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Sample records for a-type stars magnetic

  1. Magnetized anisotropic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelea, Cristian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2018-05-01

    We extend a known solution-generating technique for isotropic fluids in order to construct more general models of anisotropic stars with poloidal magnetic fields. In particular, we discuss the magnetized versions of some well-known exact solutions describing anisotropic stars and dark energy stars, and we describe some of their properties.

  2. Review: Magnetic Fields of O-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002, strong, organized magnetic fields have been firmly detected at the surfaces of about 10 Galactic O-type stars. In this paper I will review the characteristics of the inferred fields of individual stars as well as the overall population. I will discuss the extension of the “magnetic desert,” first inferred among the A-type stars, to O stars up to 60 M⊙. I will discuss the interaction of the winds of the magnetic stars with the fields above their surfaces, generating complex “dynamical magnetosphere” structures detected in optical and UV lines, and in X-ray lines and continuum. Finally, I will discuss the detection of a small number of variable O stars in the LMC and SMC that exhibit spectral characteristics analogous to the known Galactic magnetic stars, and that almost certainly represent the first known examples of extragalactic magnetic stars.

  3. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  4. Magnetic Stars After the Hayashi Phase. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2016-09-01

    The properties of magnetic stars derived from observational data are analyzed. The degree of "magnetic" braking of parent protostars, which depends the magnetic field and mass, is studied. The conditions under which magnetic and "normal" nonmagnetic stars are separated, which appear to depend only on the rotational velocity of the protostars, are examined. The reasons for differences in the average magnitudes of the magnetic field in massive and low-mass magnetic stars are analyzed. The magnetic field structures of magnetic stars and their stability over time (rigidity of rotation) are examined.

  5. Magnetic Stars After the Hayashi Phase. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2016-06-01

    The problems of the origin and evolution of magnetic stars based on analysis of observational data are discussed. It is assumed that magnetic stars acquire their major properties during the protostellar collapse stage. The properties of magnetic stars after the Hayashi phase are examined in detail.

  6. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR GRANULATION IN EARLY A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kallinger, Thomas; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    2010-03-01

    Stars with spectral types earlier than about F0 on (or close) to the main sequence have long been believed to lack observable surface convection, although evolutionary models of A-type stars do predict very thin surface convective zones. We present evidence for granulation in two {delta} Scuti stars of spectral type A2: HD 174936 and HD 50844. Recent analyses of space-based CoRoT data revealed up to some 1000 frequencies in the photometry of these stars. The frequencies were interpreted as individual pulsation modes. If true, there must be large numbers of nonradial modes of very high degree l which should suffermore » cancellation effects in disk-integrated photometry (even of high space-based precision). The p-mode interpretation of all the frequencies in HD 174936 and HD 50844 depends on the assumption of white (frequency-independent) noise. Our independent analyses of the data provide an alternative explanation: most of the peaks in the Fourier spectra are the signature of non-white granulation background noise, and less than about 100 of the frequencies are actual stellar p-modes in each star. We find granulation timescales which are consistent with scaling relations that describe cooler stars with known surface convection. If the granulation interpretation is correct, the hundreds of low-amplitude Fourier peaks reported in recent studies are falsely interpreted as independent pulsation modes and a significantly lower number of frequencies are associated with pulsation, consistent with only modes of low degree.« less

  8. Magnetic Inclination E Ects In Star-Planet Magnetic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugarek, Antoine

    2017-10-01

    A large fraction of the exoplanets discovered today are in a close-in orbit around their host star. This proximity allows them to be magnetically connected to their host, which lead to e cient energy and angular momentum exchanges between the star and the planet. We carry out three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of close-in star-planet systems to characterize the e ect of the inclination of the planetary magnetic eld on the star-planet magnetic interaction. We parametrize this e ect in scaling laws depending on the star, planet, and stellar wind properties that can be applied to any exoplanetary systems around cool stars.

  9. Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.

  10. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A.; Rea, N.

    2015-05-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  11. A new family of magnetic stars: the Am stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.

    2016-12-01

    We presented the discovery of an ultra-weak field in three Am stars, β UMa, θ Leo, and Alhena, thanks to ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations. Two of the three stars of this study shown peculiar magnetic signatures with prominent positive lobes like the one of Sirius A that are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. Alhena, contrary to Sirius A, β UMa and θ Leo, show normal signatures. These detections of ultra-weak fields in Am stars suggest the existence of a new family of magnetic intermediate-mass stars: the Am stars. However the various shapes of the signatures required further observation to identify the physical processes at work in these stars. A preliminary explanation is based on microturbulence.

  12. Magnetized Neutron Stars in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropina, O. D.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the propagation of magnetized, isolated old neutron stars through the interstellar medium. We performed axisymmetric, non-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the supersonic motion of neutron star with dipole magnetic field aligned with its velocity through the interstellar medium (ISM). We consider two cases: (1) where the accretion radius is larger than Alfvén radius, i.e. Racc>>RA and gravitational focusing is important; and (2) where Racc<magnetized star interacts with the ISM as a “georotator”, without significant gravitational focusing. In the first case we observe Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto an isolated magnetized neutron star. In the second case magnetic field lines are stretched downwind from the star and form a hollow elongated magnetotail. Reconnection of the magnetic field is observed in the tail which may lead to acceleration of particles.

  13. VLA observations of dwarf M flare stars and magnetic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.; Foster, P.

    1988-01-01

    The VLA has been used to search for 6 cm emission from 16 nearby dwarf M stars, leading to the detection of only one of them - Gliese 735. The dwarf M flare stars AD Leonis and YZ Canis Minoris were also monitored at 6 cm and 20 cm wavelength in order to study variability. Successive oppositely circularly polarized bursts were detected from AD Leo at 6 cm, suggesting the presence of magnetic fields of both magnetic polarities. An impulsive 20-cm burst from YZ CMi preceded slowly varying 6-cm emission. The VLA was also used, unsuccessfully, to search for 6-cm emission from 13 magnetic Ap stars, all of which exhibit kG magnetic fields. Although the Ap magnetic stars have strong dipolar magnetic fields, the failure to detect gyroresonant radiation suggests that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The quiescent microwave emission from GL 735 is probably due to nonthermal radiation, since unusually high (H = 50 kG or greater) surface magnetic fields are inferred under the assumption that the 6-cm radiation is the gyroresonant radiation of thermal electrons.

  14. Non-rigid precession of magnetic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, S. K.; Jones, D. I.

    2017-06-01

    Stars are, generically, rotating and magnetized objects with a misalignment between their magnetic and rotation axes. Since a magnetic field induces a permanent distortion to its host, it provides effective rigidity even to a fluid star, leading to bulk stellar motion that resembles free precession. This bulk motion is, however, accompanied by induced interior velocity and magnetic field perturbations, which are oscillatory on the precession time-scale. Extending previous work, we show that these quantities are described by a set of second-order perturbation equations featuring cross-terms scaling with the product of the magnetic and centrifugal distortions to the star. For the case of a background toroidal field, we reduce these to a set of differential equations in radial functions, and find a method for their solution. The resulting magnetic field and velocity perturbations show complex multipolar structure and are strongest towards the centre of the star.

  15. The Magnetic Properties of Galactic OB Stars from the Magnetism in Massive Stars Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Gregg A.; Grunhut, Jason; Petit, Veronique; Neiner, Coralie; Alecian, Evelyne; Landstreet, John; MiMeS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) project represents the largest systematic survey of stellar magnetism ever undertaken. Comprising nearly 4500 high resolution polarised spectra of nearly 550 Galactic B and O-type stars, the MiMeS survey aims to address interesting and fundamental questions about the magnetism of hot, massive stars: How and when are massive star magnetic fields generated, and how do they evolve throughout stellar evolution? How do magnetic fields couple to and interact with the powerful winds of OB stars, and what are the consequences for the wind structure, momentum flux and energetics? What are the detailed physical mechanisms that lead to the anomalously slow rotation of many magnetic massive stars? What is the ultimate impact of stellar magnetic fields -- both direct and indirect -- on the evolution of massive stars? In this talk we report results from the analysis of the B-type stars observed within the MiMeS survey. The sample consists of over 450 stars ranging in spectral type from B9 to B0, and in evolutionary stage from the pre-main sequence to the post-main sequence. In addition to general statistical results concerning field incidence, strength and topology, we will elaborate our conclusions for subsamples of special interest, including the Herbig and classical Be stars, pulsating B stars and chemically peculiar B stars.

  16. Torsional oscillations of magnetized relativistic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messios, Neophytos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2001-12-01

    Strong magnetic fields in relativistic stars can be a cause of crust fracturing, resulting in the excitation of global torsional oscillations. Such oscillations could become observable in gravitational waves or in high-energy radiation, thus becoming a tool for probing the equation of state of relativistic stars. As the eigenfrequency of torsional oscillation modes is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field, we study torsional modes in magnetized relativistic stars. We derive the linearized perturbation equations that govern torsional oscillations coupled to the oscillations of a magnetic field, when variations in the metric are neglected (Cowling approximation). The oscillations are described by a single two-dimensional wave equation, which can be solved as a boundary-value problem to obtain eigenfrequencies. We find that, in the non-magnetized case, typical oscillation periods of the fundamental l=2 torsional modes can be nearly a factor of 2 larger for relativistic stars than previously computed in the Newtonian limit. For magnetized stars, we show that the influence of the magnetic field is highly dependent on the assumed magnetic field configuration, and simple estimates obtained previously in the literature cannot be used for identifying normal modes observationally.

  17. Differential rotation in magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulášek, Z.; Krtička, J.; Paunzen, E.; Švanda, M.; Hummerich, S.; Bernhard, K.; Jagelka, M.; Janík, J.; Henry, G. W.; Shultz, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic chemically peculiar (mCP) stars constitute about 10% of upper-main-sequence stars and are characterized by strong magnetic fields and abnormal photospheric abundances of some chemical elements. Most of them exhibit strictly periodic light, magnetic, radio, and spectral variations that can be fully explained by a rigidly rotating main-sequence star with persistent surface structures and a stable global magnetic field. Long-term observations of the phase curves of these variations enable us to investigate possible surface differential rotation with unprecedented accuracy and reliability. The analysis of the phase curves in the best-observed mCP stars indicates that the location and the contrast of photometric and spectroscopic spots as well as the geometry of the magnetic field remain constant for at least many decades. The strict periodicity of mCP variables supports the concept that the outer layers of upper-main-sequence stars do not rotate differentially. However, there is a small, inhomogeneous group consisting of a few mCP stars whose rotation periods vary on timescales of decades. The period oscillations may reflect real changes in the angular velocity of outer layers of the stars which are anchored by their global magnetic fields. In CU Vir, V901 Ori, and perhaps BS Cir, the rotational period variation indicates the presence of vertical differential rotation; however, its exact nature has remained elusive until now. The incidence of mCP stars with variable rotational periods is currently investigated using a sample of fifty newly identified Kepler mCP stars.

  18. Magnetic and pulsational variability of Przybylski's star (HD 101065)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Järvinen, S. P.; Madej, J.; Bychkov, V. D.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Bychkova, L. V.

    2018-07-01

    Since its discovery more than half a century ago Przybylski's star (HD 101065) continues to excite the astronomical community by the unusual nature of its spectrum, exhibiting exotic element abundances. This star was also the first magnetic chemically peculiar A-type star for which the presence of rapid oscillations was established. Our analysis of newly acquired and historic longitudinal magnetic field measurements indicates that Przybylski's star is also unusual with respect to its extremely slow rotation. Adopting a dipolar structure for the magnetic field and using a sine wave fit to all reported longitudinal magnetic field values over the last 43 yr, we find a probable rotation period Prot ≈ 188 yr, which however has to be considered tentative as it does not represent a unique solution and has to be verified by future observations. Additionally, based on our own spectropolarimetric material obtained with HARPSpol, we discuss the impact of the anomalous structure of its atmosphere, in particular of the non-uniform horizontal and vertical distributions of chemical elements on the magnetic field measurements and the pulsational variability. Anomalies related to the vertical abundance stratification of Pr and Nd are for the first time used to establish the presence of a radial magnetic field gradient.

  19. Magnetic and pulsational variability of Przybylski's star (HD 101065)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Järvinen, S. P.; Madej, J.; Bychkov, V. D.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Bychkova, L. V.

    2018-04-01

    Since its discovery more than half a century ago Przybylski's star (HD 101065) continues to excite the astronomical community by the unusual nature of its spectrum, exhibiting exotic element abundances. This star was also the first magnetic chemically peculiar A-type star for which the presence of rapid oscillations was established. Our analysis of newly acquired and historic longitudinal magnetic field measurements indicates that Przybylski's star is also unusual with respect to its extremely slow rotation. Adopting a dipolar structure for the magnetic field and using a sine wave fit to all reported longitudinal magnetic field values over the last 43 yr, we find a probable rotation period Prot ≈ 188 yr, which however has to be considered tentative as it does not represent a unique solution and has to be verified by future observations. Additionally, based on our own spectropolarimetric material obtained with HARPSpol, we discuss the impact of the anomalous structure of its atmosphere, in particular of the non-uniform horizontal and vertical distributions of chemical elements on the magnetic field measurements and the pulsational variability. Anomalies related to the vertical abundance stratification of Pr and Nd are for the first time used to establish the presence of a radial magnetic field gradient.

  20. Magnetic neutron star cooling and microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekhin, A. Y.; Chabrier, G.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We study the relative importance of several recent updates of microphysics input to the neutron star cooling theory and the effects brought about by superstrong magnetic fields of magnetars, including the effects of the Landau quantization in their crusts. Methods: We use a finite-difference code for simulation of neutron-star thermal evolution on timescales from hours to megayears with an updated microphysics input. The consideration of short timescales (≲1 yr) is made possible by a treatment of the heat-blanketing envelope without the quasistationary approximation inherent to its treatment in traditional neutron-star cooling codes. For the strongly magnetized neutron stars, we take into account the effects of Landau quantization on thermodynamic functions and thermal conductivities. We simulate cooling of ordinary neutron stars and magnetars with non-accreted and accreted crusts and compare the results with observations. Results: Suppression of radiative and conductive opacities in strongly quantizing magnetic fields and formation of a condensed radiating surface substantially enhance the photon luminosity at early ages, making the life of magnetars brighter but shorter. These effects together with the effect of strong proton superfluidity, which slows down the cooling of kiloyear-aged neutron stars, can explain thermal luminosities of about a half of magnetars without invoking heating mechanisms. Observed thermal luminosities of other magnetars are still higher than theoretical predictions, which implies heating, but the effects of quantizing magnetic fields and baryon superfluidity help to reduce the discrepancy.

  1. General properties of magnetic CP stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2017-07-01

    We present the review of our previous studies related to observational evidence of the fossil field hypothesis of formation and evolution of magnetic and non-magnetic chemically peculiar stars. Analysis of the observed data shows that these stars acquire their main properties in the process of gravitational collapse. In the non-stationary Hayashi phase, a magnetic field becomes weakened and its configuration complicated, but the fossil field global orientation remains. After a non-stationary phase, relaxation of young star's tangled field takes place and by the time of joining ZAMS (Zero Age Main Sequence) it is generally restored to a dipole structure. Stability of dipole structures allows them to remain unchanged up to the end of their life on the Main Sequence which is 109 years at most.

  2. Detection of atmospheric velocity fields in A-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J. D.

    1998-10-01

    High signal-to-noise spectra with spectral resolution of more than 10(5) have been obtained of one normal B9.5V, one normal A1V, two Am stars, and two HgMn B stars having v sin i less than 6 km s(-1) . These spectra are modeled with LTE line profile synthesis to test the extent to which the spectrum of each star can be modeled correctly with a single set of parameters T_e, log g, chemical abundances, v sin i, and (depth-independent) microturbulent velocity xi . The answer to this question is important for abundance analysis of A and B stars; if conventional line synthesis does not reproduce the line profiles observed in stars of small v sin i, results obtained from such analysis are not likely to be very precise. The comparison of models with observations is then used to search for direct evidence of atmospheric motions, including line-strength dependent broadening, line core shape, and line asymmetries, in order to study how the microturbulence derived from abundance analysis is related to more direct evidence of atmospheric velocity fields. It is found for the three stars with 12,000 >= T_e >= 10,200 K (the normal star 21 Peg and the two HgMn stars 53 Tau and HD 193452) that xi is less than 1 km s(-1) , and line profiles are reproduced accurately by the synthesis with a single set of parameters. The slightly cooler (T_e ~ 9800 K) star HD 72660 has only a slightly stronger surface convective layer than the hotter stars, but for this star xi ~ 2.2 km s(-1) . Strong spectral lines all show significant asymmetry, with the blue line wing deeper than the red wing, and have line bisectors which have curvature towards the blue with a span of about 0.5 to 1.0 km s(-1) . A single model fits all lines satisfactorily. The two Am stars (HD 108642 and 32 Aqr), with T_e ~ 8000 K, are found to have much larger values of xi (4 to 5 km s(-1) ). The strong spectral lines of these two stars are extremely asymmetric, with depressed blue wings, and the bisectors have spans of order 3

  3. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  4. Rapid burster - a weakly magnetized neutron star

    SciTech Connect

    Hanawa, T.; Hirotani, K.; Kawai, N.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field of a neutron star involved in the rapid burster MXB 1730-335 is studied using a MHD instability model for type II bursts. It is suggested that the magnetic field on the surface is about 10 to the 8th G. The radius of the magnetosphere is estimated to be about 10 km. Observational evidence supporting this hypothesis is examined. 30 references.

  5. FLARES ON A-TYPE STARS: EVIDENCE FOR HEATING OF SOLAR CORONA BY NANOFLARES?

    SciTech Connect

    Švanda, Michal; Karlický, Marian, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz

    We analyzed the occurrence rates of flares on stars of spectral types K, G, F, and A, observed by Kepler . We found that the histogram of occurrence frequencies of stellar flares is systematically shifted toward a high-energy tail for A-type stars compared to stars of cooler spectral types. We extrapolated the fitted power laws toward flares with smaller energies (nanoflares) and made estimates for total energy flux to stellar atmospheres by flares. We found that, for A-type stars, the total energy flux density was at least four-times smaller than for G stars. We speculate that this deficit in energymore » supply may explain the lack of hot coronae on A-type stars. Our results indicate the importance of nanoflares for heating and formation of the solar corona.« less

  6. Magnetically Sleepy Stars: An X-ray Survey of Candidate Stars in Extended Magnetic Minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven

    2010-09-01

    The Sun occasionally slips into periods of extended magnetic quiescence where the normal magnetic cycle largely ceases (e.g., the Maunder minimum). Understanding these episodes is important for understanding non-linear magnetic dynamos and the Earth's radiation budget. We have developed a new method for determining which stars may be in the stellar analog of these magnetic minima. We propose to study five such stars with Chandra ACIS-S. Combined with archival spectra of more stars, we can 1) explore (by proxy) properties of the solar corona in a Maunder-like minimum, 2) determine what stellar properties affect this state, and 3) investigate the coronal product of the residual turbulent dynamo in a solar mass star.

  7. A survey for pulsations in A-type stars using SuperWASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2015-12-01

    "It is sound judgement to hope that in the not too distant future we shall be competent to understand so simple a thing as a star." - Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, The Internal Constitution of Stars, 1926 A survey of A-type stars is conducted with the SuperWASP archive in the search for pulsationally variable stars. Over 1.5 million stars are selected based on their (J-H) colour. Periodograms are calculated for light curves which have been extracted from the archive and cleaned of spurious points. Peaks which have amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude are identified in the periodograms. In total, 202 656 stars are identified to show variability in the range 5-300 c/d. Spectroscopic follow-up was obtained for 38 stars which showed high-frequency pulsations between 60 and 235 c/d, and a further object with variability at 636 c/d. In this sample, 13 were identified to be normal A-type δ Sct stars, 14 to be pulsating metallic-lined Am stars, 11 to be rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, and one to be a subdwarf B variable star. The spectra were used not only to classify the stars, but to determine an effective temperature through Balmer line fitting. Hybrid stars have been identified in this study, which show pulsations in both the high- and low-overtone domains; an observation not predicted by theory. These stars are prime targets to perform follow-up observations, as a confirmed detection of this phenomenon will have significant impact on the theory of pulsations in A-type stars. The detected number of roAp stars has expanded the known number of this pulsator class by 22 per cent. Within these results both the hottest and coolest roAp star have been identified. Further to this, one object, KIC 7582608, was observed by the Kepler telescope for 4 yr, enabling a detailed frequency analysis. This analysis has identified significant frequency variations in this star, leading to the hypothesis that this is the first close binary star of its type. The observational

  8. Gravitomagnetic effect in magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Debarati; Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Bandyopadhyay, Debades, E-mail: dchatterjee@lpccaen.in2p3.fr, E-mail: chandrachur.chakraborty@tifr.res.in, E-mail: debades.bandyopadhyay@saha.ac.in

    Rotating bodies in General Relativity produce frame dragging, also known as the gravitomagnetic effect in analogy with classical electromagnetism. In this work, we study the effect of magnetic field on the gravitomagnetic effect in neutron stars with poloidal geometry, which is produced as a result of its rotation. We show that the magnetic field has a non-negligible impact on frame dragging. The maximum effect of the magnetic field appears along the polar direction, where the frame-dragging frequency decreases with increase in magnetic field, and along the equatorial direction, where its magnitude increases. For intermediate angles, the effect of the magneticmore » field decreases, and goes through a minimum for a particular angular value at which magnetic field has no effect on gravitomagnetism. Beyond that particular angle gravitomagnetic effect increases with increasing magnetic field. We try to identify this 'null region' for the case of magnetized neutron stars, both inside and outside, as a function of the magnetic field, and suggest a thought experiment to find the null region of a particular pulsar using the frame dragging effect.« less

  9. Magnetic Doppler imaging of Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, J.; Wade, G. A.; Kochukhov, O.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.

    2008-04-01

    Historically, the magnetic field geometries of the chemically peculiar Ap stars were modelled in the context of a simple dipole field. However, with the acquisition of increasingly sophisticated diagnostic data, it has become clear that the large-scale field topologies exhibit important departures from this simple model. Recently, new high-resolution circular and linear polarisation spectroscopy has even hinted at the presence of strong, small-scale field structures, which were completely unexpected based on earlier modelling. This project investigates the detailed structure of these strong fossil magnetic fields, in particular the large-scale field geometry, as well as small scale magnetic structures, by mapping the magnetic and chemical surface structure of a selected sample of Ap stars. These maps will be used to investigate the relationship between the local field vector and local surface chemistry, looking for the influence the field may have on the various chemical transport mechanisms (i.e., diffusion, convection and mass loss). This will lead to better constraints on the origin and evolution, as well as refining the magnetic field model for Ap stars. Mapping will be performed using high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio time-series of spectra in both circular and linear polarisation obtained using the new-generation ESPaDOnS (CFHT, Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and NARVAL spectropolarimeters (Pic du Midi Observatory). With these data we will perform tomographic inversion of Doppler-broadened Stokes IQUV Zeeman profiles of a large variety of spectral lines using the INVERS10 magnetic Doppler imaging code, simultaneously recovering the detailed surface maps of the vector magnetic field and chemical abundances.

  10. Moments of inertia of relativistic magnetized stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, K.

    2001-06-01

    We consider principal moments of inertia of axisymmetric, magnetically deformed stars in the context of general relativity. The general expression for the moment of inertia with respect to the symmetric axis is obtained. The numerical estimates are derived for several polytropic stellar models. We find that the values of the principal moments of inertia are modified by a factor of 2 at most from Newtonian estimates.

  11. The magnetic fields of hot subdwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.; Fossati, L.; Jordan, S.; O'Toole, S. J.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Detection of magnetic fields has been reported in several sdO and sdB stars. Recent literature has cast doubts on the reliability of most of these detections. The situation concerning the occurrence and frequency of magnetic fields in hot subdwarfs is at best confused. Aims: We revisit data previously published in the literature, and we present new observations to clarify the question of how common magnetic fields are in subdwarf stars. Methods: We consider a sample of about 40 hot subdwarf stars. About 30 of them have been observed with the FORS1 and FORS2 instruments of the ESO VLT. Results have been published for only about half of the hot subdwarfs observed with FORS. Here we present new FORS1 field measurements for 17 stars, 14 of which have never been observed for magnetic fields before. We also critically review the measurements already published in the literature, and in particular we try to explain why previous papers based on the same FORS1 data have reported contradictory results. Results: All new and re-reduced measurements obtained with FORS1 are shown to be consistent with non-detection of magnetic fields. We explain previous spurious field detections from data obtained with FORS1 as due to a non-optimal method of wavelength calibration. Field detections in other surveys are found to be uncertain or doubtful, and certainly in need of confirmation. Conclusions: There is presently no strong evidence for the occurrence of a magnetic field in any sdB or sdO star, with typical longitudinal field uncertainties of the order of 2-400 G. It appears that globally simple fields of more than about 1 or 2 kG in strength occur in at most a few percent of hot subdwarfs. Further high-precision surveys, both with high-resolution spectropolarimeters and with instruments similar to FORS1 on large telescopes, would be very valuable. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile under

  12. Progress on Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Mathis, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the MiMeS project, which aims at studying all aspects of magnetism in massive stars to understand their characteristics, origin, incidence, evolution, and impact on other physical processes. We show examples of recent observational results obtained within this project on pulsating B stars (β Cephei and SPB stars) as well as Herbig Ae/Be stars. Recent theoretical progress obtained within MiMeS on the configuration and stability of magnetic fields is also summarized.

  13. The discovery of nonthermal radio emission from magnetic Bp-Ap stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Abbott, David C.; Bastian, T. S.; Bieging, J. H.; Churchwell, E.

    1987-01-01

    In a VLA survey of chemically peculiar B- and A-type stars with strong magnetic fields, five of the 34 stars observed have been identified as 6 cm continuum sources. Three of the detections are helium-strong early Bp stars (Sigma Ori E, HR 1890, and Delta Ori C), and two are helium weak, silicon-strong stars with spectral types near A0p (IQ Aur = HD 34452, Babcock's star = HD 215441). The 6 cm luminosities L6 (ergs/s Hz) range from log L6 = 16.2 to 17.9, somewhat less than the OB supergiants and W-R stars. Three-frequency observations indicate that the helium-strong Bp stars are variable nonthermal sources.

  14. Observational Effects of Magnetism in O Stars: Surface Nitrogen Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martins, F.; Escolano, C.; Wade, G. A.; Donati, J. F.; Bouret, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the surface nitrogen content of the six magnetic O stars known to date as well as of the early B-type star Tau Sco.. We compare these abundances to predictions of evolutionary models to isolate the effects of magnetic field on the transport of elements in stellar interiors. Methods. We conduct a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the ample stars with state-of-the-art atmosphere models. We rely on high signal-to-noise ratio, high resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPADONS at CFHT and NARVAL at TBL. Atmosphere models and synthetic spectra are computed with the code CMFGEN. Values of N/H together with their uncertainties are determined and compared to predictions of evolutionary models. Results. We find that the magnetic stars can be divided into two groups: one with stars displaying no N enrichment (one object); and one with stars most likely showing extra N enrichment (5 objects). For one star (Ori C) no robust conclusion can be drawn due to its young age. The star with no N enrichment is the one with the weakest magnetic field, possibly of dynamo origin. It might be a star having experienced strong magnetic braking under the condition of solid body rotation, but its rotational velocity is still relatively large. The five stars with high N content were probably slow rotators on the zero age main sequence, but they have surface N/H typical of normal O stars, indicating that the presence of a (probably fossil) magnetic field leads to extra enrichment. These stars may have a strong differential rotation inducing shear mixing. Our results shOuld be viewed as a basis on which new theoretical simulations can rely to better understand the effect of magnetism on the evolution of massive stars.

  15. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement tomore » be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.« less

  16. Effective Induction Heating around Strongly Magnetized Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Noack, L.; Lüftinger, T.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Lammer, H.

    2018-05-01

    Planets that are embedded in the changing magnetic fields of their host stars can experience significant induction heating in their interiors caused by the planet’s orbital motion. For induction heating to be substantial, the planetary orbit has to be inclined with respect to the stellar rotation and dipole axes. Using WX UMa, for which the rotation and magnetic axes are aligned, as an example, we show that for close-in planets on inclined orbits, induction heating can be stronger than the tidal heating occurring inside Jupiter’s satellite Io; namely, it can generate a surface heat flux exceeding 2 W m‑2. An internal heating source of such magnitude can lead to extreme volcanic activity on the planet’s surface, possibly also to internal local magma oceans, and to the formation of a plasma torus around the star aligned with the planetary orbit. A strongly volcanically active planet would eject into space mostly SO2, which would then dissociate into oxygen and sulphur atoms. Young planets would also eject CO2. Oxygen would therefore be the major component of the torus. If the O I column density of the torus exceeds ≈1012 cm‑2, the torus could be revealed by detecting absorption signatures at the position of the strong far-ultraviolet O I triplet at about 1304 Å. We estimate that this condition is satisfied if the O I atoms in the torus escape the system at a velocity smaller than 1–10 km s‑1. These estimates are valid also for a tidally heated planet.

  17. An unbiased study of debris discs around A-type stars with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thureau, N. D.; Greaves, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Kennedy, G.; Phillips, N.; Booth, M.; Duchêne, G.; Horner, J.; Rodriguez, D. R.; Sibthorpe, B.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Herschel DEBRIS (Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) survey brings us a unique perspective on the study of debris discs around main-sequence A-type stars. Bias-free by design, the survey offers a remarkable data set with which to investigate the cold disc properties. The statistical analysis of the 100 and 160 μm data for 86 main-sequence A stars yields a lower than previously found debris disc rate. Considering better than 3σ excess sources, we find a detection rate ≥24 ± 5 per cent at 100 μm which is similar to the debris disc rate around main-sequence F/G/K-spectral type stars. While the 100 and 160 μm excesses slowly decline with time, debris discs with large excesses are found around some of the oldest A stars in our sample, evidence that the debris phenomenon can survive throughout the length of the main sequence (˜1 Gyr). Debris discs are predominantly detected around the youngest and hottest stars in our sample. Stellar properties such as metallicity are found to have no effect on the debris disc incidence. Debris discs are found around A stars in single systems and multiple systems at similar rates. While tight and wide binaries (<1 and >100 au, respectively) host debris discs with a similar frequency and global properties, no intermediate separation debris systems were detected in our sample.

  18. Behavior of Abundances in Chemically Peculiar Dwarf and Subgiant A-Type Stars: HD 23193 and HD 170920

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoğlu, Tolgahan; Çalışkan, Şeyma; Ünal, Kübraözge

    2018-01-01

    To understand the origin of the abundance peculiarities of non-magnetic A-type stars, we present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of a metallic line star HD 23193 (A2m) and an A-type subgiant HD 170920 (A5), which could have been a HgMn star on the main sequence. Our analysis is based on medium (R ∼ 14,000) and high (R ∼ 40,000) resolution spectroscopic data of the stars. The abundances of 18 elements are derived: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, and Ba. The masses of HD 23193 and HD 170920 are estimated from evolutionary tracks as 2.3 ± 0.1 M ⊙ and 2.9 ± 0.1 M ⊙. The ages are found to be 635 ± 33 Myr for HD 23193 and 480 ± 50 Myr for HD 170920 using isochrones. The abundance pattern of HD 23193 shows deviations from solar values in the iron-peak elements and indicates remarkable overabundances of Sr (1.16), Y (1.03), and Ba (1.24) with respect to the solar abundances. We compare the derived abundances of this moderately rotating (v\\sin i =37.5 km s‑1) Am star to the theoretical chemical evolution models including rotational mixing. The theoretically predicted abundances resemble our derived abundance pattern, except for a few elements (Si and Cr). For HD 170920, we find nearly solar abundances, except for C (‑0.43), S (0.16), Ti (0.15), Ni (0.16), Zn (0.41), Y (0.57), and Ba (0.97). Its low rotational velocity (v\\sin i=14.5 km s‑1), reduced carbon abundance, and enhanced heavy element abundances suggest that the star is most likely an evolved HgMn star. Based on observations made at the TÜBITAK National Observatory (Program ID 14BRTT150–671), and the Ankara University Observatory, Turkey.

  19. Presupernova Evolution of Differentially Rotating Massive Stars Including Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, A.; Woosley, S. E.; Spruit, H. C.

    2005-06-01

    As a massive star evolves through multiple stages of nuclear burning on its way to becoming a supernova, a complex, differentially rotating structure is set up. Angular momentum is transported by a variety of classic instabilities and also by magnetic torques from fields generated by the differential rotation. We present the first stellar evolution calculations to follow the evolution of rotating massive stars including, at least approximately, all these effects, magnetic and nonmagnetic, from the zero-age main sequence until the onset of iron-core collapse. The evolution and action of the magnetic fields is as described by Spruit in 2002, and a range of uncertain parameters is explored. In general, we find that magnetic torques decrease the final rotation rate of the collapsing iron core by about a factor of 30-50 when compared with the nonmagnetic counterparts. Angular momentum in that part of the presupernova star destined to become a neutron star is an increasing function of main-sequence mass. That is, pulsars derived from more massive stars rotate faster and rotation plays a more important role in the star's explosion. The final angular momentum of the core has been determined-to within a factor of 2-by the time the star ignites carbon burning. For the lighter stars studied, around 15 Msolar, we predict pulsar periods at birth near 15 ms, though a factor of 2 range is easily tolerated by the uncertainties. Several mechanisms for additional braking in a young neutron star, especially by fallback, are explored.

  20. Simulations of Magnetic Fields in Tidally Disrupted Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Guillochon, James; McCourt, Michael, E-mail: jguillochon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2017-01-10

    We perform the first magnetohydrodynamical simulations of tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes. We consider stars with both tangled and ordered magnetic fields, for both grazing and deeply disruptive encounters. When the star survives disruption, we find its magnetic field amplifies by a factor of up to 20, but see no evidence for a self-sustaining dynamo that would yield arbitrary field growth. For stars that do not survive, and within the tidal debris streams produced in partial disruptions, we find that the component of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of stretching along the debris stream onlymore » decreases slightly with time, eventually resulting in a stream where the magnetic pressure is in equipartition with the gas. Our results suggest that the returning gas in most (if not all) stellar tidal disruptions is already highly magnetized by the time it returns to the black hole.« less

  1. Magnetic fields in non-convective regions of stars.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jonathan; Spruit, Henk C

    2017-02-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of magnetic fields inside stars, concentrating on recent developments concerning magnetic fields in stably stratified (zones of) stars, leaving out convective dynamo theories and observations of convective envelopes. We include the observational properties of A, B and O-type main-sequence stars, which have radiative envelopes, and the fossil field model which is normally invoked to explain the strong fields sometimes seen in these stars. Observations seem to show that Ap-type stable fields are excluded in stars with convective envelopes. Most stars contain both radiative and convective zones, and there are potentially important effects arising from the interaction of magnetic fields at the boundaries between them; the solar cycle being one of the better known examples. Related to this, we discuss whether the Sun could harbour a magnetic field in its core. Recent developments regarding the various convective and radiative layers near the surfaces of early-type stars and their observational effects are examined. We look at possible dynamo mechanisms that run on differential rotation rather than convection. Finally, we turn to neutron stars with a discussion of the possible origins for their magnetic fields.

  2. Magnetic fields in non-convective regions of stars

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of magnetic fields inside stars, concentrating on recent developments concerning magnetic fields in stably stratified (zones of) stars, leaving out convective dynamo theories and observations of convective envelopes. We include the observational properties of A, B and O-type main-sequence stars, which have radiative envelopes, and the fossil field model which is normally invoked to explain the strong fields sometimes seen in these stars. Observations seem to show that Ap-type stable fields are excluded in stars with convective envelopes. Most stars contain both radiative and convective zones, and there are potentially important effects arising from the interaction of magnetic fields at the boundaries between them; the solar cycle being one of the better known examples. Related to this, we discuss whether the Sun could harbour a magnetic field in its core. Recent developments regarding the various convective and radiative layers near the surfaces of early-type stars and their observational effects are examined. We look at possible dynamo mechanisms that run on differential rotation rather than convection. Finally, we turn to neutron stars with a discussion of the possible origins for their magnetic fields. PMID:28386410

  3. Rotational velocities of A-type stars. IV. Evolution of rotational velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Royer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Context. In previous works of this series, we have shown that late B- and early A-type stars have genuine bimodal distributions of rotational velocities and that late A-type stars lack slow rotators. The distributions of the surface angular velocity ratio Ω/Ωcrit (Ωcrit is the critical angular velocity) have peculiar shapes according to spectral type groups, which can be caused by evolutionary properties. Aims: We aim to review the properties of these rotational velocity distributions in some detail as a function of stellar mass and age. Methods: We have gathered vsini for a sample of 2014 B6- to F2-type stars. We have determined the masses and ages for these objects with stellar evolution models. The (Teff,log L/L⊙)-parameters were determined from the uvby-β photometry and the HIPPARCOS parallaxes. Results: The velocity distributions show two regimes that depend on the stellar mass. Stars less massive than 2.5 M⊙ have a unimodal equatorial velocity distribution and show a monotonical acceleration with age on the main sequence (MS). Stars more massive have a bimodal equatorial velocity distribution. Contrarily to theoretical predictions, the equatorial velocities of stars from about 1.7 M⊙ to 3.2 M⊙ undergo a strong acceleration in the first third of the MS evolutionary phase, while in the last third of the MS they evolve roughly as if there were no angular momentum redistribution in the external stellar layers. The studied stars might start in the ZAMS not necessarily as rigid rotators, but with a total angular momentum lower than the critical one of rigid rotators. The stars seem to evolve as differential rotators all the way of their MS life span and the variation of the observed rotational velocities proceeds with characteristic time scales δt ≈ 0.2 tMS, where tMS is the time spent by a star in the MS. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  4. Neutron star dynamos and the origins of pulsar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron star convection is a transient phenomenon and has an extremely high magnetic Reynolds number. In this sense, a neutron star dynamo is the quintessential fast dynamo. The convective motions are only mildly turbulent on scales larger than the approximately 100 cm neutrino mean free path, but the turbulence is well developed on smaller scales. Several fundamental issues in the theory of fast dynamos are raised in the study of a neutron star dynamo, in particular the possibility of dynamo action in mirror-symmetric turbulence. It is argued that in any high magnetic Reynolds number dynamo, most of the magnetic energy becomes concentrated in thin flux ropes when the field pressure exceeds the turbulent pressure at the smallest scale of turbulence. In addition, the possibilities for dynamo action during the various (pre-collapse) stages of convective motion that occur in the evolution of a massive star are examined, and the properties of white dwarf and neutron star progenitors are contrasted.

  5. Magnetic fields of intermediate mass T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavail, A.; Kochukhov, O.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Alecian, E.; Herczeg, G. J.; Johns-Krull, C.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: In this paper, we aim to measure the strength of the surface magnetic fields for a sample of five intermediate mass T Tauri stars and one low mass T Tauri star from late-F to mid-K spectral types. While magnetic fields of T Tauri stars at the low mass range have been extensively characterized, our work complements previous studies towards the intermediate mass range; this complementary study is key to evaluate how magnetic fields evolve during the transition from a convective to a radiative core. Methods: We studied the Zeeman broadening of magnetically sensitive spectral lines in the H-band spectra obtained with the CRIRES high-resolution near-infrared spectrometer. These data are modelled using magnetic spectral synthesis and model atmospheres. Additional constraints on non-magnetic line broadening mechanisms are obtained from modelling molecular lines in the K band or atomic lines in the optical wavelength region. Results: We detect and measure mean surface magnetic fields for five of the six stars in our sample: CHXR 28, COUP 107, V2062 Oph, V1149 Sco, and Par 2441. Magnetic field strengths inferred from the most magnetically sensitive diagnostic line range from 0.8 to 1.8 kG. We also estimate a magnetic field strength of 1.9 kG for COUP 107 from an alternative diagnostic. The magnetic field on YLW 19 is the weakest in our sample and is marginally detected, with a strength of 0.8 kG. Conclusions: We populate an uncharted area of the pre-main-sequence HR diagram with mean magnetic field measurements from high-resolution near-infrared spectra. Our sample of intermediate mass T Tauri stars in general exhibits weaker magnetic fields than their lower mass counterparts. Our measurements will be used in combination with other spectropolarimetric studies of intermediate mass and lower mass T Tauri stars to provide input into pre-main-sequence stellar evolutionary models.

  6. On turbulent diffusion of magnetic fields and the loss of magnetic flux from stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vainshtein, Samuel I.; Rosner, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The turbulent diffusion of magnetic fields in astrophysical objects, and the processes leading to magnetic field flux loss from such objects are discussed with attention to the suppression of turbulent diffusion by back-reaction of magnetic fields on small spatial scales, and on the constraint imposed on magnetic flux loss by flux-freezing within stars. Turbulent magnetic diffusion can be suppressed even for very weak large-scale magnetic fields, so that 'standard' turbulent diffusion is incapable of significant magnetic flux destruction within a star. Finally, magnetic flux loss via winds is shown to be generally ineffective, no matter what the value of the effective magnetic Reynolds number is.

  7. An asymptotic-giant-branch star in the progenitor system of a type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, M M; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Maza, José; González, L E; Roth, Miguel; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia; Green, E M; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J

    2003-08-07

    Stars that explode as supernovae come in two main classes. A type Ia supernova is recognized by the absence of hydrogen and the presence of elements such as silicon and sulphur in its spectrum; this class of supernova is thought to produce the majority of iron-peak elements in the Universe. They are also used as precise 'standard candles' to measure the distances to galaxies. While there is general agreement that a type Ia supernova is produced by an exploding white dwarf star, no progenitor system has ever been directly observed. Significant effort has gone into searching for circumstellar material to help discriminate between the possible kinds of progenitor systems, but no such material has hitherto been found associated with a type Ia supernova. Here we report the presence of strong hydrogen emission associated with the type Ia supernova SN2002ic, indicating the presence of large amounts of circumstellar material. We infer from this that the progenitor system contained a massive asymptotic-giant-branch star that lost several solar masses of hydrogen-rich gas before the supernova explosion.

  8. Star Catalogs on Punched Cards and Magnetic Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berbert, J. H.

    1961-01-01

    In connection with the calibration of the Minitrack satellite tracking stations, the Goddard Space Flight Center has had the contents of a number of star catalogs put on punched cards and magnetic tape. This report discusses the plate data reduction procedures, briefly describes the information on the punched cards and magnetic tape, and calls attention to other applications of the card and tape star catalogs. The Goddard Space Flight Center has offered to prepare duplicate catalogs for qualified organizations.

  9. Multiplicity among chemically peculiar stars. II. Cool magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, F.; North, P.; Udry, S.; Babel, J.

    2002-10-01

    We present new orbits for sixteen Ap spectroscopic binaries, four of which might in fact be Am stars, and give their orbital elements. Four of them are SB2 systems: HD 5550, HD 22128, HD 56495 and HD 98088. The twelve other stars are: HD 9996, HD 12288, HD 40711, HD 54908, HD 65339, HD 73709, HD 105680, HD 138426, HD 184471, HD 188854, HD 200405 and HD 216533. Rough estimates of the individual masses of the components of HD 65339 (53 Cam) are given, combining our radial velocities with the results of speckle interferometry and with Hipparcos parallaxes. Considering the mass functions of 74 spectroscopic binaries from this work and from the literature, we conclude that the distribution of the mass ratio is the same for cool Ap stars and for normal G dwarfs. Therefore, the only differences between binaries with normal stars and those hosting an Ap star lie in the period distribution: except for the case of HD 200405, all orbital periods are longer than (or equal to) 3 days. A consequence of this peculiar distribution is a deficit of null eccentricities. There is no indication that the secondary has a special nature, like e.g. a white dwarf. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France. Tables 1 to 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/394/151 Appendix B is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  10. The MiMeS survey of Magnetism in Massive Stars: magnetic analysis of the O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Oksala, M. E.; Petit, V.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D. A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Henrichs, H. F.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Kochukhov, O.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    We present the analysis performed on spectropolarimetric data of 97 O-type targets included in the framework of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Survey. Mean least-squares deconvolved Stokes I and V line profiles were extracted for each observation, from which we measured the radial velocity, rotational and non-rotational broadening velocities, and longitudinal magnetic field Bℓ. The investigation of the Stokes I profiles led to the discovery of two new multiline spectroscopic systems (HD 46106, HD 204827) and confirmed the presence of a suspected companion in HD 37041. We present a modified strategy of the least-squares deconvolution technique aimed at optimizing the detection of magnetic signatures while minimizing the detection of spurious signatures in Stokes V. Using this analysis, we confirm the detection of a magnetic field in six targets previously reported as magnetic by the MiMeS collaboration (HD 108, HD 47129A2, HD 57682, HD 148937, CPD-28 2561, and NGC 1624-2), as well as report the presence of signal in Stokes V in three new magnetic candidates (HD 36486, HD 162978, and HD 199579). Overall, we find a magnetic incidence rate of 7 ± 3 per cent, for 108 individual O stars (including all O-type components part of multiline systems), with a median uncertainty of the Bℓ measurements of about 50 G. An inspection of the data reveals no obvious biases affecting the incidence rate or the preference for detecting magnetic signatures in the magnetic stars. Similar to A- and B-type stars, we find no link between the stars' physical properties (e.g. Teff, mass, and age) and the presence of a magnetic field. However, the Of?p stars represent a distinct class of magnetic O-type stars.

  11. Magnetic fields driven by tidal mixing in radiative stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jérémie; Cébron, David; Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2018-04-01

    Stellar magnetism plays an important role in stellar evolution theory. Approximatively 10 per cent of observed main sequence (MS) and pre-main-sequence (PMS) radiative stars exhibit surface magnetic fields above the detection limit, raising the question of their origin. These stars host outer radiative envelopes, which are stably stratified. Therefore, they are assumed to be motionless in standard models of stellar structure and evolution. We focus on rapidly rotating, radiative stars which may be prone to the tidal instability, due to an orbital companion. Using direct numerical simulations in a sphere, we study the interplay between a stable stratification and the tidal instability, and assess its dynamo capability. We show that the tidal instability is triggered regardless of the strength of the stratification (Brunt-Väisälä frequency). Furthermore, the tidal instability can lead to both mixing and self-induced magnetic fields in stably stratified layers (provided that the Brunt-Väisälä frequency does not exceed the stellar spin rate in the simulations too much). The application to stars suggests that the resulting magnetic fields could be observable at the stellar surfaces. Indeed, we expect magnetic field strengths up to several Gauss. Consequently, tidally driven dynamos should be considered as a (complementary) dynamo mechanism, possibly operating in radiative MS and PMS stars hosting orbital companions. In particular, tidally driven dynamos may explain the observed magnetism of tidally deformed and rapidly rotating Vega-like stars.

  12. Thermal structure and cooling of neutron stars with magnetized envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekhin, A. Y.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2001-07-01

    The thermal structure of neutron stars with magnetized envelopes is studied using modern physics input. The relation between the internal (Tint) and local surface temperatures is calculated and fitted by analytic expressions for magnetic field strengths B from 0 to 1016 G and arbitrary inclination of the field lines to the surface. The luminosity of a neutron star with dipole magnetic field is calculated and fitted as a function of B, Tint, stellar mass and radius. In addition, we simulate cooling of neutron stars with magnetized envelopes. In particular, we analyse ultramagnetized envelopes of magnetars and also the effects of the magnetic field of the Vela pulsar on the determination of critical temperatures of neutron and proton superfluids in its core.

  13. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ulrich R; Holzwarth, Volkmar; Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-08

    The magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter, along with those of rapidly rotating, low-mass stars, are generated by convection-driven dynamos that may operate similarly (the slowly rotating Sun generates its field through a different dynamo mechanism). The field strengths of planets and stars vary over three orders of magnitude, but the critical factor causing that variation has hitherto been unclear. Here we report an extension of a scaling law derived from geodynamo models to rapidly rotating stars that have strong density stratification. The unifying principle in the scaling law is that the energy flux available for generating the magnetic field sets the field strength. Our scaling law fits the observed field strengths of Earth, Jupiter, young contracting stars and rapidly rotating low-mass stars, despite vast differences in the physical conditions of the objects. We predict that the field strengths of rapidly rotating brown dwarfs and massive extrasolar planets are high enough to make them observable.

  14. Massive star winds interacting with magnetic fields on various scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David-Uraz, A.; Petit, V.; Erba, C.; Fullerton, A.; Walborn, N.; MacInnis, R.

    2018-01-01

    One of the defining processes which govern massive star evolution is their continuous mass loss via dense, supersonic line-driven winds. In the case of those OB stars which also host a surface magnetic field, the interaction between that field and the ionized outflow leads to complex circumstellar structures known as magnetospheres. In this contribution, we review recent developments in the field of massive star magnetospheres, including current efforts to characterize the largest magnetosphere surrounding an O star: that of NGC 1624-2. We also discuss the potential of the "analytic dynamical magnetosphere" (ADM) model to interpret multi-wavelength observations. Finally, we examine the possible effects of — heretofore undetected — small-scale magnetic fields on massive star winds and compare their hypothetical consequences to existing, unexplained observations.

  15. Monitoring of rotational period variations in magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulášek, Z.

    2016-12-01

    A majority part of magnetic chemically peculiar (mCP) stars of the upper main sequence exhibits strictly periodic light, magnetic, radio, and spectral variations that can be fully explained by the model of a rigidly rotating main-sequence star with persistent surface structures and stable global magnetic field frozen into the body of the star. Nevertheless, there is an inhomogeneous group consisting of a few mCP stars whose rotation periods vary on timescales of decades, while the shapes of their phase curves remain nearly unchanged. Alternations in the rotational period variations, proven in the case of some of them, offer new insight on this theoretically unpredicted phenomenon. We present a novel and generally applicable method of period analysis based on the simultaneous exploitation of all available observational data containing phase information. This phenomenological method can monitor gradual changes in the observed instantaneous period very efficiently and reliably. We present up to date results of the period monitoring of V901 Ori, CU Vir, σ Ori E, and BS Cir, known to be mCP stars changing their observed periods and discuss the physics of this unusual behaviour. To compare the period behavior of those stars, we treated their data with an orthogonal polynomial model, which was specifically developed for this purpose. We confirmed period variations in all stars and showed that they reflect real changes in the angular velocity of outer layers of the stars, fastened by their global magnetic fields. However, the nature of the observed rotational instabilities has remained elusive up to now. The discussed group of mCP stars is inhomogeneous to such extent that each of the stars may experience a different cause for its period variations.

  16. Measuring surface magnetic fields of red supergiant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessore, B.; Lèbre, A.; Morin, J.; Mathias, P.; Josselin, E.; Aurière, M.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Red supergiant (RSG) stars are very massive cool evolved stars. Recently, a weak magnetic field was measured at the surface of α Ori and this is so far the only M-type supergiant for which a direct detection of a surface magnetic field has been reported. Aims: By extending the search for surface magnetic field in a sample of late-type supergiants, we want to determine whether the surface magnetic field detected on α Ori is a common feature among the M-type supergiants. Methods: With the spectropolarimeter Narval at Télescope Bernard-Lyot we undertook a search for surface magnetic fields in a sample of cool supergiant stars, and we analysed circular polarisation spectra using the least-squares deconvolution technique. Results: We detect weak Zeeman signatures of stellar origin in the targets CE Tau, α1 Her and μ Cep. For the latter star, we also show that cross-talk from the strong linear polarisation signals detected on this star must be taken into account. For CE Tau and μ Cep, the longitudinal component of the detected surface fields is at the Gauss-level, such as in α Ori. We measured a longitudinal field almost an order of magnitude stronger for α1 Her. We also report variability of the longitudinal magnetic field of CE Tau and α1 Her, with changes in good agreement with the typical atmospheric dynamics time-scales. We also report a non-detection of magnetic field at the surface of the yellow supergiant star ρ Cas. Conclusions: The two RSG stars of our sample, CE Tau and μ Cep, display magnetic fields very similar to that of α Ori. The non-detection of a magnetic field on the post-RSG star ρ Cas suggests that the magnetic field disappears, or at least becomes undetectable with present methods, at later evolutionary stages. Our analysis of α1 Her supports the proposed reclassification of the star as an M-type asymptotic giant branch star. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL) at the Observatoire du Pic du Midi

  17. Magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, S.; Bagnulo, S.; Werner, K.; O'Toole, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    Context. Most planetary nebulae have bipolar or other non-spherically symmetric shapes. Magnetic fields in the central star may be responsible for this lack of symmetry, but observational studies published to date have reported contradictory results. Aims: We search for correlations between a magnetic field and departures from the spherical geometry of the envelopes of planetary nebulae. Methods: We determine the magnetic fields from spectropolarimetric observations of ten central stars of planetary nebulae. The results of the analysis of the observations of four stars were previously presented and discussed in the literature, while the observations of six stars, plus additional measurements of a star previously observed, are presented here for the first time. Results: All our determinations of magnetic field in the central planetary nebulae are consistent with null results. Our field measurements have a typical error bar of 150-300 G. Previous spurious field detections using data acquired with FORS1 (FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph) of the Unit Telescope 1 (UT1) of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) were probably due to the use of different wavelength calibration solutions for frames obtained at different position angles of the retarder waveplate. Conclusions: There is currently no observational evidence of magnetic fields with a strength of the order of hundreds Gauss or higher in the central stars of planetary nebulae. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under programme ID 072.D-0089 (PI = Jordan) and 075.D-0289 (PI = Jordan).

  18. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-24

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares.

  19. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars

    PubMed Central

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  20. Magnetic Doppler imaging of the chemically peculiar star HD 125248

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusomarov, N.; Kochukhov, O.; Ryabchikova, T.; Ilyin, I.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Intermediate-mass, chemically peculiar stars with strong magnetic fields provide an excellent opportunity to study the topology of their surface magnetic fields and the interplay between magnetic geometries and abundance inhomogeneities in the atmospheres of these stars. Aims: We reconstruct detailed maps of the surface magnetic field and abundance distributions for the magnetic Ap star HD 125248. Methods: We performed the analysis based on phase-resolved, four Stokes parameter spectropolarimetric observations obtained with the HARPSpol instrument. These data were interpreted with the help of magnetic Doppler imaging techniques and model atmospheres taking the effects of strong magnetic fields and nonsolar chemical composition into account. Results: We improved the atmospheric parameters of the star, Teff = 9850 ± 250 K and log g = 4.05 ± 0.10. We performed detailed abundance analysis, which confirmed that HD 125248 has abundances typical of other Ap stars, and discovered significant vertical stratification effects for the Fe II and Cr II ions. We computed LSD Stokes profiles using several line masks corresponding to Fe-peak and rare earth elements, and studied their behavior with rotational phase. Combining previous longitudinal field measurements with our own observations, we improved the rotational period of the star Prot = 9.29558 ± 0.00006 d. Magnetic Doppler imaging of HD 125248 showed that its magnetic field is mostly poloidal and quasi-dipolar with two large spots of different polarity and field strength. The chemical maps of Fe, Cr, Ce, Nd, Gd, and Ti show abundance contrasts of 0.9-3.5 dex. Among these elements, the Fe abundance map does not show high-contrast features. Cr is overabundant around the negative magnetic pole and has 3.5 dex abundance range. The rare earth elements and Ti are overabundant near the positive magnetic pole. Conclusions: The magnetic field of HD 125248 has strong deviations from the classical oblique dipole field

  1. The impact and evolution of magnetic confinement in hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszthelyi, Z.; Wade, G. A.; Petit, V.; Meynet, G.; Georgy, C.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic confinement of the winds of hot, massive stars has far-reaching consequences on timescales ranging from hours to Myr. Understanding the long-term effects of this interplay has already led to the identification of two new evolutionary pathways to form `heavy' stellar mass black holes and pair-instability supernova even at galactic metallicity. We are performing 1D stellar evolution model calculations that, for the first time, account for the surface effects and the time evolution of fossil magnetic fields. These models will be thoroughly confronted with observations and will potentially lead to a significant revision of the derived parameters of observed magnetic massive stars.

  2. Discovery of starspots on Vega. First spectroscopic detection of surface structures on a normal A-type star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, T.; Holschneider, M.; Lignières, F.; Petit, P.; Rainer, M.; Paletou, F.; Wade, G.; Alecian, E.; Carfantan, H.; Blazère, A.; Mirouh, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The theoretically studied impact of rapid rotation on stellar evolution needs to be compared with these results of high-resolution spectroscopy-velocimetry observations. Early-type stars present a perfect laboratory for these studies. The prototype A0 star Vega has been extensively monitored in recent years in spectropolarimetry. A weak surface magnetic field was detected, implying that there might be a (still undetected) structured surface. First indications of the presence of small amplitude stellar radial velocity variations have been reported recently, but the confirmation and in-depth study with the highly stabilized spectrograph SOPHIE/OHP was required. Aims: The goal of this article is to present a thorough analysis of the line profile variations and associated estimators in the early-type standard star Vega (A0) in order to reveal potential activity tracers, exoplanet companions, and stellar oscillations. Methods: Vega was monitored in quasi-continuous high-resolution echelle spectroscopy with the highly stabilized velocimeter SOPHIE/OHP. A total of 2588 high signal-to-noise spectra was obtained during 34.7 h on five nights (2 to 6 of August 2012) in high-resolution mode at R = 75 000 and covering the visible domain from 3895-6270 Å. For each reduced spectrum, least square deconvolved equivalent photospheric profiles were calculated with a Teff = 9500 and log g = 4.0 spectral line mask. Several methods were applied to study the dynamic behaviour of the profile variations (evolution of radial velocity, bisectors, vspan, 2D profiles, amongst others). Results: We present the discovery of a spotted stellar surface on an A-type standard star (Vega) with very faint spot amplitudes ΔF/Fc ~ 5 × 10-4. A rotational modulation of spectral lines with a period of rotation P = 0.68 d has clearly been exhibited, unambiguously confirming the results of previous spectropolarimetric studies. Most of these brightness inhomogeneities seem to be located in lower

  3. X-rays from Magnetic B-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Corinne; Petit, Véronique; Caballero-Nieves, Saida Maria; Nazé, Yaël; Owocki, Stan; Wade, Gregg; Cohen, David; Townsend, Richard; David-Uraz, Alexandre; Shultz, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Recent surveys have found that ~10% of OB-type stars host strong (~1kG), mostly dipolar magnetic fields. The prominent idea describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock model. In this model, the ionized wind material is forced to move along the closed magnetic field loops and collides at the magnetic equator creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some of these magnetic B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, which could lead to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this question from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere model, developed for slow rotators and implement the physics of rapid rotation. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA’s XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role an added centrifugal acceleration plays in the magnetospheres of these stars.

  4. Magnetic field structure and evolution features of selected stars. III.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of modeling for about a hundred magnetic stars. It is shown that the dipole representation of magnetic field structures describes the distribution of the magnetic field over stellar surfaces fairly well. We analyze some patterns which support the relic hypothesis of magnetic field formation.Arguments are given in favor of the assumption that themain properties ofmagnetic stars—slow rotation, predominant orientation of magnetic field lines along the plane of the rotation equator, complex internal structures of magnetic fields—are acquired in the process of gravitational collapse. There are no conditions for that in the non-stationary Hayashi phase and in the stage of a radiative young star.

  5. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Grunhut, J. H.; Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C. A. H.; Campagnolo, J. C. N.; Souza, T. B.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetospheric observational proxies are used for indirect detection of magnetic fields in hot stars in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelength ranges. To determine the viability of infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines as a magnetic diagnostic for these stars, we have obtained low-resolution (R~ 1200), near-IR spectra of the known magnetic B2V stars HR 5907 and HR 7355, taken with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (OSIRIS) attached to the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. Both stars show definite variable emission features in IR hydrogen lines of the Brackett series, with similar properties as those found in optical spectra, including the derived location of the detected magnetospheric plasma. These features also have the added advantage of a lowered contribution of stellar flux at these wavelengths, making circumstellar material more easily detectable. IR diagnostics will be useful for the future study of magnetic hot stars, to detect and analyze lower-density environments, and to detect magnetic candidates in areas obscured from UV and optical observations, increasing the number of known magnetic stars to determine basic formation properties and investigate the origin of their magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  6. Discovery of magnetic A supergiants: the descendants of magnetic main-sequence B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, Coralie; Oksala, Mary E.; Georgy, Cyril; Przybilla, Norbert; Mathis, Stéphane; Wade, Gregg; Kondrak, Matthias; Fossati, Luca; Blazère, Aurore; Buysschaert, Bram; Grunhut, Jason

    2017-10-01

    In the context of the high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, high sensitivity, spectropolarimetric survey BritePol, which complements observations by the BRITE constellation of nanosatellites for asteroseismology, we are looking for and measuring the magnetic field of all stars brighter than V = 4. In this paper, we present circularly polarized spectra obtained with HarpsPol at ESO in La Silla (Chile) and ESPaDOnS at CFHT (Hawaii) for three hot evolved stars: ι Car, HR 3890 and ɛ CMa. We detected a magnetic field in all three stars. Each star has been observed several times to confirm the magnetic detections and check for variability. The stellar parameters of the three objects were determined and their evolutionary status was ascertained employing evolution models computed with the Geneva code. ɛ CMa was already known and is confirmed to be magnetic, but our modelling indicates that it is located near the end of the main sequence, I.e. it is still in a core hydrogen burning phase. ι Car and HR 3890 are the first discoveries of magnetic hot supergiants located well after the end of the main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. These stars are probably the descendants of main-sequence magnetic massive stars. Their current field strength (a few G) is compatible with magnetic flux conservation during stellar evolution. These results provide observational constraints for the development of future evolutionary models of hot stars including a fossil magnetic field.

  7. Magnetic field effects on the crust structure of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzon, B.; Negreiros, R.; Schramm, S.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of high magnetic fields on the structure and on the geometry of the crust in neutron stars. We find that the crust geometry is substantially modified by the magnetic field inside the star. We build stationary and axis-symmetric magnetized stellar models by using well-known equations of state to describe the neutron star crust, namely, the Skyrme model for the inner crust and the Baym-Pethick-Sutherland equation of state for the outer crust. We show that the magnetic field has a dual role, contributing to the crust deformation via the electromagnetic interaction (manifested in this case as the Lorentz force) and by contributing to curvature due to the energy stored in it. We also study a direct consequence of the crust deformation due to the magnetic field: the thermal relaxation time. This quantity, which is of great importance to the thermal evolution of neutron stars, is sensitive to the crust properties, and, as such, we show that it may be strongly affected by the magnetic field.

  8. SPIN EVOLUTION OF ACCRETING YOUNG STARS. I. EFFECT OF MAGNETIC STAR-DISK COUPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Matt, Sean P.; Greene, Thomas P.; Pinzon, Giovanni

    2010-05-10

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar mass star interacting with an accretion disk. The model incorporates a description of the angular momentum transfer between the star and the disk due to a magnetic connection, and includes changes in the star's mass and radius and a decreasing accretion rate. The model also includes, for the first time in a spin evolution model, the opening of the stellar magnetic field lines, as expected to arise from twisting via star-disk differential rotation. In order to isolate the effect that this has on the star-disk interaction torques, wemore » neglect the influence of torques that may arise from open field regions connected to the star or disk. For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, and initial spin rates, we compute the stellar spin rates of pre-main-sequence stars as they evolve on the Hayashi track to an age of 3 Myr. How much the field opening affects the spin depends on the strength of the coupling of the magnetic field to the disk. For the relatively strong coupling (i.e., high magnetic Reynolds number) expected in real systems, all models predict spin periods of less than {approx}3 days, in the age range of 1-3 Myr. Furthermore, these systems typically do not reach an equilibrium spin rate within 3 Myr, so that the spin at any given time depends upon the choice of initial spin rate. This corroborates earlier suggestions that, in order to explain the full range of observed rotation periods of approximately 1-10 days, additional processes, such as the angular momentum loss from powerful stellar winds, are necessary.« less

  9. Physics in strong magnetic fields near neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena occurring in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars are currently of great interest in high-energy astrophysics. Observations of rotation rate changes and cyclotron lines in pulsars and gamma-ray bursts indicate that surface magnetic fields of neutron stars often exceed a trillion gauss. In fields this strong, where electrons behave much as if they were in bound atomic states, familiar processes undergo profound changes, and exotic processes become important. Strong magnetic fields affect the physics in several fundamental ways: energies perpendicular to the field are quantized, transverse momentum is not conserved, and electron-positron spin is important. Neutron stars therefore provide a unique laboratory for the study of physics in extremely high fields that cannot be generated on earth.

  10. The sn stars - Magnetically controlled stellar winds among the helium-weak stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Brown, Douglas N.; Sonneborn, George

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports observations of magnetically controlled stellar mass outflows in three helium-weak sn stars: HD 21699 = HR 1063; HD 5737 = Alpha Scl; and HD 79158 = 36 Lyn. IUE observations show that the C IV resonance doublet is variable on the rotational timescale but that there are no other strong-spectrum variations in the UV. Magnetic fields, which reverse sign on the rotational timescale, are present in all three stars. This phenomenology is interpreted in terms of jetlike mass loss above the magnetic poles, and these objects are discussed in the context of a general survey of the C IV and Si IV profiles of other more typical helium-weak stars.

  11. Rotation and magnetism in intermediate-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentin, Léo G.; Tout, Christopher A.

    2018-06-01

    Rotation and magnetism are increasingly recognized as important phenomena in stellar evolution. Surface magnetic fields from a few to 20 000 G have been observed and models have suggested that magnetohydrodynamic transport of angular momentum and chemical composition could explain the peculiar composition of some stars. Stellar remnants such as white dwarfs have been observed with fields from a few to more than 109 G. We investigate the origin of and the evolution, on thermal and nuclear rather than dynamical time-scales, of an averaged large-scale magnetic field throughout a star's life and its coupling to stellar rotation. Large-scale magnetic fields sustained until late stages of stellar evolution with conservation of magnetic flux could explain the very high fields observed in white dwarfs. We include these effects in the Cambridge stellar evolution code using three time-dependant advection-diffusion equations coupled to the structural and composition equations of stars to model the evolution of angular momentum and the two components of the magnetic field. We present the evolution in various cases for a 3 M_{⊙} star from the beginning to the late stages of its life. Our particular model assumes that turbulent motions, including convection, favour small-scale field at the expense of large-scale field. As a result, the large-scale field concentrates in radiative zones of the star and so is exchanged between the core and the envelope of the star as it evolves. The field is sustained until the end of the asymptotic giant branch, when it concentrates in the degenerate core.

  12. Chasing Low Frequency Radio Bursts from Magnetically Active Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Christene; Murphy, Tara; Kaplan, David

    2017-05-01

    Flaring activity is a common characteristic of magnetically active stars. These events produce emission throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, implying a range of physical processes. A number of objects exhibit short-duration, narrow band, and highly circularly polarised (reaching 100%) radio bursts. The observed polarisation and frequency-time structure of these bursts points to a coherent emission mechanism such as the electron cyclotron maser. Due to the stochastic nature of these bursts and the sensitivity of current instruments, the number of stars where coherent emission has been detected is few, with numbers limited to a few tens of objects. Observations of a wider sample of active stars are necessary in order to establish the percentage that exhibit coherent radio bursts and to relate the observed emission characteristics to stellar magnetic properties. New wide-field, low frequency radio telescopes will probe a frequency regime that is mostly unexplored for many magnetically active stars and where coherent radio emissions are expected to be more numerous. M dwarf stars are of particular interest as they are currently favoured as most likely to host habitable planets. Yet the extreme magnetic activity observed for some M dwarf stars places some doubt on the ability of orbiting planets to host life. This presentation reports the first results from a targeted Murchison Widefield Array survey of M dwarf stars that were previously detected at 100 - 200 MHz using single dish telescopes. We will discuss robust flare-rate measurements over a high dynamic range of flare properties, as well as investigate the physical mechanism(s) behind the flares.

  13. Winds of Massive Magnetic Stars: Interacting Fields and Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present results of 3D numerical simulations of magnetically confined, radiatively driven stellar winds of massive stars, conducted using the astrophysical MHD code Pluto, with a focus on understanding the rotational variability of radio and sub-mm emission. Radiative driving is implemented according to the Castor, Abbott and Klein theory of radiatively driven winds. Many magnetic massive stars posses a magnetic axis which is inclined with respect to the rotational axis. This misalignment leads to a complex wind structure as magnetic confinement, centrifugal acceleration and radiative driving act to channel the circumstellar plasma into a warped disk whose observable properties should be apparent in multiple wavelengths. This structure is analysed to calculate free-free thermal radio emission and determine the characteristic intensity maps and radio light curves.

  14. Magnetic fields in the formation of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Girart, Josep M; Beltrán, Maria T; Zhang, Qizhou; Rao, Ramprasad; Estalella, Robert

    2009-06-12

    Massive stars play a crucial role in the production of heavy elements and in the evolution of the interstellar medium, yet how they form is still a matter of debate. We report high-angular-resolution submillimeter observations toward the massive hot molecular core (HMC) in the high-mass star-forming region G31.41+0.31. We find that the evolution of the gravitational collapse of the HMC is controlled by the magnetic field. The HMC is simultaneously contracting and rotating, and the magnetic field lines threading the HMC are deformed along its major axis, acquiring an hourglass shape. The magnetic energy dominates over the centrifugal and turbulence energies, and there is evidence of magnetic braking in the contracting core.

  15. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens formore » the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.« less

  16. Axisymmetric magnetic modes of neutron stars having mixed poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Umin

    2018-05-01

    We calculate axisymmetric magnetic modes of a neutron star possessing a mixed poloidal and toroidal magnetic field, where the toroidal field is assumed to be proportional to a dimensionless parameter ζ0. Here, we assume an isentropic structure for the neutron star and consider no effects of rotation. Ignoring the equilibrium deformation due to the magnetic field, we employ a polytrope of the index n = 1 as the background model for our modal analyses. For the mixed poloidal and toroidal magnetic field with ζ _0\

  17. Magnetically Controlled Spasmodic Accretion during Star Formation. II. Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the late accretion phase of the evolution of an axisymmetric, isothermal magnetic disk surrounding a forming star has been formulated in a companion paper. The ``central sink approximation'' is used to circumvent the problem of describing the evolution inside the opaque central region for densities greater than 1011 cm-3 and radii smaller than a few AU. Only the electrons are assumed to be attached to the magnetic field lines, and the effects of both negatively and positively charged grains are accounted for. After a mass of 0.1 Msolar accumulates in the central cell (forming star), a series of magnetically driven outflows and associated outward-propagating shocks form in a quasi-periodic fashion. As a result, mass accretion onto the protostar occurs in magnetically controlled bursts. We refer to this process as spasmodic accretion. The shocks propagate outward with supermagnetosonic speeds. The period of dissipation and revival of the outflow decreases in time, as the mass accumulated in the central sink increases. We evaluate the contribution of ambipolar diffusion to the resolution of the magnetic flux problem of star formation during the accretion phase, and we find it to be very significant albeit not sufficient to resolve the entire problem yet. Ohmic dissipation is completely negligible in the disk during this phase of the evolution. The protostellar disk is found to be stable against interchange-like instabilities, despite the fact that the mass-to-flux ratio has temporary local maxima.

  18. Spectropolarimetry of magnetic stars. IV. The crossover effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the crossover effect in magnetic Ap stars. It is shown that this effect can be measured by the second order moment about their centre of the profiles of spectral lines recorded in the Stokes parameter V. The interpretation of these measurements in terms of magnetic field is developed. It is shown that one can derive from them a quantity called the mean asymmetry of the longitudinal magnetic field, which is the first moment of the component of the magnetic field along the line of sight, about the plane defined by the line of sight and the stellar rotation axis. The consistency of the determination of this quantity with that of the mean longitudinal magnetic field from measurements of wavelength shifts of lines between right and left circular polarization is demonstrated. This technique of analysis is applied to observations of a sample of 29 stars, among which 10 have a detectable crossover effect. For 8 of them, the available observational data allow the study of the variations of the asymmetry of the longitudinal field with rotation phase. In most cases, this variation is sinusoidal and essentially symmetric about 0, and it occurs in quadrature with the variation of the mean longitudinal field. A more complex behaviour is definitely observed in HD 147010 and HD 175362, where the variation of the asymmetry of the longitudinal field is better represented by the superposition of two sinusoids, one with the rotation frequency of the star, and the other with twice that frequency.

  19. Thomson scattering in magnetic fields. [of white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The equation of transfer in Thomson scattering atmospheres with magnetic fields is solved using Monte Carlo methods. Two cases, a plane parallel atmosphere with a magnetic field perpendicular to the atmosphere, and a dipole star, are investigated. The wavelength dependence of polarization from plane-parallel atmosphere is qualitatively similar to that observed in the magnetic white dwarf Grw+70 deg 8247, and the field strength determined by the calculation, 320 MG, is quantitatively similar to that determined from the line spectrum. The dipole model does not resemble the data as well as the single plane-parallel atmosphere.

  20. Collapse of magnetized hypermassive neutron stars in general relativity.

    PubMed

    Duez, Matthew D; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Shibata, Masaru; Stephens, Branson C

    2006-01-27

    Hypermassive neutron stars (HMNSs)--equilibrium configurations supported against collapse by rapid differential rotation--are possible transient remnants of binary neutron-star mergers. Using newly developed codes for magnetohydrodynamic simulations in dynamical spacetimes, we are able to track the evolution of a magnetized HMNS in full general relativity for the first time. We find that secular angular momentum transport due to magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability results in the collapse of an HMNS to a rotating black hole, accompanied by a gravitational wave burst. The nascent black hole is surrounded by a hot, massive torus undergoing quasistationary accretion and a collimated magnetic field. This scenario suggests that HMNS collapse is a possible candidate for the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts.

  1. Rotating and binary relativistic stars with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, Charalampos

    We develop a geometrical treatment of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics for perfectly conducting fluids in Einstein--Maxwell--Euler spacetimes. The theory is applied to describe a neutron star that is rotating or is orbiting a black hole or another neutron star. Under the hypotheses of stationarity and axisymmetry, we obtain the equations governing magnetohydrodynamic equilibria of rotating neutron stars with poloidal, toroidal or mixed magnetic fields. Under the hypothesis of an approximate helical symmetry, we obtain the first law of thermodynamics governing magnetized equilibria of double neutron star or black hole - neutron star systems in close circular orbits. The first law is written as a relation between the change in the asymptotic Noether charge deltaQ and the changes in the area and electric charge of black holes, and in the vorticity, baryon rest mass, entropy, charge and magnetic flux of the magnetofluid. In an attempt to provide a better theoretical understanding of the methods used to construct models of isolated rotating stars and corotating or irrotational binaries and their unexplained convergence properties, we analytically examine the behavior of different iterative schemes near a static solution. We find the spectrum of the linearized iteration operator and show for self-consistent field methods that iterative instability corresponds to unstable modes of this operator. On the other hand, we show that the success of iteratively stable methods is due to (quasi-)nilpotency of this operator. Finally, we examine the integrability of motion of test particles in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. We use a direct approach to seek nontrivial constants of motion polynomial in the momenta---in addition to energy and angular momentum about the symmetry axis. We establish the existence and uniqueness of quadratic constants and the nonexistence of quartic constants for stationary axisymmetric Newtonian potentials with equatorial symmetry

  2. The MiMeS Survey of Magnetism in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Grunhut, J. H.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) survey represents a high-precision systematic search for magnetic fields in hot, massive OB stars. To date, MiMeS Large Programs (ESPaDOnS@CFHT, Narval@TBL, HARPSpol@ESO3.6 m) and associated PI programs (FORS@VLT) have yielded nearly 1200 circular spectropolarimetric observations of over 350 OB stars. Within this sample, 20 stars are detected as magnetic. Follow-up observations of new detections reveals (i) a large diversity of magnetic properties, (ii) ubiquitous evidence for magnetic wind confinement in optical spectra of all magnetic O stars, and (iii) the presence of strong, organized magnetic fields in all known Galactic Of?p stars, and iv) a complete absence of magnetic fields in classical Be stars.

  3. First Spectroscopic Detection of Surface Structures on a Normal A-Type Star - The Case of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Torsten

    2018-04-01

    For the first time the existence of spots on the surface of the intermediate mass star Vega has been shown. This unexpected result sets new important constraints on the stellar evolution of intermediate mass stars and in particular on the magnetic field generation mechanisms. Vega (α Lyrae) is an intermediate mass star (spectral class A0) in rapid rotation (Prot = 0.68 d). Since more than 150 years it is a stability reference for photometry. Despite the fact that very small sporadic light variations had been announced in the past, no periodicity had been detected in its light curve. In 2009 a very faint magnetic field has been detected on Vega (Lignières et al., 2009, A&A, 500L, 41) and subsequently also on other stars of the same spectral class (A). While the solar magnetic field is generated by a dynamo mechanism in its convective envelope, the origin of magnetic field in stars exempt of convective envelopes, such as Vega, remains mysterious. One of the characteristics of the solar dynamo is its temporal variability revealed by the appearance or disappearance of solar spots. Are there similar structures on the surface of Vega? 2015 A&A, 577, 64. & Nature Research Highlights

  4. FIRST MAGNETIC FIELD MODELS FOR RECENTLY DISCOVERED MAGNETIC {beta} CEPHEI AND SLOWLY PULSATING B STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I.; Schoeller, M.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent detections of magnetic fields in a number of {beta} Cephei and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, their impact on stellar rotation, pulsations, and element diffusion has not yet been sufficiently studied. The reason for this is the lack of knowledge of rotation periods, the magnetic field strength distribution and temporal variability, and the field geometry. New longitudinal field measurements of four {beta} Cephei and candidate {beta} Cephei stars, and two SPB stars were acquired with FORS 2 at the Very Large Telescope. These measurements allowed us to carry out a search for rotation periods and tomore » constrain the magnetic field geometry for four stars in our sample.« less

  5. Neutron stars: history of the magnetic field decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshev, Andrei P.; Kholtygin, Alexander F.

    2013-03-01

    Using the data of the ATNF pulsar catalog we study the relation connected the real age t of young neutron stars (NS) and their spin-down age τ. We suppose that this relation is independent from both initial period of the NS and its initial surface magnetic field, and that the laws of the surface magnetic field decay are similar for all NSs in the Milky Way. We further assume that the birth-rate of pulsars was constant during at least last 200 million years. With these assumptions we were able to restore the history of the magnetic field decay for the galactic NSs. We reconstruct the universal function f(t) = B(t)/B 0, where B 0 is the initial magnetic field and B(t) is the magnetic field of NS at the age t. The function f(t) can be fitted by a power law with power index α = -1.17.

  6. Surface structure of neutron stars with high magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fushiki, I.; Gudmundsson, E. H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The equation of state of cold dense matter in strong magnetic fields is calculated in the Thomas-Fermi and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximations. For use in the latter calculation, a new expression is derived for the exchange energy of the uniform electron gas in a strong magnetic field. Detailed calculations of the density profile in the surface region of a neutron star are described for a variety of equations of state, and these show that the surface density profile is strongly affected by the magnetic field, irrespective of whether or not matter in a magnetic field has a condensed state bound with respect to isolated atoms. It is also shown that, as a consequence of the field dependence of the screening potential, magnetic fields can significantly increase nuclear reaction rates.

  7. Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines: Magnetic field determinations from Stokes I and V spectra⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Some Ap stars that have a strong enough magnetic field and a sufficiently low v sini show spectral lines resolved into their magnetically split components. Aims: We present the results of a systematic study of the magnetic fields and other properties of those stars. Methods: This study is based on 271 new measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus ⟨ B ⟩ of 43 stars, 231 determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field ⟨ Bz ⟩ and of the crossover ⟨ Xz ⟩ of 34 stars, and 229 determinations of the mean quadratic magnetic field ⟨ Bq ⟩ of 33 stars. Those data were used to derive new values or meaningful lower limits of the rotation periods Prot of 21 stars. Variation curves of the mean field modulus were characterised for 25 stars, the variations of the longitudinal field were characterised for 16 stars, and the variations of the crossover and of the quadratic field were characterised for 8 stars. Our data are complemented by magnetic measurements from the literature for 41 additional stars with magnetically resolved lines. Phase coverage is sufficient to define the curve of variation of ⟨ B ⟩ for 2 of these stars. Published data were also used to characterise the ⟨ Bz ⟩ curves of variation for 10 more stars. Furthermore, we present 1297 radial velocity measurements of the 43 Ap stars in our sample that have magnetically resolved lines. Nine of these stars are spectroscopic binaries for which new orbital elements were derived. Results: The existence of a cut-off at the low end of the distribution of the phase-averaged mean magnetic field moduli ⟨ B ⟩ av of the Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines, at about 2.8 kG, is confirmed. This reflects the probable existence of a gap in the distribution of the magnetic field strengths in slowly rotating Ap stars, below which there is a separate population of stars with fields weaker than 2 kG. In more than half of the stars with magnetically resolved lines that have a

  8. SiO maser polarization in evolved stars: magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpin, F.; Baudry, A.; Thum, C.; Morris, D.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    The maser theory still needs to be improved, in particular in terms of polarization. The study of the maser geometry inside the circumstellar envelopes can also be achieved through polarization studies (e.g., VLBI observations). But the most exciting point is the determination of the magnetic field that can be made from polarization measurements: this is definitively a new field of investigation for these evolved objects. The magnetic field probably plays an important role in the AGB star's life and can be a major factor (magnetic rotator theory) on the origin of the high mass loss rates observed in evolved objects. Measurement of the magnetic field is thus essential to study the mass loss mechanisms and also the Alfven waves. During its transition most quasi spherical AGB stars (i.e. envelopes) become complicated aspherical objects. This shaping is well explained by the Interacting Stellar Winds theory (Kwok works), but the ISW model fails to reproduce very complicated structures with jets and ansae. A new model (Magnetized Wind Blown Bubble theory) was thus developed by Blackman et al. (2001) and A. Franck: a weak toroidal magnetic field, embedded in the stellar wind, acts as a collimating agent (cf. Garcia-Segura 1997) and can produce such structures. Three molecules can show polarized maser emission in the circumstellar envelopes: - OH traces the envelope far from the central star (1000-10000 AU) - H2O at intermediate distances (a few 100 AU) - SiO in the inner circumstellar layers (5-10 AU) Measurement of the polarization rate of the maser radiation emitted by these molecules can give us the averaged value B// of the magnetic field along the line of sight (for a single dish observation). We present here the first complete study of the SiO maser polarization in a large sample of evolved stars (more than 100). The 4 Stokes parameters I, U, Q, V were simultaneously measured with the polarimeter on the IRAM-30m telescope. From the Stokes parameters values we

  9. Tiny Stars, Strong Fields: Exploring the Origin of Intense Magnetism in M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomre, Juri

    The M-type stars are becoming dominant targets in searches for Earth-like planets that could occupy their habitable zones. The low masses and luminosities of M-dwarf central stars make them very attractive for such exoplanetary hunts. The habitable zone of M dwarfs is close to the star due to their low luminosity. Thus possibly habitable planets will have short orbital periods, making their detection feasible both with the transit method (used by Kepler, K2 and soon with TESS) and with the radial velocity approaches. Yet habitability on a planet likely requires both solid surfaces and atmospheres, but also a favorable radiation environment. It is here that the M-dwarf central stars raise major theoretical puzzles, for many of them exhibit remarkably intense and frequent flaring, despite their modest intrinsic luminosities. The super-flares release their energy both in white light and in X-rays, and can be thousands of times brighter than the strongest solar flares. Such striking events must have magnetic origins, likely from fields built by convective dynamos operating in their interiors. Further, recent observations suggest that the surface of some M stars is carpeted with magnetic fields of 3 kG or more. Such field strengths are reminiscent of a sunspot, but here instead cover much of the stellar surface. With M stars now taking center stage in the search for Earthlike planets, it is crucial to begin to understand how convective dynamos may be able to build intense magnetic fields involved with super-flares and vast star spots, and how they depend upon the mass and rotation rate of these stars. We propose to use major 3-D MHD simulations with our Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code to study the coupling of turbulent convection, rotation, and magnetism within full spherical domains such as the interior of an M dwarf. This permits the exploration of the magnetic dynamos that must be responsible for the evolving magnetism and intense activity of many M dwarfs

  10. Observations of magnetic fields on solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcy, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Magnetic-field observations were carried out for 29 G and K main-sequence stars. The area covering-factors of magnetic regions tends to be greater in the K dwarfs than in the G dwarfs. However, no spectral-type dependence is found for the field strengths, contrary to predictions that pressure equilibrium with the ambient photospheric gas pressure would determine the surface field strengths. Coronal soft X-ray fluxes from the G and K dwarfs correlate well with the fraction of the stellar surface covered by magnetic regions. The dependence of coronal soft X-ray fluxes on photospheric field strengths is consistent with Stein's predicted generation-rates for Alfven waves. These dependences are inconsistent with the one dynamo model for which a specific prediction is offered. Finally, time variability of magnetic fields is seen on the two active stars that have been extensively monitored. Significant changes in magnetic fields are seen to occur on timescales as short as one day.

  11. The Role of Magnetic Fields in Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipher, Judith

    2018-06-01

    The SOFIA instrument complement makes available the capability to characterize the physical properties (turbulence, dynamics, magnetic field structure and strength, gas density) of the molecular cloud filaments in which stars form.HAWC+, the newest SOFIA instrument, provides a unique opportunity to probe the complex roles that magnetic fields play in the star formation process on spatial scales intermediate to those explored by Planck (5’ scale), to those of ALMA at the smallest spatial scales (<0.6”scale and 2” fields of view). HAWC+ measures the thermal emission from dust grains in molecular cloud star forming regions at wavelengths 53 to 216 mm, as well as the far infrared polarization on diffraction-limited spatial scales of 5” – 20” over fields of view ~2’ – 8’. Complementary near- to mid-IR polarimetry on 8-10m telescopes is available, as is submm polarimetry from both ground-based and balloon-borne telescopes. Currently there is no other far-IR polarimetry facility, and the HAWC+ wavelength ranges allow discrimination among different polarization mechanisms. HAWC+’ angular resolution is particularly well suited to study the magnetic field of entire cloud cores, thus connecting the Planck large scale molecular cloud structure with ALMA’s detailed small-scale structure of the core.SOFIA also offers the advantages of molecular line emission follow-up on regions for which HAWC+ determines magnetic field strength and direction. GREAT and/or FIFI-LS molecular line observations of the region of interest will complement the magnetic field observations: cloud and filament dynamics, the magnitude of the turbulence, and of course the core gas density can be determined through observations of appropriate molecular lines.These observations, as well as synergistic observations with other telescopes, will provide powerful tools to further our understanding of the fundamental physics of both low mass and high mass star formation, including the role

  12. The magnetic early B-type stars I: magnetometry and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; MiMeS Collaboration; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    The rotational and magnetic properties of many magnetic hot stars are poorly characterized, therefore the Magnetism in Massive Stars and Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars collaborations have collected extensive high-dispersion spectropolarimetric data sets of these targets. We present longitudinal magnetic field measurements for 52 early B-type stars (B5-B0), with which we attempt to determine their rotational periods Prot. Supplemented with high-resolution spectroscopy, low-resolution Dominion Astrophysical Observatory circular spectropolarimetry, and archival Hipparcos photometry, we determined Prot for 10 stars, leaving only five stars for which Prot could not be determined. Rotational ephemerides for 14 stars were refined via comparison of new to historical magnetic measurements. The distribution of Prot is very similar to that observed for the cooler Ap/Bp stars. We also measured v sin i and vmac for all stars. Comparison to non-magnetic stars shows that v sin i is much lower for magnetic stars, an expected consequence of magnetic braking. We also find evidence that vmac is lower for magnetic stars. Least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted using single-element masks revealed widespread, systematic discrepancies in between different elements: this effect is apparent only for chemically peculiar stars, suggesting it is a consequence of chemical spots. Sinusoidal fits to H line measurements (which should be minimally affected by chemical spots), yielded evidence of surface magnetic fields more complex than simple dipoles in six stars for which this has not previously been reported; however, in all six cases, the second- and third-order amplitudes are small relative to the first-order (dipolar) amplitudes.

  13. NICER observations of highly magnetized neutron stars: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Nynka, Melania; Kaspi, Victoria; Harding, Alice; Guver, Tolga; Lewandowska, Natalia; Majid, Walid; Ho, Wynn C. G.; NICER Team

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) was launched on June 3, 2017, and attached to the International Space Station. The large effective area of NICER in soft X-rays makes it a powerful tool not only for its primary science objective (diagnostics of the nuclear equation state) but also for studying neutron stars of various classes. As one of the NICER science working groups, the Magnetars and Magnetospheres (M&M) team coordinates monitoring and target of opportunity (ToO) observations of magnetized neutron stars, including magnetars, high-B pulsars, X-ray dim isolated neutron stars, and young rotation-powered pulsars. The M&M working group has performed simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the Crab and Vela pulsars, ToO observations of the active anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61, and a monitoring campaign for the transient magnetar SGR 0501+4516. Here we summarize the current status and initial results of the M&M group.

  14. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR {epsilon} ERIDANI

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; Buccino, A. P.

    2013-02-01

    The active K2 dwarf {epsilon} Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in {epsilon} Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed bymore » the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 {+-} 0.03 years and 12.7 {+-} 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Boehm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of {epsilon} Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.« less

  15. Detection of a Red Supergiant Progenitor Star of a Type II-Plateau Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smartt, Stephen J.; Maund, Justyn R.; Hendry, Margaret A.; Tout, Christopher A.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Mattila, Seppo; Benn, Chris R.

    2004-01-01

    We present the discovery of a red supergiant star that exploded as supernova 2003gd in the nearby spiral galaxy M74. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Gemini Telescope imaged this galaxy 6 to 9 months before the supernova explosion, and subsequent HST images confirm the positional coincidence of the supernova with a single resolved star that is a red supergiant of 8+4-2 solar masses. This confirms both stellar evolution models and supernova theories predicting that cool red supergiants are the immediate progenitor stars of type II-plateau supernovae.

  16. A magnetic study of spotted UV Ceti flare stars and related late-type dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, S. S.

    1980-09-01

    A multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer has been used to investigate the magnetic nature of the spotted UV Ceti flare stars. Magnetic observations were obtained on a sample of 19 program objects, of which 5 were currently spotted dKe-dMe stars, 7 were normal dK-dM stars, 7 were UV Ceti flare stars, and 1 was a possible post-T Tauri star. Contrary to most previously published observations and theoretical expectations, no magnetic fields were detected on any of these objects from either the absorption lines or the H-alpha emission line down to an observational uncertainty level of 100-160 gauss (standard deviation).

  17. The dichotomy between strong and ultra-weak magnetic fields among intermediate-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lignières, François; Petit, Pascal; Aurière, Michel; Wade, Gregg A.; Böhm, Torsten

    2014-08-01

    Until recently, the detection of magnetic fields at the surface of intermediate-mass main-sequence stars has been limited to Ap/Bp stars, a class of chemically peculiar stars. This class represents no more than 5-10% of the stars in this mass range. This small fraction is not explained by the fossil field paradigm that describes the Ap/Bp type magnetism as a remnant of an early phase of the star-life. Also, the limitation of the field measurements to a small and special group of stars is obviously a problem to study the effect of the magnetic fields on the stellar evolution of a typical intermediate-mass star. Thanks to the improved sensitivity of a new generation of spectropolarimeters, a lower bound to the magnetic fields of Ap/Bp stars, a two orders of magnitude desert in the longitudinal magnetic field and a new type of sub-gauss magnetism first discovered on Vega have been identified. These advances provide new clues to understand the origin of intermediate-mass magnetism as well as its influence on stellar evolution. In particular, a scenario has been proposed whereby the magnetic dichotomy between Ap/Bp and Vega-like magnetism originate from the bifurcation between stable and unstable large scale magnetic configurations in differentially rotating stars. In this paper, we review these recent observational findings and discuss this scenario.

  18. Magnetic Fields Sculpt Narrow Jets From Dying Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    Molecules spewed outward from a dying star are confined into narrow jets by a tightly-wound magnetic field, according to astronomers who used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to study an old star about 8,500 light-years from Earth. Magnetic Field Around Jet Artist's Conception Shows Tightly-Wound Magnetic Field Confining Jet CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) The star, called W43A, in the constellation Aquila, is in the process of forming a planetary nebula, a shell of brightly-glowing gas lit by the hot ember into which the star will collapse. In 2002, astronomers discovered that the aging star was ejecting twin jets of water molecules. That discovery was a breakthrough in understanding how many planetary nebulae are formed into elongated shapes. "The next question was, what is keeping this outpouring of material confined into narrow jets? Theoreticians suspected magnetic fields, and we now have found the first direct evidence that a magnetic field is confining such a jet," said Wouter Vlemmings, a Marie Curie Fellow working at the Jodrell Bank Observatory of the University of Manchester in England. "Magnetic fields previously have been detected in jets emitted by quasars and protostars, but the evidence was not conclusive that the magnetic fields were actually confining the jets. These new VLBA observations now make that direct connection for the very first time," Vlemmings added. By using the VLBA to study the alignment, or polarization, of radio waves emitted by water molecules in the jets, the scientists were able to determine the strength and orientation of the magnetic field surrounding the jets. "Our observations support recent theoretical models in which magnetically-confined jets produce the sometimes-complex shapes we see in planetary nebulae," said Philip Diamond, also of Jodrell Bank Observatory. During their "normal" lives, stars similar to our Sun are powered by the nuclear fusion

  19. Stellar Models of Rotating, PMS Stars with Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, L. T. S.; Landin, N. R.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2014-10-01

    We report our ongoing studies of the magnetic field effects on the structure and evolution of low-mass stars, using a method first proposed by Lydon & Sofia (1995, ApJS 101, 357) which treats the magnetic field as a perturbation on the stellar structure equations. The ATON 2.3 stellar evolution code (Ventura et al. 1998, A&A 334, 953) now includes, via this method, the effects of an imposed, parametric magnetic field whose surface strength scales throughout the stellar interior according to one of the three following laws: (a) the ratio between the magnetic and gas energy densities, β_{mg}, is kept at its surface value across the stellar interior, (b) β_{mg} has a shallower decrease in deeper layers, or (c) β_{mg} decays as [m(r)/M_{*}]^{2/3}. We then computed rotating stellar models, starting at the pre-main sequence phase, of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 M_{odot} with solar chemical composition, mixing-length convection treatment with &alpha=λ/H_{P}=1.5 and surface magnetic field strength of 50 G. Summarizing our main findings: (1) we confirm that the magnetic field inhibits convection and so reduces the convective envelope; (2) the magnetic perturbation effect dominates over that of rotation for 0.8 and 1.0 M_{odot} masses, but their relative impact shows a reversal during the Hayashi tracks at lower masses (0.4 and 0.6 M_{odot}); in any case, the magnetic perturbation makes the tracks cooler; and (3) the magnetic field contributes to higher surface lithium abundances.

  20. Radio wavelength observations of magnetic fields on active dwarf M, RS CVn and magnetic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1986-01-01

    The dwarf M stars, YZ Canis Minoris and AD Leonis, exhibit narrow-band, slowly varying (hours) microwave emission that cannot be explained by conventional thermal radiation mechanisms. The dwarf M stars, AD Leonis and Wolf 424, emit rapid spikes whose high brightness temperatures similarly require a nonthermal radiation process. They are attributed to coherent mechanisms such as an electron-cyclotron maser or coherent plasma radiation. If the electron-cyclotron maser emits at the second or third harmonic gyrofrequency, the coronal magnetic field strength equals 250 G or 167 G, and constraints on the plasma frequency imply an electron density of 6 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm. Radio spikes from AD Leonis and Wolf 424 have rise times less than or equal to 5 ms, indicating a linear size of less than or equal to 1.5 x 10 to the 8th cm, or less than 0.005 of the stellar radius. Although Ap magnetic stars have strong dipole magnetic fields, they exhibit no detectable gyroresonant radiation, suggesting that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The binary RS CVn star UX Arietis exhibits variable emission at 6 cm wavelength on time scales ranging from 30 s to more than one hour.

  1. Modelling element distributions in the atmospheres of magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecian, G.; Stift, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Context: In recent papers convincing evidence has been presented for chemical stratification in Ap star atmospheres, and surface abundance maps have been shown to correlate with the magnetic field direction. Radiatively driven diffusion, which is known to be sensitive to the magnetic field strength and direction, is among the processes responsible for these inhomogeneities. Aims: Here we explore the hypothesis that equilibrium stratifications - such that the diffusive particle flux is close to zero throughout the atmosphere - can, in a number of cases, explain the observed abundance maps and vertical distributions of the various elements. Methods: An iterative scheme adjusts the abundances in such a way as to achieve either zero particle flux or zero effective acceleration throughout the atmosphere, taking strength and direction of the magnetic field into account. Results: The investigation of equilibrium stratifications in stellar atmospheres with temperatures from 8500 to 12 000 K and fields up to 10 kG reveals considerable variations in the vertical distribution of the 5 elements studied (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe), often with zones of large over- or under-abundances and with indications of other competing processes (such as mass loss). Horizontal magnetic fields can be very efficient in helping the accumulation of elements in higher layers. Conclusions: A comparison between our calculations and the vertical abundance profiles and surface maps derived by magnetic Doppler imaging reveals that equilibrium stratifications are in a number of cases consistent with the main trends inferred from observed spectra. However, it is not clear whether such equilibrium solutions will ever be reached during the evolution of an Ap star.

  2. Radiatively driven winds from magnetic, fast-rotating stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerney, S.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical procedure is developed to solve the magnetohydrodynamic equations for the stellar wind problem in the strong-magnetic field, optically thick limit for hot stars. The slow-mode, Alfven, and fast-mode critical points are modified by the radiation terms in the force equation but in a manner that can be treated relatively easily. Once the velocities at the critical points and the distances to the points are known, the streamline constants are determined in a straight-forward manner. This allows the structure of the wind to be elucidated without recourse to complicated computational schemes.

  3. A Study of Magnetic CP Stars in Open Clusters and Associations with the 6-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Yakunin, I. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    2017-06-01

    The study of magnetic CP stars in groups of different ages allows us to obtain data on the origin and evolution of large-scale magnetic fields. We selected 17 groups for observation with the 6-m telescope. Here we draw first conclusions from the study of the Orion OB1 association. Six new magnetic stars in it are added to those seventeen that had been known earlier, ten more CP stars were suspected to have fields. A complex structure of the magnetic field in the star HD 34736 has been found, which is indicative of its fossil origin.

  4. Collapse scenarios in magnetized star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence, magnetic fields and gravity driven flows are important for the formation of new stars. Although magnetic fields have been proven to be important in the formation of stars, only a few works have been done combining magnetic field and kinematic information. Such studies are important to analyze both gravity and gas dynamics and be able to compare them with the magnetic field. In this thesis we will combine dust polarization studies with kinematic analysis towards different star-forming regions. We aim to study the physical properties at core scales (<0.1 pc) from molecular line and dust emission, and study the role of the magnetic field in their dynamic evolution. For this, we will use millimeter and submillimeter observational data taken towards low- and high- mass star-forming regions in different environments and evolutionary states. The first project is the study of the physical, chemical and magnetic properties of the pre-stellar core FeSt1-457 in the Pipe nebula. We studied the emission of the molecular line N2H+(1-0) which is a good tracer of dense gas and therefore describes well the structure of the core. In addition, we detected more than 15 molecular lines and found a clear chemical spatial differentiation for molecules with nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. Using the ARTIST radiative transfer code (Brinch & Hogerheijde 2010, Padovani et al., 2011, 2012, Jørgensen et al., 2014), we simulated the emission of the different molecules detected and estimated their abundance. In addition, we estimated the magnetic field properties of the core (using the Chandrasekhar-Fermi approximation) from polarization data previously obtained by Alves et al., (2014). Finally, we found interesting correlations between the polarization properties and the chemistry in the region. The second project is the study of a high-mass star-forming region called NGC6334V. NGC6334V is in a more advanced evolutionary state and in an environment surrounded by other massive star

  5. Dirac’s magnetic monopole and the Kontsevich star product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We examine relationships between various quantization schemes for an electrically charged particle in the field of a magnetic monopole. Quantization maps are defined in invariant geometrical terms, appropriate to the case of nontrivial topology, and are constructed for two operator representations. In the first setting, the quantum operators act on the Hilbert space of sections of a nontrivial complex line bundle associated with the Hopf bundle, whereas the second approach uses instead a quaternionic Hilbert module of sections of a trivial quaternionic line bundle. We show that these two quantizations are naturally related by a bundle morphism and, as a consequence, induce the same phase-space star product. We obtain explicit expressions for the integral kernels of star-products corresponding to various operator orderings and calculate their asymptotic expansions up to the third order in the Planck constant \\hbar . We also show that the differential form of the magnetic Weyl product corresponding to the symmetric ordering agrees completely with the Kontsevich formula for deformation quantization of Poisson structures and can be represented by Kontsevich’s graphs.

  6. A BCool survey of the magnetic fields of planet-hosting solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, M. W.; Marsden, S. C.; Carter, B. D.; Horner, J.; King, R.; Fares, R.; Jeffers, S. V.; Petit, P.; Vidotto, A. A.; Morin, J.; BCool Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present a spectropolarimetric snapshot survey of solar-type planet-hosting stars. In addition to 14 planet-hosting stars observed as part of the BCool magnetic snapshot survey, we obtained magnetic observations of a further 19 planet-hosting solar-type stars in order to see if the presence of close-in planets had an effect on the measured surface magnetic field (|Bℓ|). Our results indicate that the magnetic activity of this sample is congruent with that of the overall BCool sample. The effects of the planetary systems on the magnetic activity of the parent star, if any, are too subtle to detect compared to the intrinsic dispersion and correlations with rotation, age and stellar activity proxies in our sample. Four of the 19 newly observed stars, two of which are subgiants, have unambiguously detected magnetic fields and are future targets for Zeeman-Doppler mapping.

  7. ON HIGHLY CLUMPED MAGNETIC WIND MODELS FOR COOL EVOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, G. M.

    2010-09-10

    Recently, it has been proposed that the winds of non-pulsating and non-dusty K and M giants and supergiants may be driven by some form of magnetic pressure acting on highly clumped wind material. While many researchers believe that magnetic processes are responsible for cool evolved stellar winds, existing MHD and Alfven wave-driven wind models have magnetic fields that are essentially radial and tied to the photosphere. The clumped magnetic wind scenario is quite different in that the magnetic flux is also being carried away from the star with the wind. We test this clumped wind hypothesis by computing continuum radiomore » fluxes from the {zeta} Aur semiempirical model of Baade et al., which is based on wind-scattered line profiles. The radio continuum opacity is proportional to the electron density squared, while the line scattering opacity is proportional to the gas density. This difference in proportionality provides a test for the presence of large clumping factors. We derive the radial distribution of clump factors (CFs) for {zeta} Aur by comparing the nonthermal pressures required to produce the semiempirical velocity distribution with the expected thermal pressures. The CFs are {approx}5 throughout the sub-sonic inner wind region and then decline outward. These implied clumping factors lead to excess radio emission at 2.0 cm, while at 6.2 cm it improves agreement with the smooth unclumped model. Smaller clumping factors of {approx}2 lead to better overall agreement but also increase the discrepancy at 2 cm. These results do not support the magnetic clumped wind hypothesis and instead suggest that inherent uncertainties in the underlying semiempirical model probably dominate uncertainties in predicted radio fluxes. However, new ultraviolet line and radio continuum observations are needed to test the new generations of inhomogeneous magnetohydrodynamic wind models.« less

  8. Copious amounts of hot and cold dust orbiting the main sequence a-type stars HD 131488 and HD 121191

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.

    2013-11-20

    We report two new dramatically dusty main sequence stars: HD 131488 (A1 V) and HD 121191 (A8 V). HD 131488 is found to have substantial amounts of dust in its terrestrial planet zone (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol} ≈ 4 × 10{sup –3}), cooler dust farther out in its planetary system, and an unusual mid-infrared spectral feature. HD 121191 shows terrestrial planet zone dust (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol} ≈ 2.3 × 10{sup –3}), hints of cooler dust, and shares the unusual mid-infrared spectral shape identified in HD 131488. These two stars belong to sub-groups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB associationmore » and have ages of ∼10 Myr. HD 131488 and HD 121191 are the dustiest main sequence A-type stars currently known. Early-type stars that host substantial inner planetary system dust are thus far found only within the age range of 5-20 Myr.« less

  9. Exo-comet Detection in Debris Disks Around Young A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry; Montgomery, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present details of the successful search for comet-like bodies (i.e. exo-comets) in orbit around several nearby stars. These objects have been found in young stellar systems that are in the transitional stage of evolution between possession of a gaseous protoplanetary disk to that of a dust-rich debris disk. During this period it is thought that large planetesimals of ~ 1000 km diameter may cause dynamical perturbations in the population of smaller bodies (such as asteroids and comets), such that they are sent on highly eccentric orbits towards their parent star resulting in the liberation of large amounts of evaporating gas and dust. By observing the varying spectral absorption signature of the CaII K-line at 3933Å due to this liberated gas, we have been able to track the trajectory of these exo-comets over a time-frame of several nights as they approach (and sometimes pass around) the central star. The youngest debris disks (1 - 50 Myr) are thought to represent the last stage in the formation of planetary systems and they may resemble our solar system’s own debris disk at the time of the Late Heavy Bombardment when the terrestrial worlds were subject to frequent collisions with asteroids and comets. Collisions with water-rich comets from the outer regions of our solar system may have delivered water to thee Earth’s oceans.

  10. Electromagnetic fields of slowly rotating magnetized compact stars in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turimov, Bobur; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Bambi, Cosimo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the exterior vacuum electromagnetic fields of slow-rotating magnetized compact stars in conformal gravity. Assuming the dipolar magnetic field configuration, we obtain an analytical solution of the Maxwell equations for the magnetic and the electric fields outside a slowly rotating magnetized star in conformal gravity. Furthermore, we study the dipolar electromagnetic radiation and energy losses from a rotating magnetized star in conformal gravity. In order to get constraints on the L parameter of conformal gravity, the theoretical results for the magnetic field of a magnetized star in conformal gravity are combined with the precise observational data of radio pulsar period slowdown, and it is found that the maximum value of the parameter of conformal gravity is less than L ≲9.5 ×105 cm (L /M ≲5 ).

  11. [Nucleosynthesis, Rotation and Magnetism in Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This is my final report on the NASA ATP grant on nucleosynthesis, rotation and magnetism in accreting neutron stars (NAG5-8658). In my last two reports, I summarized the science that I have accomplished, which covered a large range of topics. For this report, I want to point out the graduate students that were partially supported on this grant and where they are now. Andrew Cumming is an Assistant Professor of Physics at McGill University, Greg Ushomirsky is a researcher at MIT s Lincoln Laboratories, Dean Townsley is a postdoctoral researcher at Univ. of Chicago, Chris Deloye is a postdoctoral researcher at Northwestern University. The other two students, Phil Chang and Tony Piro, are still at UCSB and will be completing their PhD s in Summer 05 and Summer 06.

  12. A magnetic survey of AP stars in young clusters - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. N.; Landstreet, J. D.; Thompson, I.

    Photoelectric polarimetry of Ap stars was undertaken in order to investigate the role of magnetic fields in the evolution of atmospheric chemical peculiarities and the braking of stellar rotation. The stars are grouped by cluster or association and listed by HD number, and each star's spectral type, reference for classification, number of magnetic observations, and root mean square of the equivalent magnetic field measurements obtained from an expression are shown. The data obtained to date include several new magnetic identifications and display the character of the survey, but are not yet sufficient to support any firm evolutionary conclusions.

  13. How to form a millisecond magnetar? Magnetic field amplification in protoneutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilet, Jérôme; Müller, Ewald; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Rembiasz, Tomasz; Obergaulinger, Martin; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Aloy, Miguel-Angel

    2017-02-01

    Extremely strong magnetic fields of the order of 1015G are required to explain the properties of magnetars, the most magnetic neutron stars. Such a strong magnetic field is expected to play an important role for the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae, and in the presence of rapid rotation may power superluminous supernovae and hypernovae associated to long gamma-ray bursts. The origin of these strong magnetic fields remains, however, obscure and most likely requires an amplification over many orders of magnitude in the protoneutron star. One of the most promising agents is the magnetorotational instability (MRI), which can in principle amplify exponentially fast a weak initial magnetic field to a dynamically relevant strength. We describe our current understanding of the MRI in protoneutron stars and show recent results on its dependence on physical conditions specific to protoneutron stars such as neutrino radiation, strong buoyancy effects and large magnetic Prandtl number.

  14. Probing the extreme wind confinement of the most magnetic O star with COS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Veronique

    2014-10-01

    We propose to obtain phase-resolved UV spectroscopy of the recently discovered magnetic O star NGC 1624-2, which has the strongest magnetic field ever detected in a O-star, by an order of magnitude. We will use the strength and variability of the UV resonance line profiles to diagnose the density, velocity, and ionization structure of NGC 1624-2's enormous magnetosphere that results from entrapment of its stellar wind by its strong, nearly dipolar magnetic field. With this gigantic magnetosphere, NGC 1624-2 represents a new regime of extreme wind confinement that will constrain models of magnetized winds and their surface mass flux properties. A detailed understanding of such winds is necessary to study the rotational braking history of magnetic O-stars, which can shed new light on the fundamental origin of magnetism in massive, hot stars.

  15. Large-scale Organized Magnetic Fields in O, B and A Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.

    2009-06-01

    The status of our current knowledge of magnetic fields in stars of spectral types ranging from early F to O is reviewed. Fields with large-scale organised structure have now been detected and measured throughout this range. These fields are consistent with the oblique rotator model. In early F to late B stars, their occurrence is restricted to the subgroup of the Ap stars, which have the best studied fields among the early-type stars. Presence of fields with more complex topologies in other A and late B stars has been suggested, but is not firmly established. Magnetic fields have not been studied in a sufficient number of OB stars yet so as to establish whether they occur in all or only in some subset of these stars.

  16. A fossil origin for the magnetic field in A stars and white dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jonathan; Spruit, Hendrik C

    2004-10-14

    Some main-sequence stars of spectral type A are observed to have a strong (0.03-3 tesla), static, large-scale magnetic field, of a chiefly dipolar shape: they are known as 'Ap stars', such as Alioth, the fifth star in the Big Dipper. Following the discovery of these fields, it was proposed that they are remnants of the star's formation, a 'fossil' field. An alternative suggestion is that they could be generated by a dynamo process in the star's convective core. The dynamo hypothesis, however, has difficulty explaining high field strengths and the observed lack of a correlation with rotation. The weakness of the fossil-field theory has been the absence of field configurations stable enough to survive in a star over its lifetime. Here we report numerical simulations that show that stable magnetic field configurations, with properties agreeing with those observed, can develop through evolution from arbitrary, unstable initial fields. The results are applicable equally to Ap stars, magnetic white dwarfs and some highly magnetized neutron stars known as magnetars. This establishes fossil fields as the natural, unifying explanation for the magnetism of all these stars.

  17. Polarized x-ray emission from magnetized neutron stars: signature of strong-field vacuum polarization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C G

    2003-08-15

    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  18. Polarized X-Ray Emission from Magnetized Neutron Stars: Signature of Strong-Field Vacuum Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C.

    2003-08-01

    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  19. Pair cascades in the magnetospheres of strongly magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medin, Zach; Lai, Dong

    2010-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of electron-positron pair cascades in the magnetospheres of magnetic neutron stars for a wide range of surface fields (Bp = 1012-1015 G), rotation periods (0.1-10 s) and field geometries. This has been motivated by the discovery in recent years of a number of radio pulsars with inferred magnetic fields comparable to those of magnetars. Evolving the cascade generated by a primary electron or positron after it has been accelerated in the inner gap of the magnetosphere, we follow the spatial development of the cascade until the secondary photons and electron-positron pairs leave the magnetosphere, and we obtain the pair multiplicity and the energy spectra of the cascade pairs and photons under various conditions. Going beyond previous works, which were restricted to weaker fields (B <~ afew × 1012 G), we have incorporated in our simulations detailed treatments of physical processes that are potentially important (especially in the high-field regime) but were either neglected or crudely treated before, including photon splitting with the correct selection rules for photon polarization modes, one-photon pair production into low Landau levels for the e+/-, and resonant inverse Compton scattering from polar cap hotspots. We find that even for B >> BQ = 4 × 1013 G, photon splitting has a small effect on the multiplicity of the cascade since a majority of the photons in the cascade cannot split. One-photon decay into e+ e- pairs at low Landau levels, however, becomes the dominant pair production channel when B >~ 3 × 1012 G; this tends to suppress synchrotron radiation so that the cascade can develop only at a larger distance from the stellar surface. Nevertheless, we find that the total number of pairs and their energy spectrum produced in the cascade depend mainly on the polar cap voltage BpP-2, and are weakly dependent on Bp (and P) alone. We discuss the implications of our results for the radio pulsar death line and for the hard X

  20. A Three-dimensional Simulation of a Magnetized Accretion Disk: Fast Funnel Accretion onto a Weakly Magnetized Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Tomida, Kengo; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of a global, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation of an accretion disk with a rotating, weakly magnetized central star. The disk is threaded by a weak, large-scale poloidal magnetic field, and the central star has no strong stellar magnetosphere initially. Our simulation investigates the structure of the accretion flows from a turbulent accretion disk onto the star. The simulation reveals that fast accretion onto the star at high latitudes occurs even without a stellar magnetosphere. We find that the failed disk wind becomes the fast, high-latitude accretion as a result of angular momentum exchange mediated by magnetic fields well above the disk, where the Lorentz force that decelerates the rotational motion of gas can be comparable to the centrifugal force. Unlike the classical magnetospheric accretion scenario, fast accretion streams are not guided by magnetic fields of the stellar magnetosphere. Nevertheless, the accretion velocity reaches the free-fall velocity at the stellar surface due to the efficient angular momentum loss at a distant place from the star. This study provides a possible explanation why Herbig Ae/Be stars whose magnetic fields are generally not strong enough to form magnetospheres also show indications of fast accretion. A magnetically driven jet is not formed from the disk in our model. The differential rotation cannot generate sufficiently strong magnetic fields for the jet acceleration because the Parker instability interrupts the field amplification.

  1. Hydrothermally-induced changes in mineralogy and magnetic properties of oxidized A-type granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nédélec, Anne; Trindade, Ricardo; Peschler, Anne; Archanjo, Carlos; Macouin, Mélina; Poitrasson, Franck; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The changes in magnetic mineralogy due to the hydrothermal alteration of A-type granitic rocks have been thoroughly investigated in samples from the granite of Tana (Corsica, France), and compared with other A-type granites: Meruoca (NE Brazil), Bushveld (South Africa), Mount Scott (Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma, USA) and the stratoid hypersolvus granites of Madagascar. The altered red-colored samples and their non-altered equivalents were magnetically characterized by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements, hysteresis loops, remanent coercivity spectra, and Lowrie test. It is shown that hydrothermalization in magnetite-bearing granites is related to the formation of fine-grained magnetite and hematite, and to coeval depletion in the content of primary low-coercive coarse-grained magnetite. These mineralogical changes give typical rock magnetic signatures, namely lower susceptibility magnitudes and anisotropy degrees, prolate AMS (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) fabrics and increased coercivities. Optical microscopy and SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) images suggest that the orientation of the secondary magnetic minerals is related to fluid-pathways and micro-fractures formed during the hydrothermal event and therefore may be unrelated to magma emplacement and crystallization fabrics. Changes in magnetic mineralogy and grain-size distribution have also to be considered for any paleomagnetic and iron isotope studies in granites.

  2. VLA observations of A and B stars with kilogauss magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, S. A.; Abbott, D. C.; Linsky, J. L.; Bieging, J. H.; Churchwell, E.

    1985-01-01

    The serendipitous discovery that the star Sigma Ori E is a 3.5 mJy radio continuum source at 6 cm has stimulated a radio survey of other early-type stars with strong magnetic fields. No Ap stars have been detected of the eight observed, with typical 3-sigma upper limits of 0.5 mJy at 2 cm. Of the six Bp stars examined, only HR 1890, a helium-strong star, was detected. Possible emission mechanisms for the observed radio emission are discussed, and it is concluded that nonthermal emission seems the most plausible, on the basis of the present data.

  3. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.

    2012-09-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics.

  4. Detection of magnetic fields in chemically peculiar stars observed with the K2 space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysschaert, B.; Neiner, C.; Martin, A. J.; Aerts, C.; Bowman, D. M.; Oksala, M. E.; Van Reeth, T.

    2018-05-01

    We report the results of an observational study aimed at searching for magnetic pulsating hot stars suitable for magneto-asteroseismology. A sample of sixteen chemically peculiar stars was selected and analysed using both high-resolution spectropolarimetry with ESPaDOnS and K2 high-precision space photometry. For all stars, we derive the effective temperature, surface gravity, rotational and non-rotational line broadening from our spectropolarimetric data. High-quality K2 light curves were obtained for thirteen of the sixteen stars and revealed rotational modulation, providing accurate rotation periods. Two stars show evidence for roAp pulsations, and one star shows signatures of internal gravity waves or unresolved g-mode pulsations. We confirm the presence of a large-scale magnetic field for eleven of the studied stars, of which nine are first detections. Further, we report one marginal detection and four non-detections. Two of the stars with a non-detected magnetic field show rotational modulation due to surface abundance inhomogeneities in the K2 light curve, and we confirm that the other two are chemically peculiar. Thus, these five stars likely host a weak (undetected) large-scale magnetic field.

  5. The challenge of measuring magnetic fields in strongly pulsating stars: the case of HD 96446

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, S. P.; Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Briquet, M.

    2017-01-01

    Among the early B-type stars, He-rich Bp stars exhibit the strongest large-scale organized magnetic fields with a predominant dipole contribution. The presence of β Cep-like pulsations in the typical magnetic early Bp-type star HD 96446 was announced a few years ago, but the analysis of the magnetic field geometry was hampered by the absence of a reliable rotation period and a sophisticated procedure for accounting for the impact of pulsations on the magnetic field measurements. Using new spectropolarimetric observations and a recently determined rotation period based on an extensive spectroscopic time series, we investigate the magnetic field model parameters of this star under more detailed considerations of the pulsation behaviour of line profiles.

  6. First results from the LIFE project: discovery of two magnetic hot evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Neiner, C.; Oksala, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Keszthelyi, Z.; Fossati, L.; Marcolino, W.; Mathis, S.; Georgy, C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the initial results of the Large Impact of magnetic Fields on the Evolution of hot stars (LIFE) project. The focus of this project is the search for magnetic fields in evolved OBA giants and supergiants with visual magnitudes between 4 and 8, with the aim to investigate how the magnetic fields observed in upper main-sequence (MS) stars evolve from the MS until the late post-MS stages. In this paper, we present spectropolarimetric observations of 15 stars observed using the ESPaDOnS instrument of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. For each star, we have determined the fundamental parameters and have used stellar evolution models to calculate their mass, age, and radius. Using the least-squared deconvolution technique, we have produced averaged line profiles for each star. From these profiles, we have measured the longitudinal magnetic field strength and have calculated the detection probability. We report the detection of magnetic fields in two stars of our sample: a weak field of Bl = 1.0 ± 0.2 G is detected in the post-MS A5 star 19 Aur and a stronger field of Bl = -230 ± 10 G is detected in the MS/post-MS B8/9 star HR 3042.

  7. Magnetic stars with wide depressions in the continuum. 2. The silicon star with a complex field structure HD 27404

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenko, E. A.; Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenova, E. S.; Moiseeva, A. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Yakunin, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    Observations of the chemically peculiar star HD 27404 with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope showed a strong magnetic field with the longitudinal field component varying in a complicated way in the range of -2.5 to 1 kG. Fundamental parameters of the star ( T eff = 11 300 K, log g = 3.9) were estimated analyzing photometric indices in the Geneva and in the Stro¨ mgren-Crawford photometric systems. We detected weak radial velocity variations which can be due to the presence of a close star companion or chemical spots in the photosphere. Rapid estimation of the key chemical element abundance allows us to refer HD 27404 to a SiCr or Si+ chemically peculiar A0-B9 star.

  8. Flattening modulus of a neutron star by rotation and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, K.; Obata, T.; Kojima, Y.

    2000-04-01

    We calculated the ellipticity of the deformed star due to the rotation or magnetic field. These two effects are compared to each other within general relativity. It turned out that the magnetic distortion is important for recently observed candidates of magnetars, while the magnetic effect can be neglected for well-known typical pulsars.

  9. A search for strong, ordered magnetic fields in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Bagnulo, S.; Drouin, D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Monin, D.

    2007-04-01

    The origin of magnetic fields in intermediate- and high-mass stars is fundamentally a mystery. Clues towards solving this basic astrophysical problem can likely be found at the pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary stage. With this work, we perform the largest and most sensitive search for magnetic fields in PMS Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars. We seek to determine whether strong, ordered magnetic fields, similar to those of main-sequence Ap/Bp stars, can be detected in these objects, and if so, to determine the intensities, geometrical characteristics, and statistical incidence of such fields. 68 observations of 50 HAeBe stars have been obtained in circularly polarized light using the FORS1 spectropolarimeter at the ESO VLT. An analysis of both Balmer and metallic lines reveals the possible presence of weak longitudinal magnetic fields in photospheric lines of two HAeBe stars, HD 101412 and BF Ori. Results for two additional stars, CPD-53 295 and HD 36112, are suggestive of the presence of magnetic fields, but no firm conclusions can be drawn based on the available data. The intensity of the longitudinal fields detected in HD 101412 and BF Ori suggest that they correspond to globally ordered magnetic fields with surface intensities of order 1 kG. On the other hand, no magnetic field is detected in 4 other HAeBe stars in our sample in which magnetic fields had previously been confirmed. Monte Carlo simulations of the longitudinal field measurements of the undetected stars allow us to place an upper limit of about 300 G on the general presence of aligned magnetic dipole magnetic fields, and of about 500 G on perpendicular dipole fields. Taking into account the results of our survey and other published results, we find that the observed bulk incidence of magnetic HAeBe stars in our sample is 8-12 per cent, in good agreement with that of magnetic main-sequence stars of similar masses. We also find that the rms longitudinal field intensity of magnetically detected HAe

  10. Main-sequence magnetic CP stars: II. Physical parameters and chemical composition of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, I. I.

    2007-03-01

    This paper continues a series of reviews dedicated to magnetic CP stars. The occurrence frequency of CP stars among B5 F0-type main-sequence stars is shown to be equal to about 15 20%. The problems of identification and classification of these objects are addressed. We prefer the classification of Preston, which subdivides chemically peculiar stars into the following groups: Am, λ Boo, Ap/Bp, Hg-Mn, He-weak, and He-strong stars. The main characteristic features of objects of each group are briefly analyzed. The rotation velocities of CP stars are shown to be about three times lower than those of normal stars of the same spectral types (except for λ Boo and He-strong objects). The rotation periods of CP stars range from 0.5 to 100 days, however, there is also a small group of objects with especially long (up to several tens of years) variability periods. All kinds of peculiar stars can be found in visual binaries, with Am-and Hg-Mn-type stars occurring mostly in short-period binaries with P < 10 days, and the binary rate of these stars is close to normal. The percentage of binaries among magnetic stars (20%) is lower than among normal stars. A rather large fraction of CP1-and CP2-type stars was found to occur in young clusters (with ages smaller than 107 years). Photometric and spectral variability of peculiar stars of various types is discussed, and it is shown that only objects possessing magnetic fields exhibit light and spectral variations. The chemical composition of the atmospheres of CP stars of various types is considered. The abundances of various elements are usually determined by comparing the line profiles in the observed spectrum with those of the synthetic spectra computed for various model atmospheres. Different mechanisms are shown to contribute to chemical inhomogeneity at the star’s surface, and the hypothesis of selective diffusion of atoms in a stable atmosphere is developed. Attention is also paid to the problems of the determination of

  11. Thermal generation of the magnetic field in the surface layers of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urpin, V.

    2017-11-01

    A new magnetic field-generation mechanism based on the Nernst effect is considered in hot massive stars. This mechanism can operate in the upper atmospheres of O and B stars where departures from the LTE form a region with the inverse temperature gradient.

  12. The Effects of Magnetic Activity on Lithium-Inferred Ages of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Aaron J.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2014-08-01

    In this project, we investigate the effects of magnetic activity on the Lithium Depletion Boundary (LDB) to recalibrate the measured ages for star clusters, using the open cluster Blanco 1 as a pilot study. We apply the LDB technique on low-mass Pre-Main-Sequence (PMS) stars to derive an accurate age for Blanco 1, and we consider the effect of magnetic activity on this inferred age. Although observations have shown that magnetic activity directly affects stellar radius and temperature, most PMS models do not include the effects of magnetic activity on stellar properties. Since the lithium abundance of a star depends on its radius and temperature, we expect that LDB ages are affected by magnetic activity. After empirically accounting for the effects of magnetic activity, we find the age of Blanco 1 to be ~100 Myr, which is ~30 Myr younger than the standard LDB age of ~130 Myr.

  13. The effect of the Coriolis force on the stability of rotating magnetic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of the Coriolis force on the stability of rotating magnetic stars in hydrostatic equilibrium is investigated by using the method of the energy principle. It is shown that this effect is to inhibit the onset of instability.

  14. The effect of the Coriolis force on the stability of rotating magnetic stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of the Coriolis force on the stability of rotating magnetic stars in hydrostatic equilibrium is investigated by using the method of the energy principle. It is shown that this effect is to inhibit the onset of instability.

  15. Kicks of magnetized strange quark stars induced by anisotropic emission of neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Manreza Paret, D.; Pérez Martínez, A.; Piccinelli, Gabriella; Sánchez, Angel; Ruíz Montaño, Jorge S.

    2018-05-01

    We study the anisotropic neutrino emission from the core of neutron stars induced by the star's magnetic field. We model the core as made out of a magnetized ideal gas of strange quark matter and implement the conditions for stellar equilibrium in this environment. The calculation is performed without resorting to analytical simplifications and for temperature, density, and magnetic field values corresponding to typical conditions for a neutron star's evolution. The anisotropic neutrino emission produces a rocket effect that contributes to the star's kick velocity. We find that the computed values for the kick velocity lie within the range of the observed values, reaching velocities of the order of ˜1000 km s-1 for magnetic fields between 1015-1018 G and radii of 20 to 5 km, respectively.

  16. Evolution of magnetic fields in collapsing star-forming clouds under different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Koki; Machida, Masahiro N.; Susa, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    In nearby star-forming clouds, amplification and dissipation of the magnetic field are known to play crucial roles in the star-formation process. The star-forming environment varies from place to place and era to era in galaxies. In this study, amplification and dissipation of magnetic fields in star-forming clouds are investigated under different environments using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. We consider various star-forming environments in combination with the metallicity and the ionization strength, and prepare prestellar clouds having two different mass-to-flux ratios. We calculate the cloud collapse until protostar formation using ideal and non-ideal (inclusion and exclusion of ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion) MHD calculations to investigate the evolution of the magnetic field. We perform 288 runs in total and show the diversity of the density range within which the magnetic field effectively dissipates, depending on the environment. In addition, the dominant dissipation process (Ohmic dissipation or ambipolar diffusion) is shown to strongly depend on the star-forming environment. Especially, for the primordial case, magnetic field rarely dissipates without ionization source, while it efficiently dissipates when very weak ionization sources exist in the surrounding environment. The results of this study help to clarify star formation in various environments.

  17. A type of cylindrical Hall thruster with a magnetically insulated anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongjie, Ding; Yu, Xu; Wuji, Peng; Liqiu, Wei; Hongbo, Su; Hezhi, Sun; Peng, Li; Hong, Li; Daren, Yu

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a type of magnetically insulated anode structure is proposed for the design of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster. The magnetic field distribution in the channel is guided by the magnetically insulated anode, altering the intersection status of the magnetic field line passing through the anode and wall. Experimental and simulation results show that a high potential is formed near the wall by the magnetically insulated anode. As the ionization moves towards the outlet, the energy and flux of the ions bombarding the channel wall can be reduced effectively. Due to the reduction in the bombardment of the wall from high-energy ions, the thrust and specific impulse greatly increase compared with those of the non-magnetically insulated anode. For anode mass flow rates of 0.3 and 0.35 mg s-1 and discharge voltages in the 100-200 V range, the thrust can be increased by more than 33% and the anode efficiency can be improved by more than 7%. Meanwhile, the length of the sputtering area is clearly reduced. The starting position of the sputtering area is in front of the magnetic pole, which can effectively prolong the service life of the thruster.

  18. First discovery of a magnetic field in a main-sequence δ Scuti star: the Kepler star HD 188774

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Lampens, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Kepler space mission provided a wealth of δ Sct-γ Dor hybrid candidates. While some may be genuine hybrids, others might be misclassified due to the presence of a binary companion or to rotational modulation caused by magnetism and related surface inhomogeneities. In particular, the Kepler δ Sct-γ Dor hybrid candidate HD 188774 shows a few low frequencies in its light and radial velocity curves, whose origin is unclear. In this work, we check for the presence of a magnetic field in HD 188774. We obtained two spectropolarimetric measurements with an Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars (ESPaDOnS) at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The data were analysed with the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) method. We detected a clear magnetic signature in the Stokes V LSD profiles. The origin of the low frequencies detected in HD 188774 is therefore most probably the rotational modulation of surface spots possibly related to the presence of a magnetic field. Consequently, HD 188774 is not a genuine hybrid δ Sct-γ Dor star, but the first known magnetic main-sequence δ Sct star. This makes it a prime target for future asteroseismic and spot modelling. This result casts new light on the interpretation of the Kepler results for other δ Sct-γ Dor hybrid candidates.

  19. Magnetic Games between a Planet and Its Host Star: The Key Role of Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Matt, S. P.; Réville, V.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic interactions between a star and a close-in planet are postulated to be a source of enhanced emissions and to play a role in the secular evolution of the orbital system. Close-in planets generally orbit in the sub-alfvénic region of the stellar wind, which leads to efficient transfers of energy and angular momentum between the star and the planet. We model the magnetic interactions occurring in close-in star-planet systems with three-dimensional, global, compressible magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of a planet orbiting in a self-consistent stellar wind. We focus on the cases of magnetized planets and explore three representative magnetic configurations. The Poynting flux originating from the magnetic interactions is an energy source for enhanced emissions in star-planet systems. Our results suggest a simple geometrical explanation for ubiquitous on/off enhanced emissions associated with close-in planets, and confirm that the Poynting fluxes can reach powers of the order of 1019 W. Close-in planets are also shown to migrate due to magnetic torques for sufficiently strong stellar wind magnetic fields. The topology of the interaction significantly modifies the shape of the magnetic obstacle that leads to magnetic torques. As a consequence, the torques can vary by at least an order of magnitude as the magnetic topology of the interaction varies.

  20. The MiMeS survey of magnetism in massive stars: CNO surface abundances of Galactic O stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Hervé, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Marcolino, W.; Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Grunhut, J.; Petit, V.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The evolution of massive stars is still partly unconstrained. Mass, metallicity, mass loss, and rotation are the main drivers of stellar evolution. Binarity and the magnetic field may also significantly affect the fate of massive stars. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the evolution of single O stars in the Galaxy. Methods: For that, we used a sample of 74 objects comprising all luminosity classes and spectral types from O4 to O9.7. We relied on optical spectroscopy obtained in the context of the MiMeS survey of massive stars. We performed spectral modelling with the code CMFGEN. We determined the surface properties of the sample stars, with special emphasis on abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Results: Most of our sample stars have initial masses in the range of 20 to 50 M⊙. We show that nitrogen is more enriched and carbon and oxygen are more depleted in supergiants than in dwarfs, with giants showing intermediate degrees of mixing. CNO abundances are observed in the range of values predicted by nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. More massive stars, within a given luminosity class, appear to be more chemically enriched than lower mass stars. We compare our results with predictions of three types of evolutionary models and show that for two sets of models, 80% of our sample can be explained by stellar evolution including rotation. The effect of magnetism on surface abundances is unconstrained. Conclusions: Our study indicates that in the 20-50 M⊙ mass range, the surface chemical abundances of most single O stars in the Galaxy are fairly well accounted for by stellar evolution of rotating stars. Based on observations obtained at 1) the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut

  1. Magnetic Monopole Mass Bounds from Heavy-Ion Collisions and Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Oliver; Rajantie, Arttu

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic monopoles, if they exist, would be produced amply in strong magnetic fields and high temperatures via the thermal Schwinger process. Such circumstances arise in heavy-ion collisions and in neutron stars, both of which imply lower bounds on the mass of possible magnetic monopoles. In showing this, we construct the cross section for pair production of magnetic monopoles in heavy-ion collisions, which indicates that they are particularly promising for experimental searches such as MoEDAL.

  2. IUE observations of magnetically controlled stellar winds in the helium peculiar stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Brown, Douglas N.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic periodic variations in the C IV resonance lines of magnetic helium-weak sn stars HD 5737 = alpha Scl, HD 21699 = HR 1063, and HD 79158 = 36 Lyn are discussed. In all three cases, the 1548,50 doublet is the only non-negligibly variable UV spectral feature. The line profiles are consistent with outflow in a jet-like structure. In HD 21699 this outflow arises from one of the magnetic polar regions. Observations of two additional He-wk sn stars do not reveal strong C IV absorption, implying that the UV characteristics of these stars are less uniform than the optical phenomenology.

  3. Magnetic field-related heating instabilities in the surface layers of the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The stability of a magnetized low-density plasma to current-driven filamentation instabilities is investigated and the results are applied to the surface layers of stars. Unlike previous studies, the initial (i.e., precoronal) state of the stellar surface atmosphere is taken to be a low-density, optically thin magnetized plasma in radiative equilibrium. The linear analysis shows that the surface layers of main-sequence stars (including the sun) which are threaded by magnetic fields are unstable; the instabilities considered lead to structuring perpendicular to the ambient magnetic fields. These results suggest that relatively modest surface motions, in conjunction with the presence of magnetic fields, suffice to account for the presence of inhomogeneous chromospheric and coronal plasma overlying a star's surface.

  4. New measurements of photospheric magnetic fields in late-type stars and emerging trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, S. H.; Linsky, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields of late-type stars are measured using the method of Saar et al. (1986). The method includes radiative transfer effects and compensation for line blending; the photospheric magnetic field parameters are derived by comparing observed and theoretical line profiles using an LTE code that includes line saturation and full Zeeman pattern. The preliminary mean active region magnetic field strengths (B) and surface area coverages for 20 stars are discussed. It is observed that there is a trend of increasing B towards the cooler dwarfs stars, and the linear correlation between B and the equipartition value of the magnetic field strength suggests that the photospheric gas pressure determines the photospheric magnetic field strengths. A tendency toward larger filling factors at larger stellar angular velocities is also detected.

  5. MHD Simulations of Magnetized Stars in the Propeller Regime of Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lii, Patrick; Romanova, Marina; Lovelace, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and inhibits matter accretion onto the rapidly rotating star. Instead, the matter accreting through the disc accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected from the system as a wide-angled outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is lower than the accretion rate, the matter will accumulate at the boundary faster than it can be ejected; in this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through an episodic accretion instability in which the episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion of matter onto the star. In addition to the matter dominated wind component, the propeller outflow also exhibits a well-collimated, magnetically-dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the weakly-collimated jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the episodic variability present in their light curves. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.

  6. The complex magnetic field topology of the cool Ap star 49 Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Rusomarov, N.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    49 Cam is a cool magnetic chemically peculiar star that has been noted for showing strong, complex Zeeman linear polarization signatures. This paper describes magnetic and chemical surface maps obtained for 49 Cam using the Invers10 magnetic Doppler imaging code and high-resolution spectropolarimetric data in all four Stokes parameters collected with the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Pic du Midi Observatory. The reconstructed magnetic field maps of 49 Cam show a relatively complex structure. Describing the magnetic field topology in terms of spherical harmonics, we find significant contributions of modes up to ℓ = 3, including toroidal components. Observations cannot be reproduced using a simple low-order multipolar magnetic field structure. 49 Cam exhibits a level of field complexity that has not been seen in magnetic maps of other cool Ap stars. Hence, we concluded that relatively complex magnetic fields are observed in Ap stars at both low and high effective temperatures. In addition to mapping the magnetic field, we also derive surface abundance distributions of nine chemical elements, including Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ce, Pr, Nd and Eu. Comparing these abundance maps with the reconstructed magnetic field geometry, we find no clear relationship of the abundance distributions with the magnetic field for some elements. However, for other elements some distinct patterns are found. We discuss these results in the context of other recent magnetic mapping studies and theoretical predictions of radiative diffusion.

  7. Magnetic Field Measurements of T Tauri Stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2011-03-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution (R ~ 50, 000) infrared K-band echelle spectra of 14 T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We model Zeeman broadening in three magnetically sensitive Ti I lines near 2.2 μm and consistently detect kilogauss-level magnetic fields in the stellar photospheres. The data are consistent in each case with the entire stellar surface being covered with magnetic fields, suggesting that magnetic pressure likely dominates over gas pressure in the photospheres of these stars. These very strong magnetic fields might themselves be responsible for the underproduction of X-ray emission of TTSs relative to what is expected based on main-sequence star calibrations. We combine these results with previous measurements of 14 stars in Taurus and 5 stars in the TW Hydrae association to study the potential variation of magnetic field properties during the first 10 million years of stellar evolution, finding a steady decline in total magnetic flux with age. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and SECYT (Argentina).

  8. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars.

    PubMed

    van Saders, Jennifer L; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Pinsonneault, Marc H; García, Rafael A; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R

    2016-01-14

    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of 'gyrochronology' uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can--unlike existing models--reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes.

  9. Astronomers Find the First 'Wind Nebula' Around a Rare Ultra-Magnetic Neutron Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-21

    Astronomers have discovered a vast cloud of high-energy particles called a wind nebula around a rare ultra-magnetic neutron star, or magnetar, for the first time. The find offers a unique window into the properties, environment and outburst history of magnetars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. A neutron star is the crushed core of a massive star that ran out of fuel, collapsed under its own weight, and exploded as a supernova. Each one compresses the equivalent mass of half a million Earths into a ball just 12 miles (20 kilometers) across, or about the length of New York's Manhattan Island. Neutron stars are most commonly found as pulsars, which produce radio, visible light, X-rays and gamma rays at various locations in their surrounding magnetic fields. When a pulsar spins these regions in our direction, astronomers detect pulses of emission, hence the name. Credit: ESA/XMM-Newton/Younes et al. 2016

  10. Magnetic STAR technology for real-time localization and classification of unexploded ordnance and buried mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, R. F.

    2009-05-01

    A man-portable Magnetic Scalar Triangulation and Ranging ("MagSTAR") technology for Detection, Localization and Classification (DLC) of unexploded ordnance (UXO) has been developed by Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) with support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Proof of principle of the MagSTAR concept and its unique advantages for real-time, high-mobility magnetic sensing applications have been demonstrated by field tests of a prototype man-portable MagSTAR sensor. The prototype comprises: a) An array of fluxgate magnetometers configured as a multi-tensor gradiometer, b) A GPS-synchronized signal processing system. c) Unique STAR algorithms for point-by-point, standoff DLC of magnetic targets. This paper outlines details of: i) MagSTAR theory, ii) Design and construction of the prototype sensor, iii) Signal processing algorithms recently developed to improve the technology's target-discrimination accuracy, iv) Results of field tests of the portable gradiometer system against magnetic dipole targets. The results demonstrate that the MagSTAR technology is capable of very accurate, high-speed localization of magnetic targets at standoff distances of several meters. These advantages could readily be transitioned to a wide range of defense, security and sensing applications to provide faster and more effective DLC of UXO and buried mines.

  11. Magnetic B stars observed with BRITE: Spots, magnetospheres, binarity, and pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Cohen, D. H.; Fletcher, C.; Handler, G.; Huang, L.; Krticka, J.; Neiner, C.; Niemczura, E.; Pablo, H.; Paunzen, E.; Petit, V.; Pigulski, A.; Rivinius, Th.; Rowe, J.; Rybicka, M.; Townsend, R.; Shultz, M.; Silvester, J.; Sikora, J.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic B-type stars exhibit photometric variability due to diverse causes, and consequently on a variety of timescales. In this paper we describe interpretation of BRITE photometry and related ground-based observations of four magnetic B-type systems: ɛ Lupi, τ Sco, a Cen and ɛ CMa.

  12. H-beta line variability in magnetic Ap stars. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madej, J.; Jahn, K.; Stepien, K.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results of photometric measurements of H-beta in several Ap stars are presented. Periodic variations are found certainly in Theta Aur and Alpha (2) CVn, and possibly in Phi Dra. For the other stars upper limits for variations of H-beta are determined. Observed amplitudes are transformed into variations of equivalent width assuming specific profile variations. The results show that variations of equivalent width of H-beta in the stars investigated are of the order of 10 percent or less.

  13. A prevalence of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in the cores of intermediate-mass stars.

    PubMed

    Stello, Dennis; Cantiello, Matteo; Fuller, Jim; Huber, Daniel; García, Rafael A; Bedding, Timothy R; Bildsten, Lars; Aguirre, Victor Silva

    2016-01-21

    Magnetic fields play a part in almost all stages of stellar evolution. Most low-mass stars, including the Sun, show surface fields that are generated by dynamo processes in their convective envelopes. Intermediate-mass stars do not have deep convective envelopes, although 10 per cent exhibit strong surface fields that are presumed to be residuals from the star formation process. These stars do have convective cores that might produce internal magnetic fields, and these fields might survive into later stages of stellar evolution, but information has been limited by our inability to measure the fields below the stellar surface. Here we report the strength of dipolar oscillation modes for a sample of 3,600 red giant stars. About 20 per cent of our sample show mode suppression, by strong magnetic fields in the cores, but this fraction is a strong function of mass. Strong core fields occur only in red giants heavier than 1.1 solar masses, and the occurrence rate is at least 50 per cent for intermediate-mass stars (1.6-2.0 solar masses), indicating that powerful dynamos were very common in the previously convective cores of these stars.

  14. Asteroseismology can reveal strong internal magnetic fields in red giant stars.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jim; Cantiello, Matteo; Stello, Dennis; Garcia, Rafael A; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-10-23

    Internal stellar magnetic fields are inaccessible to direct observations, and little is known about their amplitude, geometry, and evolution. We demonstrate that strong magnetic fields in the cores of red giant stars can be identified with asteroseismology. The fields can manifest themselves via depressed dipole stellar oscillation modes, arising from a magnetic greenhouse effect that scatters and traps oscillation-mode energy within the core of the star. The Kepler satellite has observed a few dozen red giants with depressed dipole modes, which we interpret as stars with strongly magnetized cores. We find that field strengths larger than ~10(5) gauss may produce the observed depression, and in one case we infer a minimum core field strength of ≈10(7) gauss. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. The Of?p stars of the Magellanic Clouds: Are they strongly magnetic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Nazé, Y.; Bagnulo, S.; Puls, J.

    2018-01-01

    All known Galactic Of?p stars have been shown to host strong, organized, magnetic fields. Recently, five Of?p stars have been discovered in the Magellanic Clouds. They posses photometric (Nazé et al., 2015) and spectroscopic (Walborn et al., 2015) variability compatible with the Oblique Rotator Model (ORM). However, their magnetic fields have yet to be directly detected. We have developed an algorithm allowing for the synthesis of photometric observables based on the Analytic Dynamical Magnetosphere (ADM) model by Owocki et al. (2016). We apply our model to OGLE photometry in order to constrain their magnetic geometries and surface dipole strengths. We predict that the field strengths for some of theses candidate extra-Galactic magnetic stars may be within the detection limits of the FORS2 instrument

  16. Stability analysis of magnetized neutron stars - a semi-analytic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrik, Marlene; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2017-04-01

    We implement a semi-analytic approach for stability analysis, addressing the ongoing uncertainty about stability and structure of neutron star magnetic fields. Applying the energy variational principle, a model system is displaced from its equilibrium state. The related energy density variation is set up analytically, whereas its volume integration is carried out numerically. This facilitates the consideration of more realistic neutron star characteristics within the model compared to analytical treatments. At the same time, our method retains the possibility to yield general information about neutron star magnetic field and composition structures that are likely to be stable. In contrast to numerical studies, classes of parametrized systems can be studied at once, finally constraining realistic configurations for interior neutron star magnetic fields. We apply the stability analysis scheme on polytropic and non-barotropic neutron stars with toroidal, poloidal and mixed fields testing their stability in a Newtonian framework. Furthermore, we provide the analytical scheme for dropping the Cowling approximation in an axisymmetric system and investigate its impact. Our results confirm the instability of simple magnetized neutron star models as well as a stabilization tendency in the case of mixed fields and stratification. These findings agree with analytical studies whose spectrum of model systems we extend by lifting former simplifications.

  17. Magnetic cycles and rotation periods of late-type stars from photometric time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Mascareño, A.; Rebolo, R.; González Hernández, J. I.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the photometric modulation induced by magnetic activity cycles and study the relationship between rotation period and activity cycle(s) in late-type (FGKM) stars. Methods: We analysed light curves, spanning up to nine years, of 125 nearby stars provided by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). The sample is mainly composed of low-activity, main-sequence late-A to mid-M-type stars. We performed a search for short (days) and long-term (years) periodic variations in the photometry. We modelled the light curves with combinations of sinusoids to measure the properties of these periodic signals. To provide a better statistical interpretation of our results, we complement our new results with results from previous similar works. Results: We have been able to measure long-term photometric cycles of 47 stars, out of which 39 have been derived with false alarm probabilities (FAP) of less than 0.1 per cent. Rotational modulation was also detected and rotational periods were measured in 36 stars. For 28 stars we have simultaneous measurements of activity cycles and rotational periods, 17 of which are M-type stars. We measured both photometric amplitudes and periods from sinusoidal fits. The measured cycle periods range from 2 to 14 yr with photometric amplitudes in the range of 5-20 mmag. We found that the distribution of cycle lengths for the different spectral types is similar, as the mean cycle is 9.5 yr for F-type stars, 6.7 yr for G-type stars, 8.5 yr for K-type stars, 6.0 yr for early M-type stars, and 7.1 yr for mid-M-type stars. On the other hand, the distribution of rotation periods is completely different, trending to longer periods for later type stars, from a mean rotation of 8.6 days for F-type stars to 85.4 days in mid-M-type stars. The amplitudes induced by magnetic cycles and rotation show a clear correlation. A trend of photometric amplitudes with rotation period is also outlined in the data. The amplitudes of the photometric variability

  18. New Insights into the Puzzling P-Cygni Profiles of Magnetic Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erba, Christiana; David-Uraz, Alexandre; Petit, Véronique; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic massive stars comprise approximately 10% of the total OB star population. Modern spectropolarimetry shows these stars host strong, stable, large-scale, often nearly dipolar surface magnetic fields of 1 kG or more. These global magnetic fields trap and deflect outflowing stellar wind material, forming an anisotropic magnetosphere that can be probed with wind-sensitive UV resonance lines. Recent HST UV spectra of NGC 1624-2, the most magnetic O star observed to date, show atypically unsaturated P-Cygni profiles in the Civ resonant doublet, as well as a distinct variation with rotational phase. We examine the effect of non-radial, magnetically-channeled wind outflow on P-Cygni line formation, using a Sobolev Exact Integration (SEI) approach for direct comparison with HST UV spectra of NGC 1624-2. We demonstrate that the addition of a magnetic field desaturates the absorption trough of the P-Cygni profiles, but further efforts are needed to fully account for the observed line profile variation. Our study thus provides a first step toward a broader understanding of how strong magnetic fields affect mass loss diagnostics from UV lines.

  19. Dynamical onset of superconductivity and retention of magnetic fields in cooling neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.; Andersson, Nils; Graber, Vanessa

    2017-12-01

    A superconductor of paired protons is thought to form in the core of neutron stars soon after their birth. Minimum energy conditions suggest magnetic flux is expelled from the superconducting region due to the Meissner effect, such that the neutron star core is largely devoid of magnetic fields for some nuclear equation of state and proton pairing models. We show via neutron star cooling simulations that the superconducting region expands faster than flux is expected to be expelled because cooling timescales are much shorter than timescales of magnetic field diffusion. Thus magnetic fields remain in the bulk of the neutron star core for at least 106-107yr . We estimate the size of flux free regions at 107yr to be ≲100 m for a magnetic field of 1011G and possibly smaller for stronger field strengths. For proton pairing models that are narrow, magnetic flux may be completely expelled from a thin shell of approximately the above size after 105yr . This shell may insulate lower conductivity outer layers, where magnetic fields can diffuse and decay faster, from fields maintained in the highly conducting deep core.

  20. Magnetic field geometries of two slowly rotating Ap/Bp stars: HD 12288 and HD 14437

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Kudryavtsev, D.; Romanyuk, I. I.; Landstreet, J. D.; Mathys, G.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper we report magnetic field models and basic physical parameters for the slowly rotating Ap/Bp stars HD 12288 and HD 14437. Using new and previously published mean longitudinal magnetic field, mean magnetic field modulus, and hipparcos photometric measurements, we have inferred the rotational periods of both stars (HD 12288: P_rot=34.9d +/- 0.2d HD 14437: P_rot=26.87d +/- 0.02d). From the magnetic measurements we have determined the best-fit decentred magnetic dipole configurations. For HD 12288, we find that the field geometry is consistent with a centred dipole, while for HD 14437 a large decentring parameter (a=0.23 R_*) is inferred. Both stars show one angle in the ambiguous (i,beta ) couplet which is smaller than about 20degr . This is consistent with the observation of Landstreet & Mathys (2000), who point out that almost all magnetic Ap stars with periods longer than about 30 days exhibit magnetic fields aligned with their rotational axis.

  1. A universal relation for the propeller mechanisms in magnetic rotating stars at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Sergio; Stella, Luigi; Mereghetti, Sandro; de Martino, Domitilla

    2018-02-01

    Accretion of matter onto a magnetic, rotating object can be strongly affected by the interaction with its magnetic field. This occurs in a variety of astrophysical settings involving young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and neutron stars. As matter is endowed with angular momentum, its inflow toward the star is often mediated by an accretion disc. The pressure of matter and that originating from the stellar magnetic field balance at the magnetospheric radius: at smaller distances the motion of matter is dominated by the magnetic field, and funnelling towards the magnetic poles ensues. However, if the star, and thus its magnetosphere, is fast spinning, most of the inflowing matter will be halted at the magnetospheric radius by centrifugal forces, resulting in a characteristic reduction of the accretion luminosity. The onset of this mechanism, called the propeller, has been widely adopted to interpret a distinctive knee in the decaying phase of the light curve of several transiently accreting X-ray pulsar systems. By comparing the observed luminosity at the knee for different classes of objects with the value predicted by accretion theory on the basis of the independently measured magnetic field, spin period, mass, and radius of the star, we disclose here a general relation for the onset of the propeller which spans about eight orders of magnitude in spin period and ten in magnetic moment. The parameter-dependence and normalisation constant that we determine are in agreement with basic accretion theory.

  2. MAGNETIC CYCLES IN A DYNAMO SIMULATION OF FULLY CONVECTIVE M-STAR PROXIMA CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Wolk, Scott J.; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2016-12-20

    The recent discovery of an Earth-like exoplanet around Proxima Centauri has shined a spot light on slowly rotating fully convective M-stars. When such stars rotate rapidly (period ≲20 days), they are known to generate very high levels of activity that is powered by a magnetic field much stronger than the solar magnetic field. Recent theoretical efforts are beginning to understand the dynamo process that generates such strong magnetic fields. However, the observational and theoretical landscape remains relatively uncharted for fully convective M-stars that rotate slowly. Here, we present an anelastic dynamo simulation designed to mimic some of the physical characteristicsmore » of Proxima Centauri, a representative case for slowly rotating fully convective M-stars. The rotating convection spontaneously generates differential rotation in the convection zone that drives coherent magnetic cycles where the axisymmetric magnetic field repeatedly changes polarity at all latitudes as time progress. The typical length of the “activity” cycle in the simulation is about nine years, in good agreement with the recently proposed activity cycle length of about seven years for Proxima Centauri. Comparing our results with earlier work, we hypothesis that the dynamo mechanism undergoes a fundamental change in nature as fully convective stars spin down with age.« less

  3. ON THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF PULSARS WITH REALISTIC NEUTRON STAR CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, R.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, R., E-mail: riccardo.belvedere@icra.it, E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it, E-mail: ruffini@icra.it

    2015-01-20

    We have recently developed a neutron star model fulfilling global and not local charge neutrality, both in the static and in the uniformly rotating cases. The model is described by the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations, in which all fundamental interactions are accounted for in the framework of general relativity and relativistic mean field theory. Uniform rotation is introduced following Hartle's formalism. We show that the use of realistic parameters of rotating neutron stars, obtained from numerical integration of the self-consistent axisymmetric general relativistic equations of equilibrium, leads to values of the magnetic field and radiation efficiency of pulsars that are verymore » different from estimates based on fiducial parameters that assume a neutron star mass M = 1.4 M {sub ☉}, radius R = 10 km, and moment of inertia I = 10{sup 45} g cm{sup 2}. In addition, we compare and contrast the magnetic field inferred from the traditional Newtonian rotating magnetic dipole model with respect to the one obtained from its general relativistic analog, which takes into account the effect of the finite size of the source. We apply these considerations to the specific high-magnetic field pulsar class and show that, indeed, all of these sources can be described as canonical pulsars driven by the rotational energy of the neutron star, and have magnetic fields lower than the quantum critical field for any value of the neutron star mass.« less

  4. Connecting the large- and the small-scale magnetic fields of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, L. T.; Jardine, M. M.; Mackay, D. H.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    A key question in understanding the observed magnetic field topologies of cool stars is the link between the small- and the large-scale magnetic field and the influence of the stellar parameters on the magnetic field topology. We examine various simulated stars to connect the small-scale with the observable large-scale field. The highly resolved 3D simulations we used couple a flux transport model with a non-potential coronal model using a magnetofrictional technique. The surface magnetic field of these simulations is decomposed into spherical harmonics which enables us to analyse the magnetic field topologies on a wide range of length scales and to filter the large-scale magnetic field for a direct comparison with the observations. We show that the large-scale field of the self-consistent simulations fits the observed solar-like stars and is mainly set up by the global dipolar field and the large-scale properties of the flux pattern, e.g. the averaged latitudinal position of the emerging small-scale field and its global polarity pattern. The stellar parameters flux emergence rate, differential rotation and meridional flow affect the large-scale magnetic field topology. An increased flux emergence rate increases the magnetic flux in all field components and an increased differential rotation increases the toroidal field fraction by decreasing the poloidal field. The meridional flow affects the distribution of the magnetic energy across the spherical harmonic modes.

  5. Doppler-Zeeman mapping of the magnetic CP star HD 215441

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, V. L.; Vasilchenko, D. V.; Stepanov, V. V.; Tsymbal, V. V.

    1997-07-01

    The method of Vasilchenko et al. (1996) is used to obtain a Doppler-Zeeman map of the magnetic CP star HD 215441. The magnetic field is approximated by a magnetic dipole that is arbitrarily shifted from the star center. The solution of the inverse problem yields the dipole parameters and the maps of Si, Ti, Cr, and Fe abundance anomalies; the coordinates of local magnetic vectors on the star surface are computed. A comparison of the distribution of abundance anomalies and the magnetic-field configuration reveals that in the region where the magnetic-field lines are vertical (near the magnetic pole), Si, Ti and Cr are highly deficient, while the Fe enhancement is strongest. In the regions where the magnetic-field lines are horizontal (near the magnetic equator), Si, Ti and Cr show the greatest overabundance. In these regions, the Fe abundance is also slightly enhanced and exhibits, as it were, a secondary maximum. The factors that limit the accuracy of Doppler-Zeeman mapping are reviewed.

  6. Magnetic braking in young late-type stars. The effect of polar spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aibéo, A.; Ferreira, J. M.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2007-10-01

    Context: The existence of rapidly rotating cool stars in young clusters implies a reduction of angular momentum loss rate for a certain period of the star's early life. Recently, the concentration of magnetic flux near the poles of these stars has been proposed as an alternative mechanism to dynamo saturation in order to explain the saturation of angular momentum loss. Aims: In this work we study the effect of magnetic surface flux distribution on the coronal field topology and angular momentum loss rate. We investigate if magnetic flux concentration towards the pole is a reasonable alternative to dynamo saturation. Methods: We construct a 1D wind model and also apply a 2-D self-similar analytical model, to evaluate how the surface field distribution affects the angular momentum loss of the rotating star. Results: From the 1D model we find that, in a magnetically dominated low corona, the concentrated polar surface field rapidly expands to regions of low magnetic pressure resulting in a coronal field with small latitudinal variation. We also find that the angular momentum loss rate due to a uniform field or a concentrated field with equal total magnetic flux is very similar. From the 2D wind model we show that there are several relevant factors to take into account when studying the angular momentum loss from a star. In particular, we show that the inclusion of force balance across the field in a wind model is fundamental if realistic conclusions are to be drawn from the effect of non-uniform surface field distribution on magnetic braking. This model predicts that a magnetic field concentrated at high latitudes leads to larger Alfvén radii and larger braking rates than a smoother field distribution. Conclusions: From the results obtained, we argue that the magnetic surface field distribution towards the pole does not directly limit the braking efficiency of the wind.

  7. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. I. Stars with a radiative core

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden.gr@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu

    2013-12-20

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M {sub ☉}—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly strongermore » than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.« less

  8. Detection of magnetic field in the B2 star ρ Ophiuchi A with ESO FORS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Fossati, L.; Castro Rodriguez, N.; Oskinova, L.; Wolk, S. J.

    2018-02-01

    Circumstantial evidence suggests that magnetism and enhanced X-ray emission are likely correlated in early B-type stars: similar fractions of them ( 10%) are strong and hard X-ray sources and possess strong magnetic fields. It is also known that some B-type stars have spots on their surface. Yet up to now no X-ray activity associated with spots on early-type stars was detected. In this Letter we report the detection of a magnetic field on the B2V star ρ Oph A. Previously, we assessed that the X-ray activity of this star is associated with a surface spot, herewith we establish its magnetic origin. We analyze spectra of ρ Oph A obtained with the FORS2 spectrograph at ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at two epochs, and detect a longitudinal component of the magnetic field of the order of 500 G in one of the datasets. The detection of the magnetic field only at one epoch can be explained by stellar rotation which is also invoked to explain observed periodic X-ray activity. From archival HARPS ESO VLT high resolution spectra we derived the fundamental stellar parameters of ρ Oph A and further constrained its age. We conclude that ρ Oph A provides strong evidence for the presence of active X-ray emitting regions on young magnetized early type stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 099.D-0067(A) and 078.C-0403(A).

  9. The Influence of Hyperons and Strong Magnetic Field in Neutron Star Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, L. L.; Menezes, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Neutron stars are among of the most exotic objects in the universe and constitute a unique laboratory to study nuclear matter above the nuclear saturation density. In this work, we study the equation of state (EoS) of the nuclear matter within a relativistic model subject to a strong magnetic field. We then apply this EoS to study and describe some of the physical characteristics of neutron stars, especially the mass-radius relation and chemical compositions. To study the influence of the magnetic field and the hyperons in the stellar interior, we consider altogether four solutions: two different magnetic field to obtain a weak and a strong influence; and two configurations: a family of neutron stars formed only by protons, electrons, and neutrons and a family formed by protons, electrons, neutrons, muons, and hyperons. The limit and the validity of the results found are discussed with some care. In all cases, the particles that constitute the neutron star are in β equilibrium and zero total net charge. Our work indicates that the effect of a strong magnetic field has to be taken into account in the description of magnetars, mainly if we believe that there are hyperons in their interior, in which case the influence of the magnetic field can increase the mass by more than 10 %. We have also seen that although a magnetar can reach 2.48 M ⊙, a natural explanation of why we do not know pulsars with masses above 2.0 M ⊙ arises. We also discuss how the magnetic field affects the strangeness fraction in some standard neutron star masses, and to conclude our paper, we revisit the direct Urca process related to the cooling of the neutron stars and show how it is affected by the hyperons and the magnetic field.

  10. The magnetic fields of Ap stars from high resolution Stokes IQUV spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, James

    In this thesis we describe the acquisition of high resolution time resolved spectropolarimetric observations of 7 (bright and well understood) Ap stars in Stokes IQUV using the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the 2m Telescope Bernard Lyot at Pic du Midi Observatory. We compare these observations with those obtained a decade earlier using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter to confirm consistency with the older data and provide evidence that both ESPaDOnS and Narval perform as expected in all Stokes parameters. We demonstrate that our refined longitudinal magnetic field and linear polarisation measurements for these 7 stars are of much greater quality than was previously obtained with MuSiCoS and that the global magnetic properties of these stars are stable over a long timescale. The ultimate aim of these new data is to provide a basis from which mapping of both the magnetic field and abundance structures can be performed on our target stars. We then describe magnetic field mapping of the Ap star alpha 2 CVn using these data. This mapping is achieved with the use of tomographic inversion of Doppler-broadened Stokes IQUV profiles of a large variety of spectral lines using the INVERS10 Magnetic Doppler imaging code. We show that not only are the new magnetic field maps of alpha 2 CVn consistent with a previous generation of maps of alpha 2 CVn, but that the same magnetic field topology can be derived from a variety of atomic line sets. This indicates that the magnetic field we derive for alpha2 CVn is a realistic representation of the star's true magnetic topology. Finally we investigate surface abundance structures for alpha 2 CVn for various chemical elements. We investigate the correlation between the location of these abundance features and the magnetic field of alpha 2 CVn. We will demonstrate that whilst the magnetic field plays a role in the formation of abundance structures, the current theoretical framework does

  11. ACTIVITY ANALYSES FOR SOLAR-TYPE STARS OBSERVED WITH KEPLER. I. PROXIES OF MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Yun, Duo, E-mail: hehan@nao.cas.cn

    2015-11-15

    Light curves of solar-type stars often show gradual fluctuations due to rotational modulation by magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on stellar surfaces. Two quantitative measures of modulated light curves are employed as the proxies of magnetic activity for solar-type stars observed with Kepler telescope. The first is named autocorrelation index i{sub AC}, which describes the degree of periodicity of the light curve; the second is the effective fluctuation range of the light curve R{sub eff}, which reflects the depth of rotational modulation. The two measures are complementary and depict different aspects of magnetic activities on solar-type stars. By using themore » two proxies i{sub AC} and R{sub eff}, we analyzed activity properties of two carefully selected solar-type stars observed with Kepler (Kepler ID: 9766237 and 10864581), which have distinct rotational periods (14.7 versus 6.0 days). We also applied the two measures to the Sun for a comparative study. The result shows that both the measures can reveal cyclic activity variations (referred to as i{sub AC}-cycle and R{sub eff}-cycle) on the two Kepler stars and the Sun. For the Kepler star with the faster rotation rate, i{sub AC}-cycle and R{sub eff}-cycle are in the same phase, while for the Sun (slower rotator), they are in the opposite phase. By comparing the solar light curve with simultaneous photospheric magnetograms, it is identified that the magnetic feature that causes the periodic light curve during solar minima is the faculae of the enhanced network region, which can also be a candidate of magnetic features that dominate the periodic light curves on the two Kepler stars.« less

  12. The evolution of stable magnetic fields in stars: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestel, Leon; Moss, David

    2010-07-01

    The absence of a rigorous proof of the existence of dynamically stable, large-scale magnetic fields in radiative stars has been for many years a missing element in the fossil field theory for the magnetic Ap/Bp stars. Recent numerical simulations, by Braithwaite & Spruit and Braithwaite & Nordlund, have largely filled this gap, demonstrating convincingly that coherent global scale fields can survive for times of the order of the main-sequence lifetimes of A stars. These dynamically stable configurations take the form of magnetic tori, with linked poloidal and toroidal fields, that slowly rise towards the stellar surface. This paper studies a simple analytical model of such a torus, designed to elucidate the physical processes that govern its evolution. It is found that one-dimensional numerical calculations reproduce some key features of the numerical simulations, with radiative heat transfer, Archimedes' principle, Lorentz force and Ohmic decay all playing significant roles.

  13. General relativistic treatment of the thermal, magnetic and rotational evolution of isolated neutron stars with crustal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, D.; Geppert, U.; Zannias, T.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate the thermal, magnetic and rotational evolution of isolated neutron stars assuming that the dipolar magnetic field is confined to the crust. Our treatment, for the first time, uses a fully general relativistic formalism not only for the thermal but also for the magnetic part, and includes partial general relativistic effects in the rotational part. Due to the fact that the combined evolution depends crucially upon the compactness of the star, three different equations of state have been employed in the calculations. In the absence of general relativistic effects, while upon increasing compactness a decrease of the crust thickness takes place leading into an accelerating field decay, the inclusion of general relativistic effects intend to "decelerate this acceleration". As a consequence we find that, within the crustal field hypothesis, a given equation of state is compatible with the observed distribution of pulsar periods P and period derivative &mathaccent "705Frelax dot; provided the initial field strength and current location as well as the magnitude of the impurity content are appropriately constrained. Finally, we access the flexibility of the soft, medium and stiff classes of equations of state as candidates in describing the state of the matter in the neutron star interiors. The comparison of our model calculations with observations, together with the consideration of independent information about neutron star evolution, suggests that a not too soft equation of state describes neutron star interiors and its cooling proceeds along the `standard' scenario.

  14. Activity Analyses for Solar-type Stars Observed with Kepler. II. Magnetic Feature versus Flare Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Mei; Mehrabi, Ahmad; Yan, Yan; Yun, Duo

    2018-05-01

    The light curves of solar-type stars present both periodic fluctuation and flare spikes. The gradual periodic fluctuation is interpreted as the rotational modulation of magnetic features on the stellar surface and is used to deduce magnetic feature activity properties. The flare spikes in light curves are used to derive flare activity properties. In this paper, we analyze the light curve data of three solar-type stars (KIC 6034120, KIC 3118883, and KIC 10528093) observed with Kepler space telescope and investigate the relationship between their magnetic feature activities and flare activities. The analysis shows that: (1) both the magnetic feature activity and the flare activity exhibit long-term variations as the Sun does; (2) unlike the Sun, the long-term variations of magnetic feature activity and flare activity are not in phase with each other; (3) the analysis of star KIC 6034120 suggests that the long-term variations of magnetic feature activity and flare activity have a similar cycle length. Our analysis and results indicate that the magnetic features that dominate rotational modulation and the flares possibly have different source regions, although they may be influenced by the magnetic field generated through a same dynamo process.

  15. Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A

    2014-11-06

    Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young.

  16. HD 66051: the first eclipsing binary hosting an early-type magnetic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Johnston, C.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    Early-type magnetic stars are rarely found in close binary systems. No such objects were known in eclipsing binaries prior to this study. Here we investigated the eclipsing, spectroscopic double-lined binary HD 66051, which exhibits out-of-eclipse photometric variations suggestive of surface brightness inhomogeneities typical of early-type magnetic stars. Using a new set of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations, we discovered a weak magnetic field on the primary and found intrinsic, element-dependent variability in its spectral lines. The magnetic field structure of the primary is dominated by a nearly axisymmetric dipolar component with a polar field strength Bd ≈ 600 G and an inclination with respect to the rotation axis of βd = 13°. A weaker quadrupolar component is also likely to be present. We combined the radial velocity measurements derived from our spectra with archival optical photometry to determine fundamental masses (3.16 and 1.75 M⊙) and radii (2.78 and 1.39 R⊙) with a 1-3% precision. We also obtained a refined estimate of the effective temperatures (13000 and 9000 K) and studied chemical abundances for both components with the help of disentangled spectra. We demonstrate that the primary component of HD 66051 is a typical late-B magnetic chemically peculiar star with a non-uniform surface chemical abundance distribution. It is not an HgMn-type star as suggested by recent studies. The secondary is a metallic-line star showing neither a strong, global magnetic field nor intrinsic spectral variability. Fundamental parameters provided by our work for this interesting system open unique possibilities for probing interior structure, studying atomic diffusion, and constraining binary star evolution.

  17. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  18. Solution of Einsteins Equation for Deformation of a Magnetized Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizaldy, R.; Sulaksono, A.

    2018-04-01

    We studied the effect of very large and non-uniform magnetic field existed in the neutron star on the deformation of the neutron star. We used in our analytical calculation, multipole expansion of the tensor metric and the momentum-energy tensor in Legendre polynomial expansion up to the quadrupole order. In this way we obtain the solutions of Einstein’s equation with the correction factors due to the magnetic field are taken into account. We obtain from our numerical calculation that the degree of deformation (ellipticity) is increased when the the mass is decreased.

  19. On the origin of jets from disc-accreting magnetized stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, Richard V. E.; Romanova, Marina M.; Lii, Patrick; Dyda, Sergei

    2014-09-01

    A brief review of the origin of jets from disc-accreting rotating magnetized stars is given. In most models, the interior of the disc is characterized by a turbulent viscosity and magnetic diffusivity ("alpha" discs) whereas the coronal region outside the disc is treated using ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Extensive MHD simulations have established the occurrence of long-lasting outflows in the case of both slowly and rapidly rotating stars. (1) Slowly rotating stars exhibit a new type of outflow, conical winds. Conical winds are generated when stellar magnetic flux is bunched up by the inward motion of the accretion disc. Near their region of origin, the winds have a thin conical shell shape with half opening angle of ˜30°. At large distances, their toroidal magnetic field collimates the outflow forming current carrying, matter dominated jets. These winds are predominantly magnetically and not centrifugally driven. About 10-30% of the disc matter from the inner disc is launched in the conical wind. Conical winds may be responsible for episodic as well as long lasting outflows in different types of stars. (2) Rapidly rotating stars in the "propeller regime" exhibit two-component outflows. One component is similar to the matter dominated conical wind, where a large fraction of the disc matter may be ejected in this regime. The second component is a high-velocity, low-density magnetically dominated axial jet where matter flows along the open polar field lines of the star. The axial jet has a mass flux of about 10% that of the conical wind, but its energy flux, due to the Poynting flux, can be as large as for the conical wind. The jet's magnetically dominated angular momentum flux causes the star to spin down rapidly. Propeller-driven outflows may be responsible for protostellar jets and their rapid spin-down. When the artificial requirement of symmetry about the equatorial plane is dropped, the conical winds are found to come alternately from one side of the

  20. A MAGNETIC RIBBON MODEL FOR STAR-FORMING FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Auddy, Sayantan; Basu, Shantanu; Kudoh, Takahiro, E-mail: sauddy3@uwo.ca, E-mail: basu@uwo.ca, E-mail: kudoh@nagasaki-u.ac.jp

    2016-11-01

    We develop a magnetic ribbon model for molecular cloud filaments. These result from turbulent compression in a molecular cloud in which the background magnetic field sets a preferred direction. We argue that this is a natural model for filaments and is based on the interplay between turbulence, strong magnetic fields, and gravitationally driven ambipolar diffusion, rather than pure gravity and thermal pressure. An analytic model for the formation of magnetic ribbons that is based on numerical simulations is used to derive a lateral width of a magnetic ribbon. This differs from the thickness along the magnetic field direction, which ismore » essentially the Jeans scale. We use our model to calculate a synthetic observed relation between apparent width in projection versus observed column density. The relationship is relatively flat, similar to observations, and unlike the simple expectation based on a Jeans length argument.« less

  1. Relativistic MHD modeling of magnetized neutron stars, pulsar winds, and their nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, L.; Pili, A. G.; Olmi, B.; Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron stars are among the most fascinating astrophysical sources, being characterized by strong gravity, densities about the nuclear one or even above, and huge magnetic fields. Their observational signatures can be extremely diverse across the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from the periodic and low-frequency signals of radio pulsars, up to the abrupt high-energy gamma-ray flares of magnetars, where energies of ∼ {10}46 {erg} are released in a few seconds. Fast-rotating and highly magnetized neutron stars are expected to launch powerful relativistic winds, whose interaction with the supernova remnants gives rise to the non-thermal emission of pulsar wind nebulae, which are known cosmic accelerators of electrons and positrons up to PeV energies. In the extreme cases of proto-magnetars (magnetic fields of ∼ {10}15 G and millisecond periods), a similar mechanism is likely to provide a viable engine for the still mysterious gamma-ray bursts. The key ingredient in all these spectacular manifestations of neutron stars is the presence of strong magnetic fields in their constituent plasma. Here we will present recent updates of a couple of state-of-the-art numerical investigations by the high-energy astrophysics group in Arcetri: a comprehensive modeling of the steady-state axisymmetric structure of rotating magnetized neutron stars in general relativity, and dynamical 3D MHD simulations of relativistic pulsar winds and their associated nebulae.

  2. Effect of magnetic fields on the r-modes of slowly rotating relativistic neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirenti, Cecilia; Skákala, Jozef

    2013-11-01

    We study here the r-modes in the Cowling approximation of a slowly rotating and magnetized neutron star with a poloidal magnetic field, where we neglect any deformations of the spherical symmetry of the star. We were able to quantify the influence of the magnetic field in both the oscillation frequency σr of the r-modes and the growth time tgw of the gravitational radiation emission. We conclude that magnetic fields of the order 1015G at the center of the star are necessary to produce any changes. Our results for σr show a decrease of up to ˜5% in the frequency with increasing magnetic field, with a B2 dependence for rotation rates Ω/ΩK≳0.07 and B4 for Ω/ΩK≲0.07. (These results should be trusted only within the slow rotation approximation, and we kept Ω/ΩK<0.3.) For tgw, we find that it is approximately 30% smaller than previous Newtonian results for nonmagnetized stars, which would mean a faster growth of the emission of gravitational radiation. The effect of the magnetic field in tgw causes a nonmonotonic effect that first slightly increases tgw and then decreases it further by another ˜5%. (The value of the magnetic field for which tgw starts to decrease depends on the rotational frequency, but it is generally around 1015G.) Future work should be dedicated to the study of the effect of viscosity in the presence of magnetic fields, in order to establish the magnetic correction to the instability window.

  3. Magnetic suppression of turbulence and the star formation activity of molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Körtgen, Bastian; Banerjee, Robi; Hartmann, Lee

    2018-03-01

    We present magnetohydrodynamic simulations aimed at studying the effect of the magnetic suppression of turbulence (generated through various instabilities during the formation of molecular clouds by converging) on the subsequent star formation (SF) activity. We study four magnetically supercritical models with magnetic field strengths B = 0, 1, 2, and 3 μG (corresponding to mass-to-flux ratios of ∞, 4.76, 2.38, and 1.59 times the critical value), with the magnetic field, initially being aligned with the flows. We find that, for increasing magnetic field strength, the clouds formed tend to be more massive, denser, less turbulent, and with higher SF activity. This causes the onset of SF activity in the non-magnetic or more weakly magnetized cases to be delayed by a few Myr in comparison to the more strongly magnetized cases. We attribute this behaviour to the suppression of the non-linear thin shell instability (NTSI) by the magnetic field, previously found by Heitsch and coworkers. This result is contrary to the standard notion that the magnetic field provides support to the clouds, thus reducing their star formation rate. However, our result is a completely non-linear one, and could not be foreseen from simple linear considerations.

  4. MAGNETIC GAMES BETWEEN A PLANET AND ITS HOST STAR: THE KEY ROLE OF TOPOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Réville, V.

    Magnetic interactions between a star and a close-in planet are postulated to be a source of enhanced emissions and to play a role in the secular evolution of the orbital system. Close-in planets generally orbit in the sub-alfvénic region of the stellar wind, which leads to efficient transfers of energy and angular momentum between the star and the planet. We model the magnetic interactions occurring in close-in star–planet systems with three-dimensional, global, compressible magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of a planet orbiting in a self-consistent stellar wind. We focus on the cases of magnetized planets and explore three representative magnetic configurations. Themore » Poynting flux originating from the magnetic interactions is an energy source for enhanced emissions in star–planet systems. Our results suggest a simple geometrical explanation for ubiquitous on/off enhanced emissions associated with close-in planets, and confirm that the Poynting fluxes can reach powers of the order of 10{sup 19} W. Close-in planets are also shown to migrate due to magnetic torques for sufficiently strong stellar wind magnetic fields. The topology of the interaction significantly modifies the shape of the magnetic obstacle that leads to magnetic torques. As a consequence, the torques can vary by at least an order of magnitude as the magnetic topology of the interaction varies.« less

  5. The magnetic variability of the β cep star ξ1 CMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, S. P.; Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Ilyin, I.

    2018-07-01

    ξ1 CMa is a known magnetic star showing rotationally modulated magnetic variability with a period of 2.17937 d. However, recent work based on high-resolution spectropolarimetry suggests that the rotation period is longer than 30 years. We compare our new spectropolarimetric measurements with FORS 2 at the VLT acquired on three consecutive nights in 2017 to previous FORS 1/2 measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field strength. The new longitudinal magnetic field values are in the range from 115 to 240 G and do not support the presence of a long period.

  6. STELLAR MAGNETIC CYCLES IN THE SOLAR-LIKE STARS KEPLER-17 AND KEPLER-63

    SciTech Connect

    Estrela, Raissa; Valio, Adriana, E-mail: rlf.estrela@gmail.com, E-mail: avalio@craam.mackenzie.br

    2016-11-01

    The stellar magnetic field plays a crucial role in the star internal mechanisms, as in the interactions with its environment. The study of starspots provides information about the stellar magnetic field and can characterize the cycle. Moreover, the analysis of solar-type stars is also useful to shed light onto the origin of the solar magnetic field. The objective of this work is to characterize the magnetic activity of stars. Here, we studied two solar-type stars, Kepler-17 and Kepler-63, using two methods to estimate the magnetic cycle length. The first one characterizes the spots (radius, intensity, and location) by fitting themore » small variations in the light curve of a star caused by the occultation of a spot during a planetary transit. This approach yields the number of spots present in the stellar surface and the flux deficit subtracted from the star by their presence during each transit. The second method estimates the activity from the excess in the residuals of the transit light curves. This excess is obtained by subtracting a spotless model transit from the light curve and then integrating all the residuals during the transit. The presence of long-term periodicity is estimated in both time series. With the first method, we obtained P {sub cycle} = 1.12 ± 0.16 year (Kepler-17) and P {sub cycle} = 1.27 ± 0.16 year (Kepler-63), and for the second approach the values are 1.35 ± 0.27 year and 1.27 ± 0.12 year, respectively. The results of both methods agree with each other and confirm their robustness.« less

  7. Chromospheric Heating in Late-Type Stars: Evidence for Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Surface Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, Manfred

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent observational and theoretical results concerning the physics of chromospheric heating as inferred from IUE, HST-GHRS and ROSAT data. These results are discussed in conjunction with theoretical model calculations based on acoustic and magnetic heating to infer some conclusions about the magnetic and non-magnetic surface structure of cool luminous stars. I find that most types of stars may exhibit both magnetic and nonmagnetic structures. Candidates for pure nonmagnetic surface structure include M-type giants and super-giants. M-type supergiants are also ideal candidates for identifying direct links between the appearance of hot spots on the stellar surface (perhaps caused by large convective bubbles) and temporarily increased chromospheric heating and emission.

  8. The freedom to choose neutron star magnetic field equilibria: Table 1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Lasky, Paul D.

    2016-12-01

    Our ability to interpret and glean useful information from the large body of observations of strongly magnetized neutron stars rests largely on our theoretical understanding of magnetic field equilibria. We answer the following question: is one free to arbitrarily prescribe magnetic equilibria such that fluid degrees of freedom can balance the equilibrium equations? We examine this question for various models for neutron star matter; from the simplest single-fluid barotrope to more realistic non-barotropic multifluid models with superfluid/superconducting components, muons and entropy. We do this for both axi- and non-axisymmetric equilibria, and in Newtonian gravity and general relativity. We show that, in axisymmetry, the most realistic model allows complete freedom in choosing a magnetic field equilibrium whereas non-axisymmetric equilibria are never completely arbitrary.

  9. Dynamos in asymptotic-giant-branch stars as the origin of magnetic fields shaping planetary nebulae.

    PubMed

    Blackman, E G; Frank, A; Markiel, J A; Thomas, J H; Van Horn, H M

    2001-01-25

    Planetary nebulae are thought to be formed when a slow wind from the progenitor giant star is overtaken by a subsequent fast wind generated as the star enters its white dwarf stage. A shock forms near the boundary between the winds, creating the relatively dense shell characteristic of a planetary nebula. A spherically symmetric wind will produce a spherically symmetric shell, yet over half of known planetary nebulae are not spherical; rather, they are elliptical or bipolar in shape. A magnetic field could launch and collimate a bipolar outflow, but the origin of such a field has hitherto been unclear, and some previous work has even suggested that a field could not be generated. Here we show that an asymptotic-giant-branch (AGB) star can indeed generate a strong magnetic field, having as its origin a dynamo at the interface between the rapidly rotating core and the more slowly rotating envelope of the star. The fields are strong enough to shape the bipolar outflows that produce the observed bipolar planetary nebulae. Magnetic braking of the stellar core during this process may also explain the puzzlingly slow rotation of most white dwarf stars.

  10. Activity and magnetic field structure of the Sun-like planet-hosting star HD 1237

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado-Gómez, J. D.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Grunhut, J.; Fares, R.; Donati, J.-F.; Alecian, E.; Kochukhov, O.; Oksala, M.; Morin, J.; Redfield, S.; Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Jardine, M.; Matt, S.; Petit, P.; Walter, F. M.

    2015-10-01

    We analyse the magnetic activity characteristics of the planet-hosting Sun-like star, HD 1237, using HARPS spectro-polarimetric time-series data. We find evidence of rotational modulation of the magnetic longitudinal field measurements that is consistent with our ZDI analysis with a period of 7 days. We investigate the effect of customising the LSD mask to the line depths of the observed spectrum and find that it has a minimal effect on the shape of the extracted Stokes V profile but does result in a small increase in the S/N (~7%). We find that using a Milne-Eddington solution to describe the local line profile provides a better fit to the LSD profiles in this slowly rotating star, which also affects the recovered ZDI field distribution. We also introduce a fit-stopping criterion based on the information content (entropy) of the ZDI map solution set. The recovered magnetic field maps show a strong (+90 G) ring-like azimuthal field distribution and a complex radial field dominating at mid latitudes (~45 degrees). Similar magnetic field maps are recovered from data acquired five months apart. Future work will investigate how this surface magnetic field distribution affeccts the coronal magnetic field and extended environment around this planet-hosting star.

  11. On the universality of I-Love-Q relations in magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Ciolfi, R.; Pannarale, F.; Rezzolla, L.

    2014-02-01

    Recently, general relations among the quadrupole moment (Q), the moment of inertia (I) and the tidal deformability (Love number) of a neutron star were shown to exist. They are nearly independent of the nuclear matter equation of state and would be of great aid in extracting parameters from observed gravitational waves and in testing general relativity. These relations, however, do not account for strong magnetic fields. We consider this problem by studying the effect of a strong magnetic field on slowly rotating relativistic neutron stars and show that, for simple magnetic field configurations that are purely poloidal or purely toroidal, the relation between Q and I is again nearly universal. However, different magnetic field geometries lead to different I-Q relations, and, in the case of a more realistic twisted-torus magnetic field configuration, the relation depends significantly on the equation of state, losing its universality. I-Love-Q relations must thus be used with very great care, since universality is lost for stars with long spin periods, i.e. P ≳ 10 s, and strong magnetic fields, i.e. B ≳ 1012 G.

  12. Modelling of three long-periodic magnetic CP-stars: HD 2453, HD 12288, and HD 200311

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yurij V.; Gerth, Ewald

    2004-12-01

    Using observational data published as phase curves of the effective magnetic field strength Be(P) and the surface field Bs(P), magnetic models of three stars with long rotational periods are calculated by the Magnetic Charge Distribution method. For two of these stars (HD 2453 and HD 12288), the structure of the magnetic field can be described well by a central dipole model. The third star (HD 200311) is better fitted by a model of a displaced dipole, being decentered by triangle r = 0.08 R along the dipole axis.

  13. The magnetic field structure in high-mass star formation regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jacqueline A.; Schleuning, D.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. Darren; Hildebrand, Roger H.

    1995-01-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of far-IR polarimetric observations, which were made to study the magnetic field structure in the high-mass star formation regions of M42, NGC2024, and W3. These observations were made from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), using the University of Chicago far-IR polarimeter, Stokes.

  14. The evolution of magnetic hot massive stars: Implementation of the quantitative influence of surface magnetic fields in modern models of stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszthelyi, Zsolt; Wade, Gregg A.; Petit, Veronique

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale dipolar surface magnetic fields have been detected in a fraction of OB stars, however only few stellar evolution models of massive stars have considered the impact of these fossil fields. We are performing 1D hydrodynamical model calculations taking into account evolutionary consequences of the magnetospheric-wind interactions in a simplified parametric way. Two effects are considered: i) the global mass-loss rates are reduced due to mass-loss quenching, and ii) the surface angular momentum loss is enhanced due to magnetic braking. As a result of the magnetic mass-loss quenching, the mass of magnetic massive stars remains close to their initial masses. Thus magnetic massive stars - even at Galactic metallicity - have the potential to be progenitors of "heavy" stellar mass black holes. Similarly, at Galactic metallicity, the formation of pair instability supernovae is plausible with a magnetic progenitor.

  15. Magnetic massive stars as progenitors of `heavy' stellar-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, V.; Keszthelyi, Z.; MacInnis, R.; Cohen, D. H.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Thomas, S. L.; Owocki, S. P.; Puls, J.; ud-Doula, A.

    2017-04-01

    The groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves produced by the inspiralling and coalescence of the black hole (BH) binary GW150914 confirms the existence of 'heavy' stellar-mass BHs with masses >25 M⊙. Initial characterization of the system by Abbott et al. supposes that the formation of BHs with such large masses from the evolution of single massive stars is only feasible if the wind mass-loss rates of the progenitors were greatly reduced relative to the mass-loss rates of massive stars in the Galaxy, concluding that heavy BHs must form in low-metallicity (Z ≲ 0.25-0.5 Z⊙) environments. However, strong surface magnetic fields also provide a powerful mechanism for modifying mass-loss and rotation of massive stars, independent of environmental metallicity. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that some heavy BHs, with masses >25 M⊙ such as those inferred to compose GW150914, could be the natural end-point of evolution of magnetic massive stars in a solar-metallicity environment. Using the MESA code, we developed a new grid of single, non-rotating, solar-metallicity evolutionary models for initial zero-age main sequence masses from 40 to 80 M⊙ that include, for the first time, the quenching of the mass-loss due to a realistic dipolar surface magnetic field. The new models predict terminal-age main-sequence (TAMS) masses that are significantly greater than those from equivalent non-magnetic models, reducing the total mass lost by a strongly magnetized 80 M⊙ star during its main-sequence evolution by 20 M⊙. This corresponds approximately to the mass-loss reduction expected from an environment with metallicity Z = 1/30 Z⊙.

  16. MODELING THE RISE OF FIBRIL MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FULLY CONVECTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Maria A.; Browning, Matthew K., E-mail: mweber@astro.ex.ac.uk

    Many fully convective stars exhibit a wide variety of surface magnetism, including starspots and chromospheric activity. The manner by which bundles of magnetic field traverse portions of the convection zone to emerge at the stellar surface is not especially well understood. In the solar context, some insight into this process has been gleaned by regarding the magnetism as consisting partly of idealized thin flux tubes (TFTs). Here we present the results of a large set of TFT simulations in a rotating spherical domain of convective flows representative of a 0.3 M {sub ⊙} main-sequence star. This is the first studymore » to investigate how individual flux tubes in such a star might rise under the combined influence of buoyancy, convection, and differential rotation. A time-dependent hydrodynamic convective flow field, taken from separate 3D simulations calculated with the anelastic equations, impacts the flux tube as it rises. Convective motions modulate the shape of the initially buoyant flux ring, promoting localized rising loops. Flux tubes in fully convective stars have a tendency to rise nearly parallel to the rotation axis. However, the presence of strong differential rotation allows some initially low-latitude flux tubes of moderate strength to develop rising loops that emerge in the near-equatorial region. Magnetic pumping suppresses the global rise of the flux tube most efficiently in the deeper interior and at lower latitudes. The results of these simulations aim to provide a link between dynamo-generated magnetic fields, fluid motions, and observations of starspots for fully convective stars.« less

  17. A dynamo model of magnetic activity in solar-like stars with different rotational velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Kitchatinov, Leonid L.

    We attempt to provide a quantitative theoretical explanation for the observations that Ca II H/K emission and X-ray emission from solar-like stars increase with decreasing Rossby number (i.e., with faster rotation). Assuming that these emissions are caused by magnetic cycles similar to the sunspot cycle, we construct flux transport dynamo models of 1 M{sub ☉} stars rotating with different rotation periods. We first compute the differential rotation and the meridional circulation inside these stars from a mean-field hydrodynamics model. Then these are substituted in our dynamo code to produce periodic solutions. We find that the dimensionless amplitude f{sub m} ofmore » the toroidal flux through the star increases with decreasing rotation period. The observational data can be matched if we assume the emissions to go as the power 3-4 of f{sub m}. Assuming that the Babcock-Leighton mechanism saturates with increasing rotation, we can provide an explanation for the observed saturation of emission at low Rossby numbers. The main failure of our model is that it predicts an increase of the magnetic cycle period with increasing rotation rate, which is the opposite of what is found observationally. Much of our calculations are based on the assumption that the magnetic buoyancy makes the magnetic flux tubes rise radially from the bottom of the convection zone. Taking into account the fact that the Coriolis force diverts the magnetic flux tubes to rise parallel to the rotation axis in rapidly rotating stars, the results do not change qualitatively.« less

  18. Unveiling the Role of the Magnetic Field at the Smallest Scales of Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley

    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of polarized dust emission from the protostellar source Ser-emb 8 at a linear resolution of 140 au. Assuming models of dust-grain alignment hold, the observed polarization pattern gives a projected view of the magnetic field structure in this source. Contrary to expectations based on models of strongly magnetized star formation, the magnetic field in Ser-emb 8 does not exhibit an hourglass morphology. Combining the new ALMA data with previous observational studies, we can connect magnetic field structure from protostellar core (∼80,000 au) to disk (∼100 au) scales. We compare our observations withmore » four magnetohydrodynamic gravo-turbulence simulations made with the AREPO code that have initial conditions ranging from super-Alfvénic (weakly magnetized) to sub-Alfvénic (strongly magnetized). These simulations achieve the spatial dynamic range necessary to resolve the collapse of protostars from the parsec scale of star-forming clouds down to the ∼100 au scale probed by ALMA. Only in the very strongly magnetized simulation do we see both the preservation of the field direction from cloud to disk scales and an hourglass-shaped field at <1000 au scales. We conduct an analysis of the relative orientation of the magnetic field and the density structure in both the Ser-emb 8 ALMA observations and the synthetic observations of the four AREPO simulations. We conclude that the Ser-emb 8 data are most similar to the weakly magnetized simulations, which exhibit random alignment, in contrast to the strongly magnetized simulation, where the magnetic field plays a role in shaping the density structure in the source. In the weak-field case, it is turbulence—not the magnetic field—that shapes the material that forms the protostar, highlighting the dominant role that turbulence can play across many orders of magnitude in spatial scale.« less

  19. Magnetized hypermassive neutron-star collapse: a central engine for short gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masaru; Duez, Matthew D; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Stephens, Branson C

    2006-01-27

    A hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) is a possible transient formed after the merger of a neutron-star binary. In the latest axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity, we find that a magnetized HMNS undergoes "delayed" collapse to a rotating black hole (BH) as a result of angular momentum transport via magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability. The outcome is a BH surrounded by a massive, hot torus with a collimated magnetic field. The torus accretes onto the BH at a quasisteady accretion rate [FORMULA: SEE TEXT]; the lifetime of the torus is approximately 10 ms. The torus has a temperature [FORMULA: SEE TEXT], leading to copious ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]) thermal radiation that could trigger a fireball. Therefore, the collapse of a HMNS is a promising scenario for generating short-duration gamma-ray bursts and an accompanying burst of gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  20. Modelling the Surface Distribution of Magnetic Activity on Sun-Like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik, Emre

    2018-04-01

    With the advent of high-precision space-borne stellar photometry and prospects for direct imaging, it is timely and essential to improve our understanding of stellar magnetic activity in rotational time scales. We present models for 'younger suns' with rotation and flux emergence rates between 1 and 16 times the solar rate. The models provide latitudinal distributions and tilt angles of bipolar magnetic regions, using flux tube rise simulations. Using these emergence patterns, we model the subsequent surface flux transport, to predict surface distributions of star-spots. Based on these models, we present preliminary results from our further modelling of the observed azimuthal magnetic fields, which strengthen for more rapidly rotating Sun-like stars.

  1. Determination of physical parameters of magnetic active regions in stars with different evolutionary stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazzo, K.

    2006-11-01

    Understanding stellar magnetic activity phenomena is of paramount importance for stellar evolution and for planetary systems formation and their atmosphere and climate. The dynamo process that generates magnetic fields in stars is well understood and there is still no comprehensive model of solar and stellar magnetic activity. Stellar activity is characterized by tracers such as spots, plages, flares and winds. These features are the fingerprints of magnetic field lines and their detailed analysis provides constraints for theoretical models. Our knowledge can only advance if the active stars besides the Sun are included in our study. Therefore, it is essential to accomplish comprehensive studies of active stars with a wide range of stellar parameters and a variety of activity phenomena. In this thesis, I concentrate on emergence of active regions at photospheric and chromospheric levels, namely spots and plages, in stars with different evolutionary stages. Spots are cool areas on the surface of the stars and are supposed to be the result of the blocking effect on convection caused by magnetic flux-tube emersion. Plages are bright areas linked to emersion of magnetic flux tubes from the sub-photospheric convective level. Starspot temperature represents an important parameter for the investigation of stellar magnetic activity, but its precise determination, relying only on light curve inversion techniques, is strongly hampered by the lack of solution uniqueness. Therefore, a method based on line-depth ratios as temperature discriminant has been developed. This technique is capable of resolving temperature differences less than 10 K. Moreover, combining temperature and light curve solutions, I am able to determine in a univocal way starspot temperature and area. Using the net Halpha emission as indicator of plage presence, I have also studied the spot and plage association. As a matter of fact, the residual Halpha profiles, obtained as the difference between the

  2. On the spottedness, magnetism and internal structure of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershberg, R. E.

    Kinematical structures within stellar interiors that are the result of a self-organization of these interiors as thermodynamically open nonlinear systems are proposed as the physical basis for stellar magnetism. It is noted that the ubiquitousness of stellar magnetism that follows from the hypothesis is not in contradiction with observations. These kinematical structures may be energy reservoirs, and changes in these structures may be connected with variations of an energy flux emergent from a stellar surface, while its internal energy sources remain constant, explaining the radiation deficit from sunspots and starspots.

  3. Astronomers Find the First 'Wind Nebula' Around a Rare Ultra-Magnetic Neutron Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Astronomers have discovered a vast cloud of high-energy particles called a wind nebula around a rare ultra-magnetic neutron star, or magnetar, for the first time. The find offers a unique window into the properties, environment and outburst history of magnetars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. A neutron star is the crushed core of a massive star that ran out of fuel, collapsed under its own weight, and exploded as a supernova. Each one compresses the equivalent mass of half a million Earths into a ball just 12 miles (20 kilometers) across, or about the length of New York's Manhattan Island. Neutron stars are most commonly found as pulsars, which produce radio, visible light, X-rays and gamma rays at various locations in their surrounding magnetic fields. When a pulsar spins these regions in our direction, astronomers detect pulses of emission, hence the name. Read more: go.nasa.gov/28PVUop Credit: ESA/XMM-Newton/Younes et al. 2016 NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. Mixed poloidal-toroidal magnetic configuration and surface abundance distributions of the Bp star 36 Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; the MiMeS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of the chemically peculiar Bp star 36 Lyn revealed a moderately strong magnetic field, circumstellar material and inhomogeneous surface abundance distributions of certain elements. We present in this paper an analysis of 33 high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution Stokes IV observations of 36 Lyn obtained with the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Bernard Lyot Telescope at Pic du Midi Observatory. From these data, we compute new measurements of the mean longitudinal magnetic field, Bℓ, using the multiline least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique. A rotationally phased Bℓ curve reveals a strong magnetic field, with indications for deviation from a pure dipole field. We derive magnetic maps and chemical abundance distributions from the LSD profiles, produced using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging code INVERSLSD. Using a spherical harmonic expansion to characterize the magnetic field, we find that the harmonic energy is concentrated predominantly in the dipole mode (ℓ = 1), with significant contribution from both the poloidal and toroidal components. This toroidal field component is predicted theoretically, but not typically observed for Ap/Bp stars. Chemical abundance maps reveal a helium enhancement in a distinct region where the radial magnetic field is strong. Silicon enhancements are located in two regions, also where the radial field is stronger. Titanium and iron enhancements are slightly offset from the helium enhancements, and are located in areas where the radial field is weak, close to the magnetic equator.

  5. Characterization of methanol as a magnetic field tracer in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankhaar, Boy; Vlemmings, Wouter; Surcis, Gabriele; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; van der Avoird, Ad

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role during star formation1. Direct magnetic field strength observations have proven particularly challenging in the extremely dynamic protostellar phase2-4. Because of their occurrence in the densest parts of star-forming regions, masers, through polarization observations, are the main source of magnetic field strength and morphology measurements around protostars2. Of all maser species, methanol is one of the strongest and most abundant tracers of gas around high-mass protostellar disks and in outflows. However, as experimental determination of the magnetic characteristics of methanol has remained largely unsuccessful5, a robust magnetic field strength analysis of these regions could hitherto not be performed. Here, we report a quantitative theoretical model of the magnetic properties of methanol, including the complicated hyperfine structure that results from its internal rotation6. We show that the large range in values of the Landé g factors of the hyperfine components of each maser line lead to conclusions that differ substantially from the current interpretation based on a single effective g factor. These conclusions are more consistent with other observations7,8 and confirm the presence of dynamically important magnetic fields around protostars. Additionally, our calculations show that (nonlinear) Zeeman effects must be taken into account to further enhance the accuracy of cosmological electron-to-proton mass ratio determinations using methanol9-12.

  6. Accurate age determinations of several nearby open clusters containing magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaj, J.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2014-06-01

    Context. To study the time evolution of magnetic fields, chemical abundance peculiarities, and other characteristics of magnetic Ap and Bp stars during their main sequence lives, a sample of these stars in open clusters has been obtained, as such stars can be assumed to have the same ages as the clusters to which they belong. However, in exploring age determinations in the literature, we find a large dispersion among different age determinations, even for bright, nearby clusters. Aims: Our aim is to obtain ages that are as accurate as possible for the seven nearby open clusters α Per, Coma Ber, IC 2602, NGC 2232, NGC 2451A, NGC 2516, and NGC 6475, each of which contains at least one magnetic Ap or Bp star. Simultaneously, we test the current calibrations of Te and luminosity for the Ap/Bp star members, and identify clearly blue stragglers in the clusters studied. Methods: We explore the possibility that isochrone fitting in the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (i.e. log (L/L⊙) vs. log Te), rather than in the conventional colour-magnitude diagram, can provide more precise and accurate cluster ages, with well-defined uncertainties. Results: Well-defined ages are found for all the clusters studied. For the nearby clusters studied, the derived ages are not very sensitive to the small uncertainties in distance, reddening, membership, metallicity, or choice of isochrones. Our age determinations are all within the range of previously determined values, but the associated uncertainties are considerably smaller than the spread in recent age determinations from the literature. Furthermore, examination of proper motions and HR diagrams confirms that the Ap stars identified in these clusters are members, and that the presently accepted temperature scale and bolometric corrections for Ap stars are approximately correct. We show that in these theoretical HR diagrams blue stragglers are particularly easy to identify. Conclusions: Constructing the theoretical HR diagram

  7. A Method to Measure the Transverse Magnetic Field and Orient the Rotational Axis of Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Francesco; Scalia, Cesare; Gangi, Manuele

    Direct measurements of stellar magnetic fields are based on the splitting of spectral lines into polarized Zeeman components. With a few exceptions, Zeeman signatures are hidden in data noise, and a number of methods have been developed to measure the average, over the visible stellar disk, of longitudinal components of the magnetic field. At present, faint stars are only observable via low-resolution spectropolarimetry, which is a method based on the regression of the Stokes V signal against the first derivative of Stokes I . Here, we present an extension of this method to obtain a direct measurement of the transversemore » component of stellar magnetic fields by the regression of high-resolution Stokes Q and U as a function of the second derivative of Stokes I . We also show that it is possible to determine the orientation in the sky of the rotation axis of a star on the basis of the periodic variability of the transverse component due to its rotation. The method is applied to data, obtained with the Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter along the rotational period of the well known magnetic star β CrB.« less

  8. Magnetic field strength of a neutron-star-powered ultraluminous X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Fürst, F.; Middleton, M. J.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Fabian, A. C.; Heida, M.; Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies not associated with the central supermassive black hole. Their luminosities imply they are powered by either an extreme accretion rate onto a compact stellar remnant, or an intermediate mass ( 100-105M⊙) black hole1. Recently detected coherent pulsations coming from three bright ULXs2-5 demonstrate that some of these sources are powered by accretion onto a neutron star, implying accretion rates significantly in excess of the Eddington limit, a high degree of geometric beaming, or both. The physical challenges associated with the high implied accretion rates can be mitigated if the neutron star surface field is very high (1014 G)6, since this suppresses the electron scattering cross-section, reducing the radiation pressure that chokes off accretion for high luminosities. Surface magnetic field strengths can be determined through cyclotron resonance scattering features7,8 produced by the transition of charged particles between quantized Landau levels. Here, we present the detection at a significance of 3.8σ of an absorption line at 4.5 keV in the Chandra spectrum of a ULX in M51. This feature is likely to be a cyclotron resonance scattering feature produced by the strong magnetic field of a neutron star. Assuming scattering off electrons, the magnetic field strength is implied to be 1011 G, while protons would imply a magnetic field of B 1015 G.

  9. Model atmospheres and radiation of magnetic neutron stars: Anisotropic thermal emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, G. G.; Shibanov, Yu. A.; Ventura, J.; Zavlin, V. E.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropy of the thermal radiation emitted by a surface element of a neutron star atmosphere (e.g., by a polar cap of a radio pulsar). Angular dependences of the partial fluxes at various photon energies, and spectra at various angles are obtained for different values of the effective temperature T(sub eff) and magnetic field strength B, and for different directions of the magnetic field. It is shown that the local radiation of the magnetized neutron star atmospheres is highly anisotropic, with the maximum flux emitted in the magnetic field direction. At high B the angular dependences in the soft X-ray range have two maxima, a high narrow peak along B and a lower and broader maximum at intermediate angles. The radiation is strongly polarized, the modulation of the degree of polarization due to the rotation of the neurtron star may be much higher than that for the radiative flux. The results obtained are compared with recent ROSAT observations of the thermal-like radiation from the radio pulsars PSR 1929+10 and PSR J0437-4715.

  10. SEARCH FOR A MAGNETIC FIELD VIA CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IN THE WOLF-RAYET STAR EZ CMa

    SciTech Connect

    De la Chevrotiere, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. Wemore » also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the {approx}0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B {approx} 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.« less

  11. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions.

    PubMed

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O 2 has been carried out. An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N , J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N , J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N , J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N , J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N , J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions.

  12. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions⋆

    PubMed Central

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Context Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N, J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N, J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N, J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N, J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N, J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. PMID:29151607

  13. A FIVE-YEAR SPECTROSCOPIC AND PHOTOMETRIC CAMPAIGN ON THE PROTOTYPICAL {alpha} CYGNI VARIABLE AND A-TYPE SUPERGIANT STAR DENEB

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, N. D.; Morrison, N. D.; Kryukova, E. E.

    2011-01-15

    Deneb is often considered the prototypical A-type supergiant and is one of the visually most luminous stars in the Galaxy. A-type supergiants are potential extragalactic distance indicators, but the variability of these stars needs to be better characterized before this technique can be considered reliable. We analyzed 339 high-resolution echelle spectra of Deneb obtained over the five-year span of 1997 through 2001 as well as 370 Stroemgren photometric measurements obtained during the same time frame. Our spectroscopic analysis included dynamical spectra of the H{alpha} profile, H{alpha} equivalent widths, and radial velocities measured from Si II {lambda}{lambda} 6347, 6371. Time-series analysismore » reveals no obvious cyclic behavior that proceeds through multiple observing seasons, although we found a suspected 40 day period in two, non-consecutive observing seasons. Some correlations are found between photometric and radial velocity data sets and suggest radial pulsations at two epochs. No correlation is found between the variability of the H{alpha} profiles and that of the radial velocities or the photometry. Lucy found evidence that Deneb was a long-period single-lined spectroscopic binary star, but our data set shows no evidence for radial velocity variations caused by a binary companion.« less

  14. On the Use of Line Depth Ratios to Measure Starspot Properties on Magnetically Active Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic techniques have proven to be effective ways to measure the properties of dark, cool starspots on magnetically active stars. Recently, a technique was introduced using atomic line depth ratios (LDRs) to measure starspot properties. Carefully reproducing this technique using a new set of spectroscopic observations of active stars, we find that the LDR technique encounters difficulties, specifically by overestimating spot temperatures (because the atomic lines blend with titanium oxide absorption in cooler spots) and by not tightly constraining the filling factor of spots. While the use of LDRs for active star studies has great promise, we believe that these concerns need to be addressed before the technique is more widely applied. This paper includes data taken at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  15. Dynamical systems for modeling evolution of the magnetic field of the Sun, stars and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic activity of the Sun, stars and planets are connected with a dynamo process based on the combined action of the differential rotation and the alpha-effect. Application of this concept allows us to get different types of solutions which can describe the magnetic activity of celestial bodies. We investigated the dynamo model with the meridional circulation by the low-mode approach. This approach is based on an assumption that the magnetic field can be described by non-linear dynamical systems with a relatively small number of parameters. Such non-linear dynamical systems are based on the equations of dynamo models. With this method dynamical systems have been built for media which contains the meridional flow and thickness of the spherical shell where dynamo process operates. It was shown the possibility of coexistence of quiasi-biennial oscillations, 22-year cycle, and grand minima of magnetic activity which is consistent with the observational data for the solar activity. We obtained different regimes (oscillations, vacillations, dynamo-bursts) depending on a value of the dynamo-number, the meridional circulation, and thickness of the spherical shell. We discuss features of these regimes and compare them with the observed features of the magnetic fields of the Sun, stars and Earth. We built theoretical paleomagnetic time scale and butterfly-diagrams for the helicity and toroidal magnetic field for different regimes.

  16. The influence of the magnetic topology on the wind braking of sun-like stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réville, V.; Brun, A. S.; Matt, S. P.; Strugarek, A.; Pinto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Stellar winds are thought to be the main process responsible for the spin down of main-sequence stars. The extraction of angular momentum by a magnetized wind has been studied for decades, leading to several formulations for the resulting torque. However, previous studies generally consider simple dipole or split monopole stellar magnetic topologies. Here we consider in addition to a dipolar stellar magnetic field, both quadrupolar and octupolar configurations, while also varying the rotation rate and the magnetic field strength. 60 simulations made with a 2.5D, cylindrical and axisymmetric set-up and computed with the PLUTO code were used to find torque formulations for each topology. We further succeed to give a unique law that fits the data for every topology by formulating the torque in terms of the amount of open magnetic flux in the wind. We also show that our formulation can be applied to even more realistic magnetic topologies, with examples of the Sun in its minimum and maximum phase as observed at the Wilcox Solar Observatory, and of a young K-star (TYC-0486-4943-1) whose topology has been obtained by Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI).

  17. Neutron stars in a perturbative f(R) gravity model with strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Güngör, Can

    2013-10-01

    In Kaluza-Klein electromagnetism it is natural to associate modified gravity with strong electromagnetic fields. Hence, in this paper we investigate the combined effects of a strong magnetic field and perturbative f(R) gravity on the structure of neutron stars. The effect of an interior strong magnetic field of about 10{sup 17−18} G on the equation of state is derived in the context of a quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) equation of state (EoS) including effects of the magnetic pressure and energy along with occupied Landau levels. Adopting a random orientation of interior field domains, we solve the modified spherically symmetric hydrostatic equilibrium equationsmore » derived for a gravity model with f(R) = R+αR{sup 2}. Effects of both the finite magnetic field and the modified gravity are detailed for various values of the magnetic field and the perturbation parameter α along with a discussion of their physical implications. We show that there exists a parameter space of the modified gravity and the magnetic field strength, in which even a soft equation of state can accommodate a large ( > 2 M{sub s}un) maximum neutron star mass.« less

  18. Magnetic field in IRC+10216 and other C-rich evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthu, A.; Herpin, F.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Baudry, A.; Lèbre, A.; Paubert, G.

    2017-07-01

    Context. During the transition from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to planetary nebulae (PN), the circumstellar geometry and morphology change dramatically. Another characteristic of this transition is the high mass-loss rate, that can be partially explained by radiation pressure and a combination of various factors, such as the stellar pulsation, the dust grain condensation, and opacity in the upper atmosphere. The magnetic field can also be one of the main ingredients that shapes the stellar upper atmosphere and envelope. Aims: Our main goal is to investigate for the first time the spatial distribution of the magnetic field in the envelope of IRC+10216. More generally we intend to determine the magnetic field strength in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of C-rich evolved stars, compare this field with previous studies for O-rich stars, and constrain the variation of the magnetic field with r the distance to the star's centre. Methods: We use spectropolarimetric observations of the Stokes V parameter, collected with Xpol on the IRAM-30 m radiotelescope, observing the Zeeman effect in seven hyperfine components of the CN J = 1-0 line. We use the Crutcher et al. (1996, ApJ, 456, 217) method to estimate the magnetic field. For the first time, the instrumental contamination is investigated, through dedicated studies of the power patterns in Stokes V and I in detail. Results: For C-rich evolved stars, we derive a magnetic field strength (B) between 1.6 and 14.2 mG while B is estimated to be 6 mG for the proto-PN (PPN) AFGL618, and an upper value of 8 mG is found for the PN NGC 7027. These results are consistent with a decrease of B as 1/r in the environment of AGB objects, that is, with the presence of a toroidal field. But this is not the case for PPN and PN stars. Our map of IRC+10216 suggests that the magnetic field is not homogeneously strong throughout or aligned with the envelope and that the morphology of the CN emission might have changed with time.

  19. Magnetic field topology of the unique chemically peculiar star CU Virginis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Lüftinger, T.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    Context. The late-B, magnetic, chemically peculiar star CU Vir is one of the fastest rotators among the intermediate-mass stars with strong fossil magnetic fields. It shows a prominent rotational modulation of the spectral energy distribution and absorption line profiles due to chemical spots and exhibits a unique, strongly beamed variable radio emission. Aims: Little is known about the magnetic field topology of CU Vir. In this study, we aim to derive detailed maps of the magnetic field distribution over the surface of this star for the first time. Methods: We use high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations covering the entire rotational period. These data are interpreted using a multi-line technique of least-squares deconvolution (LSD) and a new Zeeman Doppler imaging code, which is based on detailed polarised radiative transfer modelling of the Stokes I and V LSD profiles. This new magnetic inversion approach relies on the spectrum synthesis calculations over the full wavelength range that is covered by observations and does not assume that the LSD profiles behave as a single spectral line with mean parameters. Results: We present magnetic and chemical abundance maps derived from the Si and Fe lines. Mean polarisation profiles of both elements reveal a significant departure of CU Vir's magnetic field topology from the commonly assumed axisymmetric dipolar configuration. The field of CU Vir is dipolar-like but clearly non-axisymmetric, showing a large difference in the field strength between the regions of opposite polarity. The main relative abundance depletion features in both Si and Fe maps coincide with the weak-field region in the magnetic map. Conclusions: The detailed information on the distorted dipolar magnetic field topology of CU Vir provided by our study is essential for understanding chemical spot formation, radio emission, and rotational period variation of this star. Based on observations obtained at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (USR5026

  20. γ Pegasi: testing Vega-like magnetic fields in B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Monin, D.; Leroy, B.; Mathis, S.; Bohlender, D.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The bright B pulsator γ Peg shows both p and g modes of β Cep and SPB types. It has also been claimed that it is a magnetic star, while others do not detect any magnetic field. Aims: We check for the presence of a magnetic field, with the aim to characterise it if it exists, or else provide a firm upper limit of its strength if it is not detected. If γ Peg is magnetic as claimed, it would make an ideal asteroseismic target for testing various theoretical scenarios. If it is very weakly magnetic, it would be the first observation of an extension of Vega-like fields to early B stars. Finally, if it is not magnetic and we can provide a very low upper limit on its non-detected field, it would make an important result for stellar evolution models. Methods: We acquired high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric Narval data at Telescope Bernard Lyot (TBL). We also gathered existing dimaPol spectropolarimetric data from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) and Musicos spectropolarimetric data from TBL. We analysed the Narval and Musicos observations using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to derive the longitudinal magnetic field and Zeeman signatures in lines. The longitudinal field strength was also extracted from the Hβ line observed with the DAO. With a Monte Carlo simulation we derived the maximum strength of the field possibly hosted by γ Peg. Results: We find that no magnetic signatures are visible in the very high quality spectropolarimetric data. The average longitudinal field measured in the Narval data is Bl = -0.1 ± 0.4 G. We derive a very strict upper limit of the dipolar field strength of Bpol ~ 40 G. Conclusions: We conclude that γ Peg is not magnetic: it hosts neither a strong stable fossil field as observed in a fraction of massive stars nor a very weak Vega-like field. There is therefore no evidence that Vega-like fields exist in B stars, contrary to the predictions by fossil field dichotomy scenarios

  1. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, P E; Barnes, R

    2015-09-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone," where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life.

  2. Surface temperature of a magnetized neutron star and interpretation of the ROSAT data. 1: Dipole fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Dany

    1995-01-01

    We model the temperature distribution at the surface of a magnetized neutron star and study the effects on the observed X-ray spectra and light curves. Generalrelativistic effects, i.e., redshift and lensing, are fully taken into account. Atmospheric effects on the emitted spectral flux are not included: we consider only blackbody emission at the local effective temperature. In this first paper we restrict ourselves to dipole fields. General features are studied and compared with the ROSAT data from the pulsars 0833 - 45 (Vela), 0656 + 14, 0630 + 178 (Geminga), and 1055 - 52, the four cases for which there is strong evidence that thermal radiation from the stellar surface is detected. The composite spectra we obtain are not very different from a blackbody spectrum at the star's effective temperature. We conclude that, as far as blackbody spectra are considered, temperature estimates using single-temperature models give results practically identical to our composite models. The change of the (composite blackbody) spectrum with the star's rotational phase is also not very large and may be unobservable inmost cases. Gravitational lensing strongly suppresses the light curve pulsations. If a dipole field is assumed, pulsed fractions comparable to the observed ones can be obtained only with stellar radii larger than those which are predicted by current models of neutron star struture, or with low stellar masses. Moreover, the shapes of the theoretical light curves with dipole fields do not correspond to the observations. The use of magnetic spectra may raise the pulsed fraction sufficiently but will certainly make the discrepancy with the light curve shapes worse: dipole fields are not sufficient to interpret the data. Many neutron star models with a meson condensate or hypersons predict very small radii, and hence very strong lensing, which will require highly nondipolar fields to be able to reproduce the observed pulsed fractions, if possible at all: this may be a new

  3. Effects of neutrino emissivity on the cooling of neutron stars in the presence of a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, Eduardo Lenho, E-mail: eduardo.coelho@uva.br; Chiapparini, Marcelo; Negreiros, Rodrigo Picanço

    One of the most interesting kind of neutron stars are the pulsars, which are highly magnetized neutron stars with fields up to 10{sup 14} G at the surface. The strength of magnetic field in the center of a neutron star remains unknown. According to the scalar virial theorem, magnetic field in the core could be as large as 10{sup 18} G. In this work we study the influence of strong magnetic fields on the cooling of neutron stars coming from direct Urca process. Direct Urca process is an extremely efficient mechanism for cooling a neutron star after its formation. Themore » matter is described using a relativistic mean-field model at zero temperature with eight baryons (baryon octet), electrons and muons. We obtain the relative population of each species of particles as function of baryon density for different magnetic fields. We calculate numerically the cooling of neutron stars for a parametrized magnetic field and compare the results for the case without a magnetic field.« less

  4. High-energy transients. [from weakly and strongly magnetic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.

    1991-01-01

    The observational characteristics of X-ray bursts are reviewed and the thermonuclear-flash model is examined to assess the suitability of the model and the sources of X- and gamma-ray bursts. The profiles of X-ray bursts from five different sources are delineated, and the global analysis of nuclear burning is discussed to review th range possible X-ray burst behavior. The analysis by Fushiki and Lamb (1987) is noted for the description of regions which lie away from the steady-state cut. The discussion of cyclotron lines in gamma-ray bursts emphasizes the source GB880205, and it is shown that Raman and cyclotron resonant scattering can explain the observed positions, strengths, and widths of the dips in the spectrum. X-ray bursts are theorized to emanate from weakly magnetic neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts are shown to be the products of strongly magnetic neutron stars.

  5. Model atmospheres and radiation of magnetic neutron stars. I - The fully ionized case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibanov, Iu. A.; Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Ventura, J.

    1992-01-01

    Model neutron star atmospheres are calculated for typical cooling stars with a strong magnetic field and effective temperatures of 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 K. The effect of anisotropic photon diffusion in two normal modes are examined under the assumption that the opacity is due solely to the bremsstrahlung and Thomson scattering processes under conditions of LTE that are expected to prevail at the temperatures and densities obtained. The main aspects of anisotropic photon diffusion, and an original procedure for calculating model atmospheres and emitted spectra are discussed. Representative calculated spectra are given, and it is found that the hard spectral excess characterizing the nonmagnetic case, while still present, becomes less prominent in the presence of magnetic fields in the range of 10 exp 11 to 10 exp 13 G.

  6. Impact of space-based instruments on magnetic star research: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, WW.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic stars are observed at a large variety of spectral ranges, frequently with photometric and spectroscopic techniques and on time scales ranging from a 'snap shot' to years, sometimes using data sets which are continuous over many months. The outcome of such observations has been discussed during this conference and many examples have been presented, demonstrating the high scientific significance and gains in our knowledge that result from these observations. A key question that should be addressed is, what are the advantages and requirements of space based research of magnetic stars, particularly in relation to ground based observations? And what are the drawbacks? What are the hopes for the future? In the following, we intend to present an overview that addresses these questions.

  7. The Role of Magnetic Fields in High-Mass Star-Forming Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian

    2015-10-01

    Filaments are ubiquitous in the star formation process. Planck has revealed that magnetic fields are perpendicular to the densest filaments, which are the birthplace of high-mass stars, suggesting that fields help funnel gas into the filaments. However, the resolved field morphologies and strengths in the dense filaments are unknown. We propose HAWC+ 53 and 214 um polarimetric observations toward two filaments, the Snake (G11.1) and G18.6, to unveil the field morphology. Such observations will probe the filament field morphology at the subarcminute scale over the largest spatial extent to date: 25 and 9 pc respectively. We expect to have over 400 independent beams worth of detections. From the field morphology, we will test the hub-filament theory and investigate how the magnetic field strength and morphology changes with evolution and size-scale.

  8. The Role of Magnetic Fields in High-Mass Star-Forming Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian

    Filaments are ubiquitous in the star formation process. Planck has revealed that magnetic fields are perpendicular to the densest filaments, which are the birthplace of high-mass stars, suggesting that fields help funnel gas into the filaments. However, the resolved field morphologies and strengths in the dense filaments are unknown. We propose HAWC+ 53 and 214 um polarimetric observations toward two filaments, the Snake (G11.1) and G18.6, to unveil the field morphology. Such observations will probe the filament field morphology at the subarcminute scale over the largest spatial extent to date: 25 and 9 pc respectively. We expect to have over 400 independent beams worth of detections. From the field morphology, we will test the hub-filament theory and investigate how the magnetic field strength and morphology changes with evolution and size-scale.

  9. Theoretical models of highly magnetic white dwarf stars that violate the Chandrasekhar Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hridaya

    2017-08-01

    Until recently, white dwarf (WD) stars were believed to be no more massive than 1.44 solar masses (M ⊙ ). This belief has been changed now with the observations of over-luminous or 'peculiar' Type la supernovae that have lead researchers to hypothesize the existence of WDs in the mass range 2.4 - 2.8 M ⊙ . This discovery also raises some doubt over the reliability of the Type Ia supernova as a standard candle. It is thought that these super-massive WDs are their most likely progenitors and that they probably have a very strong magnetic field inside them. A degenerate electron gas in a magnetic field, such as that present inside this star, will be Landau quantized. Magnetic field changes the momentum space of electrons which in turn changes their density of states (DOS) and that in turn changes the equation of state (EoS) of matter inside the star, as opposed to that without a field. When this change in the DOS is taken into account and a link between the DOS and the EoS is established, as is done in this work, I find a physical reason behind the theoretical mass-radius (M-R) relations of a super-massive WD. I start with different equations of state with at most three Landau levels occupied and then construct stellar models of magnetic WDs (MWDs) using the same. I also show the M-R relations of these stars for a particular chosen value of maximum electron Fermi energy. Once a multiple Landau level system of electrons is considered, I find that it leads to such an EoS that gives multiple branches in the MR relations. Super-massive MWDs are obtained only when the Landau level occupancy is limited to just one level and some of the mass values fall within the mass range given above.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magnetic early B-type stars. I. (Shultz+, 2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; Mimes Collaboration; Binamics Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    Longitudinal magnetic field measurements of early B-type stars derived from 1) least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted from high-resolution spectropolarimetric data (ESPaDOnS, Narval, HARPSpol), using masks consisting of metallic lines, metallic + He lines, individual chemical elements, as well as single-line H measurements; and 2) from single-line low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with dimaPol. (3 data files).

  11. Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering Spectra from Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Baring, Matthew G.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Harding, Alice K.

    2018-02-01

    Hard, nonthermal, persistent pulsed X-ray emission extending between 10 and ∼150 keV has been observed in nearly 10 magnetars. For inner-magnetospheric models of such emission, resonant inverse Compton scattering of soft thermal photons by ultrarelativistic charges is the most efficient production mechanism. We present angle-dependent upscattering spectra and pulsed intensity maps for uncooled, relativistic electrons injected in inner regions of magnetar magnetospheres, calculated using collisional integrals over field loops. Our computations employ a new formulation of the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields that is physically correct for treating important spin-dependent effects in the cyclotron resonance, thereby producing correct photon spectra. The spectral cutoff energies are sensitive to the choices of observer viewing geometry, electron Lorentz factor, and scattering kinematics. We find that electrons with energies ≲15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with inferred turnovers for magnetar hard X-ray tails. More energetic electrons still emit mostly below 1 MeV, except for viewing perspectives sampling field-line tangents. Pulse profiles may be singly or doubly peaked dependent on viewing geometry, emission locale, and observed energy band. Magnetic pair production and photon splitting will attenuate spectra to hard X-ray energies, suppressing signals in the Fermi-LAT band. The resonant Compton spectra are strongly polarized, suggesting that hard X-ray polarimetry instruments such as X-Calibur, or a future Compton telescope, can prove central to constraining model geometry and physics.

  12. A combined HST and XMM-Newton campaign for the magnetic O9.7 V star HD 54879. Constraining the weak-wind problem of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenar, T.; Oskinova, L. M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Luckas, P.; Hainich, R.; Todt, H.; Hubrig, S.; Sander, A. A. C.; Ilyin, I.; Hamann, W.-R.

    2017-10-01

    Context. HD 54879 (O9.7 V) is one of a dozen O-stars for which an organized atmospheric magnetic field has been detected. Despite their importance, little is known about the winds and evolution of magnetized massive stars. Aims: To gain insights into the interplay between atmospheres, winds, and magnetic fields of massive stars, we acquired UV and X-ray data of HD 54879 using the Hubble Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton satellite. In addition, 35 optical amateur spectra were secured to study the variability of HD 54879. Methods: A multiwavelength (X-ray to optical) spectral analysis is performed using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code and the xspec software. Results: The photospheric parameters (T∗ = 30.5 kK, log g = 4.0 [cm s-2], log L = 4.45 [L⊙]) are typical for an O9.7 V star. The microturbulent, macroturbulent, and projected rotational velocities are lower than previously suggested (ξph,vmac,vsini ≤ 4 km s-1). An initial mass of 16 M⊙ and an age of 5 Myr are inferred from evolutionary tracks. We derive a mean X-ray emitting temperature of log TX = 6.7 [K] and an X-ray luminosity of LX = 1 × 1032 erg s-1. Short- and long-scale variability is seen in the Hα line, but only a very long period of P ≈ 5 yr could be estimated. Assessing the circumstellar density of HD 54879 using UV spectra, we can roughly estimate the mass-loss rate HD 54879 would have in the absence of a magnetic field as log ṀB = 0 ≈ -9.0 [M⊙ yr-1]. The magnetic field traps the stellar wind up to the Alfvén radius rA ≳ 12 R∗, implying that its true mass-loss rate is log Ṁ ≲ -10.2 [M⊙ yr-1]. Hence, density enhancements around magnetic stars can be exploited to estimate mass-loss rates of non-magnetic stars of similar spectral types, essential for resolving the weak wind problem. Conclusions: Our study confirms that strongly magnetized stars lose little or no mass, and supplies important constraints on the weak-wind problem of massive main sequence

  13. Evolution of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in accretion disks around compact and young stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1994-01-01

    Geometrically thin, optically thick, turbulent accretion disks are believed to surround many stars. Some of them are the compact components of close binaries, while the others are throught to be T Tauri stars. These accretion disks must be magnetized objects because the accreted matter, whether it comes from the companion star (binaries) or from a collapsing molecular cloud core (single young stars), carries an embedded magnetic field. In addition, most accretion disks are hot and turbulent, thus meeting the condition for the MHD turbulent dynamo to maintain and amplify any seed field magnetic field. In fact, for a disk's magnetic field to persist long enough in comparison with the disk viscous time it must be contemporaneously regenerated because the characteristic diffusion time of a magnetic field is typically much shorter than a disk's viscous time. This is true for most thin accretion disks. Consequently, studying magentic fields in thin disks is usually synonymous with studying magnetic dynamos, a fact that is not commonly recognized in the literature. Progress in studying the structure of many accretion disks was achieved mainly because most disks can be regarded as two-dimensional flows in which vertical and radial structures are largely decoupled. By analogy, in a thin disk, one may expect that vertical and radial structures of the magnetic field are decoupled because the magnetic field diffuses more rapidly to the vertical boundary of the disk than along the radius. Thus, an asymptotic method, called an adiabatic approximation, can be applied to accretion disk dynamo. We can represent the solution to the dynamo equation in the form B = Q(r)b(r,z), where Q(r) describes the field distribution along the radius, while the field distribution across the disk is included in the vector function b, which parametrically depends on r and is normalized by the condition max (b(z)) = 1. The field distribution across the disk is established rapidly, while the radial

  14. Eyes in the sky. Interactions between asymptotic giant branch star winds and the interstellar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, A. J.; Cox, N. L. J.; Decin, L.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The extended circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of evolved low-mass stars display a large variety of morphologies. Understanding the various mechanisms that give rise to these extended structures is important to trace their mass-loss history. Aims: Here, we aim to examine the role of the interstellar magnetic field in shaping the extended morphologies of slow dusty winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in an effort to pin-point the origin of so-called eye shaped CSEs of three carbon-rich AGB stars. In addition, we seek to understand if this pre-planetary nebula (PN) shaping can be responsible for asymmetries observed in PNe. Methods: Hydrodynamical simulations are used to study the effect of typical interstellar magnetic fields on the free-expanding spherical stellar winds as they sweep up the local interstellar medium (ISM). Results: The simulations show that typical Galactic interstellar magnetic fields of 5 to 10 μG are sufficient to alter the spherical expanding shells of AGB stars to appear as the characteristic eye shape revealed by far-infrared observations. The typical sizes of the simulated eyes are in accordance with the observed physical sizes. However, the eye shapes are transient in nature. Depending on the stellar and interstellar conditions, they develop after 20 000 to 200 000 yrs and last for about 50 000 to 500 000 yrs, assuming that the star is at rest relative to the local interstellar medium. Once formed, the eye shape develops lateral outflows parallel to the magnetic field. The explosion of a PN in the centre of the eye-shaped dust shell gives rise to an asymmetrical nebula with prominent inward pointing Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Conclusions: Interstellar magnetic fields can clearly affect the shaping of wind-ISM interaction shells. The occurrence of the eyes is most strongly influenced by stellar space motion and ISM density. Observability of this transient phase is favoured for lines-of-sight perpendicular to the

  15. A rigidly rotating magnetosphere model for circumstellar emission from magnetic OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Owocki, S. P.

    2005-02-01

    We present a semi-analytical approach for modelling circumstellar emission from rotating hot stars with a strong dipole magnetic field tilted at an arbitrary angle to the rotation axis. By assuming the rigid-field limit in which material driven (e.g. in a wind outflow) from the star is forced to remain in strict rigid-body corotation, we are able to solve for the effective centrifugal-plus-gravitational potential along each field line, and thereby identify the location of potential minima where material is prone to accumulate. Applying basic scalings for the surface mass flux of a radiatively driven stellar wind, we calculate the circumstellar density distribution that obtains once ejected plasma settles into hydrostatic stratification along field lines. The resulting accumulation surface resembles a rigidly rotating, warped disc, tilted such that its average surface normal lies between the rotation and magnetic axes. Using a simple model of the plasma emissivity, we calculate time-resolved synthetic line spectra for the disc. Initial comparisons show an encouraging level of correspondence with the observed rotational phase variations of Balmer-line emission profiles from magnetic Bp stars such as σ Ori E.

  16. Magnetic field and radial velocities of the star β CrB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Inwoo; Valyavin, G.; Galazutdinov, G.; Plachinda, S.; Butkovskaya, V.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, Kang-Min; Jeong, Gwanghui; Romanyuk, I.; Burlakova, T.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of long term high-resolution spectral and spectro-polarimetric observations of the classic spectroscopic binary star β Coronae Borealis, which is also well known for its chemical peculiarity and strong magnetic field. One of the main objectives of these observations was to check some suggestions of the presence of a third low-mass component in the system. Analysing our own radial velocity measurements of β Coronae Borealis obtained between 2004 and 2013 together with other RV and astrometric data taken from literature, we have considerably improved the orbital elements of the star. Using residual RVs obtained after subtracting the orbit from the observed RV, we detected a significant periodic signal consistent with the well known 18.4868 day rotation/magnetic period of the star. The shape of the residual RVs folded with the rotation period exhibits a bimodal structure. In order to clarify the origin of the residual RV variation, we model the RV variation due to rotational modulation Zeeman patterns in the spectral lines of β Coronae Borealis spectra. The results of this analysis and the investigation of chemical inhomogeneities in the spectra of β Coronae Borealis convincingly support the "magnetic" nature of the observed radial velocity variations.

  17. Physical processes in the strong magnetic fields of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical formulae are fitted to observational data on physical processes occurring in strong magnetic fields surrounding accreting neutron stars. The propagation of normal modes in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field is discussed in terms of a wave equation in Fourier space, quantum electrodynamic effects, polarization and mode ellipticity. The results are applied to calculating the Thomson scattering, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering cross-sections, which are a function of the frequency, angle and polarization of the magnetic field. Numerical procedures are explored for solving the radiative transfer equations. When applied to modeling X ray pulsars, a problem arises in the necessity to couple the magnetic angle and frequency dependence of the cross-sections with the hydrodynamic equations. The use of time-dependent averaging and approximation techniques is indicated.

  18. NuSTAR Observation of a Type I X-Ray Burst from GRS 1741.9-2853

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Bachetti, Matteo; Boggs, Steven E.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-02-01

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 1034 erg s-1 on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 1035 erg s-1 in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H mass fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M ⊙, we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M ⊙.

  19. The Hidden Magnetic Field of the Young Neutron Star in Kesteven 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabaltas, Natalia; Lai, Dong

    2012-04-01

    Recent observations of the central compact object in the Kesteven 79 supernova remnant show that this neutron star (NS) has a weak dipole magnetic field (a few × 1010 G) but an anomalously large (~64%) pulse fraction in its surface X-ray emission. We explore the idea that a substantial sub-surface magnetic field exists in the NS crust, which produces diffuse hot spots on the stellar surface due to anisotropic heat conduction, and gives rise to the observed X-ray pulsation. We develop a general-purpose method, termed "Temperature Template with Full Transport" (TTFT), that computes the synthetic pulse profile of surface X-ray emission from NSs with arbitrary magnetic field and surface temperature distributions, taking into account magnetic atmosphere opacities, beam pattern, vacuum polarization, and gravitational light bending. We show that a crustal toroidal magnetic field of order a few × 1014 G or higher, varying smoothly across the crust, can produce sufficiently distinct surface hot spots to generate the observed pulse fraction in the Kes 79 NS. This result suggests that substantial sub-surface magnetic fields, much stronger than the "visible" dipole fields, may be buried in the crusts of some young NSs, and such hidden magnetic fields can play an important role in their observational manifestations. The general TTFT tool we have developed can also be used for studying radiation from other magnetic NSs.

  20. East Meets West on "Double Star", a Joint Mission to Explore Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Cluster instruments has a number of advantages for both European and Chinese scientists. "By flying experiments identical to those on Cluster, we can reduce costs and development time," explained Alberto Gianolio, ESA Project Manager for Double Star. "This will minimise risk and help us to ensure that we are able to meet the spacecraft development schedule." ESA has agreed to contribute 8 million euros to the Double Star programme. This funding will be used for refurbishment and pre-integration of the European instruments, acquisition of data for 4 hours per day and coordination of scientific operations. Notes for Editors: Double Star will be the first mission launched by China to explore the Earth's magnetosphere - the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet. As its name suggests, Double Star will involve two satellites - each designed, developed, launched and operated by the CNSA - flying in complementary orbits around the Earth. This orbital configuration will enable scientists to obtain simultaneous data on the changing magnetic field and population of electrified particles in different regions of the magnetosphere. The duo is expected to be launched by Chinese Long March 2C rockets in December 2002 and March 2003. This schedule may enable them to operate alongside ESA's Cluster mission - a mini-flotilla of four identical spacecraft launched into elliptical orbits around the Earth last summer. The "equatorial" spacecraft (DSP-1) will be launched into an elliptical orbit of 550 x 60,000 km, inclined at 28.5 degrees to the equator. This will enable it to investigate the Earth's huge magnetic tail, the region where particles are accelerated towards the planet's magnetic poles by a process known as reconnection. The "polar" satellite (DSP-2) will concentrate on physical processes taking place over the magnetic poles and the development of aurorae. It will have a 350 x 25,000 km orbit taking it round the Earth once every 7.3 hours.

  1. Mottled Protoplanetary Disk Ionization by Magnetically Channeled T Tauri Star Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraschetti, F.; Drake, J. J.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of protoplanetary disks is believed to be driven largely by angular momentum transport resulting from magnetized disk winds and turbulent viscosity. The ionization of the disk that is essential for these processes has been thought to be due to host star coronal X-rays but could also arise from energetic particles produced by coronal flares, or traveling shock waves, and advected by the stellar wind. We have performed test-particle numerical simulations of energetic protons propagating into a realistic T Tauri stellar wind, including a superposed small-scale magnetostatic turbulence. The isotropic (Kolmogorov power spectrum) turbulent component is synthesized along the individual particle trajectories. We have investigated the energy range [0.1–10] GeV, consistent with expectations from Chandra X-ray observations of large flares on T Tauri stars and recent indications by the Herschel Space Observatory of a significant contribution of energetic particles to the disk ionization of young stars. In contrast with a previous theoretical study finding a dominance of energetic particles over X-rays in the ionization throughout the disk, we find that the disk ionization is likely dominated by X-rays over much of its area, except within narrow regions where particles are channeled onto the disk by the strongly tangled and turbulent magnetic field. The radial thickness of such regions is 5 stellar radii close to the star and broadens with increasing radial distance. This likely continues out to large distances from the star (10 au or greater), where particles can be copiously advected and diffused by the turbulent wind.

  2. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  3. Long-term magnetic field monitoring of the Sun-like star ξ Bootis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, A.; Petit, P.; Saar, S.; Solanki, S. K.; Morin, J.; Marsden, S. C.; Aurière, M.; Dintrans, B.; Fares, R.; Gastine, T.; Lanoux, J.; Lignières, F.; Paletou, F.; Ramírez Vélez, J. C.; Théado, S.; Van Grootel, V.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: We aim to investigate the long-term temporal evolution of the magnetic field of the solar-type star ξ Bootis A, both from direct magnetic field measurements and from the simultaneous estimate of indirect activity indicators. Methods: We obtained seven epochs of high-resolution, circularly-polarized spectra from the NARVAL spectropolarimeter between 2007 and 2011, for a total of 76 spectra. Using approximately 6100 photospheric spectral lines covering the visible domain, we employed a cross-correlation procedure to compute a mean polarized line profile from each spectrum. The large-scale photospheric magnetic field of the star was then modelled by means of Zeeman-Doppler Imaging, allowing us to follow the year-to-year evolution of the reconstructed magnetic topology. Simultaneously, we monitored the width of several magnetically sensitive spectral lines, the radial velocity, the line asymmetry of intensity line profiles, and the chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and Hα lines. Results: During the highest observed activity states, in 2007 and 2011, the large-scale field of ξ Bootis A is almost completely axisymmetric and is dominated by its toroidal component. The toroidal component persists with a constant polarity, containing a significant fraction of the magnetic energy of the large-scale surface field through all observing epochs. The magnetic topologies reconstructed for these activity maxima are very similar, suggesting a form of short cyclicity in the large-scale field distribution. The mean unsigned large-scale magnetic flux derived from the magnetic maps varies by a factor of about 2 between the lowest and highest observed magnetic states. The chromospheric flux is less affected and varies by a factor of 1.2. Correlated temporal evolution, due to both rotational modulation and seasonal variability, is observed between the Ca II emission, the Hα emission and the width of magnetically sensitive lines. The rotational dependence of

  4. NuSTAR OBSERVATION OF A TYPE I X-RAY BURST FROM GRS 1741.9-2853

    SciTech Connect

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1} in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H massmore » fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M {sub ☉}, we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M {sub ☉}.« less

  5. Searching for magnetic fields in 11 Wolf-Rayet stars: Analysis of circular polarization measurements from ESPaDOnS

    SciTech Connect

    De la Chevrotière, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    With recent detections of magnetic fields in some of their progenitor O stars, combined with known strong fields in their possible descendant neutron stars, it is natural to search for magnetic fields in Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, despite the problems associated with the presence of winds enhanced by an order of magnitude over those of O stars. We continue our search among a sample of 11 bright WR stars following our introductory study in a previous paper of WR6 = EZ CMa using the spectropolarimeter ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, most of them in all four Stokes parameters. This sample includes sixmore » WN stars and five WC stars encompassing a range of spectral subclasses. Six are medium/long-period binaries and three show corotating interaction regions. We report no definite detections of a magnetic field in the winds in which the lines form (which is about the same distance from the center of the star as it is from the surface of the progenitor O star) for any of the eleven stars. Possible reasons and their implications are discussed. Nonetheless, the data show evidence supporting marginal detections for WR134, WR137, and WR138. According to the Bayesian analysis, the most probable field intensities are B {sub wind} ∼ 200, 130, and 80 G, respectively, with a 95.4% probability that the magnetic fields present in the observable parts of their stellar wind, if stronger, does not exceed B{sub wind}{sup max}∼1900 G, ∼1500 G, and ∼1500 G, respectively. In the case of non-detections, we report an average field strength upper limit of B{sub wind}{sup max}∼500 G.« less

  6. X-Ray Flare Oscillations Track Plasma Sloshing along Star-disk Magnetic Tubes in the Orion Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, Fabio; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; Flaccomio, Ettore; Petralia, Antonino; Sciortino, Salvatore

    2018-03-01

    Pulsing X-ray emission tracks the plasma “echo” traveling in an extremely long magnetic tube that flares in an Orion pre-main sequence (PMS) star. On the Sun, flares last from minutes to a few hours and the longest-lasting ones typically involve arcades of closed magnetic tubes. Long-lasting X-ray flares are observed in PMS stars. Large-amplitude (∼20%), long-period (∼3 hr) pulsations are detected in the light curve of day-long flares observed by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on-board Chandra from PMS stars in the Orion cluster. Detailed hydrodynamic modeling of two flares observed on V772 Ori and OW Ori shows that these pulsations may track the sloshing of plasma along a single long magnetic tube, triggered by a sufficiently short (∼1 hr) heat pulse. These magnetic tubes are ≥20 solar radii long, enough to connect the star with the surrounding disk.

  7. Magnetic Field Topology in Low-Mass Stars: Spectropolarimetric Observations of M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Lim, Jeremy; Donati, Jean-François; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Martín, Eduardo L.

    2009-10-01

    The magnetic field topology plays an important role in the understanding of stellar magnetic activity. While it is widely accepted that the dynamo action present in low-mass partially convective stars (e.g., the Sun) results in predominantly toroidal magnetic flux, the field topology in fully convective stars (masses below ~0.35 M sun) is still under debate. We report here our mapping of the magnetic field topology of the M4 dwarf G 164-31 (or Gl 490B), which is expected to be fully convective, based on time series data collected from 20 hr of observations spread over three successive nights with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. Our tomographic imaging technique applied to time series of rotationally modulated circularly polarized profiles reveals an axisymmetric large-scale poloidal magnetic field on the M4 dwarf. We then apply a synthetic spectrum fitting technique for measuring the average magnetic flux on the star. The flux measured in G 164-31 is |Bf| = 3.2 ± 0.4 kG, which is significantly greater than the average value of 0.68 kG determined from the imaging technique. The difference indicates that a significant fraction of the stellar magnetic energy is stored in small-scale structures at the surface of G 164-31. Our Hα emission light curve shows evidence for rotational modulation suggesting the presence of localized structure in the chromosphere of this M dwarf. The radius of the M4 dwarf derived from the rotational period and the projected equatorial velocity is at least 30% larger than that predicted from theoretical models. We argue that this discrepancy is likely primarily due to the young nature of G 164-31 rather than primarily due to magnetic field effects, indicating that age is an important factor which should be considered in the interpretation of this observational result. We also report here our polarimetric observations of five other M dwarfs with spectral types from M0 to M4.5, three of them showing strong Zeeman signatures. Based on

  8. Atmospheric mass-loss of extrasolar planets orbiting magnetically active host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalitha, Sairam; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Dash, Spandan

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic stellar activity of exoplanet hosts can lead to the production of large amounts of high-energy emission, which irradiates extrasolar planets, located in the immediate vicinity of such stars. This radiation is absorbed in the planets' upper atmospheres, which consequently heat up and evaporate, possibly leading to an irradiation-induced mass-loss. We present a study of the high-energy emission in the four magnetically active planet-bearing host stars, Kepler-63, Kepler-210, WASP-19, and HAT-P-11, based on new XMM-Newton observations. We find that the X-ray luminosities of these stars are rather high with orders of magnitude above the level of the active Sun. The total XUV irradiation of these planets is expected to be stronger than that of well-studied hot Jupiters. Using the estimated XUV luminosities as the energy input to the planetary atmospheres, we obtain upper limits for the total mass- loss in these hot Jupiters.

  9. The Structure of a Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disk around Magnetized Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habumugisha, Isaac; Jurua, Edward; Tessema, Solomon B.; Simon, Anguma K.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we present the complete structure of a quasi-Keplerian thin accretion disk with an internal dynamo around a magnetized neutron star. We assume a full quasi-Keplerian disk with the azimuthal velocity deviating from the Keplerian fashion by a factor of ξ (0 < ξ < 2). In our approach, we vertically integrate the radial component of the momentum equation to obtain the radial pressure gradient equation for a thin quasi-Keplerian accretion disk. Our results show that, at large radial distance, the accretion disk behaves in a Keplerian fashion. However, close to the neutron star, pressure gradient force (PGF) largely modifies the disk structure, resulting into sudden dynamical changes in the accretion disk. The corotation radius is shifted inward (outward) for ξ > 1 (for ξ < 1), and the position of the inner edge with respect to the new corotation radius is also relocated accordingly, as compared to the Keplerian model. The resulting PGF torque couples with viscous torque (when ξ < 1) to provide a spin-down torque and a spin-up torque (when ξ > 1) while in the advective state. Therefore, neglecting the PGF, as has been the case in previous models, is a glaring omission. Our result has the potential to explain the observable dynamic consequences of accretion disks around magnetized neutron stars.

  10. Accretion dynamics and polarized X-ray emission of magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arons, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    The basic ideas of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars are outlined. These are applied to a simple model of the structure of the plasma mound sitting at the magnetic poles of such a star, in which upward diffusion of photons is balanced by their downward advection. This steady flow model of the plasma's dynamical state is used to compute the emission of polarized X-raysfrom the optically thick, birefringent medium. The linear polarization of the continuum radiation emerging from the quasi-static mound is found to be as much as 40 percent at some rotation phases, but is insensitive to the geometry of the accretion flow. The role of the accretion shock, whose detailed polarimetric and spectral characteristics have yet to be calculated, is emphasized as the final determinant of the properties of the emerging X-rays. Some results describing the fully time dependent dynamics of the flow are also presented. In particular, steady flow onto a neutron star is shown to exhibit formation of 'photon bubbles', regions of greatly reduced plasma density filled with radiation which form and rise on millisecond time scale. The possible role of these complex structures in the flow for the formation of the emergent spectrum is briefly outlined.

  11. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the “tidal zone,” where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life. Key Words

  12. High-entropy ejections from magnetized proto-neutron star winds: implications for heavy element nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Todd A.; ud-Doula, Asif

    2018-06-01

    Although initially thought to be promising for production of the r-process nuclei, standard models of neutrino-heated winds from proto-neutron stars (PNSs) do not reach the requisite neutron-to-seed ratio for production of the lanthanides and actinides. However, the abundance distribution created by the r-, rp-, or νp-processes in PNS winds depends sensitively on the entropy and dynamical expansion time-scale of the flow, which may be strongly affected by high magnetic fields. Here, we present results from magnetohydrodynamic simulations of non-rotating neutrino-heated PNS winds with strong dipole magnetic fields from 1014 to 1016 G, and assess their role in altering the conditions for nucleosynthesis. The strong field forms a closed zone and helmet streamer configuration at the equator, with episodic dynamical mass ejections in toroidal plasmoids. We find dramatically enhanced entropy in these regions and conditions favourable for third-peak r-process nucleosynthesis if the wind is neutron-rich. If instead the wind is proton-rich, the conditions will affect the abundances from the νp-process. We quantify the distribution of ejected matter in entropy and dynamical expansion time-scale, and the critical magnetic field strength required to affect the entropy. For B ≳1015 G, we find that ≳10-6 M⊙ and up to ˜10-5 M⊙ of high-entropy material is ejected per highly magnetized neutron star birth in the wind phase, providing a mechanism for prompt heavy element enrichment of the universe. Former binary companions identified within (magnetar-hosting) supernova remnants, the remnants themselves, and runaway stars may exhibit overabundances. We provide a comparison with a semi-analytic model of plasmoid eruption and discuss implications and extensions.

  13. Role of Magnetic Diffusion Induced by Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection for Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, Alex; Santos de Lima, R.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E.

    2010-01-01

    The diffusion of astrophysical magnetic fields in conducting fluids in the presence of turbulence depends on whether magnetic fields can change their topology or reconnect in highly conducting media. Recent progress in understanding fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence is reassuring that the magnetic field behavior in the computer simulations and turbulent astrophysical environments is similar, as far as the magnetic reconnection is concerned. This makes it meaningful to perform MHD simulations of turbulent flows in order to understand the diffusion of magnetic field in astrophysical environments. Our study of magnetic field diffusion reveals important propertie s of the process. First of all, our 3D MHD simulations initiated with anti-correlating magnetic field and gaseous density exhibit at later times a decorrelation of the magnetic field and density, which corresponds well to the observations of the interstellar media. In the presence of gravity, our 3D simulations show the decrease of the flux to mass ratio with density concentration when turbulence is present. We observe this effect both in the situations when we start with the equilibrium distributions of gas and magnetic field and when we start with collapsing dynamically unstable configurations. Thus the process of turbulent magnetic field removal should be applicable both to quasistatic subcritical molecular clouds and cores and violently collapsing supercritical entities. The increase of the gravitational potential as well as the magnetization of the gas increases the segregation of the mass and flux in the saturated final state of simulations, supporting the notion that turbulent diffusivity relaxes the magnetic field + gas system in the gravitational field to its minimal energy state. At the same time, turbulence of high level may get the system unbound making the flux to mass ratio more uniform through the simulation box.

  14. The magnetic field and abundance distribution geometry of the peculiar A star 53 Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    New spectra have been obtained of the magnetic Ap star 53 Cam, well spaced through its 8.03 day rotation period, covering the spectral regions λλ3900 - 3960 and 4250 - 4315. These data, and previously obtained Hβ Zeeman analyzer observations of the longitudinal field strength, have been used to derive models of the magnetic field geometry and the abundance distributions of Ca, Cr, Fe, Sr, and Ti. The models have been obtained by use of a new line synthesis program that incorporates the effects of an assumed magnetic field and abundance distribution into the calculation of line profiles. Calculated profiles are compared with observations. The model is used to derive a radius of R/R_sun; = 2.3±0.4, a luminosity of log L/L_sun; = 1.4±0.17, and a mass of M/M_sun; = 2.0±0.3 for 53 Cam.

  15. Asymmetric neutrino reaction and pulsar kick in magnetized proto-neutron stars in fully relativistic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yasutake, Nobutoshi

    2012-11-12

    We calculate neutrino scattering and absorption on the hot and dense neutron-star matter with hyperons under the strong magnetic field using a perturbative approach. We find that the absorption cross-sections show a remarkable angular dependence. Its strength is reduced in the direction parallel to the magnetic field and enhanced in the opposite direction. This asymmetric variation becomes maximally 2.2 % of entire neutrino momentum when the magnetic field is assumed as about 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} G. Since the pulsar kick after the supernova explosion may have relationships to this asymmetry, detailed discussions about the pulsar kick and the asymmetrymore » are presented with the comparison to the observed kick velocities in a fully relativistic approach.« less

  16. Magnet design with 100-kA HTS STARS conductors for the helical fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, N.; Terazaki, Y.; Ito, S.; Tamura, H.; Hamaguchi, S.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2016-12-01

    The high-temperature superconducting (HTS) option is employed for the conceptual design of the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. The 100-kA-class STARS (Stacked Tapes Assembled in Rigid Structure) conductor is used for the magnet system including the continuously wound helical coils. Protection of the magnet system in case of a quench is a crucial issue and the hot-spot temperature during an emergency discharge is estimated based on the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional analyses. The number of division of the coil winding package is examined to limit the voltage generation. For cooling the HTS magnet, helium gas flow is considered and its feasibility is examined by simple analysis as a first step.

  17. A search for weak or complex magnetic fields in the B3V star ι Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Folsom, C. P.; Petit, P.; Petit, V.; Lignières, F.; Aurière, M.; Böhm, T.

    2014-11-01

    We obtained 128 high signal-to-noise ratio Stokes V spectra of the B3V star ι Her on five consecutive nights in 2012 with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, with the aim of searching for the presence of weak and/or complex magnetic fields. Least-squares deconvolution (LSD) mean profiles were computed from individual spectra, averaged over individual nights and over the entire run. No Zeeman signatures are detected in any of the profiles. The longitudinal magnetic field in the grand average profile was measured to be -0.24 ± 0.32 G, as compared to -0.22 ± 0.32 G in the null profile. Our observations therefore provide no evidence for the presence of Zeeman signatures analogous to those observed in the A0V star Vega by Lignières et al. We interpret these observations in three ways. First, we compare the LSD profiles with synthetic Stokes V profiles corresponding to organized (dipolar) magnetic fields, for which we find an upper limit of about 8 G on the polar strength of any surface dipole present. Secondly, we compare the grand average profile with calculations corresponding to the random magnetic spot topologies of Kochukhov & Sudnik, inferring that spots, if present, of 2° radius with strengths of 2-4 G and a filling factor of 50 per cent should have been detected in our data. Finally, we compare the observations with synthetic V profiles corresponding to the surface magnetic maps of Vega (Petit et al.) computed for the spectral characteristics of ι Her. We conclude that while it is unlikely we would have detected a magnetic field identical to Vega's, we would have likely detected one with a peak strength of about 30 G, i.e. approximately four times as strong as that of Vega.

  18. Disordered nuclear pasta, magnetic field decay, and crust cooling in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Cumming, A.; Schneider, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear pasta, with non-spherical shapes, is expected near the base of the crust in neutron stars. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of pasta show long lived topological defects that could increase electron scattering and reduce both the thermal and electrical conductivities. We model a possible low conductivity pasta layer by increasing an impurity parameter Qimp. Predictions of light curves for the low mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29, assuming a large Qimp, find continued late time cooling that is consistent with Chandra observations. The electrical and thermal conductivities are likely related. Therefore observations of late time crust cooling can provide insight on the electrical conductivity and the possible decay of neutron star magnetic fields (assuming these are supported by currents in the crust). This research was supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  19. Disordered Nuclear Pasta, Magnetic Field Decay, and Crust Cooling in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Cumming, A.; Schneider, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear pasta, with nonspherical shapes, is expected near the base of the crust in neutron stars. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of pasta show long lived topological defects that could increase electron scattering and reduce both the thermal and electrical conductivities. We model a possible low-conductivity pasta layer by increasing an impurity parameter Qimp . Predictions of light curves for the low-mass x-ray binary MXB 1659-29, assuming a large Qimp, find continued late time cooling that is consistent with Chandra observations. The electrical and thermal conductivities are likely related. Therefore, observations of late time crust cooling can provide insight on the electrical conductivity and the possible decay of neutron star magnetic fields (assuming these are supported by currents in the crust).

  20. Disordered nuclear pasta, magnetic field decay, and crust cooling in neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K; Briggs, C M; Caplan, M E; Cumming, A; Schneider, A S

    2015-01-23

    Nuclear pasta, with nonspherical shapes, is expected near the base of the crust in neutron stars. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of pasta show long lived topological defects that could increase electron scattering and reduce both the thermal and electrical conductivities. We model a possible low-conductivity pasta layer by increasing an impurity parameter Q_{imp}. Predictions of light curves for the low-mass x-ray binary MXB 1659-29, assuming a large Q_{imp}, find continued late time cooling that is consistent with Chandra observations. The electrical and thermal conductivities are likely related. Therefore, observations of late time crust cooling can provide insight on the electrical conductivity and the possible decay of neutron star magnetic fields (assuming these are supported by currents in the crust).

  1. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    MAKISHIMA, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1–7) × 108 T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states. PMID:27169348

  2. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide. A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims: We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods: We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (I.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results: An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N,J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N,J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N,J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. The complete list of measured Zeeman components is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  3. Disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars as high-energy particle accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of an accretion disk with the magnetic field of a neutron star produces large electromotive forces, which drive large conduction currents in the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit. Here we argue that such large conduction currents will cause microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere. If the minimum plasma density in the magnetosphere is relatively low is less than or aproximately 10(exp 9)/cu cm, current-driven micro-instabilities may cause relativistic double layers to form, producing voltage differences in excess of 10(exp 12) V and accelerating charged particles to very high energies. If instead the plasma density is higher (is greater than or approximately = 10(exp 9)/cu cm, twisting of the stellar magnetic field is likely to cause magnetic field reconnection. This reconnection will be relativistic, accelerating plasma in the magnetosphere to relativistic speeds and a small fraction of particles to very high energies. Interaction of these high-energy particles with X-rays, gamma-rays, and accreting plasma may produce detectable high-energy radiation.

  4. General relativistic electromagnetic fields of a slowly rotating magnetized neutron star - I. Formulation of the equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezzolla, L.; Ahmedov, B. J.; Miller, J. C.

    2001-04-01

    We present analytic solutions of Maxwell equations in the internal and external background space-time of a slowly rotating magnetized neutron star. The star is considered isolated and in vacuum, with a dipolar magnetic field not aligned with the axis of rotation. With respect to a flat space-time solution, general relativity introduces corrections related both to the monopolar and the dipolar parts of the gravitational field. In particular, we show that in the case of infinite electrical conductivity general relativistic corrections resulting from the dragging of reference frames are present, but only in the expression for the electric field. In the case of finite electrical conductivity, however, corrections resulting from both the space-time curvature and the dragging of reference frames are shown to be present in the induction equation. These corrections could be relevant for the evolution of the magnetic fields of pulsars and magnetars. The solutions found, while obtained through some simplifying assumption, reflect a rather general physical configuration and could therefore be used in a variety of astrophysical situations.

  5. LSPM J1314+1320: An Oversized Magnetic Star with Constraints on the Radio Emission Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, James; Mullan, D. J.

    LSPM J1314+1320 (=NLTT 33370) is a binary star system consisting of two nearly identical pre-main-sequence stars of spectral type M7. The system is remarkable among ultracool dwarfs for being the most luminous radio emitter over the widest frequency range. Masses and luminosities are at first sight consistent with the system being coeval at age ∼80 Myr according to standard (nonmagnetic) evolutionary models. However, these models predict an average effective temperature of ∼2950 K, which is 180 K hotter than the empirical value. Thus, the empirical radii are oversized relative to the standard models by ≈13%. We demonstrate that magnetic stellarmore » models can quantitatively account for the oversizing. As a check on our models, we note that the radio emission limits the surface magnetic field strengths: the limits depend on identifying the radio emission mechanism. We find that the field strengths required by our magnetic models are too strong to be consistent with gyrosynchrotron emission but are consistent with electron cyclotron maser emission.« less

  6. On Magnetic Dynamos in Thin Accretion Disks around Compact and Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of geometrically thin accretion disks commonly associated with such astronomical objects as X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and protostars are likely to be seats of MHD dynamo actions. Thin disk geometry and the particular physical environment make accretion disk dynamos different from stellar, planetary, or even galactic dynamos. We discuss those particular features of disk dynamos with emphasis on the difference between protoplanetary disk dynamos and those associated with compact stars. We then describe normal mode solutions for thin disk dynamos and discuss implications for the dynamical behavior of dynamo-magnetized accretion disks.

  7. General Relativistic Radiation MHD Simulations of Supercritical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star: Modeling of Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Ohsuga, Ken, E-mail: takahashi@cfca.jp, E-mail: ken.ohsuga@nao.ac.jp

    By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 10{sup 10} G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R {sub *} ( R {sub *} = 10{sup 6} cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of themore » disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ∼−10{sup −11} s s{sup −1}, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L {sub Edd}/ c {sup 2} and ≲10 L {sub Edd}, where L {sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.« less

  8. Origin and Evolution of Magnetic Field in PMS Stars: Influence of Rotation and Structural Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Emeriau-Viard, Constance; Brun, Allan Sacha, E-mail: constance.emeriau@cea.fr, E-mail: sacha.brun@cea.fr

    During stellar evolution, especially in the pre-main-sequence phase, stellar structure and rotation evolve significantly, causing major changes in the dynamics and global flows of the star. We wish to assess the consequences of these changes on stellar dynamo, internal magnetic field topology, and activity level. To do so, we have performed a series of 3D HD and MHD simulations with the ASH code. We choose five different models characterized by the radius of their radiative zone following an evolutionary track computed by a 1D stellar evolution code. These models characterized stellar evolution from 1 to 50 Myr. By introducing amore » seed magnetic field in the fully convective model and spreading its evolved state through all four remaining cases, we observe systematic variations in the dynamical properties and magnetic field amplitude and topology of the models. The five MHD simulations develop a strong dynamo field that can reach an equipartition state between the kinetic and magnetic energies and even superequipartition levels in the faster-rotating cases. We find that the magnetic field amplitude increases as it evolves toward the zero-age main sequence. Moreover, the magnetic field topology becomes more complex, with a decreasing axisymmetric component and a nonaxisymmetric one becoming predominant. The dipolar components decrease as the rotation rate and the size of the radiative core increase. The magnetic fields possess a mixed poloidal-toroidal topology with no obvious dominant component. Moreover, the relaxation of the vestige dynamo magnetic field within the radiative core is found to satisfy MHD stability criteria. Hence, it does not experience a global reconfiguration but slowly relaxes by retaining its mixed stable poloidal-toroidal topology.« less

  9. 3D MHD Simulations of Waves Excited in an Accretion Disk by a Rotating Magnetized Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of global 3D MHD simulations of warp and density waves in accretion disks excited by a rotating star with a misaligned dipole magnetic field. A wide range of cases are considered. We find for example that if the star's magnetosphere corotates approximately with the inner disk, then a strong one-arm bending wave or warp forms. The warp corotates with the star and has a maximum amplitude (|zω|/r ~ 0.3) between the corotation radius and the radius of the vertical resonance. If the magnetosphere rotates more slowly than the inner disk, then a bending wave is excited at the disk-magnetosphere boundary, but it does not form a large-scale warp. In this case the angular rotation of the disk [Ω(r,z = 0)] has a maximum as a function of r so that there is an inner region where dΩ/dr > 0. In this region we observe radially trapped density waves in approximate agreement with the theoretical prediction of a Rossby wave instability in this region.

  10. Radiative GRMHD simulations of accretion and outflow in non-magnetized neutron stars and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca, David; Kluźniak, Wlodek; Sądowski, Aleksander

    2018-06-01

    We run two GRRMHD simulations of super-Eddington accretion disks around a black hole and a non-magnetized, non-rotating neutron star. The neutron star was modeled using a reflective inner boundary condition. We observe the formation of a transition layer in the inner region of the disk in the neutron star simulation which leads to a larger mass outflow rate and a lower radiative luminosity over the black hole case. Sphereization of the flow leads to an observable luminosity at infinity around the Eddington value when viewed from all directions for the neutron star case, contrasting to the black hole case where collimation of the emission leads to observable luminosities about an order of magnitude higher when observed along the disk axis. We find the outflow to be optically thick to scattering, which would lead to the obscuring of any neutron star pulsations observed in corresponding ULXs.

  11. Stellar Magnetic Activity Cycles, and Hunting for Maunder Minimum-like Events among Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1966, astronomers have been making measurements of the chromospheric activity levels of Sun-like stars. Recently, the decades-long Mount Wilson data became public (spanning 1966-1995) complementing the published measurements from the California & Carnegie Planet Survey (1995-2011) and ongoing measurements ancillary to radial velocity planet searches at Keck Observatory. I will discuss what these long time series reveal about stellar magnetic activity cycles, and the prevalence of stars in states analogous to the Sun's Maunder Minimum.

  12. Compton Scattering Cross Sections in Strong Magnetic Fields: Advances for Neutron Star Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ickes, Jesse; Gonthier, Peter L.; Eiles, Matthew; Baring, Matthew G.; Wadiasingh, Zorawar

    2014-08-01

    Various telescopes including RXTE, INTEGRAL, Suzaku and Fermi have detected steady non-thermal X-ray emission in the 10 ~ 200 keV band from strongly magnetic neutron stars known as magnetars. Magnetic inverse Compton scattering is believed to be a leading candidate for the production of this intense X-ray radiation. Generated by electrons possessing ultra-relativistic energies, this leads to attractive simplifications of the magnetic Compton cross section. We have recently addressed such a case by developing compact analytic expressions using correct spin-dependent widths acquired through the implementation of Sokolov & Ternov (ST) basis states, focusing specifically on ground state-to-ground state scattering. Such scattering in magnetar magnetospheres can cool electrons down to mildly-relativistic energies. Moreover, soft gamma-ray flaring in magnetars may well involve strong Comptonization in expanding clouds of mildly-relativistic pairs. These situations necessitate the development of more general magnetic scattering cross sections, where the incoming photons acquire substantial incident angles relative to the field in the rest frame of the electron, and the intermediate state can be excited to arbitrary Landau levels. Here, we highlight results from such a generalization using ST formalism. The cross sections treat the plethora of harmonic resonances associated with various cyclotron transitions between Landau states. Polarization dependence of the cross section for the four scattering modes is illustrated and compared with the non-relativistic Thompson cross section with classical widths. Results will find application to various neutron star problems, including computation of Eddington luminosities and polarization mode-switching rates in transient magnetar fireballs.We express our gratitude for the generous support of Michigan Space Grant Consortium, the National Science Foundation (grants AST-0607651, AST-1009725, AST-1009731 and PHY/DMR-1004811), and the

  13. The stable magnetic field of the fully convective star V374 Peg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Forveille, T.; Delfosse, X.; Dobler, W.; Petit, P.; Jardine, M. M.; Collier Cameron, A.; Albert, L.; Manset, N.; Dintrans, B.; Chabrier, G.; Valenti, J. A.

    2008-02-01

    We report in this paper phase-resolved spectropolarimetric observations of the rapidly rotating fully convective M4 dwarf V374 Peg, on which a strong, mainly axisymmetric, large-scale poloidal magnetic field was recently detected. In addition to the original data set secured in 2005 August, we present here new data collected in 2005 September and 2006 August. From the rotational modulation of unpolarized line profiles, we conclude that star-spots are present at the surface of the star, but their contrast and fractional coverage are much lower than those of non-fully convective active stars with similar rotation rate. Applying tomographic imaging on each set of circularly polarized profiles separately, we find that the large-scale magnetic topology is remarkably stable on a time-scale of 1 yr; repeating the analysis on the complete data set suggests that the magnetic configuration is sheared by very weak differential rotation (about 1/10th of the solar surface shear) and only slightly distorted by intrinsic variability. This result is at odds with various theoretical predictions, suggesting that dynamo fields of fully convective stars should be mostly non-axisymmetric unless they succeed at triggering significant differential rotation. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. E-mail: jmorin@ast.obs-mip.fr (JM); donati@ast.obs-mip.fr (J-FD); thierry.forveille@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr (TF); xavier.delfosse@obs.ujfgrenoble.fr (XD); wolfgang.dobler@ucalgary.ca (WD); petit@ast.obs-mip.fr (PP); mmj@st-andrews.ac.uk (MMJ); acc4@st-andrews.ac.uk (ACC);albert@cfht.hawaii.edu (LA); manset@cfht.hawaii.edu (NM); dintrans@ast.obs-mip.fr (BD); chabrier@ens-lyon.fr (GC); valenti@stsci.edu (JAV)

  14. Frequency dependence of p-mode frequency shifts induced by magnetic activity in Kepler solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Régulo, C.; Pérez Hernández, F.; García, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The variations of the frequencies of the low-degree acoustic oscillations in the Sun induced by magnetic activity show a dependence on radial order. The frequency shifts are observed to increase towards higher-order modes to reach a maximum of about 0.8 μHz over the 11-yr solar cycle. A comparable frequency dependence is also measured in two other main sequence solar-like stars, the F-star HD 49933, and the young 1 Gyr-old solar analog KIC 10644253, although with different amplitudes of the shifts of about 2 μHz and 0.5 μHz, respectively. Our objective here is to extend this analysis to stars with different masses, metallicities, and evolutionary stages. From an initial set of 87 Kepler solar-like oscillating stars with known individual p-mode frequencies, we identify five stars showing frequency shifts that can be considered reliable using selection criteria based on Monte Carlo simulations and on the photospheric magnetic activity proxy Sph. The frequency dependence of the frequency shifts of four of these stars could be measured for the l = 0 and l = 1 modes individually. Given the quality of the data, the results could indicate that a physical source of perturbation different from that in the Sun is dominating in this sample of solar-like stars.

  15. On the environments and progenitors of supernova remnants associated with highly magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi-Harb, S.; Kumar, H. S.

    2013-03-01

    The distinction between the high-magnetic field pulsars (HBPs, thought to be mainly rotation-powered) and magnetars (commonly believed to be powered by their super-strong magnetic fields) has been recently blurred with the discovery of magnetar-like activity from the HBP J1846-0258 in the SNR Kes 75. What determines the spin properties of a neutron star at birth and its manifestation as a magnetar-like or more classical pulsar is still not clear. Furthermore, although a few studies have suggested very massive progenitors for magnetars, there is currently no consensus on the progenitors of these objects. To address these questions, we examine their environments by studying or revisiting their securely associated SNRs. Our approach is to: 1) infer the mass of their progenitor stars through X-ray spectroscopic studies of the thermally emitting supernova ejecta, and 2) investigate the physical properties of their hosting SNRs and ambient conditions. We here highlight our detailed studies of two SNRs: G292.2-0.5, associated with the HBP J1119-6127, and Kes 73, associated with the AXP 1E 1841-045, and summarize the current view of the other (handful) HBP/magnetar-SNR associations.

  16. Is there a highly magnetized neutron star in GX 301-2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Suleimanov, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.

    2010-06-01

    We present the results of an in-depth study of the long-period X-ray pulsar GX 301-2. Using archival data of INTEGRAL, RXTE ASM, and CGRO BATSE, we study the spectral and timing properties of the source. Comparison of our timing results with previously published work reveals a secular decay of the orbital period at a rate of ≃ - 3.25 × 10-5 d yr-1, which is an order of magnitude faster than for other known systems. We argue that this is probably result either of the apsidal motion or of gravitational coupling of the matter lost by the optical companion with the neutron star, although current observations do not allow us to distinguish between those possibilities. We also propose a model to explain the observed long pulse period. We find that a very strong magnetic field B ~ 1014 G can explain the observed pulse period in the framework of existing models for torques affecting the neutron star. We show that the apparent contradiction with the magnetic field strength BCRSF ~ 4 × 1012 G derived from the observed cyclotron line position may be resolved if the line formation region resides in a tall accretion column of height ~2.5-3 RNS. The color temperature measured from the spectrum suggests that such a column may indeed be present, and our estimates show that its height is sufficient to explain the observed cyclotron line position.

  17. The pulsationally modulated radial crossover signature of the slowly rotating magnetic B-type star ξ1 CMa★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th

    2018-04-01

    We report the latest set of spectropolarimetric observations of the magnetic β Cep star ξ1 CMa. The new observations confirm the long-period model of Shultz et al. (2017), who proposed a rotational period of about 30 years and predicted that in 2018 the star should pass through a magnetic null. In perfect agreement with this projection, all longitudinal magnetic field ⟨Bz⟩ measurements are close to 0 G. Remarkably, individual Stokes V profiles all display a crossover signature, which is consistent with ⟨Bz⟩ ˜ 0 but is not expected when vsin i ˜ 0. The crossover signatures furthermore exhibit pulsationally modulated amplitude and sign variations. We show that these unexpected phenomena can all be explained by a `radial crossover' effect related to the star's radial pulsations, together with an important deviation of the global field topology from a purely dipolar structure, which we explore via a dipole+quadrupole configuration as the simplest non-dipolar field.

  18. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Properties of matter in ultrahigh magnetic fields and the structure of the surface of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, Mikhail A.; Johansson, B.

    1995-02-01

    The physical properties of atoms, molecules, and solids in ultrahigh magnetic fields B gg 109 G that are believed to exist on the surface of neutron stars are discussed. In these fields, atoms are strongly deformed and elongated along the magnetic field lines; the binding energy and ionizing energy of the atoms are substantially increased and the interatomic interaction is dramatically changed. This strongly modifies the properties of matter at the surface of magnetic neutron stars which are crucial for modelling the pulsar magnetosphere. A scenario for magnetosphere evolution is proposed which suggests free emission for a young pulsar and strong binding of the matter to the surface at a later stage. This later stage is due to strongly bound chains of alternate heavy atoms and light atoms accreted on the surface of the star.

  19. Precision modelling of M dwarf stars: the magnetic components of CM Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, J.; Mullan, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    The eclipsing binary CM Draconis (CM Dra) contains two nearly identical red dwarfs of spectral class dM4.5. The masses and radii of the two components have been reported with unprecedentedly small statistical errors: for M, these errors are 1 part in 260, while for R, the errors reported by Morales et al. are 1 part in 130. When compared with standard stellar models with appropriate mass and age (≈4 Gyr), the empirical results indicate that both components are discrepant from the models in the following sense: the observed stars are larger in R ('bloated'), by several standard deviations, than the models predict. The observed luminosities are also lower than the models predict. Here, we attempt at first to model the two components of CM Dra in the context of standard (non-magnetic) stellar models using a systematic array of different assumptions about helium abundances (Y), heavy element abundances (Z), opacities and mixing length parameter (α). We find no 4-Gyr-old models with plausible values of these four parameters that fit the observed L and R within the reported statistical error bars. However, CM Dra is known to contain magnetic fields, as evidenced by the occurrence of star-spots and flares. Here we ask: can inclusion of magnetic effects into stellar evolution models lead to fits of L and R within the error bars? Morales et al. have reported that the presence of polar spots results in a systematic overestimate of R by a few per cent when eclipses are interpreted with a standard code. In a star where spots cover a fraction f of the surface area, we find that the revised R and L for CM Dra A can be fitted within the error bars by varying the parameter α. The latter is often assumed to be reduced by the presence of magnetic fields, although the reduction in α as a function of B is difficult to quantify. An alternative magnetic effect, namely inhibition of the onset of convection, can be readily quantified in terms of a magnetic parameter δ≈B2/4

  20. Cyclical period changes in cataclysmic variables: evidence of magnetic activity cycles in the mass-donor star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B. W.; Baptista, R.

    2005-09-01

    Cataclymic variables (CVs) are semi-detached binary systems in which a main sequence late-type star (the secondary) fills its Roche lobe and transfers matter to a white dwarf (the primary) through the inner Lagragian point L1. Evolutive models of CVs predicts that the orbital periods Porb of these systems would decrease on time scales of 108 - 109 years due to angular momentum losses either by magnetic braking via the secondary star's wind (Porb > 3 hr) or by emission of gravitational radiation (Porb > 3 hr). These models try to explain the observed gap of systems with Porb in the range of ~ 2 to 3 hr as the consequence of a sharp reduction of magnetic field open lines when the secondary star become fully convective (at Porb ~ 3 hr). However, up to now no well-studied CVs show evidence of period decrease. Instead, most well-observed eclipsing CVs show cyclical period changes probably associated to solar-type (quasi-periodic and/or multiperiodic) magnetic activity cycles in the secondary star. The fast spinning secondaries of CVs, covering a range of masses and rotation periods, are an important laboratory to understand magnetic activities cycles in late type stars. In the present work, we report the investigation of cyclical period changes in IP Peg: CV with orbital periods of 3.8 hr.

  1. Dynamical systems for modeling the evolution of the magnetic field of stars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, H.

    2016-02-01

    The cycles of solar magnetic activity are connected with a solar dynamo that operates in the convective zone. Solar dynamo mechanism is based on the combined action of the differential rotation and the alpha-effect. Application of these concepts allows us to get an oscillating solution as a wave of the toroidal field propagating from middle latitudes to the equator. We investigated the dynamo model with the meridional circulation by the low-mode approach. This approach is based on an assumption that the solar magnetic field can be described by non-linear dynamical systems with a relatively small number of parameters. Such non-linear dynamical systems are based on the equations of dynamo models. With this method dynamical systems have been built for media which contains the meridional flow and thickness of the convection zone of the star. It was shown the possibility of coexistence of quiasi-biennial and 22-year cycle. We obtained the different regimes (oscillations, vacillations, dynamo-bursts) depending on the value of the dynamo-number, the meridional circulation, and thickness of the convection zone. We discuss the features of these regimes and compare them with the observed features of evolution of the solar and geo magnetic fields. We built theoretical paleomagnetic time scale and butterfly-diagrams for the helicity and toroidal magnetic field for different regimes.

  2. Magnetic field and radial velocities of the star Chi Draconis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Gadelshin, D.; Han, Inwoo; Kang, Dong-Il; Kim, Kang-Min; Valyavin, G.; Galazutdinov, G.; Jeong, Gwanghui; Beskrovnaya, N.; Burlakova, T.; Grauzhanina, A.; Ikhsanov, N. R.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Valeev, A.; Bychkov, V.; Park, Myeong-Gu

    2018-01-01

    We present high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the spectroscopic binary χ Dra. Spectral lines in the spectrum of the main component χ Dra A show variable Zeeman displacement, which confirms earlier suggestions about the presence of a weak magnetic field on the surface of this star. Within about 2 yr of time base of our observations, the longitudinal component BL of the magnetic field exhibits variation from -11.5 ± 2.5 to +11.1 ± 2.1 G with a period of about 23 d. Considering the rotational velocity of χ Dra A in the literature and that newly measured in this work, this variability may be explained by the stellar rotation under the assumption that the magnetic field is globally stable. Our new measurements of the radial velocities (RV) in high-resolution I-spectra of χ Dra A refined the orbital parameters and reveal persistent deviations of RVs from the orbital curve. We suspect that these deviations may be due to the influence of local magnetically generated spots, pulsations, or a Jupiter-size planet orbiting the system.

  3. THE STAR FORMATION RATE OF TURBULENT MAGNETIZED CLOUDS: COMPARING THEORY, SIMULATIONS, AND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Federrath, Christoph; Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu

    2012-12-20

    The role of turbulence and magnetic fields is studied for star formation in molecular clouds. We derive and compare six theoretical models for the star formation rate (SFR)-the Krumholz and McKee (KM), Padoan and Nordlund (PN), and Hennebelle and Chabrier (HC) models, and three multi-freefall versions of these, suggested by HC-all based on integrals over the log-normal distribution of turbulent gas. We extend all theories to include magnetic fields and show that the SFR depends on four basic parameters: (1) virial parameter {alpha}{sub vir}; (2) sonic Mach number M; (3) turbulent forcing parameter b, which is a measure for themore » fraction of energy driven in compressive modes; and (4) plasma {beta}=2M{sub A}{sup 2}/M{sup 2} with the Alfven Mach number M{sub A}. We compare all six theories with MHD simulations, covering cloud masses of 300 to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} and Mach numbers M=3-50 and M{sub A}=1-{infinity}, with solenoidal (b = 1/3), mixed (b = 0.4), and compressive turbulent (b = 1) forcings. We find that the SFR increases by a factor of four between M=5 and 50 for compressive turbulent forcing and {alpha}{sub vir} {approx} 1. Comparing forcing parameters, we see that the SFR is more than 10 times higher with compressive than solenoidal forcing for M=10 simulations. The SFR and fragmentation are both reduced by a factor of two in strongly magnetized, trans-Alfvenic turbulence compared to hydrodynamic turbulence. All simulations are fit simultaneously by the multi-freefall KM and multi-freefall PN theories within a factor of two over two orders of magnitude in SFR. The simulated SFRs cover the range and correlation of SFR column density with gas column density observed in Galactic clouds, and agree well for star formation efficiencies SFE = 1%-10% and local efficiencies {epsilon} = 0.3-0.7 due to feedback. We conclude that the SFR is primarily controlled by interstellar turbulence, with a secondary effect coming from magnetic fields.« less

  4. Pulsation in the presence of a strong magnetic field: the roAp star HD166473

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Elkin, V. G.

    2007-09-01

    Phase-resolved high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of the strongly magnetic roAp star HD166473 are analysed. HD166473 was selected as the target of this study because it has one of the strongest magnetic fields of all the roAp stars known with resolved magnetically split lines. Indeed, we show that enhanced pulsation diagnosis can be achieved from consideration of the different pulsation behaviour of the π and σ Zeeman components of the resolved spectral lines. This study is based on a time-series of high spectral resolution observations obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory. Radial velocity variations due to pulsation are observed in rare earth lines, with amplitudes up to 110ms-1. The variations occur with three frequencies, already detected in photometry, but which can in this work be determined with better precision: 1.833, 1.886 and 1.928mHz. The pulsation amplitudes and phases observed in the rare earth element lines vary with atmospheric height, as is the case in other roAp stars studied in detail. Lines of Fe and of other (mostly non-rare earth) elements do not show any variation to very high precision (1.5ms-1 in the case of Fe). The low amplitudes of the observed variations do not allow the original goal of studying differences between the behaviour of the resolved Zeeman line components to be reached; the S/N achieved in the radial velocity determinations is insufficient to establish definitely the possible existence of such differences. Yet the analysis provides a tantalizing hint at the occurrence of variations of the mean magnetic field modulus with the pulsation frequency, with an amplitude of 21 +/- 5G. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, as part of programme 067.D-0272. E-mail: gmathys@eso.org

  5. Radiative accretion shocks along nonuniform stellar magnetic fields in classical T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, S.; Bonito, R.; Argiroffi, C.; Reale, F.; Peres, G.; Miceli, M.; Matsakos, T.; Stehlé, C.; Ibgui, L.; de Sa, L.; Chièze, J. P.; Lanz, T.

    2013-11-01

    Context. According to the magnetospheric accretion model, hot spots form on the surface of classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) in regions where accreting disk material impacts the stellar surface at supersonic velocity, generating a shock. Aims: We investigate the dynamics and stability of postshock plasma that streams along nonuniform stellar magnetic fields at the impact region of accretion columns. We study how the magnetic field configuration and strength determine the structure, geometry, and location of the shock-heated plasma. Methods: We model the impact of an accretion stream onto the chromosphere of a CTTS by 2D axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Our model considers the gravity, the radiative cooling, and the magnetic-field-oriented thermal conduction (including the effects of heat flux saturation). We explore different configurations and strengths of the magnetic field. Results: The structure, stability, and location of the shocked plasma strongly depend on the configuration and strength of the magnetic field. In the case of weak magnetic fields (plasma β ≳ 1 in the postshock region), a large component of B may develop perpendicular to the stream at the base of the accretion column, which limits the sinking of the shocked plasma into the chromosphere and perturbs the overstable shock oscillations induced by radiative cooling. An envelope of dense and cold chromospheric material may also develop around the shocked column. For strong magnetic fields (β < 1 in the postshock region close to the chromosphere), the field configuration determines the position of the shock and its stand-off height. If the field is strongly tapered close to the chromosphere, an oblique shock may form well above the stellar surface at the height where the plasma β ≈ 1. In general, we find that a nonuniform magnetic field makes the distribution of emission measure vs. temperature of the postshock plasma at T > 106 K lower than when there is uniform magnetic field

  6. Relation between the Li spots, dipolar magnetic field and other variable phenomena in the roAp star HD 83368

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.

    The detection of remarkable variations in the profile of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å with rotational phase of the roAp star HD 83368 (North et al. 1998) prompted us to consider the behaviour of other characteristics of this star. The observational data on magnetic field (Heff), brightness and amplitude of rapid light oscillations of HD 83368 are analyzed. A clear synchronism appears between the variations of the Li line intensity, brightness, magnetic field and pulsation amplitude with rotational phase, which can be explained in terms of a spotted rotator model. Reference: North P., Polosukhina N., Malanushenko V., Hack M., 1998, A&A 333, 644

  7. X-ray studies of highly magnetized neutron stars and their environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Harsha Sanjeev

    Supernova explosions are among the most energetic events known in the universe, leaving supernova remnants (SNRs) as their relics. The cores of massive stars collapse to form neutron stars, among the most compact and strongest magnets in the cosmos. The thesis studies a sample of such magnetic "beauties" in X-rays, the magnetars and high-magnetic field pulsars (HBPs), with the motivation to understand their evolutionary links. We also address the connection between these sources by investigating their environs through their securely associated SNRs. Magnetars have ultra-high magnetic fields B ~ 1014 -- 1015 Gauss (G) and include the soft-gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs). The HBPs have magnetic fields B ~ 1013 -- 10 14 G, intermediate between the classical rotation-powered pulsars (B ~ 1012 G) and magnetars. We focussed on two HBPs: J1119-6127 and J1846-0258, with similar spin-properties and associated with the SNRs G292.2-0.5 and Kes 75, respectively. In our studies, magnetar-like behavior was discovered from the Crab-like pulsar J1846-0258, clearly establishing a connection between the HBPs and magnetars for the first time, while no such behavior has been observed from PSR J1119-6127 so far. J1119-6127's overall X-ray properties together with its compact pulsar wind nebula resemble more the classical rotation-powered pulsars. We studied two magnetars, one from each sub-class: SGR 0501+4516 and AXP 1E 1841-045. The spectral and statistical analysis of the bursts and the persistent X-ray emission properties observed from them were found consistent with the magnetar model predictions as well as those seen in other SGRs. Finally, we probed the environment of these stellar magnets by performing a detailed X-ray imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopic study of two SNRs: G292.2-0.5 and Kes 73 associated with J1119-6127 and 1E 1841-045, respectively. We found that both SNRs point to very massive progenitors ( ≳ 25 solar masses), further

  8. Effects of Magnetic Field and Rotation on 3P2 Superfluidity in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Nitta, Muneto

    2014-09-01

    It is believed that an anisotropic 3P2 superfluid state is realized in the core of neutron stars. Historically, a lot of works (Anderson et al. (1961), Hoffberg et al. (1970) and Tamagaki (1970)) discussed the properties of 3P2 superfluid state. Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation was derived by Fujita, Tsuneto (1972) and Richardson (1972). After that, Mermin (1974) solved the problem of minimizing GL free energy density for d-wave pairing and showed what ground states are realized. By using these results, Sauls and Serene (1978) concluded that the unitary phase is realized in BCS limit, and Sauls et al. (1982) showed 3P2 vortices have a spontaneous magnetization. In this presentation, we firstly introduce GL equation and show some analogy to that of spin2-BEC. In BCS limit, degenerate ground states are parameterized by one parameter. We show effects of gradient terms, magnetic field and rotation on ground states and half-quantized 3P2 vortices are the most stable states under certain conditions. Next, by using an anisotropic GL equation, we discuss a spontaneous magnetization caused by half-quantized 3P2 vortices and compare results with that of integer vortices. Finally, we comment on possible effects of 3P2 superfluid state on neutron star observables. It is believed that an anisotropic 3P2 superfluid state is realized in the core of neutron stars. Historically, a lot of works (Anderson et al. (1961), Hoffberg et al. (1970) and Tamagaki (1970)) discussed the properties of 3P2 superfluid state. Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation was derived by Fujita, Tsuneto (1972) and Richardson (1972). After that, Mermin (1974) solved the problem of minimizing GL free energy density for d-wave pairing and showed what ground states are realized. By using these results, Sauls and Serene (1978) concluded that the unitary phase is realized in BCS limit, and Sauls et al. (1982) showed 3P2 vortices have a spontaneous magnetization. In this presentation, we firstly introduce GL equation and

  9. Lithium and Isotopic Ratio Li6/Li7 in Magnetic roAp Stars as an Indicator of Active Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Nesvacil, N.; Drake, N.; Smirnova, M.

    2015-04-01

    The lines of lithium at 6708 Å and 6103 Å are analyzed in high resolution spectra of some sharp-lined and slowly rotating roAp stars. Three spectral synthesis codes— STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM—were used. New lines of rare earth elements (REE) from the DREAM database and the lines calculated on the basis of the NIST energy levels were included. Magnetic splitting and other line broadening processes were taken into account. For both lithium lines, the enhanced abundances of lithium in the atmospheres of the stars studied are obtained. The lithium abundance determined from the Li 6103 Å line is higher than that from the Li 6708 Å for all the stars. This may be evidence of vertical lithium stratification, abnormal temperature distribution, or unidentified blending of the 6103 Å line. Our work on two roAp stars, HD 83368 and HD 60435 (Shavrina et al. 2001) provides evidence of an enhanced lithium abundance near the magnetic-field poles. We can expect similar effects in the sharp-lined roAp stars. High lithium abundance for all the stars and the estimates of the 6Li/7Li ratio (0.2-0.5) can be explained by production of Li in the cosmic ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium where the stars were born, and by preservation of the original 6Li and 7Li by strong magnetic fields of these stars. The values of the 6Li/7Li ratio expected from production by cosmic rays are about 0.5-0.8 (Knauth et al. 2003; Webber et al. 2002). New laboratory and theoretical gf-values for REE lines are necessary in order to refine our estimates of lithium abundances and the isotopic ratio.

  10. Further comments on the effects of vacuum birefringence on the polarization of X-rays emitted from magnetic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanan, G. A.; Novick, R.; Silver, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The birefringence of the vacuum in the presence of strong (of the order of 1 teragauss) magnetic fields will in general affect the polarization of X-rays propagating through these fields. Two of the four Stokes parameters will vary so rapidly with wavelength as to be 'washed out' and unobservable, but the remaining two parameters will be unaffected. These results show that one conclusion of an earlier work is incorrect: Polarized X-ray emission from the surface of a magnetic neutron star will not in general be completely depolarized by the effects of vacuum birefringence. In particular, this birefringence has no effect on the linear polarization of cyclotron emission from the poles of magnetic neutron stars, and a similar result holds for synchrotron emission. More general cases of the propagation of polarized X-rays in magnetic fields are also discussed.

  11. The Nonisothermal Stage of Magnetic Star Formation. I. Formulation of the Problem and Method of Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Matthew W.; Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.

    2009-03-01

    We formulate the problem of the formation and subsequent evolution of fragments (or cores) in magnetically supported, self-gravitating molecular clouds in two spatial dimensions. The six-fluid (neutrals, electrons, molecular and atomic ions, positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral grains) physical system is governed by the radiation, nonideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. The magnetic flux is not assumed to be frozen in any of the charged species. Its evolution is determined by a newly derived generalized Ohm's law, which accounts for the contributions of both elastic and inelastic collisions to ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. The species abundances are calculated using an extensive chemical-equilibrium network. Both MRN and uniform grain size distributions are considered. The thermal evolution of the protostellar core and its effect on the dynamics are followed by employing the gray flux-limited diffusion approximation. Realistic temperature-dependent grain opacities are used that account for a variety of grain compositions. We have augmented the publicly available Zeus-MP code to take into consideration all these effects and have modified several of its algorithms to improve convergence, accuracy, and efficiency. Results of magnetic star formation simulations that accurately track the evolution of a protostellar fragment from a density sime103 cm-3 to a density sime1015 cm-3, while rigorously accounting for both nonideal MHD processes and radiative transfer, are presented in a separate paper.

  12. Topics in solid-state astrophysics: Magnetized neutron star crusts and multicomponent crusts/white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Tyler A.

    Two research endeavors are described in this dissertation; both undertake problems in solid-state astrophysics, which is a branch of solid-state physics concerning the extreme conditions found within white dwarfs and the solid crusts of neutron stars. As much of our knowledge about these compact objects comes from observation of astrophysical phenomena, Chapter 1 is devoted to the phenomena, and how they can be exploited as material property probes. Several of the most interesting phenomena involve the enormous magnetic fields (B ≥ 1012 gauss) harbored by many neutron stars, and the interaction between these fields and the charged particles within the solid crust. Accordingly, Chapter 2 reviews some theory of strongly-magnetized electrons, which both sets the stage for Chapter 3, and (hopefully) serves as a useful reference for future research. Let it now be made clear that this dissertation focuses exclusively on the "outer crusts," of neutron stars, where no free neutrons are present (rho < 4x1011 g/cc), and the similarly-composed interiors of white dwarfs, which have central densities ˜ 107 g/cc. For the most part we specialize to even lower densities. In Chapter 3, static and dynamic properties of low density (rho ≥ 106 g/cc) outer envelopes of neutron stars are calculated within the nonlinear magnetic Thomas-Fermi model, assuming degenerate electrons. A novel domain decomposition enables proper description of lattice symmetry and may be seen as a prototype for the general class of problems involving nonlinear charge screening of periodic, quasi-low-dimensionality structures, e.g. liquid crystals. We describe a scalable implementation of the method using Hypre. Over the density range considered, the effective shear modulus appears to be a factor of ≈ 20 larger than in the linearlyscreened Coulomb crystal model, which could have implications for observables related to astroseismology as well as low temperature phonon-mediated thermal conductivity. Other

  13. Variations in the Orbital Light Curve of the Magnetic Cataclysmic Variable Star QQ Vulpecula (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. C.

    2017-06-01

    (Abstract only) Magnetic cataclysmic variable stars have brightness variations that repeat with each revolution of the two stars about the center of mass of the system. However, in the case of QQ Vulpecula, this brightness variation pattern changes in the long term. This study makes use of two decades worth of data from the Roboscope Telescope as well as data from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) database to examine the long-term evolution of QQ Vul's phase curves. Nightly observations using the Maria Mitchell Association Vestal and Loines Observatory supplemented this analysis by clarifying short-term brightness variation. The long-term data was divided into four commonly observed behavioral types ranging from a double peaked curve of 15.5 magnitude to a 15.0 magnitude curve that had a primary minimum and a slow, linear rise in brightness in place of the secondary minimum. The nightly data kept within the confines of these categories, though the secondary minimum in the nightly data never vanished. No periodicity was found in the long-term variations. The model often invoked to explain the double peaked curve consists of single pole accretion in which a partial self-eclipse causes the secondary minimum and cyclotron beaming causes the primary minimum. However, the long-term variation may indicate a changing accretion rate, which may manifest itself in changes to the shape, size, or location of the accretion spot on the white dwarf such that it lessens or removes the secondary minimum. This project was supported by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980, the Massachusetts Space Grant, and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  14. Long-term Accretion Variations of the Magnetic Cataclysmic Variable Star QQ Vulpecula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper Rose, Sanaea; Kafka, Stella; Jorgenson, Regina; Carr, Derrick; Childs, Francesca; Christenson, Holly; Karim, Md. Tanveer; Konchady, Tarini; Walker, Gary E.; Honeycutt, R. K.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic cataclysmic variable stars have brightness variations that repeat with each revolution of the two stars about the center of mass of the system. However, in the case of QQ Vulpecula (QQ Vul), this brightness variation pattern changes in the long term. This study makes use of two decades worth of data from the Roboscope Telescope as well as data from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) database to examine the long-term evolution of QQ Vul’s phase curves. Nightly observations using the Maria Mitchell Association's Vestal and Loines Observatories supplemented this analysis by clarifying short-term brightness variation. The long-term data was divided into four commonly observed behavioral types ranging from a double peaked curve of ~15.5 magnitude to a ~15.0 magnitude curve that had a primary minimum and a slow, linear rise in brightness in place of the secondary minimum. The nightly data kept within the confines of these categories, though the secondary minimum in the nightly data never vanished. No periodicity was found in the long-term variations. The model often invoked to explain the double peaked curve consists of single pole accretion in which a partial self-eclipse causes the secondary minimum and cyclotron beaming causes the primary minimum. However, the long-term variation may indicate a changing accretion rate, which may manifest itself in changes to the shape, size, or location of the accretion spot on the white dwarf such that it lessens or removes the secondary minimum. This project was supported by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980, the Massachusetts Space Grant, and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  15. Production of gamma ray bursts from asymmetric core combustion of magnetized young neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.; Ghezzi, C. R.

    2005-09-01

    Many works in the past have explored the idea that the conversion of hadronic matter into strange quark matter in neutron stars may be an energy source for GRBs (see references in Lugones et al. 2002, Lugones and Horvath 2003). These models addressed essentially spherically symmetric conversions of the whole neutron star rendering isotropic gamma emission. Accumulating observational evidence suggests that at least ''long'' GRBs are strongly asymmetric, jet-like outflows. The ''short'' burst subclass is not obviously asymmetric, and they may actually be spherically symmetric if the sources are close enough. A new potentially important feature recently recognized (Lugones et al. 2002) is that if a conversion to strange quark matter actually begins near the center of a neutron star, the presence of a magnetic field with intensity B ˜ 1013 G (see also Ghezi, de Gouveia Dal Pino & Horvath 2004) will originate a prompt collimated gamma emission, which may be observed as a short, beamed GRB after the recovery of a fraction of the neutrino energy via ν {barν} → e+e- → γγ. The calculations show that the neutrino luminosity is ˜ 1053 erg/sec and that the e+e- luminosity is about two orders of magnitude smaller ( tet{Lugones2002grb}). We find that 90 % of the e+e- pairs are injected inside small cylinders located just above the polar caps (with radius δ and height 0.4 R) in a timescale of τi ≃ 0.2 s almost independently of the initial temperature. This provides an interesting suitable explanation for the inner engine of short gamma ray bursts.

  16. General Relativistic Simulations of Low-Mass Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    We will present general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of binary neutron star (BNS) systems that produce long-lived neutron stars (NSs) after merger. While the standard scenario for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) requires the formation after merger of a spinning black hole surrounded by an accretion disk, other theoretical models, such as the time-reversal scenario, predict the formation of a long-lived magnetar. The formation of a long-lived magnetar could in particular explain the X-ray plateaus that have been observed in some SGRBs. Moreover, observations of NSs with masses of 2 solar masses indicate that the equation of state of NS matter should support masses larger than that. Therefore a significant fraction of BNS mergers will produce long-lived NSs. This has important consequences both on the emission of gravitational wave signals and on their electromagnetic counterparts. We will discuss GRMHD simulations of ``low-mass'' magnetized BNS systems with different equations of state and mass ratios. We will describe the properties of their post-merger remnants and of their gravitational and electromagnetic emission.

  17. Improved Magnetic STAR Methods for Real-Time, Point-by-Point Localization of Unexploded Ordnance and Buried Mines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    of magnetic UXO. The prototype STAR Sensor comprises: a) A cubic array of eight fluxgate magnetometers . b) A 24-channel data acquisition/signal...array (shaded boxes) of eight low noise Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometers (TFM) develops 24 channels of vector B- field data. Processor hardware

  18. The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars II: the early main sequence (250-650 Myr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folsom, C. P.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Lèbre, A.; Amard, L.; Palacios, A.; Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    There is a large change in surface rotation rates of sun-like stars on the pre-main sequence and early main sequence. Since these stars have dynamo-driven magnetic fields, this implies a strong evolution of their magnetic properties over this time period. The spin-down of these stars is controlled by interactions between stellar and magnetic fields, thus magnetic evolution in turn plays an important role in rotational evolution. We present here the second part of a study investigating the evolution of large-scale surface magnetic fields in this critical time period. We observed stars in open clusters and stellar associations with known ages between 120 and 650 Myr, and used spectropolarimetry and Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their large-scale magnetic field strength and geometry. We report 15 stars with magnetic detections here. These stars have masses from 0.8 to 0.95 M⊙, rotation periods from 0.326 to 10.6 d, and we find large-scale magnetic field strengths from 8.5 to 195 G with a wide range of geometries. We find a clear trend towards decreasing magnetic field strength with age, and a power law decrease in magnetic field strength with Rossby number. There is some tentative evidence for saturation of the large-scale magnetic field strength at Rossby numbers below 0.1, although the saturation point is not yet well defined. Comparing to younger classical T Tauri stars, we support the hypothesis that differences in internal structure produce large differences in observed magnetic fields, however for weak-lined T Tauri stars this is less clear.

  19. Laser experiments to simulate coronal mass ejection driven magnetospheres and astrophysical plasma winds on compact magnetized stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Ditmire, T.; Zakharov, Yu. P.

    2010-06-01

    Laboratory experiments using a plasma wind generated by laser-target interaction are proposed to investigate the creation of a shock in front of the magnetosphere and the dynamo mechanism for creating plasma currents and voltages. Preliminary experiments are shown where measurements of the electron density gradients surrounding the obstacles are recorded to infer the plasma winds. The proposed experiments are relevant to understanding the electron acceleration mechanisms taking place in shock-driven magnetic dipole confined plasmas surrounding compact magnetized stars and planets. Exploratory experiments have been published [P. Brady, T. Ditmire, W. Horton, et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 043112 (2009)] with the one Joule Yoga laser and centimeter sized permanent magnets.

  20. Stable accretion from a cold disc in highly magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, S. S.; Mushtukov, A. A.; Suleimanov, V. F.; Doroshenko, V.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Lutovinov, A. A.; Poutanen, J.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to investigate the transition of a strongly magnetized neutron star into the accretion regime with very low accretion rate. Methods: For this purpose, we monitored the Be-transient X-ray pulsar GRO J1008-57 throughout a full orbital cycle. The current observational campaign was performed with the Swift/XRT telescope in the soft X-ray band (0.5-10 keV) between two subsequent Type I outbursts in January and September 2016. Results: The expected transition to the propeller regime was not observed. However, transitions between different regimes of accretion were detected. In particular, after an outburst, the source entered a stable accretion state characterised by an accretion rate of 1014-1015 g s-1. We associate this state with accretion from a cold (low-ionised) disc of temperature below 6500 K. We argue that a transition to this accretion regime should be observed in all X-ray pulsars that have a certain combination of the rotation frequency and magnetic field strength. The proposed model of accretion from a cold disc is able to explain several puzzling observational properties of X-ray pulsars.

  1. From Cores to Envelopes to Disks: A Multi-scale View of Magnetized Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of polarization in star forming regions have been made across many wavelengths, many size scales, and many stages of stellar evolution. One of the overarching goals of these observations has been to determine the importance of magnetic fields -- which are the cause of the polarization -- in the star formation process. We begin by describing the commissioning and the calibration of the 1.3 mm dual-polarization receiver system we built for CARMA (the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy), a radio telescope in the eastern Sierra region of California. One of the primary science drivers behind the polarization system is to observe polarized thermal emission from dust grains in the dense clumps of dust and gas where the youngest, Class 0 protostars are forming. We go on to describe the CARMA TADPOL survey -- the largest high-resolution (~1000 AU scale) survey to date of dust polarization in low-mass protostellar cores -- and discuss our main findings: (1) Magnetic fields (B-fields) on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with protostellar outflows. Rather, the data are consistent both with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular) and where they are randomly aligned. (2) Sources with high CARMA polarization fractions have consistent B-field orientations on large scales (~20'', measured using single-dish submillimeter telescopes) and small scales (~2.5'', measured by CARMA). We interpret this to mean that in at least some cases B-fields play a role in regulating the infall of material all the way down to the ~1000 AU scales of protostellar envelopes. Finally, (3) While on the whole outflows appear to be randomly aligned with B-fields, in sources with low polarization fractions there is a hint that outflows are preferentially perpendicular to small-scale B-fields, which suggests that in these sources the fields have been wrapped up by envelope rotation. This work shows that the ~1000 AU

  2. Stellar Obliquity and Magnetic Activity of Planet-hosting Stars and Eclipsing Binaries Based on Transit Chord Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Albrecht, Simon

    2018-04-01

    The light curve of an eclipsing system shows anomalies whenever the eclipsing body passes in front of active regions on the eclipsed star. In some cases, the pattern of anomalies can be used to determine the obliquity Ψ of the eclipsed star. Here we present a method for detecting and analyzing these patterns, based on a statistical test for correlations between the anomalies observed in a sequence of eclipses. Compared to previous methods, ours makes fewer assumptions and is easier to automate. We apply it to a sample of 64 stars with transiting planets and 24 eclipsing binaries for which precise space-based data are available, and for which there was either some indication of flux anomalies or a previously reported obliquity measurement. We were able to determine obliquities for 10 stars with hot Jupiters. In particular we found Ψ ≲ 10° for Kepler-45, which is only the second M dwarf with a measured obliquity. The other eight cases are G and K stars with low obliquities. Among the eclipsing binaries, we were able to determine obliquities in eight cases, all of which are consistent with zero. Our results also reveal some common patterns of stellar activity for magnetically active G and K stars, including persistently active longitudes.

  3. Magnetic field topology and chemical abundance distributions of the young, rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar star HR 5624

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Silvester, J.; Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The young, rapidly rotating Bp star HR 5624 (HD 133880) shows an unusually strong non-sinusoidal variability of its longitudinal magnetic field. This behaviour was previously interpreted as the signature of an exceptionally strong, quadrupole-dominated surface magnetic field geometry. Aims: We studied the magnetic field structure and chemical abundance distributions of HR 5624 with the aim to verify the unusual quadrupolar nature of its magnetic field and to investigate correlations between the field topology and chemical spots. Methods: We analysed high-resolution, time series Stokes parameter spectra of HR 5624 with the help of a magnetic Doppler imaging inversion code based on detailed polarised radiative transfer modelling of the line profiles. Results: We refined the stellar parameters, revised the rotational period, and obtained new longitudinal magnetic field measurements. Our magnetic Doppler inversions reveal that the field structure of HR 5624 is considerably simpler and the field strength is much lower than proposed by previous studies. We find a maximum local field strength of 12 kG and a mean field strength of 4 kG, which is about a factor of three weaker than predicted by quadrupolar field models. Our model implies that overall large-scale field topology of HR 5624 is better described as a distorted, asymmetric dipole rather than an axisymmetric quadrupole. The chemical abundance maps of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Nd obtained in our study are characterised by large-scale, high-contrast abundance patterns. These structures correlate weakly with the magnetic field geometry and, in particular, show no distinct element concentrations in the horizontal field regions predicted by theoretical atomic diffusion calculations. Conclusions: We conclude that the surface magnetic field topology of HR 5624 is not as unusual as previously proposed. Considering these results together with other recent magnetic mapping analyses of early-type stars suggests that

  4. Magnetic Fields in Evolved Stars: Imaging the Polarized Emission of High-frequency SiO Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Franco-Hernández, R.

    2011-02-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations of high-frequency SiO masers around the supergiant VX Sgr and the semi-regular variable star W Hya. The J = 5-4, v = 128SiO and v = 029SiO masers of VX Sgr are shown to be highly linearly polarized with a polarization from ~5% to 60%. Assuming the continuum emission peaks at the stellar position, the masers are found within ~60 mas of the star, corresponding to ~100 AU at a distance of 1.57 kpc. The linear polarization vectors are consistent with a large-scale magnetic field, with position and inclination angles similar to that of the dipole magnetic field inferred in the H2O and OH maser regions at much larger distances from the star. We thus show for the first time that the magnetic field structure in a circumstellar envelope can remain stable from a few stellar radii out to ~1400 AU. This provides further evidence supporting the existence of large-scale and dynamically important magnetic fields around evolved stars. Due to a lack of parallactic angle coverage, the linear polarization of masers around W Hya could not be determined. For both stars, we observed the 28SiO and 29SiO isotopologues and find that they have a markedly different distributions and that they appear to avoid each other. Additionally, emission from the SO 55-44 line was imaged for both sources. Around W Hya, we find a clear offset between the red- and blueshifted SO emission. This indicates that W Hya is likely host to a slow bipolar outflow or a rotating disk-like structure.

  5. Compton Scattering Cross Sections in Strong Magnetic Fields: Advances for Neutron Star Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiles, Matthew; Gonthier, P. L.; Baring, M. G.; Wadiasingh, Z.

    2013-04-01

    Various telescopes including RXTE, INTEGRAL and Suzaku have detected non-thermal X-ray emission in the 10 - 200 keV band from strongly magnetic neutron stars. Inverse Compton scattering, a quantum-electrodynamical process, is believed to be a leading candidate for the production of this intense X-ray radiation. Magnetospheric conditions are such that electrons may well possess ultra-relativistic energies, which lead to attractive simplifications of the cross section. We have recently addressed such a case by developing compact analytic expressions using correct spin-dependent widths and Sokolov & Ternov (ST) basis states, focusing specifically on ground state-to-ground state scattering. However, inverse Compton scattering can cool electrons down to mildly-relativistic energies, necessitating the development of a more general case where the incoming photons acquire nonzero incident angles relative to the field in the rest frame of the electron, and the intermediate state can be excited to arbitrary Landau levels. In this paper, we develop results pertaining to this general case using ST formalism, and treating the plethora of harmonic resonances associated with various cyclotron transitions between Landau states. Four possible scattering modes (parallel-parallel, perpendicular-perpendicular, parallel-perpendicular, and perpendicular-parallel) encapsulate the polarization dependence of the cross section. We present preliminary analytic and numerical investigations of the magnitude of the extra Landau state contributions to obtain the full cross section, and compare these new analytic developments with the spin-averaged cross sections, which we develop in parallel. Results will find application to various neutron star problems, including computation of Eddington luminosities in the magnetospheres of magnetars. We express our gratitude for the generous support of the Michigan Space Grant Consortium, of the National Science Foundation (REU and RUI), and the NASA

  6. Gravity, Rotation, Ages, and Magnetism of Solar-like Stars and Red Giants observed by Kepler and K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Savita

    Scientific Objectives: Asteroseismology has proved to be a very powerful tool thanks to the high-precision data obtained by the space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT. Solar-like oscillations have been detected and reported for around 15,600 red giants and 540 main-sequence stars observed by the nominal Kepler mission. Hence, these stars have their surface gravities, masses, and radii obtained with seismology. However, according to the latest Kepler star properties catalog (Mathur et al., in prep.) more than 24,000 red giants, 127,000 FGK dwarfs, and 10,000 subgiants were targeted. K2 has been observing 90,000 red giants and dwarfs. Moreover, the continuous photometric data of 4 yrs (resp. 3 mo) collected by Kepler (resp. K2) contain the signature of other phenomena such as convection, rotation, and magnetism, which are very important to understand stellar evolution and can also be used to obtain precise fundamental stellar parameters even when pulsations are not detected. We propose to perform the largest homogeneous analysis to date of seismic oscillations, convection, and rotation/magnetic activity across the full range of stellar spectral types and evolutionary states present in the K2 and Kepler missions. We will use the longest publicly available time series to derive the most accurate surface gravities, rotation periods, evolutionary states, and magnetic activity levels to characterize rotation-age-magnetic activity relationships and oscillations-magnetism interaction. Relevance: The determination of the gravity, mass, radius, and age of planet host stars allow us to better characterize the planetary systems. By studying the stellar surface rotation periods, we can better understand the angular momentum transport involved during the stellar evolution and have more accurate rotation-age relationships. Finally, the study of the magnetic activity of a large number of stars will allow us to put the Sun in a broader context. This work will also have an impact on

  7. Doppler-Zeeman Mapping of the Rapidly Rotating Magnetic CP Star HD37776

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, V. L.; Vasilchenko, D. V.; Stepanov, V. V.; Romanyuk, I. I.

    2000-03-01

    We present the results of our analysis of magnetic-field configuration and abundance anomalies on the surface of the rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar helium-strong variable B2 V star HD37776 with unresolved Zeeman components of spectral lines. Simultaneous inversion of the observed Stokes I and V profiles, which realizes the method of Doppler-Zeeman mapping (Vasilchenko et al. 1996), has been applied for the first time. Spectroscopic observations were carried out with the Main stellar spectrograph of the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope equipped with a Zeeman analyzer and a CCD array, which allowed spectra in right- and left-hand circularly polarized light to be taken simultaneously at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N > 200 (Romanyuk et al. 1999). The profile width of winged spectral lines (reaching 5 A) is determined by Zeeman line splitting; however, the observed Zeeman components are blurred and unresolved because of the rapid stellar rotation. When solving the inverse problem, we sought for the magnetic-field configuration in the form of a combination of arbitrarily oriented dipole, quadrupole, and octupole placed at the stellar center. The observed Stokes I and V profiles for eight spectral lines of He, OII, AlIII, SiIII, and FeIII averaged over the visible stellar surface were used as input data. We constructed a model of the magnetic field from the condition of coincidence of magnetic maps obtained from different lines of different chemical elements and from the condition of a minimum profile residual. This model is a combination of centered coaxial dipole and quadrupole with the dominant quadrupole component at 30 deg < i < 50 deg, beta = 40 deg, and a maximum surface field strength H_s = 60 kG. A comparison of our abundance maps with the field configuration shows that the He concentration is at a maximum in the regions of maximum radial field, while the maximum concentrations of O, Al, Si, and Fe coincide with the regions of maximum

  8. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  9. Full Stokes IQUV spectropolarimetry of AGB and post-AGB stars: probing surface magnetism and atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lèbre, Agnès; Aurière, Michel; Fabas, Nicolas; Gillet, Denis; Josselin, Eric; Mathias, Philippe; Petit, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Full Stokes spectropolarimetric observations of a Mira star (χ Cyg) and a RV Tauri star (R Sct) are presented and analyzed comparatively. From their Stokes V data (circular polarization), we report the detection of a weak magnetic field at the surface of these cool and evolved radially pulsating stars. For both stars, we analyse this detection in the framework of their complex atmospheric dynamics, with the possibility that shock waves may imprint an efficient compressive effect on the surface magnetic field. We also report strong Stokes U and Stokes Q signatures associated to metallic lines (as a global trend), those linear polarimetric features appear to be time variable along the pulsating phase. More surprising, in the Stokes U and Stokes Q data, we also detect signatures associated to individual metallic lines (such as Sr i 460.7 nm, Na D2 588.9 nm), that are known (from the solar case) to be easily polarizable in case of a global asymmetry at the photospheric level.

  10. Radial-Velocity Signatures of Magnetic Features on the Sun Observed as a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, M. L., III; Haywood, R. D.; Saar, S. H.; Dupree, A. K.; Milbourne, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the search for Earth-mass planets using radial-velocity measurements has become increasingly limited by signals arising from stellar activity. Individual magnetic features induce localized changes in intensity and velocity, which combine to change the apparent radial velocity of the star. Therefore it is critical to identify an indicator of activity-driven radial-velocity variations on the timescale of stellar rotation periods. We use 617.3 nm photospheric filtergrams, magnetograms, and dopplergrams from SDO/HMI and 170.0 nm chromospheric filtergrams from AIA to identify magnetically-driven solar features and reconstruct the integrated solar radial velocity with six samples per day over the course of 2014. Breaking the solar image up into regions of umbrae, penumbrae, quiet Sun, network, and plages, we find a distinct variation in the center-to-limb intensity-weighted velocity for each region. In agreement with past studies, we find that the suppression of convective blueshift is dominated by plages and network, rather than dark photospheric features. In the future, this work will be highly useful for identifying indicators which correlate with rotationally modulated radial-velocity variations. This will allow us to break the activity barrier that currently precludes the precise characterization of exoplanet properties at the lowest masses. This work was supported by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1560313. This work was performed in part under contract with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute.

  11. NuSTAR AND SWIFT Observations of the Fast Rotating Magnetized White Dwarf AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Rana, Vikram R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(+0.18 / -0.45), 2.29(+0.96 / -0.82), and 9.33 (+6.07 / -2.18) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 (+0.34 / -0.23) and 4.64 (+1.58 / -0.84) keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 (+0.17 / -0.23). The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6% +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

  12. NuStar and Swift Observations of the Fast Rotating Magnetized White Dwarf AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Rana, Vikram R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(+0.18 / -0.45), 2.29(+0.96 / -0.82), and 9.33 (+6.07 / -2.18) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 (+0.34 / -0.23) and 4.64 (+1.58 / -0.84) keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 (+0.17 / -0.23). The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6% +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

  13. On the Pressure of a Neutron Gas Interacting with the Non-Uniform Magnetic Field of a Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of simple arguments, practically not going beyond the scope of an undergraduate course in general physics, we estimate the additional pressure (at zero temperature) of degenerate neutron matter due to its interaction with the non-uniform magnetic field of a neutron star. This work has methodological and possibly scientific value as an intuitive application of the content of such a course to a solution of topical problems of astrophysics.

  14. The pulsationally modulated radial crossover signature of the slowly rotating magnetic B-type star ξ1 CMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th

    2018-07-01

    We report the latest set of spectropolarimetric observations of the magnetic β Cep star ξ1 CMa. The new observations confirm the long-period model of Shultz et al. (2017), who proposed a rotational period of about 30 years and predicted that in 2018 the star should pass through a magnetic null. In perfect agreement with this projection, all longitudinal magnetic field ⟨Bz⟩ measurements are close to 0 G. Remarkably, individual Stokes V profiles all display a crossover signature, which is consistent with ⟨Bz⟩ ˜ 0 but is not expected when v sin i ˜ 0. The crossover signatures furthermore exhibit pulsationally modulated amplitude and sign variations. We show that these unexpected phenomena can all be explained by a `radial crossover' effect related to the star's radial pulsations, together with an important deviation of the global field topology from a purely dipolar structure, that we explore via a dipole+quadrupole configuration as the simplest non-dipolar field.

  15. Weak magnetic field, solid-envelope rotation, and wave-induced N-enrichment in the SPB star ζ Cassiopeiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briquet, M.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Leroy, B.; de Batz, B.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: The main-sequence B-type star ζ Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 new spectropolarimetric observations of higher precision to investigate the field strength, topology, and effect. Methods: We gathered data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL; Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from ζ Cas. We used a dipole oblique rotator model to determine the field configuration by fitting the longitudinal field measurements and by synthesizing the measured Stokes V profiles. We also made use of the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique to map the stellar surface and to deduce the difference in rotation rate between the pole and equator. Results: ζ Cas exhibits a polar field strength Bpol of 100-150 G, which is the weakest polar field observed so far in a massive main-sequence star. Surface differential rotation is ruled out by our observations and the field of ζ Cas is strong enough to enforce rigid internal rotation in the radiative zone according to theory. Thus, the star rotates as a solid body in the envelope. Conclusions: We therefore exclude rotationally induced mixing as the cause of the surface N-enrichment. We discuss that the transport of chemicals from the core to the surface by internal gravity waves is the most plausible explanation for the nitrogen overabundance at the surface of ζ Cas. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France.

  16. Inter-Longitude Astronomy (ILA) Project: Current Highlights And Perspectives. I. Magnetic vs. Non-Magnetic Interacting Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Dubovsky, P. A.; Han, W.; Hegedus, T.; Henden, A.; Hric, L.; Chun-Hwey, Kim; Yonggi, Kim; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudzej, I.; Liakos, A.; Niarchos, P. G.; Oksanen, A.; Patkos, L.; Petrik, K.; Pit', N. V.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.; Virnina, N. A.; Yoon, J.; Zola, S.

    2010-12-01

    We present a review of highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types classical, asynchronous, intermedi ate polars with 25 timescales corresponding to differ ent physical mechanisms and their combinations (part "Polar"); negative and positive superhumpers in nova- like and dwarf novae stars ("Superhumper"); symbiotic ("Symbiosis"); eclipsing variables with and without ev idence for a current mass transfer ("Eclipser") with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainor star's atmosphere, which we propose to call "Impactors", or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other parts of the ILA project are "Stellar Bell" (pul sating variables of different types and periods - M, SR, RV Tau, RR Lyr, Delta Sct) and "New Variable".

  17. Magnetic field geometry and chemical abundance distribution of the He-strong star CPD -57°3509

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Przybilla, N.; Korhonen, H.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Nieva, M.-F.; Scholz, R.-D.; Kimeswenger, S.; Ramolla, M.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Briquet, M.

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic field of CPD -57°3509 was recently detected in the framework of the BOB (B fields in OB stars) collaboration. We acquired low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of CPD -57°3509 with the FOcal Reducer low-dispersion Spectrograph 2 and high-resolution UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph observations randomly distributed over a few months to search for periodicity, to study the magnetic field geometry and to determine the surface distribution of silicon and helium. We also obtained supplementary photometric observations at a timeline similar to the spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observations. A period of 6.36 d was detected in the measurements of the mean longitudinal magnetic field. A sinusoidal fit to our measurements allowed us to constrain the magnetic field geometry and estimate the dipole strength in the range of 3.9-4.5 kG. Our application of the Doppler imaging technique revealed the presence of He I spots located around the magnetic poles, with a strong concentration at the positive pole and a weaker one around the negative pole. In contrast, high-concentration Si III spots are located close to the magnetic equator. Furthermore, our analysis of the spectral variability of CPD -57°3509 on short time-scales indicates distinct changes in shape and position of line profiles possibly caused by the presence of β Cep like pulsations. A small periodic variability in line with the changes of the magnetic field strength is clearly seen in the photometric data.

  18. Supercritical Accretion onto a Non-magnetized Neutron Star: Why is it Feasible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken

    2018-01-01

    To understand why supercritical accretion is feasible onto a neutron star (NS), we carefully examine the accretion flow dynamics by 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations, comparing the cases of accretion onto a non-magnetized NS and that onto a black hole (BH). Supercritical BH accretion is relatively easy, since BHs can swallow excess radiation energy, so that radiation flux can be inward in its vicinity. This mechanism can never work for an NS, which has a solid surface. In fact, we find that the radiation force is always outward. Instead, we found significant reduction in the mass accretion rate due to strong radiation-pressure-driven outflow. The radiation flux F rad is self-regulated such that the radiation force balances with the sum of gravity and centrifugal forces. Even when the radiation energy density greatly exceeds that expected from the Eddington luminosity {E}{rad}≃ {F}{rad}τ /c> {10}2{L}{Edd}/(4π {r}2c), the radiation flux is always kept below a certain value, which makes it possible not to blow all the gas away from the disk. These effects make supercritical accretion feasible. We also find that a settling region, where accretion is significantly decelerated by a radiation cushion, is formed around the NS surface. In the settling region, the radiation temperature and mass density roughly follow {T}{rad}\\propto {r}-1 and ρ \\propto {r}-3, respectively. No settling region appears around the BH, so matter can be directly swallowed by the BH with supersonic speed.

  19. Atmospheres and spectra of strongly magnetized neutron stars - II. The effect of vacuum polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lai, Dong

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of vacuum polarization on the atmosphere structure and radiation spectra of neutron stars with surface magnetic fields B= 1014-1015 G, as appropriate for magnetars. Vacuum polarization modifies the dielectric property of the medium and gives rise to a resonance feature in the opacity; this feature is narrow and occurs at a photon energy that depends on the plasma density. Vacuum polarization can also induce resonant conversion of photon modes via a mechanism analogous to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism for neutrino oscillation. We construct atmosphere models in radiative equilibrium with an effective temperature of a few ×106 K by solving the full radiative transfer equations for both polarization modes in a fully ionized hydrogen plasma. We discuss the subtleties in treating the vacuum polarization effects in the atmosphere models and present approximate solutions to the radiative transfer problem which bracket the true answer. We show from both analytic considerations and numerical calculations that vacuum polarization produces a broad depression in the X-ray flux at high energies (a few keV <~E<~ a few tens of keV) as compared to models without vacuum polarization; this arises from the density dependence of the vacuum resonance feature and the large density gradient present in the atmosphere. Thus the vacuum polarization effect softens the high-energy tail of the thermal spectrum, although the atmospheric emission is still harder than the blackbody spectrum because of the non-grey opacities. We also show that the depression of continuum flux strongly suppresses the equivalent width of the ion cyclotron line and therefore makes the line more difficult to observe.

  20. ULX spectra revisited: Are accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars the engines of ultraluminous X-ray sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliopanos, F.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Bachetti, M.; Godet, O.; Webb, N.; Barret, D.

    2017-10-01

    In light of recent discoveries of pulsating ULXs and recently introduced models placing neutron stars as the central engines of ULXs, we revisit the spectra of seventeen ULXs, in search of indications that favor this hypothesis. To this end we examined the spectra from XMM-Newton observations of all seventeen sources in our sample. For six sources, these were complimented with spectra from public NuSTAR observations. We demonstrate that the notable ({>}6 keV) spectral curvature observed in most ULXs, is most likely due to thermal emission, with T{>} 1keV. More importantly, we find that a double thermal model (comprised of a 'cool' and 'hot' thermal component) - often associated with emission from neutron star X-ray binaries - describes all ULX spectra in our list. We propose that the dual thermal spectrum is the result of accretion onto highly magnetized NSs, as predicted in recent theoretical models (Mushtukov et al. 2017). We further argue that this finding offers an additional and compelling argument in favor of neutron stars as prime candidates for powering ULXs, as has been recently suggested (King & Lasota 2016; King et al. 2017). In my talk I will discuss the implications of our interpretation along with its merits and shortcomings.

  1. Shape and evolution of wind-blown bubbles of massive stars: on the effect of the interstellar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, A. J.; Meliani, Z.; Marcowith, A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The winds of massive stars create large (>10 pc) bubbles around their progenitors. As these bubbles expand they encounter the interstellar coherent magnetic field which, depending on its strength, can influence the shape of the bubble. Aims: We wish to investigate if, and how much, the interstellar magnetic field can contribute to the shape of an expanding circumstellar bubble around a massive star. Methods: We use the MPI-AMRVAC code to make magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of bubbles, using a single star model, combined with several different field strengths: B = 5, 10, and 20 μG for the interstellar magnetic field. This covers the typical field strengths of the interstellar magnetic fields found in the galactic disk and bulge. Furthermore, we present two simulations that include both a 5 μG interstellar magnetic field and a warm (10 000 K) interstellar medium (ISM) and two different ISM densities to demonstrate how the magnetic field can combine with other external factors to influence the morphology of the circumstellar bubbles. Results: Our results show that low magnetic fields, as found in the galactic disk, inhibit the growth of the circumstellar bubbles in the direction perpendicular to the field. As a result, the bubbles become ovoid, rather than spherical. Strong interstellar fields, such as observed for the galactic bulge, can completely stop the expansion of the bubble in the direction perpendicular to the field, leading to the formation of a tube-like bubble. When combined with an ISM that is both warm and high density the bubble is greatly reduced in size, causing a dramatic change in the evolution of temporary features inside the bubble such as Wolf-Rayet ring nebulae. Conclusions: The magnetic field of the interstellar medium can affect the shape of circumstellar bubbles. This effect may have consequences for the shape and evolution of circumstellar nebulae and supernova remnants, which are formed within the main wind-blown bubble

  2. APPARENT NON-COEVALITY AMONG THE STARS IN UPPER SCORPIO: RESOLVING THE PROBLEM USING A MODEL OF MAGNETIC INHIBITION OF CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, James; Mullan, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Two eclipsing binaries in the USco association have recently yielded precise values of masses and radii for four low-mass members of the association. Standard evolution models would require these dM4.5–dM5 stars to have ages which are younger than those of more massive stars in the association by factors which appear (in extreme cases) to be as large as ∼3. Are the stars in the association therefore non-coeval? We suggest that the answer is no: by incorporating the effects of magnetic inhibition of convective onset, we show that the stars in USco can be restored to coevality provided the four low-massmore » member stars have vertical surface fields in the range 200–700 G. Fields of such magnitude have already been measured on the surface of certain solar-type stars in other young clusters.« less

  3. Diffusion-plus-drift models for the mass leakage from centrifugal magnetospheres of magnetic hot-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stanley P.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2018-03-01

    In the subset of luminous, early-type stars with strong, large-scale magnetic fields and moderate to rapid rotation, material from the star's radiatively driven stellar wind outflow becomes trapped by closed magnetic loops, forming a centrifugally supported, corotating magnetosphere. We present here a semi-analytic analysis of how this quasi-steady accumulation of wind mass can be balanced by losses associated with a combination of an outward, centrifugally driven drift in the region beyond the Kepler co-rotation radius, and an inward/outward diffusion near this radius. We thereby derive scaling relations for the equilibrium spatial distribution of mass, and the associated emission measure for observational diagnostics like Balmer line emission. We discuss the potential application of these relations for interpreting surveys of the emission line diagnostics for OB stars with centrifugally supported magnetospheres. For a specific model of turbulent field-line-wandering rooted in surface motions associated with the iron opacity bump, we estimate values for the associated diffusion and drift coefficients.

  4. On the Origin of Sub-subgiant Stars. II. Binary Mass Transfer, Envelope Stripping, and Magnetic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D.; Geller, Aaron M., E-mail: leiner@astro.wisc.edu

    Sub-subgiant stars (SSGs) lie to the red of the main sequence and fainter than the red giant branch in cluster color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs), a region not easily populated by standard stellar evolution pathways. While there has been speculation on what mechanisms may create these unusual stars, no well-developed theory exists to explain their origins. Here we discuss three hypotheses of SSG formation: (1) mass transfer in a binary system, (2) stripping of a subgiant’s envelope, perhaps during a dynamical encounter, and (3) reduced luminosity due to magnetic fields that lower convective efficiency and produce large starspots. Using the stellar evolutionmore » code MESA, we develop evolutionary tracks for each of these hypotheses, and compare the expected stellar and orbital properties of these models with six known SSGs in the two open clusters M67 and NGC 6791. All three of these mechanisms can create stars or binary systems in the SSG CMD domain. We also calculate the frequency with which each of these mechanisms may create SSG systems, and find that the magnetic field hypothesis is expected to create SSGs with the highest frequency in open clusters. Mass transfer and envelope stripping have lower expected formation frequencies, but may nevertheless create occasional SSGs in open clusters. They may also be important mechanisms to create SSGs in higher mass globular clusters.« less

  5. Magnetic activity and differential rotation in the young Sun-like stars KIC 7985370 and KIC 7765135

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, H.-E.; Frasca, A.; Catanzaro, G.; Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Klutsch, A.; Montes, D.

    2012-07-01

    rotation (dΩ ≈ 0.18 rad d-1), which disagrees with the predictions of some mean-field models of differential rotation for rapidly rotating stars. Our results agree instead with previous works on solar-type stars and other models that predict a higher latitudinal shear, increasing with equatorial angular velocity, that can vary during the magnetic cycle. Based on public Kepler data, on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei - INAF at the Observatorio del Roque del los Muchachos, La Palma (Canary Islands), on observations collected at the 2.2-m telescope of the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), and on observations collected at the Catania Astrophysical Observatory (Italy).

  6. An abundance analysis from the STIS-HST UV spectrum of the non-magnetic Bp star HR 6000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, F.; Cowley, C. R.; Ayres, T. R.; Catanzaro, G.; Leone, F.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The sharp-line spectrum of the non-magnetic, main-sequence Bp star HR 6000 has peculiarities that distinguish it from those of the HgMn stars with which it is sometimes associated. The position of the star close to the center of the Lupus 3 molecular cloud, whose estimated age is on the order of 9.1 ± 2.1 Myr, has lead to the hypothesis that the anomalous peculiarities of HR 6000 can be explained by the young age of the star. Aims: Observational material from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provides the opportunity to extend the abundance analysis previously performed for the optical region and clarify the properties of this remarkable peculiar star. Our aim was to obtain the atmospheric abundances for all the elements observed in a broad region from 1250 to 10 000 Å. Methods: An LTE synthetic spectrum was compared with a high-resolution spectrum observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) equipment in the 1250-3040 Å interval. Abundances were changed until the synthetic spectrum fit the observed spectrum. The assumed model is an LTE, plane-parallel, line-blanketed ATLAS12 model already used for the abundance analysis of a high-resolution optical spectrum observed at ESO with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). The stellar parameters are Teff = 13450 K, log g = 4.3, and zero microturbulent velocity. Results: Abundances for 28 elements and 7 upper limits were derived from the ultraviolet spectrum. Adding results from previous work, we have now quantitative results for 37 elements, some of which show striking contrasts with those of a broad sample of HgMn stars. The analysis has pointed out numerous abundance anomalies, such as ionization anomalies and line-to-line variation in the derived abundances, in particular for silicon. The inferred discrepancies could be explained by non-LTE effects and with the occurrence of diffusion and vertical abundance stratification. In the framework of the last hypothesis, we

  7. CAN WE PREDICT THE GLOBAL MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF A PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR FROM ITS POSITION IN THE HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSELL DIAGRAM?

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, S. G.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Donati, J.-F.

    2012-08-20

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies have shown that the magnetic fields of T Tauri stars can be significantly more complex than a simple dipole and can vary markedly between sources. We collect and summarize the magnetic field topology information obtained to date and present Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagrams for the stars in the sample. Intriguingly, the large-scale field topology of a given pre-main-sequence (PMS) star is strongly dependent upon the stellar internal structure, with the strength of the dipole component of its multipolar magnetic field decaying rapidly with the development of a radiative core. Using the observational data as a basis, we arguemore » that the general characteristics of the global magnetic field of a PMS star can be determined from its position in the H-R diagram. Moving from hotter and more luminous to cooler and less luminous stars across the PMS of the H-R diagram, we present evidence for four distinct magnetic topology regimes. Stars with large radiative cores, empirically estimated to be those with a core mass in excess of {approx}40% of the stellar mass, host highly complex and dominantly non-axisymmetric magnetic fields, while those with smaller radiative cores host axisymmetric fields with field modes of higher order than the dipole dominant (typically, but not always, the octupole). Fully convective stars above {approx}> 0.5 M{sub Sun} appear to host dominantly axisymmetric fields with strong (kilo-Gauss) dipole components. Based on similarities between the magnetic properties of PMS stars and main-sequence M-dwarfs with similar internal structures, we speculate that a bistable dynamo process operates for lower mass stars ({approx}< 0.5 M{sub Sun} at an age of a few Myr) and that they will be found to host a variety of magnetic field topologies. If the magnetic topology trends across the H-R diagram are confirmed, they may provide a new method of constraining PMS stellar evolution models.« less

  8. Theoretical basal Ca II fluxes for late-type stars: results from magnetic wave models with time-dependent ionization and multi-level radiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzy, Diaa E.; Stȩpień, K.

    2018-03-01

    In the current study we present ab initio numerical computations of the generation and propagation of longitudinal waves in magnetic flux tubes embedded in the atmospheres of late-type stars. The interaction between convective turbulence and the magnetic structure is computed and the obtained longitudinal wave energy flux is used in a self-consistent manner to excite the small-scale magnetic flux tubes. In the current study we reduce the number of assumptions made in our previous studies by considering the full magnetic wave energy fluxes and spectra as well as time-dependent ionization (TDI) of hydrogen, employing multi-level Ca II atomic models, and taking into account departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our models employ the recently confirmed value of the mixing-length parameter α=1.8. Regions with strong magnetic fields (magnetic filling factors of up to 50%) are also considered in the current study. The computed Ca II emission fluxes show a strong dependence on the magnetic filling factors, and the effect of time-dependent ionization (TDI) turns out to be very important in the atmospheres of late-type stars heated by acoustic and magnetic waves. The emitted Ca II fluxes with TDI included into the model are decreased by factors that range from 1.4 to 5.5 for G0V and M0V stars, respectively, compared to models that do not consider TDI. The results of our computations are compared with observations. Excellent agreement between the observed and predicted basal flux is obtained. The predicted trend of Ca II emission flux with magnetic filling factor and stellar surface temperature also agrees well with the observations but the calculated maximum fluxes for stars of different spectral types are about two times lower than observations. Though the longitudinal MHD waves considered here are important for chromosphere heating in high activity stars, additional heating mechanism(s) are apparently present.

  9. Constraining the weak-wind problem: an XMM-HST campaign for the magnetic O9.7 V star HD 54879

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenar, T.; Oskinova, L. M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Luckas, P.; Hainich, R.; Todt, H.; Hubrig, S.; Sander, A. A. C.; Ilyin, I.; Hamann, W.-R.

    2018-01-01

    Mass-loss rates of massive, late type main sequence stars are much weaker than currently predicted, but their true values are very difficult to measure. We suggest that confined stellar winds of magnetic stars can be exploited to constrain the true mass-loss rates Ṁ of massive main sequence stars. We acquired UV, X-ray, and optical amateur data of HD 54879 (O9.7 V), one of a few O-type stars with a detected atmospheric magnetic field (Bd ≳ 2 kG). We analyze these data with the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) and XSPEC codes. We can roughly estimate the mass-loss rate the star would have in the absence of a magnetic field as log ṀB = 0 ≈ -9.0 M⊙yr-1. Since the wind is partially trapped within the Alfvén radius rA ≳ 12 R*, the true mass-loss rate of HD 54879 is log Ṁ ≲ -10.2 M⊙yr-1. Moreover, we find that the microturbulent, macroturbulent, and projected rotational velocities are lower than previously suggested (< 4 km s-1). An initial mass of 16 M⊙ and an age of 5 Myr are inferred. We derive a mean X-ray emitting temperature of log TX = 6.7 K and an X-ray luminosity of log LX = 32 erg s-1. The latter implies a significant X-ray excess (log LX/LBol ≈ -6.0), most likely stemming from collisions at the magnetic equator. A tentative period of P ≈ 5 yr is derived from variability of the Hα line. Our study confirms that strongly magnetized stars lose little or no mass, and supplies important constraints on the weak-wind problem of massive main sequence stars.

  10. CRITICAL EVALUATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD DETECTIONS REPORTED FOR PULSATING B-TYPE STARS IN LIGHT OF ESPaDOnS, NARVAL, AND REANALYZED FORS1/2 OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Grunhut, J.

    2012-05-01

    Recent spectropolarimetric studies of seven slowly pulsating B (SPB) and {beta} Cep stars have suggested that photospheric magnetic fields are more common in B-type pulsators than in the general population of B stars, suggesting a significant connection between magnetic and pulsational phenomena. We present an analysis of new and previously published spectropolarimetric observations of these stars. New Stokes V observations obtained with the high-resolution ESPaDOnS and Narval instruments confirm the presence of a magnetic field in one of the stars ({epsilon} Lup), but find no evidence of magnetism in five others. A re-analysis of the published longitudinal field measurements obtainedmore » with the low-resolution FORS1/2 spectropolarimeters finds that the measurements of all stars show more scatter from zero than can be attributed to Gaussian noise, suggesting the presence of a signal and/or systematic underestimation of error bars. Re-reduction and re-measurement of the FORS1/2 spectra from the ESO archive demonstrates that small changes in reduction procedure lead to substantial changes in the inferred longitudinal field, and substantially reduces the number of field detections at the 3{sigma} level. Furthermore, we find that the published periods are not unique solutions to the time series of either the original or the revised FORS1/2 data. We conclude that the reported field detections, proposed periods, and field geometry models for {alpha} Pyx, 15 CMa, 33 Eri, and V1449 Aql are artifacts of the data analysis and reduction procedures, and that magnetic fields at the reported strength are no more common in SPB/{beta} Cep stars than in the general population of B stars.« less

  11. Numerical Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation: X-Ray Spectral Formation from Cylindrical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairnelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.; Romano, P.; Titarchuk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. This requires developing numerical routines for the solution of the radiative transfer equation according to the expected physical conditions of the systems under study. Aims. We have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. Methods. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system pi using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Results. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar surface and at the top of the accretion column, respectively. In both cases higher values of the electron temperature and of the optical depth pi produce flatter and harder spectra. Other parameters contributing to the spectral formation are the steepness of the vertical velocity profile, the albedo at the star surface, and the radius of the accretion column. The latter parameter modifies the emerging spectra in a specular way for the two assumed accretion profiles. Conclusions. The algorithm has been implemented in the XPEC package for X-ray fitting and is specifically dedicated to the physical framework of accretion at the polar cap of a neutron star with a high magnetic field (approx > 10(exp 12) G). This latter case is expected to be of typical accreting systems such as X

  12. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    SciTech Connect

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M.; Zamora-Avilés, Manuel

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s{sup −1}, converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamicmore » simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.« less

  13. The Radius and Entropy of a Magnetized, Rotating, Fully Convective Star: Analysis with Depth-dependent Mixing Length Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Lewis G.; Browning, Matthew K.

    2018-04-01

    Some low-mass stars appear to have larger radii than predicted by standard 1D structure models; prior work has suggested that inefficient convective heat transport, due to rotation and/or magnetism, may ultimately be responsible. We examine this issue using 1D stellar models constructed using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). First, we consider standard models that do not explicitly include rotational/magnetic effects, with convective inhibition modeled by decreasing a depth-independent mixing length theory (MLT) parameter α MLT. We provide formulae linking changes in α MLT to changes in the interior specific entropy, and hence to the stellar radius. Next, we modify the MLT formulation in MESA to mimic explicitly the influence of rotation and magnetism, using formulations suggested by Stevenson and MacDonald & Mullan, respectively. We find rapid rotation in these models has a negligible impact on stellar structure, primarily because a star’s adiabat, and hence its radius, is predominantly affected by layers near the surface; convection is rapid and largely uninfluenced by rotation there. Magnetic fields, if they influenced convective transport in the manner described by MacDonald & Mullan, could lead to more noticeable radius inflation. Finally, we show that these non-standard effects on stellar structure can be fabricated using a depth-dependent α MLT: a non-magnetic, non-rotating model can be produced that is virtually indistinguishable from one that explicitly parameterizes rotation and/or magnetism using the two formulations above. We provide formulae linking the radially variable α MLT to these putative MLT reformulations.

  14. The null result of a search for pulsational variations of the surface magnetic field in the roAp star γ Equulei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Ryabchikova, T.; Landstreet, J. D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2004-06-01

    We describe an analysis of the time-resolved measurements of the surface magnetic field in the roAp star γEqu. We have obtained a high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectroscopic time series, and the magnetic field was determined using Zeeman-resolved profiles of the FeII 6149.25 Åand FeI 6173.34 Ålines. Contrary to recent reports, we do not find any evidence of magnetic variability with pulsation phase, and derive an upper limit of 5-10 G for pulsational modulation of the surface magnetic field in γEqu.

  15. ULX spectra revisited: Accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars as the engines of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliopanos, Filippos; Vasilopoulos, Georgios; Godet, Olivier; Bachetti, Matteo; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Aims: In light of recent discoveries of pulsating ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and recently introduced theoretical schemes that propose neutron stars (NSs) as the central engines of ULXs, we revisit the spectra of eighteen well known ULXs, in search of indications that favour this newly emerging hypothesis. Methods: We examine the spectra from high-quality XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. We use a combination of elementary black body and multicolour disk black body (MCD) models, to diagnose the predictions of classic and novel theoretical models of accretion onto NSs. We re-interpret the well established spectral characteristics of ULXs in terms of accretion onto lowly or highly magnetised NSs, and explore the resulting parameter space for consistency. Results: We confirm the previously noted presence of the low-energy (≲6 keV) spectral rollover and argue that it could be interpreted as due to thermal emission. The spectra are well described by a double thermal model consisting of a "hot" (≳1 keV) and a "cool" (≲0.7 keV) multicolour black body (MCB). Under the assumption that the "cool" MCD emission originates in a disk truncated at the neutron star magnetosphere, we find that all ULXs in our sample are consistent with accretion onto a highly magnetised (B ≳ 1012 G) neutron star. We note a strong correlation between the strength of the magnetic field, the temperature of the "hot" thermal component and the total unabsorbed luminosity. Examination of the NuSTAR data supports this interpretation and also confirms the presence of a weak, high-energy (≳15 keV) tail, most likely the result of modification of the MCB emission by inverse Compton scattering. We also note that the apparent high-energy tail, may simply be the result of mismodelling of MCB emission with an atypical temperature (T) versus radius (r) gradient, using a standard MCD model with a fixed gradient of T r-0.75. Conclusions: We have offered a new and robust physical interpretation for

  16. Analysis of magnetic activity of the rapidly rotating stars He 373 and AP 225

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Tsymbal, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric data for the two rapidly rotating members of the α Persei cluster He 373 and AP 225 are analyzed. Improved estimates have been obtained for the projected equatorial rotation velocities: v sin i = 164 km/s for He 323 and v sin i = 129 km/s for AP 225. Multi-band photometric mapping is used to map the spot distributions on the surfaces of the two stars. The fractional spotted areas S and mean temperature difference Δ T between the unspotted photosphere and the spots are estimated ( S = 7% and Δ T = 1000 K for He 373; S = 9% and Δ T = 800 K for AP 225). The H α line profiles of both stars have variable emission components whose widths are used to deduce the presence of extended regions of emission reaching the corotation radius.

  17. Understanding the Links among the Magnetic Fields, Filament, Bipolar Bubble, and Star Formation in RCW 57A Using NIR Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswaraiah, Chakali; Lai, Shih-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Pandey, A. K.; Tamura, M.; Maheswar, G.; Sharma, S.; Wang, Jia-Wei; Nishiyama, S.; Nakajima, Y.; Kwon, Jungmi; Purcell, R.; Magalhães, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of magnetic fields (B-fields) on the formation and evolution of bipolar bubbles, due to the expanding ionization fronts (I-fronts) driven by the H II regions that are formed and embedded in filamentary molecular clouds, has not been well-studied yet. In addition to the anisotropic expansion of I-fronts into a filament, B-fields are expected to introduce an additional anisotropic pressure, which might favor the expansion and propagation of I-fronts forming a bipolar bubble. We present results based on near-infrared polarimetric observations toward the central ˜8‧ × 8‧ area of the star-forming region RCW 57A, which hosts an H II region, a filament, and a bipolar bubble. Polarization measurements of 178 reddened background stars, out of the 919 detected sources in the JHK s bands, reveal B-fields that thread perpendicularly to the filament long axis. The B-fields exhibit an hourglass morphology that closely follows the structure of the bipolar bubble. The mean B-field strength, estimated using the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method (CF method), is 91 ± 8 μG. B-field pressure dominates over turbulent and thermal pressures. Thermal pressure might act in the same orientation as the B-fields to accelerate the expansion of those I-fronts. The observed morphological correspondence among the B-fields, filament, and bipolar bubble demonstrate that the B-fields are important to the cloud contraction that formed the filament, to the gravitational collapse and star formation in it, and in feedback processes. The last one includes the formation and evolution of mid-infrared bubbles by means of B-field supported propagation and expansion of I-fronts. These may shed light on preexisting conditions favoring the formation of the massive stellar cluster in RCW 57A.

  18. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  19. BANYAN. IV. Fundamental parameters of low-mass star candidates in nearby young stellar kinematic groups—isochronal age determination using magnetic evolutionary models

    SciTech Connect

    Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc

    2014-09-01

    Based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we determine fundamental parameters (T {sub eff}, R, L {sub bol}, log g, and metallicity) for 59 candidate members of nearby young kinematic groups. The candidates were identified through the BANYAN Bayesian inference method of Malo et al., which takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, color, radial velocity, and parallax (when available) to establish a membership probability. The derived parameters are compared to Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models and field stars with the goal of constraining the age of our candidates. We find that, in general, low-mass starsmore » in our sample are more luminous and have inflated radii compared to older stars, a trend expected for pre-main-sequence stars. The Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models show a good fit to observations of field K and M stars, assuming a magnetic field strength of a few kG, as typically observed for cool stars. Using the low-mass members of the β Pictoris moving group, we have re-examined the age inconsistency problem between lithium depletion age and isochronal age (Hertzspring-Russell diagram). We find that the inclusion of the magnetic field in evolutionary models increases the isochronal age estimates for the K5V-M5V stars. Using these models and field strengths, we derive an average isochronal age between 15 and 28 Myr and we confirm a clear lithium depletion boundary from which an age of 26 ± 3 Myr is derived, consistent with previous age estimates based on this method.« less

  20. Multiple, short-lived "stellar prominences" on the O giant ξ Persei: a magnetic star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudnik, N.; Henrichs, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    We present strong evidence for a rotation period of 2.0406 d of the O giant ξ Persei, derived from the NIV λ1718 wind line in 12 yr of IUE data. We predict that ξ Per has a magnetic dipole field, with superposed variable magnetic prominences. Favorable dates for future magnetic measurements can be predicted. We also analysed time-resolved HeII 4686 spectra from a campaign in 1989 by using the same simplified model as before for λ Cephei, in terms of multiple spherical blobs attached to the surface, called stellar prominences (Sudnik & Henrichs, 2016). These represent transient multiple magnetic loops on the surface, for which we find lifetimes of mostly less than 5 h.

  1. Solar magnetism eXplorer (SolmeX). Exploring the magnetic field in the upper atmosphere of our closest star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Hardi; Abbo, L.; Andretta, V.; Auchère, F.; Bemporad, A.; Berrilli, F.; Bommier, V.; Braukhane, A.; Casini, R.; Curdt, W.; Davila, J.; Dittus, H.; Fineschi, S.; Fludra, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Griffin, D.; Inhester, B.; Lagg, A.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.; Maiwald, V.; Sainz, R. Manso; Martínez Pillet, V; Matthews, S.; Moses, D.; Parenti, S.; Pietarila, A.; Quantius, D.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Raymond, J.; Rochus, P.; Romberg, O.; Schlotterer, M.; Schühle, U.; Solanki, S.; Spadaro, D.; Teriaca, L.; Tomczyk, S.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Vial, J.-C.

    2012-04-01

    The magnetic field plays a pivotal role in many fields of Astrophysics. This is especially true for the physics of the solar atmosphere. Measuring the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere is crucial to understand the nature of the underlying physical processes that drive the violent dynamics of the solar corona—that can also affect life on Earth. SolmeX, a fully equipped solar space observatory for remote-sensing observations, will provide the first comprehensive measurements of the strength and direction of the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere. The mission consists of two spacecraft, one carrying the instruments, and another one in formation flight at a distance of about 200 m carrying the occulter to provide an artificial total solar eclipse. This will ensure high-quality coronagraphic observations above the solar limb. SolmeX integrates two spectro-polarimetric coronagraphs for off-limb observations, one in the EUV and one in the IR, and three instruments for observations on the disk. The latter comprises one imaging polarimeter in the EUV for coronal studies, a spectro-polarimeter in the EUV to investigate the low corona, and an imaging spectro-polarimeter in the UV for chromospheric studies. SOHO and other existing missions have investigated the emission of the upper atmosphere in detail (not considering polarization), and as this will be the case also for missions planned for the near future. Therefore it is timely that SolmeX provides the final piece of the observational quest by measuring the magnetic field in the upper atmosphere through polarimetric observations.

  2. EVOLUTION OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS X-RAY BINARIES DRIVEN BY THE MAGNETIC BRAKING OF AP/BP STARS. I. ULTRACOMPACT X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wen-Cong; Podsiadlowski, Philipp, E-mail: chenwc@pku.edu.cn

    2016-10-20

    It is generally believed that ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) evolved from binaries consisting of a neutron star accreting from a low-mass white dwarf (WD) or helium star where mass transfer is driven by gravitational radiation. However, the standard WD evolutionary channel cannot produce the relatively long-period (40–60 minutes) UCXBs with a high time-averaged mass-transfer rate. In this work, we explore an alternative evolutionary route toward UCXBs, where the companions evolve from intermediate-mass Ap/Bp stars with an anomalously strong magnetic field (100–10,000 G). Including the magnetic braking caused by the coupling between the magnetic field and an irradiation-driven wind induced bymore » the X-ray flux from the accreting component, we show that intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (IMXBs) can evolve into UCXBs. Using the MESA code, we have calculated evolutionary sequences for a large number of IMXBs. The simulated results indicate that, for a small wind-driving efficiency f = 10{sup −5}, the anomalous magnetic braking can drive IMXBs to an ultra-short period of 11 minutes. Comparing our simulated results with the observed parameters of 15 identified UCXBs, the anomalous magnetic braking evolutionary channel can account for the formation of seven and eight sources with f = 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −5}, respectively. In particular, a relatively large value of f can fit three of the long-period, persistent sources with a high mass-transfer rate. Though the proportion of Ap/Bp stars in intermediate-mass stars is only 5%, the lifetime of the UCXB phase is ≳2 Gyr, producing a relatively high number of observable systems, making this an alternative evolutionary channel for the formation of UCXBs.« less

  3. Equilibrium intermediate-state patterns in a type-I superconducting slab in an arbitrarily oriented applied magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Clem, John; Prozorov, Ruslan; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    2013-09-04

    The equilibrium topology of superconducting and normal domains in flat type-I superconductors is investigated. Important improvements with respect to previous work are that (1) the energy of the external magnetic field, as deformed by the presence of superconducting domains, is calculated in the same way for three different topologies and (2) calculations are made for arbitrary orientation of the applied field. A phase diagram is presented for the minimum-energy topology as a function of applied field magnitude and angle. For small (large) applied fields, normal (superconducting) tubes are found, while for intermediate fields, parallel domains have a lower energy. Themore » range of field magnitudes for which the superconducting-tubes structure is favored shrinks when the field is more in-plane oriented.« less

  4. Polarization Properties and Magnetic Field Structures in the High-mass Star-forming Region W51 Observed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Su, Yu-Nung; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2018-03-01

    We present the first ALMA dust polarization observations toward the high-mass star-forming regions W51 e2, e8, and W51 North in Band 6 (230 GHz) with a resolution of about 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 26 (∼5 mpc). Polarized emission in all three sources is clearly detected and resolved. Measured relative polarization levels are between 0.1% and 10%. While the absolute polarization shows complicated structures, the relative polarization displays the typical anticorrelation with Stokes I, although with a large scatter. Inferred magnetic (B) field morphologies are organized and connected. Detailed substructures are resolved, revealing new features such as comet-shaped B-field morphologies in satellite cores, symmetrically converging B-field zones, and possibly streamlined morphologies. The local B-field dispersion shows some anticorrelation with the relative polarization. Moreover, the lowest polarization percentages together with largest dispersions coincide with B-field convergence zones. We put forward \\sin ω , where ω is the measurable angle between a local B-field orientation and local gravity, as a measure of how effectively the B field can oppose gravity. Maps of \\sin ω for all three sources show organized structures that suggest a locally varying role of the B field, with some regions where gravity can largely act unaffectedly, possibly in a network of narrow magnetic channels, and other regions where the B field can work maximally against gravity.

  5. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. I. Revised Parameters for the Component Stars of the Kepler Low-mass Eclipsing Binary T-Cyg1-12664

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eunkyu; Muirhead, Philip S.; Swift, Jonathan J.

    Several low-mass eclipsing binary stars show larger than expected radii for their measured mass, metallicity, and age. One proposed mechanism for this radius inflation involves inhibited internal convection and starspots caused by strong magnetic fields. One particular eclipsing binary, T-Cyg1-12664, has proven confounding to this scenario. Çakırlı et al. measured a radius for the secondary component that is twice as large as model predictions for stars with the same mass and age, but a primary mass that is consistent with predictions. Iglesias-Marzoa et al. independently measured the radii and masses of the component stars and found that the radius ofmore » the secondary is not in fact inflated with respect to models, but that the primary is, which is consistent with the inhibited convection scenario. However, in their mass determinations, Iglesias-Marzoa et al. lacked independent radial velocity measurements for the secondary component due to the star’s faintness at optical wavelengths. The secondary component is especially interesting, as its purported mass is near the transition from partially convective to a fully convective interior. In this article, we independently determined the masses and radii of the component stars of T-Cyg1-12664 using archival Kepler data and radial velocity measurements of both component stars obtained with IGRINS on the Discovery Channel Telescope and NIRSPEC and HIRES on the Keck Telescopes. We show that neither of the component stars is inflated with respect to models. Our results are broadly consistent with modern stellar evolutionary models for main-sequence M dwarf stars and do not require inhibited convection by magnetic fields to account for the stellar radii.« less

  6. Binary neutron star mergers and short gamma-ray bursts: Effects of magnetic field orientation, equation of state, and mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Takumu; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Kastaun, Wolfgang; Ciolfi, Riccardo; Endrizzi, Andrea; Baiotti, Luca; Perna, Rosalba

    2016-09-01

    We present fully general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the merger of binary neutron star (BNS) systems. We consider BNSs producing a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) that collapses to a spinning black hole (BH) surrounded by a magnetized accretion disk in a few tens of ms. We investigate whether such systems may launch relativistic jets and hence power short gamma-ray bursts. We study the effects of different equations of state (EOSs), different mass ratios, and different magnetic field orientations. For all cases, we present a detailed investigation of the matter dynamics and of the magnetic field evolution, with particular attention to its global structure and possible emission of relativistic jets. The main result of this work is that we observe the formation of an organized magnetic field structure. This happens independently of EOS, mass ratio, and initial magnetic field orientation. We also show that those models that produce a longer-lived HMNS lead to a stronger magnetic field before collapse to a BH. Such larger fields make it possible, for at least one of our models, to resolve the magnetorotational instability and hence further amplify the magnetic field in the disk. However, by the end of our simulations, we do not (yet) observe a magnetically dominated funnel nor a relativistic outflow. With respect to the recent simulations of Ruiz et al. [Astrophys. J. 824, L6 (2016)], we evolve models with lower and more plausible initial magnetic field strengths and (for computational reasons) we do not evolve the accretion disk for the long time scales that seem to be required in order to see a relativistic outflow. Since all our models produce a similar ordered magnetic field structure aligned with the BH spin axis, we expect that the results found by Ruiz et al. (who only considered an equal-mass system with an ideal fluid EOS) should be general and—at least from a qualitative point of view—independent of the mass ratio, magnetic field

  7. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. II. On the Radii of Single, Rapidly Rotating, Fully Convective M-Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseli, Aurora Y.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Mann, Andrew W.; Mace, Greg

    2018-06-01

    Main-sequence, fully convective M dwarfs in eclipsing binaries are observed to be larger than stellar evolutionary models predict by as much as 10%–15%. A proposed explanation for this discrepancy involves effects from strong magnetic fields, induced by rapid rotation via the dynamo process. Although, a handful of single, slowly rotating M dwarfs with radius measurements from interferometry also appear to be larger than models predict, suggesting that rotation or binarity specifically may not be the sole cause of the discrepancy. We test whether single, rapidly rotating, fully convective stars are also larger than expected by measuring their R\\sin i distribution. We combine photometric rotation periods from the literature with rotational broadening (v\\sin i) measurements reported in this work for a sample of 88 rapidly rotating M dwarf stars. Using a Bayesian framework, we find that stellar evolutionary models underestimate the radii by 10 % {--}15{ % }-2.5+3, but that at higher masses (0.18 < M < 0.4 M Sun), the discrepancy is only about 6% and comparable to results from interferometry and eclipsing binaries. At the lowest masses (0.08 < M < 0.18 M Sun), we find that the discrepancy between observations and theory is 13%–18%, and we argue that the discrepancy is unlikely to be due to effects from age. Furthermore, we find no statistically significant radius discrepancy between our sample and the handful of M dwarfs with interferometric radii. We conclude that neither rotation nor binarity are responsible for the inflated radii of fully convective M dwarfs, and that all fully convective M dwarfs are larger than models predict.

  8. Activity in Very Cool Stars: Magnetic Dissipation in Late M and L Dwarf Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Basri, Gibor; Shu, Frank; Allard, France; Chabrier, Gilles

    2002-05-01

    Recent observations show that chromospheric Hα activity in late M and L dwarfs is much lower than in the earlier M types. This is particularly surprising given that the late M and L dwarfs are comparatively very rapid rotators: in the early M dwarfs, rapid rotation is associated with high activity levels. One possibility is that the drop-off in activity in the late M and L dwarfs is a result of very high electrical resistivities in their dense, cool, and predominantly neutral atmospheres.We calculate the magnetic field diffusivity in the atmospheres of objects with Teff in the range 3000-1500 K (mid M to late L) using the atmospheric structure models of Allard and Hauschildt. We find that the combination of very low ionization fraction and high density in these atmospheres results in very large resistivities and thus efficient field diffusion. While both ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic decay of currents due to ion-electron collisions occur, the primary diffusion effects are due to current decay through collisions of charged particles with neutrals. Moreover, the latter resistivity is a strong function of both effective temperature and optical depth, increasing rapidly as either Teff or optical depth decreases. This has two implications: (1) Any magnetic field present is increasingly decoupled from atmospheric fluid motions as one moves from mid M to L. In the late M and L dwarfs, atmospheric motions cannot lead to equilibrium field configurations very different from potential ones. That is, the magnitude of magnetic stresses generated by atmospheric motions is very small in these objects. We quantify this effect by a simple Reynolds number calculation. (2) Even if magnetic stresses are easily produced by fluid motions in the hot interior (where the coupling between field and matter is good), their propagation up through the atmosphere will be increasingly hampered by the growing atmospheric resistivity as one moves from mid M to late L. Thus both the generation and

  9. Si:P as a laboratory analogue for hydrogen on high magnetic field white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Murdin, B N; Li, Juerong; Pang, M L Y; Bowyer, E T; Litvinenko, K L; Clowes, S K; Engelkamp, H; Pidgeon, C R; Galbraith, I; Abrosimov, N V; Riemann, H; Pavlov, S G; Hübers, H-W; Murdin, P G

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic flux density of 10(5) T (1 gigagauss), the maximum observed on high-field magnetic white dwarfs, is impossible because practically available fields are about a thousand times less. In this regime, the cyclotron and binding energies become equal. Here we demonstrate Lyman series spectra for phosphorus impurities in silicon up to the equivalent field, which is scaled to 32.8 T by the effective mass and dielectric constant. The spectra reproduce the high-field theory for free hydrogen, with quadratic Zeeman splitting and strong mixing of spherical harmonics. They show the way for experiments on He and H(2) analogues, and for investigation of He(2), a bound molecule predicted under extreme field conditions.

  10. On the generation of magnetohydrodynamic waves in a stratified and magnetized fluid. II - Magnetohydrodynamic energy fluxes for late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave energy fluxes for late-type stars are calculated, using previously obtained formulae for the source functions for the generation of MHD waves in a stratified, but otherwise uniform, turbulent atmosphere; the magnetic fields in the wave generation region are assumed to be homogeneous. In contradiction to previous results, it is shown that in this uniform magnetic field case there is no significant increase in the efficiency of MHD wave generation, at least within the theory's limits of applicability. The major results are that the MHD energy fluxes calculated for late-type stars are less than those obtained for compressible modes in the magnetic field-free case, and that these MHD energy fluxes do not vary enough for a given spectral type to explain the observed range of UV and X-ray fluxes from such stars. It is therefore concluded that MHD waves in stellar atmospheres with homogeneous magnetic fields in the wave generation region cannot explain the observed stellar coronal emissions; if such MHD waves are responsible for a significant component of stellar coronal heating, then nonuniform fields within the generation region must be appealed to.

  11. Modelling the magnetic activity and filtering radial velocity curves of young Suns : the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Hébrard, E.; Hussain, G.; Moutou, C.; Grankin, K.; Boisse, I.; Morin, J.; Gregory, S. G.; Vidotto, A. A.; Bouvier, J.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Delfosse, X.; Doyon, R.; Takami, M.; Jardine, M. M.; Fares, R.; Cameron, A. C.; Ménard, F.; Dougados, C.; Herczeg, G.; Matysse Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report results of a spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4 within the Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in giant Exoplanets (MaTYSSE) programme, involving ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Despite an age of only 2 Myr and a similarity with prototypical classical T Tauri stars, LkCa 4 shows no evidence for accretion and probes an interesting transition stage for star and planet formation. Large profile distortions and Zeeman signatures are detected in the unpolarized and circularly polarized lines of LkCa 4 using Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD), indicating the presence of brightness inhomogeneities and magnetic fields at the surface of LkCa 4. Using tomographic imaging, we reconstruct brightness and magnetic maps of LkCa 4 from sets of unpolarized and circularly polarized LSD profiles. The large-scale field is strong and mainly axisymmetric, featuring a ≃2 kG poloidal component and a ≃1 kG toroidal component encircling the star at equatorial latitudes - the latter making LkCa 4 markedly different from classical T Tauri stars of similar mass and age. The brightness map includes a dark spot overlapping the magnetic pole and a bright region at mid-latitudes - providing a good match to the contemporaneous photometry. We also find that differential rotation at the surface of LkCa 4 is small, typically ≃5.5 times weaker than that of the Sun, and compatible with solid-body rotation. Using our tomographic modelling, we are able to filter out the activity jitter in the radial velocity curve of LkCa 4 (of full amplitude 4.3 km s-1) down to an rms precision of 0.055 km s-1. Looking for hot Jupiters around young Sun-like stars thus appears feasible, even though we find no evidence for such planets around LkCa 4.

  12. Two spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Zwintz, K.; Castro, N.; Langer, N.; Lorenz, D.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Kuschnig, R.; Matthews, J. M.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.; Barnes, T. G.; Thoul, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence stars, we analysed two of the ten brightest members of the ~10 Myr old Galactic open cluster NGC 2264, the early B-dwarfs HD 47887 and HD 47777. We find accurate rotation periods of 1.95 and 2.64 days, respectively, from MOST photometry. We obtained ESPaDOnS spectropolarimetric observations, through which we determined stellar parameters, detailed chemical surface abundances, projected rotational velocities, and the inclination angles of the rotation axis. Because we found only small (<5 km s-1) radial velocity variations, most likely caused by spots, we can rule out that HD 47887 and HD 47777 are close binaries. Finally, using the least-squares deconvolution technique, we found that both stars possess a large-scale magnetic field with an average longitudinal field strength of about 400 G. From a simultaneous fit of the stellar parameters we determine the evolutionary masses of HD 47887 and HD 47777 to be 9.4+0.6-0.7 M⊙ and 7.6+0.5-0.5 M⊙. Interestingly, HD 47777 shows a remarkable helium underabundance, typical of helium-weak chemically peculiar stars, while the abundances of HD 47887 are normal, which might imply that diffusion is operating in the lower mass star but not in the slightly more massive one. Furthermore, we argue that the rather slow rotation, as well as the lack of nitrogen enrichment in both stars, can be consistent with both the fossil and the binary hypothesis for the origin of the magnetic field. However, the presence of two magnetic and apparently single stars near the top of the cluster mass-function may speak in favour of the latter. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Microsatellite Systems Canada Inc. (MSCI), formerly part of Dynacon, Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for

  13. SMC X-3: the closest ultraluminous X-ray source powered by a neutron star with non-dipole magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, S. S.; Doroshenko, V.; Lutovinov, A. A.; Mushtukov, A. A.; Poutanen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: The magnetic field of accreting neutron stars determines their overall behavior including the maximum possible luminosity. Some models require an above-average magnetic field strength (≳1013 G) in order to explain super-Eddington mass accretion rate in the recently discovered class of pulsating ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX). The peak luminosity of SMC X-3 during its major outburst in 2016-2017 reached 2.5 × 1039 erg s-1 comparable to that in ULXs thus making this source the nearest ULX-pulsar. Determination of the magnetic field of SMC X-3 is the main goal of this paper. Methods: SMC X-3 belongs to the class of transient X-ray pulsars with Be optical companions, and exhibited a giant outburst in July 2016-March 2017. The source has been observed over the entire outburst with the Swift/XRT and Fermi/GBM telescopes, as well as the NuSTAR observatory. Collected data allowed us to estimate the magnetic field strength of the neutron star in SMC X-3 using several independent methods. Results: Spin evolution of the source during and between the outbursts, and the luminosity of the transition to the so-called propeller regime in the range of (0.3-7) × 1035 erg s-1 imply a relatively weak dipole field of (1-5) × 1012 G. On the other hand, there is also evidence for a much stronger field in the immediate vicinity of the neutron star surface. In particular, transition from super- to sub-critical accretion regime associated with the cease of the accretion column and very high peak luminosity favor a field that is an order of magnitude stronger. This discrepancy makes SMC X-3 a good candidate for possessing significant non-dipolar components of the field, and an intermediate source between classical X-ray pulsars and accreting magnetars which may constitute an appreciable fraction of ULX population.

  14. The multi-line slope method for measuring the effective magnetic field of cool stars: an application to the solar-like cycle of ɛ Eri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalia, C.; Leone, F.; Gangi, M.; Giarrusso, M.; Stift, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    One method for the determination of integrated longitudinal stellar fields from low-resolution spectra is the so-called slope method, which is based on the regression of the Stokes V signal against the first derivative of Stokes I. Here we investigate the possibility of extending this technique to measure the magnetic fields of cool stars from high-resolution spectra. For this purpose we developed a multi-line modification to the slope method, called the multi-line slope method. We tested this technique by analysing synthetic spectra computed with the COSSAM code and real observations obtained with the high-resolution spectropolarimeters Narval, HARPSpol and the Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter (CAOS). We show that the multi-line slope method is a fast alternative to the least squares deconvolution technique for the measurement of the effective magnetic fields of cool stars. Using a Fourier transform on the effective magnetic field variations of the star ε Eri, we find that the long-term periodicity of the field corresponds to the 2.95-yr period of the stellar dynamo, revealed by the variation of the activity index.

  15. NGC 1624-2: a slowly rotating, X-ray luminous Of?cp star with an extraordinarily strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Martins, F.; Petit, V.; Grunhut, J.; Walborn, N. R.; Barbá, R. H.; Gagné, M.; García-Melendo, E.; Jose, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Nazé, Y.; Neiner, C.; Pellerin, A.; Penadés Ordaz, M.; Shultz, M.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sota, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a first observational investigation of the faint Of?p star NGC 1624-2, yielding important new constraints on its spectral and physical characteristics, rotation, magnetic field strength, X-ray emission and magnetospheric properties. Modelling the spectrum and spectral energy distribution, we conclude that NGC 1624-2 is a main-sequence star of mass M ≃ 30 M⊙, and infer an effective temperature of 35 ± 2 kK and log g = 4.0 ± 0.2. Based on an extensive time series of optical spectral observations we report significant variability of a large number of spectral lines, and infer a unique period of 157.99 ± 0.94 d which we interpret as the rotational period of the star. We report the detection of a very strong (5.35 ± 0.5 kG) longitudinal magnetic field , coupled with probable Zeeman splitting of the Stokes I profiles of metal lines confirming a surface field modulus of 14 ± 1 kG, consistent with a surface dipole of polar strength ≳20 kG. This is the largest magnetic field ever detected in an O-type star, and the first report of Zeeman splitting of Stokes I profiles in such an object. We also report the detection of reversed Stokes V profiles associated with weak, high-excitation emission lines of O III, which we propose may form in the close magnetosphere of the star. We analyse archival Chandra ACIS-I X-ray data, inferring a very hard spectrum with an X-ray efficiency of log Lx/Lbol = -6.4, a factor of 4 larger than the canonical value for O-type stars and comparable to that of the young magnetic O-type star θ1 Ori C and other Of?p stars. Finally, we examine the probable magnetospheric properties of the star, reporting in particular very strong magnetic confinement of the stellar wind, with η* ≃ 1.5 × 104, and a very large Alfvén radius, RAlf = 11.4 R*. Based on spectropolarimetric observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National

  16. Parallel Tracks as Quasi-steady States for the Magnetic Boundary Layers in Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Erkut, M. Hakan; Çatmabacak, Onur, E-mail: mherkut@gmail.com

    The neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are usually thought to be weakly magnetized objects accreting matter from their low-mass companions in the form of a disk. Albeit weak compared to those in young neutron-star systems, the neutron-star magnetospheres in LMXBs can play an important role in determining the correlations between spectral and temporal properties. Parallel tracks appearing in the kilohertz (kHz) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency versus X-ray flux plane can be used as a tool to study the magnetosphere–disk interaction in neutron-star LMXBs. For dynamically important weak fields, the formation of a non-Keplerian magnetic boundary layer at themore » innermost disk truncated near the surface of the neutron star is highly likely. Such a boundary region may harbor oscillatory modes of frequencies in the kHz range. We generate parallel tracks using the boundary region model of kHz QPOs. We also present the direct application of our model to the reproduction of the observed parallel tracks of individual sources such as 4U 1608–52, 4U 1636–53, and Aql X-1. We reveal how the radial width of the boundary layer must vary in the long-term flux evolution of each source to regenerate the parallel tracks. The run of the radial width looks similar for different sources and can be fitted by a generic model function describing the average steady behavior of the boundary region over the long term. The parallel tracks then correspond to the possible quasi-steady states the source can occupy around the average trend.« less

  17. Parallel Tracks as Quasi-steady States for the Magnetic Boundary Layers in Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkut, M. Hakan; Çatmabacak, Onur

    2017-11-01

    The neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are usually thought to be weakly magnetized objects accreting matter from their low-mass companions in the form of a disk. Albeit weak compared to those in young neutron-star systems, the neutron-star magnetospheres in LMXBs can play an important role in determining the correlations between spectral and temporal properties. Parallel tracks appearing in the kilohertz (kHz) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency versus X-ray flux plane can be used as a tool to study the magnetosphere-disk interaction in neutron-star LMXBs. For dynamically important weak fields, the formation of a non-Keplerian magnetic boundary layer at the innermost disk truncated near the surface of the neutron star is highly likely. Such a boundary region may harbor oscillatory modes of frequencies in the kHz range. We generate parallel tracks using the boundary region model of kHz QPOs. We also present the direct application of our model to the reproduction of the observed parallel tracks of individual sources such as 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-53, and Aql X-1. We reveal how the radial width of the boundary layer must vary in the long-term flux evolution of each source to regenerate the parallel tracks. The run of the radial width looks similar for different sources and can be fitted by a generic model function describing the average steady behavior of the boundary region over the long term. The parallel tracks then correspond to the possible quasi-steady states the source can occupy around the average trend.

  18. Accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars at the Eddington limit: a study of the 2016 outburst of SMC X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliopanos, Filippos; Vasilopoulos, Georgios

    2018-06-01

    Aims: We study the temporal and spectral characteristics of SMC X-3 during its recent (2016) outburst to probe accretion onto highly magnetized neutron stars (NSs) at the Eddington limit. Methods: We obtained XMM-Newton observations of SMC X-3 and combined them with long-term observations by Swift. We performed a detailed analysis of the temporal and spectral behavior of the source, as well as its short- and long-term evolution. We have also constructed a simple toy-model (based on robust theoretical predictions) in order to gain insight into the complex emission pattern of SMC X-3. Results: We confirm the pulse period of the system that has been derived by previous works and note that the pulse has a complex three-peak shape. We find that the pulsed emission is dominated by hard photons, while at energies below 1 keV, the emission does not pulsate. We furthermore find that the shape of the pulse profile and the short- and long-term evolution of the source light-curve can be explained by invoking a combination of a "fan" and a "polar" beam. The results of our temporal study are supported by our spectroscopic analysis, which reveals a two-component emission, comprised of a hard power law and a soft thermal component. We find that the latter produces the bulk of the non-pulsating emission and is most likely the result of reprocessing the primary hard emission by optically thick material that partly obscures the central source. We also detect strong emission lines from highly ionized metals. The strength of the emission lines strongly depends on the phase. Conclusions: Our findings are in agreement with previous works. The energy and temporal evolution as well as the shape of the pulse profile and the long-term spectra evolution of the source are consistent with the expected emission pattern of the accretion column in the super-critical regime, while the large reprocessing region is consistent with the analysis of previously studied X-ray pulsars observed at high

  19. A study of polarized spectra of magnetic CP stars: Predicted š. observed Stokes IQUV profiles for beta CrB and 53 Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnulo, S.; Wade, G. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Landstreet, J. D.; Leone, F.; Monin, D. N.; Stift, M. J.

    2001-04-01

    We present a comparison of observed and calculated Stokes IQUV spectra of two well-known magnetic chemically peculiar stars, beta Coronae Borealis and 53 Camelopardalis. The observed Stokes spectra were recently described by Wade et al. (\\cite{wad00a}), and have been complemented with additional circularly polarized spectra obtained at the Special Astrophysical Observatory. The calculated spectra represent the predictions of new and previously published magnetic field models derived from the analysis of some surface averaged field estimates (e.g., longitudinal field, magnetic field modulus, etc.). We find that these magnetic models are not sufficient to account fully for the observed Stokes profiles - particularly remarkable is the disagreement between the predicted and observed Stokes Q and U profiles of 53 Cam. We suggest that this should be interpreted in terms of magnetic morphologies which are significantly more complex than the second-order multipolar expansions assumed in the models. However, it is clear that some of our inability to reproduce the detailed shapes of the Stokes IQUV profiles is unrelated to the magnetic models. For many metallic ions, for both stars, we found it impossible to account for the strengths and shapes of the observed spectral line profiles when we adopted a unique value for the individual ion abundance. We suggest that this results from strongly non-uniform distributions of these ions as a function of optical depth (i.e., chemical stratification), a hypothesis that is supported by comparison with simple chemically stratified models. Based on observations obtained with the 2 m Bernard Lyot telescope of the Pic-du-Midi Observatory, the 1 m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory, and the 0.9 m telescope of the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania.

  20. Magnetic Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2015-09-01

    A possible variant of the evolution of magnetic protostars "before the Hayashi phase" is discussed. Arguments are given in support of the following major properties of magnetic stars: (1) global magnetic dipole fields with predominant orientation of the magnetic lines of force in the plane of the equator of revolution; (2) slow rotation; (3) complex, two and three dipole structures of the magnetic field in a large part of the stars; (4) partition of stars into magnetic and normal in a proportion of 1:10 occurs during the period when the protostellar clouds undergo gravitational collapse "before the Hayashi phase."

  1. Variational calculation of ground-state energy of iron atoms and condensed matter in strong magnetic fields. [at neutron star surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, E. G.; Ruderman, M. A.; Lee, J.-F.; Sutherland, P. G.; Hillebrandt, W.; Mueller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Variational calculations of the binding energies of iron atoms and condensed matter in strong magnetic fields (greater than 10 to the 12th gauss). These calculations include the electron exchange energy. The cohesive energy of the condensed matter, which is the difference between these two binding energies, is of interest in pulsar theories and in the description of the surfaces of neutron stars. It is found that the cohesive energy ranges from 2.6 keV to 8.0 keV.

  2. Radio Emission from Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Stellar radio emission is most common in double star systems where each star provides something essential in producing the large amounts of radio radiation needed for it to be detectable by RADIO TELESCOPES. They transfer mass, supply energy or, when one of the stars is a NEUTRON STAR or BLACK HOLE, have the strong gravitational fields needed for the energetic particles and magnetic fields needed...

  3. The Atmospheric Dynamics of alpha Tau (K5 III) - Clues to Understanding the Magnetic Dynamo in Late-Type Giant Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Airapetian, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Using HST/GHRS, HST/STIS and FUSE archival data for alpha Tau and the CHIANTI spectroscopic code, we have derived line shifts, volumetric emission measures, and plasma density estimates, and calculated filling factors for a number of UV lines forming between 10,000 K and 300,000 K in the outer atmosphere of this red giant star. The data suggest the presence of low-temperature extended regions and high-temperature compact regions, associated with magnetically open and closed structures in the stellar atmosphere, respectively. The signatures of UV lines from alpha Tau can be consistently understood via a model of upward-traveling Alfven waves in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere. These waves cause non-thermal broadening in UV lines due to unresolved wave motions and downward plasma motions in compact magnetic loops heated by resonant Alfven wave heating.

  4. The Atmospheric Dynamics of Alpha Tau (K5 III) - Clues to Understanding the Magnetic Dynamo in Late-Type Giant Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Airapetian, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Using HST/GHRS, HST/STIS and FUSE archival data for a Tau and the CHIANTI spectroscopic code, we have derived line shifts, volumetric emission measures, and plasma density estimates, and calculated filling factors for a number of UV lines forming between 10,000 K and 300,000 K in the outer atmosphere of this red giant star. The data suggest the presence of low-temperature extended regions and high-temperature compact regions, associated with magnetically open and closed structures in the stellar atmosphere, respectively. The signatures of UV lines from a Tau can be consistently understood via a model of upward-traveling Alfv6n waves in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere. These waves cause nonthermal broadening in UV lines due to unresolved wave motions and downward plasma motions in compact magnetic loops heated by resonant Alfven wave heating.

  5. Magnetic activity and radial velocity filtering of young Suns: the weak-line T-Tauri stars Par 1379 and Par 2244

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. A.; Carmona, A.; Donati, J.-F.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Gregory, S. G.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Bouvier, J.; The Matysse Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report the results of our spectropolarimetric monitoring of the weak-line T-Tauri stars (wTTSs) Par 1379 and Par 2244, within the MaTYSSE (Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in giant Exoplanets) programme. Both stars are of a similar mass (1.6 and 1.8 M⊙) and age (1.8 and 1.1 Myr), with Par 1379 hosting an evolved low-mass dusty circumstellar disc, and with Par 2244 showing evidence of a young debris disc. We detect profile distortions and Zeeman signatures in the unpolarized and circularly polarized lines for each star, and have modelled their rotational modulation using tomographic imaging, yielding brightness and magnetic maps. We find that Par 1379 harbours a weak (250 G), mostly poloidal field tilted 65° from the rotation axis. In contrast, Par 2244 hosts a stronger field (860 G) split 3:2 between poloidal and toroidal components, with most of the energy in higher order modes, and with the poloidal component tilted 45° from the rotation axis. Compared to the lower mass wTTSs, V819 Tau and V830 Tau, Par 2244 has a similar field strength, but is much more complex, whereas the much less complex field of Par 1379 is also much weaker than any other mapped wTTS. We find moderate surface differential rotation of 1.4× and 1.8× smaller than Solar, for Par 1379 and Par 2244, respectively. Using our tomographic maps to predict the activity-related radial velocity (RV) jitter, and filter it from the RV curves, we find RV residuals with dispersions of 0.017 and 0.086 km s-1 for Par 1379 and Par 2244, respectively. We find no evidence for close-in giant planets around either star, with 3σ upper limits of 0.56 and 3.54 MJup (at an orbital distance of 0.1 au).

  6. New insights into the interstellar medium of the dwarf galaxy IC 10: connection between magnetic fields, the radio-infrared correlation and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Aritra; Roychowdhury, Sambit; Heesen, Volker; Beck, Rainer; Brinks, Elias; Westcott, Jonathan; Hindson, Luke

    2017-10-01

    We present the highest sensitivity and angular resolution study at 0.32 GHz of the dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10, observed using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, probing ˜45 pc spatial scales. We find the galaxy-averaged radio continuum spectrum to be relatively flat, with a spectral index α = -0.34 ± 0.01 (Sν ∝ να), mainly due to a high contribution from free-free emission. At 0.32 GHz, some of the H II regions show evidence of free-free absorption as they become optically thick below ˜0.41 GHz with corresponding free electron densities of ˜ 11-22 cm- 3. After removing the free-free emission, we studied the radio-infrared (IR) relations on 55, 110 and 165 pc spatial scales. We find that on all scales the non-thermal emission at 0.32 and 6.2 GHz correlates better with far-infrared (FIR) emission at 70 μm than mid-IR emission at 24 μm. The dispersion of the radio-FIR relation arises due to variations in both magnetic field and dust temperature, and decreases systematically with increasing spatial scale. The effect of cosmic ray transport is negligible as cosmic ray electrons were only injected ≲5 Myr ago. The average magnetic field strength (B) of 12 μG in the disc is comparable to that of large star-forming galaxies. The local magnetic field is strongly correlated with local star formation rate (SFR) as B ∝ SFR0.35 ± 0.03, indicating a starburst-driven fluctuation dynamo to be efficient (˜10 per cent) in amplifying the field in IC 10. The high spatial resolution observations presented here suggest that the high efficiency of magnetic field amplification and strong coupling with SFR likely sets up the radio-FIR correlation in cosmologically young galaxies.

  7. Evolution of the magnetized, neutrino-cooled accretion disk in the aftermath of a black hole-neutron star binary merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossein Nouri, Fatemeh; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; Deaton, M. Brett; Haas, Roland; Haddadi, Milad; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Ott, Christian D.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2018-04-01

    Black hole-torus systems from compact binary mergers are possible engines for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). During the early evolution of the postmerger remnant, the state of the torus is determined by a combination of neutrino cooling and magnetically driven heating processes, so realistic models must include both effects. In this paper, we study the postmerger evolution of a magnetized black hole-neutron star binary system using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) from an initial postmerger state provided by previous numerical relativity simulations. We use a finite-temperature nuclear equation of state and incorporate neutrino effects in a leakage approximation. To achieve the needed accuracy, we introduce improvements to SpEC's implementation of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), including the use of cubed-sphere multipatch grids and an improved method for dealing with supersonic accretion flows where primitive variable recovery is difficult. We find that a seed magnetic field triggers a sustained source of heating, but its thermal effects are largely cancelled by the accretion and spreading of the torus from MHD-related angular momentum transport. The neutrino luminosity peaks at the start of the simulation, and then drops significantly over the first 20 ms but in roughly the same way for magnetized and nonmagnetized disks. The heating rate and disk's luminosity decrease much more slowly thereafter. These features of the evolution are insensitive to grid structure and resolution, formulation of the MHD equations, and seed field strength, although turbulent effects are not fully converged.

  8. Long-term Photometric Variability in Kepler Full-frame Images: Magnetic Cycles of Sun–like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Tovar, Guadalupe; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Photometry from the Kepler mission is optimized to detect small, short-duration signals like planet transits at the expense of long-term trends. This long-term variability can be recovered in photometry from the full-frame images (FFIs), a set of calibration data collected approximately monthly during the Kepler mission. Here we present f3, an open-source package to perform photometry on the Kepler FFIs in order to detect changes in the brightness of stars in the Kepler field of view over long time baselines. We apply this package to a sample of 4000 Sun–like stars with measured rotation periods. We find that ≈10% of these targets have long-term variability in their observed flux. For the majority of targets, we find that the luminosity variations are either correlated or anticorrelated with the short-term variability due to starspots on the stellar surface. We find a transition between anticorrelated (starspot-dominated) variability and correlated (facula-dominated) variability between rotation periods of 15 and 25 days, suggesting the transition between the two modes is complete for stars at the age of the Sun. We also identify a sample of stars with apparently complete cycles, as well as a collection of short-period binaries with extreme photometric variation over the Kepler mission.

  9. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  10. Large-scale magnetic field in the accretion discs of young stars: the influence of magnetic diffusion, buoyancy and Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaibrakhmanov, S. A.; Dudorov, A. E.; Parfenov, S. Yu.; Sobolev, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the fossil magnetic field in the accretion and protoplanetary discs using the Shakura and Sunyaev approach. The distinguishing feature of this study is the accurate solution of the ionization balance equations and the induction equation with Ohmic diffusion, magnetic ambipolar diffusion, buoyancy and the Hall effect. We consider the ionization by cosmic rays, X-rays and radionuclides, radiative recombinations, recombinations on dust grains and also thermal ionization. The buoyancy appears as the additional mechanism of magnetic flux escape in the steady-state solution of the induction equation. Calculations show that Ohmic diffusion and magnetic ambipolar diffusion constraint the generation of the magnetic field inside the `dead' zones. The magnetic field in these regions is quasi-vertical. The buoyancy constraints the toroidal magnetic field strength close to the disc inner edge. As a result, the toroidal and vertical magnetic fields become comparable. The Hall effect is important in the regions close to the borders of the `dead' zones because electrons are magnetized there. The magnetic field in these regions is quasi-radial. We calculate the magnetic field strength and geometry for the discs with accretion rates (10^{-8}-10^{-6}) {M}_{⊙} {yr}^{-1}. The fossil magnetic field geometry does not change significantly during the disc evolution while the accretion rate decreases. We construct the synthetic maps of dust emission polarized due to the dust grain alignment by the magnetic field. In the polarization maps, the `dead' zones appear as the regions with the reduced values of polarization degree in comparison to those in the adjacent regions.

  11. A search for the cause of cyclical wind variability in O stars. Simultaneous UV and optical observations including magnetic field measurements of the O7.5III star xi Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, J. A.; Henrichs, H. F.; Kaper, L.; Nichols, J. S.; Bjorkman, K.; Bohlender, D. A.; Cao, H.; Gordon, K.; Hill, G.; Jiang, Y.; Kolka, I.; Morrison, N.; Neff, J.; O'Neal, D.; Scheers, B.; Telting, J. H.

    2001-03-01

    We present the results of an extensive observing campaign on the O7.5 III star xi Persei. The UV observations were obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. xi Per was monitored continuously in October 1994 during 10 days at ultraviolet and visual wavelengths. The ground-based optical observations include magnetic field measurements, Hα and He I lambda 6678 spectra, and were partially covered by photometry and polarimetry. We describe a method to automatically remove the variable contamination of telluric lines in the groundbased spectra. The aim of this campaign was to search for the origin of the cyclical wind variability in this star. We determined a very accurate period of 2.086(2) d in the resonance lines of Si Iv and in the subordinate N Iv and Hα line profiles. The epochs of maximum absorption in the UV resonance lines due to discrete absorption components (DACs) coincide in phase with the maxima in blue-shifted Hα absorption. This implies that the periodic variability originates close to the stellar surface. The phase-velocity relation shows a maximum at -1400 km s-1. The general trend of these observations can be well explained by the corotating interaction region (CIR) model. In this model the wind is perturbed by one or more fixed patches on the stellar surface, which are most probably due to small magnetic field structures. Our magnetic field measurements gave, however, only a null-detection with a 1sigma errorbar of 70 G in the longitudinal component. Some observations are more difficult to fit into this picture. The 2-day period is not detected in the photospheric/transition region line He I lambda 6678. The dynamic spectrum of this line shows a pattern indicating the presence of non-radial pulsation, consistent with the previously reported period of 3.5 h. The edge variability around -2300 km s-1 in the saturated wind lines of C Iv and N V is nearly identical to the edge variability in the unsaturated Si Iv line, supporting the view

  12. Activity Cycles in Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Starspots and stellar activity can be detected in other stars using high precision photometric and spectrometric measurements. These observations have provided some surprises (starspots at the poles - sunspots are rarely seen poleward of 40 degrees) but more importantly they reveal behaviors that constrain our models of solar-stellar magnetic dynamos. The observations reveal variations in cycle characteristics that depend upon the stellar structure, convection zone dynamics, and rotation rate. In general, the more rapidly rotating stars are more active. However, for stars like the Sun, some are found to be inactive while nearly identical stars are found to be very active indicating that periods like the Sun's Maunder Minimum (an inactive period from 1645 to 1715) are characteristic of Sun-like stars.

  13. Recent highlights from STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Wangmei

    2018-02-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment takes advantage of its excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities at mid-rapidity to explore the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter created in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. The STAR collaboration presented 7 parallel and 2 plenary talks at Strangeness in Quark Matter 2017 and covered various topics including heavy flavor measurements, bulk observables, electro-magnetic probes and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  14. Maximally Rotating Supermassive Stars at the Onset of Collapse: The Perturbative Effects of Gas Pressure, Magnetic Fields, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Satya P.; Lima, Alicia R.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2018-04-01

    The discovery of quasars at increasingly large cosmological redshifts may favor "direct collapse" as the most promising evolutionary route to the formation of supermassive black holes. In this scenario, supermassive black holes form when their progenitors - supermassive stars - become unstable to gravitational collapse. For uniformly rotating stars supported by pure radiation pressure and spinning at the mass-shedding limit, the critical configuration at the onset of collapse is characterized by universal values of the dimensionless spin and radius parameters J/M2 and R/M, independent of mass M. We consider perturbative effects of gas pressure, magnetic fields, dark matter and dark energy on these parameters, and thereby determine the domain of validity of this universality. We obtain leading-order corrections for the critical parameters and establish their scaling with the relevant physical parameters. We compare two different approaches to approximate the effects of gas pressure, which plays the most important role, find identical results for the above dimensionless parameters, and also find good agreement with recent numerical results.

  15. Maximally rotating supermassive stars at the onset of collapse: the perturbative effects of gas pressure, magnetic fields, dark matter, and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Satya P.; Lima, Alicia R.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2018-07-01

    The discovery of quasars at increasingly large cosmological redshifts may favour `direct collapse' as the most promising evolutionary route to the formation of supermassive black holes. In this scenario, supermassive black holes form when their progenitors - supermassive stars - become unstable to gravitational collapse. For uniformly rotating stars supported by pure radiation pressure and spinning at the mass-shedding limit, the critical configuration at the onset of collapse is characterized by universal values of the dimensionless spin and radius parameters J/M2 and R/M, independent of mass M. We consider perturbative effects of gas pressure, magnetic fields, dark matter, and dark energy on these parameters, and thereby determine the domain of validity of this universality. We obtain leading-order corrections for the critical parameters and establish their scaling with the relevant physical parameters. We compare two different approaches to approximate the effects of gas pressure, which plays the most important role, find identical results for the above dimensionless parameters, and also find good agreement with recent numerical results.

  16. By Draconis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    An optical spectroscopic survey of dK-M stars has resulted in the discovery of several new H-alpha emission objects. Available optical data suggest these stars have a level of chromospheric activity midway between active BY Dra stars and quiet dM's. These "marginal" BY Dra stars are single objects that have rotation velocities slightly higher than that of quiet field stars but below that of active flare/BY Dra objects. The marginal BY Dra stars provide us with a class of objects rotating very near a "trigger velocity" (believed to be 5 km/s) which appears to divide active flare/BY Dra stars from quiet dM's. UV data on Mg II emission fluxes and strength of transition region features such as C IV will serve to fix activity levels in the marginal objects and determine chromosphere and transition-region heating rates. Simultaneous optical magnetic field measures will be used to explore the connection between fieldstrength/filling-factor and atmospheric heating. Comparison of these data with published information on active and quiet dM stars will yield information on the character of the stellar dynamo as it makes a transition from "low" to "high" activity.

  17. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  18. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  19. X-Ray Timing of PSR J1852+0040 in Kesteven 79: Evidence of Neutron Stars Weakly Magnetized at Birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Seward, F. D.

    2007-08-01

    The 105 ms X-ray pulsar J1852+0040 is the central compact object (CCO) in supernova remnant Kes 79. We report a sensitive upper limit on its radio flux density of 12 μJy at 2 GHz using the NRAO Green Bank Telescope. Timing using the Newton X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory over a 2.4 yr span reveals no significant change in its spin period. The 2 σ upper limit on the period derivative leads, in the dipole spin-down formalism, to an energy loss rate E˙<7×1033 ergs s-1, surface magnetic field strength Bp<1.5×1011 G, and characteristic age τc≡P/2P˙>8 Myr. This value of τc exceeds the age of the SNR by 3 orders of magnitude, implying that the pulsar was born spinning at its current period. However, the X-ray luminosity of Lbol~3×1033(d/7.1 kpc)2 ergs s-1 is a large fraction of E˙, which challenges the rotation-powered assumption. Instead, its high blackbody temperature kTBB=0.46+/-0.04 keV, small blackbody radius RBB~0.8 km, and large pulsed fraction fp~80% may be evidence of accretion onto a polar cap, possibly from a fallback disk made of supernova debris. If Bp<1010 G, an accretion disk can penetrate the light cylinder and interact with the magnetosphere, while resulting torques on the neutron star remain within the observed limits. A weak B field is also inferred in another CCO, the 424 ms pulsar, from its steady spin and soft X-ray absorption lines. We propose this origin of radio-quiet CCOs: the magnetic field, derived from a turbulent dynamo, is weaker if the neutron star is formed spinning slowly, which enables it to accrete supernova debris. Accretion excludes neutron stars born with both Bp<1011 G and P>0.1 s from radio pulsar surveys, where Bp<1011 G is not encountered except among very old (τc>40 Myr) or recycled pulsars. Finally, such a CCO, if born in SN 1987A, could explain the nondetection of a pulsar there.

  20. A highly optimized code for calculating atomic data at neutron star magnetic field strengths using a doubly self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimeczek, C.; Engel, D.; Wunner, G.

    2012-07-01

    Our previously published code for calculating energies and bound-bound transitions of medium-Z elements at neutron star magnetic field strengths [D. Engel, M. Klews, G. Wunner, Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 302-311] was based on the adiabatic approximation. It assumes a complete decoupling of the (fast) gyration of the electrons under the action of the magnetic field and the (slow) bound motion along the field under the action of the Coulomb forces. For the single-particle orbitals this implied that each is a product of a Landau state and an (unknown) longitudinal wave function whose B-spline coefficients were determined self-consistently by solving the Hartree-Fock equations for the many-electron problem on a finite-element grid. In the present code we go beyond the adiabatic approximation, by allowing the transverse part of each orbital to be a superposition of Landau states, while assuming that the longitudinal part can be approximated by the same wave function in each Landau level. Inserting this ansatz into the energy variational principle leads to a system of coupled equations in which the B-spline coefficients depend on the weights of the individual Landau states, and vice versa, and which therefore has to be solved in a doubly self-consistent manner. The extended ansatz takes into account the back-reaction of the Coulomb motion of the electrons along the field direction on their motion in the plane perpendicular to the field, an effect which cannot be captured by the adiabatic approximation. The new code allows for the inclusion of up to 8 Landau levels. This reduces the relative error of energy values as compared to the adiabatic approximation results by typically a factor of three (1/3 of the original error), and yields accurate results also in regions of lower neutron star magnetic field strengths where the adiabatic approximation fails. Further improvements in the code are a more sophisticated choice of the initial wave functions, which takes into

  1. Shape of a slowly rotating star measured by asteroseismology

    PubMed Central

    Gizon, Laurent; Sekii, Takashi; Takata, Masao; Kurtz, Donald W.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Bazot, Michael; Benomar, Othman; Birch, Aaron C.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2016-01-01

    Stars are not perfectly spherically symmetric. They are deformed by rotation and magnetic fields. Until now, the study of stellar shapes has only been possible with optical interferometry for a few of the fastest-rotating nearby stars. We report an asteroseismic measurement, with much better precision than interferometry, of the asphericity of an A-type star with a rotation period of 100 days. Using the fact that different modes of oscillation probe different stellar latitudes, we infer a tiny but significant flattening of the star’s shape of ΔR/R = (1.8 ± 0.6) × 10−6. For a stellar radius R that is 2.24 times the solar radius, the difference in radius between the equator and the poles is ΔR = 3 ± 1 km. Because the observed ΔR/R is only one-third of the expected rotational oblateness, we conjecture the presence of a weak magnetic field on a star that does not have an extended convective envelope. This calls to question the origin of the magnetic field. PMID:28138541

  2. Simulations of Magnetic Flux Emergence in Cool, Low-Mass Stars: Toward Linking Dynamo Action with Starspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Maria Ann; Browning, Matthew; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Starspots are windows into a star’s internal dynamo mechanism. However, the manner by which the dynamo-generated magnetic field traverses the stellar interior to emerge at the surface is not especially well understood. Establishing the details of magnetic flux emergence plays a key role in deciphering stellar dynamos and observed starspot properties. In the solar context, insight into this process has been obtained by assuming the magnetism giving rise to sunspots consists partly of idealized thin flux tubes (TFTs). Here, we present three sets of TFT simulations in rotating spherical shells of convection: one representative of the Sun, the second of a solar-like rapid rotator, and the third of a fully convective M dwarf. Our solar simulations reproduce sunspot observables such as low-latitude emergence, tilting action toward the equator following the Joy’s Law trend, and a phenomenon akin to active longitudes. Further, we compare the evolution of rising flux tubes in our (computationally inexpensive) TFT simulations to buoyant magnetic structures that arise naturally in a unique global simulation of a rapidly rotating Sun. We comment on the role of rapid rotation, the Coriolis force, and external torques imparted by the surrounding convection in establishing the trajectories of the flux tubes across the convection zone. In our fully convective M dwarf simulations, the expected starspot latitudes deviate from the solar trend, favoring significantly poleward latitudes unless the differential rotation is sufficiently prograde or the magnetic field is strongly super-equipartition. Together our work provides a link between dynamo-generated magnetic fields, turbulent convection, and observations of starspots along the lower main sequence.

  3. Magnetic-distortion-induced Ellipticity and Gravitational Wave Radiation of Neutron Stars: Millisecond Magnetars in Short GRBs, Galactic Pulsars, and Magnetars

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, He; Cao, Zhoujian; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: gaohe@bnu.edu.cn

    Neutron stars may sustain a non-axisymmetric deformation due to magnetic distortion and are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based interferometric detectors. With decades of searches using available GW detectors, no evidence of a GW signal from any pulsar has been observed. Progressively stringent upper limits of ellipticity have been placed on Galactic pulsars. In this work, we use the ellipticity inferred from the putative millisecond magnetars in short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) to estimate their detectability by current and future GW detectors. For ∼1 ms magnetars inferred from the SGRB data, the detection horizon is ∼30 Mpc andmore » ∼600 Mpc for the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Einstein Telescope (ET), respectively. Using the ellipticity of SGRB millisecond magnetars as calibration, we estimate the ellipticity and GW strain of Galactic pulsars and magnetars assuming that the ellipticity is magnetic-distortion-induced. We find that the results are consistent with the null detection results of Galactic pulsars and magnetars with the aLIGO O1. We further predict that the GW signals from these pulsars/magnetars may not be detectable by the currently designed aLIGO detector. The ET detector may be able to detect some relatively low-frequency signals (<50 Hz) from some of these pulsars. Limited by its design sensitivity, the eLISA detector seems to not be suitable for detecting the signals from Galactic pulsars and magnetars.« less

  4. Magnetic-distortion-induced Ellipticity and Gravitational Wave Radiation of Neutron Stars: Millisecond Magnetars in Short GRBs, Galactic Pulsars, and Magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He; Cao, Zhoujian; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Neutron stars may sustain a non-axisymmetric deformation due to magnetic distortion and are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based interferometric detectors. With decades of searches using available GW detectors, no evidence of a GW signal from any pulsar has been observed. Progressively stringent upper limits of ellipticity have been placed on Galactic pulsars. In this work, we use the ellipticity inferred from the putative millisecond magnetars in short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) to estimate their detectability by current and future GW detectors. For ˜1 ms magnetars inferred from the SGRB data, the detection horizon is ˜30 Mpc and ˜600 Mpc for the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Einstein Telescope (ET), respectively. Using the ellipticity of SGRB millisecond magnetars as calibration, we estimate the ellipticity and GW strain of Galactic pulsars and magnetars assuming that the ellipticity is magnetic-distortion-induced. We find that the results are consistent with the null detection results of Galactic pulsars and magnetars with the aLIGO O1. We further predict that the GW signals from these pulsars/magnetars may not be detectable by the currently designed aLIGO detector. The ET detector may be able to detect some relatively low-frequency signals (<50 Hz) from some of these pulsars. Limited by its design sensitivity, the eLISA detector seems to not be suitable for detecting the signals from Galactic pulsars and magnetars.

  5. COUPLED EVOLUTIONS OF THE STELLAR OBLIQUITY, ORBITAL DISTANCE, AND PLANET'S RADIUS DUE TO THE OHMIC DISSIPATION INDUCED IN A DIAMAGNETIC HOT JUPITER AROUND A MAGNETIC T TAURI STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Gu, Pin-Gao; Bodenheimer, Peter H.

    We revisit the calculation of the ohmic dissipation in a hot Jupiter presented by Laine et al. by considering more realistic interior structures, stellar obliquity, and the resulting orbital evolution. In this simplified approach, the young hot Jupiter of one Jupiter mass is modeled as a diamagnetic sphere with a finite resistivity, orbiting across tilted stellar magnetic dipole fields in vacuum. Since the induced ohmic dissipation occurs mostly near the planet's surface, we find that the dissipation is unable to significantly expand the young hot Jupiter. Nevertheless, the planet inside a small corotation orbital radius can undergo orbital decay bymore » the dissipation torque and finally overfill its Roche lobe during the T Tauri star phase. The stellar obliquity can evolve significantly if the magnetic dipole is parallel/antiparallel to the stellar spin. Our results are validated by the general torque-dissipation relation in the presence of the stellar obliquity. We also run the fiducial model of Laine et al. and find that the planet's radius is sustained at a nearly constant value by the ohmic heating, rather than being thermally expanded to the Roche radius as suggested by the authors.« less

  6. Radio emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1: a jet launched by a strong magnetic field neutron star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    Her X-1 is an accreting neutron star (NS) in an intermediate-mass X-ray binary. Like low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), it accretes via Roche lobe overflow, but similar to many high-mass X-ray binaries containing a NS; Her X-1 has a strong magnetic field and slow spin. Here, we present the discovery of radio emission from Her X-1 with the Very Large Array. During the radio observation, the central X-ray source was partially obscured by a warped disc. We measure a radio flux density of 38.7 ± 4.8 μJy at 9 GHz but cannot constrain the spectral shape. We discuss possible origins of the radio emission, and conclude that coherent emission, a stellar wind, shocks and a propeller outflow are all unlikely explanations. A jet, as seen in LMXBs, is consistent with the observed radio properties. We consider the implications of the presence of a jet in Her X-1 on jet formation mechanisms and on the launching of jets by NSs with strong magnetic fields.

  7. Putting atomic diffusion theory of magnetic ApBp stars to the test: evaluation of the predictions of time-dependent diffusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Ryabchikova, T. A.

    2018-02-01

    A series of recent theoretical atomic diffusion studies has address the challenging problem of predicting inhomogeneous vertical and horizontal chemical element distributions in the atmospheres of magnetic ApBp stars. Here we critically assess the most sophisticated of such diffusion models - based on a time-dependent treatment of the atomic diffusion in a magnetized stellar atmosphere - by direct comparison with observations as well by testing the widely used surface mapping tools with the spectral line profiles predicted by this theory. We show that the mean abundances of Fe and Cr are grossly underestimated by the time-dependent theoretical diffusion model, with discrepancies reaching a factor of 1000 for Cr. We also demonstrate that Doppler imaging inversion codes, based either on modelling of individual metal lines or line-averaged profiles simulated according to theoretical three-dimensional abundance distribution, are able to reconstruct correct horizontal chemical spot maps despite ignoring the vertical abundance variation. These numerical experiments justify a direct comparison of the empirical two-dimensional Doppler maps with theoretical diffusion calculations. This comparison is generally unfavourable for the current diffusion theory, as very few chemical elements are observed to form overabundance rings in the horizontal field regions as predicted by the theory and there are numerous examples of element accumulations in the vicinity of radial field zones, which cannot be explained by diffusion calculations.

  8. Star-disk interaction in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speights, Christa Marie

    2012-09-01

    The question of the mechanism of certain types of stars is important. Classical T Tauri (CTTS) stars accrete magnetospherically, and Herbig Ae/Be stars (higher-mass analogs to CTTS) are thought to also accrete magnetospherically, but the source of a kG magnetic field is unknown, since these stars have radiative interiors. For magnetospheric accretion, an equation has been derived (Hartmann, 2001) which relates the truncation radius, stellar radius, stellar mass, mass accretion rate and magnetic field strength. Currently the magnetic field of Herbig stars is known to be somewhere between 0.1 kG and 10 kG. One goal of this research is to further constrain the magnetic field. In order to do that, I use the magnetospheric accretion equation. For CTTS, all of the variables used in the equation can be measured, so I gather this data from the literature and test the equation and find that it is consistent. Then I apply the equation to Herbig Ae stars and find that the error introduced from using random inclinations is too large to lower the current upper limit of the magnetic field range. If Herbig Ae stars are higher-mass analogs to CTTS, then they should have a similar magnetic field distribution. I compare the calculated Herbig Ae magnetic field distribution to several typical magnetic field distributions using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and find that the data distribution does not match any of the distributions used. This means that Herbig Ae stars do not have well ordered kG fields like CTTS.

  9. Evaluation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Labeled Chondrocytes Cultivated on a Type II Collagen–Chitosan/Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic) Acid Biphasic Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Su, Juin-Yih; Chen, Shi-Hui; Chen, Yu-Pin; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Chondral or osteochondral defects are still controversial problems in orthopedics. Here, chondrocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles were cultivated on a biphasic, type II collagen–chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold in an attempt to develop cultures with trackable cells exhibiting growth, differentiation, and regeneration. Rabbit chondrocytes were labeled with magnetic nanoparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron (TEM) microscopy, and gene and protein expression analyses. The experimental results showed that the magnetic nanoparticles did not affect the phenotype of chondrocytes after cell labeling, nor were protein and gene expression affected. The biphasic type II collagen–chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold was characterized by SEM, and labeled chondrocytes showed a homogeneous distribution throughout the scaffold after cultivation onto the polymer. Cellular phenotype remained unaltered but with increased gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, as indicated by cell staining, indicating chondrogenesis. Decreased SRY-related high mobility group-box gene (Sox-9) levels of cultured chondrocytes indicated that differentiation was associated with osteogenesis. These results are encouraging for the development of techniques for trackable cartilage regeneration and osteochondral defect repair which may be applied in vivo and, eventually, in clinical trials. PMID:28054960

  10. The Zeeman effect in astrophysical water masers and the observation of strong magnetic fields in regions of star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1992-01-01

    The present study solves the transfer equations for the polarized radiation of astrophysical 22-GHz water masers in the presence of a magnetic field which causes a Zeeman splitting that is much smaller than the spectral line breadth. The emphasis is placed on the relationship between the recently detected circular polarization in this maser radiation and the strength of the magnetic field. When the observed spectral line breadth is smaller than about 0.8 km/s (FWHM), it is calculated that the uncertainty is less than a factor of about 2. The accuracy is improved significantly when the angle between the line of sight and the direction of the magnetic field does not exceed about 45 deg. Uncertainty in the strength of the magnetic field due to lack of knowledge about which hyperfine transition is the source of the 22-GHz masers is removed. The 22-GHz maser feature is found to be the result of a merger of the three strongest hyperfine components.

  11. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  12. Comparative Magnetic Minima: Characterizing Quiet Times in the Sun and Stars. Symposium of the International Astronomical Union (286th) Held in Mendoza, Argentina on October 3-7, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    11:15 – 11:45 Invited Talk – Stars in Magnetic Grand Minima: Where Are They and What Are They Like? Steven Saar (Presentation file) 11:45 – 12:00...of Archaeology and Ancient History, University Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom IAUS 279 Death of Massive Stars: Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts...of Astronomy & Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA IAUS 283 Planetary Nebulae: an Eye to the Future A. MANCHADO, Instituto de

  13. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) - Hot Stars": The High Definition UV Spectrum of the Ap Star HR 465

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Ayres, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. V.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Adelman, S. J.; Cowley, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Hot Stars" is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cycle 21 Treasury Program (GO-13346: Ayres PI). It is designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution ( 30,000-100,000), high signal/noise (S/N>100), and full UV coverage 1200 - 3000 A) spectra of 21 early-type stars, utilizing the high-performance Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The targets span the range of spectral types between early-O and early-A, including both main sequence and evolved stars, fast and slow rotators, as well as chemically peculiar (CP) and magnetic objects. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra will be available from the HST archive and, in post-processed and merged form, at http://casa.colorado.edu ayres/ASTRAL/. The UV "atlases" produced by this program will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years to come. We offer a first look at one of the earliest datasets to come out of this observing program, a "high definition" UV spectrum of the Ap star HR 465, which was chosen as a prototypical example of an A-type magnetic CP star. HR 465 has a global magnetic field of ~2200 Gauss. Earlier analyses of IUE spectra show strong iron-peak element lines, along with heavy elements such as Ga and Pt, while being deficient in the abundance of some ions of low atomic number, such as carbon. We demonstrate the high quality of the ASTRAL data and present the identification of spectral lines for a number of elements. By comparison of the observed spectra with calculated spectra, we also provide estimates of element abundances, emphasizing heavy elements, and place these measurements in the context of earlier results for this and other Ap stars.

  14. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  15. New color-magnetic defects in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Alexander; Schmitt, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Color-flavor locked (CFL) quark matter expels color-magnetic fields due to the Meissner effect. One of these fields carries an admixture of the ordinary abelian magnetic field and therefore flux tubes may form if CFL matter is exposed to a magnetic field, possibly in the interior of neutron stars or in quark stars. We employ a Ginzburg–Landau approach for three massless quark flavors, which takes into account the multi-component nature of color superconductivity. Based on the weak-coupling expressions for the Ginzburg–Landau parameters, we identify the regime where CFL is a type-II color superconductor and compute the radial profiles of different color-magnetic flux tubes. Among the configurations without baryon circulation we find a new solution that is energetically preferred over the flux tubes previously discussed in the literature in the parameter regime relevant for compact stars. Within the same setup, we also find a new defect in the 2SC phase, namely magnetic domain walls, which emerge naturally from the previously studied flux tubes if a more general ansatz for the order parameter is used. Color-magnetic defects in the interior of compact stars allow for sustained deformations of the star, potentially strong enough to produce detectable gravitational waves.

  16. Hybrid Stars and Coronal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2004-01-01

    This program addresses the evolution of stellar coronas by comparing a solar-like corona in the supergiant Dra (G2 Ib-IIa) to the corona in the allegedly more evolved state of a hybrid star, TrA (K2 11-111). Because the hybrid star has a massive wind, it appears likely that the corona will be cooler and less dense as the magnetic loop structures are no longer closed. By analogy with solar coronal holes, when the topology of the magnetic field is configured with open magnetic structures, both the coronal temperature and density are lower than in atmospheres dominated by closed loops. The hybrid stars assume a pivotal role in the definition of coronal evolution, atmospheric heating processes and mechanisms to drive winds of cool stars.

  17. The physics of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, J M; Prakash, M

    2004-04-23

    Neutron stars are some of the densest manifestations of massive objects in the universe. They are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of dense matter physics and provide connections among nuclear physics, particle physics, and astrophysics. Neutron stars may exhibit conditions and phenomena not observed elsewhere, such as hyperon-dominated matter, deconfined quark matter, superfluidity and superconductivity with critical temperatures near 10(10) kelvin, opaqueness to neutrinos, and magnetic fields in excess of 10(13) Gauss. Here, we describe the formation, structure, internal composition, and evolution of neutron stars. Observations that include studies of pulsars in binary systems, thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, glitches from pulsars, and quasi-periodic oscillations from accreting neutron stars provide information about neutron star masses, radii, temperatures, ages, and internal compositions.

  18. Resonant nuclear reaction 23Mg (p,γ) 24Al in strongly screening magnetized neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Liu, Dong-Mei

    2017-12-01

    Based on the relativistic theory of superstrong magnetic fields (SMF), by using three models those of Lai (LD), Fushiki (FGP), and our own (LJ), we investigate the influence of SMFs due to strong electron screening (SES) on the nuclear reaction 23Mg (p,γ) 24Al in magnetars. In a relatively low density environment (e.g., ρ 7<0.01) and 1magnetic fields (e.g., B 12>102), our reaction rates can be 1.58 times and about three orders of magnitude larger than those of FGP and LD, respectively (B 12, ρ 7 are in units of 1012G, 107g cm-3). The significant increase of strong screening rate can imply that more 23Mg will escape from the Ne-Na cycle due to SES in a SMF. As a consequence, the next reaction, 24Al (β+, ν) 24Mg, will produce more 24Mg to participate in the Mg-Al cycle. Thus, it may lead to synthesis of a large amount of A>20 nuclides in magnetars. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11565020), the Counterpart Foundation of Sanya (2016PT43), the Special Foundation of Science and Technology Cooperation for Advanced Academy and Regional of Sanya (2016YD28), the Scientific Research Starting Foundation for 515 Talented Project of Hainan Tropical Ocean University (RHDRC201701) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province (114012)

  19. A Star on Earth

    ScienceCinema

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2018-02-14

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  20. NuSTAR Captures the Beat of a Dead Star Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-08

    The brightest pulsar detected to date is shown in this frame from an animation that flips back and forth between images captured by NASA NuSTAR. A pulsar is a type of neutron star, the leftover core of a star that exploded in a supernova.

  1. Comparison of the T2-star Values of Placentas Obtained from Pre-eclamptic Patients with Those of a Control Group: an Ex-vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Yurttutan, Nursel; Bakacak, Murat; Kızıldağ, Betül

    2017-09-29

    Endotel dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and oxidative stress are described in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, but its aetiology has not been revealed clearly. To examine whether there is a difference between the placentas of pre-eclamptic pregnant women and those of a control group in terms of their T2 star values. Case-control study. Twenty patients diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and 22 healthy controls were included in this study. The placentas obtained after births performed via Caesarean section were taken into the magnetic resonance imaging area in plastic bags within the first postnatal hour, and imaging was performed via modified DIXON-Quant sequence. Average values were obtained by performing T2 star measurements from four localisations on the placentas. T2 star values measured in the placentas of the control group were found to be significantly lower than those in the pre-eclampsia group (p<0.01). While the mean T2 star value in the pre-eclamptic group was found to be 37.48 ms (standard deviation ± 11.3), this value was 28.74 (standard deviation ± 8.08) in the control group. The cut-off value for the T2 star value, maximising the accuracy of diagnosis, was 28.59 ms (area under curve: 0.741; 95% confidence interval: 0.592-0.890); sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 63.6%, respectively. This study, the T2 star value, which is an indicator of iron amount, was found to be significantly lower in the control group than in the pre-eclampsia group. This may be related to the reduction in blood flow to the placenta due to endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction, which are important in pre-eclampsia pathophysiology.

  2. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in

  3. Accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Pines, D

    1980-02-08

    During the past 8 years, extended temporal and broadband spectroscopic studies carried out by x-ray astronomical satellites have led to the identification of specific compact x-ray sources as accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars in close binary systems. Such sources provide a unique opportunity to study matter under extreme conditions not accessible in the terrestrial laboratory. Quantitative theoretical models have been developed which demonstrate that detailed studies of these sources will lead to a greatly increased understanding of dense and superdense hadron matter, hadron superfluidity, high-temperature plasma in superstrong magnetic fields, and physical processes in strong gravitational fields. Through a combination of theory and observation such studies will make possible the determination of the mass, radius, magnetic field, and structure of neutron stars and degenerate dwarf stars and the identification of further candidate black holes, and will contribute appreciably to our understanding of the physics of accretion by compact astronomical objects.

  4. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  5. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  6. Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.

    2018-05-01

    Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  7. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keek, L.

    2008-12-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one second the entire surface is burned, which is observable as a sharp rise in the emitted X-ray flux: a type I X-ray burst. Afterwards the neutron star surface cools down on a timescale of ten to one hundred seconds. During these bursts the surface of an accreting neutron star can be observed directly, which makes them instrumental for studying this type of stars. We have studied rare kinds of X-ray bursts. One such rare burst is the superburst, which lasts a thousand times longer than an ordinary burst. Superbursts are thought to result from the explosive burning of a thick carbon layer, which lies deeper inside the neutron star, close to a layer known as the crust. A prerequisite for the occurrence of a superburst is a high enough temperature, which is set by the temperature of the crust and the heat conductivity of the envelope. The latter is lowered by the presence of heavy elements that are produced during normal X-ray bursts. Using a large set of observations from the Wide Field Camera's onboard the BeppoSAX satellite, we find that, at high accretion rate, sources which do not exhibit normal bursts likely have a longer superburst recurrence time, than the observed superburst recurrence time of one burster. We analyze in detail the first superburst from a transient source, which went into outburst only 55 days before the superburst. Recent models of the neutron star crust predict that this is too small a time to heat the crust sufficiently for superburst ignition, indicating

  8. Pulsation in Chemically Peculiar Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.

    2015-04-01

    Chemically peculiar stars offer the opportunity to study the interaction of strong magnetic fields, rotation, and pulsation. The rapidly oscillating chemically peculiar A stars (roAp) are a subgroup of the chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. They are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators. Until recently, the classical asteroseismic analysis, i.e., frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through the access to the uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from the MOST, COROT, and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years, the studies of roAp stars have been altered drastically from the observational point of view through the usage of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsation characteristics, caused by the interplay between short vertical lengths of pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper a review of the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars is presented.

  9. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Vir systems from eclipse timings. The high incidence of circumbinary substellar objects suggests that most of the planets are formed from the remaining CE material (second generation planets). Several types of pulsating star have been discovered among hot subdwarf stars, the most common are the gravity-mode sdB pulsators (V1093 Her) and their hotter siblings, the p-mode pulsating V361 Hya stars. Another class of multi-periodic pulsating hot subdwarfs has been found in the globular cluster ω Cen that is unmatched by any field star. Asteroseismology has advanced enormously thanks to the high-precision Kepler photometry and allowed stellar rotation rates to be determined, the interior structure of gravity-mode pulsators to be probed and stellar ages to be estimated. Rotation rates turned out to be unexpectedly slow calling for very efficient angular momentum loss on the red giant branch or during the helium core flash. The convective cores were found to be larger than predicted by standard stellar evolution models requiring very efficient angular momentum transport on the red giant branch. The masses of hot subdwarf stars, both single or in binaries, are the key to understand the stars’ evolution. A few pulsating sdB stars in eclipsing binaries have been found that allow both techniques to be applied for mass determination. The results, though few, are in good agreement with predictions from binary population synthesis calculations. New classes of binaries, hosting so-called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (M < 0.3 M ⊙), have recently been discovered, filling a gap in the mosaic of binary stellar evolution. Like most sdB stars the ELM white dwarfs are the stripped cores of red giants, the known companions are either white dwarfs, neutron stars (pulsars) or F- or A-type main sequence stars (“EL CVn” stars). In the near future, the Gaia mission will provide high-precision astrometry for a large sample of subdwarf stars to disentangle the different stellar

  10. On Fallback Disks around Young Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, M. Ali; Ertan, Ü.; Erkut, M. H.

    2006-08-01

    Some bound matter in the form of a fallback disk may be an initial parameter of isolated neutron stars at birth, which, along with the initial rotation rate and dipole (and higher multipole) magnetic moments, determines the evolution of neutron stars and the categories into which they fall. This talk reviews the possibilities of fallback disk models in explaining properties of isolated neutron stars of different categories. Recent observations of a fallback disk and observational limits on fallback disks will also be discussed.

  11. Erratum: ``Chandra HETGS Multiphase Spectroscopy of the Young Magnetic O Star θ1 Orionis C'' (ApJ, 628, 986 [2005])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Marc; Oksala, Mary E.; Cohen, David H.; Tonnesen, Stephanie K.; ud-Doula, Asif; Owocki, Stanley P.; Townsend, Richard H. D.; MacFarlane, Joseph J.

    2005-11-01

    Figure 13 of our paper shows the dependence of the forbidden-to-intercombination line ratio on formation radius and electron density for two He-like ions, Mg XI and S XV, assuming a 45,000 K photosphere. In calculating the PRISMSPECT line ratios, we neglected to include the flux from the upper 3P2-->1S0 transition. For lower-Z ions such as Mg XI, the intercombination doublet is dominated by flux from the lower transition. But for higher-Z elements, this omission led us to underestimate the intercombination line strength from our model. In addition, comparing the spectral type and luminosity of θ1 Ori C with the recent calibrations of P. Massey et al. (ApJ, 628, 986 [2005]) and F. Martins et al. (ApJ, 628, 986 [2005]) suggests that θ1 Ori C is an O5.5 V star with radius R~10.6 Rsolar and effective temperature Teff~40,000 K. This new calibration makes θ1 Ori C larger and cooler than both the ``hot'' and ``cool'' models in Table 3 of our original paper. In the revised Figure 13 below, we show the corrected PRISMSPECT line ratios for Mg XI, Si XIII, and S XV as a function of u=R*/R for Teff=40,000 K. Also shown are the predictions from the analytic parametrization of G. R. Blumenthal et al. (ApJ, 628, 986 [2005]). For Mg XI and Si XIII, we further show the predictions based on the R0 values of D. Porquet et al. (ApJ, 628, 986 [2005]). The hatched regions in Figure 13 represent the 1 σ upper and lower bounds on f/i from the HETG data and u=R*/R from the PRISMSPECT model. Although the three f/i ratios yield different bounds on the formation radius, there is a range of radii, 1.7

  12. Accretion Models for Young Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, M. A.

    2003-07-01

    Interaction with possible fallback material, along with the magnetic fields and rotation rates at birth should determine the fates and categories of young neutron stars. This paper addresses some issues related to pure or hybrid accretion models for explaining the properties of young neutron stars.

  13. The dynamical oscillation and propulsion of magnetic fields in the convective zone of a star. II - Thermal shadows. III - Accumulation of heat and the onset of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of thermal shadows which develop in the convective zone of a star around an insulating obstacle such as a horizontal band in intense magnetic field are studied. The depth of the shadow on the cool side of the obstacle is found to depend largely on the width of the obstacle multiplied by the temperature gradient. Thermal shadows pressing fields up to 10,000 G downward against the bottom of the convective zone are produced by the broad bands of the azimuthal field in the sun's convective zone. In the third part, the time-dependent accumulation of heat beneath a thermal barrier simulating such a band in the lower convective zone of the sun is considered. The resulting Rayleigh-Taylor instability is shown to cause tongues of heated gas to penetrate upward through the field, providing the emerging magnetic fields that give rise to the activity of the sun.

  14. Old and new neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, amore » substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.« less

  15. Symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.

  16. Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkotas, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    Neutron stars are the densest objects in the present Universe, attaining physical conditions of matter that cannot be replicated on Earth. These unique and irreproducible laboratories allow us to study physics in some of its most extreme regimes. More importantly, however, neutron stars allow us to formulate a number of fundamental questions that explore, in an intricate manner, the boundaries of our understanding of physics and of the Universe. The multifaceted nature of neutron stars involves a delicate interplay among astrophysics, gravitational physics, and nuclear physics. The research in the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars is expected to flourish and thrive in the next decade. The imminent direct detection of gravitational waves will turn gravitational physics into an observational science, and will provide us with a unique opportunity to make major breakthroughs in gravitational physics, in particle and high-energy astrophysics. These waves, which represent a basic prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity but have yet to be detected directly, are produced in copious amounts, for instance, by tight binary neutron star and black hole systems, supernovae explosions, non-axisymmetric or unstable spinning neutron stars. The focus of the talk will be on the neutron star instabilities induced by rotation and the magnetic field. The conditions for the onset of these instabilities and their efficiency in gravitational waves will be presented. Finally, the dependence of the results and their impact on astrophysics and especially nuclear physics will be discussed.

  17. Chameleon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, 265 a, Chui Street, Bishkek, 720071; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2011-10-15

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  18. The Fate of Merging Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    A rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron star is one possible outcome when two smaller neutron stars merge. [Casey Reed/Penn State University]When two neutron stars collide, the new object that they make can reveal information about the interior physics of neutron stars. New theoretical work explores what we should be seeing, and what it can teach us.Neutron Star or Black Hole?So far, the only systems from which weve detected gravitational waves are merging black holes. But other compact-object binaries exist and are expected to merge on observable timescales in particular, binary neutron stars. When two neutron stars merge, the resulting object falls into one of three categories:a stable neutron star,a black hole, ora supramassive neutron star, a large neutron star thats supported by its rotation but will eventually collapse to a black hole after it loses angular momentum.Histograms of the initial (left) and final (right) distributions of objects in the authors simulations, for five different equations of state. Most cases resulted primarily in the formation of neutron stars (NSs) or supramassive neutron stars (sNSs), not black holes (BHs). [Piro et al. 2017]Whether a binary-neutron-star merger results in another neutron star, a black hole, or a supramassive neutron star depends on the final mass of the remnant and what the correct equation of state is that describes the interiors of neutron stars a longstanding astrophysical puzzle.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Anthony Piro (Carnegie Observatories) estimated which of these outcomes we should expect for mergers of binary neutron stars. The teams results along with future observations of binary neutron stars may help us to eventually pin down the equation of state for neutron stars.Merger OutcomesPiro and collaborators used relativistic calculations of spinning and non-spinning neutron stars to estimate the mass range that neutron stars would have for several different realistic equations of

  19. The influence of radiative core growth on coronal X-ray emission from pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Scott G.; Adams, Fred C.; Davies, Claire L.

    2016-04-01

    Pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars of mass ≳0.35 M⊙ transition from hosting fully convective interiors to configurations with a radiative core and outer convective envelope during their gravitational contraction. This stellar structure change influences the external magnetic field topology and, as we demonstrate herein, affects the coronal X-ray emission as a stellar analogue of the solar tachocline develops. We have combined archival X-ray, spectroscopic, and photometric data for ˜1000 PMS stars from five of the best studied star-forming regions: the Orion Nebula Cluster, NGC 2264, IC 348, NGC 2362, and NGC 6530. Using a modern, PMS calibrated, spectral type-to-effective temperature and intrinsic colour scale, we de-redden the photometry using colours appropriate for each spectral type, and determine the stellar mass, age, and internal structure consistently for the entire sample. We find that PMS stars on Henyey tracks have, on average, lower fractional X-ray luminosities (LX/L*) than those on Hayashi tracks, where this effect is driven by changes in LX. X-ray emission decays faster with age for higher mass PMS stars. There is a strong correlation between L* and LX for Hayashi track stars but no correlation for Henyey track stars. There is no correlation between LX and radiative core mass or radius. However, the longer stars have spent with radiative cores, the less X-ray luminous they become. The decay of coronal X-ray emission from young early K to late G-type PMS stars, the progenitors of main-sequence A-type stars, is consistent with the dearth of X-ray detections of the latter.

  20. A search for Vega-like fields in OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Folsom, C. P.; Blazere, A.

    2014-12-01

    Very weak magnetic fields (with a longitudinal component below 1 Gauss) have recently been discovered in the A star Vega as well as in a few Am stars. According to fossil field scenarios, such weak fields should also exist in more massive stars. In the framework of the ANR project Imagine, we have started to investigate the existence of this new class of very weakly magnetic stars among O and B stars thanks to ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations. The first results and future plans are presented.

  1. Star quality.

    PubMed

    Dent, Emma

    2007-09-20

    Around 150 wards are participating in the voluntary Star Wards scheme to provide mental health inpatients with more activities with therapeutic value. Suggested activities range from a library, to horse riding Internet access and comedy. Service users are particularly keen to have more exercise, which can be a challenge in inpatient settings.

  2. Rotation of Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  3. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  4. A Comprehensive COS Study of the Magnetic Dynamos, Rotations, UV Irradiances and Habitability of dM Stars with a Broad Span of Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward

    2012-10-01

    We propose HST/COS FUV spectrophotometry of a carefully selected sample of 9 dM1-5 stars with recently reliably determined ages ranging from 1-12 Gyr. This program complements our Chandra Cycle 13 program of the same targets to determine their coronal X-ray properties. Ages {of all but one star} have recently been firmly determined from memberships in wide binaries with white dwarf {WD} companions having reliable cooling time+main-sequence evolution ages {Zhao et al. 2012, Garces et al 2011}. Until these studies, reliable age determinations for dM stars >2 Gyr were nearly impossible. However, we can now carry out a comprehensive UV study of dM star atmospheres across nearly the full age-range of the current Universe. The primary goals are 1} to study the evolution of their dynamo-generated X-ray and UV {XUV} emissions with age/rotation and to better define the heating and energetics of their atmospheres {via Age-Rotation-Activity-XUV Irradiance relations} and 2} to study the effects of the XUV radiation on planets hosted by red dwarfs. The COS UV spectral region contains numerous important diagnostic emission lines for characterizing the energy transfer and atmospheric structure, while line ratios yield valuable information about the electron density. Further, these data {when combined with our coronal X-ray measures} are also important for gauging dM star XUV emissions - critical for assessing the photochemical & photoionization evolution of planetary atmospheres and ionospheres that in turn strongly affect the possible development of life on hosted extrasolar planets. We are requesting a total of 19 HST orbits to achieve the science goals of the program.

  5. Where a Neutron Star's Accretion Disk Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    In X-ray binaries that consist of a neutron star and a companion star, gas funnels from the companion into an accretion disk surrounding the neutron star, spiraling around until it is eventually accreted. How do the powerful magnetic fields threading through the neutron star affect this accretion disk? Recent observations provide evidence that they may push the accretion disk away from the neutron stars surface.Truncated DisksTheoretical models have indicated that neutron star accretion disks may not extend all the way in to the surface of a neutron star, but may instead be truncated at a distance. This prediction has been difficult to test observationally, however, due to the challenge of measuring the location of the inner disk edge in neutron-star X-ray binaries.In a new study, however, a team of scientists led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University) has managed to measure the location of the inner edge of the disk in Aquila X-1, a neutron-star X-ray binary located 17,000 light-years away.Iron line feature detected by Swift (red) and NuSTAR (black). The symmetry of the line is one of the indicators that the disk is located far from the neutron star; if the inner regions of the disk were close to the neutron star, severe relativistic effects would skew the line to be asymmetric. [King et al. 2016]Measurements from ReflectionsKing and collaborators used observations made by NuSTAR and Swift/XRT both X-ray space observatories of Aquila X-1 during the peak of an X-ray outburst. By observing the reflection of Aquila X-1s emission off of the inner regions of the accretion disk, the authors were able to estimate the location of the inner edge of the disk.The authors find that this inner edge sits at ~15 gravitational radii. Since the neutron stars surface is at ~5 gravitational radii, this means that the accretion disk is truncated far from the stars surface. In spite of this truncation, material still manages to cross the gap and accrete onto the

  6. Detecting axion stars with radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Hamada, Yuta

    2018-06-01

    When axion stars fly through an astrophysical magnetic background, the axion-to-photon conversion may generate a large electromagnetic radiation power. After including the interference effects of the spacially-extended axion-star source and the macroscopic medium effects, we estimate the radiation power when an axion star meets a neutron star. For a dense axion star with 10-13M⊙, the radiated power is at the order of 1011W ×(100 μeV /ma) 4(B /1010Gauss) 2 with ma as the axion particle mass and B the strength of the neutron star magnetic field. For axion stars occupy a large fraction of dark matter energy density, this encounter event with a transient O (0.1s) radio signal may happen in our galaxy with the averaged source distance of one kiloparsec. The predicted spectral flux density is at the order of μJy for a neutron star with B ∼1013 Gauss. The existing Arecibo, GBT, JVLA and FAST and the ongoing SKA radio telescopes have excellent discovery potential of dense axion stars.

  7. Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert, Ulrich R. M. E.

    The thermal evolution of neutron stars is a subject of intense research, both theoretical and observational. The evolution depends very sensitively on the state of dense matter at supranuclear densities, which essentially controls the neutrino emission. The evolution depends, too, on the structure of the stellar outer layers which control the photon emission. Various internal heating processes and the magnetic field strength and structure will influence the thermal evolution. Of great importance for the cooling processes is also whether, when, and where superfluidity and superconductivity appear within the neutron star. This article describes and discusses these issues and presents neutron star cooling calculations based on a broad collection of equations of state for neutron star matter and internal magnetic field geometries. X-ray observations provide reliable data, which allow conclusions about the surface temperatures of neutron stars. To verify the thermal evolution models, the results of model calculations are compared with the body of observed surface temperatures and their distribution. Through these comparisons, a better understanding can be obtained of the physical processes that take place under extreme conditions in the interior of neutron

  8. Gravitational Redshift of Deformed Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Alexis; Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2015-04-01

    Non-rotating neutron stars are generally treated in theoretical studies as perfect spheres. Such a treatment, however, may not be correct if strong magnetic fields are present and/or the pressure of the matter in the cores of neutron stars is non-isotropic, leading to neutron stars which are deformed. In this work, we investigate the impact of deformation on the gravitational redshift of neutron stars in the framework of general relativity. Using a parameterized metric to model non-spherical mass distributions, we derive an expression for the gravitational redshift in terms of the mass, radius, and deformity of a neutron star. Numerical solutions for the redshifts of sequences of deformed neutron stars are presented and observational implications are pointed out. This research is funded by the NIH through the Maximizing Access to Research Careers (MARC), under Grant Number: 5T34GM008303-25 and through the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-1411708.

  9. Observational studies of roAp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.

    2014-11-01

    Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators that are also chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. Until recently the classical asteroseismic analysis i.e. frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through access to uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from MOST, COROT and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years the study of roAp stars has been altered drastically from an observational point of view through studies of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsational characteristics, caused by an interplay between the short vertical lengths of the pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper I review the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars.

  10. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  11. Stars Can't Spin Out of Control (Artist's Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for QuickTime Movie of Stars Can't Spin Out of Control

    This artist's animation demonstrates how a dusty planet-forming disk can slow down a whirling young star, essentially saving the star from spinning itself to death. Evidence for this phenomenon comes from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The movie begins by showing a developing star (red ball). The star is basically a giant ball of gas that is collapsing onto itself. As it shrinks, it spins faster and faster, like a skater folding in his or her arms. The green lines represent magnetic fields.

    As gravity continues to pull matter inward, the star spins so fast, it starts to flatten out. The same principle applies to the planet Saturn, whose spin has caused it to be slightly squashed or oblate.

    A forming star can theoretically whip around fast enough to overcome gravity and flatten itself into a state where it can no longer become a full-fledged star. But stars don't spin out of control, possibly because swirling disks of dust slow them down. Such disks can be found orbiting young stars, and are filled with dust that might ultimately stick together to form planets.

    The second half of the animation demonstrates how a disk is thought to keep its star's speed in check. A developing star is shown twirling inside its disk. As it turns, its magnetic fields pass through the disk and get bogged down like a spoon in molasses. This locks the star's rotation to the slower-turning disk, so the star, while continuing to shrink, does not spin faster.

    Spitzer found evidence for star-slowing disks in a survey of nearly 500 forming stars in the Orion nebula. It observed that slowly spinning stars are five times more likely to host disks than rapidly spinning stars.

  12. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, Jacob; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    The recent discovery of cyclotron lines from gamma-ray bursts indicates that the strong magnetic fields of isolated neutron stars might not decay. The possible inverse correlation between the strength of the magnetic field and the mass accreted by the neutron star suggests that mass accretion itself may lead to the decay of the magnetic field. The spin and magnetic field evolution of the neutron star was calculated under the hypothesis of the accretion-induced field decay. It is shown that the calculated results are consistent with the observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars.

  13. Star ratings. Stars of wonder.

    PubMed

    Dawes, David

    2002-09-12

    Analysis of trusts that changed their star-rating over the past two years indicates that a change of chief executive was not a significant factor. The length of time in post and the experience of the chief executive were also insignificant. This has serious implications for the theory behind franchising and the evaluation of franchised trusts. Holding chief executives to account for the organisation's performance within their first 12 months is unlikely to be effective.

  14. Magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  15. Jets from Merging Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    With the recent discovery of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes, its especially important to understand the electromagnetic signals resulting from mergers of compact objects. New simulations successfully follow a merger of two neutron stars that produces a short burst of energy via a jet consistent with short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) detections.Still from the authors simulation showing the two neutron stars, and their magnetic fields, before merger. [Adapted from Ruiz et al. 2016]Challenging SystemWe have long suspected that sGRBs are produced by the mergers of compact objects, but this model has been difficult to prove. One major hitch is that modeling the process of merger and sGRB launch is very difficult, due to the fact that these extreme systems involve magnetic fields, fluids and full general relativity.Traditionally, simulations are only able to track such mergers over short periods of time. But in a recent study, Milton Ruiz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Industrial University of Santander, Colombia) and coauthors Ryan Lang, Vasileios Paschalidis and Stuart Shapiro have modeled a binary neutron star system all the way through the process of inspiral, merger, and the launch of a jet.A Merger TimelineHow does this happen? Lets walk through one of the teams simulations, in which dipole magnetic field lines thread through the interior of each neutron star and extend beyond its surface(like magnetic fields found in pulsars). In this example, the two neutron stars each have a mass of 1.625 solar masses.Simulation start (0 ms)Loss of energy via gravitational waves cause the neutron stars to inspiral.Merger (3.5 ms)The neutron stars are stretched by tidal effects and make contact. Their merger produces a hypermassive neutron star that is supported against collapse by its differential (nonuniform) rotation.Delayed collapse into a black hole (21.5 ms)Once the differential rotation is redistributed by magnetic fields and partially

  16. The Neutron Star Zoo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  17. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    DOE PAGES

    Kaminski, Matthias; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Bleicher, Marcus; ...

    2016-06-28

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. Here, the resulting chiral transportmore » effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.« less

  18. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal

  19. Atoms, Stars, and Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Lawrence H.

    1991-09-01

    1. Introducing stars and nebulae; 2. Stellar rainbows; 3. Atoms and molecules; 4. The climate in a stellar atmosphere; 5. Analysing the stars; 6. Dwarfs, giants, and supergiants; 7. What makes a star shine?; 8. The youth and middle age of a common star; 9. Wind, dust and pulsations; 10. A star's last hurray?; 11. The interstellar medium and gaseous nebulae; 12. Uncommon stars and their sometimes violent behaviour; 13. High energy astronomy.

  20. Effect of the rotation and tidal dissipation history of stars on the evolution of close-in planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Mathis, Stéphane

    2016-11-01

    Since 20 years, a large population of close-in planets orbiting various classes of low-mass stars (from M-type to A-type stars) has been discovered. In such systems, the dissipation of the kinetic energy of tidal flows in the host star may modify its rotational evolution and shape the orbital architecture of the surrounding planetary system. In this context, recent observational and theoretical works demonstrated that the amplitude of this dissipation can vary over several orders of magnitude as a function of stellar mass, age and rotation. In addition, stellar spin-up occurring during the Pre-Main-Sequence (PMS) phase because of the contraction of stars and their spin-down because of the torque applied by magnetized stellar winds strongly impact angular momentum exchanges within star-planet systems. Therefore, it is now necessary to take into account the structural and rotational evolution of stars when studying the orbital evolution of close-in planets. At the same time, the presence of planets may modify the rotational dynamics of the host stars and as a consequence their evolution, magnetic activity and mixing. In this work, we present the first study of the dynamics of close-in planets of various masses orbiting low-mass stars (from 0.6~M_⊙ to 1.2~M_⊙) where we compute the simultaneous evolution of the star's structure, rotation and tidal dissipation in its external convective envelope. We demonstrate that tidal friction due to the stellar dynamical tide, i.e. tidal inertial waves excited in the convection zone, can be larger by several orders of magnitude than the one of the equilibrium tide currently used in Celestial Mechanics, especially during the PMS phase. Moreover, because of this stronger tidal friction in the star, the orbital migration of the planet is now more pronounced and depends more on the stellar mass, rotation and age. This would very weakly affect the planets in the habitable zone because they are located at orbital distances such that

  1. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  2. Seeing Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchin, Chris; Forrest, Robert W.

    Seeing Stars is written for astronomers, regardless of the depth of their theoretical knowledge, who are taking their first steps in observational astronomy. Chris Kitchin and Bob Forrest - both professional astronomers - take a conducted tour of the night sky and suggest suitable observing programmes for everyone from beginners to experts. How is this book different? We are all familiar with the beautiful images of planets and galaxies obtained by spacecraft and giant telescopes - but what can you really see with a small telescope? What should you expect from a small refractor or reflector? And what is the effect of observing from a site near a city? The answers are all here, with many photographs that will illustrate exactly what can be seen with different instruments (everything from the naked eye to a 300mm telescope) - and from different locations.

  3. Ice Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Ice Stars - August 4th, 2002 Description: Like distant galaxies amid clouds of interstellar dust, chunks of sea ice drift through graceful swirls of grease ice in the frigid waters of Foxe Basin near Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Sea ice often begins as grease ice, a soupy slick of tiny ice crystals on the ocean's surface. As the temperature drops, grease ice thickens and coalesces into slabs of more solid ice. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  4. The spectra of the chemically peculiar stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, M.

    The spectral properties of the chemically peculiar (CP) stars and the information which is obtainable from them are reviewed. The identification and classification of CP stars in the basis of their spectra is discussed with particular emphasis on the He-rich stars and CNO stars, and recent classification systems based on narrow-band photometry, low-resolution spectrometry or UV spectra are considered. Attention is given to continuum flux distributions, particularly the infrared excesses and UV deficiencies, and the stellar properties (effective temperature and gravity, line blocking, discontinuities, mass and radius) that may be derived from them, and to the magnetic field measurements and evidence for spotted element distributions that may be inferred from spectral surface composition analyses made using LTE model atmospheres are considered which involve both large sample of stars and individual stars, and statistical studies of rotation, magnetic braking and membership in binary systems and clusters are indicated. Finally, UV and X-ray evidence for chromospheres and coronas in some CP stars is noted.

  5. A mess of stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-10

    Bursts of pink and red, dark lanes of mottled cosmic dust, and a bright scattering of stars — this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows part of a messy barred spiral galaxy known as NGC 428. It lies approximately 48 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Cetus (The Sea Monster). Although a spiral shape is still just about visible in this close-up shot, overall NGC 428’s spiral structure appears to be quite distorted and warped, thought to be a result of a collision between two galaxies. There also appears to be a substantial amount of star formation occurring within NGC 428 — another telltale sign of a merger. When galaxies collide their clouds of gas can merge, creating intense shocks and hot pockets of gas and often triggering new waves of star formation. NGC 428 was discovered by William Herschel in December 1786. More recently a type Ia supernova designated SN2013ct was discovered within the galaxy by Stuart Parker of the BOSS (Backyard Observatory Supernova Search) project in Australia and New Zealand, although it is unfortunately not visible in this image. This image was captured by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures Image Processing competition by contestants Nick Rose and the Flickr user penninecloud. Links: Nick Rose’s image on Flickr Penninecloud’s image on Flickr

  6. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  7. Metal-rich SX Phe stars in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, James M.; Balona, Luis A.; Murphy, Simon J.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2017-04-01

    A spectroscopic and photometric analysis has been carried out for 32 candidate SX Phe variable blue straggler stars in the Kepler field. Radial velocities (RVs), space motions (U, V, W), projected rotation velocities (vsin I), spectral types and atmospheric characteristics (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], ξt, ζRT, etc.) are presented for 30 of the 32 stars. Although several stars are metal-weak with extreme halo orbits, the mean [Fe/H] of the sample is near-solar, thus the stars are more metal-rich than expected for a typical sample of Pop. II stars and more like halo metal-rich A-type stars. Two-thirds of the stars are fast rotators with vsin I > 50 km s-1, including four stars with vsin I > 200 km s-1. Three of the stars have (negative) RVs > 250 km s-1, five have retrograde space motions and 21 have total speeds (relative to the Local Standard of Rest) >400 km s-1. All but one of the 30 stars have positions in a Toomre diagram consistent with the kinematics of bona fide halo stars (the exception being a thick-disc star). Observed Rømer time delays, pulsation frequency modulations and light curves suggest that at least one-third of the stars are in binary (or triple) systems with orbital periods ranging from 2.3 d to more than four years.

  8. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  9. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  10. Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wynn C G

    2018-05-28

    Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  11. Gravitational Interactions of White Dwarf Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, James; Robinson, Chloe; Ortiz, Bridget; Hira, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the possible role of White Dwarf stars as progenitors of Type Ia supernovas, we present computational simulations of some astrophysical phenomena associated with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.5 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We will extend our computational studies to blue giant and red giant stars in the future. Funding from National Science Foundation.

  12. Fifteen DO, PG 1159 and related white dwarf stars in the SDSS, including two DO stars with ultra-high excitation ion lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzesiński, J.; Nitta, A.; Kleinman, S. J.; Harris, H. C.; Liebert, J.; Schmidt, G.; Lamb, D. Q.; Brinkmann, J.

    2004-04-01

    We report on observations of 15 spectroscopically-identified DO stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, 13 of which are new discoveries. There are four PG 1159 type stars, two DO stars showing ultra-high excitation ion features (CVI, NVII, OVII, OVIII, NeIX, NeX) likely formed in stellar winds, 6 normal DO stars, one DBO and DBAO star, and one DAO star, which may also be magnetic. Since roughly 60 DO stars were known up to now, this new finding substantially increases the number of known DO white dwarf stars and we expect to at least double the current number of known DO stars by the end of the SDSS. We present each spectrum and provide catalog information (magnitudes, proper motion, coordinates) for each star.

  13. Compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  14. The spin evolution of nascent neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Anna L.; Andersson, Nils

    2002-07-01

    The loss of angular momentum owing to unstable r-modes in hot young neutron stars has been proposed as a mechanism for achieving the spin rates inferred for young pulsars. One factor that could have a significant effect on the action of the r-mode instability is fallback of supernova remnant material. The associated accretion torque could potentially counteract any gravitational-wave-induced spin-down, and accretion heating could affect the viscous damping rates and hence the instability. We discuss the effects of various external agents on the r-mode instability scenario within a simple model of supernova fallback on to a hot young magnetized neutron star. We find that the outcome depends strongly on the strength of the magnetic field of the star. Our model is capable of generating spin rates for young neutron stars that accord well with initial spin rates inferred from pulsar observations. The combined action of r-mode instability and fallback appears to cause the spin rates of neutron stars born with very different spin rates to converge, on a time-scale of approximately 1 year. The results suggest that stars with magnetic fields <=1013G could emit a detectable gravitational wave signal for perhaps several years after the supernova event. Stars with higher fields (magnetars) are unlikely to emit a detectable gravitational wave signal via the r-mode instability. The model also suggests that the r-mode instability could be extremely effective in preventing young neutron stars from going dynamically unstable to the bar-mode.

  15. The structure, energy balance, and winds of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The phenomena associated with magnetic fields in the Sun are summarized and it is shown that similar phenomena occur in cool stars. High dispersion spectra are providing unique information concerning densities, atmospheric extension, and emission line widths. A recent unanticipated discovery is that the transition lines are redshifted (an antiwind) in beta Dra (G2 Ib) and perhaps other stars. This is interpreted as indicating downflows in closed magnetic flux tubes as are seen in the solar flux tubes above sunspots. The G and K giants and supergiants are classified as active stars, quiet stars, or hybrid stars depending on whether their atmospheres are dominated by closed magnetic flux tubes, open field geometries, or a predominately open geometry with a few closed flux tubes embedded.

  16. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  17. Orientations of AM Her stars from their polarization properties - The case of the missing AM Her stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1985-01-01

    Observation of the polarization properties of the AM Her stars is used to determine their orientations. It is found that the AM Her stars are randomly distributed with respect to their inclination angle i but not with respect to their magnetic colatitude delta. The stars are concentrated along the semicircle cos-squared delta + cos-squared i = 1, where delta is the angle between the magnetic moment and the spin axis of the degenerate dwarf. This result implies that the discovery