Science.gov

Sample records for a-v prior entry

  1. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017

  2. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R

    2018-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.

  3. Motivationally Significant Stimuli Show Visual Prior Entry: Evidence for Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Greg L.; Anderson, Adam A. K.; Pratt, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies that have found attentional capture effects for stimuli of motivational significance do not directly measure initial attentional deployment, leaving it unclear to what extent these items produce attentional capture. Visual prior entry, as measured by temporal order judgments (TOJs), rests on the premise that allocated attention…

  4. Does attention speed up processing? Decreases and increases of processing rates in visual prior entry.

    PubMed

    Tünnermann, Jan; Petersen, Anders; Scharlau, Ingrid

    2015-03-02

    Selective visual attention improves performance in many tasks. Among others, it leads to "prior entry"--earlier perception of an attended compared to an unattended stimulus. Whether this phenomenon is purely based on an increase of the processing rate of the attended stimulus or if a decrease in the processing rate of the unattended stimulus also contributes to the effect is, up to now, unanswered. Here we describe a novel approach to this question based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention, which we use to overcome the limitations of earlier prior-entry assessment with temporal order judgments (TOJs) that only allow relative statements regarding the processing speed of attended and unattended stimuli. Prevalent models of prior entry in TOJs either indirectly predict a pure acceleration or cannot model the difference between acceleration and deceleration. In a paradigm that combines a letter-identification task with TOJs, we show that indeed acceleration of the attended and deceleration of the unattended stimuli conjointly cause prior entry. © 2015 ARVO.

  5. Attitudes towards statistics of graduate entry medical students: the role of prior learning experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While statistics is increasingly taught as part of the medical curriculum, it can be an unpopular subject and feedback from students indicates that some find it more difficult than other subjects. Understanding attitudes towards statistics on entry to graduate entry medical programmes is particularly important, given that many students may have been exposed to quantitative courses in their previous degree and hence bring preconceptions of their ability and interest to their medical education programme. The aim of this study therefore is to explore, for the first time, attitudes towards statistics of graduate entry medical students from a variety of backgrounds and focus on understanding the role of prior learning experiences. Methods 121 first year graduate entry medical students completed the Survey of Attitudes toward Statistics instrument together with information on demographics and prior learning experiences. Results Students tended to appreciate the relevance of statistics in their professional life and be prepared to put effort into learning statistics. They had neutral to positive attitudes about their interest in statistics and their intellectual knowledge and skills when applied to it. Their feelings towards statistics were slightly less positive e.g. feelings of insecurity, stress, fear and frustration and they tended to view statistics as difficult. Even though 85% of students had taken a quantitative course in the past, only 24% of students described it as likely that they would take any course in statistics if the choice was theirs. How well students felt they had performed in mathematics in the past was a strong predictor of many of the components of attitudes. Conclusion The teaching of statistics to medical students should start with addressing the association between students’ past experiences in mathematics and their attitudes towards statistics and encouraging students to recognise the difference between the two disciplines

  6. Attitudes towards statistics of graduate entry medical students: the role of prior learning experiences.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Ailish; Hegarty, Avril C; McGrath, Deirdre

    2014-04-04

    While statistics is increasingly taught as part of the medical curriculum, it can be an unpopular subject and feedback from students indicates that some find it more difficult than other subjects. Understanding attitudes towards statistics on entry to graduate entry medical programmes is particularly important, given that many students may have been exposed to quantitative courses in their previous degree and hence bring preconceptions of their ability and interest to their medical education programme. The aim of this study therefore is to explore, for the first time, attitudes towards statistics of graduate entry medical students from a variety of backgrounds and focus on understanding the role of prior learning experiences. 121 first year graduate entry medical students completed the Survey of Attitudes toward Statistics instrument together with information on demographics and prior learning experiences. Students tended to appreciate the relevance of statistics in their professional life and be prepared to put effort into learning statistics. They had neutral to positive attitudes about their interest in statistics and their intellectual knowledge and skills when applied to it. Their feelings towards statistics were slightly less positive e.g. feelings of insecurity, stress, fear and frustration and they tended to view statistics as difficult. Even though 85% of students had taken a quantitative course in the past, only 24% of students described it as likely that they would take any course in statistics if the choice was theirs. How well students felt they had performed in mathematics in the past was a strong predictor of many of the components of attitudes. The teaching of statistics to medical students should start with addressing the association between students' past experiences in mathematics and their attitudes towards statistics and encouraging students to recognise the difference between the two disciplines. Addressing these issues may reduce students

  7. Lifespan Extension in a Semelparous Chordate Occurs via Developmental Growth Arrest Just Prior to Meiotic Entry

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Gunasekaran; Campsteijn, Coen; Thompson, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that the ageing process is linked to signaling from the germline such that the rate of ageing can be adjusted to the state of the reproductive system, allowing these two processes to co-evolve. Mechanistic insight into this link has been primarily derived from iteroparous reproductive models, the nematode C. elegans, and the arthropod Drosophila. Here, we examined to what extent these mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved in a semelparous chordate, Oikopleura dioica, where we identify a developmental growth arrest (GA) in response to crowded, diet-restricted conditions, which can extend its lifespan at least three-fold. Under nutritional stress, the iteroparative models sacrifice germ cells that have entered meiosis, while maintaining a reduced pool of active germline stem cells (GSCs). In contrast, O. dioica only entered GA prior to meiotic entry. Stress conditions encountered after this point led to maturation in a normal time frame but with reduced reproductive output. During GA, TOR signaling was inhibited, whereas MAPK, ERK1/2 and p38 pathways were activated, and under such conditions, activation of these pathways was shown to be critical for survival. Direct inhibition of TOR signaling alone was sufficient to prevent meiotic entry and germline differentiation. This inhibition activated the p38 pathway, but did not activate the ERK1/2 pathway. Thus, the link between reproductive status and lifespan extension in response to nutrient-limited conditions is interpreted in a significantly different manner in these iteroparative versus semelparous models. In the latter case, meiotic entry is a definitive signal that lifespan extension can no longer occur, whereas in the former, meiotic entry is not a unique chronological event, and can be largely erased during lifespan extension in response to nutrient stress, and reactivated from a pool of maintained GSCs when conditions improve. PMID:24695788

  8. No Prior Entry for Threat-Related Faces: Evidence from Temporal Order Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Previous research showed that threat-related faces, due to their intrinsic motivational relevance, capture attention more readily than neutral faces. Here we used a standard temporal order judgment (TOJ) task to assess whether negative (either angry or fearful) emotional faces, when competing with neutral faces for attention selection, may lead to a prior entry effect and hence be perceived as appearing first, especially when uncertainty is high regarding the order of the two onsets. We did not find evidence for this conjecture across five different experiments, despite the fact that participants were invariably influenced by asynchronies in the respective onsets of the two competing faces in the pair, and could reliably identify the emotion in the faces. Importantly, by systematically varying task demands across experiments, we could rule out confounds related to suboptimal stimulus presentation or inappropriate task demands. These findings challenge the notion of an early automatic capture of attention by (negative) emotion. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the lack of systematic bias of attention by emotion is imputed to the primacy of a non-emotional cue to resolve the TOJ task, which in turn prevents negative emotion to exert an early bottom-up influence on the guidance of spatial and temporal attention. PMID:23646126

  9. Prior academic background and student performance in assessment in a graduate entry programme.

    PubMed

    Craig, P L; Gordon, J J; Clark, R M; Langendyk, V

    2004-11-01

    This study aims to identify whether non-science graduates perform as well as science graduates in Basic and Clinical Sciences (B & CS) assessments during Years 1-3 of a four-year graduate-entry programme at the University of Sydney (the 'USydMP'). Students were grouped into five categories: Health Professions (HP), Biomedical Sciences (BMS), Other Biology (BIOL), Physical Sciences (PHYS) or Non-Science (NONS). We examined the performance rank of students in each of the five groups for single best answer (SBA) and modified essay (MEQ) assessments separately, and also calculated the relative risk of failure in the summative assessments in Years 2 and 3. Students with science-based prior degrees performed better in the SBA assessments. The same occurred initially in the MEQs, but the effect diminished with time. The HP students performed consistently better but converged with other groups over time, particularly in the MEQs. Relative performance by the NONS students improved with time in both assessment formats. Overall, differences between the highest and lowest groups were small and very few students failed to meet the overall standard for the summative assessments. HP and BMS students had the lowest failure rate. NONS students were more likely to fail the assessments in Year 2 and 3, but their pass rates were still high. Female students performed significantly better overall at the end of Year 2 and in Year 3. There were only minor differences between Australian resident and International students. While there are small differences in performance in B & CS early in the programme, these lessen with time. The study results will inform decisions regarding timing of summative assessments, selection policy and for providing additional support to students who need it to minimize their risk of failure. Readers should note that this paper refers to student performance in only one of the four curriculum themes, where health professional and science graduates would be

  10. STS-104 CDR Lindsey on forward flight deck prior to re-entry

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-25

    STS104-345-021 (25 July 2001) --- Attired in his shuttle launch and entry suit, astronaut Steven W. Lindsey, STS-104 commander, looks over a procedures checklist at the commander’s station on the forward flight deck of the space shuttle Atlantis.

  11. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences: ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study: Structure and Development of Cognitive Competencies and Styles Prior to School Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Virginia C.; And Others

    In a continuing description of a Head Start longitudinal study, analyses are presented of the interrelationships among individual measures of the child's performances prior to school entry, accompanied by brief descriptions of the tasks and the scores used. Despite the size and extensiveness of the data base, the findings are considered tentative…

  12. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Son; CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220; Tabarin, Thibault

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstratemore » that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.« less

  13. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Antipsychotic Medication Use among Children Prior to Entry to Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2009-01-01

    There is growing literature examining the use of psychotropic medications and specifically antipsychotic medications among youth in the United States. This study uses administrative claims data to assess antipsychotic medication use among children prior to being served in therapeutic out-of-home care settings and whether there are utilization…

  14. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Examining Gender Equality in Prior Achievement and Entry into STEM College Majors over Time.

    PubMed

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2012-12-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into STEM majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider differences across several indicators of high school math and science achievement at the mean and also at the top of the test distribution. Analyses also examine the different comparative advantages men and women enjoy in math/science vs. English/reading. Regardless of how prior achievement is measured, very little of the strong and persistent gender gap in physical science and engineering majors over time is explained. Findings highlight the limitations of theories focusing on gender differences in skills and suggest directions for future research.

  15. Eliminating Entries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-31

    included in the FY 1996 DoD-wide Consolidated Financial Statements . The entities’ assets reported by DoD in FY 1995, excluding Other Defense...Organizations, totaled $1,306 billion, and revenues totaled $303 billion. When an entity prepares consolidated financial statements , it should eliminate the...series of reports on the FY 1996 DoD-wide Consolidated Financial Statements . We determined whether eliminating entries were properly reported on the FY

  16. 32 CFR 763.5 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.5 Entry procedures. (a) It is... Harbor, Hawaii 96860, at least 15 days prior to the access requested, providing therein confirmed access... proscribed by either Federal law or the State of Hawaii Penal Code, as incorporated under the Federal...

  17. Entry at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Smith, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This is lecture to be given at the IPPW 2016, as part of the 2 day course on Short Course on Destination Venus: Science, Technology and Mission Architectures. The attached presentation material is intended to be introduction to entry aspects of Venus in-situ robotic missions. The presentation introduces the audience to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects as well as the loads, both aero and thermal, generated during entry. The course touches upon the system design aspects such as TPS design and both high and low ballistic coefficient entry system concepts that allow the science payload to be protected from the extreme entry environment and yet meet the mission objectives.

  18. Precourt prepares for entry seated at the commander's station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-06-05

    STS084-318-035 (15-24 May 1997) --- Attired in the partial pressure launch and entry garment, astronaut Charles J. Precourt, commander, performs final checkout procedures prior to the re-entry phase of the STS-84 mission. The photo was taken with a 35mm camera by one of the Space Shuttle Atlantis' rear station-seated crewmembers.

  19. 19 CFR 159.10 - Notice of liquidation and date of liquidation for informal, mail, and baggage entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the merchandise is released under such an entry free of duty; and (3) The date a free entry is...-rate quota, because of a missing document which, if for free entry, is not produced prior to the... liquidation appearing on the receipt issued for any money collected on the entry will be voided. When the...

  20. 19 CFR 159.10 - Notice of liquidation and date of liquidation for informal, mail, and baggage entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the merchandise is released under such an entry free of duty; and (3) The date a free entry is...-rate quota, because of a missing document which, if for free entry, is not produced prior to the... liquidation appearing on the receipt issued for any money collected on the entry will be voided. When the...

  1. 19 CFR 159.10 - Notice of liquidation and date of liquidation for informal, mail, and baggage entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the merchandise is released under such an entry free of duty; and (3) The date a free entry is...-rate quota, because of a missing document which, if for free entry, is not produced prior to the... liquidation appearing on the receipt issued for any money collected on the entry will be voided. When the...

  2. 19 CFR 159.10 - Notice of liquidation and date of liquidation for informal, mail, and baggage entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... when the merchandise is released under such an entry free of duty; and (3) The date a free entry is...-rate quota, because of a missing document which, if for free entry, is not produced prior to the... liquidation appearing on the receipt issued for any money collected on the entry shall be voided. When the...

  3. 19 CFR 159.10 - Notice of liquidation and date of liquidation for informal, mail, and baggage entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the merchandise is released under such an entry free of duty; and (3) The date a free entry is...-rate quota, because of a missing document which, if for free entry, is not produced prior to the... liquidation appearing on the receipt issued for any money collected on the entry will be voided. When the...

  4. 31 CFR 225.4 - Pledge of book-entry Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pledge of book-entry Government... SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.4 Pledge of book-entry Government... pledge pursuant to the prior agreement and approval of the bond official, of book-entry Government...

  5. 31 CFR 225.4 - Pledge of book-entry Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pledge of book-entry Government... SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.4 Pledge of book-entry Government... pledge pursuant to the prior agreement and approval of the bond official, of book-entry Government...

  6. 31 CFR 225.4 - Pledge of book-entry Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pledge of book-entry Government... SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.4 Pledge of book-entry Government... pledge pursuant to the prior agreement and approval of the bond official, of book-entry Government...

  7. 31 CFR 225.4 - Pledge of book-entry Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pledge of book-entry Government... SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.4 Pledge of book-entry Government... pledge pursuant to the prior agreement and approval of the bond official, of book-entry Government...

  8. 31 CFR 225.4 - Pledge of book-entry Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pledge of book-entry Government... SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.4 Pledge of book-entry Government... pledge pursuant to the prior agreement and approval of the bond official, of book-entry Government...

  9. Orion Entry Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kelly M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is scheduled to launch the Orion spacecraft atop the Space Launch System on Exploration Mission 1 in late 2018. When Orion returns from its lunar sortie, it will encounter Earth's atmosphere with speeds in excess of 11 kilometers per second, and Orion will attempt its first precision-guided skip entry. A suite of flight software algorithms collectively called the Entry Monitor has been developed in order to enhance crew situational awareness and enable high levels of onboard autonomy. The Entry Monitor determines the vehicle capability footprint in real-time, provides manual piloting cues, evaluates landing target feasibility, predicts the ballistic instantaneous impact point, and provides intelligent recommendations for alternative landing sites if the primary landing site is not achievable. The primary engineering challenges of the Entry Monitor is in the algorithmic implementation in making a highly reliable, efficient set of algorithms suitable for onboard applications.

  10. Entry and Exit.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    1. Introduction R Analyses of industrial competition have attained a new vigor with the application of game -theoretic methods. The process of... competition is represented in models that reflect genuine struggles for entry, market power, and continuing survival. Dynamics and informational effects are...presents a few of the models developed recently to study competitive processes that affect a firm’s entry into a market , and the decision to exit. The

  11. 5. PORTICO AND ENTRY DETAIL, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. This entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PORTICO AND ENTRY DETAIL, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. This entry replaces original twin entries to southeast and southwest rooms from portico, and was installed when south entry hall was built. - Oak Island (House), County Road 768 vicinity, Edisto Island, Charleston County, SC

  12. Medicare risk contracting: Determinants of market entry

    PubMed Central

    Porell, Frank W.; Wallack, Stanley S.

    1990-01-01

    The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) of 1982 made it more attractive for health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and other competitive medical plans to enter into risk contracts with Medicare. Since the start of the TEFRA program in April 1985, more than 160 HMOs have had risk contracts with Medicare under the program. An investigation of factors associated with TEFRA risk-market entry at the end of 1986 revealed that high adjusted average per capita cost payment levels, prior Medicare cost-contract experience, and prior Federal qualification were the most important factors distinguishing market entrants from nonentrants. PMID:10113567

  13. Orbiter entry aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The challenge in the definition of the entry aerothermodynamic environment arising from the challenge of a reliable and reusable Orbiter is reviewed in light of the existing technology. Select problems pertinent to the orbiter development are discussed with reference to comprehensive treatments. These problems include boundary layer transition, leeward-side heating, shock/shock interaction scaling, tile gap heating, and nonequilibrium effects such as surface catalysis. Sample measurements obtained from test flights of the Orbiter are presented with comparison to preflight expectations. Numerical and wind tunnel simulations gave efficient information for defining the entry environment and an adequate level of preflight confidence. The high quality flight data provide an opportunity to refine the operational capability of the orbiter and serve as a benchmark both for the development of aerothermodynamic technology and for use in meeting future entry heating challenges.

  14. Double-Entry Bookkeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    Explains the principles and mechanics of double-entry bookkeeping as a part of the accounting cycle to produce a functioning set of accounting records. Suggests that libraries need to have accurate and timely information about their spending to gain financial control and protect against fraud and abuse. (LRW)

  15. Think Exit at Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Tom; Satterfield, Coy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the "Think Exit at Entry" program that has become the guiding principle for the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). The Georgia DJJ believes that the transition process begins the day the youth enters the system and continues well after release from the institution. Literature points the need for transition…

  16. 10. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY WITH DOOR PARTIALLY CLOSED TO SHOWS ITS RAISED PANEL CONSTRUCTION AND STRAP HINGES - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  17. 9. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY WITH OPEN DOORWAY TO WINDER STAIRWAY ON RIGHT - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  18. INTERIOR OF ENTRY HALLWAY AND STEEL ENTRY DOOR ON SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ENTRY HALLWAY AND STEEL ENTRY DOOR ON SOUTH SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. ENTRY ON SOUTHEAST SIDE (WILLISTON AVENUE ENTRY), VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENTRY ON SOUTHEAST SIDE (WILLISTON AVENUE ENTRY), VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle I Administration Building, Williston Avenue between Wright-Smith & Reilly Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Predictive Modeling for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Modeling and Simulation (MS) is an enabling capability for complex NASA entry missions such as MSL and Orion. MS is used in every mission phase to define mission concepts, select appropriate architectures, design EDL systems, quantify margin and risk, ensure correct system operation, and analyze data returned from the entry. In an environment where it is impossible to fully test EDL concepts on the ground prior to use, accurate MS capability is required to extrapolate ground test results to expected flight performance.

  1. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, P.; Allen, G. A.; Hwang, H. H.; Marley, M. S.; McGuire, M. K.; Garcia, J. A.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Huynh, L. C.; Moses, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the technology requirements for a Uranus atmospheric entry probe, an internal NASA study funded by ISPT program was conducted. The talk describes two different approaches to the planet: 1) direct ballistic entry and 2) Aerocapture.

  2. Planetary entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report summarizes the results from three research areas: (1) window design for the radiometric measurement of the forebody radiative heating experienced by atmospheric entry spaceraft; (2) survey of the current understanding of chemical species on selected solar system bodies and assess the importance of measurements with regard to vehicle environment and with regard to understanding of planetary atmospheres with emphasis on Venus, Mars, and Titan; and (3) measure and analyze the radiation (VUV to near-IR) from the shock heated gas cap of a blunt body in an Ames arc Jet wind-tunnel facility.

  3. Entry order as a consideration for innovation strategies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Fredric J

    2006-04-01

    Prior studies have defined an effect of market entry order on commercial success that depends on attributes of the underlying technology, the rate of change in technology improvement, consumer expectations of these attributes and the degree of unmet demand. Analyses of pharmaceutical sales data suggest that the commercial success of drugs is subject to similar forces. These findings have important implications for innovation strategies.

  4. Advertising and generic market entry.

    PubMed

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  5. Parachute Swivel Mechanism for planetary entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birner, R.; Kaese, J.; Koller, F.; Muehlner, E.; Luhmann, H.-J.

    1993-01-01

    A parachute swivel mechanism (PSM) for planetary entry missions such as a Mars probe (MARSNET) or return of cometary material samples (ROSETTA mission) has been developed. The purpose of the PSM is to decouple the spin of the probe from the parachute, with low friction torque, during both the deployment and descent phases. Critical requirements are high shock loads, low friction, low temperatures, and several years of storage in the deep space environment (during the cruise phase of the probe, prior to operation). The design uses a main thrust ball bearing to cope with the load requirement and a smaller thrust ball bearing for guiding of the shaft. Except for use on the Viking and Galileo swivels, it appears that this type of bearing has very rarely been employed in space mechanisms, so that little is known of its friction behavior with dry lubrication. A slip ring assembly allows the transfer of electrical power for post-reefing of the parachute. A test program has been conducted covering the environmental conditions of Mars entry and Earth reentry. This paper describes requirement constraints, model missions of planetary entries, a bearing trade-off, analyses performed, design details, the lubrication system, and test results (friction torque versus load/spin rate). In addition, the design of the test rig is addressed.

  6. Orion Entry Flight Control Stability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, Alan L.; Loe, Greg R.; Seiler, Pete

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Spacecraft will be required to perform entry and landing functions for both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Lunar return missions, utilizing only the Command Module (CM) with its unique systems and GN&C design. This paper presents the current CM Flight Control System (FCS) design to support entry and landing, with a focus on analyses that have supported its development to date. The CM FCS will have to provide for spacecraft stability and control while following guidance or manual commands during exo-atmospheric flight, after Service Module separation, translational powered flight required of the CM, atmospheric flight supporting both direct entry and skip trajectories down to drogue chute deploy, and during roll attitude reorientation just prior to touchdown. Various studies and analyses have been performed or are on-going supporting an overall FCS design with reasonably sized Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, that minimizes fuel usage, that provides appropriate command following but with reasonable stability and control margin. Results from these efforts to date are included, with particular attention on design issues that have emerged, such as the struggle to accommodate sub-sonic pitch and yaw control without using excessively large jets that could have a detrimental impact on vehicle weight. Apollo, with a similar shape, struggled with this issue as well. Outstanding CM FCS related design and analysis issues, planned for future effort, are also briefly be discussed.

  7. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  8. Computerized Physician Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

  9. 31 CFR 370.21 - Are there any requirements related to a prenotification entry?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified time period, we may interpret the nonresponsiveness as the financial institution's agreement to.... In our discretion, we may initiate a prenotification entry to a financial institution prior to... there might be problems with sending a subsequent debit entry. (b) Requirements placed upon financial...

  10. MS Garneau in his LES during re-entry preparations for STS-97

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-11

    STS097-310-026 (11 December 2000) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), is photographed in the launch and entry suit on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour prior to re-entry.

  11. 51-A V1103 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counts, B.

    1984-01-01

    The following are test results from the performance sections of the 51-A V1103.03 conducted on October 31,1984. During this checkout, an astronaut commented that the O2 actuator on SEMU 1052 (PLSS 1007) seemed stiffer to operate than the other two units.

  12. Interior view of west end entry showing entry hallway and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of west end entry showing entry hallway and double-door frame, view facing south - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Administration Annex, Near Russell Avenue (previously Avenue E), between of Facility Nos. 1C & 1E , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Earning for Prior Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The concept that "time is money" applies to the life outlook of community college students as much as anyone. Their success in completing a degree or certificate is often an equation that weighs their financial resources against how long they will need to finish. Prior learning assessments (PLA), which award academic credit for students'…

  14. Technicians assist STS-41 Pilot Cabana his parachute prior to egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technicians (training personnel) assist STS-41 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Robert D. Cabana with his launch and entry suit (LES) parachute prior to emergency egress training exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  15. Reconstruction of the Genesis Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Qualls, Garry D.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the findings from a reconstruction analysis of the Genesis capsule entry. First, a comparison of the atmospheric properties (density and winds) encountered during the entry to the pre-entry profile is presented. The analysis that was performed on the video footage (obtained from the tracking stations at UTTR) during the descent is then described from which the Mach number at the onset of the capsule tumble was estimated following the failure of the drogue parachute deployment. Next, an assessment of the Genesis capsule aerodynamics that was extracted from the video footage is discussed, followed by a description of the capsule hypersonic attitude that must have occurred during the entry based on examination of the recovered capsule heatshield. Lastly, the entry trajectory reconstruction that was performed is presented.

  16. 27. View of entry door to vestibule to MWOC entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View of entry door to vestibule to MWOC entry door in transmitter building no. 102 (note coded key pad to left and intercom phone on left) and door to the central systems monitor room (CSMR) to right (out of sight). - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  17. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  18. Prior indigenous technological species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  19. Clarification of CERCLA Entry Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum provides Regional Counsel with clarification on EPA’s Policy: “Entry and Continued Access Under CERCLA.” The Policy focuses on consensually gaining access for CERCLA activities at a particular location.

  20. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  1. Extraterrestrial Regolith Derived Atmospheric Entry Heat Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASAs technical challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase, frictional interaction with the planetary atmosphere causes a heat build-up to occur on the spacecraft, which will rapidly destroy it if a heat shield is not used. However, the heat shield incurs a mass penalty because it must be launched from Earth with the spacecraft, thus consuming a lot of precious propellant. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project investigated an approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. In this paper, we will describe three types of in situ fabrication methods for heat shields and the testing performed to determine feasibility of this approach.

  2. Entry Dispersion Analysis for the Stardust Comet Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1997-01-01

    Stardust will be the first mission to return samples from beyond the Earth-Moon system. The sample return capsule, which is passively controlled during the fastest Earth entry ever, will land by parachute in Utah. The present study analyzes the entry, descent, and landing of the returning sample capsule. The effects of two aerodynamic instabilities are revealed (one in the high altitude free molecular regime and the other in the transonic/subsonic flow regime). These instabilities could lead to unacceptably large excursions in the angle-of-attack near peak heating and main parachute deployment, respectively. To reduce the excursions resulting from the high altitude instability, the entry spin rate of the capsule is increased. To stabilize the excursions from the transonic/subsonic instability, a drogue chute with deployment triggered by an accelerometer and timer is added prior to main parachute deployment. A Monte Carlo dispersion analysis of the modified entry (from which the impact of off-nominal conditions during the entry is ascertained) shows that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Stardust program limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 83.5 km in downrange by 29.2 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  3. Entry Trajectory Issues for the Stardust Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1999-01-01

    The Stardust mission was successfully launched on February 7, 1999. It will be the first mission to return samples from a comet. The sample return capsule, which is passively controlled during the fastest Earth entry ever, will land by parachute in Utah. The present study describes the analysis of the entry, descent, and landing of the returning sample capsule utilizing the final, launch configuration capsule mass properties. The effects of two aerodynamic instabilities are revealed (one in the high altitude free molecular regime and the other in the transonic/subsonic flow regime). These instabilities could lead to unacceptably large excursions in the angle-of-attack near peak heating and main parachute deployment, respectively. To reduce the excursions resulting from the high altitude instability, the entry spin rate of the capsule is increased. To stabilize the excursions from the transonic/subsonic instability, a drogue chute with deployment triggered by a gravity-switch and timer is added prior to main parachute deployment. A Monte Carlo dispersion analysis of the modified entry (from which the impact of off-nominal conditions during the entry is ascertained) predicts that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Stardust mission limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 60.8 km in downrange by 19.9 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  4. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.143 Drawback entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed under...

  5. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.143 Drawback entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed under...

  6. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kelly; Rea, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Traditional ballistic entry does not scale well to higher energy entry trajectories. Clutch algorithm is a two-stage approach with the capture stage and load relief stage. Clutch may offer expansion of the operational entry corridor. Clutch is a candidate solution for Exploration Mission-2's degraded entry mode.

  7. 19 CFR 132.24 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry. 132.24 Section 132.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Mail Importation of Absolute Quota Merchandise § 132.24 Entry. Unless a formal entry or entry by appraisement is...

  8. 19 CFR 132.24 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 132.24 Section 132.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Mail Importation of Absolute Quota Merchandise § 132.24 Entry. Unless a formal entry or entry by appraisement is...

  9. Alphavirus entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Vancini, Ricardo; Hernandez, Raquel; Brown, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Viruses have evolved to exploit the vast complexity of cellular processes for their success within the host cell. The entry mechanisms of enveloped viruses (viruses with a surrounding outer lipid bilayer membrane) are usually classified as being either endocytotic or fusogenic. Different mechanisms have been proposed for Alphavirus entry and genome delivery. Indirect observations led to a general belief that enveloped viruses can infect cells either by protein-assisted fusion with the plasma membrane in a pH-independent manner or by endocytosis and fusion with the endocytic vacuole in a low-pH environment. The mechanism of Alphavirus penetration has been recently revisited using direct observation of the processes by electron microscopy under conditions of different temperatures and time progression. Under conditions nonpermissive for endocytosis or any vesicular transport, events occur which allow the entry of the virus genome into the cells. When drug inhibitors of cellular functions are used to prevent entry, only ionophores are found to significantly inhibit RNA delivery. Arboviruses are agents of significant human and animal disease; therefore, strategies to control infections are needed and include development of compounds which will block critical steps in the early infection events. It appears that current evidence points to an entry mechanism, in which alphaviruses infect cells by direct penetration of cell plasma membranes through a pore structure formed by virus and, possibly, host proteins. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Astronauts Parise and Jernigan check helmets prior to training session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in training versions of the Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suits, payload specialist Dr. Ronald A Parise (left) and astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander, check over their helmets prior to a training session. Holding the helmets is suit expert Alan M. Rochford, of NASA. The two were about to join their crew mates in a session of emergency bailout training at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  11. 19 CFR 142.16 - Entry summary documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary documentation. 142.16 Section 142.16... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.16 Entry summary documentation. (a) Entry summary not filed at time of entry. When the entry documentation is filed before the entry summary...

  12. MSL EDL Entry Guidance using the Entry Terminal Point Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory will be the first Mars mission to attempt a guided entry with the objective of safely delivering the entry vehicle to a survivable parachute deploy state within 10 km of the pre-designated landing site. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control range based on deviations in range, altitude rate, and drag acceleration from a reference trajectory. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last four years. Performance tradeoffs between ellipse size and deploy altitude will be presented, along with imposed constraints of entry acceleration and heating. Performance sensitivities to the bank reversal deadbands, heading alignment, attitude initialization error, and atmospheric delivery errors are presented. Guidance settings for contingency operations, such as those appropriate for severe dust storm scenarios, are evaluated.

  13. Using Competencies to Assess Entry-Level Knowledge of Students Graduating from Parks and Recreation Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Amy R.; Elkins, Daniel J.; Beggs, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    To address the Council on Accreditation of Parks, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions accreditation standard 7.01.01, the Entry Level Competency Assessment was developed to measure 46 competencies in four categories needed by entry level professionals. Students rated their competence prior to beginning their senior internship. The results…

  14. School Entry Age and Children's Social-Behavioral Skills: Evidence From a National Longitudinal Study of U.S. Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha; Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research evaluating school entry age effects has largely overlooked the effects on social-behavioral skills despite the growing recognition of returns to such skills. This study is the first to examine the effects of kindergarten entry age on children's social-behavioral outcomes using 9 years of panel data on a national sample of U.S.…

  15. Determinants with orthogonal polynomial entries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mourad E. H.

    2005-06-01

    We use moment representations of orthogonal polynomials to evaluate the corresponding Hankel determinants formed by the orthogonal polynomials. We also study the Hankel determinants which start with pn on the top left-hand corner. As examples we evaluate the Hankel determinants whose entries are q-ultraspherical or Al-Salam-Chihara polynomials.

  16. Numerical Skip-Entry Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Crull, Timothy; Rea, Jeremy; Johnson, Wyatt

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses a preliminary guidance and targeting strategy for accomplishing Skip-Entry (SE) flight during a lunar return-capsule entry flight. One of the primary benefits of flying a SE trajectory is to provide the crew with continuous Continental United States (CONUS) landing site access throughout the lunar month. Without a SE capability, the capsule must land either in water or at one of several distributed land sites in the Southern Hemisphere for a significant portion of a lunar month using a landing and recovery scenario similar to that employed during the Apollo program. With a SE trajectory, the capsule can land either in water at a site in proximity to CONUS or at one of several distributed landing sites within CONUS, thereby simplifying the operational requirements for crew retrieval and vehicle recovery, and possibly enabling a high degree of vehicle reusability. Note that a SE capability does not require that the vehicle land on land. A SE capability enables a longer-range flight than a direct-entry flight, which permits the vehicle to land at a much greater distance from the Entry Interface (EI) point. This does not exclude using this approach to push the landing point to a water location in proximity of CONUS and utilizing water or airborne recovery forces.

  17. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  18. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  19. Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) Overview of FY15 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, P.; Brivkalns, C.; Cassell, A.; Chen, Y.-K.; Boghozian, T.; Chinnapongse, R.; Gasch, M.; Kruger, C.; Makino, A.; Milos, F.; hide

    2015-01-01

    ADEPT is an atmospheric entry architecture for missions to most planetary bodies with atmospheres: Current Technology development project funded under STMD Game Changing Development Program (FY12 start); stowed inside the launch vehicle shroud and deployed in space prior to entry; low ballistic coefficient (less than 50 kilograms per square meter) provides a benign deceleration and thermal environment to the payload; High-temperature ribs support three dimensional woven carbon fabric to generate drag and withstand high heating.

  20. Hypersonic and Supersonic Static Aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Vannorman, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of continuum static aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV). The method is derived from earlier work for Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Path Finder (MPF) and the appropriate additions are made in the areas where physics are different from what the prior entry systems would encounter. These additions include the considerations for the high angle of attack of MSL EV, ablation of the heatshield during entry, turbulent boundary layer, and other aspects relevant to the flight performance of MSL. Details of the work, the supporting data and conclusions of the investigation are presented.

  1. Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, Richard Roy; Vander Wiel, Scott Alan

    2017-01-19

    A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.

  2. Overview of entry risk predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozinski, R.; Mendeck, G.; Cutri-Kohart, R.

    Risk to people on the ground from uncontrolled entries of spacecraft is a primary concern when analyzing end-of-life disposal options for satellites. Countries must balance this risk with the need to mitigate an exponentially growing space debris population. Currently the United States does this via guidelines that call for a satellite to be disposed of in a controlled manner if an uncontrolled entry would be too risky to people on the ground. This risk is measured by a quantity called "casualty expectation", or E , where casualty expectation is defined as the expectedc number of people suffering death or injury due to a spacecraft entry event. If Ec exceeds 1 in 10,000, U. S. guidelines state that the entry should be controlled rather than uncontrolled. Since this guideline can have serious impacts on the cost, lifetime, and even the mission and functionality of a satellite, it is critical that this quantity be estimated well, and decision makers understand all assumptions and limitations inherent in the resulting value. This paper discusses several issues regarding estimates of casualty expectation, beginning with an overview of relevant United States policies and guidelines. The equation the space industry typically uses to estimate casualty expectation is presented, along with a look at the sensitivity of the results to the typical assumptions, models, and initial condition uncertainties. Differences in these modeling issues with respect to launch failure Ec estimates are included in the discussion. An alternate quantity to assess risks due to spacecraft entries is introduced. "Probability of casualty", or Pc , is defined as the probability of one or more instances of people suffering death or injury due to a spacecraft entry event. The equation to estimate Pc is derived, where the same assumptions, modeling, and initial condition issues for Ec apply. Several examples are then given of both Ec and Pc estimate calculations. Due to the difficult issues in

  3. 32 CFR 770.39 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Naval Installations and Property in Puerto Rico... entry upon any U.S. Naval installation or property in Puerto Rico from the Commanding Officer of the...

  4. 32 CFR 770.39 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Naval Installations and Property in Puerto Rico... entry upon any U.S. Naval installation or property in Puerto Rico from the Commanding Officer of the...

  5. 32 CFR 770.38 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in Puerto Rico § 770.38 Entry restrictions. Except for duly authorized military personnel and... duties, entry upon any U.S. Navy installation or property in Puerto Rico at anytime, by any person for...

  6. 32 CFR 770.38 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in Puerto Rico § 770.38 Entry restrictions. Except for duly authorized military personnel and... duties, entry upon any U.S. Navy installation or property in Puerto Rico at anytime, by any person for...

  7. Teaching Composition to Re-Entry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, Natalie; Taines, Beatrice

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Women's Re-Entry Program at Diablo Valley College which uses structured teaching methods to alleviate the two principal weaknesses found in English compositions written by re-entry women, vagueness and lack of organization. (TP)

  8. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, New Hampshire § 770.57 Entry procedures. (a) Any person or group desiring the advance consent of the Commander...

  9. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, New Hampshire § 770.57 Entry procedures. (a) Any person or group desiring the advance consent of the Commander...

  10. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, New Hampshire § 770.57 Entry procedures. (a) Any person or group desiring the advance consent of the Commander...

  11. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, New Hampshire § 770.57 Entry procedures. (a) Any person or group desiring the advance consent of the Commander...

  12. A Multifunctional Hot Structure Heatshield Concept for Planetary Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Sandra P.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Wagner, Robert; Waters, Allen

    2015-01-01

    A multifunctional hot structure heatshield concept is being developed to provide technology enhancements with significant benefits compared to the current state-of-the-art heatshield technology. These benefits can potentially enable future planetary missions. The concept is unique in integrating the function of the thermal protection system with the primary load carrying structural component. An advanced carbon-carbon material system has been evaluated for the load carrying structure, which will be utilized on the outer surface of the heatshield, and thus will operate as a hot structure exposed to the severe aerodynamic heating associated with planetary entry. Flexible, highly efficient blanket insulation is sized for use underneath the hot structure to maintain required operational internal temperatures. The approach followed includes developing preliminary designs to demonstrate feasibility of the concept and benefits over a traditional, baseline design. Where prior work focused on a concept for an Earth entry vehicle, the current efforts presented here are focused on developing a generic heatshield model and performing a trade study for a Mars entry application. This trade study includes both structural and thermal evaluation. The results indicate that a hot structure concept is a feasible alternative to traditional heatshields and may offer advantages that can enable future entry missions.

  13. Simultaneous tensor decomposition and completion using factor priors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lei; Hsu, Chiou-Ting; Liao, Hong-Yuan Mark

    2014-03-01

    The success of research on matrix completion is evident in a variety of real-world applications. Tensor completion, which is a high-order extension of matrix completion, has also generated a great deal of research interest in recent years. Given a tensor with incomplete entries, existing methods use either factorization or completion schemes to recover the missing parts. However, as the number of missing entries increases, factorization schemes may overfit the model because of incorrectly predefined ranks, while completion schemes may fail to interpret the model factors. In this paper, we introduce a novel concept: complete the missing entries and simultaneously capture the underlying model structure. To this end, we propose a method called simultaneous tensor decomposition and completion (STDC) that combines a rank minimization technique with Tucker model decomposition. Moreover, as the model structure is implicitly included in the Tucker model, we use factor priors, which are usually known a priori in real-world tensor objects, to characterize the underlying joint-manifold drawn from the model factors. By exploiting this auxiliary information, our method leverages two classic schemes and accurately estimates the model factors and missing entries. We conducted experiments to empirically verify the convergence of our algorithm on synthetic data and evaluate its effectiveness on various kinds of real-world data. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method and its potential usage in tensor-based applications. It also outperforms state-of-the-art methods on multilinear model analysis and visual data completion tasks.

  14. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  15. Menarche: Prior Knowledge and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandhan, K. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Recorded menstruation information among 305 young women in India, assessing the differences between those who did and did not have knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. Those with prior knowledge considered menarche to be a normal physiological function and had a higher rate of regularity, lower rate of dysmenorrhea, and earlier onset of…

  16. [Cell entry mechanisms of coronaviruses].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Fumihiro; Matsuyama, Shutoku

    2009-12-01

    Enveloped viruses enter into cells via fusion of their envelope and cellular membrane. Spike (S) protein of coronavirus (CoV) is responsible for entry events. We studied the cell entry mechanisms of two different CoVs, murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). MHV-JHM that induces syncytia in infected cells entered directly from cell surface, i.e., fusion of envelope and plasma membrane, whereas SARS-CoV and MHV-2 that fail to induce syncytia entered via endosome in a protease-dependent fashion, i.e., fusion of envelope and endosomal membrane. The latter viruses entered directly from cell surface, when receptor-bound viruses were treated with proteases that activate fusion activity of their S proteins. The entry pathway of SARS-CoV could influence the severity of the disease. It was also reveled that a highly neurovirulent JHM spread in a receptor-independent fashion, which could result in a high neuropathogenicity of the virus.

  17. 32 CFR 763.4 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entry restrictions. 763.4 Section 763.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.4 Entry restrictions. (a...

  18. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real property...

  19. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real property...

  20. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real property...

  1. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real property...

  2. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real property...

  3. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  4. Predictive Lateral Logic for Numerical Entry Guidance Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kelly M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent entry guidance algorithm development123 has tended to focus on numerical integration of trajectories onboard in order to evaluate candidate bank profiles. Such methods enjoy benefits such as flexibility to varying mission profiles and improved robustness to large dispersions. A common element across many of these modern entry guidance algorithms is a reliance upon the concept of Apollo heritage lateral error (or azimuth error) deadbands in which the number of bank reversals to be performed is non-deterministic. This paper presents a closed-loop bank reversal method that operates with a fixed number of bank reversals defined prior to flight. However, this number of bank reversals can be modified at any point, including in flight, based on contingencies such as fuel leaks where propellant usage must be minimized.

  5. Viral entry mechanisms: the increasing diversity of paramyxovirus entry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Popa, Andreea; Chang, Andres; Masante, Cyril; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2009-01-01

    The paramyxovirus family contains established human pathogens such as measles virus and human respiratory syncytial virus, and emerging pathogens including the Hendra and Nipah viruses and the recently identified human metapneumovirus. Two major envelope glycoproteins, the attachment protein and the fusion protein, promote the processes of viral attachment and virus-cell membrane fusion required for entry. While common mechanisms of fusion protein proteolytic activation and the mechanism of membrane fusion promotion have been shown in recent years, considerable diversity exists in the family related to receptor binding and the potential mechanisms of fusion triggering. PMID:19878307

  6. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  7. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  8. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  9. Hospitalisation of older people before and after long-term care entry in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Michal; Broad, Joanna B; Zhang, Tony Xian; Kerse, Ngaire; Gott, Merryn; Connolly, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    global population projections forecast large growth in demand for long-term care (LTC) and acute hospital services for older people. Few studies report changes in hospitalisation rates before and after entry into LTC. This study compares hospitalisation rates 1 year before and after LTC entry. the Older Persons' Ability Level (OPAL) study was a 2008 census-type survey of LTC facilities in Auckland, New Zealand. OPAL resident hospital admissions and deaths were obtained from routinely collected national databases. all 2,244 residents (66% = female) who entered LTC within 12 months prior to OPAL were included. There were 3,363 hospitalisations, 2,424 in 12 months before and 939 in 12 months after entry, and 364 deaths. In the 6 to 12 months before LTC entry, the hospitalisation rate/100 person-years was 67.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62.5-72.1). Weekly rates then rose steeply to over 450/100 person-years in the 6 months immediately before LTC entry. In the 6 months after LTC entry, the rate fell to 49.1 (CI 44.9-53.3; RR 0.73 (CI 0.65-0.82, P < 0.0001)) and decreased further 6 to 12 months after entry to 41.1 (CI 37.1-45.1; rate ratio [RR] 0.61 (CI 0.54-0.69, P < 0.0001)). increased hospitalisations a few months before LTC entry suggest functional and medical instability precipitates LTC entry. New residents utilise hospital beds less frequently than when at home before that unstable period. Further research is needed to determine effective interventions to avoid some hospitalisations and possibly also LTC entry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Safer laparoscopic trocar entry: it's all about pressure.

    PubMed

    Tsaltas, Jim; Pearce, Scott; Lawrence, Anthony; Meads, Alan; Mezzatesta, Joseph; Nicolson, Scott

    2004-08-01

    This prospective observational study aimed to assess the feasibility of adapting peritoneal hyperdistention to 25 mmHg during laparoscopy in an Australian hospital environment. A total of 1150 consecutive diagnostic or operative laparoscopies were performed. All cases were monitored for early detection of untoward physiological changes. All patients had Veress needle insufflation with distension to 25 mmHg prior to insertion of the primary trocar. No patients experienced any surgical entry complications or adverse clinical effects noted during anaesthetic. The aim of the current study is to assess the feasibility and safety of increasing the peritoneal insufflation pressure to 25 mmHg for primary trocar insertion.

  11. Titan Atmospheric Entry Radiative Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandis, A. M; Cruden, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube for conditions relevant to Titan entry, varying atmospheric composition, free-stream density (equivalent to altitude) and shock velocity. Permutations in atmospheric composition include 1.1, 2, 5 and 8.6 CH4 by mole with a balance of N2 and 1.5 CH4 0.5 Ar 98 N2 by mole, which is consistent with the current understanding of Titan's atmosphere. The effect of gas impurities identified in previous shock tube studies were also examined by testing in pure N2 and deliberate addition of air to the CH4N2 mixtures. The test campaign measured radiation at velocities from 4.7 kms to 8 kms and free-stream pressures from 0.1 to 0.47 Torr. These conditions cover a range of potential trajectories for flight missions, including a direct ballistic trajectory, a fly by or an extremely high speed entry. Radiances measured in this work are substantially larger compared to that reported both in past EAST test campaigns and other shock tube facilities. Depending on the metric used for comparison, the discrepancy can be as high as an order of magnitude. Potential causes for the discrepancy, such as the effect of oxygen due to Air leakage, gas composition and purity are discussed. The present work provides a new benchmark set of data to replace those published in previous studies.

  12. Novice nurse educator entry-level competency to teach: a national study.

    PubMed

    Poindexter, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Expert nurse clinicians who are transitioning into academic positions after successful clinical careers often find they are unprepared to assume their new educator roles. Although nursing clinical expertise may be a necessary expectation, this knowledge is not sufficient to assume a nurse educator position. The purpose of this study was to identify essential entry-level nurse educator competencies, as reported by nurse administrators of accredited prelicensure nursing programs in the United States. Responses were categorized according to the type of academic institution housing the prelicensure nursing program and type of entry-level nurse educator position. A total of 374 program administrators representing 48 states participated, for a 44% response rate. The results indicate that administrators expect entry-level nurse educators to acquire teaching competencies prior to obtaining an entry-level position. Expected proficiency levels of competencies differed based on the position type and the academic setting. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  14. Academic Feedback in Veterinary Medicine: A comparison of School Leaver and Graduate Entry cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of…

  15. Changing Family Routines at Kindergarten Entry Predict Biomarkers of Parental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCaro, Jason A.; Worthman, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested associations among parenting stress prior to a child's kindergarten entry, the sustainability of family routines, and biomarkers of stress among parents following the kindergarten transition. Parents (N = 51) with higher prekindergarten scores on the Parenting Stress Index Short Form reported lower Family Routines Inventory…

  16. Maximum entropy, fluctuations and priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caticha, A.

    2001-05-01

    The method of maximum entropy (ME) is extended to address the following problem: Once one accepts that the ME distribution is to be preferred over all others, the question is to what extent are distributions with lower entropy supposed to be ruled out. Two applications are given. The first is to the theory of thermodynamic fluctuations. The formulation is exact, covariant under changes of coordinates, and allows fluctuations of both the extensive and the conjugate intensive variables. The second application is to the construction of an objective prior for Bayesian inference. The prior obtained by following the ME method to its inevitable conclusion turns out to be a special case (α=1) of what are currently known under the name of entropic priors. .

  17. STS-47 MS Davis dons LES with technicians' help prior to JSC bailout training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), looks on as technicians adjust her LES parachute pack prior to launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Davis is making her first flight in space.

  18. Technicians assist STS-47 MS Jemison prior to JSC bailout training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, assisted by technicians, adjusts a strap on her launch and entry suit (LES) prior to launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Jemison is making her first flight in space.

  19. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    PubMed Central

    Kort, Peter M.; Wrzaczek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump shaped as a function of the entry time, whereas the corresponding entry cost, where the entrant is indifferent between entry and non-entry, is U-shaped. PMID:26435573

  20. Essential competencies in entry-level pediatric physical therapy education.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Mary Jane; Furze, Jennifer; Martin, Kathy; Schreiber, Joe; Dannemiller, Lisa A; Dibiasio, Paula A; Moerchen, Victoria A

    2014-01-01

    The Section on Pediatrics (SoP) convened an Education Summit in July 2012 to examine, discuss, and respond to documented inconsistencies and challenges in teaching pediatric physical therapy (PT) content in entry-level professional education programs. Despite previous attempts by the SoP to provide guidance around teaching pediatric PT, variability continued to be extensive across programs. This article presents the core competencies developed out of the Summit to inform pediatric content in the entry-level PT curriculum. In addition, the core competencies were linked to teaching strategies, learning activities, assessment outcomes, and curricular structures. Consensus was reached on 5 core competencies that represent a knowledge base essential to all graduates of PT programs. In contrast to prior SoP documents, these competencies were specifically designed to focus on knowledge and skills unique to pediatric practice but essential for all graduates of accredited entry-level PT education programs. For more insights from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/PPT/A50.

  1. Aerothermodynamic Environments Definition for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the aerothermodynamic environments definition status is presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle. The environments are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on a candidate aeroshell geometry and worst-case entry heating trajectories. Uncertainties for the flowfield predictions are based primarily on available ground data since Mars flight data are scarce. The forebody aerothermodynamics analysis focuses on boundary layer transition and turbulent heating augmentation. Turbulent transition is expected prior to peak heating, a first for Mars entry, resulting in augmented heat flux and shear stress at the same heatshield location. Afterbody computations are also shown with and without interference effects of reaction control system thruster plumes. Including uncertainties, analysis predicts that the heatshield may experience peaks of 225 W/sq cm for turbulent heat flux, 0.32 atm for stagnation pressure, and 400 Pa for turbulent shear stress. The afterbody heat flux without thruster plume interference is predicted to be 7 W/sq cm on the backshell and 10 W/sq cm on the parachute cover. If the reaction control jets are fired near peak dynamic pressure, the heat flux at localized areas could reach as high as 76 W/sq cm on the backshell and 38 W/sq cm on the parachute cover, including uncertainties. The final flight environments used for hardware design will be updated for any changes in the aeroshell configuration, heating design trajectories, or uncertainties.

  2. Simultaneous Tensor Decomposition and Completion Using Factor Priors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lei; Hsu, Chiou-Ting Candy; Liao, Hong-Yuan Mark

    2013-08-27

    Tensor completion, which is a high-order extension of matrix completion, has generated a great deal of research interest in recent years. Given a tensor with incomplete entries, existing methods use either factorization or completion schemes to recover the missing parts. However, as the number of missing entries increases, factorization schemes may overfit the model because of incorrectly predefined ranks, while completion schemes may fail to interpret the model factors. In this paper, we introduce a novel concept: complete the missing entries and simultaneously capture the underlying model structure. To this end, we propose a method called Simultaneous Tensor Decomposition and Completion (STDC) that combines a rank minimization technique with Tucker model decomposition. Moreover, as the model structure is implicitly included in the Tucker model, we use factor priors, which are usually known a priori in real-world tensor objects, to characterize the underlying joint-manifold drawn from the model factors. We conducted experiments to empirically verify the convergence of our algorithm on synthetic data, and evaluate its effectiveness on various kinds of real-world data. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method and its potential usage in tensor-based applications. It also outperforms state-of-the-art methods on multilinear model analysis and visual data completion tasks.

  3. Combined Structural and Trajectory Control of Variable-Geometry Planetary Entry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Pellegrino, Sergio; Kwok, Kawai

    2011-01-01

    Some of the key challenges of planetary entry are to dissipate the large kinetic energy of the entry vehicle and to land with precision. Past missions to Mars were based on unguided entry, where entry vehicles carried payloads of less than 0.6 T and landed within 100 km of the designated target. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to carry a mass of almost 1 T to within 20 km of the target site. Guided lifting entry is needed to meet these higher deceleration and targeting demands. If the aerodynamic characteristics of the decelerator are variable during flight, more trajectory options are possible, and can be tailored to specific mission requirements. In addition to the entry trajectory modulation, having variable aerodynamic properties will also favor maneuvering of the vehicle prior to descent. For proper supersonic parachute deployment, the vehicle needs to turn to a lower angle of attack. One approach to entry trajectory improvement and angle of attack control is to embed a variable geometry decelerator in the design of the vehicle. Variation in geometry enables the vehicle to adjust its aerodynamic performance continuously without additional fuel cost because only electric power is needed for actuating the mechanisms that control the shape change. Novel structural and control concepts have been developed that enable the decelerator to undergo variation in geometry. Changing the aerodynamic characteristics of a flight vehicle by active means can potentially provide a mechanically simple, affordable, and enabling solution for entry, descent, and landing across a wide range of mission types, sample capture and return, and reentry to Earth, Titan, Venus, or Mars. Unguided ballistic entry is not sufficient to meet this more stringent deceleration, heating, and targeting demands. Two structural concepts for implementing the cone angle variation, a segmented shell, and a corrugated shell, have been presented.

  4. 21 CFR 1316.05 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 1316.05 Section 1316.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.05 Entry. An inspection shall be carried out by an inspector. Any such...

  5. 46 CFR 147A.25 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Entry. 147A.25 Section 147A.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION During Fumigation § 147A.25 Entry. (a) No person may enter the spaces that immediately adjoin the space...

  6. 46 CFR 147A.25 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Entry. 147A.25 Section 147A.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION During Fumigation § 147A.25 Entry. (a) No person may enter the spaces that immediately adjoin the space...

  7. 46 CFR 147A.25 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Entry. 147A.25 Section 147A.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION During Fumigation § 147A.25 Entry. (a) No person may enter the spaces that immediately adjoin the space...

  8. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan data...

  9. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan data...

  10. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan data...

  11. Space X First Entry Sample Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of one sample collected on May 26, 2012 and returned to earth on May 31, 2012 was analyzed for pollutants that had offgassed into the Dragon capsule by the time of first entry operations performed by the ISS crew. The components identified in the first-entry sample and their contributions to the total T-value are shown.

  12. 19 CFR 10.31 - Entry; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for sound or television broadcasting, cinematographic equipment, articles imported for sports purposes... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Temporary Importations Under Bond § 10.31 Entry; bond. (a)(1) Entry of articles brought into the United States temporarily and...

  13. 46 CFR 147A.25 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... During Fumigation § 147A.25 Entry. (a) No person may enter the spaces that immediately adjoin the space that is fumigated during fumigation unless entry is for emergency purposes or the space is tested and declared safe for human occupancy by a marine chemist or other qualified person and is inspected under...

  14. 46 CFR 147A.25 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... During Fumigation § 147A.25 Entry. (a) No person may enter the spaces that immediately adjoin the space that is fumigated during fumigation unless entry is for emergency purposes or the space is tested and declared safe for human occupancy by a marine chemist or other qualified person and is inspected under...

  15. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan data...

  16. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan data...

  17. [Patient information prior to sterilization].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, O V; Henriksen, L O; Baldur, B; Hansen, T

    1992-09-14

    The law in Denmark prescribes that the patient and the general practitioner to whom the patient directs his or her request for sterilization are obliged to confirm by their signatures that the patient has received information about sterilization, its risk and consequences. We asked 97 men and 96 women, if they had received this information prior to their sterilization. They were also asked about their knowledge about sterilization. 54% of the women and 35% of the men indicated that they had not received information. Only few of these wished further information by the hospital doctor. Knowledge about sterilization was good. It is concluded that the information to the patient prior to sterilization is far from optimal. The patients' signature confirming verbal information is not a sufficient safeguard. We recommend, among other things, that the patient should receive written information and that both the general practitioner and the hospital responsible for the operation should ensure that optimal information is received by the patient.

  18. Equilibrium radiative heating tables for Earth entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Kenneth; Hartung, Lin C.

    1990-05-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in blunt-body atmospheric entry for applications such as aeroassisted orbital transfer and planetary return has engendered a corresponding revival of interest in radiative heating. Radiative heating may be of importance in these blunt-body flows because of the highly energetic shock layer around the blunt nose. Sutton developed an inviscid, stagnation point, radiation coupled flow field code for investigating blunt-body atmospheric entry. The method has been compared with ground-based and flight data, and reasonable agreement has been found. To provide information for entry body studies in support of lunar and Mars return scenarios of interest in the 1970's, the code was exercised over a matrix of Earth entry conditions. Recently, this matrix was extended slightly to reflect entry vehicle designs of current interest. Complete results are presented.

  19. Orion Entry Display Feeder and Interactions with the Entry Monitor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Darren; Bernatovich, Mike; Gillespie, Ellen; Kadwa, Binaifer; Matthews, Dave; Penny, Wes; Zak, Tim; Grant, Mike; Bihari, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is designed to return astronauts to a landing within 10 km of the intended landing target from low Earth orbit, lunar direct-entry, and lunar skip-entry trajectories. Al pile the landing is nominally controlled autonomously, the crew can fly precision entries manually in the event of an anomaly. The onboard entry displays will be used by the crew to monitor and manually fly the entry, descent, and landing, while the Entry Monitor System (EMS) will be used to monitor the health and status of the onboard guidance and the trajectory. The entry displays are driven by the entry display feeder, part of the Entry Monitor System (EMS). The entry re-targeting module, also part of the EMS, provides all the data required to generate the capability footprint of the vehicle at any point in the trajectory, which is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD). It also provides caution and warning data and recommends the safest possible re-designated landing site when the nominal landing site is no longer within the capability of the vehicle. The PFD and the EMS allow the crew to manually fly an entry trajectory profile from entry interface until parachute deploy having the flexibility to manually steer the vehicle to a selected landing site that best satisfies the priorities of the crew. The entry display feeder provides data from the ENIS and other components of the GNC flight software to the displays at the proper rate and in the proper units. It also performs calculations that are specific to the entry displays and which are not made in any other component of the flight software. In some instances, it performs calculations identical to those performed by the onboard primary guidance algorithm to protect against a guidance system failure. These functions and the interactions between the entry display feeder and the other components of the EMS are described.

  20. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35 Procedure for electronic entry summary. In order to obtain entry summary processing electronically, the filer...

  1. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35 Procedure for electronic entry summary. In order to obtain entry summary processing electronically, the filer...

  2. Abort-once-around entry corridor analysis program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    The abort once around entry target corridor analysis program (ABECAP) was studied. The allowable range of flight path angles at entry interface for acceptable entry trajectories from a shuttle abort once around (AOA) situation was established. The solutions thus determined may be shown as corridor plots of entry interface flight path angle versus range from entry interface (EI) to the target.

  3. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35 Procedure for electronic entry summary. In order to obtain entry summary processing electronically, the filer...

  4. 19 CFR 142.11 - Entry summary form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary form. 142.11 Section 142.11 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.11 Entry summary form. (a) Customs Form 7501. The entry summary shall be on Customs Form 7501 unless a different form is prescribed elsewhere in this...

  5. 50 CFR 679.83 - Rockfish Program entry level fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rockfish Program entry level fishery. 679... ALASKA Rockfish Program § 679.83 Rockfish Program entry level fishery. (a) Rockfish entry level fishery—(1) General. A rockfish entry level harvester and rockfish entry level processor may participate in...

  6. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use.

  7. Aerodynamic Challenges for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; Dyakonov, Artem; Buning, Pieter; Scallion, William; Norman, John Van

    2009-01-01

    An overview of several important aerodynamics challenges new to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle are presented. The MSL entry capsule is a 70 degree sphere cone-based on the original Mars Viking entry capsule. Due to payload and landing accuracy requirements, MSL will be flying at the highest lift-to-drag ratio of any capsule sent to Mars (L/D = 0.24). The capsule will also be flying a guided entry, performing bank maneuvers, a first for Mars entry. The system's mechanical design and increased performance requirements require an expansion of the MSL flight envelope beyond those of historical missions. In certain areas, the experience gained by Viking and other recent Mars missions can no longer be claimed as heritage information. New analysis and testing is re1quired to ensure the safe flight of the MSL entry vehicle. The challenge topics include: hypersonic gas chemistry and laminar-versus-turbulent flow effects on trim angle, a general risk assessment of flying at greater angles-of-attack than Viking, quantifying the aerodynamic interactions induced by a new reaction control system and a risk assessment of recontact of a series of masses jettisoned prior to parachute deploy. An overview of the analysis and tests being conducted to understand and reduce risk in each of these areas is presented. The need for proper modeling and implementation of uncertainties for use in trajectory simulation has resulted in a revision of prior models and additional analysis for the MSL entry vehicle. The six degree-of-freedom uncertainty model and new analysis to quantify roll torque dispersions are presented.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory and Atmosphere Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberer, Mark; Shidner, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5th 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle successfully entered Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover on its surface. A Kalman filter approach has been implemented to reconstruct the entry, descent, and landing trajectory based on all available data. The data sources considered in the Kalman filtering approach include the inertial measurement unit accelerations and angular rates, the terrain descent sensor, the measured landing site, orbit determination solutions for the initial conditions, and a new set of instrumentation for planetary entry reconstruction consisting of forebody pressure sensors, known as the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System. These pressure measurements are unique for planetary entry, descent, and landing reconstruction as they enable a reconstruction of the freestream atmospheric conditions without any prior assumptions being made on the vehicle aerodynamics. Moreover, the processing of these pressure measurements in the Kalman filter approach enables the identification of atmospheric winds, which has not been accomplished in past planetary entry reconstructions. This separation of atmosphere and aerodynamics allows for aerodynamic model reconciliation and uncertainty quantification, which directly impacts future missions. This paper describes the mathematical formulation of the Kalman filtering approach, a summary of data sources and preprocessing activities, and results of the reconstruction.

  9. Entry Guidance for the Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1999-01-01

    The X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is a half-scale prototype developed to test the key technologies needed for a full-scale single-stage reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The X-33 is a suborbital vehicle that will be launched vertically, and land horizontally. The goals of this research were to develop an alternate entry guidance scheme for the X-33 in parallel to the actual X-33 entry guidance algorithms, provide comparative and complementary study, and identify potential new ways to improve entry guidance performance. Toward these goals, the nominal entry trajectory is defined by a piecewise linear drag-acceleration-versus-energy profile, which is in turn obtained by the solution of a semi-analytical parameter optimization problem. The closed-loop guidance is accomplished by tracking the nominal drag profile with primarily bank-angle modulation on-board. The bank-angle is commanded by a single full-envelope nonlinear trajectory control law. Near the end of the entry flight, the guidance logic is switched to heading control in order to meet strict conditions at the terminal area energy management interface. Two methods, one on ground-track control and the other on heading control, were proposed and examined for this phase of entry guidance where lateral control is emphasized. Trajectory dispersion studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the entry guidance algorithms against a number of uncertainties including those in propulsion system, atmospheric properties, winds, aerodynamics, and propellant loading. Finally, a new trajectory-regulation method is introduced at the end as a promising precision entry guidance method. The guidance principle is very different and preliminary application in X-33 entry guidance simulation showed high precision that is difficult to achieve by existing methods.

  10. Radiative and convective heating during Venus entry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, W. A.; Woodward, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the stagnation region heating of probes entering the Venusian atmosphere. Both convective and radiative heat-transfer rates are predicted, and account is taken of the important effects of radiative transport in the vehicle shock layer. A nongray radiative transport model is utilized which parallels a four-band treatment previously developed for air (Page et al., 1969), but includes two additional bands to account for the important CO(4+) molecular band system. Some comparisons are made between results for Venus entry and results for earth entry obtained using a viscous earth entry program.

  11. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  12. Adjustable Bracket For Entry Of Welding Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Wire-entry bracket on welding torch in robotic welding system provides for adjustment of angle of entry of welding wire over range of plus or minus 30 degrees from nominal entry angle. Wire positioned so it does not hide weld joint in view of through-the-torch computer-vision system part of robot-controlling and -monitoring system. Swiveling bracket also used on nonvision torch on which wire-feed-through tube interferes with workpiece. Angle simply changed to one giving sufficient clearance.

  13. Structures and Mechanisms Design Concepts for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yount, Bryan C.; Arnold, James O.; Gage, Peter J.; Mockelman, Jeffrey; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    System studies have shown that large deployable aerodynamic decelerators such as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) concept can revolutionize future robotic and human exploration missions involving atmospheric entry, descent and landing by significantly reducing the maximum heating rate, total heat load, and deceleration loads experienced by the spacecraft during entry [1-3]. ADEPT and the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) [4] share the approach of stowing the entry system in the shroud of the launch vehicle and deploying it to a much larger diameter prior to entry. The ADEPT concept provides a low ballistic coefficient for planetary entry by employing an umbrella-like deployable structure consisting of ribs, struts and a fabric cover that form an aerodynamic decelerator capable of undergoing hypersonic flight. The ADEPT "skin" is a 3-D woven carbon cloth that serves as a thermal protection system (TPS) and as a structural surface that transfers aerodynamic forces to the underlying ribs [5]. This paper focuses on design activities associated with integrating ADEPT components (cloth, ribs, struts and mechanisms) into a system that can function across all configurations and environments of a typical mission concept: stowed during launch, in-space deployment, entry, descent, parachute deployment and separation from the landing payload. The baseline structures and mechanisms were selected via trade studies conducted during the summer and fall of 2012. They are now being incorporated into the design of a ground test article (GTA) that will be fabricated in 2013. It will be used to evaluate retention of the stowed configuration in a launch environment, mechanism operation for release, deployment and locking, and static strength of the deployed decelerator. Of particular interest are the carbon cloth interfaces, underlying hot structure, (Advanced Carbon- Carbon ribs) and other structural components (nose cap, struts, and

  14. Network inference using informative priors

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sach; Speed, Terence P.

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen much interest in the study of systems characterized by multiple interacting components. A class of statistical models called graphical models, in which graphs are used to represent probabilistic relationships between variables, provides a framework for formal inference regarding such systems. In many settings, the object of inference is the network structure itself. This problem of “network inference” is well known to be a challenging one. However, in scientific settings there is very often existing information regarding network connectivity. A natural idea then is to take account of such information during inference. This article addresses the question of incorporating prior information into network inference. We focus on directed models called Bayesian networks, and use Markov chain Monte Carlo to draw samples from posterior distributions over network structures. We introduce prior distributions on graphs capable of capturing information regarding network features including edges, classes of edges, degree distributions, and sparsity. We illustrate our approach in the context of systems biology, applying our methods to network inference in cancer signaling. PMID:18799736

  15. Network inference using informative priors.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sach; Speed, Terence P

    2008-09-23

    Recent years have seen much interest in the study of systems characterized by multiple interacting components. A class of statistical models called graphical models, in which graphs are used to represent probabilistic relationships between variables, provides a framework for formal inference regarding such systems. In many settings, the object of inference is the network structure itself. This problem of "network inference" is well known to be a challenging one. However, in scientific settings there is very often existing information regarding network connectivity. A natural idea then is to take account of such information during inference. This article addresses the question of incorporating prior information into network inference. We focus on directed models called Bayesian networks, and use Markov chain Monte Carlo to draw samples from posterior distributions over network structures. We introduce prior distributions on graphs capable of capturing information regarding network features including edges, classes of edges, degree distributions, and sparsity. We illustrate our approach in the context of systems biology, applying our methods to network inference in cancer signaling.

  16. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Requirements for the Entry Level Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creth, Sheila; Harders, Faith

    1980-01-01

    Presents the expectations of academic research libraries in the hiring of entry level librarians relative to academic and work experience. Results of a survey indicate that skills in management, automation, research, and writing are highly desirable. (RAA)

  18. Generic aerocapture atmospheric entry study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An atmospheric entry study to fine a generic aerocapture vehicle capable of missions to Mars, Saturn, and Uranus is reported. A single external geometry was developed through atmospheric entry simulations. Aerocapture is a system design concept which uses an aerodynamically controlled atmospheric entry to provide the necessary velocity depletion to capture payloads into planetary orbit. Design concepts are presented which provide the control accuracy required while giving thermal protection for the mission payload. The system design concepts consist of the following elements: (1) an extendable biconic aerodynamic configuration with lift to drag ratio between 1.0 and 2.0; (2) roll control system concepts to control aerodynamic lift and disturbance torques; (3) aeroshell design concepts capable of meeting dynamic pressure loads during aerocapture; and (4) entry thermal protection system design concepts to meet thermodynamic loads during aerocapture.

  19. State of Idaho Port of Entry Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho's Ports of Entry (POE) Program to identify its strengths and weaknesses, and provide recommendations for future program development and operations. As part of the study, current Idaho POE business proce...

  20. 19 CFR 4.9 - Formal entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... delivered to the consul of the nation to which such vessel belongs, in which event the vessel master will... who fails to make entry as required by this section or who presents or transmits electronically any...

  1. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator for Planetary Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reza, Sajjad; Hund, Richard; Kustas, Frank; Willcockson, William; Songer, Jarvis; Brown, Glen

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and may eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell.

  2. Medical student satisfaction, coping and burnout in direct-entry versus graduate-entry programmes.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Dawn; Canny, Benedict J; Nitzberg, Michael; Choudri, Jennifer; Porter, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal length of medical training, with concern about the cost of prolonged training. Two simultaneous tracks currently exist in Australia: direct entry from high school and graduate entry for students with a bachelor degree. Medical schools are switching to graduate entry based on maturity, academic preparedness and career-choice surety. We tested the assumption that graduate entry is better by exploring student preferences, coping, burnout, empathy and alcohol use. From a potential pool of 2188 participants, enrolled at five Australian medical schools, a convenience sample of 688 (31%) first and second year students completed a survey in the middle of the academic year. Participants answered questions about demographics, satisfaction and coping and completed three validated instruments. Over 90% of students preferred their own entry-type, though more graduate-entry students were satisfied with their programme (82.4% versus 65.3%, p < 0.001). There was no difference between graduate-entry and direct-entry students in self-reported coping or in the proportion of students meeting criteria for burnout (50.7% versus 51.2%). Direct-entry students rated significantly higher for empathy (concern, p = 0.022; personal distress, p = 0.031). Graduate-entry students reported significantly more alcohol use and hazardous drinking (30.0% versus 22.8%; p = 0.017). Our multi-institution data confirm that students are generally satisfied with their choice of entry pathway and do not confirm significant psychosocial benefits of graduate entry. Overall, our data suggest that direct-entry students cope with the workload and psychosocial challenges of medical school, in the first 2 years, as well as graduate-entry students. Burnout and alcohol use should be addressed in both pathways. Despite studies showing similar academic outcomes, and higher total costs, more programmes in Australia are becoming graduate entry. Further research on

  3. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle

    2009-12-20

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosinemore » residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.« less

  4. Evolved atmospheric entry corridor with safety factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.

  5. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  6. Multi-Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid; Glaab, Louis; Winski, Richard G.; Maddock, Robert W.; Emmett, Anjie L.; Munk, Michelle M.; Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steve; Aliaga, Jose; Zarchi, Kerry; hide

    2014-01-01

    This report describes an integrated system for Multi-mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE). The system in its current form is capable of performing system analysis and design for an Earth entry vehicle suitable for sample return missions. The system includes geometry, mass sizing, impact analysis, structural analysis, flight mechanics, TPS, and a web portal for user access. The report includes details of M-SAPE modules and provides sample results. Current M-SAPE vehicle design concept is based on Mars sample return (MSR) Earth entry vehicle design, which is driven by minimizing risk associated with sample containment (no parachute and passive aerodynamic stability). By M-SAPE exploiting a common design concept, any sample return mission, particularly MSR, will benefit from significant risk and development cost reductions. The design provides a platform by which technologies and design elements can be evaluated rapidly prior to any costly investment commitment.

  7. Comparison of Two Entry Methods for Laparoscopic Port Entry: Technical Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Adriana; Mannino, Maurizio; Cappello, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Andrea; Di Carlo, Isidoro

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic entry is a blind procedure and it often represents a problem for all the related complications. In the last three decades, rapid advances in laparoscopic surgery have made it an invaluable part of general surgery, but there remains no clear consensus on an optimal method of entry into the peritoneal cavity. The aim of this paper is to focus on the evolution of two used methods of entry into the peritoneal cavity in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:22761542

  8. Planetary/DOD entry technology flight experiments. Volume 2: Planetary entry flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Krieger, R. J.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Vetter, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The technical feasibility of launching a high speed, earth entry vehicle from the space shuttle to advance technology for the exploration of the outer planets' atmospheres was established. Disciplines of thermodynamics, orbital mechanics, aerodynamics propulsion, structures, design, electronics and system integration focused on the goal of producing outer planet environments on a probe shaped vehicle during an earth entry. Major aspects of analysis and vehicle design studied include: planetary environments, earth entry environment capability, mission maneuvers, capabilities of shuttle upper stages, a comparison of earth entry planetary environments, experiment design and vehicle design.

  9. Graduate entry nurses' initial perspectives on nursing: Content analysis of open-ended survey questions.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Lisa; Brooks, Ingrid; Vanderheide, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    Graduate entry nursing courses offer individuals with prior degrees the opportunity to gain nursing qualifications and facilitate career change. While it is known that accelerated graduate entry courses are increasingly popular, the perceptions of nursing held by such individuals and the influence this has on those seeking to enter the profession are less clearly understood. To explore graduate entry nursing students' perceptions of nursing on entering their pre-registration course. A descriptive design utilising cross-section survey with two open-ended questions: What do you believe the role of the nurse is? What things have influenced that view? were asked. Demographic data were analysed using descriptive frequencies, while the two open-ended questions were analysed using summative content analysis. One university-based postgraduate graduate entry nursing course in Australia PARTICIPANTS: Eight cohorts (n=286) commencing students with prior degrees other than nursing. The course attracts students from diverse backgrounds. Exposure to nursing and nurses, either as a consumer of health care or other health care role, plays a primary role in influencing career change. However, similar to those found with school leavers, there remains much misinformation about nurses' roles for students in these courses. Most identify the role of caring in nursing. For some, media representations are the only information sources. Graduate entry courses offer opportunities to attract new nurses and contribute to addressing workforce shortages. However, there is still a lack of knowledge of nursing roles among students on entry. More work is required by the profession to ensure nursing is accurately and positively represented to the community. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Generic Entry, Reformulations, and Promotion of SSRIs

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Julie M.; Koss, Catherine; Berndt, Ernst R.; Frank, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that a manufacturer’s promotional strategy for a brand-name drug is typically affected by generic entry. However, little is known about how newer strategies to extend patent life, including product reformulation introduction or obtaining approval to market for additional clinical indications, influence promotion. Objective To examine the relationship between promotional expenditures, generic entry, reformulation entry, and new indication approval. Study Design/Setting We used quarterly data on national product-level promotional spending (including expenditures for physician detailing and direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), and the retail value of free samples distributed in physician offices) for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) over the period 1997 through 2004. We estimated econometric models of detailing, DTCA, and total quarterly promotional expenditures as a function of the timing of generic entry, entry of new product formulations, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for new clinical indications for existing medications in the SSRI class. Main Outcome Measure Expenditures by pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotion of antidepressant medications. Results Over the period 1997–2004, there was considerable variation in the composition of promotional expenditures across the SSRIs. Promotional expenditures for the original brand molecule decreased dramatically when a reformulation of the molecule was introduced. Promotional spending (both total and detailing alone) for a specific molecule was generally lower after generic entry than before, although the effect of generic entry on promotional spending appears to be closely linked with the choice of product reformulation strategy pursued by the manufacturer. Detailing expenditures for Paxil were increased after the manufacturer received FDA approval to market the drug for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the likelihood of DTCA outlays

  11. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule Aerothermodynamics and Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Laub, Bernard; Wright, Michael J.; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Slimko, Eric M.; Willcockson, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is being designed to carry a large rover (greater than 800 kg) to the surface of Mars using a blunt-body entry capsule as the primary decelerator. The spacecraft is being designed for launch in 2009 and arrival at Mars in 2010. The combination of large mass and diameter with non-zero angle-of-attack for MSL will result in unprecedented convective heating environments caused by turbulence prior to peak heating. Navier-Stokes computations predict a large turbulent heating augmentation for which there are no supporting flight data1 and little ground data for validation. Consequently, an extensive experimental program has been established specifically for MSL to understand the level of turbulent augmentation expected in flight. The experimental data support the prediction of turbulent transition and have also uncovered phenomena that cannot be replicated with available computational methods. The result is that the flight aeroheating environments predictions must include larger uncertainties than are typically used for a Mars entry capsule. Finally, the thermal protection system (TPS) being used for MSL has not been flown at the heat flux, pressure, and shear stress combinations expected in flight, so a test program has been established to obtain conditions relevant to flight. This paper summarizes the aerothermodynamic definition analysis and TPS development, focusing on the challenges that are unique to MSL.

  12. Single Pilot Workload Management During Cruise in Entry Level Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Silverman, Evan; Hackworth, Carla; Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Drechsler, Gena; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Advanced technologies and automation are important facilitators of single pilot operations, but they also contribute to the workload management challenges faced by the pilot. We examined task completion, workload management, and automation use in an entry level jet (ELJ) flown by single pilots. Thirteen certificated Cessna Citation Mustang (C510-S) pilots flew an instrument flight rules (IFR) experimental flight in a Cessna Citation Mustang simulator. At one point participants had to descend to meet a crossing restriction prior to a waypoint and prepare for an instrument approach into an un-towered field while facilitating communication from a lost pilot who was flying too low for ATC to hear. Four participants experienced some sort of difficulty with regard to meeting the crossing restriction and almost half (n=6) had problems associated with the instrument approach. Additional errors were also observed including eight participants landing at the airport with an incorrect altimeter setting.

  13. A high throughput Cre–lox activated viral membrane fusion assay identifies pharmacological inhibitors of HIV entry

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, Anthony M.; Cheung, Pamela; Swartz, Talia H.

    Enveloped virus entry occurs when viral and cellular membranes fuse releasing particle contents into the target cell. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry occurs by cell-free virus or virus transferred between infected and uninfected cells through structures called virological synapses. We developed a high-throughput cell-based assay to identify small molecule inhibitors of cell-free or virological synapse-mediated entry. An HIV clone carrying Cre recombinase as a Gag-internal gene fusion releases active Cre into cells upon viral entry activating a recombinatorial gene switch changing dsRed to GFP-expression. A screen of a 1998 known-biological profile small molecule library identified pharmacological HIV entry inhibitors thatmore » block both cell-free and cell-to-cell infection. Many top hits were noted as HIV inhibitors in prior studies, but not previously recognized as entry antagonists. Modest therapeutic indices for simvastatin and nigericin were observed in confirmatory HIV infection assays. This robust assay is adaptable to study HIV and heterologous viral pseudotypes. - Highlights: • Cre recombinase viral fusion assay screens cell-free or cell–cell entry inhibitors. • This Gag-iCre based assay is specific for the entry step of HIV replication. • Screened a library of known pharmacologic compounds for HIV fusion antagonists. • Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but here are classified as entry antagonists. Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but not as entry antagonists. • The assay is compatible with pseudotyping with HIV and heterologous viruses.« less

  14. Data entry errors and design for model-based tight glycemic control in critical care.

    PubMed

    Ward, Logan; Steel, James; Le Compte, Aaron; Evans, Alicia; Tan, Chia-Siong; Penning, Sophie; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to achieve consistently. Model-based methods and computerized protocols offer the opportunity to improve TGC quality but require human data entry, particularly of blood glucose (BG) values, which can be significantly prone to error. This study presents the design and optimization of data entry methods to minimize error for a computerized and model-based TGC method prior to pilot clinical trials. To minimize data entry error, two tests were carried out to optimize a method with errors less than the 5%-plus reported in other studies. Four initial methods were tested on 40 subjects in random order, and the best two were tested more rigorously on 34 subjects. The tests measured entry speed and accuracy. Errors were reported as corrected and uncorrected errors, with the sum comprising a total error rate. The first set of tests used randomly selected values, while the second set used the same values for all subjects to allow comparisons across users and direct assessment of the magnitude of errors. These research tests were approved by the University of Canterbury Ethics Committee. The final data entry method tested reduced errors to less than 1-2%, a 60-80% reduction from reported values. The magnitude of errors was clinically significant and was typically by 10.0 mmol/liter or an order of magnitude but only for extreme values of BG < 2.0 mmol/liter or BG > 15.0-20.0 mmol/liter, both of which could be easily corrected with automated checking of extreme values for safety. The data entry method selected significantly reduced data entry errors in the limited design tests presented, and is in use on a clinical pilot TGC study. The overall approach and testing methods are easily performed and generalizable to other applications and protocols. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Attitude determination with three-axis accelerometer for emergency atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Two algorithms are disclosed that, with the use of a 3-axis accelerometer, will be able to determine the angles of attack, sideslip and roll of a capsule-type spacecraft prior to entry (at very high altitudes, where the atmospheric density is still very low) and during entry. The invention relates to emergency situations in which no reliable attitude and attitude rate are available. Provided that the spacecraft would not attempt a guided entry without reliable attitude information, the objective of the entry system in such case would be to attempt a safe ballistic entry. A ballistic entry requires three controlled phases to be executed in sequence: First, cancel initial rates in case the spacecraft is tumbling; second, maneuver the capsule to a heat-shield-forward attitude, preferably to the trim attitude, to counteract the heat rate and heat load build up; and third, impart a ballistic bank or roll rate to null the average lift vector in order to prevent prolonged lift down situations. Being able to know the attitude, hence the attitude rate, will allow the control system (nominal or backup, automatic or manual) to cancel any initial angular rates. Also, since a heat-shield forward attitude and the trim attitude can be specified in terms of the angles of attack and sideslip, being able to determine the current attitude in terms of these angles will allow the control system to maneuver the vehicle to the desired attitude. Finally, being able to determine the roll angle will allow for the control of the roll ballistic rate during entry.

  16. 2014 Summer Series - Ethiraj Venkatapathy - Mary Poppins Approach to Human Mars Mission Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-17

    NASA is investing in a number of technologies to extend Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) capabilities to enable Human Missions to Mars. These technologies will also enable robotic Science missions. Human missions will require landing payloads of 10?s of metric tons, not possible with today's technology. Decelerating from entry speeds around 15,000 miles per hour to landing in a matter of minutes will require very large drag or deceleration. The one way to achieve required deceleration is to deploy a large surface that can be stowed during launch and deployed prior to entry. This talk will highlight a simple concept similar to an umbrella. Though the concept is simple, the size required for human Mars missions and the heating encountered during entry are significant challenges. The mechanically deployable system can also enable robotic science missions to Venus and is also equally applicable for bringing back cube-satellites and other small payloads. The scalable concept called Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) is under development and is the focus of this talk.

  17. 19 CFR 144.41 - Entry for rewarehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry for rewarehouse. 144.41 Section 144.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Rewarehouse Entries § 144.41 Entry for rewarehouse. (a) Applicability. When...

  18. 19 CFR 144.41 - Entry for rewarehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entry for rewarehouse. 144.41 Section 144.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Rewarehouse Entries § 144.41 Entry for rewarehouse. (a) Applicability. When...

  19. 19 CFR 144.41 - Entry for rewarehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry for rewarehouse. 144.41 Section 144.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Rewarehouse Entries § 144.41 Entry for rewarehouse. (a) Applicability. When...

  20. 19 CFR 144.41 - Entry for rewarehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for rewarehouse. 144.41 Section 144.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Rewarehouse Entries § 144.41 Entry for rewarehouse. (a) Applicability. When...

  1. 19 CFR 144.41 - Entry for rewarehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entry for rewarehouse. 144.41 Section 144.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Rewarehouse Entries § 144.41 Entry for rewarehouse. (a) Applicability. When...

  2. 7 CFR 319.24-5 - Condition of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-5 Condition of entry. The corn shall not be removed from the port of entry... Quarantine Programs, that the corn has been properly sterilized and released for entry without further...

  3. 7 CFR 319.24-5 - Condition of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-5 Condition of entry. The corn shall not be removed from the port of entry... Quarantine Programs, that the corn has been properly sterilized and released for entry without further...

  4. 19 CFR 142.44 - Entry number range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entry number range. 142.44 Section 142.44 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.44 Entry number range. After an application for Line Release has received final approval, filers must provide the port director, in writing, with a range of entry numbers...

  5. 19 CFR 151.41 - Information on entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.41 Section 151... Products § 151.41 Information on entry summary. On the entry summary for petroleum or petroleum products in.... If the exact volumetric quantity cannot be determined in advance, the entry summary may be made for...

  6. 1994 Entry-Level Athletic Training Salaries

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Crayton L.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, I examined salaries for entry-level positions in athletic training during the year 1994. An entry-level position was defined as a position to be filled with an athletic trainer certified by the NATA, with no full-time paid employment experience. According to the “Placement Vacancy Notice” (NATA, Dallas, TX) and “BYLINE” (Athletic Trainer Services, Inc, Mt Pleasant, MI), there were 432 entry-level vacancies in hospital/clinics, college/universities, and high school settings. A total of 271 surveys (63%) were returned. Overall, beginning salaries for entry-level athletic training positions were $23,228 (±$3,177) for a bachelor's degree and $25,362 (±$3,883) for a master's degree. A stipend ($4,216 ± $2,039) was included in 86% of the high school positions. The term of contract for high school was usually a 10-month position (10.0 ± .9 months), hospital/clinic, 12-months (11.7 ± .7 months), while the college/university varied from 9 to 12 months (10.5 ± 1.2 months). Also included in the study was fringe benefit information: pension (other than Social Security), life, medical, dental, and vision insurance. Continued studies are recommended to establish salary norms and trends for entry-level positions so that athletic trainers will understand what monetary compensation to expect for their services. PMID:16558367

  7. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  8. 76 FR 8294 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U. S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 141 [USCBP-2008-0062; CBP Dec. 10-34] RIN 1515-AD61 (Formerly 1505-AB96) Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value; Correction AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  9. 19 CFR 141.61 - Completion of entry and entry summary documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on CBP Form 7501. (e) Statistical information—(1) Information required on entry summary or withdrawal... a separate statistical reporting number, the applicable information required by the General Statistical Notes, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS), must be shown on the entry summary...

  10. Hayabusa Re-Entry: Trajectory Analysis and Observation Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Winter, Michael W.; Allen, Gary A.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Antimisiaris, Manny E.; Albers, James; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On June 13th, 2010, the Hayabusa sample return capsule successfully re-entered Earth s atmosphere over the Woomera Prohibited Area in southern Australia in its quest to return fragments from the asteroid 1998 SF36 Itokawa . The sample return capsule entered at a super-orbital velocity of 12.04 km/sec (inertial), making it the second fastest human-made object to traverse the atmosphere. The NASA DC-8 airborne observatory was utilized as an instrument platform to record the luminous portion of the sample return capsule re-entry (60 sec) with a variety of on-board spectroscopic imaging instruments. The predicted sample return capsule s entry state information at 200 km altitude was propagated through the atmosphere to generate aerothermodynamic and trajectory data used for initial observation flight path design and planning. The DC- 8 flight path was designed by considering safety, optimal sample return capsule viewing geometry and aircraft capabilities in concert with key aerothermodynamic events along the predicted trajectory. Subsequent entry state vector updates provided by the Deep Space Network team at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory were analyzed after the planned trajectory correction maneuvers to further refine the DC-8 observation flight path. Primary and alternate observation flight paths were generated during the mission planning phase which required coordination with Australian authorities for pre-mission approval. The final observation flight path was chosen based upon trade-offs between optimal viewing requirements, ground based observer locations (to facilitate post-flight trajectory reconstruction), predicted weather in the Woomera Prohibited Area and constraints imposed by flight path filing deadlines. To facilitate sample return capsule tracking by the instrument operators, a series of two racetrack flight path patterns were performed prior to the observation leg so the instruments could be pointed towards the region in the star background where

  11. Evaluation of Mars Entry Reconstructured Trajectories Based on Hypothetical 'Quick-Look' Entry Navigation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastor, P. Rick; Bishop, Robert H.; Striepe, Scott A.

    2000-01-01

    A first order simulation analysis of the navigation accuracy expected from various Navigation Quick-Look data sets is performed. Here quick-look navigation data are observations obtained by hypothetical telemetried data transmitted on the fly during a Mars probe's atmospheric entry. In this simulation study, navigation data consists of 3-axis accelerometer sensor and attitude information data. Three entry vehicle guidance types are studied: I. a Maneuvering entry vehicle (as with Mars 01 guidance where angle of attack and bank angle are controlled); II. Zero angle-of-attack controlled entry vehicle (as with Mars 98); and III. Ballistic, or spin stabilized entry vehicle (as with Mars Pathfinder);. For each type, sensitivity to progressively under sampled navigation data and inclusion of sensor errors are characterized. Attempts to mitigate the reconstructed trajectory errors, including smoothing, interpolation and changing integrator characteristics are also studied.

  12. Feasibility study of low angle planetary entry. [probe design for Jovian entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a Jovian entry by a probe originally designed for Saturn and Uranus entries is examined. An entry probe is described which is capable of release near an outer planet's sphere of influence and descent to a predetermined target entry point in the planet's atmosphere. The probe is designed so as to survive the trapped particle radiation belts and an entry heating pulse. Data is gathered and relayed to an overflying spacecraft bus during descent. Probe variations for two similar missions are described. In the first flyby of Jupiter by a Pioneer spacecraft launched during the 1979 opportunity is examined parametrically. In the second mission an orbiter based on Pioneer and launched in 1980 is defined in specific terms. The differences rest in the science payloads and directly affected wiring and electronics packages.

  13. Shuttle program. MCC Level C formulation requirements: Entry guidance and entry autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, J. C.; Hill, O.

    1980-01-01

    A set of preliminary entry guidance and autopilot software formulations is presented for use in the Mission Control Center (MCC) entry processor. These software formulations meet all level B requirements. Revision 2 incorporates the modifications required to functionally simulate optimal TAEM targeting capability (OTT). Implementation of this logic in the MCC must be coordinated with flight software OTT implementation and MCC TAEM guidance OTT. The entry guidance logic is based on the Orbiter avionics entry guidance software. This MCC requirements document contains a definition of coordinate systems, a list of parameter definitions for the software formulations, a description of the entry guidance detailed formulation requirements, a description of the detailed autopilot formulation requirements, a description of the targeting routine, and a set of formulation flow charts.

  14. Accreditation of Prior Learning as a Lever for Lifelong Learning: Lessons Learnt from the New Opportunities Initiative, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Roberto, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The New Opportunities Initiative (NOI) is a Portuguese flagship programme to recognise and accredit prior learning (RPL, APL) and to endow low-skilled adults with upper secondary qualifications, which is defined as the minimum entry threshold to the exercise of a full citizenship in a knowledge-rich society. NOI's major achievement has been its…

  15. Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup: 2014 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Legislation passed in 2011 required the Washington Student Achievement Council (WSAC) to convene a Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup. The workgroup was tasked with coordinating and implementing seven goals, described in statute, to promote the award of college credit for prior learning. Awarding college credit for prior learning increases access…

  16. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  17. Incidence and outcome of re-entry injury in redo cardiac surgery: benefits of preoperative planning.

    PubMed

    Imran Hamid, Umar; Digney, Ruairi; Soo, Lorraine; Leung, Samantha; Graham, Alastair N J

    2015-05-01

    Repeat sternotomy for redo cardiac surgery may be associated with catastrophic injuries to mediastinal structures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of these injuries, associated outcome and if a preoperative computerized tomography (CT) scan reduces the risk of re-entry injury. Five hundred and forty-four patients who underwent redo cardiac surgery between 2001 and 2011 were identified by review of our unit's prospectively maintained cardiac surgery database. Demographic details, surgical strategy, re-entry injuries, hospital stay, in-hospital mortality and long-term survival were analysed. The mean age was 61 years; 326 were male, 218 were female. Four hundred and eighty six patients underwent first time redo surgery, while 58 patients had multiple previous operations. The median logistic EuroSCORE was 11, in-hospital mortality rate was 9.5% and observed to expected mortality rate was 0.8. Re-entry complications occurred in 15 cases (2.7%). These included injuries to the aorta (n = 2), right atrium (n = 1), innominate vein (n = 2), internal mammary artery (n = 2), pulmonary artery (n = 2), lung parenchyma (n = 1), saphenous vein graft (n = 2), right ventricle (n = 2) and ventricular fibrillation (n = 1). The mortality rate in patients with re-entry injury was 26% (n = 4) compared with 9% (n = 48) in those without re-entry complications. Preoperative planning by CT scan was performed in 162 cases and adherence of vital structures to the sternum was found in 60 cases; the right ventricle, innominate vein and bypass grafts in 41, 11 and 8, respectively. The incidence rate of re-entry injury was 0.6% in these patients vs 3.6% in those who did not have a preoperative CT scan (P = 0.046). Peripheral arterial cannulation was carried out in 35 patients (6.4%) to establish cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) prior to sternotomy, and there were no mediastinal injuries observed in these cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed re-entry

  18. Minimally Informative Prior Distributions for PSA

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Robert W. Youngblood; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-06-01

    A salient feature of Bayesian inference is its ability to incorporate information from a variety of sources into the inference model, via the prior distribution (hereafter simply “the prior”). However, over-reliance on old information can lead to priors that dominate new data. Some analysts seek to avoid this by trying to work with a minimally informative prior distribution. Another reason for choosing a minimally informative prior is to avoid the often-voiced criticism of subjectivity in the choice of prior. Minimally informative priors fall into two broad classes: 1) so-called noninformative priors, which attempt to be completely objective, in that themore » posterior distribution is determined as completely as possible by the observed data, the most well known example in this class being the Jeffreys prior, and 2) priors that are diffuse over the region where the likelihood function is nonnegligible, but that incorporate some information about the parameters being estimated, such as a mean value. In this paper, we compare four approaches in the second class, with respect to their practical implications for Bayesian inference in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The most commonly used such prior, the so-called constrained noninformative prior, is a special case of the maximum entropy prior. This is formulated as a conjugate distribution for the most commonly encountered aleatory models in PSA, and is correspondingly mathematically convenient; however, it has a relatively light tail and this can cause the posterior mean to be overly influenced by the prior in updates with sparse data. A more informative prior that is capable, in principle, of dealing more effectively with sparse data is a mixture of conjugate priors. A particular diffuse nonconjugate prior, the logistic-normal, is shown to behave similarly for some purposes. Finally, we review the so-called robust prior. Rather than relying on the mathematical abstraction of entropy, as does the

  19. The power prior: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Ming-Hui; Gwon, Yeongjin; Chen, Fang

    2015-12-10

    The power prior has been widely used in many applications covering a large number of disciplines. The power prior is intended to be an informative prior constructed from historical data. It has been used in clinical trials, genetics, health care, psychology, environmental health, engineering, economics, and business. It has also been applied for a wide variety of models and settings, both in the experimental design and analysis contexts. In this review article, we give an A-to-Z exposition of the power prior and its applications to date. We review its theoretical properties, variations in its formulation, statistical contexts for which it has been used, applications, and its advantages over other informative priors. We review models for which it has been used, including generalized linear models, survival models, and random effects models. Statistical areas where the power prior has been used include model selection, experimental design, hierarchical modeling, and conjugate priors. Frequentist properties of power priors in posterior inference are established, and a simulation study is conducted to further examine the empirical performance of the posterior estimates with power priors. Real data analyses are given illustrating the power prior as well as the use of the power prior in the Bayesian design of clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Power Prior: Theory and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Gwon, Yeongjin; Chen, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The power prior has been widely used in many applications covering a large number of disciplines. The power prior is intended to be an informative prior constructed from historical data. It has been used in clinical trials, genetics, health care, psychology, environmental health, engineering, economics, and business. It has also been applied for a wide variety of models and settings, both in the experimental design and analysis contexts. In this review article, we give an A to Z exposition of the power prior and its applications to date. We review its theoretical properties, variations in its formulation, statistical contexts for which it has been used, applications, and its advantages over other informative priors. We review models for which it has been used, including generalized linear models, survival models, and random effects models. Statistical areas where the power prior has been used include model selection, experimental design, hierarchical modeling, and conjugate priors. Prequentist properties of power priors in posterior inference are established and a simulation study is conducted to further examine the empirical performance of the posterior estimates with power priors. Real data analyses are given illustrating the power prior as well as the use of the power prior in the Bayesian design of clinical trials. PMID:26346180

  1. Food Distribution. The Supermarket Entry Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This guide is designed to assist the coordinator of the Marketing and Distributive Education Cooperative Education Program in improving and expanding the instructional activities needed to prepare individuals to function in the food industry's entry-level jobs. The instructional material provides information about what is expected of a student…

  2. Anthropologists and Broadcasting: Roles and Entry Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin

    1976-01-01

    The article describes some of the roles open to anthropologists in radio and television. Entry strategies for occupying these roles include taking the first step in approaching the broadcast station, learning about broadcasting, and communicating anthropology to the broadcasters. (Author/NQ)

  3. Women's Entry into Teaching: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dorothy S.

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the entry of women into the teaching profession in nineteenth-century America, noting that, while the primary motivation for encouraging women to teach was that they could be paid less than men, this economic justification was obscured by sentimental pronouncements about women's superior moral and nurturant power. (SJL)

  4. TEST CELL STUDIES OF RADON ENTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to contrast the effectiveness of slab-in-stem wall (SSW) with floating slab (FS) construction practices, to measure radon transport and entry for model testing, to develop protocols relevant to depressurized radon measurements, and to determine...

  5. Northwest Entry-Level Worker Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas; Cohen, Carolyn

    A survey elicited workers' opinions in five areas: (1) essential skills, attitudes, and behaviors needed on the job by entry-level workers; (2) the purposes, content, and delivery of training needed and desired by workers; (3) productivity; (4) workplace environment; and (5) employee benefits. Information was gathered through written surveys of…

  6. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... aircraft commander or an agent. (b) Place of entry—(1) First landing at international airport. Entry shall be made at the international airport at which first landing is made. (2) First landing at another...

  7. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... aircraft commander or an agent. (b) Place of entry—(1) First landing at international airport. Entry shall be made at the international airport at which first landing is made. (2) First landing at another...

  8. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... aircraft commander or an agent. (b) Place of entry—(1) First landing at international airport. Entry shall be made at the international airport at which first landing is made. (2) First landing at another...

  9. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... aircraft commander or an agent. (b) Place of entry—(1) First landing at international airport. Entry shall be made at the international airport at which first landing is made. (2) First landing at another...

  10. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 170.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS.... (1) After the application of any pesticide on an agricultural establishment, the agricultural... restricted-entry interval specified on the pesticide labeling has expired, except as provided in this section...

  11. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 170.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS.... (1) After the application of any pesticide on an agricultural establishment, the agricultural... restricted-entry interval specified on the pesticide labeling has expired, except as provided in this section...

  12. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 170.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS.... (1) After the application of any pesticide on an agricultural establishment, the agricultural... restricted-entry interval specified on the pesticide labeling has expired, except as provided in this section...

  13. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 170.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS.... (1) After the application of any pesticide on an agricultural establishment, the agricultural... restricted-entry interval specified on the pesticide labeling has expired, except as provided in this section...

  14. Data Entry Operator: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the data entry operator, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in…

  15. Entry inhibitors: New advances in HCV treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xi-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhong-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 3% of the world's population and causes chronic liver diseases, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although current antiviral therapy comprising direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can achieve a quite satisfying sustained virological response (SVR) rate, it is still limited by viral resistance, long treatment duration, combined adverse reactions, and high costs. Moreover, the currently marketed antivirals fail to prevent graft reinfections in HCV patients who receive liver transplantations, probably due to the cell-to-cell transmission of the virus, which is also one of the main reasons behind treatment failure. HCV entry is a highly orchestrated process involving initial attachment and binding, post-binding interactions with host cell factors, internalization, and fusion between the virion and the host cell membrane. Together, these processes provide multiple novel and promising targets for antiviral therapy. Most entry inhibitors target host cell components with high genetic barriers and eliminate viral infection from the very beginning of the viral life cycle. In future, the addition of entry inhibitors to a combination of treatment regimens might optimize and widen the prevention and treatment of HCV infection. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and prospects of the current preclinical and clinical development of antiviral agents targeting HCV entry. PMID:26733381

  16. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  17. Huygens probe entry, descent, and landing trajectory reconstruction using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striepe, Scott Allen

    The objectives of this research were to develop a reconstruction capability using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2), apply this capability to reconstruct the Huygens Titan probe entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory, evaluate the newly developed POST2 reconstruction module, analyze the reconstructed trajectory, and assess the pre-flight simulation models used for Huygens EDL simulation. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) module was developed and integrated into POST2 to enable trajectory reconstruction (especially when using POST2-based mission specific simulations). Several validation cases, ranging from a single, constant parameter estimate to multivariable estimation cases similar to an actual mission flight, were executed to test the POST2 reconstruction module. Trajectory reconstruction of the Huygens entry probe at Titan was accomplished using accelerometer measurements taken during flight to adjust an estimated state (e.g., position, velocity, parachute drag, wind velocity, etc.) in a POST2-based simulation developed to support EDL analyses and design prior to entry. Although the main emphasis of the trajectory reconstruction was to evaluate models used in the NASA pre-entry trajectory simulation, the resulting reconstructed trajectory was also assessed to provide an independent evaluation of the ESA result. Major findings from this analysis include: Altitude profiles from this analysis agree well with other NASA and ESA results but not with Radar data, whereas a scale factor of about 0.93 would bring the radar measurements into compliance with these results; entry capsule aerodynamics predictions (axial component only) were well within 3-sigma bounds established pre-flight for most of the entry when compared to reconstructed values; Main parachute drag of 9% to 19% above ESA model was determined from the reconstructed trajectory; based on the tilt sensor and accelerometer data, the conclusion from this assessment was that the

  18. 19 CFR 10.112 - Filing free entry documents or reduced duty documents after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... entry or within the period for which a bond was filed for its production, but failure to file it was not.... [T.D. 74-227, 39 FR 32015, Sept. 4, 1974] Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and Scientific...

  19. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  20. Analytic Guidance for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic method to generate a reference drag trajectory for the first entry portion of a skip atmospheric entry. The drag reference, expressed as a polynomial function of the velocity, will meet the conditions necessary to fit the requirements of the complete entry phase. The generic method proposed to generate the drag reference profile is further simplified by thinking of the drag and the velocity as density and cumulative distribution functions respectively. With this notion it will be shown that the reference drag profile can be obtained by solving a linear algebraic system of equations. The resulting drag profile is flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. This approach was first proposed as a revisited version of the Space Shuttle Orbiter entry guidance. However, this paper will show that it can be used to fly the first entry in a skip entry trajectory. In doing so, the gains in the error dynamics will be changed at a certain point along the trajectory to improve the tracking performance.

  1. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.806 Animals refused entry. Any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir refused entry into the...

  2. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.806 Animals refused entry. Any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir refused entry into the...

  3. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.806 Animals refused entry. Any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir refused entry into the...

  4. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.806 Animals refused entry. Any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir refused entry into the...

  5. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.806 Animals refused entry. Any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir refused entry into the...

  6. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... all such poultry found to be free from communicable disease and fever tick infestation and not to have..., or infested with fever ticks, shall be refused entry. Poultry refused entry, unless exported within a...

  7. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... all such poultry found to be free from communicable disease and fever tick infestation and not to have..., or infested with fever ticks, shall be refused entry. Poultry refused entry, unless exported within a...

  8. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... all such poultry found to be free from communicable disease and fever tick infestation and not to have..., or infested with fever ticks, shall be refused entry. Poultry refused entry, unless exported within a...

  9. 19 CFR 143.21 - Merchandise eligible for informal entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Informal Entry § 143.21 Merchandise eligible....00, 9810.00.05, HTSUS (19 U.S.C. 1202), imported by a library or other institution described in...

  10. In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.

  11. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is assigned...

  12. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is assigned...

  13. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is assigned...

  14. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is assigned...

  15. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY CONTROL POINT (BLDG. 768) FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY CONTROL POINT (BLDG. 768) FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Entry Control Point, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. FACILITY 810, CORNER ENTRY TO UNIT B, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 810, CORNER ENTRY TO UNIT B, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Duplex Housing Type with Corner Entries, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. FRONT OBLIQUE, WITH ENTRY AND WATER FEATURE TO LEFT, TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT OBLIQUE, WITH ENTRY AND WATER FEATURE TO LEFT, TAKEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Senior Officers' Quarters Type A, 37 Makalapa Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has been installed to prevent entry, view facing north - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Stair and entry room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. Door from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stair and entry room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. Door from entry hall leads to toilets and bathing rooms. A coat and hat rack is on each side of the door. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  20. View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has been installed to prevent entry, view facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 9. INTERIOR, VIEW SHOWING MAIN STAIRWAY AND ENTRY HALL THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR, VIEW SHOWING MAIN STAIRWAY AND ENTRY HALL THROUGH ENTRY INTO PARLOR. TAKEN FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PARLOR, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Farquhar House, 1601 Sandy Spring Road (Route 108), Sandy Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  2. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per...

  3. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per...

  4. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per...

  5. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per...

  6. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per...

  7. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is assigned...

  8. Computer-based physician order entry: the state of the art.

    PubMed Central

    Sittig, D F; Stead, W W

    1994-01-01

    Direct computer-based physician order entry has been the subject of debate for over 20 years. Many sites have implemented systems successfully. Others have failed outright or flirted with disaster, incurring substantial delays, cost overruns, and threatened work actions. The rationale for physician order entry includes process improvement, support of cost-conscious decision making, clinical decision support, and optimization of physicians' time. Barriers to physician order entry result from the changes required in practice patterns, roles within the care team, teaching patterns, and institutional policies. Key ingredients for successful implementation include: the system must be fast and easy to use, the user interface must behave consistently in all situations, the institution must have broad and committed involvement and direction by clinicians prior to implementation, the top leadership of the organization must be committed to the project, and a group of problem solvers and users must meet regularly to work out procedural issues. This article reviews the peer-reviewed scientific literature to present the current state of the art of computer-based physician order entry. PMID:7719793

  9. Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Cantor, Bruce; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Daniel, Jr.; Rafkin, Scot; Chen, Allen; Kass, David; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2013-01-01

    On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, developed by two independent organizations (Oregon State University and the Southwest Research Institute), were validated against observations at Mars from three prior years. In the weeks and days before entry, the MSL "Council of Atmospheres" (CoA), a group of atmospheric scientists and modelers, instrument experts and EDL simulation engineers, evaluated the latest Mars data from orbiting assets including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The observations were compared to the mesoscale models developed for EDL performance simulation to determine if a spacecraft parameter update was necessary prior to entry. This paper summarizes the daily atmosphere observations and comparison to the performance simulation atmosphere models. Options to modify the atmosphere model in the simulation to compensate for atmosphere effects are also presented. Finally, a summary of the CoA decisions and recommendations to the MSL project in the days leading up to EDL is provided.

  10. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  11. Data entry and error embedding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Daniel N. (Inventor); Woo, Jr., John (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A data entry and error embedding system in which, first, a document is bitmapped and recorded in a first memory. Then, it is displayed, and portions of it to be replicated by data entry are underlayed by a window, into which window replicated data is entered in location and size such that it is juxtaposed just below that which is replicated, enhancing the accuracy of replication. Second, with this format in place, selected portions of the replicated data are altered by the insertion of character or word substitutions, thus the embedding of errors. Finally, a proofreader would endeavor to correct the error embedded data and a record of his or her changes recorded. In this manner, the skill level of the proofreader and accuracy of the data are computed.

  12. Plasma entry into the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Both high- and low-altitude measurements are used to establish the salient features of the three regions presently thought to be the best candidates for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere, and hence the primal sources of charged particles for the plasma sheet and its earthward termination in the ring current. These three regions are (1) the polar cusps and their extensions into the nighttime magnetosphere, (2) the downstream flanks of the magnetosphere at geocentric radial distances approximately equal to 10 to 50 earth radii along the plasma sheet-magnetosheath interface, and (3) the distant magnetotail at radial distances greater than or approximately equal to 50 earth radii. Present observational knowledge of each of these regions is discussed critically as to evidences for charged particle entry into the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath. The possibility that all three of these magnetospheric domains share an intimate topological relationship is also examined.

  13. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Rea, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    For Exploration Missions 1 and 2, the Orion capsules will be entering the Earth's atmosphere with speeds in excess of 11 km/s. In the event of a degraded Guidance, Navigation, and Control system, attempting the nominal guided entry may be inadvisable due to the potential for failures that result in a loss of vehicle (or crew, when crew are aboard). In such a case, a method of assuring Earth capture, water landing, and observence of trajectory constraints (heating, loads) is desired. Such a method should also be robust to large state uncertainty and variations in entry interface states. This document will explore four approaches evaluated and their performance in ensuring a safe return of the Orion capsule in the event of onboard system degradation.

  14. Orion Exploration Mission Entry Interface Target Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is required to return to the continental United States at any time during the month. In addition, it is required to provide a survivable entry from a wide range of trans-lunar abort trajectories. The Entry Interface (EI) state must be targeted to ensure that all requirements are met for all possible return scenarios, even in the event of no communication with the Mission Control Center to provide an updated EI target. The challenge then is to functionalize an EI state constraint manifold that can be used in the on-board targeting algorithm, as well as the ground-based trajectory optimization programs. This paper presents the techniques used to define the EI constraint manifold and to functionalize it as a set of polynomials in several dimensions.

  15. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  16. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for Apollo entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, C. A.; Harpold, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The problems encountered and the experience gained in the entry mission plans, flight software, trajectory-monitoring procedures, and backup trajectory-control techniques of the Apollo Program should provide a foundation upon which future spacecraft programs can be developed. Descriptions of these entry activities are presented. Also, to provide additional background information needed for discussion of the Apollo entry experience, descriptions of the entry targeting for the Apollo 11 mission and the postflight analysis of the Apollo 10 mission are presented.

  17. Joint Training In Combined Entry Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY JOINT TRAINING IN COMBINED ENTRY OPERATIONS by Ethan Mitchell, CDR, USN A Research Report Submitted...government. DISTRIBUTION A . Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 2 Biography CDR Ethan Mitchell is assigned to the Air War College...Areas of Responsibility. Ashore, her served in the requirements directorate on the Commander, Second Fleet staff and earned a Master’s of Science

  18. Hypersonic Flight Mechanics. [for atmospheric entry trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, A.; Vinh, N. X.; Culp, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aerodynamic forces on trajectories at orbital speeds are discussed in terms of atmospheric models. The assumptions for the model are spherical symmetry, nonrotating, and an exponential atmosphere. The equations of flight, and the performance in extra-atmospheric flight are discussed along with the return to the atmosphere, and the entry. Solutions of the exact equations using directly matched asymptotic expansions are presented.

  19. Space X1 First Entry Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (m-GSC) was returned aboard Space X1 because of the importance of quickly knowing first-entry conditions in this new commercial module. This sample was analyzed alongside samples of the portable clean room (PCR) used in the Space X complex at KSC. The recoveries of C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 130, 129, and 132 %, respectively.

  20. Prior Prelabor or Intrapartum Cesarean Delivery and Risk of Placenta Previa

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Katheryne L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Albert, Paul S.; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery prior to onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002–2010) with restriction to the first two singleton deliveries of women nulliparous at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as 1) vaginal (reference); 2) cesarean delivery prior to labor onset (prelabor); or 3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by prior delivery mode using logistic regression and adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, co-morbidities, prior pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Results The majority of first deliveries were vaginal (82%, n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%, n=3,931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%, n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by prior delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (P<0.001). Relative to vaginal delivery, prior prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of second delivery previa (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62 [95% confidence interval, 1.24–5.56]). There was no significant association between prior intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa [adjusted odds ratio, 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.68–2.19)]. Conclusion Prior prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a more than two-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, while the approximately 20% increased risk of previa associated with prior intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after prior prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering non-medically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. PMID:25576818

  1. Anxiety, Prior Achievement, and Instructional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund; Redfield, Robert

    The interaction between prior achievement, anxiety, and different instructional treatments were examined. The expectation that there is an inverse relationship between prior achievement and the amount of instructional support required in order to accomplish an objective was tested. A total of 120 subjects (student volunteers from a senior campus…

  2. 34 CFR 642.32 - Prior experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Training Program project under title IV-A-4 of the Higher Education Act within the three fiscal years prior... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior experience. 642.32 Section 642.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION...

  3. Calculus Instructors' Responses to Prior Knowledge Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Jana Renee

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the responses to prior knowledge errors that Calculus I instructors make when assessing students. Prior knowledge is operationalized as any skill or understanding that a student needs to successfully navigate through a Calculus I course. A two part qualitative study consisting of student exams and instructor interviews was…

  4. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  5. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior disclosure. 162.74 Section 162.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.74 Prior...

  6. 7 CFR 550.27 - Prior approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Program Management § 550.27 Prior approvals. (a) The budget is the financial expression of the project or... days prior to award date. All pre-award costs are incurred at the Cooperator's risk (i.e., the REE...

  7. Obstacles to Using Prior Research and Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwin, Robert G.

    1985-01-01

    The manner in which results and methods are reported influences the ability of the synthesis of prior studies for planning new evaluations. Confidence ratings, coding conventions, and supplemental evidence can partially overcome the difficulties. Planners must acknowledge the influence of their own judgement in using prior research. (Author)

  8. Hood entry coefficients of compound exhaust hoods.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Crescente E

    2011-12-01

    A traditional method for assessing the flow rate in ventilation systems is based on multiple readings of velocity or velocity pressure (VP) (usually 10 or 20 points) taken in ductwork sections located away from fittings (> seven × diameters of straight duct). This study seeks to eliminate the need for a multiple-point evaluation and replace it with a simplified method that requires only a single measurement of hood static pressure (SP(h)) taken at a more accessible location (< three × diameters of straight duct from the hood entry). The SP(h) method is widely used for the assessment of flow rate in simple hoods. However, industrial applications quite often use compound hoods that are regularly of the slot/plenum type. For these hoods, a "compound coefficient of entry" has not been published, which makes the use of the hood static pressure method unfeasible. This study proposes a model for the computation of a "compound coefficient of entry" and validates the use of this model to assess flow rate in two systems of well-defined geometry (multi-slotted/plenum and single-slotted/tapered or "fish-tail" types). When using a conservative value of the slot loss factor (1.78), the proposed model yielded an estimate of the volumetric flow rate within 10% of that provided by a more comprehensive method of assessment. The simplicity of the hood static pressure method makes it very desirable, even in the upper range of experimental error found in this study.

  9. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)-driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B.; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)–driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  11. Reference pricing with endogenous generic entry.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Kurt R; Canta, Chiara; Straume, Odd Rune

    2016-12-01

    Reference pricing intends to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures by increasing demand elasticity and stimulating generic competition. We develop a novel model where a brand-name producer competes in prices with several generics producers in a market with brand-biased and brand-neutral consumers. Comparing with coinsurance, we show that reference pricing, contrary to policy makers' intentions, discourages generic entry, as it induces the brand-name producer to price more aggressively. Thus, the net effect of reference pricing on drug prices is ambiguous, implying that reference pricing can be counterproductive in reducing expenditures. However, under price regulation, we show that reference pricing may stimulate generic entry, since a binding price cap weakens the aggressive price response by the brand-name producer. This may explain mixed empirical results on the competitive effects of reference pricing. Finally, we show that reference pricing may be welfare improving when accounting for brand preferences despite its adverse effects on entry and prices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelscher, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

  13. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  14. 19 CFR 143.23 - Form of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Informal Entry § 143.23 Form of entry. Except for the types of... upper right hand corner. (g) Merchandise, regardless of value, which is imported for noncommercial... credit, Customs Form 7501, annotated “informal entry” in the upper right hand corner, and Customs Form...

  15. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Rob

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the entry, descent and landing system of Phoenix is shown. The topics include: 1) Phoenix Mission Goals; 2) Payload; 3) Aeroshell/Entry Comparison; 4) Entry Trajectory Comparison; 5) Phoenix EDL Timeline; 6) Hypersonic Phase; 7) Parachute Phase; 8) Terminal Descent Phase; and 9) EDL Communications.

  16. 30 CFR 842.13 - Right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 842.13 Section 842.13 Mineral... INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL INSPECTIONS AND MONITORING § 842.13 Right of entry. (a) Each... right of entry to, upon, and through any coal exploration or surface coal mining and reclamation...

  17. 30 CFR 721.12 - Right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 721.12 Section 721.12 Mineral... REGULATIONS FEDERAL INSPECTIONS § 721.12 Right of entry. (a) Authorized representatives of the Secretary..., shall have the right of entry to, upon, or through any surface coal mining and reclamation operations or...

  18. Specification for Qualification and Certification for Entry Level Welders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    This document provides a standard that defines the requirements and program for the American Welding Society to certify entry-level welders. The certification of entry-level welders requires performance qualification and practical knowledge tests that require a minimum of reading, computation, and manual skills to complete. The Entry-Level Welder…

  19. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per minute...

  20. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per minute...

  1. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Entry of Material into Official Egg Products Plants § 590.430 Limitation on entry of material. (a) The Administrator shall limit the entry of eggs and egg products and other materials into official plants under such...

  2. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  3. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  4. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  5. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  6. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  7. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the...

  8. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the...

  9. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the...

  10. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the...

  11. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the...

  12. 50 CFR 679.83 - Rockfish Program entry level fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rockfish Program entry level fishery. 679... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Rockfish Program § 679.83 Rockfish Program entry level fishery. (a) Rockfish entry level fishery...

  13. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury securities. Treasury securities are...-entry system is the book-entry system in which Treasury securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or brokerage firms. A Treasury security is...

  14. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury securities. Treasury securities are...-entry system is the book-entry system in which Treasury securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or brokerage firms. A Treasury security is...

  15. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury securities. Treasury securities are...-entry system is the book-entry system in which Treasury securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or brokerage firms. A Treasury security is...

  16. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury securities. Treasury securities are...-entry system is the book-entry system in which Treasury securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or brokerage firms. A Treasury security is...

  17. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Book-entry systems. 357.0 Section 357..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury...

  18. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  19. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  20. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  1. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  2. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  3. DESIGN: a program to create data entry programs

    Treesearch

    J. Michael Wuerth; David R. Weise

    1994-01-01

    Scientific data entry can be an exacting process. The specific information needs change from investigation to investigation. A computer program to design custom data screens is described. The program, DESIGN, generates the necessary C programming language source code to create a basic data entry program. Data entry screens can contain multiple nested screens. Users can...

  4. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Entry of Material into Official Egg Products Plants § 590.430 Limitation on entry of material. (a) The Administrator shall limit the entry of eggs and egg products and other materials into official plants under such...

  5. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 deg Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabu, Dinesh K.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Spilker, Thomas R.; Hwang, Helen H.; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and capsule diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30 is explored with a 3DOF trajectory code, TRAJ. Assuming that the thermal protection material of choice is carbon phenolic of flight heritage, the entry flight path angle space is constrained a posteriori by the mechanical and thermal performance parameters of the material. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load and 10 bar is assumed as the limit for heritage carbon-phenolic material. It is shown that both constraints cannot be active simultaneously. For thermal performance, a heat flux 2.5 kW/sq cm is utilized as a threshold below which the heritage carbon phenolic is considered mass inefficient. Using these constraints, viable entry flight path angle corridors are determined. Analysis of the results also hints at the existence of a range of "critical" ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of 10 bar. The results are verified against known performance of the various probes used in the Pioneer Venus mission. It is anticipated that the results presented here will serve as a baseline in the development of a new class of ablative materials for future Venus missions.

  6. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries.

    PubMed

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E

    2017-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Foster care re-entry: Exploring the role of foster care characteristics, in-home child welfare services and cross-sector services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmoo; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2012-09-01

    This study seeks to advance our understanding of how modifiable and non-modifiable factors may impact the likelihood of re-entry into foster care. Children who entered foster care for the first time following at least one report of maltreatment and were then reunified were followed from exit to re-entry, age 18 or the end of the study period using longitudinal administrative data. Risk of re-entry was explored according to a range of modifiable and non-modifiable case and service characteristics. Children removed from homes with parents who had multiple risk factors (e.g., no high school diploma, mental health diagnosis, criminal record, or teen parents) or were receiving AFDC prior to entry were more likely to re-enter. The receipt of in-home child welfare services during or after foster care was associated with reduced risk of re-entry. Having the longest placement with a relative was associated with decreased risk of re-entry. In conclusion, both modifiable and non-modifiable factors are associated with re-entry into foster care. Among modifiable factors, services appear to have a particularly strong relationship to re-entry. Our data also suggest that in-home child welfare services provided during and after foster care may be associated with improved long-term permanency after return home. Given the continued import of caregiver risk factors even among reunified families, services provided to support reunification should include attention to caregiver needs outside parenting.

  8. Foster care re-entry: Exploring the role of foster care characteristics, in-home child welfare services and cross-sector services☆

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangmoo; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to advance our understanding of how modifiable and non-modifiable factors may impact the likelihood of re-entry into foster care. Children who entered foster care for the first time following at least one report of maltreatment and were then reunified were followed from exit to re-entry, age 18 or the end of the study period using longitudinal administrative data. Risk of re-entry was explored according to a range of modifiable and non-modifiable case and service characteristics. Children removed from homes with parents who had multiple risk factors (e.g., no high school diploma, mental health diagnosis, criminal record, or teen parents) or were receiving AFDC prior to entry were more likely to re-enter. The receipt of in-home child welfare services during or after foster care was associated with reduced risk of re-entry. Having the longest placement with a relative was associated with decreased risk of re-entry. In conclusion, both modifiable and non-modifiable factors are associated with re-entry into foster care. Among modifiable factors, services appear to have a particularly strong relationship to re-entry. Our data also suggest that in-home child welfare services provided during and after foster care may be associated with improved long-term permanency after return home. Given the continued import of caregiver risk factors even among reunified families, services provided to support reunification should include attention to caregiver needs outside parenting. PMID:23729947

  9. Protective Effects of the Launch/Entry Suit (LES) and the Liquid Cooling Garment(LCG) During Re-entry and Landing After Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Sondra A.; Charles, John B.; Fortner, G. William; Hurst, Victor, IV; Meck, Janice V.

    2002-01-01

    Heart rate and arterial pressure were measured during shuttle re-entry, landing and initial standing in crewmembers with and without inflated anti-g suits and with and without liquid cooling garments (LCG). Preflight, three measurements were obtained seated, then standing. Prior to and during re-entry, arterial pressure and heart rate were measured every five minutes until wheels stop (WS). Then crewmembers initiated three seated and three standing measurements. In subjects without inflated anti-g suits, SBP and DBP were significantly lower during preflight standing (P = 0.006; P = 0.001 respectively) and at touchdown (TD) (P = 0.001; P = 0.003 respectively); standing SBP was significantly lower after WS. on-LeG users developed significantly higher heart rates during re-entry (P = 0.029, maxG; P = 0.05, TD; P = 0.02, post-WS seated; P = 0.01, post-WS standing) than LCG users. Our data suggest that the anti-g suit is effective, but the combined anti-g suit with LCG is more effective.

  10. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix lander was launched August 4, 2007 and remained in cruise for ten months before landing in the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. The one-month Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) operations phase prior to entry consisted of daily analyses, meetings, and decisions necessary to determine if trajectory correction maneuvers and environmental parameter updates to the spacecraft were required. An overview of the Phoenix EDL trajectory simulation and analysis that was performed during the EDL approach and operations phase is described in detail. The evolution of the Monte Carlo statistics and footprint ellipse during the final approach phase is also provided. The EDL operations effort accurately delivered the Phoenix lander to the desired landing region on May 25, 2008.

  11. Sodium entry through endothelial store-operated calcium entry channels: regulation by Orai1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ningyong; Cioffi, Donna L.; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Rich, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Orai1 interacts with transient receptor potential protein of the canonical subfamily (TRPC4) and contributes to calcium selectivity of the endothelial cell store-operated calcium entry current (ISOC). Orai1 silencing increases sodium permeability and decreases membrane-associated calcium, although it is not known whether Orai1 is an important determinant of cytosolic sodium transitions. We test the hypothesis that, upon activation of store-operated calcium entry channels, Orai1 is a critical determinant of cytosolic sodium transitions. Activation of store-operated calcium entry channels transiently increased cytosolic calcium and sodium, characteristic of release from an intracellular store. The sodium response occurred more abruptly and returned to baseline more rapidly than did the transient calcium rise. Extracellular choline substitution for sodium did not inhibit the response, although 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and YM-58483 reduced it by ∼50%. After this transient response, cytosolic sodium continued to increase due to influx through activated store-operated calcium entry channels. The magnitude of this sustained increase in cytosolic sodium was greater when experiments were conducted in low extracellular calcium and when Orai1 expression was silenced; these two interventions were not additive, suggesting a common mechanism. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and YM-58483 inhibited the sustained increase in cytosolic sodium, only in the presence of Orai1. These studies demonstrate that sodium permeates activated store-operated calcium entry channels, resulting in an increase in cytosolic sodium; the magnitude of this response is determined by Orai1. PMID:25428882

  12. Determining informative priors for cognitive models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael D; Vanpaemel, Wolf

    2018-02-01

    The development of cognitive models involves the creative scientific formalization of assumptions, based on theory, observation, and other relevant information. In the Bayesian approach to implementing, testing, and using cognitive models, assumptions can influence both the likelihood function of the model, usually corresponding to assumptions about psychological processes, and the prior distribution over model parameters, usually corresponding to assumptions about the psychological variables that influence those processes. The specification of the prior is unique to the Bayesian context, but often raises concerns that lead to the use of vague or non-informative priors in cognitive modeling. Sometimes the concerns stem from philosophical objections, but more often practical difficulties with how priors should be determined are the stumbling block. We survey several sources of information that can help to specify priors for cognitive models, discuss some of the methods by which this information can be formalized in a prior distribution, and identify a number of benefits of including informative priors in cognitive modeling. Our discussion is based on three illustrative cognitive models, involving memory retention, categorization, and decision making.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of prior appropriations water calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Shen, Xiaozhe; Taylor, Garth; Mooney, SiâN.

    2012-06-01

    A spatiotemporal model is developed to examine prior appropriations-based water curtailment in Idaho's Snake River Plain Aquifer. Using a 100 year horizon, prior appropriations-based curtailment supplemented with optimized water use reductions is shown to produce a spatial distribution of water use reductions that differs from that produced by regulatory curtailment based strictly on initial water right assignments. Discounted profits over 100 years of crop production are up to 7% higher when allocation is optimized. Total pumping over 100 years is 0.3%, 3%, and 40% higher under 1, 10, and 100 year prior appropriations-based regulatory curtailment, respectively.

  14. Hepatitis C virus utilizes VLDLR as a novel entry pathway.

    PubMed

    Ujino, Saneyuki; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Hishiki, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Takaku, Hiroshi; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2016-01-05

    Various host factors are involved in the cellular entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition to the factors previously reported, we discovered that the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) mediates HCV entry independent of CD81. Culturing Huh7.5 cells under hypoxic conditions significantly increased HCV entry as a result of the expression of VLDLR, which was not expressed under normoxic conditions in this cell line. Ectopic VLDLR expression conferred susceptibility to HCV entry of CD81-deficient Huh7.5 cells. Additionally, VLDLR-mediated HCV entry was not affected by the knockdown of cellular factors known to act as HCV receptors or HCV entry factors. Because VLDLR is expressed in primary human hepatocytes, our results suggest that VLDLR functions in vivo as an HCV receptor independent of canonical CD81-mediated HCV entry.

  15. Shuttle launched flight tests - Supporting technology for planetary entry missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, H. C.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Siemers, P. M., III; Nachtsheim, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of conducting Space Shuttle-launched earth entry flight tests to enhance the technology base for second generation planetary entry missions is examined. Outer planet entry environments are reviewed, translated into earth entry requirements and used to establish entry test system design and cost characteristics. Entry speeds up to those needed to simulate radiative heating levels of more than 30 kW/sq cm are shown to be possible. A standardized recoverable test bed concept is described that is capable of accommodating a wide range of entry technology experiments. The economic advantage of shared Shuttle launches are shown to be achievable through a test system configured to the volume constraints of a single Spacelab pallet using existing propulsion components.

  16. Poliovirus Cell Entry: Common Structural Themes in Viral Cell Entry Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hogle, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Structural studies of polio- and closely related viruses have provided a series of snapshots along their cell entry pathways. Based on the structures and related kinetic, biochemical, and genetic studies, we have proposed a model for the cell entry pathway for polio- and closely related viruses. In this model a maturation cleavage of a capsid protein precursor locks the virus in a metastable state, and the receptor acts like a transition-state catalyst to overcome an energy barrier and release the mature virion from the metastable state. This initiates a series of conformational changes that allow the virus to attach to membranes, form a pore, and finally release its RNA genome into the cytoplasm. This model has striking parallels with emerging models for the maturation and cell entry of more complex enveloped viruses such as influenza virus and HIV. PMID:12142481

  17. Entry trajectory, entry environment, and analysis of spacecraft motion for the RAM C-3 flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Bowen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The RAM C-3 flight experiment was launched to study the problem of radiofrequency blackout at an entry velocity of 24,300 ft/sec. The flight is described, and data for the entry trajectory and environment, which include the effects of actual temperature measured the day of launch, are presented. An analysis of entry spacecraft motions was performed. This analysis included the determination of wind angles from measured accelerations and estimates of wind angles at high altitudes from gyro-measured rotation rates. The maximum wind angles were found to be less than 5 deg to the point of pitch-roll resonance where the total wind angle increased to 8.5 deg and the roll rate started decreasing. A plausible cause for the decrease in roll rate was shown to be a combination of trim angle and an offset center of gravity.

  18. Evaluation of optimum room entry times for radiation therapists after high energy whole pelvic photon treatments.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lavine; White, Peter; Chan, Edward; Chan, Kim; Ng, Janet; Tam, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Linear accelerators operating at or above 10 MV produce neutrons by photonuclear reactions and induce activation in machine components, which are a source of potential exposure for radiation therapists. This study estimated gamma dose contributions to radiation therapists during high energy, whole pelvic, photon beam treatments and determined the optimum room entry times, in terms of safety of radiation therapists. Two types of technique (anterior-posterior opposing and 3-field technique) were studied. An Elekta Precise treatment system, operating up to 18 MV, was investigated. Measurements with an area monitoring device (a Mini 900R radiation monitor) were performed, to calculate gamma dose rates around the radiotherapy facility. Measurements inside the treatment room were performed when the linear accelerator was in use. The doses received by radiation therapists were estimated, and optimum room entry times were determined. The highest gamma dose rates were approximately 7 μSv/h inside the treatment room, while the doses in the control room were close to background (~0 μSv/h) for all techniques. The highest personal dose received by radiation therapists was estimated at 5 mSv/yr. To optimize protection, radiation therapists should wait for up to11 min after beam-off prior to room entry. The potential risks to radiation therapists with standard safety procedures were well below internationally recommended values, but risks could be further decreased by delaying room entry times. Dependent on the technique used, optimum entry times ranged between 7 to 11 min. A balance between moderate treatment times versus reduction in measured equivalent doses should be considered.

  19. Arcjet Testing of Woven Carbon Cloth for Use on Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; laub, Bernard; Chen, Yih-Kang; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Bittner, M. E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes arcjet testing and analysis that has successfully demonstrated the viability of three dimensional woven carbon cloth for dual use in the Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT). ADEPT is an umbrella-like entry system that is folded for stowage in the launch vehicle s shroud and deployed in space prior to reaching the atmospheric interface. A key feature of the ADEPT concept is its lower ballistic coefficient for delivery of a given payload than those for conventional, rigid body entry systems. The benefits that accrue from the lower ballistic coefficient include factor of ten reductions of deceleration forces and entry heating. The former enables consideration of new classes of scientific instruments for solar system exploration while the latter enables the design of a more efficient thermal protection system. The carbon cloth now base lined for ADEPT has a dual use in that it serves as ADEPT s thermal protection system and as the "skin" that transfers aerodynamic deceleration loads to its umbrella-like substructure. The arcjet testing described in this paper was conducted for some of the higher heating conditions for a future Venus mission using the ADEPT concept, thereby showing that the carbon cloth can perform in a relevant entry environment. The ADEPT project considered the carbon cloth to be mission enabling and was carrying it as a major risk during Fiscal Year 2012. The testing and analysis reported here played a major role in retiring that risk and is highly significant to the success and possible adoption of ADEPT for future NASA missions. Finally, this paper also describes a preliminary engineering level code, based on the arcjet data, that can be used to estimate cloth thickness for future missions using ADEPT and to predict carbon cloth performance in future arcjet tests.

  20. Pinpointing retrovirus entry sites in cells expressing alternatively spliced receptor isoforms by single virus imaging.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Marin, Mariana; Kondo, Naoyuki; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2014-06-16

    The majority of viruses enter host cells via endocytosis. Current knowledge of viral entry pathways is largely based upon infectivity measurements following genetic and/or pharmacological interventions that disrupt vesicular trafficking and maturation. Imaging of single virus entry in living cells provides a powerful means to delineate viral trafficking pathways and entry sites under physiological conditions. Here, we visualized single avian retrovirus co-trafficking with markers for early (Rab5) and late (Rab7) endosomes, acidification of endosomal lumen and the resulting viral fusion measured by the viral content release into the cytoplasm. Virus-carrying vesicles either merged with the existing Rab5-positive early endosomes or slowly accumulated Rab5. The Rab5 recruitment to virus-carrying endosomes correlated with acidification of their lumen. Viral fusion occurred either in early (Rab5-positive) or intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Interestingly, different isoforms of the cognate receptor directed virus entry from distinct endosomes. In cells expressing the transmembrane receptor, viruses preferentially entered and fused with slowly maturing early endosomes prior to accumulation of Rab7. By comparison, in cells expressing the GPI-anchored receptor, viruses entered both slowly and quickly maturing endosomes and fused with early (Rab5-positive) and intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Since the rate of low pH-triggered fusion was independent of the receptor isoform, we concluded that the sites of virus entry are determined by the kinetic competition between endosome maturation and viral fusion. Our findings demonstrate the ability of this retrovirus to enter cells via alternative endocytic pathways and establish infection by releasing its content from distinct endosomal compartments.

  1. Proportion estimation using prior cluster purities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The prior distribution of CLASSY component purities is studied, and this information incorporated into maximum likelihood crop proportion estimators. The method is tested on Transition Year spring small grain segments.

  2. Venus entry probe technology reference mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Atzei, A. C.; Phipps, A.; Mieremet, A.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA's Technology Reference Missions (TRM). TRMs are model science-driven missions that are, although not part of the ESA science programme, able to provide focus to future technology requirements. This is accomplished through the study of several technologically demanding and scientifically meaningful mission concepts, which are strategically chosen to address diverse technological issues. The TRMs complement ESA's current mission specific development programme and allow the ESA Science Directorate to strategically plan the development of technologies that will enable potential future scientific missions. Key technological objectives for future planetary exploration include the use of small orbiters and in-situ probes with highly miniaturized and highly integrated payload suites. The low resource, and therefore low cost, spacecraft allow for a phased strategic approach to planetary exploration. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRM (VEP) is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of the Venusian atmosphere. The mission profile consists of two minisats. The first satellite enters low Venus orbit. This satellite contains a highly integrated remote sensing payload suite primarily dedicated to support the in-situ atmospheric measurements of the aerobot. The second minisat enters deep elliptical orbit, deploys the aerobot, and subsequently operates as a data relay, data processing and overall resource allocation satellite. The micro-aerobot consists of a long-duration balloon that will analyze the Venusian middle cloud layer at an altitude of ˜ 55 km, where the environment is relatively benign (T = 20 C and p = 0.45 bars). The balloon will deploy a swarm of active ballast probes, which determine vertical profiles of selected properties of the lower atmosphere. In this presentation, the mission objectives and profile of the Venus Entry Probe TRM will be given as well as the key technological challenges.

  3. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    PubMed

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  4. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  5. Anatomy of an entry vehicle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Wurster, K. E.; Helms, V. T.; Ashby, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy and evolution of a simple small-scale unmanned entry vehicle is described that is delivered to orbit by the shuttle and entered into the atmosphere from orbit to acquire flight data to improve our knowledge of boundary-layer behavior and evaluate advanced thermal protection systems. The anatomy of the experiment includes the justification for the experiments, instrumentation, configuration, material, and operational needs, and the translation of these needs into a configuration, weight statement, aerodynamics, program cost, and trajectory. Candidates for new instrumentation development are also identified for nonintrusive measurements of the boundary-layer properties.

  6. Entry flight control system downmoding evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    A method to desensitize the entry flight control system to structural vibration feedback which might induce an oscillatory instability is described. Trends in vehicle response and handling characteristics as a function of gain combinations in the FCS forward and rate feedback loops were described as observed in a man-in-the-loop simulation. Among the flight conditions considered are the effects of downmoding with APU failures, off-nominal trajectory conditions, sensed angle of attack errors, the impact on RCS fuel consumption, performance in the presence of aero variations, recovery from large FCS upsets, and default gains.

  7. Aerothermodynamics of blunt body entry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  8. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M

    2018-01-01

    PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image-based and include protein secondary structure, protein-ligand and protein-DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password-protected PDBsum analyses for each. The server is freely accessible to all at: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbsum. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  9. Virion stiffness regulates immature HIV-1 entry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes a protease-mediated maturation process that is required for its infectivity. Little is known about how the physical properties of viral particles change during maturation and how these changes affect the viral lifecycle. Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we previously discovered that HIV undergoes a “stiffness switch”, a dramatic reduction in particle stiffness during maturation that is mediated by the viral Envelope (Env) protein. Results In this study, we show that transmembrane-anchored Env cytoplasmic tail (CT) domain is sufficient to regulate the particle stiffness of immature HIV-1. Using this construct expressed in trans with viral Env lacking the CT domain, we show that increasing particle stiffness reduces viral entry activity in immature virions. A similar effect was also observed for immature HIV-1 pseudovirions containing Env from vesicular stomatitis virus. Conclusions This linkage between particle stiffness and viral entry activity illustrates a novel level of regulation for viral replication, providing the first evidence for a biological role of virion physical properties and suggesting a new inhibitory strategy. PMID:23305456

  10. Cholesterol effectively blocks entry of flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chyan-Jang; Lin, Hui-Ru; Liao, Ching-Len; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2008-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2) are enveloped flaviviruses that enter cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and low pH-triggered membrane fusion and then replicate in intracellular membrane structures. Lipid rafts, cholesterol-enriched lipid-ordered membrane domains, are platforms for a variety of cellular functions. In this study, we found that disruption of lipid raft formation by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or cholesterol chelation with filipin III reduces JEV and DEN-2 infection, mainly at the intracellular replication steps and, to a lesser extent, at viral entry. Using a membrane flotation assay, we found that several flaviviral nonstructural proteins are associated with detergent-resistant membrane structures, indicating that the replication complex of JEV and DEN-2 localizes to the membranes that possess the lipid raft property. Interestingly, we also found that addition of cholesterol readily blocks flaviviral infection, a result that contrasts with previous reports of other viruses, such as Sindbis virus, whose infectivity is enhanced by cholesterol. Cholesterol mainly affected the early step of the flavivirus life cycle, because the presence of cholesterol during viral adsorption greatly blocked JEV and DEN-2 infectivity. Flavirial entry, probably at fusion and RNA uncoating steps, was hindered by cholesterol. Our results thus suggest a stringent requirement for membrane components, especially with respect to the amount of cholesterol, in various steps of the flavivirus life cycle.

  11. Development of Inflatable Entry Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Corliss, James

    2005-01-01

    Achieving the objectives of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration will require the development of new technologies, which will in turn require higher fidelity modeling and analysis techniques, and innovative testing capabilities. Development of entry systems technologies can be especially difficult due to the lack of facilities and resources available to test these new technologies in mission relevant environments. This paper discusses the technology development process to bring inflatable aeroshell technology from Technology Readiness Level 2 (TRL-2) to TRL-7. This paper focuses mainly on two projects: Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE), and Inflatable Aeroshell and Thermal Protection System Development (IATD). The objectives of IRVE are to conduct an inflatable aeroshell flight test that demonstrates exoatmospheric deployment and inflation, reentry survivability and stability, and predictable drag performance. IATD will continue the development of the technology by conducting exploration specific trade studies and feeding forward those results into three more flight tests. Through an examination of these projects, and other potential projects, this paper discusses some of the risks, issues, and unexpected benefits associated with the development of inflatable entry systems technology.

  12. Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Entry Navigation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Spencer, D. A.; Kallemeyn, P. H.; Vaughan, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    On July 4, 1997, after traveling close to 500 million km, the Pathfinder spacecraft successfully completed entry, descent, and landing, coming to rest on the surface of Mars just 27 km from its target point. In the present paper, the atmospheric entry and approach navigation activities required in support of this mission are discussed. In particular, the flight software parameter update and landing site prediction analyses performed by the Pathfinder operations navigation team are described. A suite of simulation tools developed during Pathfinder's design cycle, but extendible to Pathfinder operations, are also presented. Data regarding the accuracy of the primary parachute deployment algorithm is extracted from the Pathfinder flight data, demonstrating that this algorithm performed as predicted. The increased probability of mission success through the software parameter update process is discussed. This paper also demonstrates the importance of modeling atmospheric flight uncertainties in the estimation of an accurate landing site. With these atmospheric effects included, the final landed ellipse prediction differs from the post-flight determined landing site by less then 0.5 km in downtrack.

  13. Envelope Protein Dynamics in Paramyxovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Plattet, Philippe; Plemper, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxoviruses include major pathogens with significant global health and economic impact. This large family of enveloped RNA viruses infects cells by employing two surface glycoproteins that tightly cooperate to fuse their lipid envelopes with the target cell plasma membrane, an attachment and a fusion (F) protein. Membrane fusion is believed to depend on receptor-induced conformational changes within the attachment protein that lead to the activation and subsequent refolding of F. While structural and mechanistic studies have considerably advanced our insight into paramyxovirus cell adhesion and the structural basis of F refolding, how precisely the attachment protein links receptor engagement to F triggering remained poorly understood. Recent reports based on work with several paramyxovirus family members have transformed our understanding of the triggering mechanism of the membrane fusion machinery. Here, we review these recent findings, which (i) offer a broader mechanistic understanding of the paramyxovirus cell entry system, (ii) illuminate key similarities and differences between entry strategies of different paramyxovirus family members, and (iii) suggest new strategies for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:23820396

  14. Envelope protein dynamics in paramyxovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Plattet, Philippe; Plemper, Richard K

    2013-07-02

    Paramyxoviruses include major pathogens with significant global health and economic impact. This large family of enveloped RNA viruses infects cells by employing two surface glycoproteins that tightly cooperate to fuse their lipid envelopes with the target cell plasma membrane, an attachment and a fusion (F) protein. Membrane fusion is believed to depend on receptor-induced conformational changes within the attachment protein that lead to the activation and subsequent refolding of F. While structural and mechanistic studies have considerably advanced our insight into paramyxovirus cell adhesion and the structural basis of F refolding, how precisely the attachment protein links receptor engagement to F triggering remained poorly understood. Recent reports based on work with several paramyxovirus family members have transformed our understanding of the triggering mechanism of the membrane fusion machinery. Here, we review these recent findings, which (i) offer a broader mechanistic understanding of the paramyxovirus cell entry system, (ii) illuminate key similarities and differences between entry strategies of different paramyxovirus family members, and (iii) suggest new strategies for the development of novel therapeutics.

  15. A Fast Code for Jupiter Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael E.; Wercinski, Paul; Yang, Lily; Chen, Yih-Kanq; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A fast code was developed to calculate the forebody heating environment and heat shielding that is required for Jupiter atmospheric entry probes. A carbon phenolic heat shield material was assumed and, since computational efficiency was a major goal, analytic expressions were used, primarily, to calculate the heating, ablation and the required insulation. The code was verified by comparison with flight measurements from the Galileo probe's entry; the calculation required 3.5 sec of CPU time on a work station. The computed surface recessions from ablation were compared with the flight values at six body stations. The average, absolute, predicted difference in the recession was 12.5% too high. The forebody's mass loss was overpredicted by 5.5% and the heat shield mass was calculated to be 15% less than the probe's actual heat shield. However, the calculated heat shield mass did not include contingencies for the various uncertainties that must be considered in the design of probes. Therefore, the agreement with the Galileo probe's values was considered satisfactory, especially in view of the code's fast running time and the methods' approximations.

  16. Meteor Entry and Breakup Based on Evolution of NASAs Entry Capsule Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabku, Dinesh K.; Saunders, D.; Stern, E.; Chen, Y.-K.; Allen, G.; Agrawal, P.; Jaffe, R.; White, S.; Tauber, M.; Bauschlicher, C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Physics of atmospheric entry of meteoroids was an active area of research at NASA ARC up to the early 1970s (e.g., the oft-cited work of Baldwin and Sheaffer). However, research in the area seems to have ended with the Apollo program, and any ties with an active international meteor physics community seem to have significantly diminished thereafter. In the decades following the 1970s, the focus of entry physics at NASA ARC has been on improvement of the math models of shock-layer physics (especially in chemical kinetics and radiation) and thermal response of ablative materials used for capsule heatshields. With the overarching objectives of understanding energy deposition into the atmosphere and fragmentation, could these modern analysis tools and processes be applied to the problem of atmospheric entry of meteoroids as well? In the presentation we will explore: (i) the physics of atmospheric entries of meteoroids using our current state-of-the-art tools and processes, (ii) the influence of shape (and shape change) on flow characteristics, and (iii) how multiple bodies interact.

  17. 75 FR 82241 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... manner by which the declared transaction value on imported merchandise was determined. This requirement... whether the transaction value of imported merchandise is determined on the basis of the price paid by the...

  18. Simulation of launch and re-entry acceleration profiles for testing of shuttle and unmanned microgravity research payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanto, J. M.; Ziserman, H. I.; Chapman, D. K.; Korszun, Z. R.; Todd, P.

    Microgravity experiments designed for execution in Get-Away Special canisters, Hitchhiker modules, and Reusable Re-entry Satellites will be subjected to launch and re-entry accelerations. Crew-dependent provisions for preventing acceleration damage to equipment or products will not be available for these payloads during flight; therefore, the effects of launch and re-entry accelerations on all aspects of such payloads must be evaluated prior to flight. A procedure was developed for conveniently simulating the launch and re-entry acceleration profiles of the Space Shuttle (3.3 and 1.7 × g maximum, respectively) and of two versions of NASA's proposed materials research Re-usable Re-entry Satellite (8 × g maximum in one case and 4 × g in the other). By using the 7 m centrifuge of the Gravitational Plant Physiology Laboratory in Philadelphia it was found possible to simulate the time dependence of these 5 different acceleration episodes for payload masses up to 59 kg. A commercial low-cost payload device, the “Materials Dispersion Apparatus” of Instrumentation Technology Associates was tested for (1) integrity of mechanical function, (2) retention of fluid in its compartments, and (3) integrity of products under simulated re-entry g-loads. In particular, the sharp rise from 1 g to maximum g-loading that occurs during re-entry in various unmanned vehicles was successfully simulated, conditions were established for reliable functioning of the MDA, and crystals of 5 proteins suspended in compartments filled with mother liquor were subjected to this acceleration load.

  19. Analytic Development of a Reference Profile for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This note shows that a feasible reference drag profile for the first entry portion of a skip entry can be generated as a polynomial expression of the velocity. The coefficients of that polynomial are found through the resolution of a system composed of m + 1 equations, where m is the degree of the drag polynomial. It has been shown that a minimum of five equations (m = 4) are required to establish the range and the initial and final conditions on velocity and flight path angle. It has been shown that at least one constraint on the trajectory can be imposed through the addition of one extra equation in the system, which must be accompanied by the increase in the degree of the drag polynomial. In order to simplify the resolution of the system of equations, the drag was considered as being a probability density function of the velocity, with the velocity as a distribution function of the drag. Combining this notion with the introduction of empirically derived constants, it has been shown that the system of equations required to generate the drag profile can be successfully reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. For completeness, the resulting drag profiles have been flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as a guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. Satisfactory results were achieved when the gains in the error dynamics were changed at a certain point along the trajectory that is dependent on the velocity and the curvature of the drag as a function of the velocity. Future work should study the capacity to update the drag profile in flight when dispersions are introduced. Also, future studies should attempt to link the first entry, as presented and controlled in this note, with a more standard control concept for the second entry, such as the Apollo entry guidance, to try to assess the overall skip entry performance. A guidance law that includes

  20. Heuristics as Bayesian inference under extreme priors.

    PubMed

    Parpart, Paula; Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C

    2018-05-01

    Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information. In contrast, we show at the computational level (where algorithmic restrictions are set aside) that it is never optimal to discard information. Through a formal Bayesian analysis, we prove that popular heuristics, such as tallying and take-the-best, are formally equivalent to Bayesian inference under the limit of infinitely strong priors. Varying the strength of the prior yields a continuum of Bayesian models with the heuristics at one end and ordinary regression at the other. Critically, intermediate models perform better across all our simulations, suggesting that down-weighting information with the appropriate prior is preferable to entirely ignoring it. Rather than because of their simplicity, our analyses suggest heuristics perform well because they implement strong priors that approximate the actual structure of the environment. We end by considering how new heuristics could be derived by infinitely strengthening the priors of other Bayesian models. These formal results have implications for work in psychology, machine learning and economics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. External Prior Guided Internal Prior Learning for Real-World Noisy Image Denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2018-06-01

    Most of existing image denoising methods learn image priors from either external data or the noisy image itself to remove noise. However, priors learned from external data may not be adaptive to the image to be denoised, while priors learned from the given noisy image may not be accurate due to the interference of corrupted noise. Meanwhile, the noise in real-world noisy images is very complex, which is hard to be described by simple distributions such as Gaussian distribution, making real noisy image denoising a very challenging problem. We propose to exploit the information in both external data and the given noisy image, and develop an external prior guided internal prior learning method for real noisy image denoising. We first learn external priors from an independent set of clean natural images. With the aid of learned external priors, we then learn internal priors from the given noisy image to refine the prior model. The external and internal priors are formulated as a set of orthogonal dictionaries to efficiently reconstruct the desired image. Extensive experiments are performed on several real noisy image datasets. The proposed method demonstrates highly competitive denoising performance, outperforming state-of-the-art denoising methods including those designed for real noisy images.

  2. Addressing potential prior-data conflict when using informative priors in proof-of-concept studies.

    PubMed

    Mutsvari, Timothy; Tytgat, Dominique; Walley, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian methods are increasingly used in proof-of-concept studies. An important benefit of these methods is the potential to use informative priors, thereby reducing sample size. This is particularly relevant for treatment arms where there is a substantial amount of historical information such as placebo and active comparators. One issue with using an informative prior is the possibility of a mismatch between the informative prior and the observed data, referred to as prior-data conflict. We focus on two methods for dealing with this: a testing approach and a mixture prior approach. The testing approach assesses prior-data conflict by comparing the observed data to the prior predictive distribution and resorting to a non-informative prior if prior-data conflict is declared. The mixture prior approach uses a prior with a precise and diffuse component. We assess these approaches for the normal case via simulation and show they have some attractive features as compared with the standard one-component informative prior. For example, when the discrepancy between the prior and the data is sufficiently marked, and intuitively, one feels less certain about the results, both the testing and mixture approaches typically yield wider posterior-credible intervals than when there is no discrepancy. In contrast, when there is no discrepancy, the results of these approaches are typically similar to the standard approach. Whilst for any specific study, the operating characteristics of any selected approach should be assessed and agreed at the design stage; we believe these two approaches are each worthy of consideration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Hemagglutinin of Bat-Associated Influenza Viruses Is Activated by TMPRSS2 for pH-Dependent Entry into Bat but Not Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Markus; Krüger, Nadine; Zmora, Pawel; Wrensch, Florian; Herrler, Georg; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    New World bats have recently been discovered to harbor influenza A virus (FLUAV)-related viruses, termed bat-associated influenza A-like viruses (batFLUAV). The internal proteins of batFLUAV are functional in mammalian cells. In contrast, no biological functionality could be demonstrated for the surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)-like (HAL) and neuraminidase (NA)-like (NAL), and these proteins need to be replaced by their human counterparts to allow spread of batFLUAV in human cells. Here, we employed rhabdoviral vectors to study the role of HAL and NAL in viral entry. Vectors pseudotyped with batFLUAV-HAL and -NAL were able to enter bat cells but not cells from other mammalian species. Host cell entry was mediated by HAL and was dependent on prior proteolytic activation of HAL and endosomal low pH. In contrast, sialic acids were dispensable for HAL-driven entry. Finally, the type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was able to activate HAL for cell entry indicating that batFLUAV can utilize human proteases for HAL activation. Collectively, these results identify viral and cellular factors governing host cell entry driven by batFLUAV surface proteins. They suggest that the absence of a functional receptor precludes entry of batFLUAV into human cells while other prerequisites for entry, HAL activation and protonation, are met in target cells of human origin. PMID:27028521

  4. Study of advanced atmospheric entry systems for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Entry system designs are described for various advanced Mars missions including sample return, hard lander, and Mars airplane. The Mars exploration systems for sample return and the hard lander require decleration from direct approach entry velocities of about 6 km/s to terminal velocities consistent with surface landing requirements. The Mars airplane entry system is decelerated from orbit at 4.6 km/s to deployment near the surface. Mass performance characteristics of major elements of the Mass performance characteristics are estimated for the major elements of the required entry systems using Viking technology or logical extensions of technology in order to provide a common basis of comparison for the three entry modes mission mode approaches. The entry systems, although not optimized, are based on Viking designs and reflect current hardware performance capability and realistic mass relationships.

  5. Mid-L/D Lifting Body Entry Demise Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The mid-lift-to-drag ratio (mid-L/D) lifting body is a fully autonomous spacecraft under design at NASA for enabling a rapid return of scientific payloads from the International Space Station (ISS). For contingency planning and risk assessment for the Earth-return trajectory, an entry demise analysis was performed to examine three potential failure scenarios: (1) nominal entry interface conditions with loss of control, (2) controlled entry at maximum flight path angle, and (3) controlled entry at minimum flight path angle. The objectives of the analysis were to predict the spacecraft breakup sequence and timeline, determine debris survival, and calculate the debris dispersion footprint. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of the initial pitch rate on the spacecraft stability and breakup during the entry. This report describes the mid-L/D lifting body and presents the results of the entry demise and sensitivity analyses.

  6. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5–4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This study describes the PRIOR setup as well asmore » the results of the first static and dynamic protonradiography experiments performed at GSI.« less

  7. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    DOE PAGES

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.; ...

    2016-02-18

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5–4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This study describes the PRIOR setup as well asmore » the results of the first static and dynamic protonradiography experiments performed at GSI.« less

  8. The Interpretation of a Knowledge Claim in the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and the Impact of This on RPL Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Frederika

    2014-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is: what does a knowledge claim consist of in the context of the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)? The research comprises a case study of RPL applicants' entry into a postgraduate diploma (a fourth-year programme) in project management. The focus is on the knowledge claims made as part of the RPL application…

  9. Orbiter Return-To-Flight Entry Aeroheating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Anderson, Brian; Bourland, Gary; Bouslog, Stan; Cassady, Amy; Horvath, Tom; Berry, Scott A.; Gnoffo, Peter; Wood, Bill; Reuther, James; hide

    2006-01-01

    The Columbia accident on February 1, 2003 began an unprecedented level of effort within the hypersonic aerothermodynamic community to support the Space Shuttle Program. During the approximately six month time frame of the primary Columbia Accident Investigation Board activity, many technical disciplines were involved in a concerted effort to reconstruct the last moments of the Columbia and her crew, and understand the critical events that led to that loss. Significant contributions to the CAIB activity were made by the hypersonic aerothermodynamic community(REF CAIB) in understanding the re-entry environments that led to the propagation of an ascent foam induced wing leading edge damage to a subsequent breech of the wing spar of Columbia, and the subsequent breakup of the vehicle. A core of the NASA hypersonic aerothermodynamics team that was involved in the CAIB investigation has been combined with the United Space Alliance and Boeing Orbiter engineering team in order to position the Space Shuttle Program with a process to perform in-flight Thermal Protection System damage assessments. This damage assessment process is now part of the baselined plan for Shuttle support, and is a direct out-growth of the Columbia accident and NASAs response. Multiple re-entry aeroheating tools are involved in this damage assessment process, many of which have been developed during the Return To Flight activity. In addition, because these aeroheating tools are part of an overall damage assessment process that also involves the thermal and stress analyses community, in addition to a much broader mission support team, an integrated process for performing the damage assessment activities has been developed by the Space Shuttle Program and the Orbiter engineering community. Several subsets of activity in the Orbiter aeroheating communities support to the Return To Flight effort have been described in previous publications (CFD?, Cavity Heating? Any BLT? Grid Generation?). This work will

  10. Public Risk Assessment of Off-Nominal Genesis Entries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.; Kadwa, Binaifer

    2006-01-01

    Public risk estimations were among the preparations for the entry of the Genesis sample return capsule. Personnel at the Johnson Space Center were requested to provide estimates of the public risk of off-nominal entries. These scenarios dealt with an incomplete trajectory maneuver that would result in the capsule landing outside of the controlled Utah Test and Training Range. Using a conservative approach to the inputs and assumptions, such off-nominal entries were demonstrated to fall within the project risk limits.

  11. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SHOWING PRINCIPAL, EAST, ENTRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SHOWING PRINCIPAL, EAST, ENTRY. VIEW TO WEST. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Administration Building, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Expectations among the elderly about nursing home entry.

    PubMed

    Lindrooth, R C; Hoerger, T J; Norton, E C

    2000-12-01

    To assess whether the covariates that explain expectations of nursing home entry are consistent with the characteristics of those who enter nursing homes. Waves 1 and 2 of the Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey. We model expectations about nursing home entry as a function of expectations about leaving a bequest, living at least ten years, health condition, and other observed characteristics. We use an instrumental variables and generalized least squares (IV-GLS) method based on Hausman and Taylor (1981) to obtain more efficient estimates than fixed effects, without the restrictive assumptions of random effects. Expectations about nursing home entry are reasonably close to the actual probability of nursing home entry. Most of the variables that affect actual entry also have significant effects on expectations about entry. Medicaid subsidies for nursing home care may have little effect on expectations about nursing home entry; individuals in the lowest asset quartile, who are most likely to receive these subsidies, report probabilities not significantly different from those in other quartiles. Application of the IV-GLS approach is supported by a series of specification tests. We find that expectations about future nursing home entry are consistent with the characteristics of actual entrants. Underestimation of risk of nursing home entry as a reason for low levels of long-term care insurance is not supported by this analysis.

  13. Expectations among the elderly about nursing home entry.

    PubMed Central

    Lindrooth, R C; Hoerger, T J; Norton, E C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the covariates that explain expectations of nursing home entry are consistent with the characteristics of those who enter nursing homes. DATA SOURCES: Waves 1 and 2 of the Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey. STUDY DESIGN: We model expectations about nursing home entry as a function of expectations about leaving a bequest, living at least ten years, health condition, and other observed characteristics. We use an instrumental variables and generalized least squares (IV-GLS) method based on Hausman and Taylor (1981) to obtain more efficient estimates than fixed effects, without the restrictive assumptions of random effects. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expectations about nursing home entry are reasonably close to the actual probability of nursing home entry. Most of the variables that affect actual entry also have significant effects on expectations about entry. Medicaid subsidies for nursing home care may have little effect on expectations about nursing home entry; individuals in the lowest asset quartile, who are most likely to receive these subsidies, report probabilities not significantly different from those in other quartiles. Application of the IV-GLS approach is supported by a series of specification tests. CONCLUSIONS: We find that expectations about future nursing home entry are consistent with the characteristics of actual entrants. Underestimation of risk of nursing home entry as a reason for low levels of long-term care insurance is not supported by this analysis. PMID:11130816

  14. Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Direct-to-Earth Communications with Mars Science Laboratory During Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Fort, David; Schratz, Brian; Ilott, Peter; Mukai, Ryan; Estabrook, Polly; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kahan, Daniel; Satorius, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) undergoes extreme heating and acceleration during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) on Mars. Unknown dynamics lead to large Doppler shifts, making communication challenging. During EDL, a special form of Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) communication is used for Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication. The X-band signal is received by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at the Canberra Deep Space Communication complex, then down-converted, digitized, and recorded by open-loop Radio Science Receivers (RSR), and decoded in real-time by the EDL Data Analysis (EDA) System. The EDA uses lock states with configurable Fast Fourier Transforms to acquire and track the signal. RSR configuration and channel allocation is shown. Testing prior to EDL is discussed including software simulations, test bed runs with MSL flight hardware, and the in-flight end-to-end test. EDA configuration parameters and signal dynamics during pre-entry, entry, and parachute deployment are analyzed. RSR and EDA performance during MSL EDL is evaluated, including performance using a single 70-meter DSN antenna and an array of two 34-meter DSN antennas as a back up to the 70-meter antenna.

  16. Facilitating treatment entry among out-of-treatment injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, R E; Kwiatkowski, C; Iguchi, M Y; Pinto, F; John, D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High risk injection practices are common among injecting drug users (IDUs), even following intervention efforts. Moreover, relapse to risk behaviors has been reported among those who initiate risk reduction. Substance abuse treatment offers the potential to reduce or eliminate injecting risk behaviors through drug cessation. We report on the effectiveness of two intervention strategies in facilitating treatment entry among out-of-treatment IDUs: motivational interviewing (MI), and intervention developed to help individuals resolve their ambivalence about behavior change, and free treatment for 90 days. These conditions were compared with an intervention focusing on a hierarchy of safer injecting practice, referred to here as risk reduction (RR), and no free treatment. METHODS: Nearly 200 out-of-treatment IDUs were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: MI/free treatment, MI/no free treatment, RR/free treatment, and RR/no free treatment. Regardless of assignment, we assisted anyone desiring treatment by calling to schedule the appointment, providing transportation, and waiving the intake fee. RESULTS: Overall, 42% of study participants entered treatment. No significant differences were found between MI and RR; however, 52% of those assigned free treatment entered compare with 32% for those who had to pay. Other predictors of treatment entry included prior treatment experiences, perceived chance of contracting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) greater than 50%, "determination" stage of change, greater frequency of heroin injecting, and fewer drug-using friends. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the importance of removing barriers to treatment entry. PMID:9722817

  17. Convolutional code performance in planetary entry channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modestino, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The planetary entry channel is modeled for communication purposes representing turbulent atmospheric scattering effects. The performance of short and long constraint length convolutional codes is investigated in conjunction with coherent BPSK modulation and Viterbi maximum likelihood decoding. Algorithms for sequential decoding are studied in terms of computation and/or storage requirements as a function of the fading channel parameters. The performance of the coded coherent BPSK system is compared with the coded incoherent MFSK system. Results indicate that: some degree of interleaving is required to combat time correlated fading of channel; only modest amounts of interleaving are required to approach performance of memoryless channel; additional propagational results are required on the phase perturbation process; and the incoherent MFSK system is superior when phase tracking errors are considered.

  18. Stardust Hypervelocity Entry Observing Campaign Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontinos, Dean A.; Jordan, David E.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the early morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) successfully delivered its precious cargo of cometary particles to the awaiting recovery team at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). As the SRC entered at 12.8 km/s, the fastest manmade object to traverse the atmosphere, a team of researchers imaged the event aboard the NASA DC-8 airborne observatory. At SRC entry, the airplane was at an altitude of 11.9 km positioned within 6.4 km of the prescribed, preferred target view location. The incoming SRC was first acquired approximately 18 seconds (s) after atmospheric interface and tracked for approximately 60 s, an observation period that is roughly centered in time around predicted peak heating.

  19. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, E.; Ellerby, D.; Stackpoole, M..; Peterson, K.; Gage, P.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Chinnapongse, R.; Dillman, R.; Feldman, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Technology (HEEET) project is based on the 3-D Woven TPS, an emerging innovative and game changing technology funded by SMD and STMD to fill the ablative TPS gap that exists currently for reaching the depths of Saturn and Venus. Woven TPS technology will address the challenges currently faced by the Venus, Saturn, and higher speed sample return mission Science community due to lack of availability of the only TPS, namely Carbon Phenolic and enable the Science community to move forward with proposals in this decade with Woven TPS. This presentation describes the approach in maturing the technology in the next three years enabling NF-4 mission proposers to address the challenges of Venus, Saturn or higher speed sample return missions.

  20. Regulated portals of entry into the cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Sean D.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2003-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. `Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.

  1. Space shuttle entry and landing navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Crawford, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    A navigation system for the entry phase of a Space Shuttle mission which is an aided-inertial system which uses a Kalman filter to mix IMU data with data derived from external navigation aids is evaluated. A drag pseudo-measurement used during radio blackout is treated as an additional external aid. A comprehensive truth model with 101 states is formulated and used to generate detailed error budgets at several significant time points -- end-of-blackout, start of final approach, over runway threshold, and touchdown. Sensitivity curves illustrating the effect of variations in the size of individual error sources on navigation accuracy are presented. The sensitivity of the navigation system performance to filter modifications is analyzed. The projected overall performance is shown in the form of time histories of position and velocity error components. The detailed results are summarized and interpreted, and suggestions are made concerning possible software improvements.

  2. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Satoru; Rata, Scott; Hino, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Takeharu; Novák, Béla

    2016-12-19

    The abrupt and irreversible transition from interphase to M phase is essential to separate DNA replication from chromosome segregation. This transition requires the switch-like phosphorylation of hundreds of proteins by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B (CycB) complex. Previous studies have ascribed these switch-like phosphorylations to the auto-activation of Cdk1:CycB through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on Cdk1-Tyr15 [1, 2]. The positive feedback in Cdk1 activation creates a bistable switch that makes mitotic commitment irreversible [2-4]. Here, we surprisingly find that Cdk1 auto-activation is dispensable for irreversible, switch-like mitotic entry due to a second mechanism, whereby Cdk1:CycB inhibits its counteracting phosphatase (PP2A:B55). We show that the PP2A:B55-inhibiting Greatwall (Gwl)-endosulfine (ENSA) pathway is both necessary and sufficient for switch-like phosphorylations of mitotic substrates. Using purified components of the Gwl-ENSA pathway in a reconstituted system, we found a sharp Cdk1 threshold for phosphorylation of a luminescent mitotic substrate. The Cdk1 threshold to induce mitotic phosphorylation is distinctly higher than the Cdk1 threshold required to maintain these phosphorylations-evidence for bistability. A combination of mathematical modeling and biochemical reconstitution show that the bistable behavior of the Gwl-ENSA pathway emerges from its mutual antagonism with PP2A:B55. Our results demonstrate that two interlinked bistable mechanisms provide a robust solution for irreversible and switch-like mitotic entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Hera Saturn entry probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Frampton, R.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hueso, R.; Amato, M. J.; Colaprete, A.; Ferri, F.; Stam, D.; Wurz, P.; Atreya, S.; Aslam, S.; Banfield, D. J.; Calcutt, S.; Fischer, G.; Holland, A.; Keller, C.; Kessler, E.; Leese, M.; Levacher, P.; Morse, A.; Muñoz, O.; Renard, J.-B.; Sheridan, S.; Schmider, F.-X.; Snik, F.; Waite, J. H.; Bird, M.; Cavalié, T.; Deleuil, M.; Fortney, J.; Gautier, D.; Guillot, T.; Lunine, J. I.; Marty, B.; Nixon, C.; Orton, G. S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M-class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and evolution of Saturn, the giant planets and their satellite systems, with extrapolation to extrasolar planets. Hera's aim is to probe well into the cloud-forming region of the troposphere, below the region accessible to remote sensing, to the locations where certain cosmogenically abundant species are expected to be well mixed. By leading to an improved understanding of the processes by which giant planets formed, including the composition and properties of the local solar nebula at the time and location of giant planet formation, Hera will extend the legacy of the Galileo and Cassini missions by further addressing the creation, formation, and chemical, dynamical, and thermal evolution of the giant planets, the entire solar system including Earth and the other terrestrial planets, and formation of other planetary systems.

  4. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  5. Understanding the Complexities of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the kinds of prior knowledge students bring with them from high school as it relates to the conventions of writing that they are expected to follow in ARTS 1110 Introduction to University. The research questions were "Can first-year students taking the Arts 1110 Introduction to…

  6. Recognition of Prior Learning: The Participants' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Marta C.; Ornelas, José H.; Maroco, João P.

    2016-01-01

    The current narrative on lifelong learning goes beyond formal education and training, including learning at work, in the family and in the community. Recognition of prior learning is a process of evaluation of those skills and knowledge acquired through life experience, allowing them to be formally recognized by the qualification systems. It is a…

  7. 22 CFR 129.8 - Prior notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior notification. 129.8 Section 129.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS REGISTRATION AND LICENSING OF...,000, except for sharing of basic marketing information (e.g., information that does not include...

  8. Predicting sex offender treatment entry among individuals convicted of sexual offense crimes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicole; Pelissier, Bernadette; Klein-Saffran, Jody

    2006-01-01

    This study examined what factors were predictive of who volunteers for sex offender treatment (self-selection) as well as who enters treatment after volunteering (administration selection). Research participants included 404 treatment volunteers and 387 nonvolunteers to treatment who were convicted of a sexual offense involving minors within the federal prison system. Maximum likelihood probit estimation procedures indicated that when compared with nonvolunteers, treatment volunteers were more likely to be recommended by a judge to receive treatment at the time of sentencing, had received prior treatment for sexually deviant behavior, reported higher levels of motivation to change their sexually deviant behavior, and had lower rates of a substance use disorder in the year prior to incarceration. Of those persons who initially volunteered, 62% were accepted and entered treatment, 16% were denied entry to treatment by program staff, and 22% refused treatment after being accepted to the waiting list. When compared with those who were accepted and entered treatment, motivation was the only predictor of being denied admission into treatment by program staff and for refusal of treatment once accepted. The findings emphasize the need to control for selection bias in treatment outcome studies and the importance of examining the role of motivation in treatment volunteerism and treatment entry for sexual offenders.

  9. Check Calibration of the NASA Glenn 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (2014 Test Entry)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Aaron; Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Arrington, E. Allen

    2016-01-01

    A check calibration of the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) was conducted in May/June 2014 using an array of five supersonic wedge probes to verify the 1999 Calibration. This check calibration was necessary following a control systems upgrade and an integrated systems test (IST). This check calibration was required to verify the tunnel flow quality was unchanged by the control systems upgrade prior to the next test customer beginning their test entry. The previous check calibration of the tunnel occurred in 2007, prior to the Mars Science Laboratory test program. Secondary objectives of this test entry included the validation of the new Cobra data acquisition system (DAS) against the current Escort DAS and the creation of statistical process control (SPC) charts through the collection of series of repeated test points at certain predetermined tunnel parameters. The SPC charts secondary objective was not completed due to schedule constraints. It is hoped that this effort will be readdressed and completed in the near future.

  10. An Automated Method to Compute Orbital Re-Entry Trajectories with Heating Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Curtis; Dukeman, Greg; Hanson, John; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Determining how to properly manipulate the controls of a re-entering re-usable launch vehicle (RLV) so that it is able to safely return to Earth and land involves the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP). This problem, which can be quite difficult, is traditionally solved on the ground prior to flight. If necessary, a nearly unlimited amount of time is available to find the "best" solution using a variety of trajectory design and optimization tools. The role of entry guidance during flight is to follow the pre-determined reference solution while correcting for any errors encountered along the way. This guidance method is both highly reliable and very efficient in terms of onboard computer resources. There is a growing interest in a style of entry guidance that places the responsibility of solving the TPBVP in the actual entry guidance flight software. Here there is very limited computer time. The powerful, but finicky, mathematical tools used by trajectory designers on the ground cannot in general be made to do the job. Nonconvergence or slow convergence can result in disaster. The challenges of designing such an algorithm are numerous and difficult. Yet the payoff (in the form of decreased operational costs and increased safety) can be substantial. This paper presents an algorithm that incorporates features of both types of guidance strategies. It takes an initial RLV orbital re-entry state and finds a trajectory that will safely transport the vehicle to a Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) region. During actual flight, the computed trajectory is used as the reference to be flown by a more traditional guidance method.

  11. An Automated Method to Compute Orbital Re-entry Trajectories with Heating Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Curtis; Dukeman, Greg; Hanson, John; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Determining how to properly manipulate the controls of a re-entering re-usable launch vehicle (RLV) so that it is able to safely return to Earth and land involves the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP). This problem, which can be quite difficult, is traditionally solved on the ground prior to flight. If necessary, a nearly unlimited amount of time is available to find the 'best' solution using a variety of trajectory design and optimization tools. The role of entry guidance during flight is to follow the pre- determined reference solution while correcting for any errors encountered along the way. This guidance method is both highly reliable and very efficient in terms of onboard computer resources. There is a growing interest in a style of entry guidance that places the responsibility of solving the TPBVP in the actual entry guidance flight software. Here there is very limited computer time. The powerful, but finicky, mathematical tools used by trajectory designers on the ground cannot in general be converted to do the job. Non-convergence or slow convergence can result in disaster. The challenges of designing such an algorithm are numerous and difficult. Yet the payoff (in the form of decreased operational costs and increased safety) can be substantiaL This paper presents an algorithm that incorporates features of both types of guidance strategies. It takes an initial RLV orbital re-entry state and finds a trajectory that will safely transport the vehicle to Earth. During actual flight, the computed trajectory is used as the reference to be flown by a more traditional guidance method.

  12. Entry, Descent, and Landing Communications for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando; Shidner, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), established as the most advanced rover to land on the surface of Mars to date, launched on November 26th, 2011 and arrived to the Martian Gale Crater during the night of August 5th, 2012 (PDT). MSL will investigate whether the landing region was ever suitable to support carbon-based life, and examine rocks, soil, and the atmosphere with a sophisticated suite of tools. This paper addresses the flight system requirement by which the vehicle transmitted indications of the following events using both X-band tones and UHF telemetry to allow identification of probable root causes should a mission anomaly have occurred: Heat-Rejection System (HRS) venting, completion of the cruise stage separation, turn to entry attitude, atmospheric deceleration, bank angle reversal commanded, parachute deployment, heatshield separation, radar ground acquisition, powered descent initiation, rover separation from the descent stage, and rover release. During Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL), the flight system transmitted a UHF telemetry stream adequate to determine the state of the spacecraft (including the presence of faults) at 8 kbps initiating from cruise stage separation through at least one minute after positive indication of rover release on the surface of Mars. The flight system also transmitted X-band semaphore tones from Entry to Landing plus one minute although since MSL was occulted, as predicted, by Mars as seen from the Earth, Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communications were interrupted at approximately is approx. 5 min after Entry ( approximately 130 prior to Landing). The primary data return paths were through the Deep Space Network (DSN) for DTE and the existing Mars network of orbiting assets for UHF, which included the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Express (MEX) elements. These orbiters recorded the telemetry data stream and returned it back to Earth via the DSN. The paper also discusses the total power

  13. Post-Flight EDL Entry Guidance Performance of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.; McGrew, Lynn Craig

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory was the first successful Mars mission to attempt a guided entry which safely delivered the rover to a final position approximately 2 km from its target within a touchdown ellipse of 19.1 km x 6.9 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range error while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Key dispersions driving deploy ellipse and altitude performance are identified. Performance sensitivities including attitude initialization error and the velocity of transition from range control to heading alignment are presented. Just prior to the entry and landing of MSL in August 2012, the EDL team examined minute tuning of the reference trajectory for the selected landing site, analyzed whether adjustment of bank reversal deadbands were necessary, the heading alignment velocity trigger was in union with other parameters to balance the EDL risks, and the vertical L/D command limits. This paper details a preliminary postflight assessment of the telemetry and trajectory reconstruction that is being performed, and updates the information presented in the former paper Entry Guidance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission (AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference; 8-11 Aug. 2011; Portland, OR; United States)

  14. Application of inflatable aeroshell structures for Entry Descent and Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurewicz, David; Lichodziejewski, Leo; Tutt, Ben; Gilles, Brian; Brown, Glen

    Future space missions will require improvements in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phases of the mission architecture. The focus of this paper is to discuss recent advances in analysis, fabrication techniques, ground testing, and flight testing of a stacked torus Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and its application to the future of EDL. The primary structure of a stacked torus HIAD consists of nested inflatable tori of increasing major diameter bonded and strapped to form a rigid structure after inflation. The underlying structure of the decelerator is covered with a flexible Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of high heat flux. The inflatable aeroshell and TPS are packed around a centerbody within the launch fairing and deployed prior to atmospheric reentry. Recent fabrication of multiple HIADs between 3 and 6 meters has led to significant advances in process control and validation of the scalability of the technology. Progress has been made in generating and validating LS-DYNA FEA models to replicate flight loading in addition to analytical models of substructures. Coupon and component testing has improved the validation of modeling techniques and assumptions at the subsystem level. A ground testing campaign at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Center (NFAC) wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research center generated substantial aerodynamic and loading data to validate full system modeling with comparable dynamic pressures to a hypersonic reentry. The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle - 3 (IRVE-3) sounding rocket flight test was conducted with NASA Langley Research Center in July 2012. The IRVE-3 mission verified the structural and thermal performance of the stacked torus configuration. Further development of the stacked torus configuration is currently being conducted to increase the thermal capability, deceleration loads, and understanding of the interactions and effects of constituent components. The results of this research have expanded the

  15. Shigella gets captured to gain entry.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Beth A

    2011-06-16

    The type III secretion system-dependent epithelial invasion and dissemination of Shigella is stimulated by ATP released through hemichannels. Romero et al. (2011) show that prior to epithelial contact, Shigella is captured by nanometer-thin micropodial extensions at a distance from the cell surface, in a process involving ATP and connexin-mediated signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 156.208 - Restricted-entry statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interval” (or the letters “REI”). (c) Restricted-entry interval based on toxicity of active ingredient—(1... of the active ingredients in the product. For the purpose of setting the restricted-entry interval, the toxicity category of each active ingredient in the product shall be determined by comparing the...

  17. 40 CFR 156.208 - Restricted-entry statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interval” (or the letters “REI”). (c) Restricted-entry interval based on toxicity of active ingredient—(1... of the active ingredients in the product. For the purpose of setting the restricted-entry interval, the toxicity category of each active ingredient in the product shall be determined by comparing the...

  18. 40 CFR 156.208 - Restricted-entry statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interval” (or the letters “REI”). (c) Restricted-entry interval based on toxicity of active ingredient—(1... of the active ingredients in the product. For the purpose of setting the restricted-entry interval, the toxicity category of each active ingredient in the product shall be determined by comparing the...

  19. 40 CFR 156.208 - Restricted-entry statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interval” (or the letters “REI”). (c) Restricted-entry interval based on toxicity of active ingredient—(1... of the active ingredients in the product. For the purpose of setting the restricted-entry interval, the toxicity category of each active ingredient in the product shall be determined by comparing the...

  20. 40 CFR 156.208 - Restricted-entry statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interval” (or the letters “REI”). (c) Restricted-entry interval based on toxicity of active ingredient—(1... of the active ingredients in the product. For the purpose of setting the restricted-entry interval, the toxicity category of each active ingredient in the product shall be determined by comparing the...

  1. 32 CFR 525.5 - Entry authorization (procedure).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ENTRY AUTHORIZATION REGULATION FOR KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE § 525.5 Entry... the National Range Commander, the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range or the designated representative... the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range, responds to an application, and the National Range Commander...

  2. 32 CFR 525.5 - Entry authorization (procedure).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ENTRY AUTHORIZATION REGULATION FOR KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE § 525.5 Entry... the National Range Commander, the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range or the designated representative... the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range, responds to an application, and the National Range Commander...

  3. 32 CFR 525.5 - Entry authorization (procedure).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ENTRY AUTHORIZATION REGULATION FOR KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE § 525.5 Entry... the National Range Commander, the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range or the designated representative... the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range, responds to an application, and the National Range Commander...

  4. 32 CFR 525.5 - Entry authorization (procedure).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ENTRY AUTHORIZATION REGULATION FOR KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE § 525.5 Entry... the National Range Commander, the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range or the designated representative... the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range, responds to an application, and the National Range Commander...

  5. 32 CFR 525.5 - Entry authorization (procedure).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ENTRY AUTHORIZATION REGULATION FOR KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE § 525.5 Entry... the National Range Commander, the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range or the designated representative... the Commander, Kwajalein Missile Range, responds to an application, and the National Range Commander...

  6. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  7. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  8. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  9. 30 CFR 840.12 - Right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 840.12 Section 840.12 Mineral... INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES STATE REGULATORY AUTHORITY: INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT § 840.12 Right... grants its representatives a right of entry to, upon, and through any coal exploration or surface coal...

  10. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  11. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  13. Entry-Level Worker Study: Phase 1 Report. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas; And Others

    A study examined innovative workplace practices in companies that employ significant numbers of entry-level workers. Findings were based on a series of personal interviews with human resource directors in 58 companies in the Northwest and the Pacific. Asked about the quality of current entry-level workers, employers reported that a disturbing…

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF WEST FACE OF ENTRY CONTROL POINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF WEST FACE OF ENTRY CONTROL POINT (BLDG. 768) SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION TO TECHNICAL SUPPORT BUILDING (BLDG. 762/762A) AND SLC-3 AIR FORCE BUILDING (BLDG. 761) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Entry Control Point, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Indianapolis Experience with Open Entry in the Taxi Industry

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-09-01

    During the early 1970s the City of Indianapolis reversed a long-standing policy of closed entry into the taxi industry by redistributing many of the existing permits. This report is an account of the Indianapolis experience with open entry. It is bas...

  16. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  17. 15 CFR 2011.103 - Entry into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entry into the United States. 2011.103... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Certificate of Quota Eligibility § 2011.103 Entry into the United States. (a) General. Except as...

  18. Welfare Effects of Entry into International Markets with Licensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, Fl.

    2008-10-01

    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically inferior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for intermediate (respectively, sufficiently large) technological differences between the firms under licensing with fixed fee (respectively, output royalty).

  19. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be ineligible...

  20. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be ineligible...

  1. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be ineligible...

  2. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be ineligible...

  3. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be ineligible...

  4. Re-Entry: Managing Cross-Cultural Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy J.

    1981-01-01

    Studied the re-entry process of corporate and governmental employees (N=200) returning to Canada after working overseas. Research found re-entry into the original culture was a more difficult transition than moving to the foreign culture. Home-country managers tended to exhibit xenophobia in assessing the potential and actual effectiveness of…

  5. Arena entry stair to left and stair to arena top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arena entry stair to left and stair to arena top level entry bridge at right. Drop siding is on second floor of recreation center. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 12. BUILDING 324, INTERIOR, ENTRY HALL AND STAIRWAY, FROM SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BUILDING 324, INTERIOR, ENTRY HALL AND STAIRWAY, FROM SOUTH ENTRY, LOOKING NORTH, WITH HALL LEADING TO GARAGE TO RIGHT OF STAIRWAY. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Commanding Officers Residences, Between E & F Streets, West of Fourth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. Entry door with sidelights, southwest looking northeast. Reverse view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Entry door with sidelights, southwest looking northeast. Reverse view of HABS ME-229-6, more clarity to the newel post and balusters. The curve of the second floor landing is just visible at the top of the image. Note the six-panel entry door is taller than the interior doors. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  8. Preparing International Students for the Re-Entry Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Counselors play an integral role in assisting international students to manage cross-cultural transitions. Re-entry counseling can support international students to examine their transition experiences, provide education about re-entry, and help to develop anticipatory coping strategies. An example of a workshop is described as a method of…

  9. 8. INTERIOR OF FRONT SCREENEDIN PORCH SHOWING PORCH ENTRY DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF FRONT SCREENED-IN PORCH SHOWING PORCH ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER AND FRONT ENTRY DOOR TO LIVING ROOM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  10. 50 CFR 635.41 - Products denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Products denied entry. (a) [Reserved] (b) All shipments of tuna or tuna-like species, or their products, in.... (c) All shipments of tuna or tuna-like species, or their products, in any form, harvested in the..., and unregulated fishing will be denied entry into the United States. (d) All shipments of tuna or tuna...

  11. 50 CFR 635.41 - Products denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Products denied entry. (a) [Reserved] (b) All shipments of tuna or tuna-like species, or their products, in.... (c) All shipments of tuna or tuna-like species, or their products, in any form, harvested in the..., and unregulated fishing will be denied entry into the United States. (d) All shipments of tuna or tuna...

  12. 50 CFR 635.41 - Products denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Products denied entry. (a) All shipments of Atlantic bigeye tuna, or its products, in any form, harvested.... (b) All shipments of tuna or tuna-like species, or their products, in any form, harvested in the... record of authorized vessels will be denied entry into the United States. (c) All shipments of tuna or...

  13. 50 CFR 635.41 - Products denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Products denied entry. (a) All shipments of Atlantic bigeye tuna, or its products, in any form, harvested.... (b) All shipments of tuna or tuna-like species, or their products, in any form, harvested in the... record of authorized vessels will be denied entry into the United States. (c) All shipments of tuna or...

  14. Return on Investment Point of Service Computerized Provider Charge Entry

    PubMed Central

    Kiepek, Wendy; FitzHenry, Fern; Shultz, Edward K

    2003-01-01

    Provider charge entry systems offer many benefits to users and organizations. At Vanderbilt University Medical Center, a web-based provider charge entry system promises to deliver benefits in reducing days in accounts receivable, reducing labor required for claims and edit processing, and implementing business rules that deliver both strategic and financial benefits. PMID:14728396

  15. 19 CFR 122.158 - Other entry and clearance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other entry and clearance requirements. 122.158 Section 122.158 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Flights to and From Cuba § 122.158 Other entry and...

  16. 46 CFR 148.86 - Confined space entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confined space entry. 148.86 Section 148.86 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.86 Confined space entry. (a) Except in an emergency, no person may enter a confined space unless that space has been tested to...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1828 - Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. 154.1828 Section... Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. (a) No person may enter a cargo handling space without the... allowing anyone to enter a cargo handling space, the master shall ensure that: (1) The space is free of...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1828 - Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. 154.1828 Section... Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. (a) No person may enter a cargo handling space without the... allowing anyone to enter a cargo handling space, the master shall ensure that: (1) The space is free of...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1828 - Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. 154.1828 Section... Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. (a) No person may enter a cargo handling space without the... allowing anyone to enter a cargo handling space, the master shall ensure that: (1) The space is free of...

  20. 46 CFR 148.86 - Confined space entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Confined space entry. 148.86 Section 148.86 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.86 Confined space entry. (a) Except in an emergency, no person may enter a confined space unless that space has been tested to...

  1. 46 CFR 148.86 - Confined space entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Confined space entry. 148.86 Section 148.86 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.86 Confined space entry. (a) Except in an emergency, no person may enter a confined space unless that space has been tested to...

  2. 46 CFR 148.86 - Confined space entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Confined space entry. 148.86 Section 148.86 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.86 Confined space entry. (a) Except in an emergency, no person may enter a confined space unless that space has been tested to...

  3. 50 CFR 300.188 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ports of entry. 300.188 Section 300.188 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.188 Ports of entry...

  4. 50 CFR 300.188 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ports of entry. 300.188 Section 300.188 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.188 Ports of entry...

  5. 50 CFR 300.188 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ports of entry. 300.188 Section 300.188 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.188 Ports of entry...

  6. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Mexico 8 § 93.220 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All poultry offered for entry from Mexico, including such poultry intended for movement through...

  7. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proposed accounting entries. 33.5 Section 33.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  8. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed accounting entries. 33.5 Section 33.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  9. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proposed accounting entries. 33.5 Section 33.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  10. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proposed accounting entries. 33.5 Section 33.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  11. 19 CFR 141.17 - Entry by nonresident consignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry by nonresident consignee. 141.17 Section 141.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... in connection with the entry shall have a resident corporate surety or, when a carnet issued under...

  12. 19 CFR 141.17 - Entry by nonresident consignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry by nonresident consignee. 141.17 Section 141.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... in connection with the entry shall have a resident corporate surety or, when a carnet issued under...

  13. 19 CFR 141.17 - Entry by nonresident consignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entry by nonresident consignee. 141.17 Section 141.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... in connection with the entry shall have a resident corporate surety or, when a carnet issued under...

  14. 19 CFR 141.17 - Entry by nonresident consignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry by nonresident consignee. 141.17 Section 141.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... in connection with the entry shall have a resident corporate surety or, when a carnet issued under...

  15. 19 CFR 141.17 - Entry by nonresident consignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entry by nonresident consignee. 141.17 Section 141.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... in connection with the entry shall have a resident corporate surety or, when a carnet issued under...

  16. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.63 Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean... to each lot of wool or hair covered thereby, in addition to other information required, the total...

  17. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.63 Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean... to each lot of wool or hair covered thereby, in addition to other information required, the total...

  18. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.63 Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean... to each lot of wool or hair covered thereby, in addition to other information required, the total...

  19. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.63 Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean... to each lot of wool or hair covered thereby, in addition to other information required, the total...

  20. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.63 Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean... to each lot of wool or hair covered thereby, in addition to other information required, the total...

  1. 7 CFR 319.75-8 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ports of entry. 319.75-8 Section 319.75-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-8 Ports of entry. Any restricted...

  2. 7 CFR 319.75-8 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ports of entry. 319.75-8 Section 319.75-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-8 Ports of entry. Any restricted...

  3. 7 CFR 319.75-8 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ports of entry. 319.75-8 Section 319.75-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-8 Ports of entry. Any restricted...

  4. 7 CFR 319.75-8 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 319.75-8 Section 319.75-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-8 Ports of entry. Any restricted...

  5. 7 CFR 319.75-8 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ports of entry. 319.75-8 Section 319.75-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-8 Ports of entry. Any restricted...

  6. 47 CFR 11.14 - Primary Entry Point (PEP) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. 11.14 Section 11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.14 Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. The PEP system is a nationwide network of broadcast...

  7. 47 CFR 11.14 - Primary Entry Point (PEP) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. 11.14 Section 11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.14 Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. The PEP system is a nationwide network of broadcast...

  8. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Entry and exit ports. 670.34 Section 670.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a...

  9. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Entry and exit ports. 670.34 Section 670.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a...

  10. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Entry and exit ports. 670.34 Section 670.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a...

  11. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Entry and exit ports. 670.34 Section 670.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a...

  12. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entry and exit ports. 670.34 Section 670.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a...

  13. 17 CFR 10.7 - Date of entry of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of entry of orders. 10.7 Section 10.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.7 Date of entry of orders. In computing any period of time involving the date of...

  14. 7 CFR 319.55-3 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Rules and Regulations § 319.55-3 Ports of entry. (a) For importations of seed or paddy rice from the Republic of Mexico, permits will be issued for entry... Quarantine Programs. (b) For importations of rice straw and rice hulls from all foreign countries, permits...

  15. 7 CFR 319.55-3 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Rules and Regulations § 319.55-3 Ports of entry. (a) For importations of seed or paddy rice from the Republic of Mexico, permits will be issued for entry... Quarantine Programs. (b) For importations of rice straw and rice hulls from all foreign countries, permits...

  16. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During...

  17. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During...

  18. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During...

  19. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During...

  20. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  1. 36 CFR 228.54 - Single entry sales or permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single entry sales or permits... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.54 Single entry sales or permits. The... plan which describes operating procedures and reclamation measures, unless the requirement is waived by...

  2. Entry, Pricing, and Product Design in an Initially Monopolized Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Steven J.; Murphy, Kevin M.; Topel, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze entry, pricing, and product design in a model with differentiated products. Market equilibrium can be "separating," with multiple sellers and a sorting of heterogeneous consumers across goods, or "exclusionary," with one seller serving all customer types. Entry into an initially monopolized market can occur because of cost reductions or…

  3. The Language Functioning of Youth at Entry to Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; DeSalvo, Catherine; Gehringer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the behavioral and educational characteristics of youth at entry to residential care, little is known about youth language performance. Given the impact of language deficits on outcomes, this study assessed the specific language skills of 70 adolescents at entry to a residential treatment setting. Results revealed…

  4. Knowledge Modeling in Prior Art Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Erik; Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Keith

    This study explores the benefits of integrating knowledge representations in prior art patent retrieval. Key to the introduced approach is the utilization of human judgment available in the form of classifications assigned to patent documents. The paper first outlines in detail how a methodology for the extraction of knowledge from such an hierarchical classification system can be established. Further potential ways of integrating this knowledge with existing Information Retrieval paradigms in a scalable and flexible manner are investigated. Finally based on these integration strategies the effectiveness in terms of recall and precision is evaluated in the context of a prior art search task for European patents. As a result of this evaluation it can be established that in general the proposed knowledge expansion techniques are particularly beneficial to recall and, with respect to optimizing field retrieval settings, further result in significant precision gains.

  5. Dynamical simulation priors for human motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Vondrak, Marek; Sigal, Leonid; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simulation-based dynamical motion prior for tracking human motion from video in presence of physical ground-person interactions. Most tracking approaches to date have focused on efficient inference algorithms and/or learning of prior kinematic motion models; however, few can explicitly account for the physical plausibility of recovered motion. Here, we aim to recover physically plausible motion of a single articulated human subject. Toward this end, we propose a full-body 3D physical simulation-based prior that explicitly incorporates a model of human dynamics into the Bayesian filtering framework. We consider the motion of the subject to be generated by a feedback “control loop” in which Newtonian physics approximates the rigid-body motion dynamics of the human and the environment through the application and integration of interaction forces, motor forces, and gravity. Interaction forces prevent physically impossible hypotheses, enable more appropriate reactions to the environment (e.g., ground contacts), and are produced from detected human-environment collisions. Motor forces actuate the body, ensure that proposed pose transitions are physically feasible, and are generated using a motion controller. For efficient inference in the resulting high-dimensional state space, we utilize an exemplar-based control strategy that reduces the effective search space of motor forces. As a result, we are able to recover physically plausible motion of human subjects from monocular and multiview video. We show, both quantitatively and qualitatively, that our approach performs favorably with respect to Bayesian filtering methods with standard motion priors.

  6. Transformational Learning through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Karen; Gerber, Dan; Hendra, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Upon graduation from University Without Walls (UWW), Robin said, "During first semester you told us that if we allowed it to, this experience [writing a prior learning portfolio] would change us. I was so angry with you for saying that because I liked who I was and didn't want to change. But you were right. And I'm glad." For the past 39…

  7. Entry Probe Missions to the Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Atreya, S. K.; Colaprete, A.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Spilker, L. J.; Coustenis, A.; Venkatapathy, E.; Reh, K.; Frampton, R.

    2009-12-01

    The primary motivation for in situ probe missions to the outer planets derives from the need to constrain models of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of atmospheres, to provide a basis for comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As time capsules of the solar system, the gas and ice giants offer a laboratory to better understand the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets, including Earth; and it is within the atmospheres and interiors of the giant planets that material diagnostic of the epoch of formation can be found, providing clues to the local chemical and physical conditions existing at the time and location at which each planet formed. Measurements of current conditions and processes in those atmospheres inform us about their evolution since formation and into the future, providing information about our solar system’s evolution, and potentially establishing a framework for recognizing extrasolar giant planets in different stages of their evolution. Detailed explorations and comparative studies of the gas and ice giant planets will provide a foundation for understanding the integrated dynamic, physical, and chemical origins, formation, and evolution of the solar system. To allow reliable conclusions from comparative studies of gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, an entry probe mission to Saturn is needed to complement the Galileo Probe measurements at Jupiter. These measurements provide the basis for a significantly better understanding of gas giant formation in the context of solar system formation. A probe mission to either Uranus or Neptune will be needed for comparative studies of the gas giants and the ice giants, adding knowledge of ice giant origins and thus making further inroads in our understanding of solar system formation. Recognizing Jupiter’s spatial variability and the need to understand its implications for global composition

  8. Entry inhibitors in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Tilton, John C; Doms, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Infection of target cells by HIV is a complex, multi-stage process involving attachment to host cells and CD4 binding, coreceptor binding, and membrane fusion. Drugs that block HIV entry are collectively known as entry inhibitors, but comprise a complex group of drugs with multiple mechanisms of action depending on the stage of the entry process at which they act. Two entry inhibitors, maraviroc and enfuvirtide, have been approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, and a number of agents are in development. This review covers the entry inhibitors and their use in the management of HIV-1 infection. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pay attention to reflux/feed entry design

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, B.; Martin, G.R.; Hartman, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Trays generally are forgiving pieces of equipment and can conceal the effects of poorly designed feed and reflux entries. When one tries to push a tower to its hydraulic limit, however, poor entry design can penalize the performance of the trays and result in a lower final capacity. Normally, new towers are not as susceptible to entry design problems as ones being revamped. This is because new towers usually have some degree of capacity oversizing.Standard design practices used for new columns having spare capacity, though, may not be suitable for revamped towers. In this article, the authors detail the basicmore » principles of reflux and feed entry design, good practices to follow, and poor practices to avoid. They also include a case study of a large-diameter light hydrocarbon splitter revamped with high capacity trays to illustrate the potential pitfalls associated with incorrectly designed reflux and feed entry arrangements.« less

  10. Acquired prior knowledge modulates audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Bremen, Peter; John Van Opstal, A

    2010-05-01

    Orienting responses to audiovisual events in the environment can benefit markedly by the integration of visual and auditory spatial information. However, logically, audiovisual integration would only be considered successful for stimuli that are spatially and temporally aligned, as these would be emitted by a single object in space-time. As humans do not have prior knowledge about whether novel auditory and visual events do indeed emanate from the same object, such information needs to be extracted from a variety of sources. For example, expectation about alignment or misalignment could modulate the strength of multisensory integration. If evidence from previous trials would repeatedly favour aligned audiovisual inputs, the internal state might also assume alignment for the next trial, and hence react to a new audiovisual event as if it were aligned. To test for such a strategy, subjects oriented a head-fixed pointer as fast as possible to a visual flash that was consistently paired, though not always spatially aligned, with a co-occurring broadband sound. We varied the probability of audiovisual alignment between experiments. Reaction times were consistently lower in blocks containing only aligned audiovisual stimuli than in blocks also containing pseudorandomly presented spatially disparate stimuli. Results demonstrate dynamic updating of the subject's prior expectation of audiovisual congruency. We discuss a model of prior probability estimation to explain the results.

  11. Inferring metabolic networks using the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Christine; Vannucci, Marina; Karakas, Cemal; Choi, William; Ma, Lihua; Maletić-Savatić, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic processes are essential for cellular function and survival. We are interested in inferring a metabolic network in activated microglia, a major neuroimmune cell in the brain responsible for the neuroinflammation associated with neurological diseases, based on a set of quantified metabolites. To achieve this, we apply the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors that incorporate known relationships between covariates. To encourage sparsity, the Bayesian graphical lasso places double exponential priors on the off-diagonal entries of the precision matrix. The Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso allows each double exponential prior to have a unique shrinkage parameter. These shrinkage parameters share a common gamma hyperprior. We extend this model to create an informative prior structure by formulating tailored hyperpriors on the shrinkage parameters. By choosing parameter values for each hyperprior that shift probability mass toward zero for nodes that are close together in a reference network, we encourage edges between covariates with known relationships. This approach can improve the reliability of network inference when the sample size is small relative to the number of parameters to be estimated. When applied to the data on activated microglia, the inferred network includes both known relationships and associations of potential interest for further investigation.

  12. Inferring metabolic networks using the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors

    PubMed Central

    PETERSON, CHRISTINE; VANNUCCI, MARINA; KARAKAS, CEMAL; CHOI, WILLIAM; MA, LIHUA; MALETIĆ-SAVATIĆ, MIRJANA

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic processes are essential for cellular function and survival. We are interested in inferring a metabolic network in activated microglia, a major neuroimmune cell in the brain responsible for the neuroinflammation associated with neurological diseases, based on a set of quantified metabolites. To achieve this, we apply the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors that incorporate known relationships between covariates. To encourage sparsity, the Bayesian graphical lasso places double exponential priors on the off-diagonal entries of the precision matrix. The Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso allows each double exponential prior to have a unique shrinkage parameter. These shrinkage parameters share a common gamma hyperprior. We extend this model to create an informative prior structure by formulating tailored hyperpriors on the shrinkage parameters. By choosing parameter values for each hyperprior that shift probability mass toward zero for nodes that are close together in a reference network, we encourage edges between covariates with known relationships. This approach can improve the reliability of network inference when the sample size is small relative to the number of parameters to be estimated. When applied to the data on activated microglia, the inferred network includes both known relationships and associations of potential interest for further investigation. PMID:24533172

  13. 19 CFR 163.6 - Production and examination of entry and other records and witnesses; penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... entry records were required at the time of entry. Any oral demand for entry records shall be followed by a written or electronic demand. The entry records shall be produced within 30 calendar days of receipt of the demand or within any shorter period as Customs may prescribe when the entry records are...

  14. Entry System Design Considerations for Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Powell, Richard W.; Graves, Claude A.; Carman, Gilbert L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective for the next generation or Mars landers is to enable a safe landing at specific locations of scientific interest. The 1st generation entry, descent and landing systems, ex. Viking and Pathfinder, provided successful landing on Mars but by design were limited to large scale, 100s of km, landing sites with minimal local hazards. The 2 nd generation landers, or smart landers, will provide scientists with access to previously unachievable landing sites by providing precision landing to less than 10 km of a target landing site, with the ability to perform local hazard avoidance, and provide hazard tolerance. This 2nd generation EDL system can be utilized for a range of robotic missions with vehicles sized for science payloads from the small 25-70 kg, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander and Mars Exploration Rover-class, to the large robotic Mars Sample Return, 300 kg plus, science payloads. The 2nd generation system can also be extended to a 3nd generation EDL system with pinpoint landing, 10's of meters of landing accuracy, for more capable robotic or human missions. This paper will describe the design considerations for 2nd generation landers. These landers are currently being developed by a consortium of NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academic institutions. The extension of this system and additional considerations required for a 3nd generation human mission to Mars will be described.

  15. Molecular and cellular aspects of rhabdovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Aurélie A V; Baquero, Eduard; Ferlin, Anna; Gaudin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell.

  16. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, Aurélie A. V.; Baquero, Eduard; Ferlin, Anna; Gaudin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell. PMID:22355455

  17. On Heatshield Shapes for Mars Entry Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, DInesh K.; Saunders, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The 70deg sphere-cone - the standard geometry for all US Mars entry missions - is thoroughly examined via flow field simulations at a select few peak heating points along candidate flight trajectories. Emphasis is placed on turbulent heating based on the Baldwin- Lomax turbulence model. It is shown that increased leeward turbulent heating for a 70 sphere-cone flying at angle of attack is primarily due to the discontinuity in curvature between the spherical nose cap and the conical frustum - the attachment of the sonic line at this sphere-cone junction leads to a supersonic edge Mach number over the leeward acreage. In an attempt to mitigate this problem of elevated turbulent heating, alternate geometries, without any curvature discontinuities in the acreage, are developed. Two approaches, one based on nonlinear optimization with constraints, and one based on the use of non-uniform rational B-splines, are considered. All configurations examined remain axisymmetric. The aerothermal performance of alternate geometries is shown to be superior to that of the 70 sphere-cone.

  18. Inflatable Emergency Atmospheric-Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Hall, Jeffrey; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2004-01-01

    In response to the loss of seven astronauts in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, large, lightweight, inflatable atmospheric- entry vehicles have been proposed as means of emergency descent and landing for persons who must abandon a spacecraft that is about to reenter the atmosphere and has been determined to be unable to land safely. Such a vehicle would act as an atmospheric decelerator at supersonic speed in the upper atmosphere, and a smaller, central astronaut pod could then separate at lower altitudes and parachute separately to Earth. Astronaut-rescue systems that have been considered previously have been massive, and the cost of designing them has exceeded the cost of fabrication of a space shuttle. In contrast, an inflatable emergency-landing vehicle according to the proposal would have a mass between 100 and 200 kg, could be stored in a volume of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cu m, and could likely be designed and built much less expensively. When fully inflated, the escape vehicle behaves as a large balloon parachute, or ballute. Due to very low mass-per-surface area, a large radius, and a large coefficient of drag, ballutes decelerate at much higher altitudes and with much lower heating rates than the space shuttle. Although the space shuttle atmospheric reentry results in surface temperatures of about 1,600 C, ballutes can be designed for maximum temperatures below 600 C. This allows ballutes to be fabricated with lightweight ZYLON(Registered TradeMark) or polybenzoxazole (PBO), or equivalent.

  19. Analysis of spacecraft entry into Mars atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Ken; Nagano, Koutarou

    1991-07-01

    The effects on a spacecraft body while entering the Martian atmosphere and the resulting design constraints are analyzed. The analyses are conducted using the Viking entry phase restriction conditions and a Mars atmosphere model. Results from analysis conducted by the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) are described. Results obtained from the analysis are as follows: (1) flight times depend greatly on lift-to-drag ratio and less on ballistic coefficients; (2) terminal landing speeds depend greatly on ballistic coefficients and less on lift-to-drag ratios; (3) the dependence of the flight path angles on ballistic coefficients is slightly larger than their dependence on lift-to-drag ratios; (4) as the ballistic coefficients become smaller and the lift-to-drag ratios become larger, the deceleration at high altitude becomes larger; (5) small ballistic coefficients and low lift-to-drag ratios are required to meet the constraints of Mach number at parachute deployment and deployment altitude; and (6) heating rates at stagnation points are dependent on ballistic coefficients. It is presumed that the aerodynamic characteristics will be 0.2 for the lift-to-drag ratio and 75 kg/sq m for the ballistic coefficient for the case of a Mars landing using capsules similar to those used in the Viking program.

  20. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  1. 31 CFR 363.201 - What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds? 363.201 Section 363.201 Money and Finance... Securities § 363.201 What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes...

  2. 31 CFR 363.201 - What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds? 363.201 Section 363.201 Money and Finance... Securities § 363.201 What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes...

  3. 31 CFR 363.201 - What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds? 363.201 Section 363.201 Money and Finance... Securities § 363.201 What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes...

  4. 31 CFR 363.201 - What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds? 363.201 Section 363.201 Money and Finance... Securities § 363.201 What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes...

  5. 31 CFR 363.201 - What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes, and bonds? 363.201 Section 363.201 Money and Finance... Securities § 363.201 What other regulations govern book-entry marketable book-entry Treasury bills, notes...

  6. Predicting risk of entry into foster care from early childhood experiences: A survival analysis using LONGSCAN data.

    PubMed

    English, Diana J; Thompson, Richard; White, Catherine Roller

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether a multi-domain model of maltreatment informed by an ecological framework-including factors related to the child, caregiver, family, neighborhood, and dimensions of maltreatment experience-predicted entry into foster care between the ages of 4 and 18 among children with no prior foster care experience. To determine which factors predict entry into foster care, secondary data analyses were conducted utilizing a sub-sample from LONGSCAN (Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect) of 942 children and their primary caregivers. Results demonstrate that there are important predictors for entry into out-of-home placement across multiple ecological domains. Characteristics related to child, caregiver, and family characteristics, and neighborhood context, as well as dimensions of maltreatment (particularly emotional maltreatment), predicted risk of placement in out-of-home care. Implications for child welfare practice are discussed. This examination of the effects of multiple ecological domains adds to our understanding of children's risk of removal and entry into out-of-home placement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges faced by HIV-infected male prisoners in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, P; Kavasery, R; Desai, M M; Govindasamy, S; Kamarulzaman, A; Altice, F L

    2010-01-01

    Summary HIV-infected prisoners face an inordinate number of community re-entry challenges. In 2007, 102 HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia were surveyed anonymously within six months prior to release to assess the prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges. Staying out of prison (60.8%), remaining off drugs (39.2%), finding employment (35.3%) and obtaining HIV care (32.4%) were the re-entry challenges reported most frequently. Global stigma, negative self-image and public attitudes-related stigma were independently associated with challenges to obtaining HIV care. In multivariate analyses, those with previous incarcerations (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–7.6), higher HIV-related symptoms (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0–4.1) and higher public attitudes-related stigma (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2–5.1) had a significantly higher likelihood of identifying more re-entry challenges. Targeted interventions, such as effective drug treatment, HIV care and public awareness campaigns, are crucial for stemming the HIV epidemic and improving health outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia. PMID:20606222

  8. Preentry communications study. Outer planets atmospheric entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    A pre-entry communications study is presented for a relay link between a Jupiter entry probe and a spacecraft in hyperbolic orbit. Two generic communications links of interest are described: a pre-entry link to a spun spacecraft antenna, and a pre-entry link to a despun spacecraft antenna. The propagation environment of Jupiter is defined. Although this is one of the least well known features of Jupiter, enough information exists to reasonably establish bounds on the performance of a communications link. Within these bounds, optimal carrier frequencies are defined. The next step is to identify optimal relative geometries between the probe and the spacecraft. Optimal trajectories are established for both spun and despun spacecraft antennas. Given the optimal carrier frequencies, and the optimal trajectories, the data carrying capacities of the pre-entry links are defined. The impact of incorporating pre-entry communications into a basic post entry probe is then assessed. This assessment covers the disciplines of thermal control, power source, mass properties and design layout. A conceptual design is developed of an electronically despun antenna for use on a Pioneer class of spacecraft.

  9. Macrophage sphingolipids are essential for the entry of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Jafurulla, Md; Kumar, G Aditya; Raghunand, Tirumalai R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2018-07-01

    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Although several studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in mycobacterial growth, persistence and establishment of infection, the role of sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells is not known. In this work, we explored the role of host membrane sphingolipids in the entry of Mycobacterium smegmatis into J774A.1 macrophages. Our results show that metabolic depletion of sphingolipids in host macrophages results in a significant reduction in the entry of M. smegmatis. Importantly, the entry of Escherichia coli into host macrophages under similar conditions remained invariant, implying the specificity of the requirement of sphingolipids in mycobacterial entry. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first report demonstrating the role of host macrophage sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria. Our results could help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting sphingolipid-mediated entry of mycobacteria into host cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Angle of Attack Modulation for Mars Entry Terminal State Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.; Cerimele, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of atmospheric entry, descent, and landing (EDL), one of the most foreboding destinations in the solar system is Mars due in part to its exceedingly thin atmosphere. To benchmark best possible scenarios for evaluation of potential Mars EDL system designs, a study is conducted to optimize the entry-to-terminal-state portion of EDL for a variety of entry velocities and vehicle masses, focusing on the identification of potential benefits of enabling angle of attack modulation. The terminal state is envisioned as one appropriate for the initiation of terminal descent via parachute or other means. A particle swarm optimizer varies entry flight path angle, ten bank profile points, and ten angle of attack profile points to find maximum-final-altitude trajectories for a 10 30 m ellipsled at 180 different combinations of values for entry mass, entry velocity, terminal Mach number, and minimum allowable altitude. Parametric plots of maximum achievable altitude are shown, as are examples of optimized trajectories. It is shown that appreciable terminal state altitude gains (2.5-4.0 km) over pure bank angle control may be possible if angle of attack modulation is enabled for Mars entry vehicles. Gains of this magnitude could prove to be enabling for missions requiring high-altitude landing sites. Conclusions are also drawn regarding trends in the bank and angle of attack profiles that produce the optimal trajectories in this study, and directions for future work are identified.

  11. The actin cytoskeleton in store-mediated calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Juan A; Sage, Stewart O

    2000-01-01

    Store-mediated Ca2+ entry is the main pathway for Ca2+ influx in platelets and many other cells. Several hypotheses have considered both direct and indirect coupling mechanisms between the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. Here we pay particular attention to new insights into the regulation of store-mediated Ca2+ entry: the role of the cytoskeleton in a secretion-like coupling model. In this model, Ca2+ entry may be mediated by a reversible trafficking and coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum with the plasma membrane, that shows close parallels to the events mediating secretion. As with secretion, the actin cytoskeleton plays an inhibitory role in the activation of Ca2+ entry by preventing the approach and coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum with the plasma membrane, making cytoskeletal remodelling a key event in the activation of Ca2+ entry. We also review recent advances investigating the regulation of store-mediated Ca2+ entry by small GTPases and phosphoinositides, which might be involved in the store-mediated Ca2+ entry pathway through roles in the remodelling of the cytoskeleton. PMID:10896713

  12. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  13. Atmospheric entry probes for outer planet exploration. Outer planet entry probe technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of unmanned space probes for investigating the conditions existing on and around the outer planets of the solar system is discussed. The subjects included in the report are: (1) the design of a common entry probe for outer planet missions, (2) the significant trades related to the development of a common probe design, (3) the impact of bus selection on probe design, (4) the impact of probe requirements on bus modifications, and (5) the key technology elements recommended for advanced development. Drawings and illustrations of typical probes are included to show the components and systems used in the space probes.

  14. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. MSL will be the first mission to demonstrate the new technology of 'smart landers', which include precision landing and hazard avoidance in order to -land at scientifically interesting sites that would otherwise be unreachable. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have an X-band direct-to-Earth (DTE) link as well as a UHF proximity link. There is also a possibility of an X-band proximity link. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, hazard avoidance, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized plasma for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this report is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal likely trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  15. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have a UHF proximity link as the primary path for EDL communications and may have an X-band direct-to-Earth link as a back-up. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized particles for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this rep0rt is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  16. Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

    2003-04-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

  17. Modulation of Calcium Entry by Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Fonteriz, Rosalba; Matesanz-Isabel, Jessica; Arias-Del-Val, Jessica; Alvarez-Illera, Pilar; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in intracellular Ca(2+) signaling relies mainly in its capacity to take up Ca(2+) from the cytosol and thus modulate the cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Because of the low Ca(2+)-affinity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+)-uptake system, this organelle appears specially adapted to take up Ca(2+) from local high-Ca(2+) microdomains and not from the bulk cytosol. Mitochondria would then act as local Ca(2+) buffers in cellular regions where high-Ca(2+) microdomains form, that is, mainly close to the cytosolic mouth of Ca(2+) channels, both in the plasma membrane and in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One of the first targets proposed already in the 1990s to be regulated in this way by mitochondria were the store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCE). Mitochondria, by taking up Ca(2+) from the region around the cytosolic mouth of the SOCE channels, would prevent its slow Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation, thus keeping them active for longer. Since then, evidence for this mechanism has accumulated mainly in immunitary cells, where mitochondria actually move towards the immune synapse during T cell activation. However, in many other cell types the available data indicate that the close apposition between plasma and ER membranes occurring during SOCE activation precludes mitochondria from getting close to the Ca(2+)-entry sites. Alternative pathways for mitochondrial modulation of SOCE, both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent, have also been proposed, but further work will be required to elucidate the actual mechanisms at work. Hopefully, the recent knowledge of the molecular nature of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter will allow soon more precise studies on this matter.

  18. Radiation Modeling in Shock-Tubes and Entry Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    the MSRO surface , the local spherical coordinate system with a normal n is entered. Radiation Modeling in Shock-Tubes and Entry Flows 10 - 30 RTO...for each simulated photon group. Radiation Modeling in Shock-Tubes and Entry Flows 10 - 52 RTO-EN-AVT-162 There are two algorithms. In the first...Tubes and Entry Flows RTO-EN-AVT-162 10 - 57 all surfaces of the spatial finite-difference mesh should be calculated. This is illustrated in Figure

  19. Comparable Stocks, Boundedly Rational Stock Markets and IPO Entry Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses. PMID:23690924

  20. A trajectory generation framework for modeling spacecraft entry in MDAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D`Souza, Sarah N.; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper a novel trajectory generation framework was developed that optimizes trajectory event conditions for use in a Generalized Entry Guidance algorithm. The framework was developed to be adaptable via the use of high fidelity equations of motion and drag based analytical bank profiles. Within this framework, a novel technique was implemented that resolved the sensitivity of the bank profile to atmospheric non-linearities. The framework's adaptability was established by running two different entry bank conditions. Each case yielded a reference trajectory and set of transition event conditions that are flight feasible and implementable in a Generalized Entry Guidance algorithm.