derived from tacrine with a potential to treat Alzheimer's disease. Actions of bis(7)-tacrine on ligand-gated ion channels and voltage-gated cation channels have been identified on neurons of both central and peripheral nervous systems. In the present study, the effect of bis(7)-tacrine was investigated on the K(V)4.2 encoded potassium currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the transient A-type potassium current (I(K(A))) on rat DRG neurons. Bis(7)-tacrine suppressed recombinant Kv4.2 potassium channels in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) value of 0.53+/-0.13 muM. Tacrine also inhibited Kv4.2 channels, but with a much lower potency (IC(50) 74+/-15 muM).The possible mechanisms underlying the inhibition on potassium currents by bis(7)-tacrine/tacrine could be that inactivation of the transient potassium currents was accelerated and recovery of the native or Kv4.2 expressed potassium currents was suppressed by bis(7)-tacrine/tacrine. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Docetaxel modulates the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and ATP-sensitive potassium current (IKATP) in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Song, Zhi-Guo; Jiang, Da-Qing; Nie, Hong-Guang; Han, Dong-Yun

    2015-04-01

    Ion channel expression and activity may be affected during tumor development and cancer growth. Activation of potassium (K(+)) channels in human breast cancer cells is reported to be involved in cell cycle progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of docetaxel on the delayed rectifier potassium current (I K) and the ATP-sensitive potassium current (I KATP) in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435S, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Our results show that docetaxel inhibited the I K and I KATP in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control at a potential of +60 mV, treatment with docetaxel at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 µM significantly decreased the I K in MCF-7 cells by 16.1 ± 3.5, 30.2 ± 5.2, 42.5 ± 4.3, and 46.4 ± 9% (n = 5, P < 0.05), respectively and also decreased the I KATP at +50 mV. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-435S cells. The G-V curves showed no significant changes after treatment of either MCF-7 or MDA-MB-435S cells with 10 μM docetaxel. The datas indicate that the possible mechanisms of I K and I KATP inhibition by docetaxel may be responsible for its effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

  5. KChIPs and Kv4 alpha subunits as integral components of A-type potassium channels in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Kenneth J; Carroll, Karen I; Sung, M Amy; Doliveira, Lisa C; Monaghan, Michael M; Burke, Sharon L; Strassle, Brian W; Buchwalder, Lynn; Menegola, Milena; Cao, Jie; An, W Frank; Trimmer, James S

    2004-09-08

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels from the Kv4, or Shal-related, gene family underlie a major component of the A-type potassium current in mammalian central neurons. We recently identified a family of calcium-binding proteins, termed KChIPs (Kv channel interacting proteins), that bind to the cytoplasmic N termini of Kv4 family alpha subunits and modulate their surface density, inactivation kinetics, and rate of recovery from inactivation (An et al., 2000). Here, we used single and double-label immunohistochemistry, together with circumscribed lesions and coimmunoprecipitation analyses, to examine the regional and subcellular distribution of KChIPs1-4 and Kv4 family alpha subunits in adult rat brain. Immunohistochemical staining using KChIP-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that the KChIP polypeptides are concentrated in neuronal somata and dendrites where their cellular and subcellular distribution overlaps, in an isoform-specific manner, with that of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3. For example, immunoreactivity for KChIP1 and Kv4.3 is concentrated in the somata and dendrites of hippocampal, striatal, and neocortical interneurons. Immunoreactivity for KChIP2, KChIP4, and Kv4.2 is concentrated in the apical and basal dendrites of hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal cells. Double-label immunofluorescence labeling revealed that throughout the forebrain, KChIP2 and KChIP4 are frequently colocalized with Kv4.2, whereas in cortical, hippocampal, and striatal interneurons, KChIP1 is frequently colocalized with Kv4.3. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirmed that all KChIPs coassociate with Kv4 alpha subunits in brain membranes, indicating that KChIPs 1-4 are integral components of native A-type Kv channel complexes and are likely to play a major role as modulators of somatodendritic excitability.

  6. Molecular physiology and modulation of somatodendritic A-type potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Henry H; Pfaffinger, Paul J; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    The somatodendritic subthreshold A-type K+ current (ISA) in nerve cells is a critical component of the ensemble of voltage-gated ionic currents that determine somatodendritic signal integration. The underlying K+ channel belongs to the Shal subfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels. Most Shal channels across the animal kingdom share a high degree of structural conservation, operate in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials, and exhibit relatively fast inactivation and recovery from inactivation. Mammalian Shal K+ channels (Kv4) undergo preferential closed-state inactivation with features that are generally inconsistent with the classical mechanisms of inactivation typical of Shaker K+ channels. Here, we review (1) the physiological and genetic properties of ISA, 2 the molecular mechanisms of Kv4 inactivation and its remodeling by a family of soluble calcium-binding proteins (KChIPs) and a membrane-bound dipeptidase-like protein (DPPX), and (3) the modulation of Kv4 channels by protein phosphorylation.

  7. Inward rectifier potassium currents in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Marino; Yu, Carl; Quiñonez, Marbella; Vergara, Julio L

    2015-01-01

    Inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a central role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of skeletal muscle fibres. Nevertheless their role has been poorly studied in mammalian muscles. Immunohistochemical and transgenic expression were used to assess the molecular identity and subcellular localization of Kir channel isoforms. We found that Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels were targeted to both the surface andthe transverse tubular system membrane (TTS) compartments and that both isoforms can be overexpressed up to 3-fold 2 weeks after transfection. Inward rectifying currents (IKir) had the canonical features of quasi-instantaneous activation, strong inward rectification, depended on the external [K+], and could be blocked by Ba2+ or Rb+. In addition, IKir records show notable decays during large 100 ms hyperpolarizing pulses. Most of these properties were recapitulated by model simulations of the electrical properties of the muscle fibre as long as Kir channels were assumed to be present in the TTS. The model also simultaneously predicted the characteristics of membrane potential changes of the TTS, as reported optically by a fluorescent potentiometric dye. The activation of IKir by large hyperpolarizations resulted in significant attenuation of the optical signals with respect to the expectation for equal magnitude depolarizations; blocking IKir with Ba2+ (or Rb+) eliminated this attenuation. The experimental data, including the kinetic properties of IKir and TTS voltage records, and the voltage dependence of peak IKir, while measured at widely dissimilar bulk [K+] (96 and 24 mm), were closely predicted by assuming Kir permeability (PKir) values of ∼5.5 × 10−6 cm s−1 and equal distribution of Kir channels at the surface and TTS membranes. The decay of IKir records and the simultaneous increase in TTS voltage changes were mostly explained by K+ depletion from the TTS lumen. Most importantly, aside from allowing an accurate estimation of

  8. Effect of urinary trypsin inhibitor on potassium currents: fetus modulates membrane excitability by production of UTI.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kinya; Fukuda, Atsuo; Kanayama, Naohiro

    2004-01-01

    Amniotic fluid contains a significant level of urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI). Previously, we reported that UTI inhibits calcium influx of myometrium and it is effective in preventing uterine contraction. This study examined the effects of UTI upon potassium channels, which is important for membrane excitability. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in fibroblasts derived from human fetal skin. Potassium currents were recorded and the effects of exogenous UTI and/or cadmium determined. Tetraethylammonium sensitive potassium currents were elicited by step or ramp stimulations at depolarized membrane potentials (over +30 mV). Administration of 1 micro M UTI significantly increased these potassium currents by 16.9%. When calcium channels were blocked by the administration of cadmium, UTI increased the rest of the potassium currents by 4.8%. This indicates that UTI increased calcium-dependent potassium currents by 94.8% but only increased voltage-dependent potassium currents by 4.8%. Urinary trypsin inhibitor is a physiological substance of fetal origin that modulates calcium-dependent and voltage-dependent potassium channels. These data suggest that UTI is capable of regulating the membrane properties of the fetal and myometrial cells in contact with amniotic fluid.

  9. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    PubMed Central

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K+ channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K+ current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K+ current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K+ channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time. PMID:26864763

  10. Down-regulation of A-type potassium channel in gastric-specific DRG neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Chen, J D Z

    2014-07-01

    Although without evidence of organic structural abnormalities, pain or discomfort is a prominent symptom of functional dyspepsia and considered to reflect visceral hypersensitivity whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we studied electrophysiological properties and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia induced by neonatal gastric irritation. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10-day old received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA) or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days and studied at adulthood. Retrograde tracer-labeled gastric-specific T8 -T12 DRG neurons were harvested for the patch-clamp study in voltage and current-clamp modes and protein expression of K(+) channel in T8 -T12 DRGs was examined by western blotting. (1) Gastric specific but not non-gastric DRG neurons showed an enhanced excitability in neonatal IA-treated rats compared to the control: depolarized resting membrane potentials, a lower current threshold for action potential (AP) activation, and an increase in the number of APs in response to current stimulation. (2) The current density of tetraethylammonium insensitive (transiently inactivating A-type current), but not the tetraethylammonium sensitive (slow-inactivating delayed rectifier K(+) currents), was significantly smaller in IA-treated rats (65.4 ± 6.9 pA/pF), compared to that of control (93.1 ± 8.3 pA/pF). (3) Protein expression of KV 4.3 was down-regulated in IA-treated rats. A-type potassium channels are significantly down-regulated in the gastric-specific DRG neurons in adult rats with mild neonatal gastric irritation, which in part contribute to the enhanced DRG neuron excitabilities that leads to the development of gastric hypersensitivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide reduces A-type K+ currents and caspase activity in cultured adult mouse olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Han, P; Lucero, M T

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide has been shown to reduce apoptosis in neonatal cerebellar and olfactory receptor neurons, however the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide have not been examined in adult tissues. To study the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on neurons in apoptosis, we measured caspase activation in adult olfactory receptor neurons in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the protective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide were related to the absence of a 4-aminopyridine (IC50=144 microM) sensitive rapidly inactivating potassium current often referred to as A-type current. In the presence of 40 nM pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38, both A-type current and activated caspases were significantly reduced. A-type current reduction by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide was blocked by inhibiting the phospholipase C pathway, but not the adenylyl cyclase pathway. Our observation that 5 mM 4-aminopyridine mimicked the caspase inhibiting effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide indicates that A-type current is involved in apoptosis. This work contributes to our growing understanding that potassium currents are involved with the activation of caspases to affect the balance between cell life and death.

  12. Potassium currents and conductance. Comparison between motor and sensory myelinated fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Palti, Y; Moran, N; Stämpfli, R

    1980-01-01

    The potassium conductance system of sensory and motor fibers from the frog Rana esculenta were studied and compared by means of the voltage clamp. The potassium ion accumulation was first estimated from the currents and reversal potentials within the framework of both a three-compartment model and diffusion-in-an-unstirred-layer model. The potassium conductance parameters were then computed using the measured currents and corrected ionic driving forces. It was found that the potassium accumulation is faster and more pronounced in sensory fibers, the voltage dependency of the potassium conductance is steeper in sensory fibers, the maximal potassium conductance, corrected for accumulation, is approximately 1.1 S/cm2 in sensory and 0.55 S/cm2 in motor fibers, and that the conductance time constants, tau n, are smaller in sensory than in motor fibers. These differences, which increase progressively with depolarization, are not detectable for depolarization of 50 mV or smaller. The interpretation of these findings in terms of different types of potassium channels as well as their implications with regard to the differences between the excitability phenomena in motor and sensory fibers are discussed. PMID:6973371

  13. Effects of female steroid hormones on A-type K+ currents in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Elizabeth A H; McCloskey, Conor; O'Kane, Neil; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2006-06-01

    Idiopathic constipation is higher in women of reproductive age than postmenopausal women or men, suggesting that female steroid hormones influence gastrointestinal motility. How female hormones affect motility is unclear. Colonic motility is regulated by ion channels in colonic myocytes. Voltage-dependent K(+) channels serve to set the excitability of colonic muscles. We investigated regulation of Kv 4.3 channel expression in response to acute or chronic changes in female hormones. Patch clamp experiments and quantitative PCR were used to compare outward currents and transcript expression in colonic myocytes from male, non-pregnant, pregnant and ovariectomized mice. Groups of ovariectomized mice received injections of oestrogen or progesterone to investigate the effects of hormone replacement. The capacitance of colonic myocytes from non-pregnant females was larger than in males. Net outward current density in male and ovariectomized mice was higher than in non-pregnant females and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Current densities in late pregnancy were lower than in female controls. Progesterone had no effect on outward currents. A-type currents were decreased in non-pregnant females compared with ovariectomized mice, and were further decreased by pregnancy or oestrogen replacement. Kv 4.3 transcripts did not differ significantly between groups; however, expression of the potassium channel interacting protein KChIP1 was elevated in ovariectomized mice compared with female controls and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Delayed rectifier currents were not affected by oestrogen. In the mouse colon, oestrogen suppresses A-type currents, which are important for regulating excitability. These observations suggest a possible link between female hormones and altered colonic motility associated with menses, pregnancy and menopause.

  14. Effects of tetraethylammonium on potassium currents in a molluscan neurons

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The effects of tetraethylammonium (TEA) on the delayed K+ current and on the Ca2+-activated K+ current of the Aplysia pacemaker neurons R-15 and L-6 were studied. The delayed outward K+ current was measured in Ca2+-free ASW containing tetrodotoxin (TTX), using brief depolarizing clamp pulses. External TEA blocks the delayed K+ current reversibly in a dose-dependent manner. The experimental results are well fitted with a Michaelis-Menten expression, assuming a one-to-one reaction between TEA and a receptor site, with an apparent dissociation constant of 6.0 mM. The block depends on membrane voltage and is reduced at positive membrane potentials. The Ca2+-activated K+ current was measured in Ca2+- free artificial seawater (ASW) containing TTX, using internal Ca2+ ion injection to directly activate the K+ conductance. External TEA and a number of other quaternary ammonium ions block the Ca2+-activated K+ current reversibly in a dose-dependent manner. TEA is the most effective blocker, with an apparent dissociation constant, for a one-to- one reaction with a receptor site, of 0.4 mM. The block decreases with depolarization. The Ca2+-activated K+ current was also measured after intracellular iontophoretic TEA injection. Internal TEA blocks the Ca2+- activated K+ current (but the block is only apparent at positive membrane potentials), is increased by depolarization, and is irreversible. The effects of external and internal TEA can be seen in measurements of the total outward K+ current at different membrane potentials in normal ASW. PMID:6265594

  15. A-type potassium channels differentially tune afferent pathways from rat solitary tract nucleus to caudal ventrolateral medulla or paraventricular hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T W; Hermes, S M; Whittier, K L; Aicher, S A; Andresen, M C

    2007-01-01

    The solitary tract nucleus (NTS) conveys visceral information to diverse central networks involved in homeostatic regulation. Although afferent information content arriving at various CNS sites varies substantially, little is known about the contribution of processing within the NTS to these differences. Using retrograde dyes to identify specific NTS projection neurons, we recently reported that solitary tract (ST) afferents directly contact NTS neurons projecting to caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) but largely only indirectly contact neurons projecting to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Since intrinsic properties impact information transmission, here we evaluated potassium channel expression and somatodendritic morphology of projection neurons and their relation to afferent information output directed to PVN or CVLM pathways. In slices, tracer-identified projection neurons were classified as directly or indirectly (polysynaptically) coupled to ST afferents by EPSC latency characteristics (directly coupled, jitter < 200 μs). In each neuron, voltage-dependent potassium currents (IK) were evaluated and, in representative neurons, biocytin-filled structures were quantified. Both CVLM- and PVN-projecting neurons had similar, tetraethylammonium-sensitive IK. However, only PVN-projecting NTS neurons displayed large transient, 4aminopyridine-sensitive, A-type currents (IKA). PVN-projecting neurons had larger cell bodies with more elaborate dendritic morphology than CVLM-projecting neurons. ST shocks faithfully (> 75%) triggered action potentials in CVLM-projecting neurons but spike output was uniformly low (< 20%) in PVN-projecting neurons. Pre-conditioning hyperpolarization removed IKA inactivation and attenuated ST-evoked spike generation along PVN but not CVLM pathways. Thus, multiple differences in structure, organization, synaptic transmission and ion channel expression tune the overall fidelity of afferent signals that reach these destinations

  16. Control of resting membrane potential by delayed rectifier potassium currents in ferret airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, B K; Washabau, R J; Kotlikoff, M I

    1993-01-01

    1. In order to determine the physiological role of specific potassium currents in airway smooth muscle, potassium currents were measured in freshly dissociated ferret trachealis cells using the nystatin-permeabilized, whole-cell method, at 35 degrees C. 2. The magnitude of the outward currents was markedly increased as bath temperature was increased from 22 to 35 degrees C. This increase was primarily due to the increase in maximum potassium conductance (gK,max), although there was also a small leftward shift in the relationship between gK and voltage at higher temperatures. The maximum conductance and the kinetics of current activation and inactivation were also temperature dependent. At 35 degrees C, gating of the current was steeply voltage dependent between -40 and 0 mV. Current activation was well fitted by fourth-order kinetics; the mean time constants of activation (30 mV clamp step) were 1.09 +/- 0.17 and 1.96 +/- 0.27 ms at 35 and 22 degrees C, respectively. 3. Outward currents using the nystatin method were qualitatively similar to delayed rectifier currents recorded in dialysed cells with high calcium buffering capacity solutions. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP; 2 mM), a specific blocker of delayed rectifier potassium channels in this tissue, inhibited over 80% of the outward current evoked by voltage-clamp steps to between -10 and +20 mV (n = 6). Less than 5% of the outward current was blocked over the same voltage range by charybdotoxin (100 nM; n = 15), a specific antagonist of large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels in this tissue. 4. The degree to which delayed rectifier and calcium-activated potassium conductances control resting membrane potential was examined in current-clamp experiments. The resting membrane potential of current clamped cells was -33.6 +/- 1.0 mV (n = 62). Application of 4-AP (2 mM) resulted in a 14.4 +/- 1.0 mV depolarization (n = 8) and an increase in input resistance. Charybdotoxin (100 nM) had no effect on resting

  17. Nongenomic Glucocorticoid Suppression of a Postsynaptic Potassium Current via Emergent Autocrine Endocannabinoid Signaling in Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Cells following Chronic Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids rapidly stimulate endocannabinoid synthesis and modulation of synaptic transmission in hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells via a nongenomic signaling mechanism. The endocannabinoid actions are synapse-constrained by astrocyte restriction of extracellular spatial domains. Exogenous cannabinoids have been shown to modulate postsynaptic potassium currents, including the A-type potassium current (IA), in different cell types. The activity of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells is shaped by a prominent IA. We tested for a rapid glucocorticoid modulation of the postsynaptic IK and IA in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) using whole-cell recordings in rat brain slices. Application of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) had no rapid effect on the IK or IA amplitude, voltage dependence, or kinetics in magnocellular neurons in slices from untreated rats. In magnocellular neurons from salt-loaded rats, however, Dex application caused a rapid suppression of the IA and a depolarizing shift in IA voltage dependence. Exogenously applied endocannabinoids mimicked the rapid Dex modulation of the IA, and CB1 receptor antagonists and agonists blocked and occluded the Dex-induced changes in the IA, respectively, suggesting an endocannabinoid dependence of the rapid glucocorticoid effect. Preincubation of control slices in a gliotoxin resulted in the partial recapitulation of the glucocorticoid-induced rapid suppression of the IA. These findings demonstrate a glucocorticoid suppression of the postsynaptic IA in PVN magnocellular neurons via an autocrine endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism following chronic dehydration, and suggest a possible role for astrocytes in the control of the autocrine endocannabinoid actions. PMID:28966975

  18. Inward rectifier potassium current IKir promotes intrinsic pacemaker activity of thalamocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Amarillo, Yimy; Tissone, Angela I; Mato, Germán; Nadal, Marcela S

    2018-06-01

    Slow repetitive burst firing by hyperpolarized thalamocortical (TC) neurons correlates with global slow rhythms (<4 Hz), which are the physiological oscillations during non-rapid eye movement sleep or pathological oscillations during idiopathic epilepsy. The pacemaker activity of TC neurons depends on the expression of several subthreshold conductances, which are modulated in a behaviorally dependent manner. Here we show that upregulation of the small and neglected inward rectifier potassium current I Kir induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands. We demonstrate this in mouse TC neurons in brain slices by manipulating the Kir maximum conductance with dynamic clamp. We also performed a thorough theoretical analysis that explains how the unique properties of I Kir enable this current to induce slow periodic bursting in TC neurons. We describe a new ionic mechanism based on the voltage- and time-dependent interaction of I Kir and hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I h that endows TC neurons with the ability to oscillate spontaneously at very low frequencies, even below 0.5 Hz. Bifurcation analysis of conductance-based models of increasing complexity demonstrates that I Kir induces bistability of the membrane potential at the same time that it induces sustained oscillations in combination with I h and increases the robustness of low threshold-activated calcium current I T -mediated oscillations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The strong inwardly rectifying potassium current I Kir of thalamocortical neurons displays a region of negative slope conductance in the current-voltage relationship that generates potassium currents activated by hyperpolarization. Bifurcation analysis shows that I Kir induces bistability of the membrane potential; generates sustained subthreshold oscillations by interacting with the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I h ; and increases the robustness of oscillations mediated by the low threshold-activated calcium

  19. Inhibition of potassium currents is involved in antiarrhythmic effect of moderate ethanol on atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baode; Li, Chenxing; Sun, Junyi; Wang, Xinghui; Liu, Xinling; Yang, Chun; Chen, Lina; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Hao

    2017-05-01

    Excessive consumption of alcohol is a well-established risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of moderate alcohol drinking remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to determine the effects of moderate ethanol ingestion on atrial fibrillation and the electrophysiological mechanisms. In acetylcholine-induced canine and mouse AF models, the moderate ethanol prevented the generation and persistence of AF through prolonging the latent period of AF and shortening the duration of AF. The action potential duration (APD) was remarkably prolonged under the concentration range of 12.5-50.0mM ethanol in guinea pig atrial myocytes. Ultra-rapid delayed rectified potassium currents (I Kv1.5 ) were markedly inhibited by 12.5-50.0mM ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol with 50.0mM could inhibit rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (I hERG ). Ethanol under 6.25-50.0mM did not affect on inward rectifier potassium currents (I Kir2.1 ). Collectively, the present study provided an evidence that moderate ethanol intake can prolong the APD of atrial myocytes by inhibition of I Kv1.5 and I hERG , which contributed to preventing the development and duration of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crataegus extract blocks potassium currents in guinea pig ventricular cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Linke, W; Klaus, W

    1999-05-01

    Crataegus extract is used in cardiology for the treatment of mild to moderate heart failure (NYHA II) in Germany. However, little is known about the electrophysiological actions of Crataegus extract in the heart. Recently, it was shown that Crataegus extract prolongs the refractory period in isolated perfused hearts and increases action potential duration in guinea pig papillary muscle. It was the aim of this study to find out the mechanism of the increase in action potential duration caused by Crataegus extract. Using the patch-clamp technique, we measured the effects of Crataegus extract (10 mg/l; flavonoid content: 2.25%, total procyanidin content: 11.3 +/- 0.4%) on the inward rectifier and the delayed rectifier potassium current in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. To get some insight into the mechanism underlying the positive inotropic effect of Crataegus extract, we also looked for effects on the L-type calcium current. Crataegus extract slightly blocked both the delayed and the inward rectifier potassium current. The inhibition amounted to 25% and about 15%, respectively. This amount of inhibition of these repolarising currents is sufficient to explain the prolongation of action potential duration caused by Crataegus extract. To our surprise we could not detect any influence of Crataegus extract on the L-type calcium current. In summary, our results show that Crataegus extract blocks repolarising potassium currents in ventricular myocytes. This effect is similar to the action of class III antiarrhythmic drugs and might be the basis of the antiarrhythmic effects described for Crataegus extract. Our measurements of the L-type calcium current indicate that Crataegus extract's positive inotropic effect is not caused by phosphodiesterase inhibition or a beta-sympathomimetic effect.

  1. Potassium Currents of Olfactory Bulb Juxtaglomerular Cells: Characterization, Simulation, and Implications for Plateau Potential Firing

    PubMed Central

    Masurkar, Arjun V.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-01-01

    Odor identity is encoded by the activity of olfactory bulb glomeruli, which receive primary sensory input and transfer it to projection neurons. Juxtaglomerular cells (JGCs) may influence glomerular processing via firing of long lasting plateau potentials. Though inward currents have been investigated, little is known regarding potassium current contribution to JGC plateau potentials. We pursued study of these currents, with the overarching goal of creating components for a computational model of JGC plateau potential firing. In conditions minimizing calcium-activated potassium current (IK(Ca)), we used whole cell voltage clamp and in vitro slice preparations to characterize three potassium currents in rat JGCs. The prominent component Ikt1 displayed rapid kinetics (τ10%−90% rise 0.6–2ms, τinactivation 5–10ms) and was blocked by high concentration 4-AP (5mM) and TEA (40mM). It had half maximal activation at −10mV (V½max) and little inactivation at rest. Ikt2, with slower kinetics (τ10%−90% rise 11–15ms, τinactivation 100–300ms), was blocked by low concentration 4-AP (0.5mM) and TEA (5mM). The V½max was 0mV and inactivation was also minimal at rest. Sustained current Ikt3 showed sensitivity to low concentration 4-AP and TEA, and had V½max of +10mV. Further experiments, in conditions of physiologic calcium buffering, suggested that IK(Ca) contributed to Ikt3 with minimal effect on plateau potential evolution. We transformed these characterizations into Hodgkin-Huxley models that robustly mimicked experimental data. Further simulation demonstrated that Ikt1 would be most efficiently activated by plateau potential waveforms, predicting a critical role in shaping JGC firing. These studies demonstrated that JGCs possess a unique potassium current profile, with delayed rectifier (Ikt3), atypical A-current (Ikt1), and D-current (Ikt2) in accordance with known expression patterns in OB glomeruli. Our simulations also provide an initial framework for

  2. Coexpression of the KCNA3B gene product with Kv1.5 leads to a novel A-type potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Leicher, T; Bähring, R; Isbrandt, D; Pongs, O

    1998-12-25

    Shaker-related voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels may be heterooligomers consisting of membrane-integral alpha-subunits associated with auxiliary cytoplasmic beta-subunits. In this study we have cloned the human Kvbeta3.1 subunit and the corresponding KCNA3B gene. Identification of sequence-tagged sites in the gene mapped KCNA3B to band p13.1 of human chromosome 17. Comparison of the KCNA1B, KCNA2B, and KCNA3B gene structures showed that the three Kvbeta genes have very disparate lengths varying from >/=350 kb (KCNA1B) to approximately 7 kb (KCNA3B). Yet, the exon patterns of the three genes, which code for the seven known mammalian Kvbeta subunits, are very similar. The Kvbeta1 and Kvbeta2 splice variants are generated by alternative use of 5'-exons. Mouse Kvbeta4, a potential splice variant of Kvbeta3, is a read-through product where the open reading frame starts within the sequence intervening between Kvbeta3 exons 7 and 8. The human KCNA3B sequence does not contain a mouse Kvbeta4-like open reading frame. Human Kvbeta3 mRNA is specifically expressed in the brain, where it is predominantly detected in the cerebellum. The heterologous coexpression of human Kv1.5 and Kvbeta3.1 subunits in Chinese hamster ovary cells yielded a novel Kv channel mediating very fast inactivating (A-type) outward currents upon depolarization. Thus, the expression of Kvbeta3.1 subunits potentially extends the possibilities to express diverse A-type Kv channels in the human brain.

  3. Inhibition of potassium currents is involved in antiarrhythmic effect of moderate ethanol on atrial fibrillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Baode; Li, Chenxing

    Excessive consumption of alcohol is a well-established risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of moderate alcohol drinking remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to determine the effects of moderate ethanol ingestion on atrial fibrillation and the electrophysiological mechanisms. In acetylcholine-induced canine and mouse AF models, the moderate ethanol prevented the generation and persistence of AF through prolonging the latent period of AF and shortening the duration of AF. The action potential duration (APD) was remarkably prolonged under the concentration range of 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in guinea pig atrial myocytes. Ultra-rapid delayed rectified potassium currents (I{submore » Kv1.5}) were markedly inhibited by 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol with 50.0 mM could inhibit rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (I{sub hERG}). Ethanol under 6.25–50.0 mM did not affect on inward rectifier potassium currents (I{sub Kir2.1}). Collectively, the present study provided an evidence that moderate ethanol intake can prolong the APD of atrial myocytes by inhibition of I{sub Kv1.5} and I{sub hERG}, which contributed to preventing the development and duration of AF. - Highlights: • Moderate ethanol prevented the development of AF in animal models. • Moderate ethanol prolonged APD in guinea pig atrial myocytes. • Moderate ethanol inhibited Kv1.5 currents.« less

  4. β1-Adrenoceptor autoantibodies affect action potential duration and delayed rectifier potassium currents in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Huang, Haixia; Du, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Lv, Tingting; Zhang, Suli; Wei, Hua; Shang, Jianyu; Liu, Ping; Liu, Huirong

    2015-01-01

    β1-Adrenoceptor autoantibodies (β1-AAs) affect the action potential duration (APD) in cardiomyocytes and are related to ventricular arrhythmias. The delayed rectifier potassium current (I K) plays a crucial role in APD, but the effects of β1-AAs on I K have not been completely illuminated. This work aimed to observe the effects of β1-AAs on I K and APD and further explore the mechanisms of β1-AA-mediated ventricular arrhythmias. β1-AAs were obtained from sera of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. With whole-cell patch clamp technique, action potentials and I K were recorded. The results illustrated 0.1 μmol/L β1-AAs shortened APD at 50 % (APD50) and 90 % (APD90) of the repolarization. However, at 0.01 μmol/L, β1-AAs had no effects on either APD90 or APD50 (P > 0.05). At 0.001 μmol/L, β1-AAs significantly prolonged APD90 and APD50. Moreover, β1-AAs (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I Kr), but similarly decreased the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks) and increased L-type calcium currents at the different concentrations. Taken together, the IKr increase induced by high β1-AA concentrations is responsible for a significant APD reduction which would contribute to repolarization changes and trigger the malignant ventricular arrhythmias in CHD patients.

  5. The changes of potassium currents in rabbit ventricle with healed myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Niu, Huiyan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Cuntai; Zhou, Qiang; Ruan, Yanfei; Pu, Jun; Lu, Zaiying

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of arrhythmia in healed myocardial infarction (HMI), the changes of action potential duration (APD), transient outward potassium current (Ito), delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) of left ventricular myocytes in non-infarcted zone of HMI were investigated. Rabbits were randomly assigned into two groups: HMI group, in which animals were subjected to thoracotomy and ligation of the circumflex coronary and sham-operated group, in which rabbits underwent thoracotomy but no conorary ligation. 3 months after the operation, the whole myocyte patch clamp technique was used to record APD, Ito, IK, and IK1 of ventricular myocytes in non-infarcted zone. Our results showed that the membrane capacitance was larger in HMI group than in sham-operated group. Action potential duration was significantly lengthened in HMI group and early afterdepolarization (EAD) appeared in HMI group. The densities of Ito, I(K, tail), and IK1 were reduced significantly in HMI group, from 6.72 +/- 0.42 pA/pF, 1.54 +/- 0.13 pA/pF and 25.6 +/- 2.6 pA/pF in sham-operated group to 4.03 +/- 0.33 pA/pF, 1.14 +/- 0.11 pA/pF and 17.6 +/- 2.3 pA/pF, respectively. It is concluded that the reduced densities of Ito, I(K, tail) and IK1 in ventricular myocytes of non-infarcted zone in HMI were responsible for the prolongation of APD and the presentation of EAD which played important roles in the development of malignant arrhythmia in HMI.

  6. Evaluation of eddy-current proximity devices for measuring thin potassium film thicknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asadourian, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    Two eddy current proximity probe systems were tested over a range of 0 to 508 micrometers (0 to 20 mils) of simulated potassium film thicknesses for simulated temperatures of 66 C (150 F), 232 C (450 F), and 666 C (1230 F). The results of short time calibration tests are presented. Instrument drift was a problem throughout the testing and, without correction, may limit the use of such systems to short periods of time. Additional development will be required prior to their being usable as practical instrumentation systems.

  7. PKA modulation of Kv4.2-encoded A-type potassium channels requires formation of a supramolecular complex.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Laura A; Anderson, Anne E; Mayne, Amber; Pfaffinger, Paul J; Sweatt, John David

    2002-12-01

    A-type channels, encoded by the pore-forming alpha-subunits of the Kv4.x family, are particularly important in regulating membrane excitability in the CNS and the heart. Given the key role of modulation of A currents by kinases, we sought to investigate the protein structure-function relationships underlying the regulation of these currents by PKA. We have previously shown the existence of two PKA phosphorylation sites in the Kv4.2 sequence; therefore, we focused this study on the Kv4.2 primary subunit. In the present studies we made the surprising finding that PKA phosphorylation of the Kv4.2 alpha-subunit is necessary but not sufficient for channel modulation; channel modulation by PKA required the presence of an ancillary subunit, the K+ channel interacting protein (KChIP3). Therefore, these findings indicate a surprising complexity to kinase regulation of A currents, in that an interaction of two separate molecular events, alpha-subunit phosphorylation and the association of an ancillary subunit (KChIP3), are necessary for phosphorylation-dependent regulation of Kv4.2-encoded A channels by PKA. Overall, our studies indicate that PKA must of necessity act on a supramolecular complex of pore-forming alpha-subunits plus ancillary subunits to alter channel properties.

  8. A Small Potassium Current in AgRP/NPY Neurons Regulates Feeding Behavior and Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    He, Yanlin; Shu, Gang; Yang, Yongjie; Xu, Pingwen; Xia, Yan; Wang, Chunmei; Saito, Kenji; Hinton, Antentor; Yan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Chen; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2016-11-08

    Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons. Genetic mutation of SK3 specifically in AgRP/NPY neurons leads to increased sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, associated with chronic hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. Our results identify SK3 as a key intrinsic mediator that coordinates nutritional status with AgRP/NPY neural activities and animals' feeding behavior and energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Urocortin2 prolongs action potential duration and modulates potassium currents in guinea pig myocytes and HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Zhen; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2015-07-05

    We previously reported that activation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2 by urocortin2 up-regulates both L-type Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in ventricular myocytes and plays an important role in cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenesis. This study goal was to further test the hypothesis that urocortin2 may modulate action potentials as well as rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents. With whole cell patch-clamp techniques, action potentials and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were recorded in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, respectively. And rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were tested in hERG-HEK293 cells. Urocortin2 produced a time- and concentration-dependent prolongation of action potential duration. The EC50 values of action potential duration and action potential duration at 90% of repolarization were 14.73 and 24.3nM respectively. The prolongation of action potential duration of urocortin2 was almost completely or partly abolished by H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor) or KB-R7943 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor) pretreatment respectively. And urocortin2 caused reduction of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents in hERG-HEK293 cells. In addition, urocortin2 slowed the rate of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel activation, and rightward shifted the threshold of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents to more positive potentials. Urocortin2 prolonged action potential duration via activation of protein kinase A and Na(+)/ Ca(2+) exchange in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. In hERG-HEK293 cells, urocortin2 reduced rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current density which may contribute to action potential duration prolongation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aldosterone downregulates delayed rectifier potassium currents through an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yankun; Wang, Yanjun; Zhu, Xiaoran; Zhang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that aldosterone downregulates delayed rectifier potassium currents (I Ks ) via activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in adult guinea pig cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigate whether angiotensin II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AngII/AT1R) and intracellular calcium also play a role in these effects. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from adult guinea pigs and incubated with aldosterone (1 μmol·L -1 ) either alone or in combination with enalapril (1 μmol·L -1 ), losartan (1 μmol·L -1 ), nimodipine (1 μmol·L -1 ), or BAPTA-AM (2.5 μmol·L -1 ) for 24 h. We used the conventional whole cell patch-clamp technique to record the I Ks component. In addition, we evaluated expression of the I Ks subunits KCNQ1 and KCNE1 using Western blotting. Our results showed that both enalapril and losartan, but not nimodipine or BAPTA-AM, completely reversed the aldosterone-induced inhibition of I Ks and its effects on KCNQ1/KCNE1 protein levels. Furthermore, we found that AngII/AT1R mediates the inhibitory effects of aldosterone on I Ks . Finally, the downregulation of I Ks induced by aldosterone did not occur secondarily to a change in intracellular calcium concentrations. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that crosstalk between MR and AT1R underlies the effects of aldosterone, and provide new insights into the mechanism underlying potassium channels.

  11. M-currents and other potassium currents in bullfrog sympathetic neurones

    PubMed Central

    Adams, P. R.; Brown, D. A.; Constanti, A.

    1982-01-01

    1. Bullfrog lumbar sympathetic neurones were voltage-clamped in vitro through twin micro-electrodes. Four different outward (K+) currents could be identified: (i) a large sustained voltage-sensitive delayed rectifier current (IK) activated at membrane potentials more positive than -25 mV; (ii) a calcium-dependent sustained outward current (IC) activated at similar positive potentials and peaking at +20 to +60 mV; (iii) a transient current (IA) activated at membrane potentials more positive than -60 mV after a hyperpolarizing pre-pulse, but which was rapidly and totally inactivated at all potentials within its activation range; and (iv) a new K+ current, the M-current (IM). 2. IM was detected as a non-inactivating current with a threshold at -60 mV. The underlying conductance GM showed a sigmoidal activation curve between -60 and -10 mV, with half-activation at -35 mV and a maximal value (ḠM) of 84±14 (S.E.M.) nS per neurone. The voltage sensitivity of GM could be expressed in terms of a simple Boltzmann distribution for a single multivalent gating particle. 3. IM activated and de-activated along an exponential time course with a time constant uniquely dependent upon voltage, maximizing at ≃ 150 ms at -35 mV at 22 °C. 4. Instantaneous current—voltage (I/V) curves were approximately linear in the presence of IM, suggesting that the M-channels do not show appreciable rectification. However, the time- and voltage-dependent opening of the M-channels induced considerable rectification in the steady-state I/V curves recorded under both voltage-clamp and current-clamp modes between -60 and -25 mV. Both time- and voltage-dependent rectification in the voltage responses to current injection over this range could be predicted from the kinetic properties of IM. 5. It is suggested that IM exerts a strong potential-clamping effect on the behaviour of these neurones at membrane potentials subthreshold to excitation. PMID:6294290

  12. The changes of potassium currents in RCS rat Müller cell during retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, TongTao; Li, YaoChen; Weng, ChuanHuang; Yin, ZhengQin

    2012-01-03

    Müller cells are the principal glial cells expressing membrane-bound potassium channel and predominantly mediating the homeostatic regulation of extracellular K+ produced by neuronal activity in retina. It's well known that Müller cells can be activated in many pathological conditions, but little is known about the change of potassium currents of Müller cells during the progression of retinitis pigmentosa. Herein, the Royal College of Surgeons rats (RCS rat) were employed to investigate some phenotypic and functional changes of Müller cells during retinal degeneration such as the expression of Kir4.1, membrane properties and K+ channel currents by using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, western blot and whole-cell patch clamping respectively. Compared with Müller cells in control retina, increased glutamine synthetase (GS) mRNA levels were seen at P30 and P60, and then decreased gradually in RCS rat retina. Morphologically, Müller cells showed significant hypertrophy and proliferation after p60. The increased expression of intermediate filament, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin began at P30 and reached a peak at p60. Kir4.1 channels presented a peak expression at P30. Concomitantly, K(+) currents of Müller cells increased at P30 and decreased at P90 significantly. We concluded that retinal Müller cells of RCS rats underwent an activation initiated by the onset of retinal degeneration before p60 and then an obvious reactive gliosis, which led the basic membrane properties to suffer marked changes, and caused the Kir4.1 channels of Müller cells to occur a clear functional shift, even lose their normal electrophysiological properties. This process aggravates the impairment caused by the initial photoreceptor degeneration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Potassium channels cloned from neuroblastoma cells display slowly inactivating outward currents in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Yokoyama, S; Higashida, H

    1992-05-22

    Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) specific for NGK1 and NGK2 potassium channels were synthesized from complementary DNAs (cDNAs) that had been cloned from mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells. Outward pottasium currents were evoked by 5 s depolarizing voltage commands in Xenopus oocytes injected with NGK1- or NGK2-specific mRNAs. The NGK1 or NGK2 currents showed different activation and inactivation kinetics, and different pharmacological sensitivities. The threshold potential for activation of the NGK2 current (-14 mV) was more positive than that for the NGK1 (-36 mV). The NGK2 current showed faster inactivation during a 5 s depolarizing pulse than did the NGK1 current. Inactivation was best fit by time constants of 0.37, 1.5 and 19 s for the NGK2 current and 4.4 and 19 s for NGK1. Extracellularly applied tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) was 1000 times more potent on the NGK2 current than the NGK1 current. Furthermore we examined outward current following co-injection of an equal amount of mRNAs for NGK1 and NGK2. The timecourse of inactivation differed from either alone or from a simple sum of the two individual currents. TEA sensitivity could not be explained by summation of the two homomultimeric channels. These findings suggest that both NGK1 and NGK2 proteins assemble to form heteromultimeric K+ channels in addition to homomultimeric K+ channels. NGK2 channels and the heteromultimeric channels may be responsible for the native transient outward current with slow inactivation in NG108-15 hybrid cells.

  14. Neuroplasticity of A-type potassium channel complexes induced by chronic alcohol exposure enhances dendritic calcium transients in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Spencer, Kathryn B; Hu, Wei; Kroener, Sven; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcohol-induced cognitive impairments and maladaptive plasticity of glutamatergic synapses are well-documented. However, it is unknown if prolonged alcohol exposure affects dendritic signaling that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in alcoholics. Back-propagation of action potentials (bAPs) into apical dendrites of hippocampal neurons provides distance-dependent signals that modulate dendritic and synaptic plasticity. The amplitude of bAPs decreases with distance from the soma that is thought to reflect an increase in the density of Kv4.2 channels toward distal dendrites. The aim of this study was to quantify changes in hippocampal Kv4.2 channel function and expression using electrophysiology, Ca(2+) imaging, and western blot analyses in a well-characterized in vitro model of chronic alcohol exposure. Chronic alcohol exposure significantly decreased expression of Kv4.2 channels and KChIP3 in hippocampus. This reduction was associated with an attenuation of macroscopic A-type K(+) currents in CA1 neurons. Chronic alcohol exposure increased bAP-evoked Ca(2+) transients in the distal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The enhanced bAP-evoked Ca(2+) transients induced by chronic alcohol exposure were not related to synaptic targeting of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors or morphological adaptations in apical dendritic arborization. These data suggest that chronic alcohol-induced decreases in Kv4.2 channel function possibly mediated by a downregulation of KChIP3 drive the elevated bAP-associated Ca(2+) transients in distal apical dendrites. Alcohol-induced enhancement of bAPs may affect metaplasticity and signal integration in apical dendrites of hippocampal neurons leading to alterations in hippocampal function.

  15. Decreased inward rectifier potassium current IK1 in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rubi, Lena; Koenig, Xaver; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2017-03-04

    Kir2.x channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes (most prominently Kir2.1) account for the inward rectifier potassium current I K1 , which controls the resting membrane potential and the final phase of action potential repolarization. Recently it was hypothesized that the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) is important in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated potential I K1 abnormalities in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes derived from the hearts of Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. We found that I K1 was substantially diminished in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes when compared to wild type myocytes. This finding represents the first functional evidence for a significant role of the DAPC in the regulation of Kir2.x channels.

  16. Analysis of the Effects of Calcium or Magnesium on Voltage-Clamp Currents in Perfused Squid Axons Bathed in Solutions of High Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Eduardo; Taylor, Robert E.; Atwater, Illani; Bezanilla, Francisco

    1969-01-01

    Isolated axons from the squid, Dosidicus gigas, were internally perfused with potassium fluoride solutions. Membrane currents were measured following step changes of membrane potential in a voltage-clamp arrangement with external isosmotic solution changes in the order: potassium-free artificial seawater; potassium chloride; potassium chloride containing 10, 25, 40 or 50, mM calcium or magnesium; and potassium-free artificial seawater. The following results suggest that the currents measured under voltage clamp with potassium outside and inside can be separated into two components and that one of them, the predominant one, is carried through the potassium system. (a) Outward currents in isosmotic potassium were strongly and reversibly reduced by tetraethylammonium chloride. (b) Without calcium or magnesium a progressive increase in the nontime-dependent component of the currents (leakage) occurred. (c) The restoration of calcium or magnesium within 15–30 min decreases this leakage. (d) With 50 mM divalent ions the steady-state current-voltage curve was nonlinear with negative resistance as observed in intact axons in isosmotic potassium. (e) The time-dependent components of the membrane currents were not clearly affected by calcium or magnesium. These results show a strong dependence of the leakage currents on external calcium or magnesium concentration but provide no support for the involvement of calcium or magnesium in the kinetics of the potassium system. PMID:5823216

  17. Analysis of the effects of calcium or magnesium on voltage-clamp currents in perfused squid axons bathed in solutions of high potassium.

    PubMed

    Rojas, E; Taylor, R E; Atwater, I; Bezanilla, F

    1969-10-01

    Isolated axons from the squid, Dosidicus gigas, were internally perfused with potassium fluoride solutions. Membrane currents were measured following step changes of membrane potential in a voltage-clamp arrangement with external isosmotic solution changes in the order: potassium-free artificial seawater; potassium chloride; potassium chloride containing 10, 25, 40 or 50, mM calcium or magnesium; and potassium-free artificial seawater. The following results suggest that the currents measured under voltage clamp with potassium outside and inside can be separated into two components and that one of them, the predominant one, is carried through the potassium system. (a) Outward currents in isosmotic potassium were strongly and reversibly reduced by tetraethylammonium chloride. (b) Without calcium or magnesium a progressive increase in the nontime-dependent component of the currents (leakage) occurred. (c) The restoration of calcium or magnesium within 15-30 min decreases this leakage. (d) With 50 mM divalent ions the steady-state current-voltage curve was nonlinear with negative resistance as observed in intact axons in isosmotic potassium. (e) The time-dependent components of the membrane currents were not clearly affected by calcium or magnesium. These results show a strong dependence of the leakage currents on external calcium or magnesium concentration but provide no support for the involvement of calcium or magnesium in the kinetics of the potassium system.

  18. Sildenafil (Viagra) prolongs cardiac repolarization by blocking the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current.

    PubMed

    Geelen, P; Drolet, B; Rail, J; Bérubé, J; Daleau, P; Rousseau, G; Cardinal, R; O'Hara, G E; Turgeon, J

    2000-07-18

    BACKGROUND-Several cases of unexpected death have been reported with sildenafil in patients predisposed to ischemic cardiac events. Although acute episodes of ischemia could account for some of these deaths, we hypothesized that sildenafil may have unsuspected electrophysiological effects predisposing some patients to proarrhythmia. METHODS AND RESULTS-Studies were undertaken in 10 isolated guinea pig hearts that demonstrated prolongation of cardiac repolarization in a reverse use-dependent manner by sildenafil 30 mcmol/L. Action potential duration increased 15% from baseline 117+/-3 to 134+/-2 ms with sildenafil during pacing at 250 ms cycle length, whereas a 6% increase from 99+/-2 to 105+/-2 ms was seen with pacing at 150 ms cycle length. Experiments in human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG)-transfected HEK293 cells (n=30) demonstrated concentration-dependent block of the rapid component (I(Kr)) of the delayed rectifier potassium current: activating current was 50% decreased at 100 mcmol/L. This effect was confirmed using HERG-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which exhibit no endogenous I(K)-like current. CONCLUSIONS-Sildenafil possesses direct cardiac electrophysiological effects similar to class III antiarrhythmic drugs. These effects are observed at concentrations that may be found in conditions of impaired drug elimination such as renal or hepatic insufficiency, during coadministration of another CYP3A substrate/inhibitor, or after drug overdose and offer a new potential explanation for sudden death during sildenafil treatment.

  19. [Effects of allitridum on rapidly delayed rectifier potassium current in HEK293 cell line].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Lin, Kun; Wei, Zhixiong; Chen, Qian; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Yang

    2015-08-01

    To study the effect of allitridum on rapidly delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) in HEK293 cell line. HEK293 cells were transiently transfected with HERG channel cDNA plasmid pcDNA3.1 via Lipofectamine. Allitridum was added to the extracellular solution by partial perfusion after giga seal at the final concentration of 30 µmol/L. Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record the HERG currents and gating kinetics before and after allitridum exposure at room temperature. The amplitude and density of IHERG were both suppressed by allitridum in a voltage-dependent manner. In the presence of allitridum, the peak current of IHERG was reduced from 73.5∓4.3 pA/pF to 42.1∓3.6 pA/pF at the test potential of +50 mV (P<0.01). Allitridum also concentration-dependently decreased the density of the IHERG. The IC50 of allitridum was 34.74 µmol/L with a Hill coefficient of 1.01. Allitridum at 30 µmol/L caused a significant positive shift of the steady-state activation curve of IHERG and a markedly negative shift of the steady-state inactivation of IHERG, and significantly shortened the slow time constants of IHERG deactivation. Allitridum can potently block IHERG in HEK293 cells, which might be the electrophysiological basis for its anti-arrhythmic action.

  20. Redox modulation of A-type K+ currents in pain-sensing dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Pan

    2008-06-06

    Redox modulation of fast inactivation has been described in certain cloned A-type voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels in expressing systems, but the effects remain to be demonstrated in native neurons. In this study, we examined the effects of cysteine-specific redox agents on the A-type K(+) currents in acutely dissociated small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from rats. The fast inactivation of most A-type currents was markedly removed or slowed by the oxidizing agents 2,2'-dithio-bis(5-nitropyridine) (DTBNP) and chloramine-T. Dithiothreitol, a reducing agent for the disulfide bond, restored the inactivation. These results demonstrated that native A-type K(+) channels, probably Kv1.4, could switch the roles between inactivating and non-inactivating K(+) channels via redox regulation in pain-sensing DRG neurons. The A-type channels may play a role in adjusting pain sensitivity in response to peripheral redox conditions.

  1. Inhibition of the cardiac inward rectifier potassium currents by KB-R7943.

    PubMed

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Alekseeva, Eugenia I; Vornanen, Matti

    2013-09-01

    KB-R7943 (2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea) was developed as a specific inhibitor of the sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) with potential experimental and therapeutic use. However, KB-R7943 is shown to be a potent blocker of several ion currents including inward and delayed rectifier K(+) currents of cardiomyocytes. To further characterize KB-R7943 as a blocker of the cardiac inward rectifiers we compared KB-R7943 sensitivity of the background inward rectifier (IK1) and the carbacholine-induced inward rectifier (IKACh) currents in mammalian (Rattus norvegicus; rat) and fish (Carassius carassius; crucian carp) cardiac myocytes. The basal IK1 of ventricular myocytes was blocked with apparent IC50-values of 4.6×10(-6) M and 3.5×10(-6) M for rat and fish, respectively. IKACh was almost an order of magnitude more sensitive to KB-R7943 than IK1 with IC50-values of 6.2×10(-7) M for rat and 2.5×10(-7) M for fish. The fish cardiac NCX current was half-maximally blocked at the concentration of 1.9-3×10(-6) M in both forward and reversed mode of operation. Thus, the sensitivity of three cardiac currents to KB-R7943 block increases in the order IK1~INCXpotassium currents, in particular IKACh, should be taken into account when interpreting the data with this inhibitor from in vivo and in vitro experiments in both mammalian and fish models. © 2013.

  2. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) , a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  3. Effect of ethanol at clinically relevant concentrations on atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Pásek, Michal; Hořáková, Zuzana; Hošek, Jan; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol intoxication tends to induce arrhythmias, most often the atrial fibrillation. To elucidate arrhythmogenic mechanisms related to alcohol consumption, the effect of ethanol on main components of the ionic membrane current is investigated step by step. Considering limited knowledge, we aimed to examine the effect of clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0.8-80 mM) on acetylcholine-sensitive inward rectifier potassium current I K(Ach). Experiments were performed by the whole-cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat and guinea-pig atrial myocytes, and on expressed human Kir3.1/3.4 channels. Ethanol induced changes of I K(Ach) in the whole range of concentrations applied; the effect was not voltage dependent. The constitutively active component of I K(Ach) was significantly increased by ethanol with the maximum effect (an increase by ∼100 %) between 8 and 20 mM. The changes were comparable in rat and guinea-pig atrial myocytes and also in expressed human Kir3.1/3.4 channels (i.e., structural correlate of I K(Ach)). In the case of the acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach), a dual ethanol effect was apparent with a striking heterogeneity of changes in individual cells. The effect correlated with the current magnitude in control: the current was increased by eth-anol in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The average effect peaked at 20 mM ethanol (an increase of the current by ∼20 %). Observed changes of action potential duration agreed well with the voltage clamp data. Ethanol significantly affected both components of I K(Ach) even in concentrations corresponding to light alcohol consumption.

  4. Kv7 potassium channel subunits and M currents in cultured hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Grigorov, Alexej; Moskalyuk, Anastasia; Kravchenko, Mykola; Veselovsky, Nikolai; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Fedulova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    Potassium channels of the Kv7 family that mediate the non-inactivating M current regulate the excitability of many types of neurons in the central nervous system, including some in the hippocampus. We report here that individual interneurons from newborn rat hippocampi in long-term culture strongly express messenger RNA specific for Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 and, to a lesser extent, Kv7.5 channel subunits but not for the Kv7.4 subunit. An M-like current was electrophysiologically identified in two subpopulations of interneurons distinct in their spiking behaviour (regular or fast spiking). The M-channel enhancer retigabine reduced interneuronal excitability by constraining the number of action potentials generated during imposed depolarisations; this effect was inhibited by specific the M-channel blocking drugs. In paired synaptically connected interneuron-target cell recordings, anatomically localised applications of retigabine indicated that M channels were present in both the interneuron soma and its GABA-ergic inhibitory axon. We conclude that M-channel subunits and functional M channels are broadly expressed in hippocampal interneurons and their axons and are potentially capable of strongly regulating their firing properties.

  5. Differential Expression of Inward and Outward Potassium Currents in the Macrophage-like Cell Line J774.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-02

    skeletal muscle (Adrian, Hodgkin & Chandler, 1970), and nerve (Goldman & Schauf , 1973; Thompson, 1977). The general mathematical formalism describes the...594-609. Goldman, L. & Schauf , C. L. (1973) Quantitative description of sodium and potassium currents and computed action potentials in Myxicola giant

  6. [Effect of substance P on the potassium and calcium currents of colonic smooth muscle cells].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qincai; Luo, Hesheng; Quan, Xiaojing; Fan, Han; Yu, Guang

    2015-08-11

    To investigate the effect of substance P(SP) on the spontaneous contractile activity of smooth muscle cells,the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel currents (IBKCa) and the L-type calcium channel currents (ICaL) in rat smooth muscle cells of the proximal colon. A total of 24 healthy male Wista rats were used in this test. The change of smooth muscle strips spontaneous contraction of rat proximal colon after adding SP was recorded by a physiological signal stystem (RM6240). The IBKCa and ICaL were measured via the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The longitudinal muscle contraction was obviously increased concentration-dependently after adding different concentrations of SP (10(-7)-10(-6) mol/L), so as the circular muscle while adding SP(10(-8)-10(-6) mol/L) (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, IBKCa was decreased after adding SP(10(-6) mol/L). Under the stimulating voltage of 60 mV, the IBKCa current density was (11.71±1.65) pA/pF, which was significantly lower compared with the control group (14.42±2.89) pA/pF (P<0.05). The ICaL) was apparently increased. Under the stimulating voltage of 0 mV, the ICaL) currents density was (-5.04±0.67) pA/pF, compared with the control group (-4.25±0.46) pA/pF, which was significantly increased (P<0.01). SP can promote the spontaneous contractile activity of colon smooth muscle of rats in vitro.And SP decrease IBKCa representatively while apparently increase ICaL). That is probably one of the mechanism SP regulate the gastrointestinal motility.

  7. Rapid Changes of Potassium Concentration at the Outer Surface of Exposed Single Neurons during Membrane Current Flow

    PubMed Central

    Neher, E.; Lux, H. D.

    1973-01-01

    K+-sensitive liquid ion-exchanger microelectrodes are shown to be capable of measuring concentration changes which occur on a millisecond time scale. However, some quaternary ammonium ions, such as tetraethylammonium and acetylcholine, are able to block electrode function when present in concentrations as low as 10-4 to 10-3 M. Changes in extracellular potassium concentration caused by spike activity or voltage clamp pulses of exposed single neurons of the snail Helix pomatia may be measured by these electrodes. Quantitative analysis shows that the total amount of excess potassium found in the vicinity of the cell a short time after a clamp pulse, is in relatively good agreement with the amount of potassium carried by the membrane current. PMID:4689624

  8. Hypoxia sensitivity of a voltage-gated potassium current in porcine intrapulmonary vein smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dospinescu, Ciprian; Widmer, Hélène; Rowe, Iain; Wainwright, Cherry; Cruickshank, Stuart F

    2012-09-01

    Hypoxia contracts the pulmonary vein, but the underlying cellular effectors remain unclear. Utilizing contractile studies and whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we report for the first time a hypoxia-sensitive K(+) current in porcine pulmonary vein smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). Hypoxia induced a transient contractile response that was 56 ± 7% of the control response (80 mM KCl). This contraction required extracellular Ca(2+) and was sensitive to Ca(2+) channel blockade. Blockade of K(+) channels by tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) reversibly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated contraction. Single-isolated PVSMC (typically 159.1 ± 2.3 μm long) had mean resting membrane potentials (RMP) of -36 ± 4 mV with a mean membrane capacitance of 108 ± 3.5 pF. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings identified a rapidly activating, partially inactivating K(+) current (I(KH)) that was hypoxia, TEA, and 4-AP sensitive. I(KH) was insensitive to Penitrem A or glyburide in PVSMC and had a time to peak of 14.4 ± 3.3 ms and recovered in 67 ms following inactivation at +80 mV. Peak window current was -32 mV, suggesting that I(KH) may contribute to PVSMC RMP. The molecular identity of the potassium channel is not clear. However, RT-PCR, using porcine pulmonary artery and vein samples, identified Kv(1.5), Kv(2.1), and BK, with all three being more abundant in the PV. Both artery and vein expressed STREX, a highly conserved and hypoxia-sensitive BK channel variant. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that hypoxic inhibition of I(KH) would contribute to hypoxic-induced contraction in PVSMC.

  9. Activators of potassium M currents have anticonvulsant actions in two rat models of encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Solbrig, Marylou V.; Adrian, Russell; Wechsler, Steven L.; Koob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    Opioid systems in hippocampus regulate excitability and kappa opioids have a role in anticonvulsant protection, but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. We examined the ability of opioid and nonopioid agents with overlapping ionic mechanisms and actions similar to kappa opioid agonists, to block seizures in rat models of encephalitis due to Borna Disease virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1. Naltrindole, a delta antagonist and thus a kappa opioid sparing agent, (10 mg/kg s.c.) blocked spontaneous and naloxone (opioid antagonist)-induced seizures in the models, but produced somatic signs similar to opioid withdrawal. Given that delta antagonists as well as kappa opioid agonists in hippocampus enhance potassium M currents (IM), we tested the effect of the IM augmenter flupirtine. Flupirtine (20 mg/kg i.p.) prevented seizures in Borna and herpes infected rats, without signs of withdrawal, hypotonia or sedation. The results support the efficacy of opioid and nonopioid drugs in modulating naloxone-induced seizures in critical illness due to viral encephalitis and by analogy, opioid withdrawal seizures. PMID:17126318

  10. Risperidone prolongs cardiac repolarization by blocking the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Benoit; Yang, Tao; Daleau, Pascal; Roden, Dan M; Turgeon, Jacques

    2003-06-01

    Cases of QT prolongation and sudden death have been reported with risperidone, a neuroleptic agent increasingly prescribed worldwide. Although hypokalemia was present in some of these events, we hypothesized that risperidone may have unsuspected electrophysiologic effects predisposing patients to proarrhythmia. In six isolated guinea pig hearts, risperidone elicited prolongation of cardiac repolarization: action potential duration increased from a baseline value of 128 ms +/- 5 to 147 ms +/- 5 (15%) with risperidone 1 microM during pacing at 250-ms cycle length, whereas the increase was only 10%, from 101 ms +/- 2 to 111 ms +/- 4, with pacing at a cycle length of 150 ms. In human ether-a-go-go (HERG)-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (n = 16), risperidone caused concentration-dependent block of the rapid component (I(Kr)) of the delayed rectifier potassium current with an IC(50) for tail block of 261 nM. Risperidone did not block I(Ks). Risperidone exerts cardiac electrophysiologic effects similar to those of Class III antiarrhythmic drugs. These effects are observed at clinically relevant concentrations. Because risperidone is metabolized primarily by CYP2D6, these actions likely enhance risk for risperidone-related QT prolongation and proarrhythmia in specific patient subsets (e.g., poor metabolizers and those taking interacting drugs).

  11. A role of stretch-activated potassium currents in the regulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Iain L O; Heyman, Nathanael; Wu, Yi-ying; Barnett, Scott; Ulrich, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Rates of premature birth are alarming and threaten societies and healthcare systems worldwide. Premature labor results in premature birth in over 50% of cases. Preterm birth accounts for three-quarters of infant morbidity and mortality. Children that survive birth before 34 weeks gestation often face life-long disability. Current treatments for preterm labor are wanting. No treatment has been found to be generally effective and none are systematically evaluated beyond 48 h. New approaches to the treatment of preterm labor are desperately needed. Recent studies from our laboratory suggest that the uterine muscle is a unique compartment with regulation of uterine relaxation unlike that of other smooth muscles. Here we discuss recent evidence that the mechanically activated 2-pore potassium channel, TREK-1, may contribute to contraction-relaxation signaling in uterine smooth muscle and that TREK-1 gene variants associated with human labor and preterm labor may lead to a better understanding of preterm labor and its possible prevention. PMID:21642947

  12. Effects of Xinjining extract on inward rectifier potassium current in ventricular myocytes of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-jun; Wang, Guo-juan; Wang, Yong-xia; Pu, Jie-lin; Liu, Hong-jun; Yu, Hai-bin

    2010-02-01

    To study the effect of Xinjining extract (, XJN) on inward rectifier potassium current (I(K1)) in ventricular myocyte (VMC) of guinea pigs and its anti-arrhythmic mechanism on ion channel level. Single VMC was enzymatically isolated by zymolisis, and whole-cell patch clamp recording technique was used to record the I(k1) in VMC irrigated with XJN of different concentrations (1.25, 2.50, 5.00 g/L; six samples for each). The stable current and conductance of the inward component of I(K1) as well as the outward component of peak I(K1) and conductance of it accordingly was recorded when the test voltage was set on -110 mV. The suppressive rate of XJN on the inward component of I(K1) was 9.54% + or - 5.81%, 34.82% + or - 15.03%, and 59.52% + or - 25.58% with a concentration of 1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 g/L, respectively, and that for the outward component of peak I(K1) was 23.94% + or - 7.45%, 52.98% + or - 19.62%, and 71.42% + or - 23.01%, respectively (all P<0.05). Moreover, different concentrations of XJN also showed effects for reducing I(K1) conductance. XJN has inhibitory effect on I(K1) in guinea pig's VMC, and that of the same concentration shows stronger inhibition on outward component than on inward component, which may be one of the mechanisms of its anti-arrhythmic effect.

  13. Cardiac transient outward potassium current: a pulse chemistry model of frequency-dependent properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Krinsky, V I; Grant, A O; Starmer, C F

    1996-01-01

    Recent voltage-clamp studies of isolated myocytes have demonstrated widespread occurrence of a transient outward current (I(to)) carried by potassium ions. In the canine ventricle, this current is well developed in epicardial cells but not in endocardial cells. The resultant spatial dispersion of refractoriness is potentially proarrhythmic and may be amplified by channel blockade. The inactivation and recovery time constants of this channel are in excess of several hundred milliseconds, and consequently channel availability is frequency dependent at physiological stimulation rates. When the time constants associated with transitions between different channel conformations are rapid relative to drug binding kinetics, the interactions between drugs and an ion channel can be approximated by a sequence of first-order reactions, in which binding occurs in pulses in response to pulse train stimulation (pulse chemistry). When channel conformation transition time constants do not meet this constraint, analytical characterizations of the drug-channel interaction must then be modified to reflect the channel time-dependent properties. Here we report that the rate and steady-state amount of frequency-dependent inactivation of I(to) are consistent with a generalization of the channel blockade model: channel availability is reduced in a pulsatile exponential pattern as the stimulation frequency is increased, and the rate of reduction is a linear function of the pulse train depolarizing and recovery intervals. I(to) was reduced in the presence of quinidine. After accounting for the use-dependent availability of I(to) channels, we found little evidence of an additional use-dependent component of block after exposure to quinidine, suggesting that quinidine reacts with both open and closed I(to) channels as though the binding site is continuously accessible. The model provides a useful tool for assessing drug-channel interactions when the reaction cannot be continuously monitored.

  14. Chlorogenic acid alters the voltage-gated potassium channel currents of trigeminal ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Song, Ning; Kou, Liang; Wu, Min-Ke; Liu, Fei; Wang, Hang; Shen, Jie-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, CGA) is a phenolic compound that is found ubiquitously in plants, fruits and vegetables and is formed via the esterification of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In addition to its notable biological functions against cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and inflammatory conditions, CGA was recently hypothesized to be an alternative for the treatment of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and neuropathic pain disorders. However, its mechanism of action is unclear. Voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) is a crucial factor in the electro-physiological processes of sensory neurons. Kv has also been identified as a potential therapeutic target for inflammation and neuropathic pain disorders. In this study, we analysed the effects of CGA on the two main subtypes of Kv in trigeminal ganglion neurons, namely, the IK,A and IK,V channels. Trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons were acutely disassociated from the rat TRG, and two different doses of CGA (0.2 and 1 mmol⋅L−1) were applied to the cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to observe alterations in the activation and inactivation properties of the IK,A and IK,V channels. The results demonstrated that 0.2 mmol⋅L−1 CGA decreased the peak current density of IK,A. Both 0.2 mmol⋅L−1 and 1 mmol⋅L−1 CGA also caused a significant reduction in the activation and inactivation thresholds of IK,A and IK,V. CGA exhibited a strong effect on the activation and inactivation velocities of IK,A and IK,V. These findings provide novel evidence explaining the biological effects of CGA, especially regarding its neurological effects. PMID:25394592

  15. Tonic dopamine induces persistent changes in the transient potassium current through translational regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, EW; Krenz, W-D; Baro, DJ

    2012-01-01

    Neuromodulatory effects can vary with their mode of transmission. Phasic release produces local and transient increases in dopamine (DA) up to micromolar concentrations. Additionally, since DA is released from open synapses and reuptake mechanisms are not nearby, tonic nanomolar DA exists in the extracellular space. Do phasic and tonic transmissions similarly regulate voltage dependent ionic conductances in a given neuron? It was previously shown that DA could immediately alter the transient potassium current (IA) of identified neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus. Here we show that DA can also persistently alter IA, and that DA’s immediate and persistent effects oppose one another. The lateral pyloric neuron (LP) exclusively expresses type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs). Micromolar DA produces immediate depolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of LP IA, whereas tonic nanomolar DA produces a persistent increase in LP IA maximal conductance (Gmax) through a translation dependent mechanism involving target of rapamycin (TOR). The pyloric dilator neuron (PD) exclusively expresses type 2 DA receptors (D2Rs). Micromolar DA produces an immediate hyperpolarizing shift in PD IA voltage dependence of activation, whereas tonic DA persistently decreases PD IA Gmax through a translation dependent mechanism not involving TOR. The persistent effects on IA Gmax do not depend on LP or PD activity. These data suggest a role for tonic modulators in the regulation of voltage gated ion channel number; and furthermore, that dopaminergic systems may be organized to limit the amount of change they can impose on a circuit. PMID:21917788

  16. Aldosterone down-regulates the slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium current in adult guinea pig cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yankun; Bai, Song; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Hongxue; Meng, Jing; Li, Li; Xu, Yanfang

    2015-12-01

    There is emerging evidence that the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone is associated with arrhythmias in cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of aldosterone on the slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium current (IK s ) remains poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the modulation of IK s by aldosterone. Adult guinea pigs were treated with aldosterone for 28 days via osmotic pumps. Standard glass microelectrode recordings and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to record action potentials in papillary muscles and IK s in ventricular cardiomyocytes. The aldosterone-treated animals exhibited a prolongation of the QT interval and action potential duration with a higher incidence of early afterdepolarizations. Patch-clamp recordings showed a significant down-regulation of IK s density in the ventricular myocytes of these treated animals. These aldosterone-induced electrophysiological changes were fully prevented by a combined treatment with spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist. In addition, in in vitro cultured ventricular cardiomyocytes, treatment with aldosterone (sustained exposure for 24 h) decreased the IK s density in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, a significant corresponding reduction in the mRNA/protein expression of IKs channel pore and auxiliary subunits, KCNQ1 and KCNE1 was detected in ventricular tissue from the aldosterone-treated animals. Aldosterone down-regulates IK s by inhibiting the expression of KCNQ1 and KCNE1, thus delaying the ventricular repolarization. These results provide new insights into the mechanism underlying K(+) channel remodelling in heart disease and may explain the highly beneficial effects of MR antagonists in HF. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Altered expression and localization of hippocampal A-type potassium channel subunits in the pilocarpine-induced model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, M M; Menegola, M; Vacher, H; Rhodes, K J; Trimmer, J S

    2008-10-15

    Altered ion channel expression and/or function may contribute to the development of certain human epilepsies. In rats, systemic administration of pilocarpine induces a model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, wherein a brief period of status epilepticus (SE) triggers development of spontaneous recurrent seizures that appear after a latency of 2-3 weeks. Here we investigate changes in expression of A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, which control neuronal excitability and regulate action potential propagation and neurotransmitter release, in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of component subunits of somatodendritic (Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIPl and KChIP2) and axonal (Kv1.4) A-type Kv channels in hippocampi of pilocarpine-treated rats that entered SE. We found that Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and KChIP2 staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus changes from being uniformly distributed across the molecular layer to concentrated in just the outer two-thirds. We also observed a loss of KChIP1 immunoreactive interneurons, and a reduction of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 staining in stratum radiatum of CA1. These changes begin to appear 1 week after pilocarpine treatment and persist or are enhanced at 4 and 12 weeks. As such, these changes in Kv channel distribution parallel the acquisition of recurrent spontaneous seizures as observed in this model. We also found temporal changes in Kv1.4 immunoreactivity matching those in Timm's stain, being expanded in stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer. Among pilocarpine-treated rats, changes were only observed in those that entered SE. These changes in A-type Kv channel expression may contribute to hyperexcitability of dendrites in the associated hippocampal circuits as observed in previous studies of the effects of pilocarpine-induced SE.

  18. Effect of potassium fertilizer application on the yield and quality of current sugarcane varieties in Louisiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For many sugarcane producers in Louisiana the only fertilizer that is routinely applied to their crop is nitrogen that is side-dressed in the spring. This is due, primarily to the high cost of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers. Recent cooperative research conducted between the USDA/ARS Sugarcane ...

  19. Solution structure for Pandinus toxin K-alpha (PiTX-K alpha), a selective blocker of A-type potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Tenenholz, T C; Rogowski, R S; Collins, J H; Blaustein, M P; Weber, D J

    1997-03-11

    PiTX-K alpha, a 35-residue peptide recently isolated from the venom of Pandinus imperator, blocks the rapidly inactivating (A-type) K+ channel(s) in rat brain synaptosomes and the cloned Kv 1.2 potassium channel at very low toxin concentrations (6 nM and 32 pM, respectively) [Rogowski, R. S., Collins, J. H., O'Neil, T. J., Gustafson, T. A., Werkman, T. A., Rogawski, M. A., Tenenholz, T. C., Weber, D. J., & Blaustein, M. P. (1996) Mol. Pharmacol. 50, 1167-1177]. The three-dimensional structure of PiTX-K alpha was determined using NMR spectroscopy in order to understand its selectivity and affinity toward K+ channels. PiTX-K alpha was found to have an alpha-helix from residues 10 to 21 and two beta-strands (betaI, 26-28; betaII, 33-35) connected by a type II beta-turn to form a small antiparallel beta-sheet. Three disulfide bonds, which are conserved in all members of the charybdotoxin family (alpha-K toxins), anchor one face of the alpha-helix to the beta-sheet. The N-terminal portion of PiTX-K alpha has three fewer residues than other alpha-K toxins such as charybdotoxin. Rather than forming a third beta-strand as found for other alpha-K toxins, the N-terminal region of PiTX-K alpha adopts an extended conformation. This structural difference in PiTX-K alpha together with differences in sequence at Pro-10, Tyr-14, and Asn-25 (versus Ser-10, Trp-14, and Arg-25 in CTX) may explain why PiTX-K alpha does not block maxi-K+ channels. Differences in three-dimensional structure between PiTX-K alpha and charybdotoxin are also observed in both the tight turn and the loop that connects the first beta-strand to the alpha-helix. As a result, side chains of two residues (Tyr-23 and Arg-31) are in regions of PiTX-K alpha that probably interact with rapidly inactivating A-type K+ channels. The analogous residues in charybdotoxin are positioned differently on the toxin surface. Thus, the locations of Tyr-23 and Arg-31 side chains in PiTX-K alpha could explain why this toxin blocks A-type

  20. Amyloid beta peptide as a physiological modulator of neuronal 'A'-type K+ current.

    PubMed

    Plant, Leigh D; Webster, Nicola J; Boyle, John P; Ramsden, Martin; Freir, Darragh B; Peers, Chris; Pearson, Hugh A

    2006-11-01

    Control of neuronal spiking patterns resides, in part, in the type and degree of expression of voltage-gated K(+) channel subunits. Previous studies have revealed that soluble forms of the Alzheimer's disease associated amyloid beta protein (Abeta) can increase the 'A'-type current in neurones. In this study, we define the molecular basis for this increase and show that endogenous production of Abeta is important in the modulation of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 subunit expression in central neurones. A-type K(+) currents, and Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 subunit expression, were transiently increased in cerebellar granule neurones by the 1-40 and 1-42 forms of Abeta (100nM, 2-24h). Currents through recombinant Kv4.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells were increased in a similar fashion to those through the native channels. Increases in 'A'-type current could be prevented by the use of cycloheximide and brefeldin A, indicating that protein expression and trafficking processes were altered by Abeta, rather than protein degredation. Endogenous Abeta production in cerebellar granule neurones was blocked using inhibitors of either gamma- or beta-secretase and resulted in decreased K(+) current. Crucially this could be prevented by co-application of exogenous Abeta (1nM), however, no change in Kv4.2 or Kv4.3 subunit expression occurred. These data show that Abeta is a modulator of Kv4 subunit expression in neurones at both the functional and the molecular level. Thus Abeta is not only involved in Alzheimer pathology, but is also an important physiological regulator of ion channel expression and hence neuronal excitability.

  1. Altered Expression and Localization of Hippocampal A-Type Potassium Channel Subunits in the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Michael M.; Menegola, Milena; Vacher, Helene; Rhodes, Kenneth J.; Trimmer, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Altered ion channel expression and/or function may contribute to the development of certain human epilepsies. In rats, systemic administration of pilocarpine induces a model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, wherein a brief period of status epilepticus (SE) triggers development of spontaneous recurrent seizures that appear after a latency of two-three weeks. Here we investigate changes in expression of A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, which control neuronal excitability and regulate action potential propagation and neurotransmitter release, in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of component subunits of somatodendritic (Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIPl and KChIP2) and axonal (Kv1.4) A-type Kv channels in hippocampi of pilocarpine-treated rats that entered SE. We found that Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and KChIP2 staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus changes from being uniformly distributed across the molecular layer to concentrated in just the outer two-thirds. We also observed a loss of KChIP1 immunoreactive interneurons, and a reduction of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 staining in stratum radiatum of CA1. These changes begin to appear 1 week after pilocarpine treatment and persist or are enhanced at 4 and 12 weeks. As such, these changes in Kv channel distribution parallel the acquisition of recurrent spontaneous seizures as observed in this model. We also found temporal changes in Kv1.4 immunoreactivity matching those in Timm's stain, being expanded in stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer. Among pilocarpine-treated rats, changes were only observed in those that entered SE. These changes in A-type Kv channel expression may contribute to hyperexcitability of dendrites in the associated hippocampal circuits as observed in previous studies of the effects of pilocarpine-induced SE. PMID:18727953

  2. Ethanol Effects on Dopaminergic Ventral Tegmental Area Neurons During Block of Ih: Involvement of Barium-Sensitive Potassium Currents

    PubMed Central

    McDaid, John; McElvain, Maureen A.; Brodie, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    The dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (DA VTA neurons) are important for the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol. Ethanol increases the firing frequency of DA VTA neurons from rats and mice. Because of a recent report on block of ethanol excitation in mouse DA VTA neurons with ZD7288, a selective blocker of the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current Ih, we examined the effect of ZD7288 on ethanol excitation in DA VTA neurons from C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mice and Fisher 344 rats. Ethanol (80 mM) caused only increases in firing rate in mouse DA VTA neurons in the absence of ZD7288, but in the presence of ZD7288 (30 μM), ethanol produced a more transient excitation followed by a decrease of firing. This same biphasic phenomenon was observed in DA VTA neurons from rats in the presence of ZD7288 only at very high ethanol concentrations (160–240 mM) but not at lower pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The longer latency ethanol-induced inhibition was not observed in DA VTA neurons from mice or rats in the presence of barium (100 μM), which blocks G protein–linked potassium channels (GIRKs) and other inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Ethanol may have a direct effect to increase an inhibitory potassium conductance, but this effect of ethanol can only decrease the firing rate if Ih is blocked. PMID:18614756

  3. Biophysical characterization and functional consequences of a slowly inactivating potassium current in neostriatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gabel, L A; Nisenbaum, E S

    1998-04-01

    Neostriatal spiny projection neurons can display a pronounced delay in their transition to action potential discharge that is mediated by a slowly developing ramp depolarization. The possible contribution of a slowly inactivating A-type K+ current (IAs) to this delayed excitation was investigated by studying the biophysical and functional properties of IAs using whole cell voltage- and current-clamp recording from acutely isolated neostriatal neurons. Isolation of IAs from other voltage-gated, calcium-independent K+ currents was achieved through selective blockade of IAs with low concentrations (10 microM) of the benzazepine derivative, 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl- 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepine (APB; SKF82958) and subsequent current subtraction. Examination of the voltage dependence of activation showed that IAs began to flow at approximately -60 mV in response to depolarization. The voltage dependence of inactivation revealed that approximately 50% of IAs channels were available at the normal resting potential (-80 mV) of these cells, but that only 20% of the channels were available at membrane potentials corresponding to spike threshold (about -40 mV). At these depolarized membrane potentials, the rate of activation was moderately rapid (tau approximately 60 ms), whereas the rate of inactivation was slow (tau approximately 1.5 s). The time course of removal of inactivation of IAs at -80 mV also was relatively slow (tau approximately 1.0 s). The subthreshold availability of IAs combined with its rapid activation and slow inactivation rates suggested that this current should be capable of dampening the onset of prolonged depolarizing responses, but over time its efficacy should diminish, slowly permitting the membrane to depolarize toward spike threshold. Voltage recording experiments confirmed this hypothesis by demonstrating that application of APB at a concentration (10 microM) that selectively blocks IAs substantially decreased the latency to

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhetinic Acid on the Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes and HERG Channel

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Delin; Jiang, Linqing; Wu, Hongjin; Wang, Shengqi; Zheng, Sidao; Yang, Jiyuan; Liu, Yuna; Ren, Jianxun; Chen, Xianbing

    2013-01-01

    Background. Licorice has long been used to treat many ailments including cardiovascular disorders in China. Recent studies have shown that the cardiac actions of licorice can be attributed to its active component, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). However, the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Aim. The effects of GA on the delayed rectifier potassium current (I K), the rapidly activating (I Kr) and slowly activating (I Ks) components of I K, and the HERG K+ channel expressed in HEK-293 cells were investigated. Materials and Methods. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from guinea pig myocardium using enzymolysis. The wild type HERG gene was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Whole-cell patch clamping was used to record I K (I Kr, I Ks) and the HERG K+ current. Results. GA (1, 5, and 10 μM) inhibited I K (I Kr, I Ks) and the HERG K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion. GA significantly inhibited the potassium currents in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner, suggesting that it exerts its antiarrhythmic action through the prolongation of APD and ERP owing to the inhibition of I K (I Kr, I Ks) and HERG K+ channel. PMID:24069049

  5. Loss of Functional A-Type Potassium Channels in the Dendrites of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons from a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Routh, Brandy N.; Johnston, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Despite the critical importance of voltage-gated ion channels in neurons, very little is known about their functional properties in Fragile X syndrome: the most common form of inherited cognitive impairment. Using three complementary approaches, we investigated the physiological role of A-type K+ currents (IKA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from fmr1-/y mice. Direct measurement of IKA using cell-attached patch-clamp recordings revealed that there was significantly less IKA in the dendrites of CA1 neurons from fmr1-/y mice. Interestingly, the midpoint of activation for A-type K+ channels was hyperpolarized for fmr1-/y neurons compared with wild-type, which might partially compensate for the lower current density. Because of the rapid time course for recovery from steady-state inactivation, the dendritic A-type K+ current in CA1 neurons from both wild-type and fmr1-/y mice is likely mediated by KV4 containing channels. The net effect of the differences in IKA was that back-propagating action potentials had larger amplitudes producing greater calcium influx in the distal dendrites of fmr1-/y neurons. Furthermore, CA1 pyramidal neurons from fmr1-/y mice had a lower threshold for LTP induction. These data suggest that loss of IKA in hippocampal neurons may contribute to dendritic pathophysiology in Fragile X syndrome. PMID:24336711

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on the Slowly Activating Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenhao; Xing, Wenlu; Gao, Chuanyu; Wang, Xianpei; Qi, Datun; Dai, Guoyou; Zhao, Wen; Yan, Ganxin

    2018-01-26

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exerts a number of beneficial effects on ischemic myocardium via its angiogenic properties. However, little is known about whether VEGF has a direct effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different concentrations of VEGF on delayed rectifier potassium currents (I K ) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes and their effects on action potential (AP) parameters. I K and AP were recorded by the whole-cell patch clamp method in ventricular myocytes. Cells were superfused with control solution or solution containing VEGF at different concentrations for 10 minutes before recording. Some ventricular myocytes were pretreated with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor for 1 hour before the addition of VEGF. We found that VEGF inhibited the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I K s ) in a concentration-dependent manner (18.13±1.04 versus 12.73±0.34, n=5, P =0.001; 12.73±0.34 versus 9.05±1.20, n=5, P =0.036) and prolonged AP duration (894.5±36.92 versus 746.3±33.71, n=5, P =0.021). Wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, eliminated these VEGF-induced effects. VEGF had no significant effect on the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I K r ), resting membrane potential, AP amplitude, or maximal velocity of depolarization. VEGF inhibited I K s in a concentration-dependent manner through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated signaling pathway, leading to AP prolongation. The results indicate a promising therapeutic potential of VEGF in prevention of ventricular tachyarrhythmias under conditions of high sympathetic activity and ischemia. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. VEGF attenuated increase of outward delayed-rectifier potassium currents in hippocampal neurons induced by focal ischemia via PI3-K pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, K W; Yang, P; Li, S S; Liu, C W; Sun, F Y

    2015-07-09

    We recently indicated that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protects neurons against hypoxic death via enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.2, an isoform of the delayed-rectifier potassium channels through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling pathway. The present study investigated whether VEGF could attenuate ischemia-induced increase of the potassium currents in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons of rats after ischemic injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to induce brain ischemia. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the potassium currents of hippocampal neurons in brain slices from the ischemically injured brains of the rats 24h after MCAO. We detected that transient MCAO caused a significant increase of voltage-gated potassium currents (Kv) and outward delayed-rectifier potassium currents (IK), but not outward transient potassium currents (IA), in the ipsilateral hippocampus compared with the sham. Moreover, we found that VEGF could acutely, reversibly and voltage-dependently inhibit the ischemia-induced IK increase. This inhibitory effect of VEGF could be completely abolished by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-K. Our data indicate that VEGF attenuates the ischemia-induced increase of IK via activation of the PI3-K signaling pathway. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Delayed Rectifier and A-Type Potassium Channels Associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 Expression in Embryonic Rat Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dean O.; Rosenheimer, Julie L.; Kalil, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Because of the importance of voltage-activated K+ channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and βIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K+ currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells. PMID:18270591

  9. Delayed rectifier and A-type potassium channels associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 expression in embryonic rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean O; Rosenheimer, Julie L; Kalil, Ronald E

    2008-02-13

    Because of the importance of voltage-activated K(+) channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and betaIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K(+) currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells.

  10. Short- and long-term inhibition of cardiac inward-rectifier potassium channel current by an antiarrhythmic drug bepridil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fangfang; Takanari, Hiroki; Masuda, Kimiko; Morishima, Masaki; Ono, Katsushige

    2016-07-01

    Bepridil is an effective antiarrhythmic drug on supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, and inhibitor of calmodulin. Recent investigations have been elucidating that bepridil exerts antiarrhythmic effects through its acute and chronic application for patients. The aim of this study was to identify the efficacy and the potential mechanism of bepridil on the inward-rectifier potassium channel in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in acute- and long-term conditions. Bepridil inhibited inward-rectifier potassium current (I K1) as a short-term effect with IC50 of 17 μM. Bepridil also reduced I K1 of neonatal cardiomyocytes when applied for 24 h in the culture medium with IC50 of 2.7 μM. Both a calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) and an inhibitor of calmodulin-kinase II (KN93) reduced I K1 when applied for 24 h as a long-term effect in the same fashion, suggesting that the long-term application of bepridil inhibits I K1 more potently than that of the short-term application through the inhibition of calmodulin kinase II pathway in cardiomyocytes.

  11. [Current Perspective on Voltage-gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibody Associated Diseases].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2018-04-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex auto-antibodies were initially identified in Isaacs' syndrome (IS), which is characterized by muscle cramps and neuromyotonia. These antibodies were subsequently identified in patients with Morvan's syndrome (MoS), which includes IS in conjunction with psychosis, insomnia, and dysautonomia. The antibodies have also been detected in a patient with limbic encephalopathy (LE) presenting with prominent amnesia and frequent seizures. Typical cases of LE have adult-onset, with frequent, brief dystonic seizures that predominantly affect the arms and ipsilateral face, and has recently been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Autoantibodies against the extracellular domains of VGKC complex proteins, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), and contactin-associated protein-2 (Caspr2), occur in patients with IS, MoS, and LE. However, routine testing has detected VGKC complex antibodies without LGI1 or Caspr2 reactivities (double-negative) in patients with other diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, double-negative VGKC complex antibodies are often directed against cytosolic epitopes of Kv1 subunits. Therefore, these antibodies should no longer be classified as neuronal-surface antibodies and lacking pathogenic potential. Novel information has been generated regarding autoantibody disruption of the physiological functions of target proteins. LGI1 antibodies neutralize the interaction between LGI1 and ADAM22, thereby reducing the synaptic AMPA receptors. It may be that the main action is on inhibitory neurons, explaining why the loss of AMPA receptors causes amnesia, neuronal excitability and seizures.

  12. NO involvement in the inhibition of ghrelin on voltage-dependent potassium currents in rat hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong; Dang, Shaokang; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Junli; Zhang, Lin; Su, Qian; Zhang, Huiping; Lin, Tianwei; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yurong; Sun, Hongli; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that plays an important role in promoting appetite, regulating distribution and rate of use of energy, cognition, and mood disorders, but the relevant neural mechanisms of these function are still not clear. In this study, we examined the effect of ghrelin on voltage-dependent potassium (K + ) currents in hippocampal cells of 1-3 days SD rats by whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and discussed whether NO was involved in this process. The results showed that ghrelin significantly inhibited the voltage-dependent K + currents in hippocampal cells, and the inhibitory effect was more significant when l-arginine was co-administered. In contrast, N-nitro- l-arginine methyl ester increased the ghrelin inhibited K + currents and attenuated the inhibitory effect of ghrelin. While d-arginine (D-AA) showed no significant impact on the ghrelin-induced decrease in K + current. These results show that ghrelin may play a physiological role by inhibiting hippocampal voltage dependent K + currents, and the NO pathway may be involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Weighing the evidence for a ternary protein complex mediating A-type K+ currents in neurons.

    PubMed

    Maffie, Jonathon; Rudy, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    The subthreshold-operating A-type K(+) current in neurons (I(SA)) has important roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, the timing of action potential firing and synaptic integration and plasticity. The channels mediating this current (Kv4 channels) have been implicated in epilepsy, the control of dopamine release, and the regulation of pain plasticity. It has been proposed that Kv4 channels in neurons are ternary complexes of three types of protein: pore forming subunits of the Kv4 subfamily and two types of auxiliary subunits, the Ca(2+) binding proteins KChIPs and the dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs) DPP6 (also known as DPPX) and DPP10 (4 molecules of each per channel for a total of 12 proteins in the complex). Here we consider the evidence supporting this hypothesis. Kv4 channels in many neurons are likely to be ternary complexes of these three types of protein. KChIPs and DPPLs are required to efficiently traffic Kv4 channels to the plasma membrane and regulate the functional properties of the channels. These proteins may also be important in determining the localization of the channels to specific neuronal compartments, their dynamics, and their response to neuromodulators. A surprisingly large number of additional proteins have been shown to modify Kv4 channels in heterologous expression systems, but their association with native Kv4 channels in neurons has not been properly validated. A critical consideration of the evidence suggests that it is unlikely that association of Kv4 channels with these additional proteins is widespread in the CNS. However, we cannot exclude that some of these proteins may associate with the channels transiently or in specific neurons or neuronal compartments, or that they may associate with the channels in other tissues.

  14. 78 FR 67015 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by Agusta Westland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by Agusta Westland) Helicopters AGENCY... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-22-16 Agusta S.P.A. (Type... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Agusta S.p.A. (Agusta) Model AW139 helicopters. This AD...

  15. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  16. Selective suppression of the slow-inactivating potassium currents by nootropics in molluscan neurons.

    PubMed

    Bukanova, Julia V; Solntseva, Elena I; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2002-09-01

    The role of the voltage-gated K+ channels in the effect of some nootropics was investigated. Earlier, the multiple effect of high concentrations of two nootropics, piracetam and its peptide analogue GVS-111 [Seredenin et al. (1995), US Patent No. 5,439,930], on Ca2+ and K+ currents of molluscan neurons was shown [Solntseva et al. (1997), General Pharmacology 29, 85-89]. In the present work, we describe the selective effect of low concentrations of these nootropics as well as vinpocetine on certain types of K+ current. The experiments were performed on isolated neurons of the land snail Helix pomatia using a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp method. The inward voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa) and three subtypes of the outward voltage-gated K+ current were recorded: Ca2+-dependent K+ current (IK(Ca)), delayed rectifying current (IKD), and fast-inactivating K+ current (IA). It has been found that I Ca was not changed in the presence of 30 microM vinpocetine, 100 microM piracetam or 10 nM GVS-111, while slow-inactivating, TEA-sensitive IK(Ca) and IKD were inhibited (IK(Ca) more strongly than IKD). In contrast, the fast-inactivating, 4-AP-sensitive K+ current (IA) was not diminished by low concentrations of piracetam and GVS-111, while vinpocetine even augmented it. A possible role of slow-inactivating subtypes of the K+ channels in the development of different forms of dementia is discussed.

  17. Contribution of delayed rectifier potassium currents to the electrical activity of murine colonic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Koh, S D; Ward, S M; Dick, G M; Epperson, A; Bonner, H P; Sanders, K M; Horowitz, B; Kenyon, J L

    1999-01-01

    We used intracellular microelectrodes to record the membrane potential (Vm) of intact murine colonic smooth muscle. Electrical activity consisted of spike complexes separated by quiescent periods (Vm≈−60 mV). The spike complexes consisted of about a dozen action potentials of approximately 30 mV amplitude. Tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1–10 mM) had little effect on the quiescent periods but increased the amplitude of the action potential spikes. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, ⋧ 5 mM) caused continuous spiking.Voltage clamp of isolated myocytes identified delayed rectifier K+ currents that activated rapidly (time to half-maximum current, 11.5 ms at 0 mV) and inactivated in two phases (τf = 96 ms, τs = 1.5 s at 0 mV). The half-activation voltage of the permeability was −27 mV, with significant activation at −50 mV.TEA (10 mM) reduced the outward current at potentials positive to 0 mV. 4-AP (5 mM) reduced the early current but increased outward current at later times (100–500 ms) consistent with block of resting channels relieved by depolarization. 4-AP inhibited outward current at potentials negative to −20 mV, potentials where TEA had no effect.Qualitative PCR amplification of mRNA identified transcripts encoding delayed rectifier K+ channel subunits Kv1.6, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and the Kvβ1.1 subunit in murine colon myocytes. mRNA encoding Kv 1.4 was not detected.We find that TEA-sensitive delayed rectifier currents are important determinants of action potential amplitude but not rhythmicity. Delayed rectifier currents sensitive to 4-AP are important determinants of rhythmicity but not action potential amplitude. PMID:10050014

  18. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O 2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  19. Duration differences of corticostriatal responses in striatal projection neurons depend on calcium activated potassium currents

    PubMed Central

    Arias-García, Mario A.; Tapia, Dagoberto; Flores-Barrera, Edén; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús E.; Bargas, José; Galarraga, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    The firing of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) exhibits afterhyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) that determine discharge frequency. They are in part generated by Ca2+-activated K+-currents involving BK and SK components. It has previously been shown that suprathreshold corticostriatal responses are more prolonged and evoke more action potentials in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs) than in indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs). In contrast, iSPNs generate dendritic autoregenerative responses. Using whole cell recordings in brain slices, we asked whether the participation of Ca2+-activated K+-currents plays a role in these responses. Secondly, we asked if these currents may explain some differences in synaptic integration between dSPNs and iSPNs. Neurons obtained from BAC D1 and D2 GFP mice were recorded. We used charybdotoxin and apamin to block BK and SK channels, respectively. Both antagonists increased the depolarization and delayed the repolarization of suprathreshold corticostriatal responses in both neuron classes. We also used NS 1619 and NS 309 (CyPPA), to enhance BK and SK channels, respectively. Current enhancers hyperpolarized and accelerated the repolarization of corticostriatal responses in both neuron classes. Nevertheless, these drugs made evident that the contribution of Ca2+-activated K+-currents was different in dSPNs as compared to iSPNs: in dSPNs their activation was slower as though calcium took a diffusion delay to activate them. In contrast, their activation was fast and then sustained in iSPNs as though calcium flux activates them at the moment of entry. The blockade of Ca2+-activated K+-currents made iSPNs to look as dSPNs. Conversely, their enhancement made dSPNs to look as iSPNs. It is concluded that Ca2+-activated K+-currents are a main intrinsic determinant causing the differences in synaptic integration between corticostriatal polysynaptic responses between dSPNs and iSPNs. PMID:24109439

  20. Differential roles of two delayed rectifier potassium currents in regulation of ventricular action potential duration and arrhythmia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Devenyi, Ryan A; Ortega, Francis A; Groenendaal, Willemijn; Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J; Sobie, Eric A

    2017-04-01

    Arrhythmias result from disruptions to cardiac electrical activity, although the factors that control cellular action potentials are incompletely understood. We combined mathematical modelling with experiments in heart cells from guinea pigs to determine how cellular electrical activity is regulated. A mismatch between modelling predictions and the experimental results allowed us to construct an improved, more predictive mathematical model. The balance between two particular potassium currents dictates how heart cells respond to perturbations and their susceptibility to arrhythmias. Imbalances of ionic currents can destabilize the cardiac action potential and potentially trigger lethal cardiac arrhythmias. In the present study, we combined mathematical modelling with information-rich dynamic clamp experiments to determine the regulation of action potential morphology in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to predict how changes in ionic currents alter action potential duration, and these were tested experimentally using dynamic clamp, a technique that allows for multiple perturbations to be tested in each cell. Surprisingly, we found that a leading mathematical model, developed with traditional approaches, systematically underestimated experimental responses to dynamic clamp perturbations. We then re-parameterized the model using a genetic algorithm, which allowed us to estimate ionic current levels in each of the cells studied. This unbiased model adjustment consistently predicted an increase in the rapid delayed rectifier K + current and a drastic decrease in the slow delayed rectifier K + current, and this prediction was validated experimentally. Subsequent simulations with the adjusted model generated the clinically relevant prediction that the slow delayed rectifier is better able to stabilize the action potential and suppress pro-arrhythmic events than the rapid delayed rectifier. In summary, iterative coupling of

  1. Somatostatinergic modulation of firing pattern and calcium-activated potassium currents in medium spiny neostriatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Galarraga, E; Vilchis, C; Tkatch, T; Salgado, H; Tecuapetla, F; Perez-Rosello, T; Perez-Garci, E; Hernandez-Echeagaray, E; Surmeier, D J; Bargas, J

    2007-05-11

    Somatostatin is synthesized and released by aspiny GABAergic interneurons of the neostriatum, some of them identified as low threshold spike generating neurons (LTS-interneurons). These neurons make synaptic contacts with spiny neostriatal projection neurons. However, very few somatostatin actions on projection neurons have been described. The present work reports that somatostatin modulates the Ca(2+) activated K(+) currents (K(Ca) currents) expressed by projection cells. These actions contribute in designing the firing pattern of the spiny projection neuron; which is the output of the neostriatum. Small conductance (SK) and large conductance (BK) K(Ca) currents represent between 30% and 50% of the sustained outward current in spiny cells. Somatostatin reduces SK-type K(+) currents and at the same time enhances BK-type K(+) currents. This dual effect enhances the fast component of the after hyperpolarizing potential while reducing the slow component. Somatostatin then modifies the firing pattern of spiny neurons which changed from a tonic regular pattern to an interrupted "stuttering"-like pattern. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tissue expression analysis of dorsal striatal somatostatinergic receptors (SSTR) mRNA revealed that all five SSTR mRNAs are present. However, single cell RT-PCR profiling suggests that the most probable receptor in charge of this modulation is the SSTR2 receptor. Interestingly, aspiny interneurons may exhibit a "stuttering"-like firing pattern. Therefore, somatostatin actions appear to be the entrainment of projection neurons to the rhythms generated by some interneurons. Somatostatin is then capable of modifying the processing and output of the neostriatum.

  2. Zn2+ reduction induces neuronal death with changes in voltage-gated potassium and sodium channel currents.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun; He, Cong-Cong; Xu, Hui-Nan; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Gang; An, Di; Heng, Bin; Pang, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Gang; Liu, Yan-Qiang

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, cultured rat primary neurons were exposed to a medium containing N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), a specific cell membrane-permeant Zn 2+ chelator, to establish a model of free Zn 2+ deficiency in neurons. The effects of TPEN-mediated free Zn 2+ ion reduction on neuronal viability and on the performance of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and potassium channels (Kvs) were assessed. Free Zn 2+ deficiency 1) markedly reduced the neuronal survival rate, 2) reduced the peak amplitude of I Na , 3) shifted the I Na activation curve towards depolarization, 4) modulated the sensitivity of sodium channel voltage-dependent inactivation to a depolarization voltage, and 5) increased the time course of recovery from sodium channel inactivation. In addition, free Zn 2+ deficiency by TPEN notably enhanced the peak amplitude of transient outward K + currents (I A ) and delayed rectifier K + currents (I K ), as well as caused hyperpolarization and depolarization directional shifts in their steady-state activation curves, respectively. Zn 2+ supplementation reversed the effects induced by TPEN. Our results indicate that free Zn 2+ deficiency causes neuronal damage and alters the dynamic characteristics of VGSC and Kv currents. Thus, neuronal injury caused by free Zn 2+ deficiency may correlate with its modulation of the electrophysiological properties of VGSCs and Kvs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Microscopic origin of gating current fluctuations in a potassium channel voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Freites, J Alfredo; Schow, Eric V; White, Stephen H; Tobias, Douglas J

    2012-06-06

    Voltage-dependent ion channels open and close in response to changes in membrane electrical potential due to the motion of their voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). VSD charge displacements within the membrane electric field are observed in electrophysiology experiments as gating currents preceding ionic conduction. The elementary charge motions that give rise to the gating current cannot be observed directly, but appear as discrete current pulses that generate fluctuations in gating current measurements. Here we report direct observation of gating-charge displacements in an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of the isolated VSD from the KvAP channel in a hydrated lipid bilayer on the timescale (10-μs) expected for elementary gating charge transitions. The results reveal that gating-charge displacements are associated with the water-catalyzed rearrangement of salt bridges between the S4 arginines and a set of conserved acidic side chains on the S1-S3 transmembrane segments in the hydrated interior of the VSD. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Update on the slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Ks)): role in modulating cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2012-01-01

    The slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) is the slow component of cardiac delayed rectifier current and is critical for the late phase repolarization of cardiac action potential. This current is also an important target for Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) to regulate the cardiac electivity to accommodate to heart rate alterations in response to exercise or emotional stress and can be up-regulated by β- adrenergic or other signal molecules. I(Ks) channel is originated by the co-assembly of pore-forming KCNQ1 α-subunit and accessory KCNE1 β-subunit. Mutations in any subunit can bring about severe long QT syndrome (LQT-1, LQT-5) as characterized by deliquium, seizures and sudden death. This review summarizes the normal physiological functions and molecular basis of I(Ks) channels, as well as illustrates up-to-date development on its blockers and activators. Therefore, the current extensive survey should generate fundamental understanding of the role of I(Ks) channel in modulating cardiac function and donate some instructions to the progression of I(Ks) blockers and activators as potential antiarrhythmic agents or pharmacological tools to determine the physiological and pathological function of I(Ks).

  5. Photoperiod Modulates Fast Delayed Rectifier Potassium Currents in the Mammalian Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Farajnia, Sahar; Meijer, Johanna H; Michel, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    One feature of the mammalian circadian clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is its ability to measure day length and thereby contribute to the seasonal adaptation of physiology and behavior. The timing signal from the SCN, namely the 24 hr pattern of electrical activity, is adjusted according to the photoperiod being broader in long days and narrower in short days. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and gamma-aminobutyric acid play a crucial role in intercellular communication within the SCN and contribute to the seasonal changes in phase distribution. However, little is known about the underlying ionic mechanisms of synchronization. The present study was aimed to identify cellular mechanisms involved in seasonal encoding by the SCN. Mice were adapted to long-day (light-dark 16:8) and short-day (light-dark 8:16) photoperiods and membrane properties as well as K + currents activity of SCN neurons were measured using patch-clamp recordings in acute slices. Remarkably, we found evidence for a photoperiodic effect on the fast delayed rectifier K + current, that is, the circadian modulation of this ion channel's activation reversed in long days resulting in 50% higher peak values during the night compared with the unaltered day values. Consistent with fast delayed rectifier enhancement, duration of action potentials during the night was shortened and afterhyperpolarization potentials increased in amplitude and duration. The slow delayed rectifier, transient K + currents, and membrane excitability were not affected by photoperiod. We conclude that photoperiod can change intrinsic ion channel properties of the SCN neurons, which may influence cellular communication and contribute to photoperiodic phase adjustment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Effects of KCNQ2 gene truncation on M-type Kv7 potassium currents.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Jon; Passmore, Gayle M; Abogadie, Fe C; Reilly, Joanne M; Brown, David A

    2013-01-01

    The KCNQ2 gene product, Kv7.2, is a subunit of the M-channel, a low-threshold voltage-gated K(+) channel that regulates mammalian and human neuronal excitability. Spontaneous mutations one of the KCNQ2 genes cause disorders of neural excitability such as Benign Familial Neonatal Seizures. However there appear to be no reports in which both human KCNQ2 genes are mutated. We therefore asked what happens to M-channel function when both KCNQ2 genes are disrupted. We addressed this using sympathetic neurons isolated from mice in which the KCNQ2 gene was truncated at a position corresponding to the second transmembrane domain of the Kv7.2 protein. Since homozygote KCNQ2-/- mice die postnatally, experiments were largely restricted to neurons from late embryos. Quantitative PCR revealed an absence of KCNQ2 mRNA in ganglia from KCNQ2-/- embryos but 100-120% increase of KCNQ3 and KCNQ5 mRNAs; KCNQ2+/- ganglia showed ∼30% less KCNQ2 mRNA than wild-type (+/+) ganglia but 40-50% more KCNQ3 and KCNQ5 mRNA. Neurons from KCNQ2-/- embryos showed a complete absence of M-current, even after applying the Kv7 channel enhancer, retigabine. Neurons from heterozygote KCNQ2+/- embryos had ∼60% reduced M-current. In contrast, M-currents in neurons from adult KCNQ2+/- mice were no smaller than those in neurons from wild-type mice. Measurements of tetraethylammonium block did not indicate an increased expression of Kv7.5-containing subunits, implying a compensatory increase in Kv7.2 expression from the remaining KCNQ2 gene. We conclude that mouse embryonic M-channels have an absolute requirement for Kv7.2 subunits for functionality, that the reduced M-channel activity in heterozygote KCNQ2+/- mouse embryos results primarily from a gene-dosage effect, and that there is a compensatory increase in Kv7.2 expression in adult mice.

  7. Potassium currents in the heart: functional roles in repolarization, arrhythmia and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Deschenes, Isabelle; Dobrev, Dobromir; Heijman, Jordi; Izu, Leighton; Qu, Zhilin; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Weiss, James N; Koren, Gideon; Banyasz, Tamas; Grandi, Eleonora; Sanguinetti, Michael C; Bers, Donald M; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2017-04-01

    This is the second of the two White Papers from the fourth UC Davis Cardiovascular Symposium Systems Approach to Understanding Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Arrhythmias (3-4 March 2016), a biennial event that brings together leading experts in different fields of cardiovascular research. The theme of the 2016 symposium was 'K + channels and regulation', and the objectives of the conference were severalfold: (1) to identify current knowledge gaps; (2) to understand what may go wrong in the diseased heart and why; (3) to identify possible novel therapeutic targets; and (4) to further the development of systems biology approaches to decipher the molecular mechanisms and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. The sessions of the Symposium focusing on the functional roles of the cardiac K + channel in health and disease, as well as K + channels as therapeutic targets, were contributed by Ye Chen-Izu, Gideon Koren, James Weiss, David Paterson, David Christini, Dobromir Dobrev, Jordi Heijman, Thomas O'Hara, Crystal Ripplinger, Zhilin Qu, Jamie Vandenberg, Colleen Clancy, Isabelle Deschenes, Leighton Izu, Tamas Banyasz, Andras Varro, Heike Wulff, Eleonora Grandi, Michael Sanguinetti, Donald Bers, Jeanne Nerbonne and Nipavan Chiamvimonvat as speakers and panel discussants. This article summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge and controversies on the functional roles of cardiac K + channels in normal and diseased heart. We endeavour to integrate current knowledge at multiple scales, from the single cell to the whole organ levels, and from both experimental and computational studies. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  8. Rectification of the background potassium current: a determinant of rotor dynamics in ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Samie, F H; Berenfeld, O; Anumonwo, J; Mironov, S F; Udassi, S; Beaumont, J; Taffet, S; Pertsov, A M; Jalife, J

    2001-12-07

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death. Yet, the mechanisms of VF remain elusive. Pixel-by-pixel spectral analysis of optical signals was carried out in video imaging experiments using a potentiometric dye in the Langendorff-perfused guinea pig heart. Dominant frequencies (peak with maximal power) were distributed throughout the ventricles in clearly demarcated domains. The fastest domain (25 to 32 Hz) was always on the anterior left ventricular (LV) wall and was shown to result from persistent rotor activity. Intermittent block and breakage of wavefronts at specific locations in the periphery of such rotors were responsible for the domain organization. Patch-clamping of ventricular myocytes from the LV and the right ventricle (RV) demonstrated an LV-to-RV drop in the amplitude of the outward component of the background rectifier current (I(B)). Computer simulations suggested that rotor stability in LV resulted from relatively small rectification of I(B) (presumably I(K1)), whereas instability, termination, and wavebreaks in RV were a consequence of strong rectification. This study provides new evidence in the isolated guinea pig heart that a persistent high-frequency rotor in the LV maintains VF, and that spatially distributed gradients in I(K1) density represent a robust ionic mechanism for rotor stabilization and wavefront fragmentation.

  9. Role of the Excitability Brake Potassium Current IKD in Cold Allodynia Induced by Chronic Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    González, Alejandro; Ugarte, Gonzalo; Restrepo, Carlos; Herrera, Gaspar; Piña, Ricardo; Gómez-Sánchez, José Antonio; Pertusa, María; Orio, Patricio; Madrid, Rodolfo

    2017-03-22

    Cold allodynia is a common symptom of neuropathic and inflammatory pain following peripheral nerve injury. The mechanisms underlying this disabling sensory alteration are not entirely understood. In primary somatosensory neurons, cold sensitivity is mainly determined by a functional counterbalance between cold-activated TRPM8 channels and Shaker-like Kv1.1-1.2 channels underlying the excitability brake current I KD Here we studied the role of I KD in damage-triggered painful hypersensitivity to innocuous cold. We found that cold allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in mice, was related to both an increase in the proportion of cold-sensitive neurons (CSNs) in DRGs contributing to the sciatic nerve, and a decrease in their cold temperature threshold. I KD density was reduced in high-threshold CSNs from CCI mice compared with sham animals, with no differences in cold-induced TRPM8-dependent current density. The electrophysiological properties and neurochemical profile of CSNs revealed an increase of nociceptive-like phenotype among neurons from CCI animals compared with sham mice. These results were validated using a mathematical model of CSNs, including I KD and TRPM8, showing that a reduction in I KD current density shifts the thermal threshold to higher temperatures and that the reduction of this current induces cold sensitivity in former cold-insensitive neurons expressing low levels of TRPM8-like current. Together, our results suggest that cold allodynia is largely due to a functional downregulation of I KD in both high-threshold CSNs and in a subpopulation of polymodal nociceptors expressing TRPM8, providing a general molecular and neural mechanism for this sensory alteration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper unveils the critical role of the brake potassium current I KD in damage-triggered cold allodynia. Using a well-known form of nerve injury and combining behavioral analysis, calcium imaging, patch clamping, and

  10. Functional coupling between sodium-activated potassium channels and voltage-dependent persistent sodium currents in cricket Kenyon cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Izumi; Yoshino, Masami

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examined the functional coupling between Na(+)-activated potassium (KNa) channels and Na(+) influx through voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Single-channel activity of KNa channels was recorded with the cell-attached patch configuration. The open probability (Po) of KNa channels increased with increasing Na(+) concentration in a bath solution, whereas it decreased by the substitution of Na(+) with an equimolar concentration of Li(+). The Po of KNa channels was also found to be reduced by bath application of a high concentration of TTX (1 μM) and riluzole (100 μM), which inhibits both fast (INaf) and persistent (INaP) Na(+) currents, whereas it was unaffected by a low concentration of TTX (10 nM), which selectively blocks INaf. Bath application of Cd(2+) at a low concentration (50 μM), as an inhibitor of INaP, also decreased the Po of KNa channels. Conversely, bath application of the inorganic Ca(2+)-channel blockers Co(2+) and Ni(2+) at high concentrations (500 μM) had little effect on the Po of KNa channels, although Cd(2+) (500 μM) reduced the Po of KNa channels. Perforated whole cell clamp analysis further indicated the presence of sustained outward currents for which amplitude was dependent on the amount of Na(+) influx. Taken together, these results indicate that KNa channels could be activated by Na(+) influx passing through voltage-dependent persistent Na(+) channels. The functional significance of this coupling mechanism was discussed in relation to the membrane excitability of Kenyon cells and its possible role in the formation of long-term memory. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide-induced reduction of delayed rectifier potassium current in hippocampal neurons involves oxidation of sulfhydryl groups.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sonia M K; Redzic, Zoran B; Alshuaib, Waleed B

    2013-07-03

    This study examined the effect of H2O2 on the delayed rectifier potassium current (IKDR) in isolated hippocampal neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments were performed on freshly dissociated hippocampal CA1 neurons of SD rats before and after treatment with H2O2. To reveal the mechanism behind H2O2-induced changes in IKDR, cells were treated with different oxidizing and reducing agents. External application of membrane permeable H2O2 reduced the amplitude and voltage-dependence of IKDR in a concentration dependent manner. Desferoxamine (DFO), an iron-chelator that prevents hydroxyl radical (OH) generation, prevented H2O2-induced reduction in IKDR. Application of the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent 5,5 dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) mimicked the effect of H2O2. Sulfhydryl-reducing agents dithiothreitol (DTT) and glutathione (GSH) alone did not affect IKDR; however, DTT and GSH reversed and prevented the H2O2-induced inhibition of IKDR, respectively. Membrane impermeable agents GSH and DTNB showed effects only when added intracellularly identifying intracellular sulfhydryl groups as potential targets for hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. However, the inhibitory effects of DTNB and H2O2 at the positive test potentials were completely and partially abolished by DTT, respectively, suggesting an additional mechanism of action for H2O2, that is not shared by DTNB. In summary, this study provides evidence for the redox modulation of IKDR, identifies hydroxyl radical as an intermediate oxidant responsible for the H2O2-induced decrease in current amplitude and identifies intracellular sulfhydryl groups as an oxidative target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in the action potential and transient outward potassium current in cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenqi; Jia, Yixin; Zheng, Shuai; Li, Yan; Han, Jie; Meng, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Acute cardiac rejection contributes to the changes in the electrophysiological properties of grafted hearts. However, the electrophysiological changes of cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection are still unknown. An understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms of cardiomyocytes could improve the diagnosis and treatment of acute cardiac rejection. So it is important to characterize the changes in the action potential ( AP ) and the transient outward potassium current ( I to ) in cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection. Heterotopic heart transplantation was performed in allogeneic [Brown Norway (BN)-to-Lewis] and isogeneic (BN-to-BN) rats. Twenty models were established in each group. Ten recipients were sacrificed at the 2nd day and the other ten recipients were sacrificed at the 4 th day after the operation in each group. Histopathological examinations of the grafted hearts were performed in half of the recipients in each group randomly. The other half of the grafted hearts were excised rapidly and enzymatically dissociated to obtain single cardiomyocytes. The AP and I to current were recorded using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Forty grafted hearts were successfully harvested and used in experiments. Histologic examination showed mild rejection at the 2 nd day and moderate rejection at the 4 th day in the allogeneic group after cardiac transplantation, while no evidence of histologic lesions of rejection were observed in the isogeneic group. Compared with the isogeneic group, the action potential duration ( APD ) of cardiomyocytes in the allogeneic group was significantly prolonged ( APD 90 was 49.28±5.621 mV in the isogeneic group and 88.08±6.445 mV in the allogeneic group at the 2 nd day, P=0.0016; APD 90 was 59.34±5.183 mV in the isogeneic group and 104.0±9.523 mV in the allogeneic group at the 4 th day, P=0.0064). The current density of I to was significantly decreased at the 4 th day after cardiac transplantation. The APD of

  13. Constitutively Active Acetylcholine-Dependent Potassium Current Increases Atrial Defibrillation Threshold by Favoring Post-Shock Re-Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Bingen, Brian O.; Askar, Saïd F. A.; Neshati, Zeinab; Feola, Iolanda; Panfilov, Alexander V.; de Vries, Antoine A. F.; Pijnappels, Daniël A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical cardioversion (ECV), a mainstay in atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment, is unsuccessful in up to 10–20% of patients. An important aspect of the remodeling process caused by AF is the constitutive activition of the atrium-specific acetylcholine-dependent potassium current (IK,ACh → IK,ACh-c), which is associated with ECV failure. This study investigated the role of IK,ACh-c in ECV failure and setting the atrial defibrillation threshold (aDFT) in optically mapped neonatal rat cardiomyocyte monolayers. AF was induced by burst pacing followed by application of biphasic shocks of 25–100 V to determine aDFT. Blocking IK,ACh-c by tertiapin significantly decreased DFT, which correlated with a significant increase in wavelength during reentry. Genetic knockdown experiments, using lentiviral vectors encoding a Kcnj5-specific shRNA to modulate IK,ACh-c, yielded similar results. Mechanistically, failed ECV was attributed to incomplete phase singularity (PS) removal or reemergence of PSs (i.e. re-initiation) through unidirectional propagation of shock-induced action potentials. Re-initiation occurred at significantly higher voltages than incomplete PS-removal and was inhibited by IK,ACh-c blockade. Whole-heart mapping confirmed our findings showing a 60% increase in ECV success rate after IK,ACh-c blockade. This study provides new mechanistic insight into failing ECV of AF and identifies IK,ACh-c as possible atrium-specific target to increase ECV effectiveness, while decreasing its harmfulness. PMID:26487066

  14. ATP-sensitive potassium currents from channels formed by Kir6 and a modified cardiac mitochondrial SUR2 variant

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Nitin T; Shi, Nian-Qing; Makielski, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are found in both the sarcoplasmic reticulum (sarcKATP) and the inner membrane of mitochondria (mitoKATP). SarcKATP are composed of a pore containing subunit Kir6.2 and a regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunit (SUR2), but the composition of mitoKATP remains unclear. An unusual intra-exonic splice variant of SUR2 (SUR2A-55) was previously identified in mitochondria of mammalian heart and brain, and by analogy with sarcKATP we proposed SUR2A-55 as a candidate regulatory subunit of mitoKATP. Although SUR2A-55 lacks the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD) and 2 transmembrane domains (TMD), it has a hybrid TMD and retains the second NBD. It resembles a hemi-ABC transporter suggesting it could multimerize to function as a regulatory subunit. A putative mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminal domain of SUR2A-55 was removed by truncation and when co-expressed with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 it targeted to the plasma membrane and yielded KATP currents. Single channel conductance, mean open time, and burst open time of SUR2A-55 based KATP was similar to the full-length SUR2A based KATP. However, the SUR2A-55 KATP were 70-fold less sensitive to block by ATP, and twice as resistant to intracellular Ca2+ inhibition compared with the SUR2A KATP, and were markedly insensitive to KATP drugs, pinacidil, diazoxide, and glybenclamide. These results suggest that the SUR2A-55 based channels would tend to be open under physiological conditions and in ischemia, and could account for cardiac and mitochondrial phenotypes protective for ischemia. PMID:24037327

  15. Sex differences in repolarization and slow delayed rectifier potassium current and their regulation by sympathetic stimulation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yujie; Ai, Xun; Oster, Robert A; Bers, Donald M; Pogwizd, Steven M

    2013-06-01

    Slow delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs) is important in action potential (AP) repolarization and repolarization reserve. We tested the hypothesis that there are sex-specific differences in IKs, AP, and their regulation by β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR's) using whole-cell patch-clamp. AP duration (APD90) was significantly longer in control female (F) than in control male (M) myocytes. Isoproterenol (ISO, 500 nM) shortened APD90 comparably in M and F, and was largely reversed by β1-AR blocker CGP 20712A (CGP, 300 nM). Inhibition of IKs with chromanol 293B (10 μM) resulted in less APD prolongation in F at baseline (3.0 vs 8.9 %, p < 0.05 vs M) and even in the presence of ISO (5.4 vs 20.9 %, p < 0.05). This suggests that much of the ISO-induced APD abbreviation in F is independent of IKs. In F, baseline IKs was 42 % less and was more weakly activated by ISO (19 vs 68 % in M, p < 0.01). ISO enhancement of IKs was comparably attenuated by CGP in M and F. After ovariectomy, IKs in F had greater enhancement by ISO (72 %), now comparable to control M. After orchiectomy, IKs in M was only slightly enhanced by ISO (23 %), comparable to control F. Pretreatment with thapsigargin (to block SR Ca release) had bigger impact on ISO-induced APD shortening in F than that in M (p < 0.01). In conclusion, we found that there are sex differences in IKs, AP, and their regulation by β-AR's that are modulated by sex hormones, suggesting the potential for sex-specific antiarrhythmic therapy.

  16. Transient voltage-dependent potassium currents are reduced in NTS neurons isolated from renal wrap hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Belugin, Sergei; Mifflin, Steve

    2005-12-01

    Whole cell patch-clamp measurements were made in neurons enzymatically dispersed from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) to determine if alterations occur in voltage-dependent potassium channels from rats made hypertensive (HT) by unilateral nephrectomy/renal wrap for 4 wk. Some rats had the fluorescent tracer DiA applied to the aortic nerve before the experiment to identify NTS neurons receiving monosynaptic baroreceptor afferent inputs. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was greater in 4-wk HT (165 +/- 5 mmHg, n = 26, P < 0.001) rats compared with normotensive (NT) rats (109 +/- 3 mmHg measured in 10 of 69 rats). Transient outward currents (TOCs) were observed in 67-82% of NTS neurons from NT and HT rats. At activation voltages from -10 to +10 mV, TOCs were significantly less in HT neurons compared with those observed in NT neurons (P < 0.001). There were no differences in the voltage-dependent activation kinetics, the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation, and the rise and decay time constants of the TOCs comparing neurons isolated from NT and HT rats. The 4-aminopyridine-sensitive component of the TOC was significantly less in neurons from HT compared with NT rats (P < 0.001), whereas steady-state outward currents, whether or not sensitive to 4-aminopyridine or tetraethylammonium, were not different. Delayed excitation, studied under current clamp, was observed in 60-80% of NTS neurons from NT and HT rats and was not different comparing neurons from NT and HT rats. However, examination of the subset of NTS neurons exhibiting somatic DiA fluorescence revealed that DiA-labeled neurons from HT rats had a significantly shorter duration delayed excitation (n = 8 cells, P = 0.022) than DiA-labeled neurons from NT rats (n = 7 cells). Neurons with delayed excitation from HT rats had a significantly broader first action potential (AP) and a slower maximal downstroke velocity of repolarization compared with NT neurons with delayed excitation (P = 0.016 and P = 0

  17. Potassium and Health123

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits depend on organic anions associated with potassium as occurs in foods such as fruits and vegetables, in contrast to similar blood pressure-lowering benefits of potassium chloride. Benefits to blood pressure and bone health may occur at levels below current recommendations for potassium intake, especially from diet, but dose-response trials are needed to confirm this. Nevertheless, intakes considerably above current levels are needed for optimal health, and studies evaluating small increases in fruit and vegetable intake on bone and heart outcomes for short periods have had disappointing results. In modern societies, Western diets have led to a decrease in potassium intake with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables with a concomitant increase in sodium consumption through increased consumption of processed foods. Consumption of white vegetables is associated with decreased risk of stroke, possibly related to their high potassium content. Potatoes are the highest source of dietary potassium, but the addition of salt should be limited. Low potassium-to-sodium intake ratios are more strongly related to cardiovascular disease risk than either nutrient alone. This relationship deserves further attention for multiple target tissue endpoints. PMID:23674806

  18. [Characteristics of electrophysiology and effects of ouabain on transient outward potassium current and L-type calcium current of left atrium posterior wall in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Huang, Cong-xin; Jiang, Hong; Tang, Qi-zhu; Yang, Bo; Li, Geng-shan

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the properties of electrophysiology and effects of ouabain upon transient outward potassium current (I(to)) and L-type calcium current (I(Ca-L)) of left atrium posterior wall (LAPW) and left atrium appendage tissue (LAA)in rabbit so as to provide the scientific explanations that LAPW and ouabain can enhance atrial fibrillation (AF) vulnerability through increasing electrophysiological heterogeneity and electrical remodeling of different regions of left atrium in rabbits. Atrial myocytes from LAPWs and LAAs of rabbits on an in vitro heart perfusion system were obtained by enzymatic dissociation. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to assess the effects of ouabain upon I(to) and I(Ca-L). The current-voltage (I-V) curves of I(to) and I(Ca-L) in LAPW and LAA myocytes were fitted before and after ouabain administration. (1) With holding potential +50 mV and commanding potential +50 mV, the current densities of LAPW I(to) decreased slightly less than that of LAA I(to) in control groups (P > 0.05). After ouabain administration, the current densities of LAPW I(to) were significantly larger than that of LAA I(to) [(10.97 +/- 0.58) pA/pF vs (9.39 +/- 0.83) pA/pF, P < 0.05]. The I-V curve of LAPW I(to) was slightly lowered to I-V curve of LAA I(to) in control groups. But with perfusion of ouabain, the I-V curve of LAPW I(to) opposed to I-V curve of LAA I(to) significantly changed from the bottom to the top with the same upward direction. (2) With the voltage clamp protocol of I(Ca-L), the current densities of LAPW I(Ca-L) markedly decreased compared with that of LAA I(Ca-L) in control groups (P < 0.05). With the addition of ouabain, the peak of amplitude of LAPW I(Ca-L) at +20 mV obviously increased to that of LAA I(Ca-L) [(-11.13 +/- 0.99) pA/pF vs (-8.86 +/- 0.51) pA/pF, P < 0.01]. In the control groups, the I-V curve of LAPW I(Ca-L) was shifted to the bottom of all I-V curves of I(Ca-L). Through the effects of ouabain, the I-V curve of LAPW I

  19. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    High levels of potassium ( hyperkalemia ) may be due to: Addison disease (rare) Blood transfusion Certain medicines Crushed tissue injury Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) ...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  2. Genistein inhibition of OGD-induced brain neuron death correlates with its modulation of apoptosis, voltage-gated potassium and sodium currents and glutamate signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Ling; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yu-Xiang; He, Cong-Cong; Tian, Kun; Wang, Hong-Gang; An, Di; Heng, Bin; Liu, Yan-Qiang

    2016-07-25

    In the present study, we established an in vitro model of hypoxic-ischemia via exposing primary neurons of newborn rats to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and observing the effects of genistein, a soybean isoflavone, on hypoxic-ischemic neuron viability, apoptosis, voltage-activated potassium (Kv) and sodium (Nav) currents, and glutamate receptor subunits. The results indicated that OGD exposure reduced the viability and increased the apoptosis of brain neurons. Meanwhile, OGD exposure caused changes in the current-voltage curves and current amplitude values of voltage-activated potassium and sodium currents; OGD exposure also decreased GluR2 expression and increased NR2 expression. However, genistein at least partially reversed the effects caused by OGD. The results suggest that hypoxic-ischemia-caused neuronal apoptosis/death is related to an increase in K(+) efflux, a decrease in Na(+) influx, a down-regulation of GluR2, and an up-regulation of NR2. Genistein may exert some neuroprotective effects via the modulation of Kv and Nav currents and the glutamate signal pathway, mediated by GluR2 and NR2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A biophysical model examining the role of low-voltage-activated potassium currents in shaping the responses of vestibular ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Hight, Ariel E; Kalluri, Radha

    2016-08-01

    The vestibular nerve is characterized by two broad groups of neurons that differ in the timing of their interspike intervals; some fire at highly regular intervals, whereas others fire at highly irregular intervals. Heterogeneity in ion channel properties has been proposed as shaping these firing patterns (Highstein SM, Politoff AL. Brain Res 150: 182-187, 1978; Smith CE, Goldberg JM. Biol Cybern 54: 41-51, 1986). Kalluri et al. (J Neurophysiol 104: 2034-2051, 2010) proposed that regularity is controlled by the density of low-voltage-activated potassium currents (IKL). To examine the impact of IKL on spike timing regularity, we implemented a single-compartment model with three conductances known to be present in the vestibular ganglion: transient sodium (gNa), low-voltage-activated potassium (gKL), and high-voltage-activated potassium (gKH). Consistent with in vitro observations, removing gKL depolarized resting potential, increased input resistance and membrane time constant, and converted current step-evoked firing patterns from transient (1 spike at current onset) to sustained (many spikes). Modeled neurons were driven with a time-varying synaptic conductance that captured the random arrival times and amplitudes of glutamate-driven synaptic events. In the presence of gKL, spiking occurred only in response to large events with fast onsets. Models without gKL exhibited greater integration by responding to the superposition of rapidly arriving events. Three synaptic conductance were modeled, each with different kinetics to represent a variety of different synaptic processes. In response to all three types of synaptic conductance, models containing gKL produced spike trains with irregular interspike intervals. Only models lacking gKL when driven by rapidly arriving small excitatory postsynaptic currents were capable of generating regular spiking. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Theory of flux cutting and flux transport at the critical current of a type-II superconducting cylindrical wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, John R.

    2011-06-01

    I introduce a critical-state theory incorporating both flux cutting and flux transport to calculate the magnetic-field and current-density distributions inside a type-II superconducting cylinder at its critical current in a longitudinal applied magnetic field. The theory is an extension of the elliptic critical-state model introduced by Romero-Salazar and Pérez-Rodríguez. The vortex dynamics depend in detail on two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting (ρ∥) and flux flow (ρ⊥), and their ratio r=ρ∥/ρ⊥. When r<1, the low relative efficiency of flux cutting in reducing the magnitude of the internal magnetic-flux density leads to a paramagnetic longitudinal magnetic moment. As a model for understanding the experimentally observed interrelationship between the critical currents for flux cutting and depinning, I calculate the forces on a helical vortex arc stretched between two pinning centers when the vortex is subjected to a current density of arbitrary angle ϕ. Simultaneous initiation of flux cutting and flux transport occurs at the critical current density Jc(ϕ) that makes the vortex arc unstable.

  5. Theory of flux cutting and flux transport at the critical current of a type-II superconducting cylindrical wire

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, John R

    2011-02-17

    I introduce a critical-state theory incorporating both flux cutting and flux transport to calculate the magnetic-field and current-density distributions inside a type-II superconducting cylinder at its critical current in a longitudinal applied magnetic field. The theory is an extension of the elliptic critical-state model introduced by Romero-Salazar and Pérez-Rodríguez. The vortex dynamics depend in detail on two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting (ρ{sub ∥}) and flux flow (ρ{sub ⊥}), and their ratio r=ρ{sub ∥}/ρ{sub ⊥}. When r<1, the low relative efficiency of flux cutting in reducing the magnitude of the internal magnetic-flux density leads to a paramagnetic longitudinal magneticmore » moment. As a model for understanding the experimentally observed interrelationship between the critical currents for flux cutting and depinning, I calculate the forces on a helical vortex arc stretched between two pinning centers when the vortex is subjected to a current density of arbitrary angle Φ. Simultaneous initiation of flux cutting and flux transport occurs at the critical current density J{sub c}(Φ) that makes the vortex arc unstable.« less

  6. Theory of flux cutting and flux transport at the critical current of a type-II superconducting cylindrical wire

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, John R.

    2011-02-17

    I introduce a critical-state theory incorporating both flux cutting and flux transport to calculate the magnetic-field and current-density distributions inside a type-II superconducting cylinder at its critical current in a longitudinal applied magnetic field. The theory is an extension of the elliptic critical-state model introduced by Romero-Salazar and Perez-Rodriguez. The vortex dynamics depend in detail on two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting ({rho}{parallel}) and flux flow ({rho}{perpendicular}), and their ratio r = {rho}{parallel}/{rho}{perpendicular}. When r < 1, the low relative efficiency of flux cutting in reducing the magnitude of the internal magnetic-flux density leads to a paramagnetic longitudinal magneticmore » moment. As a model for understanding the experimentally observed interrelationship between the critical currents for flux cutting and depinning, I calculate the forces on a helical vortex arc stretched between two pinning centers when the vortex is subjected to a current density of arbitrary angle {phi}. Simultaneous initiation of flux cutting and flux transport occurs at the critical current density J{sub c}({phi}) that makes the vortex arc unstable.« less

  7. Seasonal acclimatization of the cardiac potassium currents (IK1 and IKr) in an arctic marine teleost, the navaga cod (Eleginus navaga).

    PubMed

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Vornanen, Matti

    2015-12-01

    Several freshwater fishes of north-temperate latitudes exhibit marked seasonal changes in cardiac action potential (AP) waveform as an outcome of temperature-dependent changes in the density of delayed rectifiers (IKr, IKs) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents. Thus far, ionic mechanisms of cardiac excitability in arctic marine fishes have not been examined. To this end we examined ventricular AP and the role of two major potassium currents (IK1, IKr) in repolarization of cardiac AP in winter-acclimatized (WA, caught in March) and summer-acclimatized (SA, caught in September) navaga cod (Eleginus navaga) of the White Sea. The duration of ventricular AP of WA navaga at 3 °C (APD50 = 659.5 ± 32.8 ms) was similar to the AP duration of SA navaga at 12 °C (APD50 = 543.9 ± 14.6 ms) (p > 0.05) indicating complete thermal compensation of AP duration. This acclimation effect was associated with strong up-regulation of the cardiac potassium currents in winter. Densities of ventricular IK1 (at -120 mV) and IKr (at +50 mV) of the WA navaga at 3 °C were 2.9 times and 2.8 times, respectively, higher than those of the SA navaga at 12 °C, thus indicating marked thermal overcompensation. Qualitatively similar results were obtained from atrial myocytes. Seasonal changes in IK1 and IKr are more than sufficient to explain the complete thermal compensation of ventricular AP duration. The excellent acclimation capacity of cardiac excitability of the navaga cod is probably needed to maintain high cardiac performance at subzero temperatures in winter and to increase thermal resilience of cardiac function under seasonally variable arctic temperature conditions.

  8. Hippocampal A-type current and Kv4.2 channel modulation by the sulfonylurea compound NS5806.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Katrin; Fischer, Paul; Bähring, Robert

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effects of the sulfonylurea compound NS5806 on neuronal A-type channel function. Using whole-cell patch-clamp we studied the effects of NS5806 on the somatodendritic A-type current (I(SA)) in cultured hippocampal neurons and the currents mediated by Kv4.2 channels coexpressed with different auxiliary β-subunits, including both Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-related proteins (DPPs), in HEK 293 cells. The amplitude of the I(SA) component in hippocampal neurons was reduced in the presence of 20 μM NS5806. I(SA) decay kinetics were slowed and the recovery kinetics accelerated, but the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation was shifted to more negative potentials by NS5806. The peak amplitudes of currents mediated by ternary Kv4.2 channel complexes, associated with DPP6-S (short splice-variant) and either KChIP2, KChIP3 or KChIP4, were potentiated and their macroscopic inactivation slowed by NS5806, whereas the currents mediated by binary Kv4.2 channels, associated only with DPP6-S, were suppressed, and the NS5806-mediated slowing of macroscopic inactivation was less pronounced. Neither potentiation nor suppression and no effect on current decay kinetics in the presence of NS5806 were observed for Kv4.2 channels associated with KChIP3 and the N-type inactivation-conferring DPP6a splice-variant. For all recombinant channel complexes, NS5806 slowed the recovery from inactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation to more negative potentials. Our results demonstrate the activity of NS5806 on native I(SA) and possible molecular correlates in the form of recombinant Kv4.2 channels complexed with different KChIPs and DPPs, and they shed some light on the mechanism of NS5806 action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 37162 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by AgustaWestland S.p.A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...-0518; Directorate Identifier 2009-SW-021-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by AgustaWestland S.p.A) (Agusta) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation....p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held By Agustawestland S.p.A.) (Agusta): Docket No. FAA-2013-0518...

  10. Forskolin and protein kinase inhibitors differentially affect hair cell potassium currents and transmitter release at the cytoneural junction in the isolated frog labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Maria Lisa; Rubbini, Gemma; Martini, Marta; Canella, Rita; Fesce, Riccardo

    2017-08-15

    The post-transductional elaboration of sensory input at the frog semicircular canal has been studied by correlating the effects of drugs that interfere with phosphorylation processes on: (i) potassium conductances in isolated hair cell and (ii) transmitter release at the cytoneural junction in the intact labyrinth. At hair cells, delayed potassium currents (IKD) undergo voltage- and time-dependent inactivation; inactivation removal requires ATP, is sensitive to kinase blockade, but is unaffected by exogenous application of cyclic nucleotides. We report here that forskolin, an activator of endogenous adenylyl cyclase, enhances IKD inactivation removal in isolated hair cells, but produces an overall decrease in IKD amplitude consistent with the direct blocking action of the drug on several families of K channels. In the intact labyrinth, forskolin enhances transmitter release, consistent with such depression of K conductances. Kinase blockers - H-89 and KT5823 - have been shown to reduce IKD inactivation removal and IKD amplitude at isolated hair cells. In the labyrinth, the effects of these drugs on junctional activity are quite variable, with predominant inhibition of transmitter release, rather than the enhancement expected from the impairment of K currents. The overall action of forskolin and kinase inhibitors on K conductances is similar (depression), but they have opposite effects on transmitter release: this indicates that some intermediate steps between the bioelectric control of hair cell membrane potential and transmitter release are affected in opposite ways and therefore are presumably regulated by protein phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurovascular coupling protects neurons against hypoxic injury via inhibition of potassium currents by generation of nitric oxide in direct neuron and endothelium cocultures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Wei; Kou, Zeng-Wei; Mo, Jia-Lin; Deng, Xu-Xu; Sun, Feng-Yan

    2016-10-15

    This study examined the effect of neuron-endothelial coupling on the survival of neurons after ischemia and the possible mechanism underlying that effect. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed on cortical neurons cultured alone or directly cocultured with brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Propidium iodide (PI) and NeuN staining were performed to examine neuronal death following oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We found that the neuronal transient outward potassium currents (I A ) decreased in the coculture system, whereas the outward delayed-rectifier potassium currents (I K ) did not. Sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, enhanced BMEC-induced I A inhibition and nitro-l-arginine methylester, a NOS inhibitor, partially prevented this inhibition. Moreover, the neurons directly cocultured with BMEC showed more resistance to OGD-induced injury compared with the neurons cultured alone, and that neuroprotective effect was abolished by treatment with NS5806, an activator of the I A . These results indicate that vascular endothelial cells assist neurons to prevent hypoxic injury via inhibiting neuronal I A by production of NO in the direct neuron-BMEC coculture system. These results further provide direct evidence of functional coupling between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that vascular endothelial cells play beneficial roles in the pathophysiological processes of neurons after hypoxic injury, suggesting that the improvement of neurovascular coupling or functional remodeling may become an important therapeutic target for preventing brain injury. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The muscarinic inhibition of the potassium M-current modulates the action-potential discharge in the vestibular primary-afferent neurons of the rat.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Limón, A; Vega, R; Soto, E

    2009-02-18

    There is consensus that muscarinic and nicotinic receptors expressed in vestibular hair cells and afferent neurons are involved in the efferent modulation of the electrical activity of the afferent neurons. However the underlying mechanisms of postsynaptic control in neurons are not well understood. In our work we show that the activation of muscarinic receptors in the vestibular neurons modulates the potassium M-current modifying the activity of afferent neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made on vestibular-afferent neurons isolated from Wistar rats (postnatal days 7-10) and held in primary culture (18-24 h). The M-current was studied during its deactivation after depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses. In 68% of the cells studied, those of larger capacitance, the M-current antagonists linopirdine and XE-991 reduced the amplitude of the M-current by 54%+/-7% and 50%+/-3%. The muscarinic-receptor agonist oxotremorine-M also significantly reduced the M-current by 58%+/-12% in the cells. The action of oxotremorine-M was blocked by atropine, thus indicating its cholinergic nature. The erg-channel blocker E-4031 did not significantly modify the M-current amplitude. In current-clamp experiments, linopirdine, XE-991, and oxotremorine-M modified the discharge response to current pulses from single spike to multiple spiking, reducing the adaptation of the electrical discharge. Our results indicate that large soma-size cultured vestibular-afferent neurons (most probably calyx-bearing neurons) express the M-current and that the modulation of this current by activation of muscarinic-receptor reduces its spike-frequency adaptation.

  13. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    ... iodide you should take or give to your child depends on your age or your child's age. If potassium iodide is taken by a ... you should take yourself or give to your child. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or public official if ...

  14. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... are also excellent sources of potassium. People with kidney problems, especially those on dialysis, should not eat ...

  15. Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low potassium (hypokalemia) By Mayo Clinic Staff Low potassium (hypokalemia) refers to a lower than normal potassium level ... 2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A very low potassium level (less than 2.5 mmol/L) ...

  16. The effects of deoxyelephantopin on the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IKr) and human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expression.

    PubMed

    Teah, Yi Fan; Abduraman, Muhammad Asyraf; Amanah, Azimah; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Tan, Mei Lan

    2017-09-01

    Elephantopus scaber Linn and its major bioactive component, deoxyelephantopin are known for their medicinal properties and are often reported to have various cytotoxic and antitumor activities. This plant is widely used as folk medicine for a plethora of indications although its safety profile remains unknown. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac I Kr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. The hERG potassium channel is an important antitarget in cardiotoxicity evaluation. This study investigated the effects of deoxyelephantopin on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were insignificantly affected by deoxyelephantopin in the transfected cell line. Current reduction was less than 40% as compared with baseline at the highest concentration of 50 μM. The results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation and hERG surface protein expression. Interestingly, it does not affect the hERG expression at both transcriptional and translational level at most concentrations, although higher concentration at 10 μM caused protein accumulation. In conclusion, deoxyelephantopin is unlikely a clinically significant hERG channel and I kr blocker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of KCNQ channel modulators on the M-type potassium current in primate retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Bikash R; Hughes, Bret A

    2012-03-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the expression of KCNQ1, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5 transcripts in monkey retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and showed that the M-type current in RPE cells is blocked by the specific KCNQ channel blocker XE991. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, we investigated the pharmacological sensitivity of the M-type current in isolated monkey RPE cells to elucidate the subunit composition of the channel. Most RPE cells exhibited an M-type current with a voltage for half-maximal activation of approximately -35 mV. The M-type current activation followed a double-exponential time course and was essentially complete within 1 s. The M-type current was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the nonselective KCNQ channel blockers linopirdine and XE991 but was relatively insensitive to block by 10 μM chromanol 293B or 135 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA), two KCNQ1 channel blockers. The M-type current was activated by 1) 10 μM retigabine, an opener of all KCNQ channels except KCNQ1, 2) 10 μM zinc pyrithione, which augments all KCNQ channels except KCNQ3, and 3) 50 μM N-ethylmaleimide, which activates KCNQ2, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5, but not KCNQ1 or KCNQ3, channels. Application of cAMP, which activates KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 channels, had no significant effect on the M-type current. Finally, diclofenac, which activates KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ4 channels but inhibits KCNQ5 channels, inhibited the M-type current in the majority of RPE cells but activated it in others. The results indicate that the M-type current in monkey RPE is likely mediated by channels encoded by KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 subunits.

  18. The sea anemone toxin AdE-1 modifies both sodium and potassium currents of rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Nesher, Nir; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Hochner, Binyamin

    2014-07-01

    AdE-1, a cardiotonic peptide recently isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana, contains 44 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 4907 Da. It was previously found to resemble other sea anemone type 1 and 2 Na+ channel toxins, enhancing contractions of rat cardiomyocytes and slowing their twitch relaxation; however, it did not induce spontaneous twitches. AdE-1 increased the duration of the cardiomyocyte action potential and decreased its amplitude and its time-to-peak in a concentration-dependent manner, without affecting its threshold and cell resting potential. Nor did it generate the early and delayed after-depolarizations characteristic of sea anemone Na+ channel toxins. To further understand its mechanism of action we investigated the effect of AdE-1 on the major ion currents of rat cardiomyocytes. In the present study we show that AdE-1 markedly slowed inactivation of the Na+ current, enhancing and prolonging the current influx with no effect on current activation, possibly through direct interaction with the site 3 receptor of the Na+ channel. No significant effect of AdE-1 on the Ca2+ current was observed, but, unexpectedly, AdE-1 significantly increased the amplitude of the transient component of the K+ current, shifting the current threshold to more negative membrane potentials. This effect on the K+ current has not been found in any other sea anemone toxin and may explain the exclusive reduction in action potential amplitude and the absence of the action potential disorders found with other toxins, such as early and delayed after-depolarizations.

  19. The selective A-type K+ current blocker Tx3-1 isolated from the Phoneutria nigriventer venom enhances memory of naïve and Aβ(25-35)-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Guilherme M; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Cordeiro, Marta do Nascimento; Gomez, Marcus V; Ferreira, Juliano; Rubin, Maribel A

    2013-12-15

    Potassium channels regulate many neuronal functions, including neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, contributing, by these means, to mnemonic processes. In particular, A-type K(+) currents (IA) play a key role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the peptidic toxin Tx3-1, a selective blocker of IA currents, extracted from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, on memory of mice. Administration of Tx3-1 (i.c.v., 300 pmol/site) enhanced both short- and long-term memory consolidation of mice tested in the novel object recognition task. In comparison, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; i.c.v., 30-300 pmol/site), a non-selective K(+) channel blocker did not alter long-term memory and caused toxic side effects such as circling, freezing and tonic-clonic seizures. Moreover, Tx3-1 (i.c.v., 10-100 pmol/site) restored memory of Aβ25-35-injected mice, and exhibited a higher potency to improve memory of Aβ25-35-injected mice when compared to control group. These results show the effect of the selective blocker of IA currents Tx3-1 in both short- and long-term memory retention and in memory impairment caused by Aβ25-35, reinforcing the role of IA in physiological and pathological memory processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibitory effects of psychotropic drugs on the acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) in guinea-pig atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Muneyoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Matada, Takashi; Asao, Yoko; Hamatani, Ramu; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Hara, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Influences of psychotropic drugs, six antipsychotics and three antidepressants, on acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) were examined by a whole-cell patch clamp method in freshly isolated guinea-pig atrial myocyte. IK.ACh was induced by a superfusion of carbachol (CCh) or by an intracellular application of guanosine 5'-[thio] triphosphate (GTPγS). To elucidate mechanism for anticholinergic action, IC50 ratio, the ratio of IC50 for GTPγS-activated IK.ACh to CCh-induced IK.ACh, was calculated. Antipsychotics and antidepressants inhibited CCh-induced IK.ACh in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values were as follows; chlorpromazine 0.53 μM, clozapine 0.06 μM, fluphenazine 2.69 μM, haloperidol 2.66 μM, sulpiride 42.3 μM, thioridazine 0.07 μM, amitriptyline 0.03 μM, imipramine 0.22 μM and maprotiline 1.81 μM. The drugs, except for sulpiride, inhibited GTPγS-activated IK.ACh with following IC50 values; chlorpromazine 1.71 μM, clozapine 14.9 μM, fluphenazine 3.55 μM, haloperidol 2.73 μM, thioridazine 1.90 μM, amitriptyline 7.55 μM, imipramine 7.09 μM and maprotiline 5.93 μM. The IC50 ratio for fluphenazine and haloperidol was close to unity. The IC50 ratio for chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine and maprotiline was much higher than unity. The present findings suggest that the psychotropics studied suppress IK.ACh. Chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine, maprotiline and sulpiride are preferentially acting on muscarinic receptor. Fluphenazine and haloperidol may act on G protein and/or potassium channel.

  1. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Inhibits Voltage-Sensitive Potassium Currents in Isolated Hensen's Cells and Nifedipine Protects Against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhiying; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, YongAn; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Zhifei; Niu, Baolong; Li, Xingqi; Dai, Guanghai; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-06-13

    BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a well-known neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system, plays an important role as an extracellular chemical messenger in the cochlea. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using a whole-cell recording technique, we studied the effects of ATP on isolated Hensen's cells, which are supporting cells in the cochlea, to determine if they are involved in the transduction of ions with hair cells. RESULTS ATP (0.1-10 µM) reduced the potassium current (IK+) in the majority of the recorded Hensen's cells (21 out of 25 cells). An inward current was also induced by high concentrations of ATP (100 µM to 10 mM), which was reversibly blocked by 100 µM suramin (a purinergic antagonist) and blocked by nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel blocker). After the cochleas were perfused with artificial perilymph solutions containing nifedipine and exposed to noise, the amplitude increase in the compound action potential (CAP) threshold and the reduction in cochlear microphonics was lower than when they were exposed to noise alone. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ATP can block IK+ channels at a low concentration and induce an inward Ca2+ current at high concentrations, which is reversed by purinergic receptors. Nifedipine may have a partially protective effect on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

  2. Effects of n-alkanols and a methyl ester on a transient potassium (IA) current in identified neurones from Helix aspersa.

    PubMed Central

    Winpenny, J P; Elliott, J R; Harper, A A

    1992-01-01

    1. A two-microelectrode voltage clamp was used to determine the effects of n-butanol, n-hexanol, n-octanol, n-decanol and methyl hexanoate on a transient potassium (IA) current in identified Helix aspersa neurones. Experiments were carried out at a temperature of 10-12 degrees C. 2. Each n-alkanol reversibly reduced the amplitude of the IA current. Logarithmic dose-response curves for the current reduction by each homologue were sigmoidal and had slope factors of around four. The concentrations required to reduce the peak (with time) current at -30 mV by 50% (ED50 +/- fitted standard error) were: 57 +/- 5 mM (n-butanol); 2.0 +/- 0.1 mM (n-hexanol); 0.28 +/- 0.02 mM (n-octanol) and 0.016 +/- 0.001 mM (n-decanol). Methyl hexanoate also reduced the current amplitude, with an ED50 of 1-2 mM. The Helix IA current thus showed a similar sensitivity to n-alkanols to that of squid and rat sodium currents but was rather more sensitive than the squid delayed rectifier potassium current. 3. The n-alkanol ED50 concentrations were used to calculate a standard free energy per methylene group for adsorption to a site of action in the cell of -3.1 +/- 0.2 kJ/mol. This suggested a hydrophobic site or sites of action. The regularity of the change in free energy with chain length was maintained up to, and including, n-decanol. This implied that the site(s) could accommodate a ten-carbon chain as readily as an eight-carbon chain. 4. The voltage dependencies of IA current activation and steady-state inactivation were not consistently altered by treatment with n-alkanols at concentrations around or above their current suppression ED50 concentrations. 5. The kinetics of current activation and inactivation were affected, particularly by lower chain length compounds. At 60 mM n-butanol reduced the time constant for development of inactivation of open channels (tau b) by 56%, while 0.016 mM n-decanol produced only a 13% reduction. n-Butanol (60 mM) also caused a substantial (76%) reduction

  3. Adenosine A₂A receptors inhibit delayed rectifier potassium currents and cell differentiation in primary purified oligodendrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Coppi, Elisabetta; Cellai, Lucrezia; Maraula, Giovanna; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pedata, Felicita

    2013-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a population of cycling cells which persist in the adult central nervous system (CNS) where, under opportune stimuli, they differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are Gs-coupled P1 purinergic receptors which are widely distributed throughout the CNS. It has been demonstrated that OPCs express A(2A) receptors, but their functional role in these cells remains elusive. Oligodendrocytes express distinct voltage-gated ion channels depending on their maturation. Here, by electrophysiological recordings coupled with immunocytochemical labeling, we studied the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptors on membrane currents and differentiation of purified primary OPCs isolated from the rat cortex. We found that the selective A(2A) agonist, CGS21680, inhibits sustained, delayed rectifier, K(+) currents (I(K)) without modifying transient (I(A)) conductances. The effect was observed in all cells tested, independently from time in culture. CGS21680 inhibition of I(K) current was concentration-dependent (10-200 nM) and blocked in the presence of the selective A(2A) antagonist SCH58261 (100 nM). It is known that I(K) currents play an important role during OPC development since their block decreases cell proliferation and differentiation. In light of these data, our further aim was to investigate whether A(2A) receptors modulate these processes. CGS21680, applied at 100 nM in the culture medium of oligodendrocyte cultures, inhibits OPC differentiation (an effect prevented by SCH58261) without affecting cell proliferation. Data demonstrate that cultured OPCs express functional A(2A) receptors whose activation negatively modulate I(K) currents. We propose that, by this mechanism, A(2A) adenosine receptors inhibit OPC differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 77 FR 73273 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by AgustaWestland S.p.A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by AgustaWestland S.p.A.) (Agusta.... Helicopters (Type Certificate Currently Held By AgustaWestland S.P.A.) (Agusta): Amendment 39-17281; Docket No... ``Mail'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the...

  5. Mapping Potassium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    During the first year of NASA MESSENGER orbital mission, the spacecraft GRS instrument measured the elemental composition of Mercury surface materials. mong the most important discoveries from the GRS was the observation of higher abundances of the moderately volatile elements potassium, sodium, and chlorine than expected from previous scientific models and theories. Particularly high concentrations of these elements were observed at high northern latitudes, as illustrated in this potassium abundance map, which provides a view of the surface centered at 60° N latitude and 120° E longitude. This map was the first elemental map ever made of Mercury's surface and is to-date the only map to report absolute elemental concentrations, in comparison to element ratios. Prior to MESSENGER's arrival at Mercury, scientists expected that the planet would be depleted in moderately volatile elements, as is the case for our Moon. The unexpectedly high abundances observed with the GRS have forced a reevaluation of our understanding of the formation and evolution of Mercury. In addition, the K map provided the first evidence for distinct geochemical terranes on Mercury, as the high-potassium region was later found to also be distinct in its low Mg/Si, Ca/Si, S/Si, and high Na/Si and Cl/Si abundances. Instrument: Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19414

  6. Selective blockade of a slowly inactivating potassium current in striatal neurons by (+/-) 6-chloro-APB hydrobromide (SKF82958).

    PubMed

    Nisenbaum, E S; Mermelstein, P G; Wilson, C J; Surmeier, D J

    1998-07-01

    The ion channels of rat striatal neurons are known to be modulated by stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors. The susceptibility of depolarization-activated K+ currents to be modulated by the D1 agonist, 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzaze pine (APB) was investigated using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording techniques from acutely isolated neurons. APB (0.01-100 microM) produced a concentration-dependent reduction in the total K+ current. At intermediate concentrations (ca. 10 microM), APB selectively depressed the slowly inactivating A-current (I(As)). A similar effect was produced by application of the D1 agonist, 7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1-H-2-benzazepine (SKF38393, 10 microM). APB reduced I(As) rapidly, having onset and recovery time constants of 1.2 sec and 1.6 sec, respectively. Unexpectedly, the effect of APB could not be mimicked by application of Sp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Sp-cAMPS, 100-200 microM), a membrane-permeable analog of cyclic AMP (cAMP), or by pretreatment with forskolin (25 microM), an activator of adenylyl cyclase. The reduction in I(As) also was not blocked by pretreatment with the D1 receptor antagonist, R(+)-SCH23390 hydrochloride (SCH23390, 10-20 microM). In addition, intracellular dialysis with guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate (GDP-beta-S, 200 microM) did not preclude the APB-induced inhibition of I(As), nor did dialysis with guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate (GTP-gamma-S, 400 microM) prevent reversal of the effect. The effect of APB was produced by a reduction in the maximal conductance of I(As) without changing the voltage-dependence of the current. Collectively, these results argue that APB does not inhibit I(As) through D1 receptors coupled to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, but rather by allosterically regulating or blocking the channels giving rise to this current.

  7. Left-to-right atrial inward rectifier potassium current gradients in patients with paroxysmal versus chronic atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Niels; Trausch, Anne; Knaut, Michael; Matschke, Klaus; Varró, András; Van Wagoner, David R; Nattel, Stanley; Ravens, Ursula; Dobrev, Dobromir

    2010-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atrial fibrillation (AF) is maintained by high-frequency reentrant sources with a left-to-right-dominant frequency gradient, particularly in patients with paroxysmal AF (pAF). Unequal left-to-right distribution of inward rectifier K(+) currents has been suggested to underlie this dominant frequency gradient, but this hypothesis has never been tested in humans. Currents were measured with whole-cell voltage-clamp in cardiomyocytes from right atrial (RA) and left (LA) atrial appendages of patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery. Western blot was used to quantify protein expression of I(K1) (Kir2.1 and Kir2.3) and I(K,ACh) (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) subunits. Basal current was ≈2-fold larger in chronic AF (cAF) versus SR patients, without RA-LA differences. In pAF, basal current was ≈2-fold larger in LA versus RA, indicating a left-to-right atrial gradient. In both atria, Kir2.1 expression was ≈2-fold greater in cAF but comparable in pAF versus SR. Kir2.3 levels were unchanged in cAF and RA-pAF but showed a 51% decrease in LA-pAF. In SR, carbachol-activated (2 μmol/L) I(K,ACh) was 70% larger in RA versus LA. This right-to-left atrial gradient was decreased in pAF and cAF caused by reduced I(K,ACh) in RA only. Similarly, in SR, Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 proteins were greater in RA versus LA and decreased in RA of pAF and cAF. Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 expression was unchanged in LA of pAF and cAF. Our results support the hypothesis that a left-to-right gradient in inward rectifier background current contributes to high-frequency sources in LA that maintain pAF. These findings have potentially important implications for development of atrial-selective therapeutic approaches.

  8. Left-to-Right Atrial Inward Rectifier Potassium Current Gradients in Patients With Paroxysmal Versus Chronic Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Niels; Trausch, Anne; Knaut, Michael; Matschke, Klaus; Varró, András; Van Wagoner, David R.; Nattel, Stanley; Ravens, Ursula; Dobrev, Dobromir

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that atrial fibrillation (AF) is maintained by high-frequency reentrant sources with a left-to-right–dominant frequency gradient, particularly in patients with paroxysmal AF (pAF). Unequal left-to-right distribution of inward rectifier K+ currents has been suggested to underlie this dominant frequency gradient, but this hypothesis has never been tested in humans. Methods and Results Currents were measured with whole-cell voltage-clamp in cardiomyocytes from right atrial (RA) and left (LA) atrial appendages of patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery. Western blot was used to quantify protein expression of IK1 (Kir2.1 and Kir2.3) and IK,ACh (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) subunits. Basal current was ≈2-fold larger in chronic AF (cAF) versus SR patients, without RA-LA differences. In pAF, basal current was ≈2-fold larger in LA versus RA, indicating a left-to-right atrial gradient. In both atria, Kir2.1 expression was ≈2-fold greater in cAF but comparable in pAF versus SR. Kir2.3 levels were unchanged in cAF and RA-pAF but showed a 51% decrease in LA-pAF. In SR, carbachol-activated (2 μmol/L) IK,ACh was 70% larger in RA versus LA. This right-to-left atrial gradient was decreased in pAF and cAF caused by reduced IK,ACh in RA only. Similarly, in SR, Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 proteins were greater in RA versus LA and decreased in RA of pAF and cAF. Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 expression was unchanged in LA of pAF and cAF. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that a left-to-right gradient in inward rectifier background current contributes to high-frequency sources in LA that maintain pAF. These findings have potentially important implications for development of atrial-selective therapeutic approaches. PMID:20657029

  9. Wild-type NM23-H1, but not its S120 mutants, suppresses desensitization of muscarinic potassium current.

    PubMed

    Otero, A S; Doyle, M B; Hartsough, M T; Steeg, P S

    1999-03-08

    NM23 (NDP kinase) modulates the gating of muscarinic K+ channels by agonists through a mechanism distinct from GTP regeneration. To better define the function of NM23 in this pathway and to identify sites in NM23 that are important for its role in muscarinic K+ channel function, we utilized MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cells that express low levels of NM23-H1. M2 muscarinic receptors and GIRK1/GIRK4 channel subunits were co-expressed in cells stably transfected with vector only (control), wild-type NM23-H1, or several NM23-H1 mutants. Lysates from all cell lines tested exhibit comparable nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase activity. Whole cell patch clamp recordings revealed a substantial reduction of the acute desensitization of muscarinic K+ currents in cells overexpressing NM23-H1. The mutants NM23-H1P96S and NM23-H1S44A resembled wild-type NM23-H1 in their ability to reduce desensitization. In contrast, mutants NM23-H1S120G and NM23-H1S120A completely abolished the effect of NM23-H1 on desensitization of muscarinic K+ currents. Furthermore, NM23-H1S120G potentiated acute desensitization, indicating that this mutant retains the ability to interact with the muscarinic pathway, but has properties antithetical to those of the wild-type protein. We conclude that NM23 acts as a suppressor of the processes leading to the desensitization of muscarinic K+ currents, and that Ser-120 is essential for its actions.

  10. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents.

    PubMed

    Vehovszky, Agnes; Szabó, Henriette; Elliott, Christopher J H

    2005-12-06

    Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. The excitability of the B1 and B4 motoneurons in the buccal ganglia to depolarising current clamp pulses is significantly (P < < 0.05) increased by (10 microM) octopamine, whereas the B2 motoneuron becomes significantly less excitable. The ionic currents evoked by voltage steps were recorded using 2-electrode voltage clamp. The outward current of B1, B2 and B4 motoneurons had two components, a transient IA current and a sustained IK delayed-rectifier current, but neither was modulated by octopamine in any of these three buccal neurons. The fast inward current was eliminated in sodium-free saline and so is likely to be carried by sodium ions. 10 microM octopamine enhanced this current by 33 and 45% in the B1 and B4 motoneurons respectively (P < < 0.05), but a small reduction was seen in the B2 neuron. A Hodgkin-Huxley style simulation of the B1 motoneuron confirms that a 33% increase in the fast inward current by octopamine increases the excitability markedly. We conclude that octopamine is also a neuromodulator in snails, changing the excitability of the buccal neurons. This is supported by the close relationship from the voltage clamp data, through the quantitative simulation, to the action potential threshold, changing the properties of neurons in a rhythmic network. The increase in inward sodium current provides an explanation for the polycyclic modulation of the feeding system by the octopamine-containing interneurons, making feeding easier to initiate and making the feeding bursts more intense.

  11. Substance P provides neuroprotection in cerebellar granule cells through Akt and MAPK/Erk activation: evidence for the involvement of the delayed rectifier potassium current.

    PubMed

    Amadoro, G; Pieri, M; Ciotti, M T; Carunchio, I; Canu, N; Calissano, P; Zona, C; Severini, C

    2007-05-01

    In the current study, we have evaluated the ability of substance P (SP) and other neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1) agonists to protect, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) from serum and potassium deprivation-induced cell death (S-K5). We also established the presence of SP high affinity NK1 transcripts and the NK1 protein localization in the membrane of a sub-population of CGCs. Moreover, SP significantly and dose-dependently reduced the Akt 1/2 and Erk1/2 dephosphorylation induced by S-K5 conditions, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. Surprisingly, in SP-treated CGCs caspase-3 activity was not inhibited, while the calpain-1 activity was moderately reduced. Corroborating this result, SP blocked calpain-mediated cleavage of tau protein, as demonstrated by the reduced appearance of a diagnostic fragment of 17 kDa by Western blot analysis. In addition, SP induced a significant reduction of the delayed rectifier K+ currents (Ik) in about 42% of the patched neurons, when these were evoked with depolarizing potential steps. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that the activation of NK1 receptors expressed in CGCs promote the neuronal survival via pathways involving Akt and Erk activation and by inhibition of Ik which can contribute to the neuroprotective effect of the peptide.

  12. Inward rectifier potassium current (I K1) and Kir2 composition of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Minna; Haverinen, Jaakko; Hardy, Matt E; Shiels, Holly A; Vornanen, Matti

    2015-12-01

    Electrophysiological properties and molecular background of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiac inward rectifier current (IK1) were examined. Ventricular myocytes of zebrafish have a robust (-6.7 ± 1.2 pA pF(-1) at -120 mV) strongly rectifying and Ba(2+)-sensitive (IC50 = 3.8 μM) IK1. Transcripts of six Kir2 channels (drKir2.1a, drKir2.1b, drKir2.2a, drKir2.2b, drKir2.3, and drKir2.4) were expressed in the zebrafish heart. drKir2.4 and drKir2.2a were the dominant isoforms in both the ventricle (92.9 ± 1.5 and 6.3 ± 1.5%) and the atrium (28.9 ± 2.9 and 64.7 ± 3.0%). The remaining four channels comprised together less than 1 and 7 % of the total transcripts in ventricle and atrium, respectively. The four main gene products (drKir2.1a, drKir2.2a, drKir2.2b, drKir2.4) were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in HEK cells for electrophysiological characterization. drKir2.1a was the most weakly rectifying (passed more outward current) and drKir2.2b the most strongly rectifying (passed less outward current) channel, whilst drKir2.2a and drKir2.4 were intermediate between the two. In regard to sensitivity to Ba(2+) block, drKir2.4 was the most sensitive (IC50 = 1.8 μM) and drKir2.1a the least sensitive channel (IC50 = 132 μM). These findings indicate that the Kir2 isoform composition of the zebrafish heart markedly differs from that of mammalian hearts. Furthermore orthologous Kir2 channels (Kir2.1 and Kir2.4) of zebrafish and mammals show striking differences in Ba(2+)-sensitivity. Structural and functional differences needs to be taken into account when zebrafish is used as a model for human cardiac electrophysiology, cardiac diseases, and in screening cardioactive substances.

  13. Low Resting Membrane Potential and Low Inward Rectifier Potassium Currents Are Not Inherent Features of hiPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Horváth, András; Lemoine, Marc D; Löser, Alexandra; Mannhardt, Ingra; Flenner, Frederik; Uzun, Ahmet Umur; Neuber, Christiane; Breckwoldt, Kaja; Hansen, Arne; Girdauskas, Evaldas; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Willems, Stephan; Jost, Norbert; Wettwer, Erich; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2018-03-13

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) cardiomyocytes (CMs) show less negative resting membrane potential (RMP), which is attributed to small inward rectifier currents (I K1 ). Here, I K1 was measured in hiPSC-CMs (proprietary and commercial cell line) cultured as monolayer (ML) or 3D engineered heart tissue (EHT) and, for direct comparison, in CMs from human right atrial (RA) and left ventricular (LV) tissue. RMP was measured in isolated cells and intact tissues. I K1 density in ML- and EHT-CMs from the proprietary line was similar to LV and RA, respectively. I K1 density in EHT-CMs from the commercial line was 2-fold smaller than in the proprietary line. RMP in EHT of both lines was similar to RA and LV. Repolarization fraction and I K,ACh response discriminated best between RA and LV and indicated predominantly ventricular phenotype in hiPSC-CMs/EHT. The data indicate that I K1 is not necessarily low in hiPSC-CMs, and technical issues may underlie low RMP in hiPSC-CMs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium-activated potassium currents in long-term cardiac memory in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dechun; Chen, Mu; Yang, Na; Wu, Adonis Z; Xu, Dongzhu; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Yuan, Yuan; Tian, Zhipeng; Chan, Yi-Hsin; Shen, Changyu; Chen, Zhenhui; Lin, Shien-Fong; Weiss, James N; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Everett, Thomas H

    2018-05-01

    Apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium-activated K current (I KAS ) is up-regulated during ventricular pacing and masks short-term cardiac memory (CM). The purpose of this study was to determine the role of I KAS in long-term CM. CM was created with 3-5 weeks of ventricular pacing and defined by a flat or inverted T wave off pacing. Epicardial optical mapping was performed in both paced and normal ventricles. Action potential duration (APD 80 ) was determined during right atrial pacing. Ventricular stability was tested before and after I KAS blockade. Four paced hearts and 4 normal hearts were used for western blotting and histology. There were no significant differences in either echocardiographic parameters or fibrosis levels between groups. Apamin induced more APD 80 prolongation in CM than in normal ventricles (mean [95% confidence interval]: 9.6% [8.8%-10.5%] vs 3.1% [1.9%-4.3%]; P <.001). Apamin significantly lengthened APD 80 in the CM model at late activation sites, indicating significant I KAS up-regulation at those sites. The CM model also had altered Ca 2+ handling, with the 50% Ca 2+ transient duration and amplitude increased at distal sites compared to a proximal site (near the pacing site). After apamin, the CM model had increased ventricular fibrillation (VF) inducibility (paced vs control: 33/40 (82.5%) vs 7/20 (35%); P <.001) and longer VF durations (124 vs 26 seconds; P <.001). Chronic ventricular pacing increases Ca 2+ transients at late activation sites, which activates I KAS to maintain repolarization reserve. I KAS blockade increases VF vulnerability in chronically paced rabbit ventricles. Copyright © 2018 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium cyanate-induced opening of calcium-activated potassium currents in hippocampal neuron-derived H19-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ching; Huang, Mei-Han; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Hsieh, Yi-Jung

    2005-03-29

    We investigated the chemical toxic agent sodium cyanate (NaOCN) on the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(Ca)) on hippocampal neuron-derived H19-7 cells. The whole-cell and cell-attach configuration of patch-clamp technique were applied to investigate the BK(Ca) currents in H19-7 cells in the presence of NaOCN (0.3 mM). NaOCN activated BK(Ca) channels on H19-7 cells. The single-channel conductance of BK(Ca) channels was 138+/-7pS. The presence of NaOCN (0.3 mM) caused an obvious increase in open probability of BK(Ca) channels. NaOCN did not exert effect on the slope of the activation curve and stimulated the activity of BK(Ca) channels in a voltage-dependent fashion in H19-7 cells. The presence of paxilline or EGTA significantly reduced the BK(Ca) amplitude, in comparison with the presence of NaOCN. These findings suggest that during NaOCN exposure, the activation of BK(Ca) channels in neurons could be one of the ionic mechanisms underlying the decreased neuronal excitability and neurological disorders.

  16. 78 FR 58868 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by Agusta Westland S.p.A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by Agusta Westland S.p.A) (Agusta... Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains... standard maintenance regulations. For helicopters with T/R hub and blade assembly, part number (P/N) 109...

  17. The Role of Apamin Sensitive Calcium Activated Small Conductance Potassium Currents on the Mechanisms of Ventricular Fibrillation in Pacing Induced Failing Rabbit Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dechun; Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Wu, Adonis Zhi-Yang; Jiang, Zhaolei; Chan, Yi-Hsin; Xu, Dongzhu; Yang, Na; Shen, Changyu; Chen, Zhenhui; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Everett, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ventricular fibrillation (VF) during heart failure is characterized by stable reentrant spiral waves (rotors). Apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium activated potassium currents (IKAS) are heterogeneously up-regulated in failing hearts. We hypothesized that IKAS influences the location and stability of rotors during VF. Methods and Results Optical mapping was performed on 9 rabbit hearts with pacing induced heart failure. The epicardial RV and LV were simultaneously mapped in a Langendorff preparation. At baseline and after apamin (100 nmol/L) infusion, the APD80 was determined and VF was induced. Areas with a greater than 50% increase in the maximum APD (ΔAPD) after apamin were considered to have a high IKAS distribution. At baseline, the distribution density of phase singularities (PS) during VF in high IKAS distribution areas was higher than in other areas (0.0035±.0011 vs 0.0014±0.0010 PS/pixel, P=0.004). In addition, high dominant frequencies (DF) also co-localized to high IKAS distribution areas (26.0 vs 17.9 Hz, P=0.003). These correlations were eliminated during VF after apamin infusion, as the number of PS (17.2 versus 11.0, P=0.009), and DFs (22.1 vs 16.2 Hz, P=0.022), were all significantly decreased. In addition, reentrant spiral waves became unstable after apamin infusion and the duration of VF decreased. Conclusions The IKAS current influences the mechanism of VF in failing hearts as PS, high DFs, and reentrant spiral waves all correlated to areas of high IKAS. Apamin eliminated this relationship and reduced VF vulnerability. PMID:28213506

  18. Attenuation of ischemia/reperfusion-induced inhibition of the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium current by Isosteviol through scavenging reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunxia; Chen, Yaoxu; Wu, Huanlin; Xu, Danping; Tan, Wen

    2017-12-01

    Isosteviol has been demonstrated to play a protective role during ischemia reperfusion (I/R) myocardial infarction. However, the underlying electrophysiological mechanisms of isosteviol are still unknown. Our previous study showed that the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel (I Kr ) plays an important role in the prolongation of I/R-induced QT interval-related arrhythmia. This study aimed to investigate whether isosteviol could attenuate I/R-induced prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) along with inhibition of I Kr , and we aimed to clarify the electrophysiological mechanism of isosteviol to determine its cardioprotective effects in guinea pigs. We observed that the APD 90 were 298.5±41.6ms in control, 528.6±56.7ms during I/R, and reduced to 327.8±40.5ms after 10μmol/L of isosteviol treatment. The I Kr currents were 1.44±0.06 pA·pF -1 in the control group, 0.50±0.07pA·pF -1 during I/R, and recovered to 1.20±0.12pA·pF -1 after 10μmol/L of isoteviol treatment. Moreover, isosteviol reduced the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during I/R. Importantly, isosteviol does not affect the I Kr and human ether-a-go-go-related gene currents of normal cardiomyocytes. It attenuated the I/R-induced inhibition of I Kr due to reduced over-production of ROS. Furthermore, isosteviol is safe and has no cardiotoxicity, and it might be beneficial for coronary reperfusion therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. KChIP1 modulation of Kv4.3-mediated A-type K(+) currents and repetitive firing in hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, M L; Laplante, I; Laurent, C E; Lacaille, J-C

    2011-03-10

    Neuronal A-type K(+) channels regulate action potential waveform, back-propagation and firing frequency. In hippocampal CA1 interneurons located at the stratum lacunosum-moleculare/radiatum junction (LM/RAD), Kv4.3 mediates A-type K(+) currents and a Kv4 β-subunit of the Kv channel interacting protein (KChIP) family, KChIP1, appears specifically expressed in these cells. However, the functional role of this accessory subunit in A-type K(+) currents and interneuron excitability remains largely unknown. Thus, first we studied KChIP1 and Kv4.3 channel interactions in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and determined that KChIP1 coexpression modulated the biophysical properties of Kv4.3 A-type currents (faster recovery from inactivation, leftward shift of activation curve, faster rise time and slower decay) and this modulation was selectively prevented by KChIP1 short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. Next, we evaluated the effects of KChIP1 down-regulation by siRNA on A-type K(+) currents in LM/RAD interneurons in slice cultures. Recovery from inactivation of A-type K(+) currents was slower after KChIP1 down-regulation but other properties were unchanged. In addition, down-regulation of KChIP1 levels did not affect action potential waveform and firing, but increased firing frequency during suprathreshold depolarizations, indicating that KChIP1 regulates interneuron excitability. The effects of KChIP1 down-regulation were cell-specific since CA1 pyramidal cells that do not express KChIP1 were unaffected. Overall, our findings suggest that KChIP1 interacts with Kv4.3 in LM/RAD interneurons, enabling faster recovery from inactivation of A-type currents and thus promoting stronger inhibitory control of firing during sustained activity. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A-type voltage-gated K+ currents influence firing properties of isolectin B4-positive but not isolectin B4-negative primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Wu, Zi-Zhen; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2005-06-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv) in primary sensory neurons are important for regulation of neuronal excitability. The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are heterogeneous, and the types of native Kv currents in different groups of nociceptive DRG neurons are not fully known. In this study, we determined the difference in the A-type Kv current and its influence on the firing properties between isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive and -negative DRG neurons. Whole cell voltage- and current-clamp recordings were performed on acutely dissociated small DRG neurons of rats. The total Kv current density was significantly higher in IB+-positive than that in IB(4)-negative neurons. Also, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) produced a significantly greater reduction in Kv currents in IB4-positive than in IB4-negative neurons. In contrast, IB4-negative neurons exhibited a larger proportion of tetraethylammonium-sensitive Kv currents. Furthermore, IB4-positive neurons showed a longer latency of firing and required a significantly larger amount of current injection to evoke action potentials. 4-AP significantly decreased the latency of firing and increased the firing frequency in IB4-positive but not in IB4-negative neurons. Additionally, IB4-positive neurons are immunoreactive to Kv1.4 but not to Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 subunits. Collectively, this study provides new information that 4-AP-sensitive A-type Kv currents are mainly present in IB4-positive DRG neurons and preferentially dampen the initiation of action potentials of this subpopulation of nociceptors. The difference in the density of A-type Kv currents contributes to the distinct electrophysiological properties of IB4-positive and -negative DRG neurons.

  1. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  2. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li; Xiao, Jun; Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai; Xiu, Yun; She, Qiang

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (Ito) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM + TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg-1·day-1). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of Ito was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated Ito reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced Ito of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM.

  3. Inverse Correlation between the Atrial Fibrillatory Rate and the Ventricular Repolarization Time: Observations at Baseline and after an Intravenous Infusion of a Combined Potassium and Sodium Current Blocker.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Nils; Aunes, Maria; Frison, Lars; Berggren, Anders R

    2016-05-01

    The atrial fibrillatory rate (AFR) and the ventricular rate and repolarization (QTcF) were studied at baseline and under the influence of the combined potassium and sodium current blocker AZD7009. Ninety-two patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) were randomized to an intravenous infusion of AZD7009 or placebo. The atrial fibrillatory activity in lead V1 was extracted using spatiotemporal QRST cancellation. The exponential decay (ED) characterized the degree of atrial signal organization. The mean (SD) AFR at baseline was 396  ±  57 (range 253-584) and 410 ± 33 (range 363-469) bpm in patients randomized to AZD7009 and placebo, respectively. The AFR decreased within the first minutes of the AZD7009 infusion and reached its minimum of 235 ± 34 bpm after 18 minutes. On placebo, the AFR was unchanged. On AZD7009, the ED decreased from 1.2 ± 0.3 to reach its lowest level at 0.7 ± 0.2 after 14 minutes. The ventricular rate did not change significantly over time. The AFR was statistically significantly related to the ventricular repolarization at baseline, the QTcF being longer at lower AFR values, and this relationship remained during and after AZD7009. In the full multivariate linear regression model, including age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, QRS duration, heart rate, QTcF, AF episode duration, AF history duration, and right atrial or left atrial size, only QTcF and age were statistically significantly correlated with the AFR. The correlation remained when the uncorrected QT interval was used. The QTcF was inversely correlated with AFR, both at baseline and during administration of AZD7009. The AFR was not correlated with the ventricular rate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Electrical remodelling maintains firing properties in cortical pyramidal neurons lacking KCND2-encoded A-type K+ currents.

    PubMed

    Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Gerber, Benjamin R; Norris, Aaron; Burkhalter, Andreas

    2008-03-15

    Considerable experimental evidence has accumulated demonstrating a role for voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel pore-forming (alpha) subunits of the Kv4 subfamily in the generation of fast transient outward K(+), I(A), channels. Immunohistochemical data suggest that I(A) channels in hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons reflect the expression of homomeric Kv4.2 channels. The experiments here were designed to define directly the role of Kv4.2 in the generation of I(A) in cortical pyramidal neurons and to determine the functional consequences of the targeted deletion of Kv4.2 on the resting and active membrane properties of these cells. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, obtained from visual cortical pyramidal neurons isolated from mice in which the KCND2 (Kv4.2) locus was disrupted (Kv4.2-/- mice), revealed that I(A) is indeed eliminated. In addition, the densities of other Kv current components, specifically I(K) and I(ss), are increased significantly (P < 0.001) in most ( approximately 80%) Kv4.2-/- cells. The deletion of KCND2 (Kv4.2) and the elimination of I(A) is also accompanied by the loss of the Kv4 channel accessory protein KChIP3, suggesting that in the absence of Kv4.2, the KChIP3 protein is targeted for degradation. The expression levels of several Kv alpha subunits (Kv4.3, Kv1.4, Kv2.1, Kv2.2), however, are not measurably altered in Kv4.2-/- cortices. Although I(A) is eliminated in Kv4.2-/- pyramidal neurons, the mean +/- s.e.m. current threshold for action potential generation and the waveforms of action potentials are indistinguishable from those recorded from wild-type cells. Repetitive firing is also maintained in Kv4.2-/- cortical pyramidal neurons, suggesting that the increased densities of I(K) and I(ss) compensate for the in vivo loss of I(A).

  5. BmTx3, a scorpion toxin with two putative functional faces separately active on A-type K+ and HERG currents.

    PubMed

    Huys, Isabelle; Xu, Chen-Qi; Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Vacher, Hélène; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Chi, Cheng-Wu; Tytgat, Jan

    2004-03-15

    A novel HERG channel blocker was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, sequenced and characterized at the pharmacological level after chemical synthesis. According to the determined amino acid sequence, the cDNA and genomic genes were then cloned. The genomic gene consists of two exons interrupted by an intron of 65 bp at position -6 upstream from the mature toxin. The protein sequence of this toxin was completely identical with that of a known A-type K+ current blocker BmTx3, belonging to scorpion alpha-KTx subfamily 15. Thus BmTx3 is the first reported alpha-KTx peptide also showing HERG-blocking activity, like gamma-KTx peptides. Moreover, different from classical alpha-KTx peptides, such as charybdotoxin, BmTx3 cannot block Shaker -type K+ channels. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that this toxin takes an intermediate position between classical alpha-KTx and gamma-KTx toxins. From a structural point of view, we propose that two separate functional faces might exist on the BmTx3 molecule, responsible for the two different K+-current-blocking functions. Face A, composed of Arg18 and Lys19 in the alpha-helix side, might correspond to HERG blocking activity, whereas Face B, containing a putative functional dyad (Lys27 and Tyr36) in the beta-sheet side, might correspond to A-type blocking activity. A specific deletion mutant with the disrupted Face B, BmTx3-Y36P37del, loses the A-type current-blocking activity, but keeps a similar HERG-blocking activity, as seen with the wild-type toxin.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient... current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient... current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient... current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient... current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  10. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... of low potassium level include: Medicines, such as diuretics (water pills), certain antibiotics Diarrhea or vomiting Using ... potassium through a vein (IV). If you need diuretics, your provider may: Switch you to a form ...

  11. Hyperkalemia (High Potassium)

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High potassium (hyperkalemia) By Mayo Clinic Staff Hyperkalemia is the medical term that describes a potassium level in your blood that's higher ... medications or dialysis. If you have symptoms of hyperkalemia, particularly if you have kidney disease or are ...

  12. Penicillin V Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    Penicillin V potassium is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other ... heart valves and other symptoms) from coming back. Penicillin V potassium is in a class of medications ...

  13. Intraneuronal Aβ accumulation induces hippocampal neuron hyperexcitability through A-type K(+) current inhibition mediated by activation of caspases and GSK-3.

    PubMed

    Scala, Federico; Fusco, Salvatore; Ripoli, Cristian; Piacentini, Roberto; Li Puma, Domenica Donatella; Spinelli, Matteo; Laezza, Fernanda; Grassi, Claudio; D'Ascenzo, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) pathologies have been linked to dysfunction of excitability in neurons of the hippocampal circuit, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. Here, we applied whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to primary hippocampal neurons and show that intracellular Aβ42 delivery leads to increased spike discharge and action potential broadening through downregulation of A-type K(+) currents. Pharmacologic studies showed that caspases and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) activation are required for these Aβ42-induced effects. Extracellular perfusion and subsequent internalization of Aβ42 increase spike discharge and promote GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation of the Kv4.2 α-subunit, a molecular determinant of A-type K(+) currents, at Ser-616. In acute hippocampal slices derived from an adult triple-transgenic Alzheimer's mouse model, characterized by endogenous intracellular accumulation of Aβ42, CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibit hyperexcitability accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Kv4.2 at Ser-616. Collectively, these data suggest that intraneuronal Aβ42 accumulation leads to an intracellular cascade culminating into caspases activation and GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation of Kv4.2 channels. These findings provide new insights into the toxic mechanisms triggered by intracellular Aβ42 and offer potentially new therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intraneuronal Aβ accumulation induces hippocampal neuron hyperexcitability through A-type K+ current inhibition mediated by activation of caspases and GSK-3

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Federico; Fusco, Salvatore; Ripoli, Cristian; Piacentini, Roberto; Li Puma, Domenica Donatella; Spinelli, Matteo; Laezza, Fernanda; Grassi, Claudio; D’Ascenzo, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) pathologies have been linked to dysfunction of excitability in neurons of the hippocampal circuit, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. Here, we applied whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to primary hippocampal neurons and show that intracellular Aβ42 delivery leads to increased spike discharge and action potential broadening through downregulation of A-type K+ currents. Pharmacologic studies showed that caspases and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) activation are required for these Aβ42-induced effects. Extracellular perfusion and subsequent internalization of Aβ42 increase spike discharge and promote GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation of the Kv4.2 α-subunit, a molecular determinant of A-type K+ currents, at Ser-616. In acute hippocampal slices derived from an adult triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s mouse model, characterized by endogenous intracellular accumulation of Aβ42, CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibit hyperexcitability accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Kv4.2 at Ser-616. Collectively, these data suggest that intraneuronal Aβ42 accumulation leads to an intracellular cascade culminating into caspases activation and GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation of Kv4.2 channels. These findings provide new insights into the toxic mechanisms triggered by intracellular Aβ42 and offer potentially new therapeutic targets for Alzheimer’s disease treatment. PMID:25541422

  15. Incorporation of DPP6a and DPP6K variants in ternary Kv4 channel complex reconstitutes properties of A-type K current in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Henry H; Pfaffinger, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6) proteins co-assemble with Kv4 channel α-subunits and Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) to form channel protein complexes underlying neuronal somatodendritic A-type potassium current (I(SA)). DPP6 proteins are expressed as N-terminal variants (DPP6a, DPP6K, DPP6S, DPP6L) that result from alternative mRNA initiation and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. Here, we study the role DPP6 variants play in shaping the functional properties of I(SA) found in cerebellar granule (CG) cells using quantitative RT-PCR and voltage-clamp recordings of whole-cell currents from reconstituted channel complexes and native I(SA) channels. Differential expression of DPP6 variants was detected in rat CG cells, with DPP6K (41 ± 3%)>DPP6a (33 ± 3%)>DPP6S (18 ± 2%)>DPP6L (8 ± 3%). To better understand how DPP6 variants shape native neuronal I(SA), we focused on studying interactions between the two dominant variants, DPP6K and DPP6a. Although previous studies did not identify unique functional effects of DPP6K, we find that the unique N-terminus of DPP6K modulates the effects of KChIP proteins, slowing recovery and producing a negative shift in the steady-state inactivation curve. By contrast, DPP6a uses its distinct N-terminus to directly confer rapid N-type inactivation independently of KChIP3a. When DPP6a and DPP6K are co-expressed in ratios similar to those found in CG cells, their distinct effects compete in modulating channel function. The more rapid inactivation from DPP6a dominates during strong depolarization; however, DPP6K produces a negative shift in the steady-state inactivation curve and introduces a slow phase of recovery from inactivation. A direct comparison to the native CG cell I(SA) shows that these mixed effects are present in the native channels. Our results support the hypothesis that the precise expression and co-assembly of different auxiliary subunit variants are important factors in shaping the I

  16. Auxiliary KChIP4a Suppresses A-type K+ Current through Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Retention and Promoting Closed-state Inactivation of Kv4 Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-Quan; Liang, Ping; Zhou, Jingheng; Lu, Yanxin; Lei, Lei; Bian, Xiling; Wang, KeWei

    2013-01-01

    In the brain and heart, auxiliary Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) co-assemble with pore-forming Kv4 α-subunits to form a native K+ channel complex and regulate the expression and gating properties of Kv4 currents. Among the KChIP1–4 members, KChIP4a exhibits a unique N terminus that is known to suppress Kv4 function, but the underlying mechanism of Kv4 inhibition remains unknown. Using a combination of confocal imaging, surface biotinylation, and electrophysiological recordings, we identified a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motif, consisting of six hydrophobic and aliphatic residues, 12–17 (LIVIVL), within the KChIP4a N-terminal KID, that functions to reduce surface expression of Kv4-KChIP complexes. This ER retention capacity is transferable and depends on its flanking location. In addition, adjacent to the ER retention motif, the residues 19–21 (VKL motif) directly promote closed-state inactivation of Kv4.3, thus leading to an inhibition of channel current. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that KChIP4a suppresses A-type Kv4 current via ER retention and enhancement of Kv4 closed-state inactivation. PMID:23576435

  17. Auxiliary KChIP4a suppresses A-type K+ current through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and promoting closed-state inactivation of Kv4 channels.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Quan; Liang, Ping; Zhou, Jingheng; Lu, Yanxin; Lei, Lei; Bian, Xiling; Wang, KeWei

    2013-05-24

    In the brain and heart, auxiliary Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) co-assemble with pore-forming Kv4 α-subunits to form a native K(+) channel complex and regulate the expression and gating properties of Kv4 currents. Among the KChIP1-4 members, KChIP4a exhibits a unique N terminus that is known to suppress Kv4 function, but the underlying mechanism of Kv4 inhibition remains unknown. Using a combination of confocal imaging, surface biotinylation, and electrophysiological recordings, we identified a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motif, consisting of six hydrophobic and aliphatic residues, 12-17 (LIVIVL), within the KChIP4a N-terminal KID, that functions to reduce surface expression of Kv4-KChIP complexes. This ER retention capacity is transferable and depends on its flanking location. In addition, adjacent to the ER retention motif, the residues 19-21 (VKL motif) directly promote closed-state inactivation of Kv4.3, thus leading to an inhibition of channel current. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that KChIP4a suppresses A-type Kv4 current via ER retention and enhancement of Kv4 closed-state inactivation.

  18. Nicotine is a potent blocker of the cardiac A-type K(+) channels. Effects on cloned Kv4.3 channels and native transient outward current.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Shi, H; Zhang, L; Pourrier, M; Yang, B; Nattel, S; Wang, Z

    2000-09-05

    Nicotine is a main constituent of cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco, known to increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. This study aimed at establishing ionic mechanisms underlying potential electrophysiological effects of nicotine. Effects of nicotine on Kv4.3 and Kv4.2 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes were studied at the whole-cell and single-channel levels. The effects of nicotine on the transient outward K(+) current (I:(to)) were studied by use of whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in canine ventricular myocytes. Nicotine potently inhibited Kv4 current. The concentration for half-maximal inhibition (IC(50)) was 40+/-4 nmol/L, and the current was abolished by 100 micromol/L nicotine. The IC(50) for block of native I:(to) was 270+/-43 nmol/L. The steady-state activation properties of Kv4.3 and I:(to) were unaltered by nicotine, whereas positive shifts of the inactivation curves were observed. Of the total inhibition of Kv4.3 and I:(to) by nicotine, 40% was due to tonic block and 60% was attributable to use-dependent block. Activation, inactivation, and reactivation kinetics were not significantly changed by nicotine. Nicotine reduced single-channel conductance, open probability, and open time but increased the closed time of Kv4.3. The effects of nicotine were not altered by antagonists to various neurotransmitter receptors, indicating direct effects on I:(to) channels. Nicotine is a potent inhibitor of cardiac A-type K(+) channels, with blockade probably due to block of closed and open channels. This action may contribute to the ability of nicotine to affect cardiac electrophysiology and induce arrhythmias.

  19. Regulation of inward rectifier potassium current ionic channel remodeling by AT1 -Calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway in stretch-induced hypertrophic atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    He, Jionghong; Xu, Yanan; Yang, Long; Xia, Guiling; Deng, Na; Yang, Yongyao; Tian, Ye; Fu, Zenan; Huang, Yongqi

    2018-05-02

    Previous studies have shown that the activation of angiotensin II receptor type I (AT 1 ) is attributed to cardiac remodeling stimulated by increased heart load, and that it is followed by the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling pathway. Additionally, AT 1 has been found to be a regulator of cardiocyte ionic channel remodeling, and calcineurin-NFAT signals participate in the regulation of cardiocyte ionic channel expression. A hypothesis therefore follows that stretch stimulation may regulate cardiocyte ionic channel remodeling by activating the AT 1 -calcineurin-NFAT pathway. Here, we investigated the role of the AT 1 -calcineurin-NFAT pathway in the remodeling of inward rectifier potassium (I k1 ) channel, in addition to its role in changing action potential, in stretch-induced hypertrophic atrial myocytes of neonatal rats. Our results showed that increased stretch significantly led to atrial myocytes hypertrophy; it also increased the activity of calcineurin enzymatic activity, which was subsequently attenuated by telmisartan or cyclosporine-A. The level of NFAT 3 protein in nuclear extracts, the mRNA and protein expression of Kir2.1 in whole cell extracts, and the density of I k1 were noticeably increased in stretched samples. Stretch stimulation significantly shortened the action potential duration (APD) of repolarization at the 50% and 90% level. Telmisartan, cyclosporine-A, and 11R-VIVIT attenuated stretch-induced alterations in the levels of NFAT 3 , mRNA and protein expression of Kir2.1, the density of I k1 , and the APD. Our findings suggest that the AT 1 -calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway played an important role in regulating I k1 channel remodeling and APD change in stretch-induced hypertrophic atrial myocytes of neonatal rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  1. Potassium Loss during Galvanotaxis of Slime Mold

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John D.

    1962-01-01

    The posterior reticulated regions of the plasmodia of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, whose migration has been oriented by direct current (3.0 to 5.0 µa/mm2 in the agar substrate), contain 30 per cent less potassium than the advancing non-reticulated region. The anterior regions have the same potassium concentration as that of the controls, approximately 32 meq/kg wet weight. Differences in potassium concentration between anterior and posterior regions of control plasmodia, not oriented by electric current, are less than 5 per cent. Sodium, in contrast to potassium, is generally less concentrated in the anterior than in the posterior regions of electrically oriented plasmodia, but sodium concentrations are extremely variable. No significant difference in protein concentration was found between oriented and control plasmodia. Thirty-five per cent of the total potassium, but none of the sodium, is found in acidified ethanol precipitates from plasmodial homogenates. Potassium, but not sodium, appears to be closely associated with processes which differentiate anterior from posterior in an oriented plasmodium. PMID:13861244

  2. Biophysical mechanism of spike threshold dependence on the rate of rise of the membrane potential by sodium channel inactivation or subthreshold axonal potassium current

    PubMed Central

    Wester, Jason C.

    2013-01-01

    Spike threshold filters incoming inputs and thus gates activity flow through neuronal networks. Threshold is variable, and in many types of neurons there is a relationship between the threshold voltage and the rate of rise of the membrane potential (dVm/dt) leading to the spike. In primary sensory cortex this relationship enhances the sensitivity of neurons to a particular stimulus feature. While Na+ channel inactivation may contribute to this relationship, recent evidence indicates that K+ currents located in the spike initiation zone are crucial. Here we used a simple Hodgkin-Huxley biophysical model to systematically investigate the role of K+ and Na+ current parameters (activation voltages and kinetics) in regulating spike threshold as a function of dVm/dt. Threshold was determined empirically and not estimated from the shape of the Vm prior to a spike. This allowed us to investigate intrinsic currents and values of gating variables at the precise voltage threshold. We found that Na+ inactivation is sufficient to produce the relationship provided it occurs at hyperpolarized voltages combined with slow kinetics. Alternatively, hyperpolarization of the K+ current activation voltage, even in the absence of Na+ inactivation, is also sufficient to produce the relationship. This hyperpolarized shift of K+ activation allows an outward current prior to spike initiation to antagonize the Na+ inward current such that it becomes self-sustaining at a more depolarized voltage. Our simulations demonstrate parameter constraints on Na+ inactivation and the biophysical mechanism by which an outward current regulates spike threshold as a function of dVm/dt. PMID:23344915

  3. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... dishwasher soaps Some forms of potash (material from wood ashes that is used in fertilizers) Some home ... several weeks after the potassium carbonate was swallowed. Death from complications may occur up to several months ...

  5. Potassium: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Rodan, Aylin R

    2017-07-01

    The kidney plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis of ion concentrations in the blood. Because the concentration gradient of potassium across the cell membrane is a key determinant of the membrane potential of cells, even small deviations in serum potassium level from the normal setpoint can lead to severe muscle dysfunction, resulting in respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Less severe hypo- and hyperkalemia are also associated with morbidity and mortality across various patient populations. In addition, deficiencies in potassium intake have been associated with hypertension and adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes, likely due in part to the interrelated handling of sodium and potassium by the kidney. Here, data on the beneficial effects of potassium on blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal outcomes will be reviewed, along with the physiological basis for these effects. In some patient populations, however, potassium excess is deleterious. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia will be reviewed, as well as the risks and benefits of existing and emerging therapies for hyperkalemia.

  6. Protein kinase C epsilon mediates the inhibition of angiotensin II on the slowly activating delayed-rectifier potassium current through channel phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Gou, Xiangbo; Wang, Wenying; Zou, Sihao; Qi, Yajuan; Xu, Yanfang

    2018-03-01

    The slowly activating delayed rectifier K + current (I Ks ) is one of the main repolarizing currents in the human heart. Evidence has shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates I Ks through the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, but the related results are controversial. This study was designed to identify PKC isoenzymes involved in the regulation of I Ks by Ang II and the underlying molecular mechanism. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record I Ks in isolated guinea pig ventricular cardiomyocytes and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells co-transfected with human KCNQ1/KCNE1 genes and Ang II type 1 receptor genes. Ang II inhibited I Ks in a concentration-dependent manner in native cardiomyocytes. A broad PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (not inhibiting PKCε) and a selective cPKC inhibitor Gö6976 did not affect the inhibitory action of Ang II. In contrast, the inhibition was significantly attenuated by PKCε-selective peptide inhibitor εV1-2. However, direct activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased the cloned human I Ks in HEK293 cells. Similarly, the cPKC peptide activator significantly enhanced the current. In contrast, the PKCε peptide activator inhibited the current. Further evidence showed that PKCε knockdown by siRNA antagonized the Ang II-induced inhibition on KCNQ1/KCNE1 current, whereas knockdown of cPKCs (PKCα and PKCβ) attenuated the potentiation of the current by PMA. Moreover, deletion of four putative phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus of KCNQ1 abolished the action of PMA. Mutation of two putative phosphorylation sites in the N-terminus of KCNQ1 and one site in KCNE1 (S102) blocked the inhibition of Ang II. Our results demonstrate that PKCε isoenzyme mediates the inhibitory action of Ang II on I Ks and by phosphorylating distinct sites in KCNQ1/KCNE1, cPKC and PKCε isoenzymes produce the contrary regulatory effects on the channel. These findings have provided new insight into the molecular mechanism

  7. Estradiol-modified prolactin secretion independently of action potentials and Ca2+ and blockade of outward potassium currents in GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Manuel; Suárez, Lorena; Cantabrana, Begoña; Bordallo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Estrogens facilitate prolactin (PRL) secretion acting on pituitary cells. In GH 3 cells, estradiol induces acute action potentials and oscillations of intracellular Ca 2+ associated with the secretagogue function. Estradiol modulates several ion channels which may affect the action potential rate and the release of PRL in lactotroph cells, which might depend on its concentration. The aims were to characterize the acute effect of supraphysiological concentrations of estradiol on Ca 2+ and noninactivating K + currents and measure the effect on the spontaneous action potentials and PRL release in the somatolactotroph cell line, GH 3 . Electrophysiological studies were carried out by voltage- and current-clamp techniques and ELISA determination of PRL secretion. Pharmacological concentrations of estradiol (above 1 μM), without a latency period, blocked Ca 2+ channels and noninactivating K + currents, including the large-conductance voltage- and Ca 2+ -activated K + channels (BK), studied in whole-cell nystatin perforated and in excided inside-out patches of GH 3 and CHO cells, transiently transfected with the human α-pore forming subunit of BK. The effect on BK was contrary to the agonist effect associated with the regulatory β 1 -subunits of the BK, which GH 3 cells lack, but its transient transfection did not modify the noninactivating current blockade, suggesting a different mechanism of regulation. Estradiol, at the same concentration range, acutely decreased the frequency of action potentials, an expected effect as consequence of the Ca 2+ channel blockade. Despite this, PRL secretion initially increased, followed by a decrease in long-term incubations. This suggests that, in GH 3 cells, supraphysiological concentrations of estradiol modulating PRL secretion are partially independent of extracellular Ca 2+ influx.

  8. Low-affinity spermine block mediating outward currents through Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 inward rectifier potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Keiko; Yan, Ding-Hong

    2007-01-01

    The outward component of the strong inward rectifier K+ current (IKir) plays a pivotal role in polarizing the membranes of excitable and non-excitable cells and is regulated by voltage-dependent channel block by internal cations. Using the Kir2.1 channel, we previously showed that a small fraction of the conductance susceptible only to a low-affinity mode of block likely carries a large portion of the outward current. To further examine the relevance of the low-affinity block to outward IKir and to explore its molecular mechanism, we studied the block of the Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels by spermine, which is the principal Kir2 channel blocker. Current–voltage relations of outward Kir2.2 currents showed a peak, a plateau and two peaks in the presence of 10, 1 and 0.1 μm spermine, respectively, which was explained by the presence of two conductances that differ in their susceptibility to spermine block. When the current–voltage relations showed one peak, like those of native IKir, outward Kir2.2 currents were mediated mostly by the conductance susceptible to the low-affinity block. They also flowed in a narrower range than the corresponding Kir2.1 currents, because of 3- to 4-fold greater susceptibility to the low-affinity block than in Kir2.1. Reducing external [K+] shifted the voltage dependences of both the high- and low-affinity block of Kir2.1 in parallel with the shift in the reversal potential, confirming the importance of the low-affinity block in mediating outward IKir. When Kir2.1 mutants known to have reduced sensitivity to internal blockers were examined, the D172N mutation in the transmembrane pore region made almost all of the conductance susceptible only to low-affinity block, while the E224G mutation in the cytoplasmic pore region reduced the sensitivity to low-affinity block without markedly altering that to the high-affinity block or the high/low conductance ratio. The effects of these mutations support the hypothesis that Kir2 channels exist in

  9. Kv7.5 Potassium Channel Subunits Are the Primary Targets for PKA-Dependent Enhancement of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7 Currents.

    PubMed

    Mani, Bharath K; Robakowski, Christina; Brueggemann, Lyubov I; Cribbs, Leanne L; Tripathi, Abhishek; Majetschak, Matthias; Byron, Kenneth L

    2016-03-01

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels, formed as homo- or heterotetramers of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 α-subunits, are important regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) membrane voltage. Recent studies demonstrate that direct pharmacological modulation of VSMC Kv7 channel activity can influence blood vessel contractility and diameter. However, the physiologic regulation of Kv7 channel activity is still poorly understood. Here, we study the effect of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activation on whole cell K(+) currents through endogenous Kv7.5 channels in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells or through Kv7.4/Kv7.5 heteromeric channels natively expressed in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. The contributions of specific α-subunits are further dissected using exogenously expressed human Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 homo- or heterotetrameric channels in A7r5 cells. Stimulation of Gαs-coupled β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent activation of endogenous Kv7.5 currents in A7r5 cells. The receptor-mediated enhancement of Kv7.5 currents was mimicked by pharmacological agents that increase [cAMP] (forskolin, rolipram, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and papaverine) or mimic cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP); the 2- to 4-fold PKA-dependent enhancement of currents was also observed with exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channels. In contrast, exogenously-expressed heterotetrameric Kv7.4/7.5 channels in A7r5 cells or native mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv7.4/7.5 channels were only modestly enhanced, and homo-tetrameric Kv7.4 channels were insensitive to this regulatory pathway. Correspondingly, proximity ligation assays indicated that isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channel subunits, but not of Kv7.4 subunits. These results suggest that signal transduction-mediated responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle Kv7 channel subunits to cAMP/PKA activation follows the order of Kv7.5 > Kv7.4/Kv7.5 > Kv7.4. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for

  10. Kv7.5 Potassium Channel Subunits Are the Primary Targets for PKA-Dependent Enhancement of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7 Currents

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Bharath K.; Robakowski, Christina; Brueggemann, Lyubov I.; Cribbs, Leanne L.; Tripathi, Abhishek; Majetschak, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels, formed as homo- or heterotetramers of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 α-subunits, are important regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) membrane voltage. Recent studies demonstrate that direct pharmacological modulation of VSMC Kv7 channel activity can influence blood vessel contractility and diameter. However, the physiologic regulation of Kv7 channel activity is still poorly understood. Here, we study the effect of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activation on whole cell K+ currents through endogenous Kv7.5 channels in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells or through Kv7.4/Kv7.5 heteromeric channels natively expressed in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. The contributions of specific α-subunits are further dissected using exogenously expressed human Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 homo- or heterotetrameric channels in A7r5 cells. Stimulation of Gαs-coupled β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent activation of endogenous Kv7.5 currents in A7r5 cells. The receptor-mediated enhancement of Kv7.5 currents was mimicked by pharmacological agents that increase [cAMP] (forskolin, rolipram, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and papaverine) or mimic cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP); the 2- to 4-fold PKA-dependent enhancement of currents was also observed with exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channels. In contrast, exogenously-expressed heterotetrameric Kv7.4/7.5 channels in A7r5 cells or native mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv7.4/7.5 channels were only modestly enhanced, and homo-tetrameric Kv7.4 channels were insensitive to this regulatory pathway. Correspondingly, proximity ligation assays indicated that isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channel subunits, but not of Kv7.4 subunits. These results suggest that signal transduction-mediated responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle Kv7 channel subunits to cAMP/PKA activation follows the order of Kv7.5 >> Kv7.4/Kv7.5 > Kv7.4. PMID:26700561

  11. Potassium dynamics and seizures: Why is potassium ictogenic?

    PubMed

    de Curtis, Marco; Uva, Laura; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Librizzi, Laura

    2018-07-01

    Potassium channels dysfunction and altered genes encoding for molecules involved in potassium homeostasis have been associated with human epilepsy. These observations are in agreement with a control role of extracellular potassium on neuronal excitability and seizure generation. Epileptiform activity, in turn, regulates potassium homeostasis through mechanisms that are still not well established. We review here how potassium-associated processes are regulated in the brain and examine the mechanisms that support the role of potassium in triggering epileptiform activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Potassium intake modulates the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) activity via the Kir4.1 potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Xiao; Cuevas, Catherina A; Su, Xiao-Tong; Wu, Peng; Gao, Zhong-Xiuzi; Lin, Dao-Hong; McCormick, James A; Yang, Chao-Ling; Wang, Wen-Hui; Ellison, David H

    2018-04-01

    Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4.1 and whether this is essential for mediating the effect of potassium diet on NCC. High potassium intake inhibited the basolateral 40 pS potassium channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule, decreased basolateral potassium conductance, and depolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane in Kcnj10flox/flox mice, herein referred to as control mice. In contrast, low potassium intake activated Kir4.1, increased potassium currents, and hyperpolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane. These effects of dietary potassium intake on the basolateral potassium conductance and membrane potential in the distal convoluted tubule were completely absent in inducible kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice. Furthermore, high potassium intake decreased, whereas low potassium intake increased the abundance of NCC expression only in the control but not in kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice. Renal clearance studies demonstrated that low potassium augmented, while high potassium diminished, hydrochlorothiazide-induced natriuresis in control mice. Disruption of Kir4.1 significantly increased basal urinary sodium excretion but it abolished the natriuretic effect of hydrochlorothiazide. Finally, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis in kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice were exacerbated by potassium restriction and only partially corrected by a high-potassium diet. Thus, Kir4.1 plays an essential role in mediating the effect of dietary potassium intake on NCC activity and potassium homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  14. Potassium Beta-Alumina/Molybdenum/Potassium Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M.; Nakamura, B.; Kikert, S.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    potassium alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (K-AMTEC) cells utilizing potassium beta alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) are predicted to have improved properties for thermal to electric conversion at somewhat lower temperatures than sodium AMTEC's.

  15. 78 FR 40640 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by AgustaWestland S.p.A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... AW139 helicopters. The existing AD currently requires inspecting the fuselage frame to detect fatigue... interval for inspecting the fuselage frame for a fatigue crack. This proposed AD would require inspecting... detect a fatigue crack that could result in failure of the fuselage frame and subsequent loss of control...

  16. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  17. Plasma potassium and diurnal cyclic potassium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, L; Berlin, R; Yamauchi, H

    1987-12-01

    The relation of the plasma potassium concentration to the daily cyclic variation in potassium excretion was examined in undisturbed, unanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a liquid diet in a 12-h light-dark environment. Potassium excretion increased from a light-phase minimum of 16 mu eq/h to a peak of 256 mu eq/h 3 h after the beginning of the dark phase. Plasma potassium concentration in arterial blood, sampled in rats at 90-min intervals during these changes in potassium excretion, showed no significant change and was in the range 4.50-4.99 meq/liter. In adrenalectomized rats receiving aldosterone and dexamethasone at constant basal rates by implanted pumps, the daily cycle of potassium excretion was the same as in the intact rats, and plasma potassium was not significantly different when measured at the time of minimum and maximum rates of potassium excretion (4.79 +/- 0.42 vs 5.16 +/- 0.47 meq/liter, mean +/- SD). These results indicate that plasma potassium concentration is not the efferent factor controlling diurnal cyclic changes in potassium excretion in adrenal intact rats and may not be the only significant factor in adrenalectomized-steroid replaced rats.

  18. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Izutani, Natsuko

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I havemore » calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].« less

  19. Potassium Channels in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Köhling, Rüdiger; Wolfart, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This review attempts to give a concise and up-to-date overview on the role of potassium channels in epilepsies. Their role can be defined from a genetic perspective, focusing on variants and de novo mutations identified in genetic studies or animal models with targeted, specific mutations in genes coding for a member of the large potassium channel family. In these genetic studies, a demonstrated functional link to hyperexcitability often remains elusive. However, their role can also be defined from a functional perspective, based on dynamic, aggravating, or adaptive transcriptional and posttranslational alterations. In these cases, it often remains elusive whether the alteration is causal or merely incidental. With ∼80 potassium channel types, of which ∼10% are known to be associated with epilepsies (in humans) or a seizure phenotype (in animals), if genetically mutated, a comprehensive review is a challenging endeavor. This goal may seem all the more ambitious once the data on posttranslational alterations, found both in human tissue from epilepsy patients and in chronic or acute animal models, are included. We therefore summarize the literature, and expand only on key findings, particularly regarding functional alterations found in patient brain tissue and chronic animal models. PMID:27141079

  20. Involvement of Potassium and Cation Channels in Hippocampal Abnormalities of Embryonic Ts65Dn and Tc1 Trisomic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Shani; Segal, Menahem; Moses, Elisha

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) mouse models exhibit cognitive deficits, and are used for studying the neuronal basis of DS pathology. To understand the differences in the physiology of DS model neurons, we used dissociated neuronal cultures from the hippocampi of Ts65Dn and Tc1 DS mice. Imaging of [Ca2+]i and whole cell patch clamp recordings were used to analyze network activity and single neuron properties, respectively. We found a decrease of ~ 30% in both fast (A-type) and slow (delayed rectifier) outward potassium currents. Depolarization of Ts65Dn and Tc1 cells produced fewer spikes than diploid cells. Their network bursts were smaller and slower than diploids, displaying a 40% reduction in Δf / f0 of the calcium signals, and a 30% reduction in propagation velocity. Additionally, Ts65Dn and Tc1 neurons exhibited changes in the action potential shape compared to diploid neurons, with an increase in the amplitude of the action potential, a lower threshold for spiking, and a sharp decrease of about 65% in the after-hyperpolarization amplitude. Numerical simulations reproduced the DS measured phenotype by variations in the conductance of the delayed rectifier and A-type, but necessitated also changes in inward rectifying and M-type potassium channels and in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. We therefore conducted whole cell patch clamp measurements of M-type potassium currents, which showed a ~ 90% decrease in Ts65Dn neurons, while HCN measurements displayed an increase of ~ 65% in Ts65Dn cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicates overexpression of 40% of KCNJ15, an inward rectifying potassium channel, contributing to the increased inhibition. We thus find that changes in several types of potassium channels dominate the observed DS model phenotype. PMID:26501103

  1. MicroRNA cluster miR-17-92 regulates multiple functionally related voltage-gated potassium channels in chronic neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Atsushi; Saitow, Fumihito; Maruyama, Motoyo; Miyake, Noriko; Miyake, Koichi; Shimada, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    miR-17-92 is a microRNA cluster with six distinct members. Here, we show that the miR-17-92 cluster and its individual members modulate chronic neuropathic pain. All cluster members are persistently upregulated in primary sensory neurons after nerve injury. Overexpression of miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b and miR-92a cluster members elicits mechanical allodynia in rats, while their blockade alleviates mechanical allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Plausible targets for the miR-17-92 cluster include genes encoding numerous voltage-gated potassium channels and their modulatory subunits. Single-cell analysis reveals extensive co-expression of miR-17-92 cluster and its predicted targets in primary sensory neurons. miR-17-92 downregulates the expression of potassium channels, and reduced outward potassium currents, in particular A-type currents. Combined application of potassium channel modulators synergistically alleviates mechanical allodynia induced by nerve injury or miR-17-92 overexpression. miR-17-92 cluster appears to cooperatively regulate the function of multiple voltage-gated potassium channel subunits, perpetuating mechanical allodynia. PMID:28677679

  2. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A ditopic fluorescent sensor for potassium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Suvi J M; Fyles, Thomas M; James, Tony D

    2005-02-21

    The addition of potassium fluoride 'switches on' the fluorescence of sensors and while potassium chloride and bromide cause no fluorescence change; the fluorescence can be 'switched off' by removing the potassium cation from the benzocrown ether receptors of sensors and through the addition of [2.2.2]-cryptand and restored by the addition of the potassium cation as potassium chloride.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride solution...

  6. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  8. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS... potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a...

  10. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets the...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate...

  15. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

  20. The renal response to potassium stress: integrating past with present.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Shiwarski, Cary R; Subramanya, Arohan R

    2017-09-01

    The current review combines past findings with recent advances in our understanding of the homeostatic response to potassium imbalance. Following the ingestion of a dietary potassium load, a combination of extrarenal and renal mechanisms act to maintain extracellular K+ within a tight window. Through hormonal regulation and direct K+ sensing, the nephron is ideally suited to respond to wide shifts in external K+ balance. Current evidence indicates that dietary K+ loading triggers a coordinated kaliuretic response that appears to involve voltage-dependent changes in sodium transport across multiple nephron segments, including the proximal tubule, medullary loop of Henle, and distal tubule. Inhibition of sodium transport in these segments would accomplish the final goal of enhancing distal NaCl delivery, luminal flow, and K+ secretion in the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). Ongoing research seeks to define the relationship between potassium and volume homeostasis by elucidating pathways that couple renal K+ sensing and tubular function during the potassium stress response.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Potassium-aggravated myotonia Potassium-aggravated myotonia Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Potassium-aggravated myotonia is a disorder that affects muscles ...

  2. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  3. Sodium and potassium in the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery that sodium and potassium vapor can be observed in the lunar atmosphere using ground-based telescopes has opened up a field of investigation that was closed after the last Apollo mission to the Moon. Sodium has been detected at altitudes up to 1500 km above the surface. This implies a high effective temperature for sodium, of the order of 1000 K. However, there is some evidence for two populations of sodium and potassium, one at temperatures corresponding to the surface, and another corresponding to high temperatures. The sources for the lunar atmosphere are not understood. Meteoric bombardment of the surface, solar wind sputtering of the surface, and photo-sputtering of the surface have all been suggested as possible sources for the lunar atmosphere. One of the objectives of the current research is to test different hypotheses by measurements of the atmosphere under different conditions of solar illumination and shielding from the solar wind by the Earth.

  4. Potassium channels in articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali; Lewis, Rebecca; Ferreira-Mendes, Alexandrina; Rufino, Ana; Dart, Caroline; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chondrocytes are the resident cells of cartilage, which synthesize and maintain the extracellular matrix. The range of known potassium channels expressed by these unique cells is continually increasing. Since chondrocytes are non-excitable, and do not need to be repolarized following action potentials, the function of potassium channels in these cells has, until recently, remained completely unknown. However, recent advances in both traditional physiology and “omic” technologies have enhanced our knowledge and understanding of the chondrocyte channelome. A large number of potassium channels have been identified and a number of putative, but credible, functions have been proposed. Members of each of the potassium channel sub-families (calcium activated, inward rectifier, voltage-gated and tandem pore) have all been identified. Mechanotransduction, cell volume regulation, apoptosis and chondrogenesis all appear to involve potassium channels. Since evidence suggests that potassium channel gene transcription is altered in osteoarthritis, future studies are needed that investigate potassium channels as potential cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for treatment of degenerative joint conditions. PMID:23064164

  5. Oral potassium supplementation in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Gatenby, Piers A

    2008-08-01

    Hospital inpatients are frequently hypokalaemic. Low plasma potassium levels may cause life threatening complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Potassium supplementation may be administered parenterally or enterally. Oral potassium supplements have been associated with oesophageal ulceration, strictures and gastritis. An alternative to potassium salt tablets or solution is dietary modification with potassium rich food stuffs, which has been proven to be a safe and effective method for potassium supplementation. The potassium content of one medium banana is equivalent to a 12 mmol potassium salt tablet. Potassium supplementation by dietary modification has been shown to be equally efficacious to oral potassium salt supplementation and is preferred by the majority of patients. Subsequently, it is our practice to replace potassium using dietary modification, particularly in surgical patients having undergone oesophagogastrectomy or in those with peptic ulcer disease.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 584-08-7) is produced by the following methods of manufacture: (1) By electrolysis of potassium chloride followed by...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b...

  14. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  7. Potassium supplements for oral diarrhoea regimens.

    PubMed

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Rust, J; Tome, F C

    1980-10-18

    A study is proposed for supplementing potassium loss from diarrhea in rehydration therapies with fresh fruit and other naturally potassium-rich foods. Bananas contain .1 mol of potassium per gm. Freshly squeezed lemon or orange juices were tested for potassium and sodium content and found to have very low potassium concentration. Therefore, the banana was chosen for an upcoming study that will determine if infants and children suffering from diarrhea can ingest the amounts of the fruit necessary to elevate the potassium level sufficiently. Bananas as the potassium source are thought to be well-accepted in developing areas.

  8. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also known as acesulfame K, may be... following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt of 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4(3H)-one...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with potassium...

  10. Monitoring of urea and potassium by reverse iontophoresis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wascotte, Valentine; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Rozet, Eric; Wallemacq, Pierre; Hubert, Philippe; Guy, Richard H; Préat, Véronique

    2007-06-01

    Reverse iontophoresis is an alternative to blood sampling for the monitoring of endogenous molecules. Here, the potential of the technique to measure urea and potassium levels non-invasively, and to track their concentrations during hemodialysis, has been examined. In vitro experiments were performed to test (a) a series of subdermal urea and potassium concentrations typical of the pathophysiologic range, and (b) a decreasing profile of urea and potassium subdermal concentrations to mimic those which are observed during hemodialysis. (a) After 60-120 min of iontophoresis, linear relationships (p < 0.05) were established between both urea and potassium fluxes and their respective subdermal concentrations. The determination coefficients were above 0.9 after 1 h of current passage using sodium as an internal standard. (b) Reverse iontophoretic fluxes of urea and K(+) closely paralleled the decay of the respective concentrations in the subdermal compartment, as would occur during a hemodialysis session. These in vitro experiments demonstrate that urea and potassium can be quantitatively and proportionately extracted by reverse iontophoresis, even when the subdermal concentrations of the analytes are varying with time. These results suggest the non-invasive monitoring of urea and potassium to diagnose renal failure and during hemodialysis is feasible, and that in vivo measurements are warranted.

  11. A human intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T M; Silvia, C; Hirschberg, B; Bond, C T; Adelman, J P; Maylie, J

    1997-10-14

    An intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, hIK1, was cloned from human pancreas. The predicted amino acid sequence is related to, but distinct from, the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel subfamily, which is approximately 50% conserved. hIK1 mRNA was detected in peripheral tissues but not in brain. Expression of hIK1 in Xenopus oocytes gave rise to inwardly rectifying potassium currents, which were activated by submicromolar concentrations of intracellular calcium (K0.5 = 0.3 microM). Although the K0.5 for calcium was similar to that of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, the slope factor derived from the Hill equation was significantly reduced (1.7 vs. 3. 5). Single-channel current amplitudes reflected the macroscopic inward rectification and revealed a conductance level of 39 pS in the inward direction. hIK1 currents were reversibly blocked by charybdotoxin (Ki = 2.5 nM) and clotrimazole (Ki = 24.8 nM) but were minimally affected by apamin (100 nM), iberiotoxin (50 nM), or ketoconazole (10 microM). These biophysical and pharmacological properties are consistent with native intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, including the erythrocyte Gardos channel.

  12. Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-12-01

    Total body potassium content and proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is of critical importance for normal cellular function. Potassium homeostasis is maintained by several different methods. In the kidney, total body potassium content is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Insulin and beta-adrenergic tone play critical roles in maintaining the internal distribution of potassium under normal conditions. Despite homeostatic pathways designed to maintain potassium levels within the normal range, disorders of altered potassium homeostasis are common. The clinical approach to designing effective treatments relies on understanding the pathophysiology and regulatory influences which govern the internal distribution and external balance of potassium. Here we provide an overview of the key regulatory aspects of normal potassium physiology. This review is designed to provide an overview of potassium homeostasis as well as provide references of seminal papers to guide the reader into a more in depth discussion of the importance of potassium balance. This review is designed to be a resource for educators and well-informed clinicians who are teaching trainees about the importance of potassium balance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Contribution of dairy products to dietary potassium intake in the United States population.

    PubMed

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; DiRienzo, Douglas; Huth, Peter J; Kurilich, Anne C; Miller, Gregory D

    2008-02-01

    Adequate dietary potassium intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 identifies milk and milk products as a major contributor of dietary potassium and lists dairy products, along with fruits and vegetables, as food groups to encourage. This paper further examines the impact of dairy consumption on the potassium intake of the United States (US) population. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 we determined potassium intakes for various age groups of individuals who met the recommended number of dairy servings compared to those who did not. We also examined the impact of dairy servings consumed on mean and median potassium intakes and compared intakes to the age-appropriate Adequate Intakes (AI). For all age groups, mean and median potassium intakes did not meet the respective AI. Mean potassium intakes were significantly greater in those subjects who met dairy intake recommendations compared to those who did not for all age groups. Mean and median potassium intakes increased with increasing dairy intake but were below current intake recommendations for all age groups analyzed. For adults age 19 to 50, 16.1% consumed the recommended number of dairy servings per day. For those 51 and older, 10.7% met current dairy intake recommendations. Consumption of dairy products is below current recommendations which contributes in part to suboptimal dietary potassium intakes among a large proportion of the US population. Since adequate potassium intake is associated with decreased risk of chronic disease, consumption of a variety of potassium-rich foods, including fruits, vegetables and low-fat and fat free dairy products, should continue to be encouraged.

  14. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. Role of Circadian Rhythms in Potassium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gumz, Michelle L.; Rabinowitz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    It has been known for decades that urinary potassium excretion varies with a circadian pattern. In this review, we consider the historical evidence for this phenomenon and present an overview of recent developments in the field. Extensive evidence from the latter part of the last century clearly demonstrates that circadian potassium excretion does not depend on endogenous aldosterone. Of note is the recent discovery that the expression of several renal potassium transporters varies with a circadian pattern that appears to be consistent with substantial clinical data regarding daily fluctuations in urinary potassium levels. We propose the circadian clock mechanism as a key regulator of renal potassium transporters, and consequently renal potassium excretion. Further investigation into the mechanism of regulation of renal potassium transport by the circadian clock is warranted in order to increase our understanding of the clinical relevance of circadian rhythms to potassium homeostasis. PMID:23953800

  1. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  6. Amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate: a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Smith, B R; LeFrock, J L

    1985-06-01

    Potassium clavulanate is a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor, which, in combination, expands the spectrum of amoxicillin to include many amoxicillin-resistant organisms. Potassium clavulanate is excreted 30-50 percent unchanged renally and its plasma time-course parallels that of amoxicillin. Several studies suggest that an increased incidence of gastrointestinal side effects may occur with this combination. In the current oral formulation, its greatest utility may be in pediatric infections due to beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae and B. cattarhalis. In adults, the combination has not been adequately studied against other effective antibiotics.

  7. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this article, we will review their molecular identities and biophysical properties. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this chapter, we will review the molecular identities and biophysical properties of these channels. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the possibility and prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:27261823

  9. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of cod...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  5. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  11. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  8. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  11. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  1. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  8. Inhibitory effects of hesperetin on Kv1.5 potassium channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yu-Fang; Ma, Rong; Xiang, Ji-Zhou; Du, Xin-Ling; Tang, Qiang

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, the inhibitory effects of hesperetin (HSP) on human cardiac Kv1.5 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells and the ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (Ikur) in human atrial myocytes were examined by using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp techniques. We found that hesperetin rapidly and reversibly suppressed human Kv1.5 current in a concentration dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 23.15 μΜ with a Hill coefficient of 0.89. The current was maximally diminished about 71.36% at a concentration of 300μM hesperetin. Hesperetin significantly positive shifted the steady-state activation curve of Kv1.5, while negative shifted the steady-state inactivation curve. Hesperetin also accelerated the inactivation and markedly slowed the recovery from the inactivation of Kv1.5 currents. Block of Kv1.5 currents by hesperetin was in a frequency dependent manner. However, inclusion of 30μM hesperetin in pipette solution produced no effect on Kv1.5 channel current, while the current were remarkable and reversibly inhibited by extracellular application of 30μM hesperetin. We also found that hesperetin potently and reversibly inhibited the ultra-repaid delayed K(+) current (Ikur) in human atrial myocytes, which is in consistent with the effects of hesperetin on Kv1.5 currents in HEK 293 cells. In conclusion, hesperetin is a potent inhibitor of Ikur (which is encoded by Kv1.5), with blockade probably due to blocking of both open state and inactivated state channels from outside of the cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Rehm, C D; Maillot, M; Monsivais, P

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommended that Americans increase potassium and decrease sodium intakes to reduce the burden of hypertension. One reason why so few Americans meet the recommended potassium or sodium goals may be perceived or actual food costs. This study explored the monetary costs associated with potassium and sodium intakes using national food prices and a representative sample of US adults. Dietary intake data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with a national food prices database. In a population of 4744 adults, the association between the energy-adjusted sodium and potassium intakes, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and energy-adjusted diet cost was evaluated. Diets that were more potassium-rich or had lower Na:K ratios were associated with higher diet costs, while sodium intakes were not related to cost. The difference in diet cost between extreme quintiles of potassium intakes was $1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.69). A food-level analysis showed that beans, potatoes, coffee, milk, bananas, citrus juices and carrots are frequently consumed and low-cost sources of potassium. Based on existing dietary data and current American eating habits, a potassium-dense diet was associated with higher diet costs, while sodium was not. Price interventions may be an effective approach to improve potassium intakes and reduce the Na:K ratio of the diet. The present methods helped identify some alternative low-cost foods that were effective in increasing potassium intakes. The identification and promotion of lower-cost foods to help individuals meet targeted dietary recommendations could accompany future dietary guidelines.

  10. [Voltage-gated potassium channels and human neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2002-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) is the largest, most complex in potassium channel superfamily. It can be divided into Kv alpha subunit and auxiliary two groups. The roles of some Kv channels types, e.g. rapidly inactivating (A-Type channel) and muscarine sensitive channels (M-type channel) are beginning to be understood. They are prominent in nervous system, acting in delicate and accurate ways to control or modify many physiological and pathological functions including membrane excitability, neurotransmitter release, cell proliferation or degeneration, signal transduction in neuronal network. Many human neurological disease pathogenesis are found to be related to mutant of Kv-channels subunit or subtype, such as, learning and memory impairing, ataxia, epilepsy, deafness, etc.

  11. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  13. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-07-22

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  14. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique.

    PubMed

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S

    2016-04-21

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  15. Effect of the cesium and potassium doping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes grown in an electrical arc on their emission characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izrael'yants, K. R.; Orlov, A. P.; Ormont, A. B.; Chirkova, E. G.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of cesium and potassium atoms deposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes grown in an electrical arc on their emission characteristics was studied. The current-voltage characteristics of the field electron emission of specimens with cesium or potassium doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes of this type were revealed to retain their linear character in the Fowler-Nordheim coordinates within several orders of magnitude of change in the emission current. The deposition of cesium and potassium atoms was shown to lead to a considerable increase in the emission current and a decrease in the work function φ of studied emitters with multiwalled nanotubes. The work function was established to decrease to φ 3.1 eV at an optimal thickness of coating with cesium atoms and to φ 2.9 eV in the case of doping with potassium atoms. Cesium and potassium deposition conditions optimal for the attainment of a maximum emission current were found.

  16. Deliquescence Measurements of Potassium Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Martin, S. T.; Buseck, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    Potassium compounds such as KCl, K2SO4, and KNO3 are salts resulting from biomass burning. With time the number of aerosol particles containing KCl decreases, and the number of particles containing KNO3 and K2SO4 increases. The transformation of KCl to K2SO4 and KNO3 with aging of the smoke could lead to changes in the hygroscopic properties of the smoke particles and thus their cloud-nucleating potential. Similar reaction mechanisms are likely to be involved in the conversion of KCl in smoke particles as occur for NaCl in sea salt. Little experimental work has been published on the hygroscopic properties of potassium salts because of their high DRH values. Instruments that are commonly used to measure hygroscopic properties such as differential mobility analyzers or electrodynamic balances do not operate accurately at RH > 90%. Here we present data describing the hygroscopic properties of several fresh potassium salts, as well as laboratory generated mixed salts, using transmission and scanning electron microscopes (TEM and SEM). Both microscopes have environmental chambers that enable study of the interaction of water with single particles. DRH values for KCl, KNO3 and K2SO4 were found to be 86%, 92%, and 97%, respectively. KNO3 particles formed by atomization appear rounded and undergo continuous hygroscopic growth without a distinct deliquescence point. Similar results have been published for NaNO3. In contrast, when KNO3 powder is ground in a mortar and pestle and placed in the SEM, the grains appear euhedral and have a DRH at 92%, in agreement with literature values. It appears that KNO3 particles formed by atomization will readily take up water at RH values below their DRH. Our results indicate that the hygroscopic properties of KNO3 particles are influenced by their histories. Water associated with aged or mixed particles at RH's less than their DRH will affect how these particles uptake and react with gases.

  17. Recent advances in distal tubular potassium handling

    PubMed Central

    Rodan, Aylin R.; Cheng, Chih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that sodium reabsorption and aldosterone play important roles in potassium secretion by the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Sodium- and aldosterone-independent mechanisms also exist. This review focuses on some recent studies that provide novel insights into the sodium- and aldosterone-independent potassium secretion by the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. In addition, we discuss a study reporting on the regulation of the mammalian potassium kidney channel ROMK by intracellular and extracellular magnesium, which may be important in the pathogenesis of persistent hypokalemia in patients with concomitant potassium and magnesium deficiency. We also discuss outstanding questions and propose working models for future investigation. PMID:21270092

  18. Sodium and potassium conductance changes during a membrane action potential.

    PubMed

    Bezanilla, F; Rojas, E; Taylor, R E

    1970-12-01

    1. A method for turning a membrane potential control system on and off in less than 10 musec is described. This method was used to record membrane currents in perfused giant axons from Dosidicus gigas and Loligo forbesi after turning on the voltage clamp system at various times during the course of a membrane action potential.2. The membrane current measured just after the capacity charging transient was found to have an almost linear relation to the controlled membrane potential.3. The total membrane conductance taken from these current-voltage curves was found to have a time course during the action potential similar to that found by Cole & Curtis (1939).4. The instantaneous current voltage curves were linear enough to make it possible to obtain a good estimate of the individual sodium and potassium channel conductances, either algebraically or by clamping to the sodium, or potassium, reversal potentials. Good general agreement was obtained with the predictions of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations.5. We consider these results to constitute the first direct experimental demonstration of the conductance changes to sodium and potassium during the course of an action potential.

  19. Potassium Isotopic Compositions of NIST Potassium Standards and 40Ar/39Ar Mineral Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Leah; Tappa, Mike; Ellam, Rob; Mark, Darren; Higgins, John; Simon, Justin I.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the isotopic ratios of standards, spikes, and reference materials is fundamental to the accuracy of many geochronological methods. For example, the 238U/235U ratio relevant to U-Pb geochronology was recently re-determined [1] and shown to differ significantly from the previously accepted value employed during age determinations. These underlying values are fundamental to accurate age calculations in many isotopic systems, and uncertainty in these values can represent a significant (and often unrecognized) portion of the uncertainty budget for determined ages. The potassium isotopic composition of mineral standards, or neutron flux monitors, is a critical, but often overlooked component in the calculation of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. It is currently assumed that all terrestrial materials have abundances indistinguishable from that of NIST SRM 985 [2]; this is apparently a reasonable assumption at the 0.25per mille level (1s) [3]. The 40Ar/39Ar method further relies on the assumption that standards and samples (including primary and secondary standards) have indistinguishable 40K/39K values. We will present data establishing the potassium isotopic compositions of NIST isotopic K SRM 985, elemental K SRM 999b, and 40Ar/39Ar biotite mineral standard GA1550 (sample MD-2). Stable isotopic compositions (41K/39K) were measured by the peak shoulder method with high resolution MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus), using the accepted value of NIST isotopic SRM 985 [2] for fractionation [4] corrections [5]. 40K abundances were measured by TIMS (Thermo Scientific TRITON), using 41K/39K values from ICP-MS measurements (or, for SRM 985, values from [2]) for internal fractionation corrections. Collectively these data represent an important step towards a metrologically traceable calibration of 40K concentrations in primary 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and improve uncertainties by ca. an order of magnitude in the potassium isotopic compositions of standards.

  20. Detection of Mercury's Potassium Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl; Leblanc, Francois; Moore, Luke; Bida, Thomas A.

    2017-10-01

    Ground-based observations of Mercury's exosphere bridge the gap between the MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions and provide a broad counterpart to their in situ measurements. Here we report the first detection of Mercury's potassium tail in both emission lines of the D doublet. The sodium to potassium abundance ratio at 5 planetary radii down-tail is approximately 95, near the mid-point of a wide range of values that have been quoted over the planet's disk. This is several times the Na/K present in atmospheres of the Galilean satellites and more than an order of magnitude above Mercury's usual analogue, the Moon. The observations confirm that Mercury's anomalously high Na/K ratios cannot be explained by differences in neutral loss rates. The width and structure of the Na and K tails is comparable and both exhibit a persistent enhancement in their northern lobe. We interpret this as a signature of Mercury's offset magnetosphere; the exosphere's source rates are locally enhanced at the southern surface, and sloshing from radiation pressure and gravity guides this population into the northern region of the tail.

  1. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  2. Free energy dissipation of the spontaneous gating of a single voltage-gated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Zeng; Wang, Rui-Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Potassium channels mainly contribute to the resting potential and re-polarizations, with the potassium electrochemical gradient being maintained by the pump Na + /K + -ATPase. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model mimicking the kinetics of a potassium channel, which integrates temporal evolving of the membrane voltage and the spontaneous gating of the channel. Its stationary probability density functions (PDFs) are found to be singular at the boundaries, which result from the fact that the evolving rates of voltage are greater than the gating rates of the channel. We apply PDFs to calculate the power dissipations of the potassium current, the leakage, and the gating currents. On a physical perspective, the essential role of the system is the K + -battery charging the leakage (L-)battery. A part of power will inevitably be dissipated among the process. So, the efficiency of energy transference is calculated.

  3. Free energy dissipation of the spontaneous gating of a single voltage-gated potassium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Zeng; Wang, Rui-Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Potassium channels mainly contribute to the resting potential and re-polarizations, with the potassium electrochemical gradient being maintained by the pump Na+/K+-ATPase. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model mimicking the kinetics of a potassium channel, which integrates temporal evolving of the membrane voltage and the spontaneous gating of the channel. Its stationary probability density functions (PDFs) are found to be singular at the boundaries, which result from the fact that the evolving rates of voltage are greater than the gating rates of the channel. We apply PDFs to calculate the power dissipations of the potassium current, the leakage, and the gating currents. On a physical perspective, the essential role of the system is the K+-battery charging the leakage (L-)battery. A part of power will inevitably be dissipated among the process. So, the efficiency of energy transference is calculated.

  4. Serum potassium level and dietary potassium intake as risk factors for stroke.

    PubMed

    Green, D M; Ropper, A H; Kronmal, R A; Psaty, B M; Burke, G L

    2002-08-13

    Numerous studies have found that low potassium intake and low serum potassium are associated with increased stroke mortality, but data regarding stroke incidence have been limited. Serum potassium levels, dietary potassium intake, and diuretic use in relation to risk for stroke in a prospectively studied cohort were investigated. The study comprised 5,600 men and women older than 65 years who were free of stroke at enrollment. Baseline data included serum potassium level, dietary potassium intake, and diuretic use. Participants were followed for 4 to 8 years, and the incidence and types of strokes were recorded. Low serum potassium was defined as less than 4.1 mEq/L, and low potassium intake as less than 2.4 g/d. Among diuretic users, there was an increased risk for stroke associated with lower serum potassium (relative risk [RR]: 2.5, p < 0.0001). Among individuals not taking diuretics, there was an increased risk for stroke associated with low dietary potassium intake (RR: 1.5, p < 0.005). The small number of diuretic users with lower serum potassium and atrial fibrillation had a 10-fold greater risk for stroke compared with those with higher serum potassium and normal sinus rhythm. A lower serum potassium level in diuretic users, and low potassium intake in those not taking diuretics were associated with increased stroke incidence among older individuals. Lower serum potassium was associated with a particularly high risk for stroke in the small number of diuretic users with atrial fibrillation. Further study is required to determine if modification of these factors would prevent strokes.

  5. Sodium and potassium conductance changes during a membrane action potential

    PubMed Central

    Bezanilla, Francisco; Rojas, Eduardo; Taylor, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    1. A method for turning a membrane potential control system on and off in less than 10 μsec is described. This method was used to record membrane currents in perfused giant axons from Dosidicus gigas and Loligo forbesi after turning on the voltage clamp system at various times during the course of a membrane action potential. 2. The membrane current measured just after the capacity charging transient was found to have an almost linear relation to the controlled membrane potential. 3. The total membrane conductance taken from these current—voltage curves was found to have a time course during the action potential similar to that found by Cole & Curtis (1939). 4. The instantaneous current voltage curves were linear enough to make it possible to obtain a good estimate of the individual sodium and potassium channel conductances, either algebraically or by clamping to the sodium, or potassium, reversal potentials. Good general agreement was obtained with the predictions of the Hodgkin—Huxley equations. 5. We consider these results to constitute the first direct experimental demonstration of the conductance changes to sodium and potassium during the course of an action potential. PMID:5505231

  6. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be..., will not result in daily ingestion of the additive so as to provide a total amount of iodine in excess...

  7. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be... intended for use in the malting of barley under conditions whereby the amount of the additive present in...

  8. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the...

  9. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be..., will not result in daily ingestion of the additive so as to provide a total amount of iodine in excess...

  10. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be safely used in the malting of barley... barley under conditions whereby the amount of the additive present in the malt from the treatment does...

  11. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be... intended for use in the malting of barley under conditions whereby the amount of the additive present in...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity.... (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do not...

  16. Process for preparation of potassium-38

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the .sup.40 Ar(p,3n).sup.38 K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  17. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be...

  18. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China. SUMMARY: The... on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  19. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to...

  20. Potassium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  1. Potassium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Castro, Hector; Raij, Leopoldo

    2013-05-01

    The increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in industrialized societies undoubtedly is associated with the modern high-sodium/low-potassium diet. Extensive experimental and clinical data strongly link potassium intake to cardiovascular outcome. Most studies suggest that the sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than either nutrient individually. A high-sodium/low-potassium environment results in significant abnormalities in central hemodynamics, leading to potential target organ damage. Altered renal sodium handling, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and increased oxidative stress are important mediators of this effect. It remains of paramount importance to reinforce consumption of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet as a critical strategy for prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Chronic potassium depletion increases adrenal progesterone production that is necessary for efficient renal retention of potassium.

    PubMed

    Elabida, Boutaïna; Edwards, Aurélie; Salhi, Amel; Azroyan, Anie; Fodstad, Heidi; Meneton, Pierre; Doucet, Alain; Bloch-Faure, May; Crambert, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Modern dietary habits are characterized by high-sodium and low-potassium intakes, each of which was correlated with a higher risk for hypertension. In this study, we examined whether long-term variations in the intake of sodium and potassium induce lasting changes in the plasma concentration of circulating steroids by developing a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in mice. One finding of this model was that mice increase their plasma progesterone levels specifically in response to potassium depletion. This prediction was confirmed by measurements in both male mice and men. Further investigation showed that progesterone regulates renal potassium handling both in males and females under potassium restriction, independent of its role in reproduction. The increase in progesterone production by male mice was time dependent and correlated with decreased urinary potassium content. The progesterone-dependent ability to efficiently retain potassium was because of an RU486 (a progesterone receptor antagonist)-sensitive stimulation of the colonic hydrogen, potassium-ATPase (known as the non-gastric or hydrogen, potassium-ATPase type 2) in the kidney. Thus, in males, a specific progesterone concentration profile induced by chronic potassium restriction regulates potassium balance.

  3. Renal potassium physiology: integration of the renal response to dietary potassium depletion.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Kamel S; Schreiber, Martin; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2018-01-01

    We summarize the current understanding of the physiology of the renal handling of potassium (K + ), and present an integrative view of the renal response to K + depletion caused by dietary K + restriction. This renal response involves contributions from different nephron segments, and aims to diminish the rate of excretion of K + as a result of: decreasing the rate of electrogenic (and increasing the rate of electroneutral) reabsorption of sodium in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), decreasing the abundance of renal outer medullary K + channels in the luminal membrane of principal cells in the ASDN, decreasing the flow rate in the ASDN, and increasing the reabsorption of K + in the cortical and medullary collecting ducts. The implications of this physiology for the association between K + depletion and hypertension, and K + depletion and formation of calcium kidney stones are discussed. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Potassium Alanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysina, Z. A.; Zaginaichenko, S. Yu.; Schur, D. V.; Zolotarenko, Al. D.; Zolotarenko, An. D.; Gabdulin, M. T.

    2018-06-01

    Molecular kinetic representations were used to develop the statistical theory of phase transformations of thermal decomposition of KAlH4 potassium alanate with formation of a more complex K3AlH6 alanate and KH potassium hydride and subsequent dehydrogenation of the latter accompanied with free hydrogen, pure potassium and aluminum yield. Temperature dependence of the emitted free hydrogen was established. Isotherms and isopleths were built. The possibility of hysteresis effect manifestation was established. The results of calculations were compared to the experimental data.

  5. Potassium in the atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral data are reported from a search for potassium in the Mercury atmosphere. The data were collected with instrumentation at Kitt Peak (7699 A) and at McDonald Observatory (7698.98 and 7664.86 A). The equivalent mean widths of the potassium emission lines observed are tabulated, along with the estimated abundances, which are compared with sodium abundances as determined by resonance lines. The average column abundance of potassium is projected to be 1 billion atoms/sq cm, about 1 percent the column abundance of sodium.

  6. Neuromedin U Type 1 Receptor Stimulation of A-type K+ Current Requires the βγ Subunits of Go Protein, Protein Kinase A, and Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in Sensory Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiming; Jiang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Xinghong; Wang, Fen; Tao, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although neuromedin U (NMU) has been implicated in analgesia, the detailed mechanisms still remain unclear. In this study, we identify a novel functional role of NMU type 1 receptor (NMUR1) in regulating the transient outward K+ currents (IA) in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We found that NMU reversibly increased IA in a dose-dependent manner, instead the sustained delayed rectifier K+ current (IDR) was not affected. This NMU-induced IA increase was pertussis toxin-sensitive and was totally reversed by NMUR1 knockdown. Intracellular application of GDPβS (guanosine 5′-O-(2-thiodiphosphate)), QEHA peptide, or a selective antibody raised against the Gαo or Gβ blocked the stimulatory effects of NMU. Pretreatment of the cells with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor or ERK inhibitor abolished the NMU-induced IA response, whereas inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or PKC had no such effects. Exposure of DRG neurons to NMU markedly induced the phosphorylation of ERK (p-ERK), whereas p-JNK or p-p38 was not affected. Moreover, the NMU-induced p-ERK increase was attenuated by PKA inhibition and activation of PKA by foskolin would mimic the NMU-induced IA increase. Functionally, we observed a significant decrease of the firing rate of neuronal action potential induced by NMU and pretreatment of DRG neurons with 4-AP could abolish this effect. In summary, these results suggested that NMU increases IA via activation of NMUR1 that couples sequentially to the downstream activities of Gβγ of the Go protein, PKA, and ERK, which could contribute to its physiological functions including neuronal hypoexcitability in DRG neurons. PMID:22493291

  7. Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hover, Samantha; King, Barnabas; Hall, Bradley; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Taqi, Hussah; Daly, Janet; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Schnettler, Esther; McKimmie, Clive; Kohl, Alain; Barr, John N; Mankouri, Jamel

    2016-02-12

    Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K(+)) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K(+) channel modulating agents demonstrated that K(+) channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K(+) channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, two-pore domain K(+) channels (K2P) were identified as the K(+) channel family mediating BUNV K(+) channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. On conductivity changes in shocked potassium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N. K.; Townsend, D.; Braithwaite, M.

    2005-06-01

    A previous work has reported that shock loading of ionic crystals produces an induced polarization and changes in electrical conductivity. However, previous measurements recorded an integrated electrical signal comprising the induced electrical field and that due to current flow. For this reason a differential system was designed to separate these effects that was adapted from that used in the investigation of the conductivity of hydrogen under shock. The measurement removes voltages produced in the shock-induced electrical field, allowing determination of those resulting from resistance changes. Although the mechanical response of potassium chloride to shock has been studied extensively, the electrical response is less studied. Here, experiments are reported in which it is shocked to various stresses in order to observe conductivity changes. The range of stresses induced includes several mechanical thresholds, including the elastic-plastic transition, the B1:B2 phase transformation, and the overdriving of the shock faster than the elastic wave. The behavior observed when single crystal and targets pressed from granular material (to close to full density) are shocked around each of these thresholds is presented. The effects of loading to a particular stress in a single step or in multiple steps are discussed.

  9. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  10. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued... potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and cured poultry products. [48 FR 1705, Jan...

  11. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  12. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  15. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  19. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat...

  20. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products. [48 FR 1705, Jan. 14...

  1. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  2. Inward rectifier potassium channels control rotor frequency in ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Jalife, José

    2009-11-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the most important cause of sudden cardiac death. While traditionally thought to result from random activation of the ventricles by multiple independent wavelets, recent evidence suggests that VF may be determined by the sustained activation of a relatively small number of reentrant sources. In addition, recent experimental data in various species as well as computer simulations have provided important clues about its ionic and molecular mechanisms, particularly in regards to the role of potassium currents in such mechanisms. The results strongly argue that the inward rectifier current, I(K1,) is an important current during functional reentry because it mediates the electrotonic interactions between the unexcited core and its immediate surroundings. In addition, I(K1) is a stabilizer of reentry due to its ability to shorten action potential duration and reduce conduction velocity near the center of rotation. Increased I(K1) prevents wave front-wave tail interactions and thus averts rotor destabilization and breakup. Other studies have shown that while the slow component of the delayed rectifier potassium current I(Ks) does not significantly modify rotor frequency or stability, it plays a major role in postrepolarization refractoriness and wave break formation. Therefore, the interplay between I(K1) and the rapid sodium inward current (I(Na)) is a major factor in the control of cardiac excitability and thus the stability and frequency of reentry, while I(Ks) is an important determinant of fibrillatory conduction.

  3. Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels Control Rotor Frequency in Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Jalife, José

    2009-01-01

    Summary Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the most important cause of sudden cardiac death. While traditionally thought to result from random activation of the ventricles by multiple independent wavelets, recent evidence suggests that VF may be determined by the sustained activation of a relatively small number of reentrant sources. In addition, recent experimental data in various species as well as computer simulations have provided important clues about its ionic and molecular mechanisms, particularly in regards to the role of potassium currents in such mechanisms. The results strongly argue that the inward rectifier current, Ik1, is an important current during functional reentry because it mediates the electrotonic interactions between the unexcited core and its immediate surroundings. In addition, IK1 is a stabilizer of reentry due to its ability to shorten action potential duration and reducing conduction velocity near the center of rotation. Increased I K1 prevents wavefront-wavetail interactions and thus averts rotor destabilization and breakup. Other studies have shown that while the slow component of the delayed rectifier potassium current, IKs, does not significantly modify rotor frequency or stability, it plays a major role in post-repolarization refractoriness and wavebreak formation. Therefore, the interplay between IK1 and the rapid sodium inward current (INa) is a major factor in the control of cardiac excitability and therefore the stability and frequency of reentry while IKs is an important determinant of fibrillatory conduction. PMID:19880073

  4. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  5. Performance analysis of a potassium-base AMTEC cell

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Hendricks, T.J.; Hunt, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Sodium-BASE Alkali-Metal-Thermal-to-Electric-Conversion (AMTEC) cells have been receiving increased attention and funding from the Department of Energy, NASA and the United States Air Force. Recently, sodium-BASE (Na-BASE) AMTEC cells were selected for the Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) program for the next generation of deep-space missions and spacecraft. Potassium-BASE (K-BASE) AMTEC cells have not received as much attention to date, even though the vapor pressure of potassium is higher than that of sodium at the same temperature. So that, K-BASE AMTEC cells with potentially higher open circuit voltage and higher power output than Na-BASE AMTEC cells are possible. Because the surfacemore » tension of potassium is about half of the surface tension of sodium at the same temperature, the artery and evaporator design in a potassium AMTEC cell has much more challenging pore size requirements than designs using sodium. This paper uses a flexible thermal/fluid/electrical model to predict the performance of a K-BASE AMTEC cell. Pore sizes in the artery of K-BASE AMTEC cells must be smaller by an order of magnitude than in Na-BASE AMTEC cells. The performance of a K-BASE AMTEC cell was higher than a Na-BASE AMTEC cell at low voltages/high currents. K-BASE AMTEC cells also have the potential of much better electrode performance, thereby creating another avenue for potentially better performance in K-BASE AMTEC cells.« less

  6. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called potassium bitartrate or cream of...

  7. Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio and Blood Pressure, Hypertension, and Related Factors12

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Vanessa; Chang, Ellen T.

    2014-01-01

    The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research. Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans. This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction. Future study in these populations is warranted. PMID:25398734

  8. Effect of tyrphostin AG879 on Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose A-type potassium channels (IA) are important proteins for modulating neuronal membrane excitability. The expression and activity of Kv4.2 channels are critical for neurological functions and pharmacological inhibitors of Kv4.2 channels may have therapeutic potential for Fragile X syndrome. While screening various compounds, we identified tyrphostin AG879, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a Kv4.2 inhibitor from. In the present study we characterized the effect of AG879 on cloned Kv4.2/Kv channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) channels. Experimental Approach To screen the library of pharmacologically active compounds, the thallium flux assay was performed on HEK-293 cells transiently-transfected with Kv4.2 cDNA using the Maxcyte transfection system. The effects of AG879 were further examined on CHO-K1 cells expressing Kv4.2/KChIP2 channels using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Key Results Tyrphostin AG879 selectively and dose-dependently inhibited Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels. In Kv4.2/KChIP2 channels, AG879 induced prominent acceleration of the inactivation rate, use-dependent block and slowed the recovery from inactivation. AG879 induced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of the steady-state inactivation of Kv4.2 channels without apparent effect on the V1/2 of the voltage-dependent activation. The blocking effect of AG879 was enhanced as channel inactivation increased. Furthermore, AG879 significantly inhibited the A-type potassium currents in the cultured hippocampus neurons. Conclusion and Implications AG879 was identified as a selective and potent inhibitor the Kv4.2 channel. AG879 inhibited Kv4.2 channels by preferentially interacting with the open state and further accelerating their inactivation. PMID:25752739

  9. Effect of tyrphostin AG879 on Kv 4.2 and Kv 4.3 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Min

    2015-07-01

    A-type potassium channels (IA) are important proteins for modulating neuronal membrane excitability. The expression and activity of Kv 4.2 channels are critical for neurological functions and pharmacological inhibitors of Kv 4.2 channels may have therapeutic potential for Fragile X syndrome. While screening various compounds, we identified tyrphostin AG879, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a Kv 4.2 inhibitor from. In the present study we characterized the effect of AG879 on cloned Kv 4.2/Kv channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) channels. To screen the library of pharmacologically active compounds, the thallium flux assay was performed on HEK-293 cells transiently-transfected with Kv 4.2 cDNA using the Maxcyte transfection system. The effects of AG879 were further examined on CHO-K1 cells expressing Kv 4.2/KChIP2 channels using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Tyrphostin AG879 selectively and dose-dependently inhibited Kv 4.2 and Kv 4.3 channels. In Kv 4.2/KChIP2 channels, AG879 induced prominent acceleration of the inactivation rate, use-dependent block and slowed the recovery from inactivation. AG879 induced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of the steady-state inactivation of Kv 4.2 channels without apparent effect on the V1/2 of the voltage-dependent activation. The blocking effect of AG879 was enhanced as channel inactivation increased. Furthermore, AG879 significantly inhibited the A-type potassium currents in the cultured hippocampus neurons. AG879 was identified as a selective and potent inhibitor the Kv 4.2 channel. AG879 inhibited Kv 4.2 channels by preferentially interacting with the open state and further accelerating their inactivation. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Block of voltage-gated potassium channels by Pacific ciguatoxin-1 contributes to increased neuronal excitability in rat sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Birinyi-Strachan, Liesl C.; Gunning, Simon J.; Lewis, Richard J.

    2005-04-15

    The present study investigated the actions of the polyether marine toxin Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on neuronal excitability in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, bath application of 2-20 nM P-CTX-1 caused a rapid, concentration-dependent depolarization of the resting membrane potential in neurons expressing tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (Na{sub v}) channels. This action was completely suppressed by the addition of 200 nM TTX to the external solution, indicating that this effect was mediated through TTX-sensitive Na{sub v} channels. In addition, P-CTX-1 also prolonged action potential and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) duration. In a subpopulation of neurons,more » P-CTX-1 also produced tonic action potential firing, an effect that was not accompanied by significant oscillation of the resting membrane potential. Conversely, in neurons expressing TTX-resistant Na{sub v} currents, P-CTX-1 failed to alter any parameter of neuronal excitability examined in this study. Under voltage-clamp conditions in rat DRG neurons, P-CTX-1 inhibited both delayed-rectifier and 'A-type' potassium currents in a dose-dependent manner, actions that occurred in the absence of alterations to the voltage dependence of activation. These actions appear to underlie the prolongation of the action potential and AHP, and contribute to repetitive firing. These data indicate that a block of potassium channels contributes to the increase in neuronal excitability, associated with a modulation of Na{sub v} channel gating, observed clinically in response to ciguatera poisoning.« less

  11. Effect of polacrilin potassium as disintegrant on bioavailability of diclofenac potassium in tablets : a technical note.

    PubMed

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-09-01

    Polacrilin potassium is an ion exchange resin used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as a tablet disintegrant. It is a weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Chemically, it is a partial potassium salt of a copolymer of methacrylic acid with divinyl benzene. It ionizes to an anionic polymer chain and potassium cations. It was hypothesized that polacrilin potassium may be able to improve the permeability of anionic drugs according to the Donnan membrane phenomenon. The effect of polacrilin potassium on the permeability of diclofenac potassium, used as a model anionic drug, was tested in vitro using diffusion cells and in vivo by monitoring serum levels in rats. The amount of drug permeated across a dialysis membrane in vitro was significantly more in the presence of polacrilin potassium. Significant improvement was found in the extent of drug absorption in vivo. It could be concluded that polacrilin potassium may be used as a high-functionality excipient for improving the bioavailability of anionic drugs having poor gastrointestinal permeability.

  12. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  13. Bioavailability of potassium from potatoes and potassium gluconate: a randomized dose response trial.

    PubMed

    Macdonald-Clarke, Claire J; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, Linda D; McCabe, George P; Lachcik, Pamela J; Wastney, Meryl; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-08-01

    The bioavailability of potassium should be considered in setting requirements, but to our knowledge, the bioavailability from individual foods has not been determined. Potatoes provide 19-20% of potassium in the American diet. We compared the bioavailability and dose response of potassium from nonfried white potatoes with skin [targeted at 20, 40, and 60 milliequivalents (mEq) K] and French fries (40 mEq K) with potassium gluconate at the same doses when added to a basal diet that contained ∼60 mEq K. Thirty-five healthy, normotensive men and women with a mean ± SD age of 29.7 ± 11.2 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 24.3 ± 4.4 were enrolled in a single-blind, crossover, randomized controlled trial. Participants were partially randomly assigned to the order of testing for nine 5-d interventions of additional potassium as follows: 0 (control; repeated at phases 1 and 5), 20, 40, and 60 mEq K/d consumed as a potassium gluconate supplement or as unfried potato or 40 mEq K from French fries completed at phase 9. The bioavailability of potassium was determined from the area under the curve (AUC) of serial blood draws and cumulative urinary excretion during a 24-h period and from a kinetic analysis. The effects of the potassium source and dose on the change in blood pressure and augmentation index (AIx) were determined. The serum potassium AUC increased with the dose (P < 0.0001) and did not differ because of the source (P = 0.53). Cumulative 24-h urinary potassium also increased with the dose (P < 0.0001) and was greater with the potato than with the supplement (P < 0.0001). The kinetic analysis showed the absorption efficiency was high across all interventions (>94% ± 12%). There were no significant differences in the change in blood pressure or AIx with the treatment source or dose. The bioavailability of potassium is as high from potatoes as from potassium gluconate supplements. Future studies that measure the effect of dietary potassium on blood pressure

  14. Potassium in agriculture--status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Senbayram, Mehmet; Peiter, Edgar

    2014-05-15

    In this review we summarize factors determining the plant availability of soil potassium (K), the role of K in crop yield formation and product quality, and the dependence of crop stress resistance on K nutrition. Average soil reserves of K are generally large, but most of it is not plant-available. Therefore, crops need to be supplied with soluble K fertilizers, the demand of which is expected to increase significantly, particularly in developing regions of the world. Recent investigations have shown that organic exudates of some bacteria and plant roots play a key role in releasing otherwise unavailable K from K-bearing minerals. Thus, breeding for genotypes that have improved mechanisms to gain access to this fixed K will contribute toward more sustainable agriculture, particularly in cropping systems that do not have access to fertilizer K. In K-deficient crops, the supply of sink organs with photosynthates is impaired, and sugars accumulate in source leaves. This not only affects yield formation, but also quality parameters, for example in wheat, potato and grape. As K has beneficial effects on human health, its concentration in the harvest product is a quality parameter in itself. Owing to its fundamental roles in turgor generation, primary metabolism, and long-distance transport, K plays a prominent role in crop resistance to drought, salinity, high light, or cold as well as resistance to pests and pathogens. Despite the abundance of vital roles of K in crop production, an improvement of K uptake and use efficiency has not been a major focus of conventional or transgenic breeding in the past. In addition, current soil analysis methods for K are insufficient for some common soils, posing the risk of imbalanced fertilization. A stronger prioritization of these areas of research is needed to counter declines in soil fertility and to improve food security. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. CNS Schwann cells display oligodendrocyte precursor-like potassium channel activation and antigenic expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Kristel; Imbschweiler, Ilka; Ulrich, Reiner; Kovermann, Peter; Fahlke, Christoph; Deschl, Ulrich; Kalkuhl, Arno; Baumgärnter, Wolfgang; Wewetzer, Konstantin

    2014-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury triggers production of myelinating Schwann cells from endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs). These CNS Schwann cells may be attractive candidates for novel therapeutic strategies aiming to promote endogenous CNS repair. However, CNS Schwann cells have been so far mainly characterized in situ regarding morphology and marker expression, and it has remained enigmatic whether they display functional properties distinct from peripheral nervous system (PNS) Schwann cells. Potassium channels (K+) have been implicated in progenitor and glial cell proliferation after injury and may, therefore, represent a suitable pharmacological target. In the present study, we focused on the function and expression of voltage-gated K+ channels Kv(1-12) and accessory β-subunits in purified adult canine CNS and PNS Schwann cell cultures using electrophysiology and microarray analysis and characterized their antigenic phenotype. We show here that K+ channels differed significantly in both cell types. While CNS Schwann cells displayed prominent K D-mediated K+ currents, PNS Schwann cells elicited K(D-) and K(A-type) K+ currents. Inhibition of K+ currents by TEA and Ba2+ was more effective in CNS Schwann cells. These functional differences were not paralleled by differential mRNA expression of Kv(1-12) and accessory β-subunits. However, O4/A2B5 and GFAP expressions were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in CNS than in PNS Schwann cells. Taken together, this is the first evidence that CNS Schwann cells display specific properties not shared by their peripheral counterpart. Both Kv currents and increased O4/A2B5 expression were reminiscent of OLPs suggesting that CNS Schwann cells retain OLP features during maturation.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Honokiol on the Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels in Freshly Isolated Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Anqi; Zhang, Yan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Guangqin

    2018-02-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K V ) currents, subdivided into rapidly inactivating A-type currents (I A ) and slowly inactivating delayed rectifier currents (I K ), play a fundamental role in modulating pain by controlling neuronal excitability. The effects of Honokiol (Hon), a natural biphenolic compound derived from Magnolia officinalis, on K V currents were investigated in freshly isolated mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results showed that Hon inhibited I A and I K in concentration-dependent manner. The IC 50 values for block of I A and I K were 30.5 and 25.7 µM, respectively. Hon (30 µM) shifted the steady-state activation curves of I A and I K to positive potentials by 17.6 and 16.7 mV, whereas inactivation and recovery from the inactivated state of I A were unaffected. These results suggest that Hon preferentially interacts with the active states of the I A and I K channels, and has no effect on the resting state and inactivated state of the I A channel. Blockade on K + channels by Hon may contribute to its antinociceptive effect, especially anti-inflammatory pain.

  17. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  18. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8th day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion. PMID:25948978

  19. Studies of potassium-promoted nickel catalysts for methane steam reforming: Effect of surface potassium location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiecki, Tadeusz; Denis, Andrzej; Rawski, Michał; Gołębiowski, Andrzej; Stołecki, Kazimierz; Dmytrzyk, Jaromir; Kotarba, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The effect of potassium addition to the Ni/Al2O3 steam reforming catalyst has been investigated on several model systems, including K/Al2O3 with various amounts of alkali promoters (1-4 wt% of K2O), a model catalyst 90%NiO-10%Al2O3 promoted with potassium and a commercial catalyst. The potassium surface state and stability were investigated by means of the Species Resolved Thermal Alkali Desorption method (SR-TAD). The activity of the catalysts in the steam reforming of methane and their coking-resistance were also evaluated. The results reveal that the beneficial effect of potassium addition is strongly related to its location in the catalysts. The catalyst surface should be promoted with potassium in order to obtain high coking-resistant catalysts. Moreover, the catalyst preparation procedure should ensure a direct interaction of potassium with the Al2O3 support surface. Due to the low stability of potassium on θ-Al2O3 this phase is undesirable during the preparation of a stable steam reforming catalyst.

  20. Improved Synthesis Of Potassium Beta' '-Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Ryan, Margaret A.; O'Connor, Dennis E.; Kisor, Adam; Underwood, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Improved formulations of precursor materials synthesize nearly-phase-pure potassium beta' '-alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) powder. Materials are microhomogeneous powders (or, alternatively, gels) containing K(+,) Mg(2+), and Al(3+). K-BASE powder produced used in potassium-working-fluid alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (K-AMTEC), in which heat-input and heat-rejection temperatures lower than sodium-working-fluid AMTEC (Na-AMTEC). Additional potential use lies in purification of pottassium by removal of sodium and calcium.

  1. A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.

  2. Skin decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime on rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing-Hai; Sun, Pei-Pei; Zheng, Wei; Han, Song; Ying, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Bao-Quan; Zuo, Guo-Min; Lu, Hong; Zhong, Yu-Xu

    2015-03-01

    The chemical weapon sulfur mustard (SM) is a blister agent, and currently, there is no effective antidote. To evaluate the decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime against SM and preliminarily elucidate its decontamination mechanism. Potassium ketoxime reacted with SM, and SM residues were tested at different time intervals by T-135 colorimetry after the reaction. Rabbit skin was topically exposed to 2 mg/cm(2) SM, treated with potassium ketoxime 1 min later, and observed after 6, 12, and 24 h. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was employed to screen and identify the main products of potassium ketoxime decontamination of SM. Potassium ketoxime had a great effect against SM contamination. With a mass ratio of decontaminant: SM of 50:1, decontamination rates against SM were 87.5% after 30 s, 95.9% after 1 min, and 99.0% after 5 min. Fifteen minutes after exposure to SM, the untreated group showed clear erythema lesions, whereas the experimental group showed no clear erythema lesions within 6 h. After 12 and 24 h, the areas of damaged skin in the experimental group were 0.038 and 0.125 cm(2), respectively, compared with 2.21 and 2.65 cm(2) in the control group. Histopathological analysis revealed that treatment with potassium ketoxime also reduced inflammation-induced damage. The results of this study indicate that potassium ketoxime reacted rapidly and completely with SM, and thus, it was found to be a suitable and effective skin decontaminant against SM. The decontamination reaction mechanism is mainly related to nucleophilic substitution.

  3. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  5. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  7. Potassium channels: the importance of transport signals.

    PubMed

    Griffith, L C

    2001-03-20

    The number, type and distribution of ion channels on a neuron's surface determine its electrical response to stimulation. One way that a cell determines how many molecules of each channel type are sent to the surface has been eludicated in a recent study of intrinsic protein transport signals within potassium channels.

  8. Magneto-optical trapping of potassium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Robert Sylvester, III

    1997-12-01

    We have demonstrated a magneto-optical trap (scMOT) suitable for capturing radioactive potassium produced on- line with the UW-Madison 12MeV tandem electrostatic accelerator. To do this, we made and characterized the first scMOT for potassium, measured the potassium ultracold collision rate, and developed a numerical trap- loading rate model that makes useful quantitative predictions. We have created a cold beam of collimated potassium atoms using a pyramidal magneto-optical funnel and used it to load a long-lifetime scMOT operating at ultrahigh vacuum. We have also built a target that produces a beam of radioactive 37K and 38K and coupled it to the magneto-optical funnel and trap. Once a trap of radioactive 38K has been demonstrated, the primary goal of this project is to measure the beta-asymmetry parameter in the decay of 38K, performing a sensitive test of the Standard Model of weak interactions.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stabilizer or thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stabilizer or thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7610...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7610...

  16. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutionsmore » where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.« less

  17. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called the Rochelle...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  7. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  8. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as color...

  9. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as color...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of use...

  11. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  12. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of use...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  15. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of use...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of polyolefin...

  12. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10553 - Potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium titanium oxide. 721.10553... Substances § 721.10553 Potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-06-149; CAS No. 12673-69...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10553 - Potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium titanium oxide. 721.10553... Substances § 721.10553 Potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-06-149; CAS No. 12673-69...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of polyolefin...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as magnesium potassium...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of polyolefin...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of polyolefin...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of polyolefin...

  7. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of certain potassium... ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  8. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of use...

  13. Extracellular Potassium Homeostasis: Insights from Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Kuo, Elizabeth; Huang, Chou-Long

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular potassium makes up only about 2% of the total body potassium store. The majority of the body potassium is distributed in the intracellular space, and of which about 80% is in skeletal muscle. Movement of potassium in and out of skeletal muscle thus plays a pivotal role in extracellular potassium homeostasis. The exchange of potassium between the extracellular space and skeletal muscle is mediated by specific membrane transporters. These include potassium uptake by Na+, K+-ATPase and release by inward rectifier K+ channels. These processes are regulated by circulating hormones, peptides, ions, and by physical activity of muscle as well as dietary potassium intake. Pharmaceutical agents, poisons and disease conditions also affect the exchange and alter extracellular potassium concentration. Here, we review extracellular potassium homeostasis focusing on factors and conditions that influence the balance of potassium movement in skeletal muscle. Recent findings that mutations of a skeletal muscle-specific inward rectifier K+ channel cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis provide interesting insights into the role of skeletal muscle in extracellular potassium homeostasis. These recent findings will be reviewed. PMID:23953801

  14. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...