Science.gov

Sample records for a-z index site

  1. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  2. Site index comparisons among hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Site index is one of the more easily measured indicators of the productive capacity of an area for a given species. In mixed stands, the site index of one species can be used to predict the site index of another. Site index also illustrates growth differences among species.

  3. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  4. WIND Toolkit Power Data Site Index

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, Caroline; Mathias-Hodge, Bri

    2016-10-19

    This spreadsheet contains per-site metadata for the WIND Toolkit sites and serves as an index for the raw data hosted on Globus connect (nrel#globus:/globusro/met_data). Aside from the metadata, per site average power and capacity factor are given. This data was prepared by 3TIER under contract by NREL and is public domain. Authoritative documentation on the creation of the underlying dataset is at: Final Report on the Creation of the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit and API: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/66189.pdf

  5. A comparison of site index curves for northern hardwood species.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1979-01-01

    Gives an inventory and compares site index curves for 13 northern hardwood species. Differences illustrate the need for more precise site index curves that are applicable to local soil and site conditions.

  6. Site index curves for Douglas-fir in New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Carleton B. Edminster; Lewis H. Jump

    1976-01-01

    Presents a figure, table, and FORTRAN subroutine for estimating site indexes for Douglas-fir stands in New Mexico. Site index is expressed as the average height of dominant trees at a breast-height age of 100 years.

  7. Site-index comparisons for tree species in northern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean; Alexander Vasilevsky

    1971-01-01

    Presents site-index comparisons for the following forest species in northern Minnesota: quaking aspen, paper birch, basswood, red oak, black ash, jack pine, red pine, white pine, white spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, white-cedar, and tamarack. Shows site-index relationships among these species by using site-index ratios and species-comparison graphs.

  8. Determining site index accurately in even-aged stands

    Treesearch

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M., Jr. Peterson

    1992-01-01

    Good site index estimates are necessary for intensive forest management. To get tree age used in determining site index, increment cores are commonly used. The diffuse-porous rings of northern hardwoods, though, are difficult to count in cores, so many site index estimates are imprecise. Also, measuring the height of standing trees is more difficult and less accurate...

  9. Measuring site index in the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin

    1989-01-01

    Site index is the average height of dominant and codominant trees growing in well-stocked, even-aged stands at a given age called ?index age.? Fifty years is the most commonly used index age in upland hardwoods. Sometimes 25 or 30 years are used for short-rotation bottomland hardwoods. Site index is widely used to indicate site quality because it correlates well with...

  10. Black cherry site index curves for the Allegheny Plateau

    Treesearch

    L.R. Auchmoody; C.O. Rexrode; C.O. Rexrode

    1984-01-01

    Black cherry site index curves were developed for the Allegheny Plateau in northwestern Pennsylvania. They show for this region that height rises less sharply prior to the index age and is maintained for a longer period thereafter than described by existing curves. An equation to predict site index from height and age is furnished to allow the use of these curves in...

  11. Development of a Site Comparison Index: Southeast Upland Forests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 7 -1 2 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Development of a Site Comparison Index : Southeast...Development of a Site Comparison Index : Southeast Upland Forests Anthony J. Krzysik Prescott College 220 Grove Avenue Prescott, AZ 86301 Harold E...jective site comparison index (SCI), a combination of metrics: soil A- horizon depth, soil compaction, ground cover, canopy cover, basal area, remote

  12. Site index determination techniques for southern bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2013-01-01

    Site index is a species-specific indirect measure of forest productivity expressed as the average height of dominant and codominant trees in a stand of a specified base age. It is widely used by forest managers to make informed decisions regarding forest management practices. Unfortunately, forest managers have difficulty in determining site index for southern US...

  13. Estimating red pine site index in northern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    David H. Alban

    1976-01-01

    Methods are presented for estimating red pine site index from the height growth of red pine, site index of several associated species (jack pine, white pine, white spruce, or quaking aspen), and from easily measured soil properties. The restrictions and limitations of each method and their relative precision are discussed.

  14. Height growth and site index curves for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; Robert O. Curtis

    1985-01-01

    New height growth and site index curves for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) were developed from stem analysis data. The analyses use a reference (site index) age of 20 years and are applicable to natural stands between 5 and 50 years of age in western Washington and northwestern Oregon. The new curves are polymorphic and provide a better fit to observed patterns of...

  15. Site index curves for unmanaged stands of California black oak

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers

    1972-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) is a potentially valuable species of wide distribution in California and southern Oregon. Site index curves related to slope aspect and to the site index of a close associate-ponderosa pine have been developed, and are reported for the first time in this Note. The curves should be useful in estimating...

  16. Interim Site-index Curves for Longleaf Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1980-01-01

    No single set of site-index curves can be uniformly applied to young longleaf pine plantations without a sacrifice in reliability. A recent study using plantation remeasurement data indicated that planting-site condition (old fields and mechanically prepared or unprepared cutover forest sites) has a major impact on early plantation height growth. Stand density (...

  17. Site Index Curves For Upland Oak in the Southeast

    Treesearch

    David J. Olson

    1959-01-01

    These site index curves are based on 697 observations of height on age for white, northern red, southern red, scarlet, black, and chestnut oak in the Virginia- Carolina Piedmont and the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

  18. Site index prediction tables for oak in northwestern West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Neil Lamson

    1980-01-01

    Prediction tables for even-aged stands of white, chestnut, northern red, scarlet, and black oaks can be used to estimate the site index of forest land in 13 counties of northwestern West Virginia. The half-width of the 95 percent confidence interval of the predicted site index is included; it can be used to determine the number of sample trees necessary to attain given...

  19. Site Index for Loblolly Plantations on Cutover Sites in the West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    T.W. Popham; D.P. Feduccia; T.R. Deli; W.F. Mann; T.E. Campbell

    1979-01-01

    Functions used previously to derive height-age relationships for southern pines are compared in order to develop new site index curves for loblolly pine plantations on cutover sites in the lower West Gulf.

  20. White Pine Site Index for the Southern Forest Survey

    Treesearch

    Bernard R. Parresol; John S. Vissage

    1998-01-01

    Second-growth white pine age-height data a A base-ageinvariant polymorphic site index equation was used to model the white pine (Pinus strobus L.) site-quality data provided by Frothingham (1914). These data are the accepted standard used by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. An all...

  1. Formulas of Site Index Prediction Tables for Oak in Missouri

    Treesearch

    Harry V. Jr. Wiant; Robert A. McQuilkin

    1976-01-01

    Recently published site index prediction tables for oak in Missouri were fomulized using the "matchacurve" system. The average absolute differences between formula and table values were .8 feet for white oak and 1.4 feet for black and scarlet oaks; maximum differences were 3.0 and 4.2 feet, respectively.

  2. Slash pine plantation site index curves for the West Gulf

    Treesearch

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; D.P. Feduccia

    1984-01-01

    New slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm) plantation site index curves have been developed for the West Gulf. The guide curve is mathematically simpler than other available models, tracks the data well, and is more biologically reasonable outside the range of data.

  3. Site index prediction tables for black, scarlet and white oaks in southeastern Missouri.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin

    1974-01-01

    Site index prediction tables for black, scarlet, and white oaks for southeastern Missouri are presented based on site index/height regressions of data from 741 sectioned trees. Formulae for site index conversion between species and confidence intervals for mean stand site index estimates are also presented.

  4. Site index curves for black, white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks in the Central States.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1971-01-01

    Stem analyses showed polymorphic patterns of height growth for each species and for different levels of site quality. New site index curves are presented that show better height growth in later years than predicted by older harmonized site index curves.

  5. Revised Site Index Curves for Balsam Fir and White Spruce in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn

    1981-01-01

    The original site index curves for balsam fir and white spruce are revised from a breast height age to a total age basis. Site index values from these revised curves are thus comparable to index values for other species that are based upon total tree age. This note also includes formulations for estimating site index by using computers or programmable, hand-...

  6. Site index comparisons among northern hardwoods in northern Wisconsin and Upper Michigan.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1979-01-01

    Compares site index for 13 species found in even-aged northern hardwood stands. Shows that these species differ greatly in site index when growing together, but can be grouped into four general site index classes. Site relations between several species differed with soil drainage.

  7. Polymorphic site index curves for red fir in California and southern Oregon

    Treesearch

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1991-01-01

    Polymorphic site index curves were developed from stem analysis data of 194 dominant red fir trees in California and southern Oregon. Site index was based on breast-height age and total tree height, with a base age of 50 years at breast height. Site index curves for breast height ages 10 to 160 years are presented for approximate estimates of site index. For more...

  8. Landform and terrain shape indices are related to oak site index in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Jason L. Villwock; John M. Kabrick; W. Henry McNab; Daniel C. Dey

    2011-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachians, metrics for quantifying the geometric shape of the land surface (terrain shape index or "tsi") and of the landform (land form index or "lfi") were developed and found to be correlated to yellow-poplar site index. However, the utility of these metrics for predicting site index for oaks in the Ozark Highlands has not been...

  9. Height intercept for estimating site index in young ponderosa pine plantations and natural stands

    Treesearch

    William W. Oliver

    1972-01-01

    Site index is difficult to estimate with any reliability in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands below 20 yeas old. A method of estimating site index based on 4-year height intercepts (total length of the first four internodes above breast height) is described. Equations based on two sets of published site-index curves were developed. They...

  10. Development of a well-behaved site index equation: jack pine in north central Ontario

    Treesearch

    J. C. G. Goelz; T. E. Burke

    1992-01-01

    A base-age invariant site index equation for jack pine based on the Chapman-Richards function was produced that satisfied nine criteria of preferred behavior for site index equations. A difference form of the Chapman-Richards equation produced the best behavior; height equaled site index at base age, and the shape of the curves reflected the data. The data structure...

  11. A generational change in site index for naturally established longleaf pine on a south Alabama Coastal Plain site

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    2001-01-01

    Research on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) has been carried out for over 50 yr on a Coastal Plain site in south Alabama. Studies have included the original second-growth stands and also naturally established third-growth stands. Site index data revealed that estimated site index values for third growth generally exceeded those for second...

  12. A Generational Change in Site Index for Naturally Established Longleaf Pine on a South Alabama Coastal Plain Site

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    2001-01-01

    Research on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) has been carried out for over 50 yr on a coastal plain site in south Alabama. Studies havie included the original second-growth stands and also naturally established third-growth stands. Site index data revealed that estimated site index values for third growth generally exceeded those for second...

  13. A topographic index to quantify the effect of mesoscale and form on site productivity

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab

    1992-01-01

    Landform is related to environmental factorsthat affectsite productivity in mountainous areas. I devised a simple index of landform and tested this index as a predictor of site index ín the Blue Ridge physiographic province. The landform index is the mean of eight slope gradients from plot center to skyline. A preliminary test indicated that the index was...

  14. Computation of Southern Pine Site Index Using a TI-59 Calculator

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Guldin; Robert M. Farrar

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that permits computation of site index in the field using a Texas Instruments model TI-59 programmable, hand-held, battery-powered calculator. Based on a series of equations developed by R.M. Farrar, Jr., for the site index curves in USDA Miscellaneous Publication 50, the program can accommodate any index base age, tree age, and height within...

  15. Use of plant indicators as an index to site quality

    Treesearch

    Marinus Westveld

    1954-01-01

    In any discussion of site evaluation we need to know first what the forester means by the term "site", and the function site serves in the field of forestry. The term may mean different things to different people.

  16. Site index model for naturally regenerated even-aged longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Dwight K. Lauer; John S. Kush

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Regional Longleaf Growth Study (339 permanent sample plots) were used to develop a site index model for naturally regenerated, even-aged longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). The site index equation was derived using the generalized algebraic difference approach and is base-age invariant. Using height as a measure of site productivity...

  17. How to estimate site index for oaks in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin

    1978-01-01

    How well does a certain tree species grow on a specific tract of land? Foresters traditionally answer this question in terms of "site index"--the average height of dominant and codominant trees at age 50 years in fully stocked, even-aged stands. Site index is widely used as an index of site quality because it is easy to measure and because it correlates well...

  18. Polymorphic site index curves for white pine in the southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck

    1971-01-01

    Site index curves are presented for natural stands of even-aged white pine in the southern Appalachians. The curves are based on measured height-growth trends in 42 stands. Shape of the height-growth curves was shown to change progressively with the level of site index, and these polymorphic trends are incorporated in the finished site-index curves. Comparison of the...

  19. Site index curves for young-growth California white fir on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1987-01-01

    Site index curves for young-growth California white fir were developed by using stem analysis data from 77 dominant and codominant trees growing in mixed-coniferstands on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Site index reference age is 50 years at breast height. A family of 11 curves is presented for site index estimation. For more precise estimates, the site index...

  20. The Effectiveness of Web Search Engines to Index New Sites from Different Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirkola, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Investigates how effectively Web search engines index new sites from different countries. The primary interest is whether new sites are indexed equally or whether search engines are biased towards certain countries. If major search engines show biased coverage it can be considered a significant economic and political problem because…

  1. Erros in Site Index Determination Caused by Tree Age Variation in Even-Aged Oak Stands

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin

    1975-01-01

    Age deviations of individual trees in even-aged oak stands in Missouri caused variations in the height growth patterns and site index estimates of these younger or older trees. A correction factor for site index estimates on these age-deviant trees is given.

  2. Use of dominant tree heights in determining site index for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1948-01-01

    Measuring heights of Douglas-fir trees for the determination of site index is a time-consuming job, especially in dense stands. Both dominant and codominant trees must be measured since site index curves represent the average height of dominants and codominants. It has been suggested that considerable time might be saved if only dominant trees were measured, since...

  3. Applying site-index curves to northern hardwoods in New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon

    1968-01-01

    Describes a new method for testing site-index curves. Study results indicate that Vermont site-index curves for yellow birch, paper birch, white ash, and sugar maple, and New York-Connecticut curves for red maple, can be applied satisfactorily in New Hampshire when used with certain precautions and corrections.

  4. An improved growth intercept method for estimating site index of red pine.

    Treesearch

    David H. Alban

    1972-01-01

    Equations for predicting red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) site index from various internode lengths were developed from ring counts on sectioned trees form 69 natural stands in Minnesota. The precision of estimating site index was much improved by measuring the 5-year growth intercept beginning at 7 feet above the ground rather than at the conventional breast height....

  5. Problems in Relating Soil to Site Index For Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot

    1969-01-01

    Various soil-site characters were correlated with height growth of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus falcata var. pagodaefolia Ell., Q. nigra L., Q. phellos L., Q. nutallii Palmer, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and Populus...

  6. Predicting Site Index in Young Black Walnut Plantations

    Treesearch

    Craig K. Losche; Richard C. Schlesinger

    1975-01-01

    Prediction of black walnut height at age 25 is graphically represented for two soil-site groups. The landowner or manager can use this growth prediction to assess the productivity of yung black walnut plantations.

  7. Site index, height growth, normal yields and stocking levels for larch in Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    P.H. Cochran

    1985-01-01

    Even-aged stands of larch in Oregon and Washington have cubic volume yields similar to yields from larch in Idaho and Montana. Site index values derived from the heights of the single tallest tree on 1/5-acre plots at an age at breast height of 50 years range from 50 to 110 feet. These values have the same index to productivity as the site index values of 30 to 90 feet...

  8. Height growth and site index curves for Douglas-fir on dry sites in the Willamette National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Joseph E Means; Mary E. Helm

    1985-01-01

    Equations and curves are presented for estimating height and site index of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) on hot, dry sites in the Willamette National Forest in western Oregon. The equations are based on the dissected stems of 27 trees. The curves differ from those previously published for Douglas-fir. Instructions are presented...

  9. A proposed site index for red spruce in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    T. F. McLintock; C. A. Bickford

    1957-01-01

    A basic principle that should be recognized at the start of any forward-looking forest-management plan is that the intensity or level of management that can be profitably applied to a given tract will be controlled largely by four factors: markets, labor supply, accessibility, and site. The more favorable these factors are, the higher the intensity of management that...

  10. Predicting lodgepole pine site index from climatic parameters in Alberta.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Shongming Huang; Yuqing. Yang

    2006-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the impact of climatic variables on site productivity of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) for the province of Alberta. Climatic data were obtained from the Alberta Climate Model, which is based on 30-year normals from the provincial weather station network. Mapping methods were based...

  11. Site-index curves for young-growth ponderosa pine in northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Minor

    1964-01-01

    The productive capacity or site quality of an area enters into nearly every phase of forest management from regeneration to final harvest. No standards or measures of site quality have been developed specifically for ponderosa pine in the Southwest, which handicaps the forest manager. The major objective of the present study was to develop the basic site-index curves...

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  13. Performance assessment of the risk index category for surgical site infection after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanori; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nomura, Satoshi; Hanawa, Hidetsugu; Chihara, Naoto; Mizutani, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masanori; Uchida, Eiji

    2015-02-01

    The traditional National Healthcare Safety Network (previously National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance) risk index is used to predict the risk of surgical site infection across many operative procedures. However, this index may be too simple to predict risk in the various procedures performed in colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the risk index by analyzing the impact of the risk index factors on surgical site infection after abdominal colorectal surgery. Using our surgical site infection surveillance database, we analyzed retrospectively 538 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal colorectal surgery between 2005 and 2010. Correlations between surgical site infection and the following risk index factors were analyzed: length of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, wound classification, and use of laparoscopy. The 75th percentile for length of operation was determined separately for open and laparoscopic surgery in the study model. Univariate analyses showed that surgical site infection was more strongly associated with a >75th percentile length of operation in the study model (odds ratio [OR], 2.07) than in the traditional risk index model (OR, 1.64). Multivariable analysis found that surgical site infection was independently associated with a >75th percentile length of operation in the study model (OR, 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-4.55), American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.10-4.34), wound classification ≥III (OR, 5.29; 95% CI, 2.62-10.69), and open surgery (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.07-5.17). Performance of the risk index category was improved in the study model compared with the traditional model. The risk index category is sufficiently useful for predicting the risk of surgical site infection after abdominal colorectal surgery. However, the 75th percentile length of operation should be set separately for open and laparoscopic surgery.

  14. Self-referencing site index equations for unmanaged loblolly and slash pine plantations in east Texas

    Treesearch

    Dean W. Coble; Young-Jin Lee

    2010-01-01

    The Schnute growth function was used in this study to model site index for unmanaged or low-intensity managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii, Engelm.) plantations in east Texas. The algebraic difference approach was used to derive an anamorphic base-age invariant site function that was fit as a...

  15. Site index comparisons for forest species in the Upper Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn; Ronald E. McRoberts; D. Kaisershot

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes six studies that compare site index relations between 24 hardwood and conifer species in the Upper Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada. These six studies have many regression models and graphs for comparing site index between forest species thus providing tools for estimating site index for alternative tree species based on direct...

  16. Growth Intercept as an Indicator of Site Index in Natural Stands of White Pine in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck

    1971-01-01

    Equations are presented for estimating site index from periodic height growth in natural, even-aged stands of white pine in the Southern Appalachians. Site index can be estimated from height growth during both 3-year and 5-year periods, beginning with the year in which breast height was reached. In stands less than 15 years old, estimates of site index from 5-year...

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 9, Index

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  18. Development of a Habitat Suitability Index Model for the Sage Sparrow on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Mitigation threshold guidelines for the Hanford Site are based on habitat requirements of the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli) and only apply to areas with a mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) overstory and a native understory. The sage sparrow habitat requirements are based on literature values and are not specific to the Hanford Site. To refine these guidelines for the Site, a multi-year study was undertaken to quantify habitat characteristics of sage sparrow territories. These characteristics were then used to develop a habitat suitability index (HSI) model which can be used to estimate the habitat value of specific locations on the Site.

  19. Relation of biomass to basal area and site index on an Appalachian watershed

    Treesearch

    Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Robert Knight; John E. Baumgras

    1984-01-01

    The biomass of 50-year-old cove hardwood and upland oak stands on an Appalachian watershed was more strongly related to basal area than to site index. Equations are presented for predicting the green and dry weight per acre of biomass components with basal area as the independent variable.

  20. Biological growth functions describe published site index curves for Lake States timber species.

    Treesearch

    Allen L. Lundgren; William A. Dolid

    1970-01-01

    Two biological growth functions, an exponential-monomolecular function and a simple monomolecular function, have been fit to published site index curves for 11 Lake States tree species: red, jack, and white pine, balsam fir, white and black spruce, tamarack, white-cedar, aspen, red oak, and paper birch. Both functions closely fit all published curves except those for...

  1. Site Index Curves for Direct-Seeded Loblolly and Longleaf Pines in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Quang V. Cao; V. Clark Baldwin; Richard E. Lohrey

    1995-01-01

    Site index equations were developed for direct-seeded loblollypine (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) based on data from 148 and 75 permanent plots, respectively. These plots varied from 0.053 to 0.119 ac in size, and were established in broadcast, row, and spot seeded stands throughout Louisiana. The Bailey and Clutter (1974) model was...

  2. Estimating site index of ponderosa pine in Northern California...standard curves, soil series, stem analysis

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers

    1972-01-01

    Four sets of standard site index curves based on statewide or regionwide averages were compared with data on natural growth from nine young stands of ponderosa pine in northern California. The curves tested were by Meyer; Dunning; Dunning and Reineke; and Arvanitis, Lindquist, and Palley. The effects of soils on height growth were also studied. Among the curves tested...

  3. Process-based index modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site agrichemical movement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    dentifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient agrichemical use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to...

  4. Longleaf pine cone production in relation to site index, stand age, and stand density

    Treesearch

    Thomas Croker

    1973-01-01

    Few cones were produced in stands less than 30 years old. In stands 30 to 70 years in age, production seemed best at timber densities of about 30 square feet of basal area per acre, and tended to increase with increasing site index.

  5. An Updated Site Index Equation for Naturally Regenerated Longleaf Pine Stands

    Treesearch

    Jyoti N. Rayamajhi; John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl

    1999-01-01

    From 1964 to 1967. the U.S. Forest Service established the Regional Longleaf Growth Study (RLGS) in the Gulf States with the objective of obtaining a database for the development of prediction systems for naturally regenerated, even-aged. longleaf pine stands. The database has been used for numerous quantitative studies. One of these efforts was a site index equation...

  6. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Treesearch

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  7. Height-age and site index curves for Pacific silver fir in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Hoyer; Francis R. Herman

    1989-01-01

    Forty felled dominant and codominant Pacific silver fir trees (Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes) from 39 locations provided the basis for height-age and site index curves. Trees were from upper slope forests of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Trees ranged in age from 100 to 300 years and were identified by their height-growth trend as...

  8. Adjusting site index and age to account for genetic effects in yield equations for loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Knowe; G. Sam Foster

    2010-01-01

    Nine combinations of site index curves and age adjustments methods were evaluated for incorporating genetic effects for open-pollinated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) families. An explicit yield system consisting of dominant height, basal area, and merchantable green weight functions was used to compare the accuracy of predictions associated with...

  9. Evaluation of Two Eastern White Pine Site Index Equations at Biltmore Estate, North Carolina

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; Bernard R. Parresol; Brian A. Ritter

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of two white pine (Pinus strobus L.) polymorphic site index equations was compared with field data from three plots in a loo-year-old stand at Biltmore Estate, Asheville, NC. One equation was developed from New Hampshire data and the other from Southern Appalachian data. Tree height has been measured periodically on those plots between...

  10. Accuracy of eastern white pine site index models developed in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab

    2002-01-01

    Three older, anamorphic eastern white pine (Pinus sfrobus L.) site index models developed in the southern Appalachian Mountains between 1932 and 1962 were evaluated for accuracy and compared with a newer, polymorphic model developed in 1971. Accuracies of the older models were tested with data used in development of the 1971 model, in which actual...

  11. Lodgepole pine site index in relation to synoptic measures of climate, soil moisture and soil nutrients.

    Treesearch

    G. Geoff Wang; Shongming Huang; Robert A. Monserud; Ryan J. Klos

    2004-01-01

    Lodgepole pine site index was examined in relation to synoptic measures of topography, soil moisture, and soil nutrients in Alberta. Data came from 214 lodgepole pine-dominated stands sampled as a part of the provincial permanent sample plot program. Spatial location (elevation, latitude, and longitude) and natural subregions (NSRs) were topographic variables that...

  12. Estimating site index from tree species composition in mixed stands of upland eastern hardwoods: Should shrubs be included?

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab

    2010-01-01

    Site index is the most widely used method for site quality assessment in hardwood forests of the eastern United States. Its application in most oak (Quercus sp. L.) dominated stands is often problematic, however, because available sample trees usually do not meet important underlying assumptions of the method. A prototype method for predicting site index from tree...

  13. Simulating the effects of site index variation within loblolly pine plantations using an individual tree growth and yield model

    Treesearch

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Site index is the most common metric of site productivity in loblolly pine plantations. Generally applied as a constant for a particular stand, it provides an overall measure of a site’s ability to grow trees. It is well known, however, that even the most uniform stands can have considerable variation in site index due to soil factors that influence microsite,...

  14. Contribution to an Automated Indexing of French-language Health Web Sites

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Michel; Peretti, Anne-Laure; Darmoni, Stefan; Dahamna, Badisse; Fieschi, Marius

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To improve the indexing of French-language health web sites by emphasizing the major terms that best describe them. Material and methods This study exploits both UMLS knowledge sources and results of previous research. It proposes a method for ranking MeSH terms taken from each record in order of relevance. The method is tested on a corpus of records taken from the French-language health gateway CISMeF. Results The results of the experiment are compared to those of a preliminary study performed on a corpus taken from MEDLINE. Discussion The ultimate objective of this work is to interface the developed tools with an automated MeSH term extractor in order to propose an automated indexing engine for French-language health web sites. PMID:17238373

  15. Contribution to an automated indexing of French-language health web sites.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Michel; Peretti, Anne-Laure; Darmoni, Stefan; Dahamna, Badisse; Fieschi, Marius

    2006-01-01

    to improve the indexing of French-language health web sites by emphasizing the major terms that best describe them. this study exploits both UMLS knowledge sources and results of previous research. It proposes a method for ranking MeSH terms taken from each record in order of relevance. The method is tested on a corpus of records taken from the French-language health gateway CISMeF. the results of the experiment are compared to those of a preliminary study performed on a corpus taken from MEDLINE. the ultimate objective of this work is to interface the developed tools with an automated MeSH term extractor in order to propose an automated indexing engine for French-language health web sites.

  16. Site Index Evaluations in a 100-Year-Old Eastern White Pine Plantation at the Biltmore Estate, NC

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; Brian A. Ritter

    1999-01-01

    The precision of these equations for estimating site index and the effects of four topographic variables on total height were evaluated in a 1.6-acre planted stand of 100-year-old eastern white pines (Pinus strobus L.) on the Biltmore Estate near Asheville, NC. A polymorphic site index equation developed for the Southern Appalachian Mountains was...

  17. Height growth and site index curves for western white pine in the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Nancy M. Diaz; Gary W. Clendenen

    1990-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves were constructed from stem analyses of mature western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) growing in high-elevation forests of the Cascade Range in the Mount Hood and Gifford Pinchot National Forests of Oregon and Washington, respectively. Alternate systems using reference ages for site index of 50 and...

  18. Optimal landing site selection based on safety index during planetary descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Pingyuan; Ge, Dantong; Gao, Ai

    2017-03-01

    Landing safety is the prior concern in planetary exploration missions. With the development of precise landing technology, future missions require vehicles to land on places of great scientific interest which are usually surrounded by rocks and craters. In order to perform a safe landing, the vehicle should be capable of detecting hazards, estimating its fuel consumption as well as touchdown performance, and locating a safe spot to land. The landing site selection process can be treated as an optimization problem which, however, cannot be efficiently solved through traditional optimization methods due to its complexity. Hence, the paper proposes a synthetic landing area assessment criterion, safety index, as a solution of the problem, which selects the best landing site by assessing terrain safety, fuel consumption and touchdown performance during descent. The computation effort is cut down after reducing the selection scope and the optimal landing site is found through a quick one-dimensional search. A typical example based on the Mars Science Laboratory mission is simulated to demonstrate the capability of the method. It is proved that the proposed strategy manages to pick out a safe landing site for the mission effectively. The safety index can be applied in various planetary descent phases and provides reference for future mission designs.

  19. Intercomparison of clumping index estimates from POLDER, MODIS, and MISR satellite data over reference sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, Jan; Govind, Ajit; Arndt, Stefan K.; Hocking, Darren; Wardlaw, Timothy J.; Fang, Hongliang; Matteucci, Giorgio; Longdoz, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Clumping index is the measure of foliage grouping relative to a random distribution of leaves in space. It is a key structural parameter of plant canopies that influences canopy radiation regimes and controls canopy photosynthesis and other land-atmosphere interactions. The Normalized Difference between Hotspot and Darkspot (NDHD) index has been previously used to retrieve global clumping index maps from POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER) data at ∼6 km resolution and the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500 m resolution. Most recently the algorithm was also applied with Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data at 275 m resolution over selected areas. In this study for the first time we characterized and compared the three products over a set of sites representing diverse biomes and different canopy structures. The products were also directly validated with both in-situ vertical profiles and available seasonal trajectories of clumping index over several sites. We demonstrated that the vertical distribution of foliage and especially the effect of understory need to be taken into account while validating foliage clumping products from remote sensing products with values measured in the field. Satellite measurements responded to the structural effects near the top of canopies, while ground measurements may be biased by the lower vegetation layers. Additionally, caution should be taken regarding the misclassification in land cover maps as their errors can propagate into the foliage clumping maps. Our results indicate that MODIS data and MISR data, with 275 m in particular, can provide good quality clumping index estimates at spatial scales pertinent for modeling local carbon and energy fluxes.

  20. Assessment of groundwater quality near the landfill site using the modified water quality index.

    PubMed

    Talalaj, Izabela A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the groundwater quality near a landfill site using the modified water quality index. A total of 128 groundwater samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Hg. The analytical results have showed a decreasing trend in concentration for TOC, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cu and an increasing one for pH, EC, and PAH. The modified water quality index, which was called landfill water pollution index (LWPI), was calculated to quantify the overall water quality near the landfill site. The analysis reveals that groundwater in piezometers close to the landfill is under a strong landfill impact. The LWPI in piezometers ranged from 0.52 to 98.25 with a mean value of 7.99. The LWPI in groundwater from the nearest house wells varied from 0.59 to 0.92. A LWPI value below 1 proves that analyzed water is not affected by the landfill. Results have shown that LWPI is an efficient method for assessing and communicating the information on the groundwater quality near the landfill.

  1. Statistical mechanics of multi-index matching problems with site disorder.

    PubMed

    Dean, David S; Lancaster, David

    2006-10-01

    We study the statistical mechanics of multi-index matching problems where the quenched disorder is a geometric site disorder rather than a link disorder. A recently developed functional formalism is exploited that yields exact results in the finite-temperature thermodynamic limit. Particular attention is paid to the zero-temperature limit of maximal matching problems where the method allows us to obtain the average value of the optimal match and also sheds light on the algorithmic heuristics leading to that optimal match.

  2. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  3. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  5. Evaluating Variability and Uncertainty of Geological Strength Index at a Specific Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Aladejare, Adeyemi Emman

    2016-09-01

    Geological Strength Index (GSI) is an important parameter for estimating rock mass properties. GSI can be estimated from quantitative GSI chart, as an alternative to the direct observational method which requires vast geological experience of rock. GSI chart was developed from past observations and engineering experience, with either empiricism or some theoretical simplifications. The GSI chart thereby contains model uncertainty which arises from its development. The presence of such model uncertainty affects the GSI estimated from GSI chart at a specific site; it is, therefore, imperative to quantify and incorporate the model uncertainty during GSI estimation from the GSI chart. A major challenge for quantifying the GSI chart model uncertainty is a lack of the original datasets that have been used to develop the GSI chart, since the GSI chart was developed from past experience without referring to specific datasets. This paper intends to tackle this problem by developing a Bayesian approach for quantifying the model uncertainty in GSI chart when using it to estimate GSI at a specific site. The model uncertainty in the GSI chart and the inherent spatial variability in GSI are modeled explicitly in the Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach generates equivalent samples of GSI from the integrated knowledge of GSI chart, prior knowledge and observation data available from site investigation. Equations are derived for the Bayesian approach, and the proposed approach is illustrated using data from a drill and blast tunnel project. The proposed approach effectively tackles the problem of how to quantify the model uncertainty that arises from using GSI chart for characterization of site-specific GSI in a transparent manner.

  6. Jaccard index based similarity measure to compare transcription factor binding site models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Positional weight matrix (PWM) remains the most popular for quantification of transcription factor (TF) binding. PWM supplied with a score threshold defines a set of putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), thus providing a TFBS model. TF binding DNA fragments obtained by different experimental methods usually give similar but not identical PWMs. This is also common for different TFs from the same structural family. Thus it is often necessary to measure the similarity between PWMs. The popular tools compare PWMs directly using matrix elements. Yet, for log-odds PWMs, negative elements do not contribute to the scores of highly scoring TFBS and thus may be different without affecting the sets of the best recognized binding sites. Moreover, the two TFBS sets recognized by a given pair of PWMs can be more or less different depending on the score thresholds. Results We propose a practical approach for comparing two TFBS models, each consisting of a PWM and the respective scoring threshold. The proposed measure is a variant of the Jaccard index between two TFBS sets. The measure defines a metric space for TFBS models of all finite lengths. The algorithm can compare TFBS models constructed using substantially different approaches, like PWMs with raw positional counts and log-odds. We present the efficient software implementation: MACRO-APE (MAtrix CompaRisOn by Approximate P-value Estimation). Conclusions MACRO-APE can be effectively used to compute the Jaccard index based similarity for two TFBS models. A two-pass scanning algorithm is presented to scan a given collection of PWMs for PWMs similar to a given query. Availability and implementation MACRO-APE is implemented in ruby 1.9; software including source code and a manual is freely available at http://autosome.ru/macroape/ and in supplementary materials. PMID:24074225

  7. Site index curves for white fir in the southwestern United States developed using a guide curve method

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Mathiasen; William K. Olsen; Carleton B. Edminster

    2006-01-01

    Site index curves for white fir (Abies concolor) in Arizona, New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado were developed using height-age measurements and an estimated guide curve and 95% confidence intervals for individual predictions. The curves were developed using height-age data for 1,048 white firs from 263 study sites distributed across eight...

  8. Influence of ASA score and Charlson Comorbidity Index on the surgical site infection rates.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mansoor; Rooh-ul-Muqim; Zarin, Mohammad; Khalil, Jawad; Salman, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    To compare the frequencies of surgical site infections (SSI) in ASA class-I (American Society of Anaesthesiologists-I) with ASA class II-III and CCI-0 (Charlson Co-morbidity Index-0) with CCI 1-6 in clean (C) and clean contaminated (CC) surgeries. Analytical study. This study was conducted in a General Surgical Unit of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from December 2008 to April 2009. A total of 310 clean and clean contaminated general surgical interventions with pre-operative ASA score of I-III, were included in the study, excluding anal and cystoscopic procedures. On the basis of past medical record, patients were grouped into ASA-I (patients without any co-morbidity) and ASA II-III (patients with co-morbidities) on the basis of their ASA score pre-operatively. In the same way patients were divided into CCI-0 (patients without co-morbidities) and CC 1-6 (patients with co-morbidities) according to CCI score. All the patients were operated in the same environment by the same set of surgeons. Postoperatively the surgical wounds were observed for SSI by using ASEPSIS daily scoring system for one month prospectively. SSI rates in ASA-I was compared with SSI rates in ASA II-III. Similar comparison of SSI rates was performed in CCI-0 and CCI 1-6. Data was tested by using the Fisher's exact test with confidence interval of 95%. The overall SSI rate was 6.1% (n=19) with 4.23% (n=5) in clean cases (C) and 7.29% (n=14) in clean contaminated cases (CC). There were significantly higher surgical site infection rates among patients in ASA II-III than those with ASA-I in clean contaminated surgeries (p=0.003). There were also significantly higher surgical site infection rates among patients with CCI score 1-6 than those with CCI-0 in clean (p=0.024) and clean contaminated (p=0.002). American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) has strong influence on SSI rates in clean and clean contaminated cases. Patients' with co

  9. Crystal structures of heterotypic nucleosomes containing histones H2A.Z and H2A

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Naoki; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    H2A.Z is incorporated into nucleosomes located around transcription start sites and functions as an epigenetic regulator for the transcription of certain genes. During transcriptional regulation, the heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome containing one each of H2A.Z and H2A is formed. However, previous homotypic H2A.Z nucleosome structures suggested that the L1 loop region of H2A.Z would sterically clash with the corresponding region of canonical H2A in the heterotypic nucleosome. To resolve this issue, we determined the crystal structures of heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosomes. In the H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome structure, the H2A.Z L1 loop structure was drastically altered without any structural changes of the canonical H2A L1 loop, thus avoiding the steric clash. Unexpectedly, the heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome is more stable than the homotypic H2A.Z nucleosome. These data suggested that the flexible character of the H2A.Z L1 loop plays an essential role in forming the stable heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome. PMID:27358293

  10. Crystal structures of heterotypic nucleosomes containing histones H2A.Z and H2A.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Naoki; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    H2A.Z is incorporated into nucleosomes located around transcription start sites and functions as an epigenetic regulator for the transcription of certain genes. During transcriptional regulation, the heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome containing one each of H2A.Z and H2A is formed. However, previous homotypic H2A.Z nucleosome structures suggested that the L1 loop region of H2A.Z would sterically clash with the corresponding region of canonical H2A in the heterotypic nucleosome. To resolve this issue, we determined the crystal structures of heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosomes. In the H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome structure, the H2A.Z L1 loop structure was drastically altered without any structural changes of the canonical H2A L1 loop, thus avoiding the steric clash. Unexpectedly, the heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome is more stable than the homotypic H2A.Z nucleosome. These data suggested that the flexible character of the H2A.Z L1 loop plays an essential role in forming the stable heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Constitutive turnover of histone H2A.Z at yeast promoters requires the preinitiation complex

    PubMed Central

    Tramantano, Michael; Sun, Lu; Au, Christy; Labuz, Daniel; Liu, Zhimin; Chou, Mindy; Shen, Chen; Luk, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of the preinitiation complex (PIC) occurs upstream of the +1 nucleosome which, in yeast, obstructs the transcription start site and is frequently assembled with the histone variant H2A.Z. To understand the contribution of the transcription machinery in the disassembly of the +1 H2A.Z nucleosome, conditional mutants were used to block PIC assembly. A quantitative ChIP-seq approach, which allows detection of global occupancy change, was employed to measure H2A.Z occupancy. Blocking PIC assembly resulted in promoter-specific H2A.Z accumulation, indicating that the PIC is required to evict H2A.Z. By contrast, H2A.Z eviction was unaffected upon depletion of INO80, a remodeler previously reported to displace nucleosomal H2A.Z. Robust PIC-dependent H2A.Z eviction was observed at active and infrequently transcribed genes, indicating that constitutive H2A.Z turnover is a general phenomenon. Finally, sites with strong H2A.Z turnover precisely mark transcript starts, providing a new metric for identifying cryptic and alternative sites of initiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14243.001 PMID:27438412

  12. Engelmann spruce site index models: a comparison of model functions and parameterizations.

    PubMed

    Nigh, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) is a high-elevation species found in western Canada and western USA. As this species becomes increasingly targeted for harvesting, better height growth information is required for good management of this species. This project was initiated to fill this need. The objective of the project was threefold: develop a site index model for Engelmann spruce; compare the fits and modelling and application issues between three model formulations and four parameterizations; and more closely examine the grounded-Generalized Algebraic Difference Approach (g-GADA) model parameterization. The model fitting data consisted of 84 stem analyzed Engelmann spruce site trees sampled across the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir biogeoclimatic zone. The fitted models were based on the Chapman-Richards function, a modified Hossfeld IV function, and the Schumacher function. The model parameterizations that were tested are indicator variables, mixed-effects, GADA, and g-GADA. Model evaluation was based on the finite-sample corrected version of Akaike's Information Criteria and the estimated variance. Model parameterization had more of an influence on the fit than did model formulation, with the indicator variable method providing the best fit, followed by the mixed-effects modelling (9% increase in the variance for the Chapman-Richards and Schumacher formulations over the indicator variable parameterization), g-GADA (optimal approach) (335% increase in the variance), and the GADA/g-GADA (with the GADA parameterization) (346% increase in the variance). Factors related to the application of the model must be considered when selecting the model for use as the best fitting methods have the most barriers in their application in terms of data and software requirements.

  13. Estimating switchgrass productivity in the Great Plains using satellite vegetation index and site environmental variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass is being evaluated as a potential feedstock source for cellulosic biofuels and is being cultivated in several regions of the United States. The recent availability of switchgrass land cover maps derived from the National Agricultural Statistics Service cropland data layer for the conterminous United States provides an opportunity to assess the environmental conditions of switchgrass over large areas and across different geographic locations. The main goal of this study is to develop a data-driven multiple regression switchgrass productivity model and identify the optimal climate and environment conditions for the highly productive switchgrass in the Great Plains (GP). Environmental and climate variables used in the study include elevation, soil organic carbon, available water capacity, climate, and seasonal weather. Satellite-derived growing season averaged Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) was used as a proxy for switchgrass productivity. Multiple regression analyses indicate that there are strong correlations between site environmental variables and switchgrass productivity (r = 0.95). Sufficient precipitation and suitable temperature during the growing season (i.e., not too hot or too cold) are favorable for switchgrass growth. Elevation and soil characteristics (e.g., soil available water capacity) are also an important factor impacting switchgrass productivity. An anticipated switchgrass biomass productivity map for the entire GP based on site environmental and climate conditions and switchgrass productivity model was generated. Highly productive switchgrass areas are mainly located in the eastern part of the GP. Results from this study can help land managers and biofuel plant investors better understand the general environmental and climate conditions influencing switchgrass growth and make optimal land use decisions regarding switchgrass development in the GP.

  14. Engelmann Spruce Site Index Models: A Comparison of Model Functions and Parameterizations

    PubMed Central

    Nigh, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) is a high-elevation species found in western Canada and western USA. As this species becomes increasingly targeted for harvesting, better height growth information is required for good management of this species. This project was initiated to fill this need. The objective of the project was threefold: develop a site index model for Engelmann spruce; compare the fits and modelling and application issues between three model formulations and four parameterizations; and more closely examine the grounded-Generalized Algebraic Difference Approach (g-GADA) model parameterization. The model fitting data consisted of 84 stem analyzed Engelmann spruce site trees sampled across the Engelmann Spruce – Subalpine Fir biogeoclimatic zone. The fitted models were based on the Chapman-Richards function, a modified Hossfeld IV function, and the Schumacher function. The model parameterizations that were tested are indicator variables, mixed-effects, GADA, and g-GADA. Model evaluation was based on the finite-sample corrected version of Akaike’s Information Criteria and the estimated variance. Model parameterization had more of an influence on the fit than did model formulation, with the indicator variable method providing the best fit, followed by the mixed-effects modelling (9% increase in the variance for the Chapman-Richards and Schumacher formulations over the indicator variable parameterization), g-GADA (optimal approach) (335% increase in the variance), and the GADA/g-GADA (with the GADA parameterization) (346% increase in the variance). Factors related to the application of the model must be considered when selecting the model for use as the best fitting methods have the most barriers in their application in terms of data and software requirements. PMID:25853472

  15. Development of a Regression Kriging Model Conditioned with Sequential Gaussian Simulation to Predict the Spatial Distribution of Site Index for The Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Lloyd; Parresol, Bernie

    2012-09-17

    The primary research objective of the project is to determine an optimum model to spatially interpolate point derived tree site index (SI). This optimum model will use relevant data from 635 measured sample points to create continuous 40 meter SI raster layer of entire study extent.

  16. Leaf area index measurements at the middle reaches of Heihe River forest sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jie; Yan, Guang-jian; Zhang, Wu-ming; Zhu, Ling; Chen, Ling

    2008-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important parameters of canopy structure as it related to many biophysical and physiological processes, including photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, carbon cycling, rain intercepting, net primary productivity, energy exchanging etc. Rapid, accurate and reliable estimations of LAI are required in these studies above. There are two main categories of procedures to estimate LAI: direct and indirect methods. The objective of this study is to evaluate LAI estimations obtained by different methods in HeiHe River forest sites. These methods include the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer, HemiView, fifty-seven degree photography method, fisheye photography method, the tracing radiation and architecture of canopies (TRAC), and Multi-Purpose Canopy Observation System (MCOS). HemiView shows a large variation on gap fraction measurements compared to LAI-2000, fifty-seven degree photography method is the superior choice to provide initial LAI values compared to other methods. To determine the non-photosynthesis elements and foliage clumping effects for optical methods, a new device named MCOS (Multi- Purpose Canopy Observation System) and TRAC were used. Finally, the results show that with the combination of MCOS or TRAC and LAI-2000 or hemispherical photography can provide accurate and efficient LAI values.

  17. Site-specific conjugation of a cytotoxic drug to an antibody improves the therapeutic index.

    PubMed

    Junutula, Jagath R; Raab, Helga; Clark, Suzanna; Bhakta, Sunil; Leipold, Douglas D; Weir, Sylvia; Chen, Yvonne; Simpson, Michelle; Tsai, Siao Ping; Dennis, Mark S; Lu, Yanmei; Meng, Y Gloria; Ng, Carl; Yang, Jihong; Lee, Chien C; Duenas, Eileen; Gorrell, Jeffrey; Katta, Viswanatham; Kim, Amy; McDorman, Kevin; Flagella, Kelly; Venook, Rayna; Ross, Sarajane; Spencer, Susan D; Lee Wong, Wai; Lowman, Henry B; Vandlen, Richard; Sliwkowski, Mark X; Scheller, Richard H; Polakis, Paul; Mallet, William

    2008-08-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates enhance the antitumor effects of antibodies and reduce adverse systemic effects of potent cytotoxic drugs. However, conventional drug conjugation strategies yield heterogenous conjugates with relatively narrow therapeutic index (maximum tolerated dose/curative dose). Using leads from our previously described phage display-based method to predict suitable conjugation sites, we engineered cysteine substitutions at positions on light and heavy chains that provide reactive thiol groups and do not perturb immunoglobulin folding and assembly, or alter antigen binding. When conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E, an antibody against the ovarian cancer antigen MUC16 is as efficacious as a conventional conjugate in mouse xenograft models. Moreover, it is tolerated at higher doses in rats and cynomolgus monkeys than the same conjugate prepared by conventional approaches. The favorable in vivo properties of the near-homogenous composition of this conjugate suggest that our strategy offers a general approach to retaining the antitumor efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates, while minimizing their systemic toxicity.

  18. Groundwater site identification indexes for Washington, D.C., Baltimore City, and the counties of Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    These datasets represent 23 geographic 5-minute indexes for the counties of Maryland, one 2 1/2-minute index for Washington D.C., and 1-mile square index for Baltimore City. There are 25 vector polygon datasets covered by this metadata report.

  19. Height growth and site index curves for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    James W. Barrett

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents height growth and site index curves and equations for even-aged, managed stands of ponderosa pine east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington where height growth has not been suppressed by high density or related factors.

  20. Bayesian spatial prediction of the site index in the study of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    Xiaoqian Sun; Zhuoqiong He; John Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Bayesian spatial method for analysing the site index data from the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP). Based on ecological background and availability, we select three variables, the aspect class, the soil depth and the land type association as covariates for analysis. To allow great flexibility of the smoothness of the random field,...

  1. LiDAR-derived site index in the U.S. Pacihic Northwest--challenges and opportunities

    Treesearch

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    2007-01-01

    Site Index (SI), a key inventory parameter, is traditionally estimated by using costly and laborious field assessments of tree height and age. The increasing availability of reliable information on stand initiation timing and extent of planted, even-aged stands maintained in digital databases suggests that information on the height of dominant trees suffices for...

  2. Effects of Landform on site index for two mesophytic tree species in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, USA

    Treesearch

    W.Henry. McNab

    2010-01-01

    The effects of soil and topographic variables on forest site index were determined for two mesophytic tree species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Stand variables included soil solum thickness, soil A-horizon thickness,...

  3. Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative surgical site infections in gastrointestinal fistula patients undergoing bowel resections

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiongyuan; Wang, Gefei; Ren, Jianan; Ren, Huajian; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Ranran; Guo, Kun; Deng, Youming; Li, Yuan; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Lei; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have implied a prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in postoperative septic complications of elective colorectal surgeries. However, the evaluation of PNI in contaminated surgeries for gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients is lack of investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive value of PNI in surgical site infections (SSIs) for GI fistula patients undergoing bowel resections. A retrospective review of 290 GI patients who underwent intestinal resections between November 2012 and October 2015 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for SSIs, and receiver operating characteristic cure was used to quantify the effectiveness of PNI. SSIs were diagnosed in 99 (34.1%) patients, with incisional infection identified in 54 patients (18.6%), deep incisional infection in 13 (4.5%), and organ/space infection in 32 (11.0%). receiver operating characteristic curve analysis defined a PNI cut-off level of 45 corresponding to postoperative SSIs (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72, 76% sensitivity, 55% specificity). Furthermore, a multivariate analysis indicated that the PNI < 45 [odd ratio (OR): 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–4.61, P = 0.029] and leukocytosis (OR: 3.70, 95% CI: 1.02–13.42, P = 0.046) were independently associated with postoperative SSIs. Preoperative PNI is a simple and useful marker to predict SSIs in GI fistula patients after enterectomies. Measurement of PNI is therefore recommended in the routine assessment of patients with GI fistula receiving surgical treatment. PMID:27399098

  4. Empirical assessment of incorporating sediment quality triad data into a single index to distinguish dominant stressors between sites.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, S Ian; Hameedi, M J; Pait, A S

    2011-03-01

    Benthic infaunal community structure, sediment contamination, and sediment toxicity data (Sediment Quality Triad) were condensed into a single index based on the area of tri-axial plots, which were examined in relation to various habitat parameters. The purpose was to assess its utility for evaluating the relative impact of contaminants versus other stressors on benthic communities. The regression relationship between the areal index and the Effects Range-Median quotient (ERMq) was used to separate contaminant-impacted sites from sites impacted by hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay. Regression using the areal index and bottom oxygen confirm the utility of the approach. Data from Delaware, Galveston, and Biscayne Bays were also examined to determine if the approach may be effective in other estuaries.

  5. H2A.Z nucleosomes enriched over active genes are homotypic.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christopher M; Henikoff, Jorja G; Henikoff, Steven

    2010-12-01

    Nucleosomes that contain the histone variant H2A.Z are enriched around transcriptional start sites, but the mechanistic basis for this enrichment is unknown. A single octameric nucleosome can contain two H2A.Z histones (homotypic) or one H2A.Z and one canonical H2A (heterotypic). To elucidate the function of H2A.Z, we generated high-resolution maps of homotypic and heterotypic Drosophila H2A.Z (H2Av) nucleosomes. Although homotypic and heterotypic H2A.Z nucleosomes mapped throughout most of the genome, homotypic nucleosomes were enriched and heterotypic nucleosomes were depleted downstream of active promoters and intron-exon junctions. The distribution of homotypic H2A.Z nucleosomes resembled that of classical active chromatin and showed evidence of disruption during transcriptional elongation. Both homotypic H2A.Z nucleosomes and classical active chromatin were depleted downstream of paused polymerases. Our results suggest that H2A.Z enrichment patterns result from intrinsic structural differences between heterotypic and homotypic H2A.Z nucleosomes that follow disruption during transcriptional elongation.

  6. Creating an Index for Your Web Site to Make Info Easier to See

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedden, Heather

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how librarians can ensure that their Web site visitors find the information they need. The pros and cons of four options used to help people find information on a Web site are explored. These options are: (1) redesigning the site; (2) creating drop-down, second-level menus for second-level pages; (3) adding a…

  7. Site index of Delaware-Maryland sweetgum stands in relation to soil characteristics

    Treesearch

    John J. Phillips

    1966-01-01

    Intensive forest management requires knowledge about the differences in productivity of land areas or sites. The suitability of management systems and stand treatments often depends on the potential of the particular site in question. For example, conversion of low-value stands to another species may be economically feasible on the best sites, but not on the poor ones...

  8. Is there a better metric than site index to indicate the productivity of forested lands?

    Treesearch

    Maria E. Blanco Martin; Michael Hoppus; Andrew Lister; James A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program selects site trees for each plot that are used to measure site productivity. The ability of a site to produce wood volume is indicated indirectly by comparing total tree height with tree age. This comparison assumes that the rate of height growth is strongly related to...

  9. Creating an Index for Your Web Site to Make Info Easier to See

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedden, Heather

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how librarians can ensure that their Web site visitors find the information they need. The pros and cons of four options used to help people find information on a Web site are explored. These options are: (1) redesigning the site; (2) creating drop-down, second-level menus for second-level pages; (3) adding a…

  10. Remediation System Evaluation, A-Z Automotive in West Milford, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The A-Z Automotive site is a former gasoline retail outlet and automobile service station located on Union Valley Road between St. George Street and Lou Ann Boulevard in West Milford, Passaic County, New Jersey.

  11. Comparative evaluation of leachate pollution index of MSW landfill site of Kolkata with other metropolitan cities of India.

    PubMed

    Motling, Sanjay; Dutta, Amit; Mukherjee, S N; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-07-01

    The uncontrolled tipping of mixed urban solid waste in landfill site causes serious negative impacts on the environment. The major issue in this context is the generation of leachate which possesses potential of polluting freshwater ecosystem including groundwater besides associated health hazards and depletion of soil fertility. In this context, a pseudo computation quantitative tool, known as leachate pollution index (LPI), has been developed by some researchers for scaling pollution potential of landfill site owing to emergence of leachate. This paper. deals with the assessment of leachate quality of existing landfill site of Kolkata situated at Dhapa waste dumping ground through evaluation of the LPI from experimental analysis of leachate. The leachate was collected from this site in different seasons. 18 parameters were tested with real leachate samples in the Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department of Jadavpur University Kolkata. The results exhibited a very high value of organic pollutants in the leachate with COD as 21,129 mg/L and also values of TDS, Fe2+, Cr, Zn, chloride and ammonical nitrogen. The LPI value of Kolkata landfill site at Dhapa was estimated and also compared with leachate quality data of other metropolitan cities viz. Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai as available in literatures. It is found that LPI of the Kolkata landfill site is highest compared to all other landfill sites of other metropolitan cities in India.

  12. Reorganization of Damaged Chromatin by the Exchange of Histone Variant H2A.Z-2

    SciTech Connect

    Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kinomura, Aiko; Sun, Jiying; Liu, Ning-Ang; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Shima, Hiroki; Kusakabe, Masayuki; Harata, Masahiko; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Takafumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Tashiro, Satoshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The reorganization of damaged chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. A recent study revealed the presence of 2 vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2. However, the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms are still unclear. Thus, in this study we examined the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms in chromatin reorganization after the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: To examine the dynamics of H2A.Z isoforms at damaged sites, we constructed GM0637 cells stably expressing each of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled H2A.Z isoforms, and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis and inverted FRAP analysis in combination with microirradiation. Immunofluorescence staining using an anti-RAD51 antibody was performed to study the kinetics of RAD51 foci formation after 2-Gy irradiation of wild-type (WT), H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells. Colony-forming assays were also performed to compare the survival rates of WT, H2A.Z-1-, and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells with control, and H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells after irradiation. Results: FRAP analysis revealed that H2A.Z-2 was incorporated into damaged chromatin just after the induction of DSBs, whereas H2A.Z-1 remained essentially unchanged. Inverted FRAP analysis showed that H2A.Z-2 was released from damaged chromatin. These findings indicated that H2A.Z-2 was exchanged at DSB sites immediately after the induction of DSBs. RAD51 focus formation after ionizing irradiation was disturbed in H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells but not in H2A.Z-1-deficient cells. The survival rate of H2A.Z-2-deficient cells after irradiation was lower than those of WT and H2A.Z-1- DT40 cells. Similar to DT40 cells, H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells were also radiation-sensitive compared to control and H2A.Z-1-depleted cells. Conclusions: We found that vertebrate H2A.Z-2 is involved in the regulation of the DNA

  13. A soil-site evaluation index of productivity in intensively managed Pinus radiata (D. Don) plantations in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, I D; Boardman, R; Fitzpatrick, R W

    1996-01-01

    A limiting-factor, environmental model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata (D. Don)) has been developed using landform and soil morphological features that influence site productivity. The model focuses on soil and landscape constraints to productivity and predicts the native productivity of land and tree species. It permits the integration of land-use objectives for a catchment through forest management and use of silvicultural practices which increase productivity. The soil site evaluation index (SSEI) is an index of forest productivity found when silviculture extends only to the minimum amount of site disturbance needed to establish a plantation of radiata pine. The impacts of intensive silvicultural practices were deducted from the 'Site Quality' productivity survey rating to calculate the unimproved yield class (uYC). We calculated SSEI by range standardising uYC values from 0 to 1. SSEI was correlated with the environmental factors in a regression tree model using readily available analytical software. The model accurately predicts unimproved forest productivity from observed soil horizon and land surface properties. The environmental constraints in low lying areas relate to waterlogging, soil sodicity and gravel content. In elevated areas, plant available water storage, rock weathering, landform, ironstone gravel and aspect are recognised factors for pine growth.

  14. Site Index Predictions for Red Oaks and White Oak in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    D.L. Graney

    1977-01-01

    The relationship of soil and topography to site indices of northern red (Quercus rubra L. ), black (Q. uelutina Lam.) and white (Q. alba L.) oaks in the Boston Mountains indicates that white oaks should be favored for management on the finer-textured soils and on good south and west slope sites. Both red oaks and white oak could be managed on north- and east-facing...

  15. Characterization, validation and intercomparison of clumping index maps from POLDER, MODIS, and MISR satellite data over reference sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, Jan; He, Liming; Chen, Jing; Govind, Ajit; Sprintsin, Michael; Ryu, Youngryel; Arndt, Stefan; Hocking, Darren; Wardlaw, Timothy; Kuusk, Joel; Oliphant, Andrew; Korhonen, Lauri; Fang, Hongliang; Matteucci, Giorgio; Longdoz, Bernard; Raabe, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation foliage clumping significantly alters its radiation environment and therefore affects vegetation growth as well as water and carbon cycles. The clumping index is useful in ecological and meteorological models because it provides new structural information in addition to the effective leaf area index (LAI) retrieved from mono-angle remote sensing and allows accurate separation of sunlit and shaded leaves in the canopy. Not accounting for the foliage clumping in LAI retrieval algorithms leads to substantial underestimation of actual LAI, especially for needleleaf forests. Normalized Difference between Hotspot and Darkspot (NDHD) index has been previously used to retrieve global clumping index maps from POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER) data at ~6 km resolution, from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product at 500 m resolution. Most recently the algorithm was applied with Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data at 275 m resolution over selected areas. In this presentation we characterize and intercompare the three products over a set of sites representing diverse biomes and different canopy structures. The products are also directly validated with both in-situ vertical profiles and seasonal trajectories of clumping index. We illustrate that the vertical distribution of foliage and especially the effect of understory needs to be taken into account while validating foliage clumping products from remote sensing products with values measured in the field. Satellite measurements respond to the structural effects near the top of canopies, while ground measurements may be biased by the lower vegetation layers. Additionally, caution should be taken regarding the misclassification in land cover maps as their errors can be propagated into the foliage clumping maps. Our results indicate that MODIS data and MISR data with 275 m in particular can

  16. Characterization, Validation and Intercomparison of Clumping Index Maps from POLDER, MODIS, and MISR Satellite Data Over Reference Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, J.; He, L.; Chen, J. M.; Govind, A.; Sprintsin, M.; Ryu, Y.; Arndt, S. K.; Hocking, D.; Wardlaw, T.; Kuusk, J.; Oliphant, A. J.; Korhonen, L.; Fang, H.; Matteucci, G.; Longdoz, B.; Raabe, K.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation foliage clumping significantly alters its radiation environment and therefore affects vegetation growth as well as water and carbon cycles. The clumping index is useful in ecological and meteorological models because it provides new structural information in addition to the effective leaf area index (LAI) retrieved from mono-angle remote sensing and allows accurate separation of sunlit and shaded leaves in the canopy. Not accounting for the foliage clumping in LAI retrieval algorithms leads to substantial underestimation of actual LAI, especially for needleleaf forests. Normalized Difference between Hotspot and Darkspot (NDHD) index has been previously used to retrieve global clumping index maps from POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER) data at ~6 km resolution, from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product at 500 m resolution. Most recently the algorithm was applied with Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data at 275 m resolution over selected areas. In this presentation we characterize and intercompare the three products over a set of sites representing diverse biomes and different canopy structures. The products are also directly validated with both in-situ vertical profiles and seasonal trajectories of clumping index. We illustrate that the vertical distribution of foliage and especially the effect of understory needs to be taken into account while validating foliage clumping products from remote sensing products with values measured in the field. Satellite measurements respond to the structural effects near the top of canopies, while ground measurements may be biased by the lower vegetation layers. Additionally, caution should be taken regarding the misclassification in land cover maps as their errors can be propagated into the foliage clumping maps. Our results indicate that MODIS data and MISR data with 275 m resolution in

  17. The histone variant H2A.Z promotes splicing of weak introns.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Kelly E; Homer, Christina M; Ryan, Colm J; Shales, Michael; Krogan, Nevan J; Patrick, Kristin L; Guthrie, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Multiple lines of evidence implicate chromatin in the regulation of premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing. However, the influence of chromatin factors on cotranscriptional splice site usage remains unclear. Here we investigated the function of the highly conserved histone variant H2A.Z in pre-mRNA splicing using the intron-rich model yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Using epistatic miniarray profiles (EMAPs) to survey the genetic interaction landscape of the Swr1 nucleosome remodeling complex, which deposits H2A.Z, we uncovered evidence for functional interactions with components of the spliceosome. In support of these genetic connections, splicing-specific microarrays show that H2A.Z and the Swr1 ATPase are required during temperature stress for the efficient splicing of a subset of introns. Notably, affected introns are enriched for H2A.Z occupancy and more likely to contain nonconsensus splice sites. To test the significance of the latter correlation, we mutated the splice sites in an affected intron to consensus and found that this suppressed the requirement for H2A.Z in splicing of that intron. These data suggest that H2A.Z occupancy promotes cotranscriptional splicing of suboptimal introns that may otherwise be discarded via proofreading ATPases. Consistent with this model, we show that overexpression of splicing ATPase Prp16 suppresses both the growth and splicing defects seen in the absence of H2A.Z. © 2017 Nissen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Potential change in lodgepole pine site index and distribution under climatic change in Alberta.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Yuqing Yang; Shongming Huang; Nadja Tchebakova

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the impact of global climate change on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) site productivity in Alberta based on the Alberta Climate Model and the A2 SRES climate change scenario projections from three global circulation models (CGCM2, HADCM3, and ECHAM4). Considerable warming is...

  19. Relationship of Species and Site Index to Habitat in the White Mountains of New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    W. B. Leak

    1978-01-01

    Eleven forest habitats, representing distinct differences in soil materials or substrate, were defined for areas of granitic drift in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Beech/sugar maple/yellow birch characterize successional stands on the fine tills and the enriched or cove sites (where white ash also is common). Washed fine till and coarse till are dominated...

  20. Index of hydrologic data for selected sites in Broward County, Florida, 1939-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.; Fish, J.E.; Causaras, C.R.; Poore, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the surficial aquifers, of southeast Florida, including the Biscayne aquifer, was begun in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. In the initial phase of the study, an inventory was made of existing data available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and other public agencies of Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties. This report indexes through tables and maps, the ground-water quality, ground-water level, surface-water stage, and geologic data bases for Broward County. (USGS)

  1. Index of hydrologic data for selected sites in Dade County, Florida, 1923-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.; Causaras, C.R.; Fish, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the surficial aquifers of southeast Florida, including the Biscayne aquifer, was begun in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. In the initial phase of the study, an inventory was made of existing data available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and other public agencies of Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties. This report indexes, through tables and maps, the ground-water quality, ground-water level, surface-water stage, and geologic data bases for Dade County. (USGS)

  2. Assessing the environmental risks associated with contaminated sites: Definition of an Ecotoxicological Classification index for landfill areas (ECRIS).

    PubMed

    Senese, V; Boriani, E; Baderna, D; Mariani, A; Lodi, M; Finizio, A; Testa, S; Benfenati, E

    2010-06-01

    Assessing ecological risk in quantitative terms is a site-specific complex procedure requiring evaluation of all possible pathways taken by the chemicals from the contamination source to the targets to be protected. Unfortunately, too many cases lack of physico-chemical and ecotoxicological data makes impossible to quantify the ecological risk. We present the Ecotoxicological Classification Risk Index for Soil (ECRIS), a new classification system specific for soil risk assessment, which gives a comparative indication of the risk linked to environmental contamination by any chemical. The tool we propose is based on the integration of a data set characterizing the ecotoxicological and exposure profile of chemicals. ECRIS is a simple approach specifically set up for the landfill scenario. This index draws on the huge amount of data from our many years of leachate analysis. ECRIS is useful for a first screening of probably contaminated soil. A case study based on some Italian landfills is proposed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deposition of Histone Variant H2A.Z within Gene Bodies Regulates Responsive Genes

    PubMed Central

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Zilberman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of eukaryotic chromatin relies on interactions between many epigenetic factors, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and the incorporation of histone variants. H2A.Z, one of the most conserved but enigmatic histone variants that is enriched at the transcriptional start sites of genes, has been implicated in a variety of chromosomal processes. Recently, we reported a genome-wide anticorrelation between H2A.Z and DNA methylation, an epigenetic hallmark of heterochromatin that has also been found in the bodies of active genes in plants and animals. Here, we investigate the basis of this anticorrelation using a novel h2a.z loss-of-function line in Arabidopsis thaliana. Through genome-wide bisulfite sequencing, we demonstrate that loss of H2A.Z in Arabidopsis has only a minor effect on the level or profile of DNA methylation in genes, and we propose that the global anticorrelation between DNA methylation and H2A.Z is primarily caused by the exclusion of H2A.Z from methylated DNA. RNA sequencing and genomic mapping of H2A.Z show that H2A.Z enrichment across gene bodies, rather than at the TSS, is correlated with lower transcription levels and higher measures of gene responsiveness. Loss of H2A.Z causes misregulation of many genes that are disproportionately associated with response to environmental and developmental stimuli. We propose that H2A.Z deposition in gene bodies promotes variability in levels and patterns of gene expression, and that a major function of genic DNA methylation is to exclude H2A.Z from constitutively expressed genes. PMID:23071449

  4. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  5. Histone H2A.Z and DNA methylation are mutually antagonistic chromatin marks.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Daniel; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Ballinger, Tracy; Henikoff, Steven

    2008-11-06

    Eukaryotic chromatin is separated into functional domains differentiated by post-translational histone modifications, histone variants and DNA methylation. Methylation is associated with repression of transcriptional initiation in plants and animals, and is frequently found in transposable elements. Proper methylation patterns are crucial for eukaryotic development, and aberrant methylation-induced silencing of tumour suppressor genes is a common feature of human cancer. In contrast to methylation, the histone variant H2A.Z is preferentially deposited by the Swr1 ATPase complex near 5' ends of genes where it promotes transcriptional competence. How DNA methylation and H2A.Z influence transcription remains largely unknown. Here we show that in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana regions of DNA methylation are quantitatively deficient in H2A.Z. Exclusion of H2A.Z is seen at sites of DNA methylation in the bodies of actively transcribed genes and in methylated transposons. Mutation of the MET1 DNA methyltransferase, which causes both losses and gains of DNA methylation, engenders opposite changes (gains and losses) in H2A.Z deposition, whereas mutation of the PIE1 subunit of the Swr1 complex that deposits H2A.Z leads to genome-wide hypermethylation. Our findings indicate that DNA methylation can influence chromatin structure and effect gene silencing by excluding H2A.Z, and that H2A.Z protects genes from DNA methylation.

  6. A-line, bispectral index, and estimated effect-site concentrations: a prediction of clinical end-points of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kreuer, Sascha; Bruhn, Jörgen; Larsen, Reinhard; Buchinger, Heiko; Wilhelm, Wolfram

    2006-04-01

    Autoregressive modeling with exogenous input of middle-latency auditory evoked potentials (A-Line AEP index, AAI) has been developed for monitoring depth of anesthesia. We investigated the prediction of recovery and dose-response relationship of desflurane and AAI or bispectral index (BIS) values. Twenty adult men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were recruited. To minimize opioid effects, analgesia was provided by a concurrent epidural in addition to the general anesthetic. Electrodes for AAI and BIS monitoring and a headphone for auditory stimuli were applied. Propofol and remifentanil were used for anesthetic induction. Maintenance of anesthesia was with desflurane only. For comparison to AAI and BIS monitor parameters, pharmacokinetic models for desflurane and propofol distribution and effect-site concentrations were used to predict clinical end-points (Prediction probability P(K)). Patients opened their eyes at an AAI value of 47 +/- 20 and a BIS value of 77 +/- 14 (mean +/- sd), and the prediction probability for eye opening was P(K) = 0.81 for AAI, P(K) = 0.89 for BIS, and P(K) = 0.91 for desflurane effect-site concentration. The opening of eyes was best predicted by the calculated desflurane effect-site concentration. The relationship between predicted desflurane effect-site concentration versus AAI and BIS was calculated by nonlinear regression analysis (r = 0.75 for AAI and r = 0.80 for BIS). The correlation between BIS and clinical end-points of anesthesia or the desflurane effect-compartment concentration is better than for the AAI.

  7. A study of screening the optimum sites for water storage at Dadu terrace using environmental index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Dadu Terrace in Taiwan is dominating with laterite area which having the characteristic of low soil infiltration rate. Large-scale development occurred rapidly due to urbanization at the top of the terrace. The increasing of impervious surface caused large amount of surface runoff during extreme rainfall event. Hence, the cities located at the skirts of the terrace are vulnerable to floods. It is important to find out the optimum sites for water storage to avoid debris and inundation related disasters. In this study, the suitable management units were delineated using the roads of Tai-No1, Tai-No1-2, County-125 and Taichung-77. The SCS Runoff Curve Number (CN) of pre- and post- development in the management units were also computed using maps of land use and soil. The spatial distribution of obvious difference in the potential maximum retention caused by the development could be easily filtered out. The hotspots can be delineated and employed as the depression sites for the multifunctional ponds construction.

  8. Influence of site index on the relationship between forest net primary productivity and stand age

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Chen, Jing M.; Yang, Xiguang; Fan, Wenyi; Li, Mingze; He, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that forest net primary productivity (NPP) varies pronouncedly with stand age, and these variations play a crucial role in determining forest carbon sinks or sources at regional scales. Some forest carbon cycling models, eg. InTEC (The integrated terrestrial ecosystem C-budget model), calculates annual forest NPP in the long term according to normalized NPP-age relationships and the reference forest NPP at a given age. Therefore, the accurate NPP-age relationship is important for forest NPP estimation. In this study, NPP at various stand ages for twelve major forest stand types in Heilongjiang Province in northeast China is derived from yield tables with consideration of the total biomass increment and foliage and fine-root turnovers. Similar to previous studies, our results also show that forest NPP increases quickly at young ages, reaches the maximum value at middle age (10–40 years old), and then decreases to a relative stable level at old ages. However, we additionally found that forests under better site conditions have faster growth rates in young ages and steeper declines after reaching the maximum. Therefore, when the NPP-age curves for different site indices are normalized against the maximum value of each curve, there are significant differences among them. These differences have implications on the methodology for estimating the spatial distribution of forest carbon sources and sinks. PMID:28493995

  9. Influence of the calibration on experimental UV index at a midlatitude site, Granada (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Gil, J. E.; Cazorla, A.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2010-12-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) index is the variable most commonly used to inform the general public about the levels and potential harmful effects of UV radiation incident at Earth's surface. This variable is derived from the output signal of the UV radiometers applying conversion factors obtained by calibration methods. This paper focused on the influence of the use of two of these methods (called one-step and two-steps methods) on the resulting experimental UV Index (UVI) as measured by a YES UVB-1 radiometer located in a midlatitude station, Granada (Spain) for the period 2006-2009. In addition, it is also analyzed the difference with the UVI values obtained when the calibration factors provided by the manufacturer are used. For this goal, the detailed characterization of the UVB-1 radiometer obtained in the first Spanish calibration campaign of broadband UV radiometers at the "El Arenosillo" INTA station in 2007 is used. In addition, modeled UVI data derived from the LibRadtran/UVSPEC radiative transfer code are compared with the experimental values recorded at Granada for cloud-free conditions. The absolute mean differences between the measured and modeled UVI data at Granada are around 5% using the one-step and two-steps calibration methods. This result indicates the excellent performance of these two techniques for obtaining UVI data from the UVB-1 radiometer. In contrast, the application of the calibration factor supplied by the manufacturer produces a high overestimation (~14%) of the UVI values. This fact generates unreliable alarming high UVI data in summer when the manufacturer's factor is used. Thus, days with an extreme erythemal risk (UVI higher than 10) increase up to 46% of all cases measured between May and September at Granada when the manufacturer's factor is applied. This percentage is reduced to a more reliable value of 3% when the conversion factors obtained with the two-steps calibration method are used. All these results report about the need of a

  10. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of histone variant H2A.Z during sea urchin development.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Mihai; Calle, Jasmine; Puno, Andrea; Haruna, Aminat; Arenas-Mena, César

    2016-12-01

    Histone variant H2A.Z promotes chromatin accessibility at transcriptional regulatory elements and is developmentally regulated in metazoans. We characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of H2A.Z in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. H2A.Z depletion by antisense translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides during early development causes developmental collapse, in agreement with its previously demonstrated general role in transcriptional multipotency. During H2A.Z peak expression in 24-h embryos, endogenous H2A.Z 3' UTR sequences stabilize GFP mRNAs relative to those with SV40 3' UTR sequences, although the 3' UTR of H2A.Z does not determine the spatial distribution of H2A.Z transcripts during embryonic and postembryonic development. We elaborated an H2A.Z::GFP BAC reporter that reproduces embryonic H2A.Z expression. Genome-wide chromatin accessibility analysis using ATAC-seq revealed a cis-regulatory module (CRM) that, when deleted, causes a significant decline of the H2A.Z reporter expression. In addition, the mutation of a Sox transcription factor binding site motif and, more strongly, of a Myb motif cause significant decline of reporter gene expression. Our results suggest that an undetermined Myb-family transcription factor controls the transcriptional regulation of H2A.Z. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  11. Site index and height growth curves for unmanaged even-aged stands of western hemlock and Sitka spruce in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur A. Farr

    1984-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations are presented for unmanaged even-aged stands of western hemlock and Sitka spruce in southeast Alaska. Data were mostly collected in stands that developed after logging.

  12. Influence of the calibration on experimental UV index at a midlatitude site, Granada (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Gil, J. E.; Cazorla, A.; Fernández-Gálvez, J.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-03-01

    The ultraviolet index (UVI) is the most commonly used variable to inform about the level and potential harmful effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. This variable is derived from the output signal of UV radiometers applying conversion factors from calibration methods. This paper focused on the influence of the use of two of these methods (called one-step and two-steps methods) on the experimental UVI measured by a YES UVB-1 radiometer located in a midlatitude station, Granada (Spain) for the period 2006-2009. In addition, it also analyzes the deviation from the UVI values obtained when the manufacturer's calibration factors are applied. For this goal, a detailed characterization of the UVB-1 radiometer from the first Spanish calibration campaign of broadband UV radiometers at the "El Arenosillo" INTA station in 2007 was used. In addition, modeled UVI data derived from the LibRadtran/UVSPEC radiative transfer code are compared with the experimental values recorded at Granada for cloud-free conditions. Absolute mean differences between measured and modeled UVI data at Granada were around 5% using the one-step and two-steps calibration methods, indicating an excellent performance of these two techniques for obtaining UVI data from the UVB-1 radiometer. Conversely, the application of the manufacture's calibration factor produced a large overestimation (~14%) of the UVI values, generating unreliable alarming high UVI data in summer. Thus, the number of days with an extreme erythemal risk (UVI higher than 10) increased up to 46% between May and September at Granada. This percentage reduced to a more reliable value of 3% when the conversion factors obtained with the two-steps calibration method are used. These results evidence the need for a sound calibration of the broadband UV instruments in order to obtain reliable measurements.

  13. Changes in H2A.Z occupancy and DNA methylation during B-cell lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Conerly, Melissa L.; Teves, Sheila S.; Diolaiti, Daniel; Ulrich, Michelle; Eisenman, Robert N.; Henikoff, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The histone variant H2A.Z has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression, and in plants antagonizes DNA methylation. Here, we ask whether a similar relationship exists in mammals, using a mouse B-cell lymphoma model, where chromatin states can be monitored during tumorigenesis. Using native chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip), we found a progressive depletion of H2A.Z around transcriptional start sites (TSSs) during MYC-induced transformation of pre-B cells and, subsequently, during lymphomagenesis. In addition, we found that H2A.Z and DNA methylation are generally anticorrelated around TSSs in both wild-type and MYC-transformed cells, as expected for the opposite effects of these chromatin features on promoter competence. Depletion of H2A.Z over TSSs both in cells that are induced to proliferate and in cells that are developing into a tumor suggests that progressive loss of H2A.Z during tumorigenesis results from the advancing disease state. These changes were accompanied by increases in chromatin salt solubility. Surprisingly, ∼30% of all genes showed a redistribution of H2A.Z from around TSSs to bodies of active genes during the transition from MYC-transformed to tumor cells, with DNA methylation lost from gene bodies where H2A.Z levels increased. No such redistributions were observed during MYC-induced transformation of wild-type pre-B cells. The documented role of H2A.Z in regulating transcription suggests that 30% of genes have the potential to be aberrantly expressed during tumorigenesis. Our results imply that antagonism between H2A.Z deposition and DNA methylation is a conserved feature of eukaryotic genes, and that transcription-coupled H2A.Z changes may play a role in cancer initiation and progression. PMID:20709945

  14. Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) as a proxy of Light Use Efficiency (LUE) and transpiration in Mediterranean crop sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LE Dantec, V.; Chebbi, W.; Boulet, G.; Merlin, O.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Er Raki, S.; Ceschia, E.; Khabba, S.; Fanise, P.; Zawilski, B.; Simonneaux, V.; Jarlan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is based on the short term reversible xanthophyll pigment changes accompanying plant stress and therefore of the associated photosynthetic activities. Strong relationships between PRI and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) were shown at leaf and canopy scales and over a wide range of species (Garbulsky et al., 2011). But very few previous works have explored the potential link with plant water status. In this study, we have first analyzed the link between PRI and LUE at canopy scale on two different crops in terms of canopy structure and crop management: olive grove (Tunisia) and wheat grown under different water regimes (irrigated or rainfed) and climate zones (France, Morocco). We have investigated the daily and seasonal dynamics of PRI; linking its variations to meteorological factors (global radiation and sun angle effects, soil water content, relative air humidity …) and plant processes. The highest correlations were mainly observed in clear skies conditions. We have found, whatever site, linear negative relationships between PRI and LUE using data acquired in midday (i.e. in solar zenithal angle condition). Linear link between PRI and sapflow measurements was also revealed. This correlation was obtained over periods characterized by a moderate soil water deficit, i.e. by when transpiration rate was mainly control by Vapor Pressure Deficit. We will then briefly presented alternative and complementary approaches to this index, to detect different level of water stress using thermal infrared emissions.

  15. Integrated use of biomarkers and condition indices in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for monitoring pollution and development of biomarker index to assess the potential toxic of coastal sites.

    PubMed

    Benali, Imene; Boutiba, Zitouni; Merabet, Amina; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we are interested in spatial and temporal variations of the biological and physiological responses of mussels collected from contrasting marine sites regarding their levels of pollution. We measured both the conditions indices and the enzymatic biomarker expression: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. The enzymatic biomarkers were chosen because they respond to environmental stress. Results show a significant interactions between biomarker variations and conditions indices in the industrial harbor site throughout the seasons. But no significant changes in the reference site. Furthermore, we classified the sites along the seasons according to their potential ecotoxicity, calculated based on the sum of the normalised values of the biomarkers. The results show a very high biomarker index in the impacted site with irregular changes between seasons. This biomarker index is therefore a valuable tool that could be used to classify the toxic potential of coastal sites.

  16. Surveillance for surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery: influence of the US or Brest (France) National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk index on SSI rates.

    PubMed

    Lietard, Claire; Thébaud, Véronique; Besson, Gérard; Lejeune, Benoist

    2008-11-01

    A total of 5,628 neurosurgical patients were observed in France to assess the occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI). Their risk of SSI was defined by calculating both the US National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance and the Brest National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk indexes. This study compares SSI rates stratified according to either the US or Brest (France) National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk index. The SSI rates were correlated with National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance data involving only local operation durations.

  17. Mapping site index and volume increment from forest inventory, Landsat, and ecological variables in Tahoe National Forest, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Shengli; Ramirez, Carlos; Conway, Scott; Kennedy, Kama; Kohler, Tanya; Liu, Jinxun

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution site index (SI) and mean annual increment (MAI) maps are desired for local forest management. We integrated field inventory, Landsat, and ecological variables to produce 30 m SI and MAI maps for the Tahoe National Forest (TNF) where different tree species coexist. We converted species-specific SI using adjustment factors. Then, the SI map was produced by (i) intensifying plots to expand the training sets to more climatic, topographic, soil, and forest reflective classes, (ii) using results from a stepwise regression to enable a weighted imputation that minimized the effects of outlier plots within classes, and (iii) local interpolation and strata median filling to assign values to pixels without direct imputations. The SI (reference age is 50 years) map had an R2 of 0.7637, a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 3.60, and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 3.07 m. The MAI map was similarly produced with an R2 of 0.6882, an RMSE of 1.73, and a MAE of 1.20 m3·ha−1·year−1. Spatial patterns and trends of SI and MAI were analyzed to be related to elevation, aspect, slope, soil productivity, and forest type. The 30 m SI and MAI maps can be used to support decisions on fire, plantation, biodiversity, and carbon.

  18. Evaluation and Intercomparison of MODIS and GEOV1 Global Leaf Area Index Products over Four Sites in North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenwang; Tang, Huan; Zhang, Baohui; Yang, Guixia; Xin, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and GEOLAND2 Version 1 (GEOV1) Leaf Area Index (LAI) products using ground measurements and LAI reference maps over four sites in North China for 2011–2013. The Terra + Aqua MODIS and Terra MODIS LAI retrieved by the main algorithm and GEOV1 LAI within the valid range were evaluated and intercompared using LAI reference maps to assess their uncertainty and seasonal variability The results showed that GEOV1 LAI is the most similar product with the LAI reference maps (R2 = 0.78 and RMSE = 0.59). The MODIS products performed well for biomes with low LAI values, but considerable uncertainty arose when the LAI was larger than 3. Terra + Aqua MODIS (R2 = 0.72 and RMSE = 0.68) was slightly more accurate than Terra MODIS (R2 = 0.57 and RMSE = 0.90) for producing slightly more successful observations. Both MODIS and GEOV1 products effectively followed the seasonal trajectory of the reference maps, and GEOV1 exhibited a smoother seasonal trajectory than MODIS. MODIS anomalies mainly occurred during summer and likely occurred because of surface reflectance uncertainty, shorter temporal resolutions and inconsistency between simulated and MODIS surface reflectances. This study suggests that further improvements of the MODIS LAI products should focus on finer algorithm inputs and improved seasonal variation modeling of MODIS observations. Future field work considering finer biome maps and better generation of LAI reference maps is still needed. PMID:25781509

  19. Surgical Site Infections after Tissue Flaps Performed in Low- and Middle-Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lawrence Z; Chang, James; Weiser, Thomas G; Forrester, Joseph D

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) affect the safety of surgical care and are particularly problematic and prevalent in low and middle Human Development Index Countries (LMHDICs). We performed a systematic review of the existing literature on SSIs after tissue flap procedures in LMHDICs through the PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science databases. Of the 405 abstracts identified, 79 were selected for full text review, and 30 studies met inclusion criteria for analysis. In the pooled analysis, the SSI rate was 5.8 infections per 100 flap procedures (95% confidence interval [CI] 2%-10%, range: 0-40%). The most common indication for tissue flap was pilonidal sinus repair, which had a pooled SSI rate of 5.6 infections per 100 flap procedures (95% CI 2%-10%, range: 0-15%). No fatalities from an infection were noted. The reporting of infection epidemiology, prevention, and treatment was poor, with few studies reporting antibiotic agent use (37%), responsible pathogens (13%), infection comorbidities (13%), or time to infection (7%); none reported cost. Our review highlights the need for more work to develop standardized hospital-based reporting for surgical outcomes and complications, as well as future studies by large, multi-national groups to establish baseline incidence rates for SSIs and best practice guidelines to monitor SSI rates.

  20. Individual tree crown approach for predicting site index in boreal forests using airborne laser scanning and hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandare, Kaja; Ørka, Hans Ole; Dalponte, Michele; Næsset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje

    2017-08-01

    Site productivity is essential information for sustainable forest management and site index (SI) is the most common quantitative measure of it. The SI is usually determined for individual tree species based on tree height and the age of the 100 largest trees per hectare according to stem diameter. The present study aimed to demonstrate and validate a methodology for the determination of SI using remotely sensed data, in particular fused airborne laser scanning (ALS) and airborne hyperspectral data in a forest site in Norway. The applied approach was based on individual tree crown (ITC) delineation: tree species, tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and age were modelled and predicted at ITC level using 10-fold cross validation. Four dominant ITCs per 400 m2 plot were selected as input to predict SI at plot level for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). We applied an experimental setup with different subsets of dominant ITCs with different combinations of attributes (predicted or field-derived) for SI predictions. The results revealed that the selection of the dominant ITCs based on the largest DBH independent of tree species, predicted the SI with similar accuracy as ITCs matched with field-derived dominant trees (RMSE: 27.6% vs 23.3%). The SI accuracies were at the same level when dominant species were determined from the remotely sensed or field data (RMSE: 27.6% vs 27.8%). However, when the predicted tree age was used the SI accuracy decreased compared to field-derived age (RMSE: 27.6% vs 7.6%). In general, SI was overpredicted for both tree species in the mature forest, while there was an underprediction in the young forest. In conclusion, the proposed approach for SI determination based on ITC delineation and a combination of ALS and hyperspectral data is an efficient and stable procedure, which has the potential to predict SI in forest areas at various spatial scales and additionally to improve existing SI

  1. Acetylation of H2A.Z is a key epigenetic modification associated with gene deregulation and epigenetic remodeling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Mora, Fátima; Song, Jenny Z.; Statham, Aaron L.; Strbenac, Dario; Robinson, Mark D.; Nair, Shalima S.; Patterson, Kate I.; Tremethick, David J.; Stirzaker, Clare; Clark, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Histone H2A.Z (H2A.Z) is an evolutionarily conserved H2A variant implicated in the regulation of gene expression; however, its role in transcriptional deregulation in cancer remains poorly understood. Using genome-wide studies, we investigated the role of promoter-associated H2A.Z and acetylated H2A.Z (acH2A.Z) in gene deregulation and its relationship with DNA methylation and H3K27me3 in prostate cancer. Our results reconcile the conflicting reports of positive and negative roles for histone H2A.Z and gene expression states. We find that H2A.Z is enriched in a bimodal distribution at nucleosomes, surrounding the transcription start sites (TSSs) of both active and poised gene promoters. In addition, H2A.Z spreads across the entire promoter of inactive genes in a deacetylated state. In contrast, acH2A.Z is only localized at the TSSs of active genes. Gene deregulation in cancer is also associated with a reorganization of acH2A.Z and H2A.Z nucleosome occupancy across the promoter region and TSS of genes. Notably, in cancer cells we find that a gain of acH2A.Z at the TSS occurs with an overall decrease of H2A.Z levels, in concert with oncogene activation. Furthermore, deacetylation of H2A.Z at TSSs is increased with silencing of tumor suppressor genes. We also demonstrate that acH2A.Z anti-correlates with promoter H3K27me3 and DNA methylation. We show for the first time, that acetylation of H2A.Z is a key modification associated with gene activity in normal cells and epigenetic gene deregulation in tumorigenesis. PMID:21788347

  2. Use of a generalized sigmoid growth function to predict site index for unmanaged loblolly and slash pine plantations in East Texas

    Treesearch

    Dean W. Coble; Young-Jin Lee

    2006-01-01

    A generalized sigmoid growth function was used in this study to model site index (SI) for unmanaged or lowintensity managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii, Engelm.) plantations in east Texas. Schnute's growth function was fit to 11,367 and 5,040 height-age observations of loblolly and slash...

  3. Site index equations and mean annual increment equations for Pacific Northwest Research Station forest inventory and analysis inventories, 1985-2001.

    Treesearch

    Erica J. Hanson; David L. Azuma; Bruce A. Hiserote

    2003-01-01

    Site index equations and mean annual increment equations used by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program at the Portland Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The equations are for 24 tree species in California, Oregon, and Washington.

  4. Site index and height growth curves for managed, even-aged stands of white or grand fir east of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    P. H. Cochran

    1979-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations for white or grand fir growing in managed, even-aged pure stands or mixed with other conifers east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington are presented. Data were collected in stands where height growth apparently has not been suppressed by high density or top damage.

  5. Site index and height growth curves for managed, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir east of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    P. H. Cochran

    1979-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations for managed, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziezii (Mirb.) Franco) east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington are presented. Data were collected in stands where height growth apparently has not been suppressed by high density or top damage.

  6. Unique residues on the H2A.Z containing nucleosome surface are important for Xenopus laevis development.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Patricia; Brown, Karl D; Rangasamy, Danny; Svensson, Ulrica; Tremethick, David J

    2004-10-15

    Critical to vertebrate development is a complex program of events that establishes specialized tissues and organs from a single fertilized cell. Transitions in chromatin architecture, through alterations in its composition and modification markings, characterize early development. A variant of the H2A core histone, H2A.Z, is essential for development of both Drosophila and mice. We recently showed that H2A.Z is required for proper chromosome segregation. Whether H2A.Z has additional specific functions during early development remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that depletion of H2A.Z by RNA interference perturbs Xenopus laevis development at gastrulation leading to embryos with malformed, shortened trunks. Consistent with this result, whole embryo in situ hybridization indicates that endogenous expression of H2A.Z is highly enriched in the notochord. H2A.Z modifies the surface of a canonical nucleosome by creating an extended acidic patch and a metal ion-binding site stabilized by two histidine residues. To examine the significance of these specific surface regions in vivo, we investigated the consequences of overexpressing H2A.Z and mutant proteins during X. laevis development. Overexpression of H2A.Z slowed development following gastrulation. Altering the extended acidic patch of H2A.Z reversed this effect. Remarkably, modification of a single stabilizing histidine residue located on the exposed surface of an H2A.Z containing nucleosome was sufficient to disrupt normal trunk formation mimicking the effect observed by RNA interference. Taken together, these results argue that key determinants located on the surface of an H2A.Z nucleosome play an important specific role during embryonic patterning and provide a link between a chromatin structural modification and normal vertebrate development.

  7. H2A.Z.1 mono-ubiquitylation antagonizes BRD2 to maintain poised chromatin in ESCs

    PubMed Central

    Surface, Lauren E.; Fields, Paul A.; Subramanian, Vidya; Behmer, Russell; Udeshi, Namrata; Peach, Sally E.; Jaffe, Jacob D.; Boyer, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone variant H2A.Z occupies the promoters of active and poised, bivalent genes in ESCs to regulate developmental programs, yet how it contributes to these contrasting states is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the function of H2A.Z.1 mono-ubiquitylation (H2A.Z.1ub) by mutation of the PRC1 target residues (H2A.Z.1K3R3). We show that H2A.Z.1K3R3 is properly incorporated at target promoters in murine ESCs (mESCs), however, loss of mono-ubiquitylation leads to de-repression of bivalent genes, loss of Polycomb binding, and to faulty lineage commitment. Using quantitative proteomics, we find that tandem bromodomain proteins, including the BET family member Brd2, are enriched in H2A.Z.1 chromatin. We further show that Brd2 is gained at de-repressed promoters in H2A.Z.1K3R3 mESCs whereas Brd2 inhibition restores gene silencing at these sites. Together, our study reveals an antagonistic relationship between H2A.Z.1ub and Brd2 to regulate the transcriptional balance at bivalent genes to enable proper execution of developmental programs. PMID:26804911

  8. Hydrologic index development and application to selected Coastwide Reference Monitoring System sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Swenson, Erick M.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly time-series salinity and water-level data are collected at all stations within the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) network across coastal Louisiana. These data, in addition to vegetation and soils data collected as part of CRMS, are used to develop a suite of metrics and indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. This document addresses the primary objectives of the CRMS hydrologic analytical team, which were to (1) adopt standard time-series analytical techniques that could effectively assess spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic characteristics across the Louisiana coastal zone on site, project, basin, and coastwide scales and (2) develop and apply an index based on wetland hydrology that can describe the suitability of local hydrology in the context of maximizing the productivity of wetland plant communities. Approaches to quantifying tidal variability (least squares harmonic analysis) and partitioning variability of time-series data to various time scales (spectral analysis) are presented. The relation between marsh elevation and the tidal frame of a given hydrograph is described. A hydrologic index that integrates water-level and salinity data, which are collected hourly, with vegetation data that are collected annually is developed. To demonstrate its utility, the hydrologic index is applied to 173 CRMS sites across the coast, and variability in index scores across marsh vegetation types (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) is assessed. The index is also applied to 11 sites located in three Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects, and the ability of the index to convey temporal hydrologic variability in response to climatic stressors and restoration measures, as well as the effect that this community may have on wetland plant productivity, is illustrated.

  9. Arabidopsis meiotic crossover hot spots overlap with H2A.Z nucleosomes at gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Zhao, Xiaohui; Kelly, Krystyna A; Venn, Oliver; Higgins, James D; Yelina, Nataliya E; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Franklin, F Chris H; McVean, Gil; Henderson, Ian R

    2013-11-01

    PRDM9 directs human meiotic crossover hot spots to intergenic sequence motifs, whereas budding yeast hot spots overlap regions of low nucleosome density (LND) in gene promoters. To investigate hot spots in plants, which lack PRDM9, we used coalescent analysis of genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Crossovers increased toward gene promoters and terminators, and hot spots were associated with active chromatin modifications, including H2A.Z, histone H3 Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), LND and low DNA methylation. Hot spot-enriched A-rich and CTT-repeat DNA motifs occurred upstream and downstream, respectively, of transcriptional start sites. Crossovers were asymmetric around promoters and were most frequent over CTT-repeat motifs and H2A.Z nucleosomes. Pollen typing, segregation and cytogenetic analysis showed decreased numbers of crossovers in the arp6 H2A.Z deposition mutant at multiple scales. During meiosis, H2A.Z forms overlapping chromosomal foci with the DMC1 and RAD51 recombinases. As arp6 reduced the number of DMC1 or RAD51 foci, H2A.Z may promote the formation or processing of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. We propose that gene chromatin ancestrally designates hot spots within eukaryotes and PRDM9 is a derived state within vertebrates.

  10. A description of the index of active Florida water data collection stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval using computer program Findex H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized index of water-data collection activities and retrieval software to generate publication list of this information was developed for Florida. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. Previously, needed data was very difficult to assemble for use in program planning or project implementation. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data-collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, information about data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. Updating the index is done routinely. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Estimating northern red oak site-index class from total height and diameter of dominant and codominant trees in central Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson; Neil I. Lamson

    1987-01-01

    Northern red oak site-index (SI) class is estimated using height and diameter of dominant and codominant trees for five Appalachian hardwood species. Methods for predicting total height as a function of diameter are presented. Because total height of 4- and 6-inch trees varies less than 5 feet for the three northern red oak SI classes, use trees that are at least 8...

  12. Hardwood regeneration related to overstory shortleaf pine basal area and site index in Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma

    Treesearch

    Douglas J. Stevenson; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2007-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) grows in association with many other woody species, particularly understory hardwoods, which compete with it, limiting its productivity. Along with other species, sweet-gum (Liquidambar styracifua L.) is a major competitor on better-quality sites but decreases rapidly in importance as pine site...

  13. A graphic display for the presentation of site-wise odds ratios for score transitions to augment the traditional findings from clinical studies employing dental indexes.

    PubMed

    Proskin, H M; Kleber, C J; Sharma, N C; Nelson, B J

    2001-07-01

    Many of the parameters used in clinical dental research involve the assessment of a condition at each of a number of sites within the mouth. Traditionally, such measurements are averaged over all sites within the mouth (or over all sites of a specified type) for each study participant before statistical analysis. However, a consideration of the original, site-wise scores may provide some additional insights into the performance of therapeutic modalities that might not be made evident through an application of the traditional, means-based approach. A method based on the calculation of site-wise odds ratios of certain types of baseline-to-final examination score transitions was applied to the modified gingival index data from two clinical studies performed to investigate the effect of the daily chewing of a commercially available chewing gum relative to a mint control. A graphical display of these site-specific findings was prepared, which indicated that the chewing gum regimen tended to be associated with a higher frequency of occurrence of favorable score transitions than was the mint control at several measurement sites throughout the mouth.

  14. A tree-by-tree measure of site utilization for grand fir related to stand density index

    Treesearch

    Albert R. Stage

    1968-01-01

    The usefulness of stand density index (SDI) has been limited by lack of a way to partition its nonlinear expression into additive components to describe the relative stocking of a stand by species or quality classes. In this paper, a linear equation is derived to permit such a partition. A closely related expression for grand fir stocking is given that retains the...

  15. Improving the performance of the PLB index for ligand-binding site prediction using dihedral angles and the solvent-accessible surface area.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan

    2016-09-13

    Protein ligand-binding site prediction is highly important for protein function determination and structure-based drug design. Over the past twenty years, dozens of computational methods have been developed to address this problem. Soga et al. identified ligand cavities based on the preferences of amino acids for the ligand-binding site (RA) and proposed the propensity for ligand binding (PLB) index to rank the cavities on the protein surface. However, we found that residues exhibit different RAs in response to changes in solvent exposure. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that some dihedral angles of amino acids in specific regions of the Ramachandran plot are preferred at the functional sites of proteins. Based on these discoveries, the amino acid solvent-accessible surface area and dihedral angles were combined with the RA and PLB to obtain two new indexes, multi-factor RA (MF-RA) and multi-factor PLB (MF-PLB). MF-PLB, PLB and other methods were tested using two benchmark databases and two particular ligand-binding sites. The results show that MF-PLB can improve the success rate of PLB for both ligand-bound and ligand-unbound structures, particularly for top choice prediction.

  16. Improving the performance of the PLB index for ligand-binding site prediction using dihedral angles and the solvent-accessible surface area

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan

    2016-01-01

    Protein ligand-binding site prediction is highly important for protein function determination and structure-based drug design. Over the past twenty years, dozens of computational methods have been developed to address this problem. Soga et al. identified ligand cavities based on the preferences of amino acids for the ligand-binding site (RA) and proposed the propensity for ligand binding (PLB) index to rank the cavities on the protein surface. However, we found that residues exhibit different RAs in response to changes in solvent exposure. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that some dihedral angles of amino acids in specific regions of the Ramachandran plot are preferred at the functional sites of proteins. Based on these discoveries, the amino acid solvent-accessible surface area and dihedral angles were combined with the RA and PLB to obtain two new indexes, multi-factor RA (MF-RA) and multi-factor PLB (MF-PLB). MF-PLB, PLB and other methods were tested using two benchmark databases and two particular ligand-binding sites. The results show that MF-PLB can improve the success rate of PLB for both ligand-bound and ligand-unbound structures, particularly for top choice prediction. PMID:27619067

  17. Long-term snow distribution observations in a mountain catchment: Assessing variability, time stability, and the representativeness of an index site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstral, Adam; Marks, Danny

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of snow distribution heterogeneity and the factors affecting this variability. The analysis focuses on manually sampled data from 21 snow surveys covering 11 years at the drift-dominated Reynolds Mountain East catchment (0.36 km2) in southwestern Idaho, USA. Surveys were conducted midwinter and in early spring. Interseason and intraseason trends were examined along with the time stability of distributions, goodness-of-fit to theoretical distributions, and the representativeness of an index site as a measure of basin-wide snow water equivalent. The average snow depth coefficient of variation (CV) over the entire time period was 0.71, which is in accordance with broad regional assessments. Higher wind speeds during snow events and increased melt led to increased heterogeneity and higher CVs. Forested sites produced lower CVs presumably due to moderated winds at these sites. Consistent wind directions produced accumulation patterns that were very stable from year-to-year. Many previous studies have suggested that vital subgrid snow heterogeneity in large-scale models can be approximated with parametric distributions. Gamma distributions were preferred over lognormal distributions in describing the overall distribution while in tree-covered regions with less variability there was little difference between the two. It was also found that an index site, akin to the majority of North American mountain weather observation stations, provided a reasonable approximation of catchment-averaged SWE in most years. However, the reliability of this measure decreased in years that deviated from normal patterns.

  18. Expression of P. falciparum var Genes Involves Exchange of the Histone Variant H2A.Z at the Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Petter, Michaela; Lee, Chin Chin; Byrne, Timothy J.; Boysen, Katja E.; Volz, Jennifer; Ralph, Stuart A.; Cowman, Alan F.; Brown, Graham V.; Duffy, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum employs antigenic variation to evade the human immune response by switching the expression of different variant surface antigens encoded by the var gene family. Epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and sub-nuclear compartmentalization contribute to transcriptional regulation in the malaria parasite, in particular to control antigenic variation. Another mechanism of epigenetic control is the exchange of canonical histones with alternative variants to generate functionally specialized chromatin domains. Here we demonstrate that the alternative histone PfH2A.Z is associated with the epigenetic regulation of var genes. In many eukaryotic organisms the histone variant H2A.Z mediates an open chromatin structure at promoters and facilitates diverse levels of regulation, including transcriptional activation. Throughout the asexual, intraerythrocytic lifecycle of P. falciparum we found that the P. falciparum ortholog of H2A.Z (PfH2A.Z) colocalizes with histone modifications that are characteristic of transcriptionally-permissive euchromatin, but not with markers of heterochromatin. Consistent with this finding, antibodies to PfH2A.Z co-precipitate the permissive modification H3K4me3. By chromatin-immunoprecipitation we show that PfH2A.Z is enriched in nucleosomes around the transcription start site (TSS) in both transcriptionally active and silent stage-specific genes. In var genes, however, PfH2A.Z is enriched at the TSS only during active transcription in ring stage parasites. Thus, in contrast to other genes, temporal var gene regulation involves histone variant exchange at promoter nucleosomes. Sir2 histone deacetylases are important for var gene silencing and their yeast ortholog antagonises H2A.Z function in subtelomeric yeast genes. In immature P. falciparum parasites lacking Sir2A or Sir2B high var transcription levels correlate with enrichment of PfH2A.Z at the TSS. As Sir2A knock out parasites mature the var genes are

  19. A Spatially Based Area–Time Inundation Index Model Developed to Assess Habitat Opportunity in Tidal–Fluvial Wetlands and Restoration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ward, Duane L.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    The hydrodynamics of tidal wetland areas in the lower Columbia River floodplain and estuary directly affect habitat opportunity for endangered salmonid fishes. Physical and biological structures and functions in the system are directly affected by inundation patterns influenced by tidal cycles, hydropower operations, river discharge, upriver water withdrawals, climate, and physical barriers such as dikes, culverts, and tide gates. Ongoing ecosystem restoration efforts are intended to increase the opportunity for salmon to access beneficial habitats by hydrologically reconnecting main-stem river channels and diked areas within the historical floodplain. To address the need to evaluate habitat opportunity, a geographic information system-based Area-Time Inundation Index Model (ATIIM) was developed. The ATIIM integrates in situ or modeled hourly water-surface elevation (WSE) data and advanced terrain processing of high-resolution elevation data. The ATIIM uses a spatially based wetted-area algorithm to determine site average bankfull elevation, two- and three-dimensional inundation extent, and other site metrics. Hydrological process metrics such as inundation frequency, duration, maximum area, and maximum frequency area can inform evaluation of proposed restoration sites; e.g., determine trade-offs between WSE and habitat opportunity, contrast alternative restoration designs, predict impacts of altered flow regimes, and estimate nutrient and biomass fluxes. In an adaptive management framework, this model can be used to provide standardized site comparisons and effectiveness monitoring of changes in the developmental trajectories of restoration sites. Results are presented for 11 wetlands representative of tidal marshes, tidal forested wetlands, and restoration sites.

  20. Effects of grazing on leaf area index, fractional cover and evapotranspiration by a desert phreatophyte community at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bresloff, Cynthia J.; Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Waugh, Jody; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed ground and remote sensing methods to monitor the effects of grazing on leaf area index (LAI), fractional cover (fc) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a desert phreatophyte community over an 11 year period at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau, U.S. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate are migrating away from the mill site in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The phreatophyte community, consisting of Atriplex canescens (ATCA) and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (SAVE) shrubs, intercepts groundwater and could potentially slow the movement of the contaminant plume through evapotranspiration (ET). However, the site has been heavily grazed by livestock, reducing plant cover and LAI. We used livestock exclosures and revegetation plots to determine the effects of grazing on LAI, fc and ET, then projected the findings over the whole site using multi-platform remote sensing methods. We show that ET is approximately equal to annual precipitation at the site, but when ATCA and SAVE are protected from grazing they can develop high fc and LAI values, and ET can exceed annual precipitation, with the excess coming from groundwater discharge. Therefore, control of grazing could be an effective method to slow migration of contaminants at this and similar sites in the western U.S.

  1. Effects of grazing on leaf area index, fractional cover and evapotranspiration by a desert phreatophyte community at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau.

    PubMed

    Bresloff, Cynthia J; Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P; Waugh, Jody; Nagler, Pamela L

    2013-01-15

    This study employed ground and remote sensing methods to monitor the effects of grazing on leaf area index (LAI), fractional cover (f(c)) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a desert phreatophyte community over an 11 year period at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau, U.S. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate are migrating away from the mill site in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The phreatophyte community, consisting of Atriplex canescens (ATCA) and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (SAVE) shrubs, intercepts groundwater and could potentially slow the movement of the contaminant plume through evapotranspiration (ET). However, the site has been heavily grazed by livestock, reducing plant cover and LAI. We used livestock exclosures and revegetation plots to determine the effects of grazing on LAI, f(c) and ET, then projected the findings over the whole site using multi-platform remote sensing methods. We show that ET is approximately equal to annual precipitation at the site, but when ATCA and SAVE are protected from grazing they can develop high f(c) and LAI values, and ET can exceed annual precipitation, with the excess coming from groundwater discharge. Therefore, control of grazing could be an effective method to slow migration of contaminants at this and similar sites in the western U.S. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Propofol and remifentanil effect-site concentrations estimated by pharmacokinetic simulation and bispectral index monitoring during craniotomy with intraoperative awakening for brain tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Francisco; Beiras, Aldara

    2007-07-01

    Different anesthetic techniques have been suggested for craniotomy with intraoperative awakening. We describe an asleep-awake-asleep technique with propofol and remifentanil infusions, with pharmacokinetic simulation to predict the effect-site concentrations and to modulate the infusion rates of both drugs, and bispectral index (BIS) monitoring. Five critical moments were defined: first loss of consciousness (LOC1), first recovery of consciousness (ROC1), final of neurologic testing (NT), second loss of consciousness (LOC2), and second recovery of consciousness (ROC2). At LOC1, predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil were, respectively, 3.6+/-1.2 microg/mL and 2.4+/-0.4 etag/mL. At ROC1, predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil were, respectively, 2.1+/-0.3 microg/mL and 1.8+/-0.3 etag/mL. At NT, predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil were, respectively, 0.9+/-0.3 microg/mL and 1.8+/-0.2 etag/mL. At LOC2, predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil were, respectively, 2.1+/-0.2 microg/mL and 2.5+/-0.2 etag/mL. At ROC2, predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil were, respectively, 1.2+/-0.5 microg/mL and 1.4+/-0.2 etag/mL (data are mean+/-SE). A significative correlation was found between BIS and predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol (r=0.547, P<0.001) and remifentanil (r=0.533, P<0.001). Multiple regression analysis between BIS and propofol and remifentanil predicted effect-site concentrations at the different critical steps of the procedure was done and found also significative (r=0.7341, P<0.001).

  3. Revised description of index of Florida water data collection active stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval computer program FINDEX H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, Linda H.

    1983-01-01

    The report is an update of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-703, which described a retrieval program for administrative index of active data-collection sites in Florida. Extensive changes to the Findex system have been made since 1977 , making the previous report obsolete. A description of the data base and computer programs that are available in the Findex system are documented in this report. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. District offices with extensive data-collection activities will benefit from the documentation of the system. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, frequency of data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. The index is updated routinely. (USGS)

  4. The development and validation of an occlusal site-specific plaque index to evaluate the effects of cleaning by tooth brushes and chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Levinkind, M; Owens, J; Morea, C; Addy, M; Lang, N P; Adair, R; Barton, I

    1999-03-01

    These studies sought to develop and validate an occlusal site-specific plaque index to be used to measure plaque removal by brushing or chewing gum. The index divides the occlusal surfaces into imaginary zones from which scores are apportioned on a 0-4 basis dependent on the perceived % plaque coverage of each zone. Examiner calibration was conducted over 2 studies assessing inter-examiner reproducibility and intra-examiner repeatibility, respectively. Study 1 involved 2 examiners who recorded scores from the same 3 groups of subjects who had suspended tooth cleaning for 4 days. Analyses for inter-examiner reproducibility showed no significant mean differences between examiners or no significant differences between variances of the 2 examiners scores. Study 2 involved the same 2 examiners individually scoring 3 groups of subjects 2 x (approximately 60 min apart) for occlusal plaque. Analysis for intra-examiner repeatability showed no significant mean differences between the 2 scorings of each examiner. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the variances of each examiner's scores except for 1 examiner in the repeatability exercise for the 1st group of subjects. Study 3 involved groups of subjects at 2 separate clinical sites (Bristol, England and Berne, Switzerland) being scored for occlusal plaque before and after toothbrushing with water or after no toothbrushing. Data from individual examiners and examiners combined revealed a significant reduction in occlusal plaque with brushing compared to no brushing. Study 4 was the same as study 3 but occlusal plaque was scored before and after chewing gum or not chewing gum. The Bristol examiner recorded a significant reduction in plaque by chewing gum compared to not chewing gum but the Berne examiner did not. The latter may have resulted from a considerable disparity in the number of evaluable occlusal surfaces between the two study sites. The index could be employed as part of the overall assessment

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  6. Development of multiple strain competitive index assays for Listeria monocytogenes using pIMC; a new site-specific integrative vector

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Ian R; Casey, Pat G; Cronin, Michael; Gahan, Cormac GM; Hill, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Background The foodborne, gram-positive pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, is capable of causing lethal infections in compromised individuals. In the post genomic era of L. monocytogenes research, techniques are required to identify and validate genes involved in the pathogenicity and environmental biology of the organism. The aim here was to develop a widely applicable method to tag L. monocytogenes strains, with a particular emphasis on the development of multiple strain competitive index assays. Results We have constructed a new site-specific integrative vector, pIMC, based on pPL2, for the selection of L. monocytogenes from complex samples. The pIMC vector was further modified through the incorporation of IPTG inducible markers (antibiotic and phenotypic) to produce a suite of four vectors which allowed the discrimination of multiple strains from a single sample. We were able to perform murine infection studies with up to four EGDe isolates within a single mouse and showed that the tags did not impact upon growth rate or virulence. The system also allowed the identification of subtle differences in virulence between strains of L. monocytogenes commonly used in laboratory studies. Conclusion This study has developed a competitive index assay that can be broadly applied to all L. monocytogenes strains. Improved statistical robustness of the data was observed, resulting in fewer mice being required for virulence assays. The competitive index assays provide a powerful method to analyse the virulence or fitness of L. monocytogenes in complex biological samples. PMID:18554399

  7. Enhanced change detection index for disaster response, recovery assessment and monitoring of accessibility and open spaces (camp sites)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alwis Pitts, Dilkushi A.; So, Emily

    2017-05-01

    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) optical sensors and a growing image archive that is frequently updated, allows the use of change detection in post-disaster recovery and monitoring for robust and rapid results. The proposed semi-automated GIS object-based method uses readily available pre-disaster GIS data and adds existing knowledge into the processing to enhance change detection. It also allows targeting specific types of changes pertaining to similar man-made objects. This change detection method is based on pre/post normalized index, gradient of intensity, texture and edge similarity filters within the object and a set of training data. Once the change is quantified, based on training data, the method can be used automatically to detect change in order to observe recovery over time in large areas. Analysis over time can also contribute to obtaining a full picture of the recovery and development after disaster, thereby giving managers a better understanding of productive management practices.

  8. Transcriptional and epigenetic functions of histone variant H2A.Z.

    PubMed

    Draker, Ryan; Cheung, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The chromatin organization of a genome ultimately dictates the gene expression profile of the cell. It is now well recognized that key mechanisms that regulate chromatin structure include post-translational modifications of histones and the incorporation of histone variants at strategic sites within the genome. H2A.Z is a variant of H2A that is localized to the 5' end of many genes and is required for proper regulation of gene expression. However, its precise function in the transcription process is not yet well defined. In this review, we discuss some of the recent findings related to this histone variant, how it associates with other histone epigenetic marks, and how post-translational modifications of H2A.Z further define its function.

  9. Assessing agricultural drought in summer over Oklahoma Mesonet sites using the water-related vegetation index from MODIS.

    PubMed

    Bajgain, Rajen; Xiao, Xiangming; Basara, Jeffrey; Wagle, Pradeep; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao; Mahan, Hayden

    2017-02-01

    Agricultural drought, a common phenomenon in most parts of the world, is one of the most challenging natural hazards to monitor effectively. Land surface water index (LSWI), calculated as a normalized ratio between near infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), is sensitive to vegetation and soil water content. This study examined the potential of a LSWI-based, drought-monitoring algorithm to assess summer drought over 113 Oklahoma Mesonet stations comprising various land cover and soil types in Oklahoma. Drought duration in a year was determined by the number of days with LSWI <0 (DNLSWI) during summer months (June-August). Summer rainfall anomalies and LSWI anomalies followed a similar seasonal dynamics and showed strong correlations (r (2) = 0.62-0.73) during drought years (2001, 2006, 2011, and 2012). The DNLSWI tracked the east-west gradient of summer rainfall in Oklahoma. Drought intensity increased with increasing duration of DNLSWI, and the intensity increased rapidly when DNLSWI was more than 48 days. The comparison between LSWI and the US Drought Monitor (USDM) showed a strong linear negative relationship; i.e., higher drought intensity tends to have lower LSWI values and vice versa. However, the agreement between LSWI-based algorithm and USDM indicators varied substantially from 32 % (D 2 class, moderate drought) to 77 % (0 and D 0 class, no drought) for different drought intensity classes and varied from ∼30 % (western Oklahoma) to >80 % (eastern Oklahoma) across regions. Our results illustrated that drought intensity thresholds can be established by counting DNLSWI (in days) and used as a simple complementary tool in several drought applications for semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Oklahoma. However, larger discrepancies between USDM and the LSWI-based algorithm in arid regions of western Oklahoma suggest the requirement of further adjustment in the algorithm for its application in arid regions.

  10. Assessing agricultural drought in summer over Oklahoma Mesonet sites using the water-related vegetation index from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, Rajen; Xiao, Xiangming; Basara, Jeffrey; Wagle, Pradeep; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao; Mahan, Hayden

    2017-02-01

    Agricultural drought, a common phenomenon in most parts of the world, is one of the most challenging natural hazards to monitor effectively. Land surface water index (LSWI), calculated as a normalized ratio between near infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), is sensitive to vegetation and soil water content. This study examined the potential of a LSWI-based, drought-monitoring algorithm to assess summer drought over 113 Oklahoma Mesonet stations comprising various land cover and soil types in Oklahoma. Drought duration in a year was determined by the number of days with LSWI <0 (DNLSWI) during summer months (June-August). Summer rainfall anomalies and LSWI anomalies followed a similar seasonal dynamics and showed strong correlations ( r 2 = 0.62-0.73) during drought years (2001, 2006, 2011, and 2012). The DNLSWI tracked the east-west gradient of summer rainfall in Oklahoma. Drought intensity increased with increasing duration of DNLSWI, and the intensity increased rapidly when DNLSWI was more than 48 days. The comparison between LSWI and the US Drought Monitor (USDM) showed a strong linear negative relationship; i.e., higher drought intensity tends to have lower LSWI values and vice versa. However, the agreement between LSWI-based algorithm and USDM indicators varied substantially from 32 % ( D 2 class, moderate drought) to 77 % (0 and D 0 class, no drought) for different drought intensity classes and varied from ˜30 % (western Oklahoma) to >80 % (eastern Oklahoma) across regions. Our results illustrated that drought intensity thresholds can be established by counting DNLSWI (in days) and used as a simple complementary tool in several drought applications for semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Oklahoma. However, larger discrepancies between USDM and the LSWI-based algorithm in arid regions of western Oklahoma suggest the requirement of further adjustment in the algorithm for its application in arid regions.

  11. Histone variant H2A.Z marks the 5' ends of both active and inactive genes in euchromatin.

    PubMed

    Raisner, Ryan M; Hartley, Paul D; Meneghini, Marc D; Bao, Marie Z; Liu, Chih Long; Schreiber, Stuart L; Rando, Oliver J; Madhani, Hiten D

    2005-10-21

    In S. cerevisiae, histone variant H2A.Z is deposited in euchromatin at the flanks of silent heterochromatin to prevent its ectopic spread. We show that H2A.Z nucleosomes are found at promoter regions of nearly all genes in euchromatin. They generally occur as two positioned nucleosomes that flank a nucleosome-free region (NFR) that contains the transcription start site. Astonishingly, enrichment at 5' ends is observed not only at actively transcribed genes but also at inactive loci. Mutagenesis of a typical promoter revealed a 22 bp segment of DNA sufficient to program formation of a NFR flanked by two H2A.Z nucleosomes. This segment contains a binding site of the Myb-related protein Reb1 and an adjacent dT:dA tract. Efficient deposition of H2A.Z is further promoted by a specific pattern of histone H3 and H4 tail acetylation and the bromodomain protein Bdf1, a component of the Swr1 remodeling complex that deposits H2A.Z.

  12. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  13. Nucleic acid indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  14. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  15. Fermion zero modes in a Z2 vortex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Gustavo; Mohammadi, Azadeh; Schaposnik, Fidel A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the zero energy solutions of the Dirac equation in the background of a Z2 vortex of a non-Abelian gauge model with three charged scalar fields. We determine the number of the fermionic zero modes giving their explicit form for two specific Ansätze.

  16. A decade plus of snow distribution observations in a mountain catchment: assessing variability, self-similarity, and the representativeness of an index site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstral, A. H.; Marks, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of eleven years of manually sampled snow depth and SWE data at the drift-dominated Reynolds Mountain East catchment (0.36 km^2) in southwestern Idaho, U.S.A. The dataset includes eleven mid-winter surveys and ten surveys that targeted peak accumulation in the early spring. Depths were sampled on the same 30-meter grid covering the entire catchment in each survey. Densities were sampled at a coarser resolution using a depth-stratified random sampling scheme. In 19 of the 21 surveys, snow density increased with increasing depth until an upper limit was attained in the drifts. The coefficient of variation (CV) for mid-winter snow depths varied from 0.46 to 0.75 and was significantly related to seasonal wind speeds (p = 0.02). Energy inputs, correlated inversely to accumulation rates in this catchment, caused variability to increase as melt increased through the season. The CV for all three surveys that took place after peak accumulation exceeded 1.0. Inter-seasonal distributions were strongly correlated - correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.97 with a mean of 0.84. An index site with similar site characteristics to NRCS Snotel sites gave reasonable approximations of average catchment SWE in drier years, however as snowfall increased this site increasingly over-estimated basin-wide SWE. Though others have found snow distributions to be reasonably approximated by two-parameter lognormal distributions, Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit tests rejected this hypothesis (p < 0.01) in 20 of the 21 observed distributions.

  17. Estimates of evapotranspiration for riparian sites (Eucalyptus) in the Lower Murray -Darling Basin using ground validated sap flow and vegetation index scaling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doody, T.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Water accounting is becoming critical globally, and balancing consumptive water demands with environmental water requirements is especially difficult in in arid and semi-arid regions. Within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia, riparian water use has not been assessed across broad scales. This study therefore aimed to apply and validate an existing U.S. riparian ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) algorithm for the MDB river systems to assist water resource managers to quantify environmental water needs over wide ranges of niche conditions. Ground-based sap flow ET was correlated with remotely sensed predictions of ET, to provide a method to scale annual rates of water consumption by riparian vegetation over entire irrigation districts. Sap flux was measured at nine locations on the Murrumbidgee River between July 2011 and June 2012. Remotely sensed ET was calculated using a combination of local meteorological estimates of potential ET (ETo) and rainfall and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from selected 250 m resolution pixels. The sap flow data correlated well with MODIS EVI. Sap flow ranged from 0.81 mm/day to 3.60 mm/day and corresponded to a MODIS-based ET range of 1.43 mm/day to 2.42 mm/day. We found that mean ET across sites could be predicted by EVI-ETo methods with a standard error of about 20% across sites, but that ET at any given site could vary much more due to differences in aquifer and soil properties among sites. Water use was within range of that expected. We conclude that our algorithm developed for US arid land crops and riparian plants is applicable to this region of Australia. Future work includes the development of an adjusted algorithm using these sap flow validated results.

  18. Effect site concentrations of remifentanil maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis in response to surgical stimuli during bispectral index guided propofol anestesia in seriously obese patients.

    PubMed

    Albertin, A; La Colla, G; La Colla, L; Bergonzi, P C; Deni, F; Moizo, E

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effect site concentrations of remifentanil maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis in response to surgical stimuli during bispectral index (BIS) guided propofol anesthesia in seriously obese patients. Twenty-two patients, female/male 15/7, ASA physical status II - III, aged 29-69 years, body mass index (BMI) 54.5+/-12, undergoing major open bariatric surgery, were enrolled to receive a propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia. All patients were intubated by using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopic technique facilitated by a target controlled effect site concentration of remifentanil set at 2.5 ng/mL. After endotracheal intubation, anesthesia was started with a target controlled infusion of propofol initially set at 6 microg/mL, then adjusted to maintain a BIS value between 40 and 50. The mean effect site concentration of remifentanil was recorded at different intervals time during surgery: skin incision-opening of peritoneum (T1), bowel resection (T2), cholecystojejunal anastomosis (T3), ileojejunal anastomosis (T4), closing of peritoneum (T5). The mean plasma concentrations of propofol required to maintain a BIS value between 40 and 50 were 4+/-0.55, 3.8+/-0.64, 3.8+/- 0.63, 3.8+/-0.65 and 3.8+/-0.63 microg/mL at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 interval time, respectively. The mean values of remifentanil target effect site concentration were 5.2+/-1.3, 7.7+/-1.7, 9.1+/-1.8, 9.7+/- 2.2 and 9.9+/-2.5 ng/mL at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 interval time. This study suggests that tolerance to remifentanil infusion is profound and develops very rapidly in morbidly obese patients submitted to open bariatric surgery during BIS guided propofol anesthesia. The administration of opiates during anesthesia based on target-controlled infusion should include corrections for the development of tolerance.

  19. Structural polymorphism in the L1 loop regions of human H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Naoki; Sato, Koichi; Shimada, Keisuke; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Iwasaki, Wakana; Kagawa, Wataru; Harata, Masahiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The histone H2A.Z variant is widely conserved among eukaryotes. Two isoforms, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, have been identified in vertebrates and may have distinct functions in cell growth and gene expression. However, no structural differences between H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 have been reported. In the present study, the crystal structures of nucleosomes containing human H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 were determined. The structures of the L1 loop regions were found to clearly differ between H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, although their amino-acid sequences in this region are identical. This structural polymorphism may have been induced by a substitution that evolutionally occurred at the position of amino acid 38 and by the flexible nature of the L1 loops of H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2. It was also found that in living cells nucleosomal H2A.Z.1 exchanges more rapidly than H2A.Z.2. A mutational analysis revealed that the amino-acid difference at position 38 is at least partially responsible for the distinctive dynamics of H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2. These findings provide important new information for understanding the differences in the regulation and functions of H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 in cells. PMID:24311584

  20. Body Mass Index: Surgical Site Infections and Mortality After Lower Extremity Bypass from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005-2007

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kristina A.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Pomposelli, Frank B.; Wyers, Mark C.; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass are at high risk for surgical site infections (SSI). We examine lower extremity bypasses by graft origin and body mass index (BMI) classification to analyze differences in postoperative mortality and SSI occurrence. Methods The 2005-2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), a multi-institutional risk-adjusted database, was queried to compare perioperative mortality (30-day), overall morbidity, and SSIs after lower extremity arterial bypass for peripheral arterial disease. Bypass was stratified by graft origin as aorto-iliac, femoral, or popliteal. Patient demographics, comorbidities, operative, and post-operative occurrences were analyzed. Results There were 7,595 bypasses performed (1,596 aorto-iliac, 5,483 femoral, and 516 popliteal origin). Mortality was similar regardless of bypass origin (2.8%, 2.4%, & 2.7%, P=.57). Surgical site infections occurred in 11% of overall cases (10%, 11%, & 11%, P=.47). Graft failure was significantly associated with postoperative SSI occurrence (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1, P<.001) as was postoperative sepsis (OR 6.5, 95%CI 5.1-8.3, P<.001). Independent predictors of mortality were age, aorto-iliac bypass origin, underweight, normal weight, or morbid obesity (compared to overweight and obese), end stage renal disease, poor preoperative functional status, preoperative sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoalbuminemia, and cardiac disease. Independent predictors of SSI were obesity, diabetes, poor preoperative functional status, a history of smoking, and female gender. Conclusions Surgical site infections occur frequently after lower extremity bypass regardless of bypass origin and are associated with early graft failure and sepsis. Obesity predicts postoperative SSI. Mortality risk was greatest in the underweight followed by morbidly obese and normal weight patients, while overweight and mild-moderate obesity were associated with the lowest mortality

  1. Accounting for incomplete postdischarge follow-up during surveillance of surgical site infection by use of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system's risk index.

    PubMed

    Biscione, Fernando Martín; Couto, Renato Camargos; Pedrosa, Tânia M G

    2009-05-01

    We examined the usefulness of a simple method to account for incomplete postdischarge follow-up during surveillance of surgical site infection (SSI) by use of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system's risk index. Retrospective cohort study that used data prospectively collected from 1993 through 2006. Five private, nonuniversity healthcare facilities in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Consecutive patients undergoing the following NNIS operative procedures: 20,981 operations on the genitourinary system, 11,930 abdominal hysterectomies, 7,696 herniorraphies, 6,002 cholecystectomies, and 6,892 laparotomies. For each operative procedure category, 2 SSI risk models were specified. First, a model based on the NNIS system's risk index variables was specified (hereafter referred to as the NNIS-based model). Second, a modified model (hereafter referred to as the modified NNIS-based model), which was also based on the NNIS system's risk index, was specified with a postdischarge surveillance indicator, which was assigned the value of 1 if the patient could be reached during follow-up and a value of 0 if the patient could not be reached. A formal comparison of the capabilities of the 2 models to assess the risk of SSI was conducted using measures of calibration (by use of the Pearson goodness-of-fit test) and discrimination (by use of receiver operating characteristic curves). Goodman-Kruskal correlations (G) were also calculated. The rate of incomplete postdischarge follow-up varied between 29.8% for abdominal hysterectomies and 50.5% for cholecystectomies. The modified NNIS-based model for laparotomy did not show any significant benefit over the NNIS-based model in any measure. For all other operative procedures, the modified NNIS-based model showed a significantly improved discriminatory ability and higher G statistics, compared with the NNIS-based model, with no significant impairment in calibration, except if used to assess the risk of SSI after operations

  2. Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes?--impact on growth, condition index and diet composition.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Zenner, Annemie N; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    With the construction of wind farms all across the North Sea, numerous artificial reefs are created. These windmill artificial reefs (WARs) harbour high abundances of fish species which can be attracted from elsewhere or can be the result of extra production induced by these wind farms. To resolve the attraction-production debate in suddenly altered ecosystems (cf. wind farms), the possible consequences of attraction should be assessed; thereby bearing in mind that ecological traps may arise. In this paper we investigated whether the wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea act as ecological traps for pouting and Atlantic cod. Length-at-age, condition and diet composition of fish present at the windmill artificial reefs was compared to local and regional sandy areas. Fish data from the period 2009-2012 were evaluated. Mainly I- and II-group Atlantic cod were present around the WARs; while the 0- and I-group dominated for pouting. For Atlantic cod, no differences in length were observed between sites, indicating that fitness was comparable at the WARs and in sandy areas. No significant differences in condition index were observed for pouting. At the WARs, they were slightly larger and stomach fullness was enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. Also diet differed considerably among the sites. The outcome of the proxies indicate that fitness of pouting was slightly enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. No evidence was obtained supporting the hypothesis that the WARs act as an ecological trap for Atlantic cod and pouting.

  3. Genome-wide identification of histone H2A and histone variant H2A.Z-interacting proteins by bPPI-seq.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ku, Wai Lim; Liu, Shuai; Cui, Kairong; Jin, Wenfei; Tang, Qingsong; Lu, William; Ni, Bing; Zhao, Keji

    2017-09-01

    H2A is a nucleosome core subunit involved in organizing DNA into a chromatin structure that is often inaccessible to regulatory enzymes. Replacement of H2A by its variant H2A.Z renders chromatin accessible at enhancers and promoters. However, it remains unclear how H2A.Z functions so differently from canonical H2A. Here we report the genome-wide identification of proteins that directly interact with H2A and H2A.Z in vivo using a novel strategy, bPPI-seq. We show that bPPI-seq is a sensitive and robust technique to identify protein-protein interactions in vivo. Our data indicate that H2A.Z-interacting proteins and H2A-interacting proteins participate in distinct biological processes. In contrast to H2A-interacting proteins, the H2A.Z-interacting proteins are involved in transcriptional regulation. We found that the transcription factor Osr1 interacts with H2A.Z both in vitro and in vivo. It also mediates H2A.Z incorporation to a large number of target sites and regulates gene expression. Our data indicate that bPPI-seq can be widely applied to identify genome-wide interacting proteins under physiological conditions.Cell Research advance online publication 1 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cr.2017.112.

  4. Relationship of Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index with Fracture Risk at Different Sites in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)

    PubMed Central

    Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hosmer, David W; Watts, Nelson B; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Nieves, Jeri W; Netelenbos, J Coen; March, Lyn; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Hooven, Frederick H; Greenspan, Susan L; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Cooper, Cyrus; Chapurlat, Roland D; Boonen, Steven; Anderson, Frederick A; Adami, Silvano; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, rib, upper arm/shoulder, clavicle, ankle, lower leg, and upper leg fractures, we modeled the time to incident self-reported fracture over a 3-year period using the Cox proportional hazards model and fitted the best linear or non-linear models containing height, weight, and BMI. Of 52,939 women, 3628 (6.9%) reported an incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. Linear BMI showed a significant inverse association with hip, clinical spine, and wrist fractures: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per increase of 5 kg/m2 were 0.80 (0.71–0.90), 0.83 (0.76–0.92), and 0.88 (0.83–0.94), respectively (all p < 0.001). For ankle fractures, linear weight showed a significant positive association: adjusted HR per 5-kg increase 1.05 (1.02–1.07) (p < 0.001). For upper arm/shoulder and clavicle fractures, only linear height was significantly associated: adjusted HRs per 10-cm increase were 0.85 (0.75–0.97) (p = 0.02) and 0.73 (0.57–0.92) (p = 0.009), respectively. For pelvic and rib fractures, the best models were for non-linear BMI or weight (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively), with inverse associations at low BMI/body weight and positive associations at high values. These data demonstrate that the relationships between fracture and weight, BMI, and height are site-specific. The different associations may be mediated, at least in part, by effects on bone mineral density, bone structure and geometry, and patterns of falling. PMID:23873741

  5. Radiative transfer in shrub savanna sites in Niger: Preliminary results from HAPEX-Sahel. Part 3: Optical dynamics and vegetation index sensitivity to biomass and plant cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanLeeuwen, W. J. D.; Huete, A. R.; Duncan, J.; Franklin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A shrub savannah landscape in Niger was optically characterized utilizing blue, green, red and near-infrared wavelengths. Selected vegetation indices were evaluated for their performance and sensitivity to describe the complex Sahelian soil/vegetation canopies. Bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF) of plants and soils were measured at several view angles, and used as input to various vegetation indices. Both soil and vegetation targets had strong anisotropic reflectance properties, rendering all vegetation index (6) responses to be a direct function of sun and view geometry. Soil background influences were shown to alter the response of most vegetation indices. N-space greenness had the smallest dynamic range in VI response, but the n-space brightness index provided additional useful information. The global environmental monitoring index (GEMI) showed a large 6 dynamic range for bare soils, which was undesirable for a vegetation index. The view angle response of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), atmosphere resistant vegetation index (ARVI) and soil atmosphere resistant vegetation index (SARVI) were asymmetric about nadir for multiple view angles, and were, except for the SARVI, altered seriously by soil moisture and/or soil brightness effects. The soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) was least affected by surface soil moisture and was symmetric about nadir for grass vegetation covers. Overall the SAVI, SARVI and the n-space vegetation index performed best under all adverse conditions and were recommended to monitor vegetation growth in the sparsely vegetated Sahelian zone.

  6. -dimensional Symmetry Catalysts for A-Z Gas Loading Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2011-03-01

    An epitaxial mating of a metal layer to a chemically stable ionic crystal minimizes system energy for cold fusion based on Bloch function symmetry and using gas loading and nm-Pd at a favored interface. To achieve epitaxy second and third metal layers need to have imperfections. One thinks of the stable ionic crystal as a template and the nano-Pd solid as a malleable lattice. The interior volume of the nano-Pd solid has a face-centered cubic structure. ZrO2 was the template ionic crystal used in A-Z gas loading studies at elevated T in (2005). A template crystal using the sapphire crystal equivalent of a double-layer graphene crystal is suggested. Impurity Rh and Ru are suggested as impurity atoms in the nano-metal (as in gem-quality Zircon) and a amall amount of interstitial H in addition to dominant D as involved in diffusion. Ref.

  7. Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,

  8. Cu spectroscopy from a z-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Arati; Clark, Robert W.; Ouart, Nicholas D.; Giuliani, John L.

    2014-11-01

    Recent improvements in diagnostic techniques at the Sandia Laboratories Z accelerator have facilitated the production of very detailed x-ray spectral data in the range of 1-20 keV. The high energy density plasma produced in a z-pinch is inherently in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE). We therefore employ a NLTE collisional equilibrium model in a 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamics of the pinch and to generate synthetic emission spectra. We will discuss the effects on radiation spectra and the yields of using simplifying assumptions in the atomic model and/or the radiation transport. X-ray emission from moderately high atomic number plasmas such as Fe and Cu wire array implosions often include substantial 2p-1s K-α radiation. In a z-pinch plasma, K-shell vacancies can be produced by e-beams, hot electrons at the tail of a Maxwellian and also by photopumping from energetic photons emitted near the pinch axis. In the Z-1975 Cu wire implosion, K-α lines from various ionization stages of Cu as well as from minor constituents including Ni, Fe and Cr are observed. We have calculated K-α production within a full simulation of a Cu implosion, including contributions from energetic electrons and photons. Photo-pumped K-α emission can be distinguished from that produced by e-beams; K-shell vacancies will be produced near the axis for a beam, and near the outer edge of the plasma for energetic photons. Spectroscopic modeling of these K-α lines as well as K- and L-shell emission from valence electrons can provide quantitative diagnostics of plasma parameters. This methodology can also be used to investigate K-α emission from other laboratory experiments such as EBIT and astrophysical plasmas.

  9. Characterization of mussel H2A.Z.2: a new H2A.Z variant preferentially expressed in germinal tissues from Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Casas, Ciro; González-Romero, Rodrigo; Vizoso-Vazquez, Ángel; Cheema, Manjinder S; Cerdán, M Esperanza; Méndez, Josefina; Ausió, Juan; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2016-10-01

    Histones are the fundamental constituents of the eukaryotic chromatin, facilitating the physical organization of DNA in chromosomes and participating in the regulation of its metabolism. The H2A family displays the largest number of variants among core histones, including the renowned H2A.X, macroH2A, H2A.B (Bbd), and H2A.Z. This latter variant is especially interesting because of its regulatory role and its differentiation into 2 functionally divergent variants (H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2), further specializing the structure and function of vertebrate chromatin. In the present work we describe, for the first time, the presence of a second H2A.Z variant (H2A.Z.2) in the genome of a non-vertebrate animal, the mussel Mytilus. The molecular and evolutionary characterization of mussel H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 histones is consistent with their functional specialization, supported on sequence divergence at promoter and coding regions as well as on varying gene expression patterns. More precisely, the expression of H2A.Z.2 transcripts in gonadal tissue and its potential upregulation in response to genotoxic stress might be mirroring the specialization of this variant in DNA repair. Overall, the findings presented in this work complement recent reports describing the widespread presence of other histone variants across eukaryotes, supporting an ancestral origin and conserved role for histone variants in chromatin.

  10. Redundant Functions for Nap1 and Chz1 in H2A.Z Deposition.

    PubMed

    Dronamraju, Raghuvar; Ramachandran, Srinivas; Jha, Deepak K; Adams, Alexander T; DiFiore, Julia V; Parra, Michael A; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Strahl, Brian D

    2017-09-07

    H2A.Z is a histone H2A variant that contributes to transcriptional regulation, DNA damage response and limits heterochromatin spreading. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited by the SWR-C complex, which relies on several histone chaperones including Nap1 and Chz1 to deliver H2A.Z-H2B dimers to SWR-C. However, the mechanisms by which Nap1 and Chz1 cooperate to bind H2A.Z and their contribution to H2A.Z deposition in chromatin is not well understood. Using structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we identify a series of H2A.Z residues that form a chaperone-specific binding surface. Mutation of these residues revealed different surface requirements for Nap1 and Chz1 interaction with H2A.Z. Consistent with this result, we found that loss of Nap1 or Chz1 individually resulted in mild defects in H2A.Z deposition, but that deletion of both Nap1 and Chz1 resulted in a significant reduction of H2A.Z deposition at promoters and led to heterochromatin spreading. Together, our findings reveal unique H2A.Z surface dependences for Nap1 and Chz1 and a redundant role for these chaperones in H2A.Z deposition.

  11. IN SITU AND MODIS MOD15A2 LEAF AREA INDEX MEASUREMENTS OF A MID-ATLANTIC DECIDOUS FOREST SITE: PERSPECTIVES FROM FOUR-YEARS OF FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is interested in leaf area index as it pertains to biogenic emissions, atmospheric pollutant deposition, ecological indicators, vegetation phenology, and land cover mapping.

  12. IN SITU AND MODIS MOD15A2 LEAF AREA INDEX MEASUREMENTS OF A MID-ATLANTIC DECIDOUS FOREST SITE: PERSPECTIVES FROM FOUR-YEARS OF FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is interested in leaf area index as it pertains to biogenic emissions, atmospheric pollutant deposition, ecological indicators, vegetation phenology, and land cover mapping.

  13. Bioactive benzofuran derivatives: moracins A-Z in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ravi; Harmalkar, Dipesh S; Xu, Xuezhen; Jang, Kyusic; Lee, Kyeong

    2015-01-27

    Benzofuran heterocycles are fundamental structural units in a variety of biologically active natural products as well as synthetic materials. Over the time, benzofuran derivatives have attracted many researchers due to the broad scope of their biological activity, which include anticancer, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Egonol, homoegonol and moracin families are biologically active natural products containing benzofuran heterocycle as basic structural units. This paper focuses on the moracin family (moracin A to Z). Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10-16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries. The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Morus alba, M. lhou, Morus macroura are the main sources for arylbenzofuran derivatives including the moracins. A large volume of research has been carried out on moracins and their derivatives, which has shown the pharmacological importance of this benzofuran heterocyclic nucleus. In this mini-review, we attempt to highlight the importance of moracins, as they have been a major source for drug development. Herein, we also summarize the current state of the art concerning the synthesis and medicinal use of moracins A-Z.

  14. Structural Health Monitoring for a Z-Type Special Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chaolin; Ren, Liang; Li, Hongnan

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays there exist various kinds of special vehicles designed for some purposes, which are different from regular vehicles in overall dimension and design. In that case, accidents such as overturning will lead to large economical loss and casualties. There are still no technical specifications to follow to ensure the safe operation and driving of these special vehicles. Owing to the poor efficiency of regular maintenance, it is more feasible and effective to apply real-time monitoring during the operation and driving process. In this paper, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used to monitor the safety of a z-type special vehicle. Based on the structural features and force distribution, a reasonable structural health monitoring (SHM) scheme is presented. Comparing the monitoring results with the finite element simulation results guarantees the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring results. Large amounts of data are collected during the operation and driving progress to evaluate the structural safety condition and provide reference for SHM systems developed for other special vehicles. PMID:28587161

  15. Histone variant H2A.Z.2 mediates proliferation and drug sensitivity of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Vardabasso, Chiara; Gaspar-Maia, Alexandre; Hasson, Dan; Pünzeler, Sebastian; Valle-Garcia, David; Straub, Tobias; Keilhauer, Eva C.; Strub, Thomas; Dong, Joanna; Panda, Taniya; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Yao, Jonathan L.; Singh, Rajendra; Segura, Miguel F.; Fontanals-Cirera, Barbara; Verma, Amit; Mann, Matthias; Hernando, Eva; Hake, Sandra B.; Bernstein, Emily

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone variants are emerging as key regulatory molecules in cancer. Here we report a novel role for the H2A.Z isoform H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. H2A.Z.2 is highly expressed in metastatic melanoma, correlates with decreased patient survival, and is required for cellular proliferation. Our integrated genomic analyses reveal that H2A.Z.2 controls the transcriptional output of E2F target genes in melanoma cells. These genes are highly expressed and display a distinct signature of H2A.Z occupancy. We identify BRD2 as an H2A.Z interacting protein, whose levels are also elevated in melanoma. We further demonstrate that H2A.Z.2 regulated genes are bound by BRD2 and E2F1 in a H2A.Z.2-dependent manner. Importantly, H2A.Z.2 deficiency sensitizes melanoma cells to chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Collectively, our findings implicate H2A.Z.2 as a mediator of cell proliferation and drug sensitivity in malignant melanoma, holding translational potential for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26051178

  16. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  17. Submergence Vulnerability Index development and application to Coastwide Reference Monitoring System Sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh A.; McGinnis, Thomas E.; Snedden, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its implementation in 2003, the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) in Louisiana has facilitated the creation of a comprehensive dataset that includes, but is not limited to, vegetation, hydrologic, and soil metrics on a coastwide scale. The primary impetus for this data collection is to assess land management activities, including restoration efforts, across the coast. The aim of the CRMS analytical team is to provide a method to synthesize this data to enable multiscaled evaluations of activities in Louisiana’s coastal wetlands. Several indices have been developed to facilitate data synthesis and interpretation, including a Floristic Quality Index, a Hydrologic Index, and a Landscape Index. This document details the development of the Submergence Vulnerability Index, which incorporates sediment-elevation data as well as hydrologic data to determine the vulnerability of a wetland based on its ability to keep pace with sea-level rise. The objective of this document is to provide Federal and State sponsors, project managers, planners, landowners, data users, and the rest of the coastal restoration community with the following: (1) data collection and model development methods for the sediment-elevation response variables, and (2) a description of how these response variables will be used to evaluate CWPPRA project and program effectiveness.

  18. Site-scale disturbance and habitat development best predict an index of amphibian biotic integrity in Ohio shrub and forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micacchion, Mick; Stapanian, Martin A.; Adams, Jean V.

    2015-01-01

    We determined the best predictors of an index of amphibian biotic integrity calculated from 54 shrub and forested wetlands in Ohio, USA using a two-step sequential holdout validation procedure. We considered 13 variables as predictors: four metrics of wetland condition from the Ohio Rapid Assessment Method (ORAM), a wetland vegetation index of biotic integrity, and eight metrics from a landscape disturbance index. For all iterations, the best model included the single ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration, substrate disturbance, and habitat development within a wetland. Our results align with results of similar studies that have associated high scores for wetland vegetation indices of biotic integrity with low habitat alteration and substrate disturbance within wetlands. Thus, implementing similar management practices (e.g., not removing downed woody debris, retaining natural morphological features, decreasing nutrient input from surrounding agricultural lands) could concurrently increase ecological integrity of both plant and amphibian communities in a wetland. Further, our results have the unexpected effect of making progress toward a more unifying theory of ecological indices.

  19. Impact of Body Site, Age, and Gender on the Collagen/Elastin Index by Noninvasive in vivo Vertical Two-Photon Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Czekalla, Carolin; Schönborn, Karl-Heinz; Döge, Nadine; Jung, Sora; Darvin, Maxim E; Lademann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-08-12

    Extrinsic and intrinsic skin aging is subject to constant remodeling and degradation processes, primarily in components of the extracellular matrix. While collagen fibers thin out during the aging process, the amorphous elastin fibers accumulate. These are essential formative components of the dermis. So far, these processes have been detected in vertical histological sections of invasive biopsies and recently in noninvasive horizontal scans. In this pilot study, a modified noninvasive 2-photon microscope was applied to measure the collagen/elastin index of skin in vivo. The obtained images permit an immediate vertical survey and allow a conclusion on the dermal composition at once. The collagen/elastin index was quantified by the second harmonic to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID) depending on volunteers' age (18-66 years), gender, and body area. The highest SAAID was measured at the volar forearm as compared to the abdominal SAAID, which was significantly lower (p < 0.05). The gluteal region showed the significantly lowest SAAID (p < 0.05). The SAAID in female skin was higher compared to male skin and decreased with increasing age. These effects are to be considered in subsequent studies to be able to specifically detect and evaluate influences. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Automatic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, D.

    1992-09-01

    Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

  1. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  2. The Application of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in e-Learning and Online Education Environments: A Review of Publications in SSCI-Indexed Journals from 2004 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Pei-Di; Chiang, Yi-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors reviewed the empirical studies on social networking sites (SNSs), especially those focused on adopting SNSs for students' learning, published in SSCI journals from 2004 to 2013. It was found that the number of articles has significantly increased, particularly after 2009. Among the 76 published papers, most studies were…

  3. The Application of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in e-Learning and Online Education Environments: A Review of Publications in SSCI-Indexed Journals from 2004 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Pei-Di; Chiang, Yi-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors reviewed the empirical studies on social networking sites (SNSs), especially those focused on adopting SNSs for students' learning, published in SSCI journals from 2004 to 2013. It was found that the number of articles has significantly increased, particularly after 2009. Among the 76 published papers, most studies were…

  4. The histone variant H2A.Z is an important regulator of enhancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Mylène; Nordell Markovits, Alexei; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Lupien, Mathieu; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Gévry, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulatory programs in different cell types are largely defined through cell-specific enhancers activity. The histone variant H2A.Z has been shown to play important roles in transcription mainly by controlling proximal promoters, but its effect on enhancer functions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate by genome-wide approaches that H2A.Z is present at a subset of active enhancers bound by the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). We also determine that H2A.Z does not influence the local nucleosome positioning around ERα enhancers using ChIP sequencing at nucleosomal resolution and unsupervised pattern discovery. We further highlight that H2A.Z-enriched enhancers are associated with chromatin accessibility, H3K122ac enrichment and hypomethylated DNA. Moreover, upon estrogen stimulation, the enhancers occupied by H2A.Z produce enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), and recruit RNA polymerase II as well as RAD21, a member of the cohesin complex involved in chromatin interactions between enhancers and promoters. Importantly, their recruitment and eRNAs production are abolished by H2A.Z depletion, thereby revealing a novel functional link between H2A.Z occupancy and enhancer activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that H2A.Z acts as an important player for enhancer functions by establishing and maintaining a chromatin environment required for RNA polymerase II recruitment, eRNAs transcription and enhancer-promoters interactions, all essential attributes of enhancer activity. PMID:26319018

  5. The histone variant H2A.Z promotes efficient cotranscriptional splicing in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Neves, Lauren T; Douglass, Stephen; Spreafico, Roberto; Venkataramanan, Srivats; Kress, Tracy L; Johnson, Tracy L

    2017-04-01

    In eukaryotes, a dynamic ribonucleic protein machine known as the spliceosome catalyzes the removal of introns from premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA). Recent studies show the processes of RNA synthesis and RNA processing to be spatio-temporally coordinated, indicating that RNA splicing takes place in the context of chromatin. H2A.Z is a highly conserved histone variant of the canonical histone H2A. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited into chromatin by the SWR-C complex, is found near the 5' ends of protein-coding genes, and has been implicated in transcription regulation. Here we show that splicing of intron-containing genes in cells lacking H2A.Z is impaired, particularly under suboptimal splicing conditions. Cells lacking H2A.Z are especially dependent on a functional U2 snRNP (small nuclear RNA [snRNA] plus associated proteins), as H2A.Z shows extensive genetic interactions with U2 snRNP-associated proteins, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reveals that introns with nonconsensus branch points are particularly sensitive to H2A.Z loss. Consistently, H2A.Z promotes efficient spliceosomal rearrangements involving the U2 snRNP, as H2A.Z loss results in persistent U2 snRNP association and decreased recruitment of downstream snRNPs to nascent RNA. H2A.Z impairs transcription elongation, suggesting that spliceosome rearrangements are tied to H2A.Z's role in elongation. Depletion of disassembly factor Prp43 suppresses H2A.Z-mediated splice defects, indicating that, in the absence of H2A.Z, stalled spliceosomes are disassembled, and unspliced RNAs are released. Together, these data demonstrate that H2A.Z is required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing and indicate a role for H2A.Z in coordinating the kinetics of transcription elongation and splicing. © 2017 Neves et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. The DREAM complex promotes gene body H2A.Z for target repression

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Isabel; Chesney, Michael A.; Garrigues, Jacob M.; Stempor, Przemyslaw; Appert, Alex; Francesconi, Mirko; Strome, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The DREAM (DP, Retinoblastoma [Rb]-like, E2F, and MuvB) complex controls cellular quiescence by repressing cell cycle genes, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans DREAM targets have an unusual pattern of high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z. In mutants of lin-35, the sole p130/Rb-like gene in C. elegans, DREAM targets have reduced gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z and increased expression. Consistent with a repressive role for gene body H2A.Z, many DREAM targets are up-regulated in htz-1/H2A.Z mutants. Our results indicate that the DREAM complex facilitates high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z, which plays a role in target gene repression. PMID:25737279

  7. The DREAM complex promotes gene body H2A.Z for target repression.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Isabel; Chesney, Michael A; Garrigues, Jacob M; Stempor, Przemyslaw; Appert, Alex; Francesconi, Mirko; Strome, Susan; Ahringer, Julie

    2015-03-01

    The DREAM (DP, Retinoblastoma [Rb]-like, E2F, and MuvB) complex controls cellular quiescence by repressing cell cycle genes, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans DREAM targets have an unusual pattern of high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z. In mutants of lin-35, the sole p130/Rb-like gene in C. elegans, DREAM targets have reduced gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z and increased expression. Consistent with a repressive role for gene body H2A.Z, many DREAM targets are up-regulated in htz-1/H2A.Z mutants. Our results indicate that the DREAM complex facilitates high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z, which plays a role in target gene repression. © 2015 Latorre et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Application of an integrated biomarker response index to assess ground water contamination in the vicinity of a rare earth mine tailings site.

    PubMed

    Si, Wantong; He, Xiaoying; Li, Ailing; Liu, Li; Li, Jisheng; Gong, Donghui; Liu, Juan; Liu, Jumei; Shen, Weishou; Zhang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    We utilized a multi-biomarker approach (Integrated Biomarker Response version 2, IBRv2) to investigate the scope and dispersion of groundwater contamination surrounding a rare earth mine tailings impoundment. Parameters of SD rat included in our IBRv2 analyses were glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, total anti-oxidative capacity, chromosome aberration, and micronucleus formation. The concentration of 20 pollutants including Cl(-), SO4 (2-), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), TH, CODMn, As, Se, TDS, Be, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb in the groundwater were also analyzed. The results of this study indicated that groundwater polluted by tailings impoundment leakage exhibited significant ecotoxicological effects. The selected biomarkers responded sensitively to groundwater pollution. Analyses showed a significant relationship between IBRv2 values and the Nemerow composite index. IBRv2 could serve as a sensitive ecotoxicological diagnosis method for assessing groundwater contamination in the vicinity of rare earth mine tailings. According to the trend of IBRv2 value and Nemerow composite index, the maximum diffusion distance of groundwater pollutants from rare earth mine tailings was approximately 5.7 km.

  9. H2A.Z.2.2 is an alternatively spliced histone H2A.Z variant that causes severe nucleosome destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Bönisch, Clemens; Schneider, Katrin; Pünzeler, Sebastian; Wiedemann, Sonja M.; Bielmeier, Christina; Bocola, Marco; Eberl, H. Christian; Kuegel, Wolfgang; Neumann, Jürgen; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Michaelis, Jens; Schermelleh, Lothar; Hake, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    The histone variant H2A.Z has been implicated in many biological processes, such as gene regulation and genome stability. Here, we present the identification of H2A.Z.2.2 (Z.2.2), a novel alternatively spliced variant of histone H2A.Z and provide a comprehensive characterization of its expression and chromatin incorporation properties. Z.2.2 mRNA is found in all human cell lines and tissues with highest levels in brain. We show the proper splicing and in vivo existence of this variant protein in humans. Furthermore, we demonstrate the binding of Z.2.2 to H2A.Z-specific TIP60 and SRCAP chaperone complexes and its active replication-independent deposition into chromatin. Strikingly, various independent in vivo and in vitro analyses, such as biochemical fractionation, comparative FRAP studies of GFP-tagged H2A variants, size exclusion chromatography and single molecule FRET, in combination with in silico molecular dynamics simulations, consistently demonstrate that Z.2.2 causes major structural changes and significantly destabilizes nucleosomes. Analyses of deletion mutants and chimeric proteins pinpoint this property to its unique C-terminus. Our findings enrich the list of known human variants by an unusual protein belonging to the H2A.Z family that leads to the least stable nucleosome known to date. PMID:22467210

  10. Site Evaluation for Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1985-01-01

    Foresters evaluate sites for an indication of potential growth and yield, for an ecological descriptor, and to correctly match the hardwood species to be planted with sites suitable for them. Site indexes measured directly from trees on the site are the preferable means of quantifying site. Because this method is not always possible, other means based on soil and...

  11. A Protein Complex Containing the Conserved Swi2/Snf2-Related ATPase Swr1p Deposits Histone Variant H2A.Z into Euchromatin

    PubMed Central

    Kobor, Michael. S; Venkatasubrahmanyam, Shivkumar; Meneghini, Marc D; Gin, Jennifer W; Jennings, Jennifer L; Link, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    The conserved histone variant H2A.Z functions in euchromatin to antagonize the spread of heterochromatin. The mechanism by which histone H2A is replaced by H2A.Z in the nucleosome is unknown. We identified a complex containing 13 different polypeptides associated with a soluble pool of H2A.Z in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This complex was designated SWR1-Com in reference to the Swr1p subunit, a Swi2/Snf2-paralog. Swr1p and six other subunits were found only in SWR1-Com, whereas six other subunits were also found in the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase and/or the Ino80 chromatin remodeling complex. H2A.Z and SWR1 were essential for viability of cells lacking the EAF1 component of NuA4, pointing to a close functional connection between these two complexes. Strikingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of cells lacking Swr1p, the presumed ATPase of the complex, revealed a profound defect in the deposition of H2A.Z at euchromatic regions that flank the silent mating type cassette HMR and at 12 other chromosomal sites tested. Consistent with a specialized role for Swr1p in H2A.Z deposition, the majority of the genome-wide transcriptional defects seen in swr1Δ cells were also found in htz1Δ cells. These studies revealed a novel role for a member of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme family in determining the region-specific histone subunit composition of chromatin in vivo and controlling the epigenetic state of chromatin. Metazoan orthologs of Swr1p (Drosophila Domino; human SRCAP and p400) may have analogous functions. PMID:15045029

  12. A protein complex containing the conserved Swi2/Snf2-related ATPase Swr1p deposits histone variant H2A.Z into euchromatin.

    PubMed

    Kobor, Michael S; Venkatasubrahmanyam, Shivkumar; Meneghini, Marc D; Gin, Jennifer W; Jennings, Jennifer L; Link, Andrew J; Madhani, Hiten D; Rine, Jasper

    2004-05-01

    The conserved histone variant H2A.Z functions in euchromatin to antagonize the spread of heterochromatin. The mechanism by which histone H2A is replaced by H2A.Z in the nucleosome is unknown. We identified a complex containing 13 different polypeptides associated with a soluble pool of H2A.Z in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This complex was designated SWR1-Com in reference to the Swr1p subunit, a Swi2/Snf2-paralog. Swr1p and six other subunits were found only in SWR1-Com, whereas six other subunits were also found in the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase and/or the Ino80 chromatin remodeling complex. H2A.Z and SWR1 were essential for viability of cells lacking the EAF1 component of NuA4, pointing to a close functional connection between these two complexes. Strikingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of cells lacking Swr1p, the presumed ATPase of the complex, revealed a profound defect in the deposition of H2A.Z at euchromatic regions that flank the silent mating type cassette HMR and at 12 other chromosomal sites tested. Consistent with a specialized role for Swr1p in H2A.Z deposition, the majority of the genome-wide transcriptional defects seen in swr1Delta cells were also found in htz1Delta cells. These studies revealed a novel role for a member of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme family in determining the region-specific histone subunit composition of chromatin in vivo and controlling the epigenetic state of chromatin. Metazoan orthologs of Swr1p (Drosophila Domino; human SRCAP and p400) may have analogous functions.

  13. Index interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.

    1993-01-01

    The Index Interferometer is a novel instrument being developed by Northeast Photosciences. The instrument is a breakthrough in the high-accuracy measurement of the index of refraction, the dispersion, and the index profile of materials. The instrument accurately measures the index of refraction of materials to one or two more significant figures than previous instruments. Material slices polished moderately flat are sufficient, without any requirement for special or complicated material shapes, such as prisms. The index profile at any chosen wavelength can be measured using a simple color filter. No special laser sources or carefully collimated parallel beams are required. The index profile over an entire sample can be directly obtained at any desired wavelength. This instrument is remarkable in that it greatly increases the accuracy of measurement, eliminates the need for high-quality, extremely narrow sources and for fabrication of special-geometry samples, and adds additional features, such as index profile measurements. The technique compares the fringe pattern from the top surface with that from a reference mirror to determine the thickness. Then, with the aid of a filtered white light source, the interference pattern from the back surface is compared with that from the front to yield the optical thickness of the sample. The combination of the two measurements gives the index. The back surface fringe pattern itself gives the index profile.

  14. The Histone Chaperones FACT and Spt6 Restrict H2A.Z from Intragenic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimo, Célia; Watanabe, Shinya; Kaplan, Craig D.; Peterson, Craig L.; Robert, François

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY H2A.Z is a highly conserved histone variant involved in several key nuclear processes. It is incorporated into promoters by SWR-C-related chromatin remodeling complexes, but whether it is also actively excluded from non-promoter regions is not clear. Here, we provide genomic and biochemical evidence that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation-associated histone chaperones FACT and Spt6 both contribute to restricting H2A.Z from intragenic regions. In the absence of FACT or Spt6, the lack of efficient nucleosome reassembly coupled to pervasive incorporation of H2A.Z by mislocalized SWR-C alters chromatin composition and contributes to cryptic initiation. Thus, chaperone-mediated H2A.Z confinement is crucial for restricting the chromatin signature of gene promoters, which otherwise may license or promote cryptic transcription. PMID:25959393

  15. Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Govers, M; Gannon, N; Dunshea, F; Gibson, P; Muir, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent studies suggest that resistant starch (effective in producing butyrate and lowering possibly toxic ammonia) is rapidly fermented in the proximal colon; the distal colon especially would, however, benefit from these properties of resistant starch.
AIMS—To determine whether wheat bran (a rich source of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides), known to hasten gastrointestinal transit, could carry resistant starch through to the distal colon and thus shift its site of fermentation.
METHODS—Twenty four pigs were fed four human type diets: a control diet, or control diet supplemented with resistant starch, wheat bran, or both. Intestinal contents and faeces were collected after two weeks.
RESULTS—Without wheat bran, resistant starch was rapidly fermented in the caecum and proximal colon. Supplementation with wheat bran inhibited the caecal fermentation of resistant starch, resulting in an almost twofold increase (from 12.9 (2.5) to 20.5 (2.1) g/day, p<0.05) in resistant starch being fermented between the proximal colon and faeces. This resulted in higher butyrate (133%, p<0.05) and lower ammonia (81%, p<0.05) concentrations in the distal colonic regions.
CONCLUSIONS—Wheat bran can shift the fermentation of resistant starch further distally, thereby improving the luminal conditions in the distal colonic regions where tumours most commonly occur. Therefore, the combined consumption of resistant starch and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides may contribute to the dietary modulation of colon cancer risk.


Keywords: resistant starch; non-starch polysaccharides; colonic fermentation; butyrate; ammonia; colon cancer risk PMID:10562582

  16. H2A.Z controls the stability and mobility of nucleosomes to regulate expression of the LH genes

    PubMed Central

    Rudnizky, Sergei; Bavly, Adaiah; Malik, Omri; Pnueli, Lilach; Melamed, Philippa; Kaplan, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of promoter chromatin have a profound effect on the expression levels of genes. Yet, the contribution of DNA sequence, histone post-translational modifications, histone variant usage and other factors in shaping the architecture of chromatin, and the mechanisms by which this architecture modulates expression of specific genes are not yet completely understood. Here we use optical tweezers to study the roles that DNA sequence and the histone variant H2A.Z have in shaping the chromatin landscape at the promoters of two model genes, Cga and Lhb. Guided by MNase mapping of the promoters of these genes, we reconstitute nucleosomes that mimic those located near the transcriptional start site and immediately downstream (+1), and measure the forces required to disrupt these nucleosomes, and their mobility along the DNA sequence. Our results indicate that these genes are basally regulated by two distinct strategies, making use of H2A.Z to modulate separate phases of transcription, and highlight how DNA sequence, alternative histone variants and remodelling machinery act synergistically to modulate gene expression. PMID:27653784

  17. INO80 exchanges H2A.Z for H2A by translocating on DNA proximal to histone dimers

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Sandipan; Udugama, Maheshi I.; Kim, Jongseong; Hada, Arjan; Bhardwaj, Saurabh K.; Hailu, Solomon G.; Lee, Tae-Hee; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2017-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers modulate nucleosome dynamics by mobilizing or disassembling nucleosomes, as well as altering nucleosome composition. These chromatin remodellers generally function by translocating along nucleosomal DNA at the H3–H4 interface of nucleosomes. Here we show that, unlike other remodellers, INO80 translocates along DNA at the H2A–H2B interface of nucleosomes and persistently displaces DNA from the surface of H2A–H2B. DNA translocation and DNA torsional strain created near the entry site of nucleosomes by INO80 promotes both the mobilization of nucleosomes and the selective exchange of H2A.Z–H2B dimers out of nucleosomes and replacement by H2A–H2B dimers without any additional histone chaperones. We find that INO80 translocates and mobilizes H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes more efficiently than those containing H2A, partially accounting for the preference of INO80 to replace H2A.Z with H2A. Our data suggest that INO80 has a mechanism for dimer exchange that is distinct from other chromatin remodellers including its paralogue SWR1. PMID:28604691

  18. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O’Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374 PMID:26418677

  19. Series expansions for the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integralYe 0(a, z)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechaik, Mehdi M.; Dvorak, Steven L.

    1996-03-01

    Three series expansions are derived for the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integral YeO(a, z) for complex-valued a and z. Two novel expansions are obtained by using contour integration techniques to evaluate the inverse Laplace transform representation for YeO(a, z). A third expansion is obtained by replacing the Neumann function by its Neumann series representation and integrating the resulting terms. An algorithm is outlined which chooses the most efficient expansion for given values of a and z. Comparisons of numerical results for these series expansions with those obtained by using numerical integration routines show that the expansions are very efficient and yield accurate results even for values of a and z for which numerical integration fails to converge. The integral representations for YeO(a, z) obtained in this paper are combined with previously obtained integral representations for Jeo(a, z) to derive integral representations for HeO(1) (a, z) and HeO(2) (α, z). Recurrence relations can be used to efficiently compute higher-order incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals and to find integral representations and series expansions for these special functions and many other related functions.

  20. Arabidopsis meiotic crossover hotspots overlap with H2A.Z nucleosomes at gene promoters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyuha; Zhao, Xiaohui; Kelly, Krystyna A.; Venn, Oliver; Higgins, James D.; Yelina, Nataliya E.; Hardcastle, Thomas J.; Ziolkowski, Piotr A.; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Franklin, F. Chris H.; McVean, Gil; Henderson, Ian R.

    2013-01-01

    PRDM9 directs human meiotic crossover hotspots to intergenic sequence motifs, whereas budding yeast hotspots overlap low nucleosome density regions in gene promoters. To investigate hotspots in plants, which lack PRDM9, we used coalescent analysis of Arabidopsis genetic variation. Crossovers increase towards gene promoters and terminators, and hotspots are associated with active chromatin modifications, including H2A.Z, histone H3K4me3, low nucleosome density and low DNA methylation. Hotspot-enriched A-rich and CTT-repeat DNA motifs occur upstream and downstream of transcriptional start respectively. Crossovers are asymmetric around promoters and highest over CTT-motifs and H2A.Z-nucleosomes. Pollen-typing, segregation and cytogenetic analysis show decreased crossovers in the arp6 H2A.Z deposition mutant, at multiple scales. During meiosis H2A.Z and DMC1/RAD51 recombinases form overlapping chromosomal foci. As arp6 reduces DMC1/RAD51 foci, H2A.Z may promote formation or processing of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. We propose that gene chromatin ancestrally designates hotspots within eukaryotes and PRDM9 is a derived state within vertebrates. PMID:24056716

  1. Histone H2A.Z subunit exchange controls consolidation of recent and remote memory.

    PubMed

    Zovkic, Iva B; Paulukaitis, Brynna S; Day, Jeremy J; Etikala, Deepa M; Sweatt, J David

    2014-11-27

    Memory formation is a multi-stage process that initially requires cellular consolidation in the hippocampus, after which memories are downloaded to the cortex for maintenance, in a process termed systems consolidation. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate both types of consolidation, but histone variant exchange, in which canonical histones are replaced with their variant counterparts, is an entire branch of epigenetics that has received limited attention in the brain and has never, to our knowledge, been studied in relation to cognitive function. Here we show that histone H2A.Z, a variant of histone H2A, is actively exchanged in response to fear conditioning in the hippocampus and the cortex, where it mediates gene expression and restrains the formation of recent and remote memory. Our data provide evidence for H2A.Z involvement in cognitive function and specifically implicate H2A.Z as a negative regulator of hippocampal consolidation and systems consolidation, probably through downstream effects on gene expression. Moreover, alterations in H2A.Z binding at later stages of systems consolidation suggest that this histone has the capacity to mediate stable molecular modifications required for memory retention. Overall, our data introduce histone variant exchange as a novel mechanism contributing to the molecular basis of cognitive function and implicate H2A.Z as a potential therapeutic target for memory disorders.

  2. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  3. Histone H2A.Z regulats transcription and is partially redundant with nucleosome remodeling complexes.

    PubMed

    Santisteban, M S; Kalashnikova, T; Smith, M M

    2000-10-27

    Nucleosomes impose a block to transcription that can be overcome in vivo by remodeling complexes such as SNF/SWI and histone modification complexes such as SAGA. Mutations in the major core histones relieve transcriptional repression and bypass the requirement for SNF/SWI and SAGA. We have found that the variant histone H2A.Z regulates gene transcription, and deletion of the gene encoding H2A.Z strongly increases the requirement for SNF/SWI and SAGA. This synthetic genetic interaction is seen at the level of single genes and acts downstream of promoter nucleosome reorganization. H2A.Z is preferentially crosslinked in vivo to intergenic DNA at the PH05 and GAL1 loci, and this association changes with transcriptional activation. These results describe a novel pathway for regulating transcription using variant histones to modulate chromatin structure.

  4. Yellow-Poplar Site Index Curves

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck

    1962-01-01

    Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) occurs naturally throughout the eastern and central United States from southern New England west to Michigan and south to Florida and Louisiana. Because of its wide occurrence, yellow-poplar grows under a variety of climatic, edaphic, and biotic conditions. Combinations of these different environmental...

  5. Histone Hypervariants H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 Play Independent and Context-Specific Roles in Neuronal Activity-Induced Transcription of Arc/Arg3.1 and Other Immediate Early Genes

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Carissa J.; Sarkar, Pushpita; Bailey, Emma R.; Zhao, Meilan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The histone variant H2A.Z is an essential and conserved regulator of eukaryotic gene transcription. However, the exact role of this histone in the transcriptional process remains perplexing. In vertebrates, H2A.Z has two hypervariants, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, that have almost identical sequences except for three amino acid residues. Due to such similarity, functional specificity of these hypervariants in neurobiological processes, if any, remain largely unknown. In this study with dissociated rat cortical neurons, we asked if H2A.Z hypervariants have distinct functions in regulating basal and activity-induced gene transcription. Hypervariant-specific RNAi and microarray analyses revealed that H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 regulate basal expression of largely nonoverlapping gene sets, including genes that code for several synaptic proteins. In response to neuronal activity, rapid transcription of our model gene Arc is impaired by depletion of H2A.Z.2, but not H2A.Z.1. This impairment is partially rescued by codepletion of the H2A.Z chaperone, ANP32E. In contrast, under a different context (after 48 h of tetrodotoxin, TTX), rapid transcription of Arc is impaired by depletion of either hypervariant. Such context-dependent roles of H2A.Z hypervariants, as revealed by our multiplexed gene expression assays, are also evident with several other immediate early genes, where regulatory roles of these hypervariants vary from gene to gene under different conditions. Together, our data suggest that H2A.Z hypervariants have context-specific roles that complement each other to mediate activity-induced neuronal gene transcription. PMID:28856239

  6. Histone Hypervariants H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 Play Independent and Context-Specific Roles in Neuronal Activity-Induced Transcription of Arc/Arg3.1 and Other Immediate Early Genes.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Carissa J; Sarkar, Pushpita; Bailey, Emma R; Farris, Shannon; Zhao, Meilan; Ward, James M; Dudek, Serena M; Saha, Ramendra N

    2017-01-01

    The histone variant H2A.Z is an essential and conserved regulator of eukaryotic gene transcription. However, the exact role of this histone in the transcriptional process remains perplexing. In vertebrates, H2A.Z has two hypervariants, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, that have almost identical sequences except for three amino acid residues. Due to such similarity, functional specificity of these hypervariants in neurobiological processes, if any, remain largely unknown. In this study with dissociated rat cortical neurons, we asked if H2A.Z hypervariants have distinct functions in regulating basal and activity-induced gene transcription. Hypervariant-specific RNAi and microarray analyses revealed that H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 regulate basal expression of largely nonoverlapping gene sets, including genes that code for several synaptic proteins. In response to neuronal activity, rapid transcription of our model gene Arc is impaired by depletion of H2A.Z.2, but not H2A.Z.1. This impairment is partially rescued by codepletion of the H2A.Z chaperone, ANP32E. In contrast, under a different context (after 48 h of tetrodotoxin, TTX), rapid transcription of Arc is impaired by depletion of either hypervariant. Such context-dependent roles of H2A.Z hypervariants, as revealed by our multiplexed gene expression assays, are also evident with several other immediate early genes, where regulatory roles of these hypervariants vary from gene to gene under different conditions. Together, our data suggest that H2A.Z hypervariants have context-specific roles that complement each other to mediate activity-induced neuronal gene transcription.

  7. Series expansions for the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integral Je 0(a, z)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechaik, Mehdi M.; Dvorak, Steven L.

    1995-09-01

    Bessel series expansions are derived for the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integralJe0(a, z). These expansions are obtained by using contour integration techniques to evaluate the inverse Laplace transform representation for Je0(a, z). It is shown that one of the expansions can be used as a convergent series expansion for one definition of the branch cut and as an asymptotic expansion if the branch cut is chosen differently. The effects of the branch cuts are demonstrated by plotting the terms in the series for interesting special cases. The Laplace transform technique used in this paper simplifies the derivation of the series expansions, provides information about the resulting branch cuts, yields integral representations for Je0(a, z), and allows the series expansions to be extended to complex values of z. These series expansions can be used together with the expansions for Ye0(a, z), which are obtained in a separate paper, to compute numerous other special functions, encountered in electromagnetic applications. These include: incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals of the Hankel and modified Bessel form, incomplete cylindrical functions of Poisson form (incomplete Bessel, Struve, Hankel, and Macdonald functions), and incomplete Weber integrals (Lommel functions of two variables).

  8. H2A.Z acidic patch couples chromatin dynamics to regulation of gene expression programs during ESC differentiation.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Vidya; Mazumder, Aprotim; Surface, Lauren E; Butty, Vincent L; Fields, Paul A; Alwan, Allison; Torrey, Lillian; Thai, Kevin K; Levine, Stuart S; Bathe, Mark; Boyer, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    The histone H2A variant H2A.Z is essential for embryonic development and for proper control of developmental gene expression programs in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Divergent regions of amino acid sequence of H2A.Z likely determine its functional specialization compared to core histone H2A. For example, H2A.Z contains three divergent residues in the essential C-terminal acidic patch that reside on the surface of the histone octamer as an uninterrupted acidic patch domain; however, we know little about how these residues contribute to chromatin structure and function. Here, we show that the divergent amino acids Gly92, Asp97, and Ser98 in the H2A.Z C-terminal acidic patch (H2A.Z(AP3)) are critical for lineage commitment during ESC differentiation. H2A.Z is enriched at most H3K4me3 promoters in ESCs including poised, bivalent promoters that harbor both activating and repressive marks, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively. We found that while H2A.Z(AP3) interacted with its deposition complex and displayed a highly similar distribution pattern compared to wild-type H2A.Z, its enrichment levels were reduced at target promoters. Further analysis revealed that H2A.Z(AP3) was less tightly associated with chromatin, suggesting that the mutant is more dynamic. Notably, bivalent genes in H2A.Z(AP3) ESCs displayed significant changes in expression compared to active genes. Moreover, bivalent genes in H2A.Z(AP3) ESCs gained H3.3, a variant associated with higher nucleosome turnover, compared to wild-type H2A.Z. We next performed single cell imaging to measure H2A.Z dynamics. We found that H2A.Z(AP3) displayed higher mobility in chromatin compared to wild-type H2A.Z by fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Moreover, ESCs treated with the transcriptional inhibitor flavopiridol resulted in a decrease in the H2A.Z(AP3) mobile fraction and an increase in its occupancy at target genes indicating that the mutant can be properly incorporated into chromatin. Collectively, our

  9. Specific Acetylation Patterns of H2A.Z Form Transient Interactions with the BPTF Bromodomain.

    PubMed

    Perell, Gabriella T; Mishra, Neeraj K; Sudhamalla, Babu; Ycas, Peter D; Islam, Kabirul; Pomerantz, William C K

    2017-09-05

    Post-translational lysine acetylation of histone tails affects both chromatin accessibility and recruitment of multifunctional bromodomain-containing proteins for modulating transcription. The bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing transcription factor (BPTF) regulates transcription but has also been implicated in high gene expression levels in a variety of cancers. In this report, the histone variant H2A.Z, which replaces H2A in chromatin, is evaluated for its affinity for BPTF with a specific recognition pattern of acetylated lysine residues of the N-terminal tail region. Although BPTF immunoprecipitates H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes, a direct interaction with its bromodomain has not been reported. Using protein-observed fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance (PrOF NMR) spectroscopy, we identified a diacetylation of H2A.Z on lysine residues 4 and 11, with the highest affinity for BPTF with a Kd of 780 μM. A combination of subsequent (1)H NMR Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill experiments and photo-cross-linking further confirmed the specificity of the diacetylation pattern at lysines 4 and 11. Because of an adjacent PHD domain, this transient interaction may contribute to a higher-affinity bivalent interaction. Further evaluation of specificity toward a set of bromodomains, including two BET bromodomains (Brd4 and BrdT) and two Plasmodium falciparum bromodomains, resulted in one midmicromolar affinity binder, PfGCN5 (Kd = 650 μM). With these biochemical experiments, we have identified a direct interaction of histone H2A.Z with bromodomains with a specific acetylation pattern that further supports the role of H2A.Z in epigenetic regulation.

  10. Anp32e, a higher eukaryotic histone chaperone directs preferential recognition for H2A.Z

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhuo; Pan, Lu; Wang, Weixiang; Sun, Jian; Shan, Shan; Dong, Qiang; Liang, Xiaoping; Dai, Linchang; Ding, Xiaojun; Chen, She; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Zhu, Bing; Zhou, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    H2A.Z is a highly conserved histone variant in all species. The chromatin deposition of H2A.Z is specifically catalyzed by the yeast chromatin remodeling complex SWR1 and its mammalian counterpart SRCAP. However, the mechanism by which H2A.Z is preferentially recognized by non-histone proteins remains elusive. Here we identified Anp32e, a novel higher eukaryote-specific histone chaperone for H2A.Z. Anp32e preferentially associates with H2A.Z-H2B dimers rather than H2A-H2B dimers in vitro and in vivo and dissociates non-nucleosomal aggregates formed by DNA and H2A-H2B. We determined the crystal structure of the Anp32e chaperone domain (186-232) in complex with the H2A.Z-H2B dimer. In this structure, the region containing Anp32e residues 214-224, which is absent in other Anp32 family proteins, specifically interacts with the extended H2A.Z αC helix, which exhibits an unexpected conformational change. Genome-wide profiling of Anp32e revealed a remarkable co-occupancy between Anp32e and H2A.Z. Cells overexpressing Anp32e displayed a strong global H2A.Z loss at the +1 nucleosomes, whereas cells depleted of Anp32e displayed a moderate global H2A.Z increase at the +1 nucleosomes. This suggests that Anp32e may help to resolve the non-nucleosomal H2A.Z aggregates and also facilitate the removal of H2A.Z at the +1 nucleosomes, and the latter may help RNA polymerase II to pass the first nucleosomal barrier. PMID:24613878

  11. Multivalent binding of PWWP2A to H2A.Z regulates mitosis and neural crest differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pünzeler, Sebastian; Link, Stephanie; Wagner, Gabriele; Keilhauer, Eva C; Kronbeck, Nina; Spitzer, Ramona Mm; Leidescher, Susanne; Markaki, Yolanda; Mentele, Edith; Regnard, Catherine; Schneider, Katrin; Takahashi, Daisuke; Kusakabe, Masayuki; Vardabasso, Chiara; Zink, Lisa M; Straub, Tobias; Bernstein, Emily; Harata, Masahiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Rupp, Ralph Aw; Hake, Sandra B

    2017-08-01

    Replacement of canonical histones with specialized histone variants promotes altering of chromatin structure and function. The essential histone variant H2A.Z affects various DNA-based processes via poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we determine the comprehensive interactome of H2A.Z and identify PWWP2A as a novel H2A.Z-nucleosome binder. PWWP2A is a functionally uncharacterized, vertebrate-specific protein that binds very tightly to chromatin through a concerted multivalent binding mode. Two internal protein regions mediate H2A.Z-specificity and nucleosome interaction, whereas the PWWP domain exhibits direct DNA binding. Genome-wide mapping reveals that PWWP2A binds selectively to H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes with strong preference for promoters of highly transcribed genes. In human cells, its depletion affects gene expression and impairs proliferation via a mitotic delay. While PWWP2A does not influence H2A.Z occupancy, the C-terminal tail of H2A.Z is one important mediator to recruit PWWP2A to chromatin. Knockdown of PWWP2A in Xenopus results in severe cranial facial defects, arising from neural crest cell differentiation and migration problems. Thus, PWWP2A is a novel H2A.Z-specific multivalent chromatin binder providing a surprising link between H2A.Z, chromosome segregation, and organ development. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. H2A.Z marks antisense promoters and has positive effects on antisense transcript levels in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gu, Muxin; Naiyachit, Yanin; Wood, Thomas J; Millar, Catherine B

    2015-02-19

    The histone variant H2A.Z, which has been reported to have both activating and repressive effects on gene expression, is known to occupy nucleosomes at the 5' ends of protein-coding genes. We now find that H2A.Z is also significantly enriched in gene coding regions and at the 3' ends of genes in budding yeast, where it co-localises with histone marks associated with active promoters. By comparing H2A.Z binding to global gene expression in budding yeast strains engineered so that normally unstable transcripts are abundant, we show that H2A.Z is required for normal levels of antisense transcripts as well as sense ones. High levels of H2A.Z at antisense promoters are associated with decreased antisense transcript levels when H2A.Z is deleted, indicating that H2A.Z has an activating effect on antisense transcripts. Decreases in antisense transcripts affected by H2A.Z are accompanied by increased levels of paired sense transcripts. The effect of H2A.Z on protein coding gene expression is a reflection of its importance for normal levels of both sense and antisense transcripts.

  13. A Combination of H2A.Z and H4 Acetylation Recruits Brd2 to Chromatin during Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Draker, Ryan; Ng, Marlee K.; Sarcinella, Elizabeth; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Cheung, Peter

    2012-01-01

    H2A.Z is an essential histone variant that has been implicated to have multiple chromosomal functions. To understand how H2A.Z participates in such diverse activities, we sought to identify downstream effector proteins that are recruited to chromatin via H2A.Z. For this purpose, we developed a nucleosome purification method to isolate H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes from human cells and used mass spectrometry to identify the co-purified nuclear proteins. Through stringent filtering, we identified the top 21 candidates, many of which have conserved structural motifs that bind post-translationally modified histones. We further validated the biological significance of one such candidate, Brd2, which is a double-bromodomain-containing protein known to function in transcriptional activation. We found that Brd2's preference for H2A.Z nucleosomes is mediated through a combination of hyperacetylated H4 on these nucleosomes, as well as additional features on H2A.Z itself. In addition, comparison of nucleosomes containing either H2A.Z-1 or H2A.Z-2 isoforms showed that significantly more Brd2 co-purifies with the former, suggesting these two isoforms engage different downstream effector proteins. Consistent with these biochemical analyses, we found that Brd2 is recruited to AR–regulated genes in an H2A.Z-dependent manner and that chemical inhibition of Brd2 recruitment greatly inhibits AR–regulated gene expression. Taken together, we propose that Brd2 is a key downstream mediator that links H2A.Z and transcriptional activation of AR–regulated genes. Moreover, this study validates the approach of using proteomics to identify nucleosome-interacting proteins in order to elucidate downstream mechanistic functions associated with the histone variant H2A.Z. PMID:23144632

  14. Dual Role of the Histone Variant H2A.Z in Transcriptional Regulation of Stress-Response Genes.

    PubMed

    Sura, Weronika; Kabza, Michał; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Bieluszewski, Tomasz; Kus-Slowinska, Marta; Pawełoszek, Łukasz; Sadowski, Jan; Ziolkowski, Piotr A

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the histone variant H2A.Z on transcription remains a long-standing conundrum. Here, by analyzing the actin-related protein6 mutant, which is impaired in H2A.Z deposition, and by H2A.Z profiling in stress conditions, we investigated the impact of this histone variant on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana We demonstrate that the arp6 mutant exhibits anomalies in response to osmotic stress. Indeed, stress-responsive genes are overrepresented among those hyperactive in arp6. In wild-type plants, these genes exhibit high levels of H2A.Z in the gene body. Furthermore, we observed that in drought-responsive genes, levels of H2A.Z in the gene body correlate with transcript levels. H2A.Z occupancy, but not distribution, changes in parallel with transcriptional changes. In particular, we observed H2A.Z loss upon transcriptional activation and H2A.Z gain upon repression. These data suggest that H2A.Z has a repressive role in transcription and counteracts unwanted expression in noninductive conditions. However, reduced activity of some genes in arp6 is associated with distinct behavior of H2A.Z at their +1 nucleosome, which exemplifies the requirement of this histone for transcription. Our data support a model where H2A.Z in gene bodies has a strong repressive effect on transcription, whereas in +1 nucleosomes, it is important for maintaining the activity of some genes. © 2017 ASPB.

  15. Soil-Site Classification for Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1984-01-01

    Foresters have always needed a means of predicting tree growth. Of the many indexes of potential growth, site index is the most widely used. Site index may be defined as the height of dominant trees in a stand at a reference age (usually 50 years). Site index is, in theory, a true reflection of growth potential of the site because height growth is generally unaffected...

  16. Differential deposition of H2A.Z in rice seedling tissue during the day-night cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Chunchao; Yi, Xin; Su, Zhen

    2017-03-04

    Chromatin structure has an important role in modulating gene expression. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome leads to important changes in the chromatin structure. The histone variant H2A.Z is highly conserved between different species of fungi, animals, and plants. However, dynamic changes to H2A.Z in rice have not been reported during the day-night cycle. In this study, we generated genome wide maps of H2A.Z for day and night time in harvested seedling tissues by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing. The analysis results for the H2A.Z data sets detected 7099 genes with higher depositions of H2A.Z in seedling tissues harvested at night compared with seedling tissues harvested during the day, whereas 4597 genes had higher H2A.Z depositions in seedlings harvested during the day. The gene expression profiles data suggested that H2A.Z probably negatively regulated gene expression during the day-night cycle and was involved in many important biologic processes. In general, our results indicated that H2A.Z may play an important role in plant responses to the diurnal oscillation process.

  17. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  18. The NLM Indexing Initiative's Medical Text Indexer.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Gay, Clifford W; Humphrey, Susanne M; Rogers, Willie J

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a program for producing MeSH indexing recommendations. It is the major product of NLM's Indexing Initiative and has been used in both semi-automated and fully automated indexing environments at the Library since mid 2002. We report here on an experiment conducted with MEDLINE indexers to evaluate MTI's performance and to generate ideas for its improvement as a tool for user-assisted indexing. We also discuss some filtering techniques developed to improve MTI's accuracy for use primarily in automatically producing the indexing for several abstracts collections.

  19. The Prospects for High-Yield ICF with a Z-Pinch Driven Dynamic Hohlraum

    SciTech Connect

    CHANDLER, GORDON A.; CHRIEN, R.; COOPER, GARY WAYNE; DERZON, MARK S.; DOUGLAS, MELISSA R.; HEBRON, DAVID E.; LASH, JOEL S.; LEEPER, RAMON J.; MATZEN, M. KEITH; MEHLHORN, THOMAS A.; NASH, THOMAS J.; OLSON, RICHARD E.; PETERSON, D.L.; RUIZ, CARLOS L.; SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.; SLUTZ, STEPHEN A.

    1999-09-07

    Recent success with the Sandia Z machine has renewed interest in utilizing fast z-pinenes for ICF. One promising concept places the ICF capsule internal to the imploding z-pinch. At machine parameters relevant to achieving high yield, the imploding z-pinch mass has sufficient opacity to trap radiation giving rise to a dynamic hohlraum. The concept utilizes a 12 MJ, 54 MA z-pinch driver producing a capsule drive temperature exceeding 300 eV to realize a 550 MJ thermonuclear yield. They present the current high-yield design and its development that supports high-yield ICF with a z-pinch driven dynamic hohlraum.

  20. Dusty Starbursts within a z=3 Large Scale Structure revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, Hideki

    The role of the large-scale structure is one of the most important theme in studying galaxy formation and evolution. However, it has been still mystery especially at z>2. On the basis of our ALMA 1.1 mm observations in a z ~ 3 protocluster field, it is suggested that submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) preferentially reside in the densest environment at z ~ 3. Furthermore we find a rich cluster of AGN-host SMGs at the core of the protocluster, combining with Chandra X-ray data. Our results indicate the vigorous star-formation and accelerated super massive black hole (SMBH) growth in the node of the cosmic web.

  1. Precise QCD Predictions for the Production of a Z Boson in Association with a Hadronic Jet.

    PubMed

    Gehrmann-De Ridder, A; Gehrmann, T; Glover, E W N; Huss, A; Morgan, T A

    2016-07-08

    We compute the cross section and differential distributions for the production of a Z boson in association with a hadronic jet to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative QCD, including the leptonic decay of the Z boson. We present numerical results for the transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of both the Z boson and the associated jet at the LHC. We find that the NNLO corrections increase the NLO predictions by approximately 1% and significantly reduce the scale variation uncertainty.

  2. Site classification for northern forest species

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the extensive literature for northern forest species covering site index curves, site index species comparisons, growth intercepts, soil-site studies, plant indicators, physiographic site classifications, and soil survey studies. The advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed, and suggestions are made for future research using each of these methods....

  3. H2A.Z demarcates intergenic regions of the plasmodium falciparum epigenome that are dynamically marked by H3K9ac and H3K4me3.

    PubMed

    Bártfai, Richárd; Hoeijmakers, Wieteke A M; Salcedo-Amaya, Adriana M; Smits, Arne H; Janssen-Megens, Eva; Kaan, Anita; Treeck, Moritz; Gilberger, Tim-Wolf; Françoijs, Kees-Jan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G

    2010-12-16

    Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and their enzymes are promising targets for malaria therapeutic intervention; however, the epigenetic component of gene expression in P. falciparum is poorly understood. Dynamic or stable association of epigenetic marks with genomic features provides important clues about their function and helps to understand how histone variants/modifications are used for indexing the Plasmodium epigenome. We describe a novel, linear amplification method for next-generation sequencing (NGS) that allows unbiased analysis of the extremely AT-rich Plasmodium genome. We used this method for high resolution, genome-wide analysis of a histone H2A variant, H2A.Z and two histone H3 marks throughout parasite intraerythrocytic development. Unlike in other organisms, H2A.Z is a constant, ubiquitous feature of euchromatic intergenic regions throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle. The almost perfect colocalisation of H2A.Z with H3K9ac and H3K4me3 suggests that these marks are preferentially deposited on H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes. By performing RNA-seq on 8 time-points, we show that acetylation of H3K9 at promoter regions correlates very well with the transcriptional status whereas H3K4me3 appears to have stage-specific regulation, being low at early stages, peaking at trophozoite stage, but does not closely follow changes in gene expression. Our improved NGS library preparation procedure provides a foundation to exploit the malaria epigenome in detail. Furthermore, our findings place H2A.Z at the cradle of P. falciparum epigenetic regulation by stably defining intergenic regions and providing a platform for dynamic assembly of epigenetic and other transcription related complexes.

  4. H2A.Z Demarcates Intergenic Regions of the Plasmodium falciparum Epigenome That Are Dynamically Marked by H3K9ac and H3K4me3

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Amaya, Adriana M.; Smits, Arne H.; Janssen-Megens, Eva; Kaan, Anita; Treeck, Moritz; Gilberger, Tim-Wolf; Françoijs, Kees-Jan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and their enzymes are promising targets for malaria therapeutic intervention; however, the epigenetic component of gene expression in P. falciparum is poorly understood. Dynamic or stable association of epigenetic marks with genomic features provides important clues about their function and helps to understand how histone variants/modifications are used for indexing the Plasmodium epigenome. We describe a novel, linear amplification method for next-generation sequencing (NGS) that allows unbiased analysis of the extremely AT-rich Plasmodium genome. We used this method for high resolution, genome-wide analysis of a histone H2A variant, H2A.Z and two histone H3 marks throughout parasite intraerythrocytic development. Unlike in other organisms, H2A.Z is a constant, ubiquitous feature of euchromatic intergenic regions throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle. The almost perfect colocalisation of H2A.Z with H3K9ac and H3K4me3 suggests that these marks are preferentially deposited on H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes. By performing RNA-seq on 8 time-points, we show that acetylation of H3K9 at promoter regions correlates very well with the transcriptional status whereas H3K4me3 appears to have stage-specific regulation, being low at early stages, peaking at trophozoite stage, but does not closely follow changes in gene expression. Our improved NGS library preparation procedure provides a foundation to exploit the malaria epigenome in detail. Furthermore, our findings place H2A.Z at the cradle of P. falciparum epigenetic regulation by stably defining intergenic regions and providing a platform for dynamic assembly of epigenetic and other transcription related complexes. PMID:21187892

  5. [ATD index in Perthes disease].

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Synder, Marek; Szymczak, Wiesław; Kowalewski, Maciej; Kozłowski, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Authors present an estimation of articulo-trochanteric-distance (ATD) and ATD index in patients with Perthes disease and if there is any correlation between ATD and ATD index and age at the onset, gender, type of treatment, Herring and Stulberg classification. The study population consisted of 242 patients (35 female and 207 male) who had reached skeletal maturity at last follow up. The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 7 years and 4 months. All patients were treated by containment methods (bed rest and traction in abduction, brace, Petri cast, varus osteotomy, Salter osteotomy and shelf operation). ATD was estimated according to the Edgren methods and ATD index was calculated as relation ATD on Perthes site to ATD in normal joint. The late results were classified according to the Stulberg classification. Statistical analysis did not revealed any correlation between the age at the onset, gender and ATD index and ATD during last follow up. Both parameters decreased with poor results according to the Stulberg classifications. ATD index and ATD were statistically significant less after surgical treatment than after non-operative treatment. The same relations were seen between patients with leg length discrepancy (LLD) and without LLD. Patients in Herring group A had statistically significant bigger both parameters than patients in group B, C and patients in Herring group B than C. Articulo-trochanteric-distance and ATD index decreased during follow up and ATD decreased also in normal joint. In our opinion ATD index is a more reliable radiological parameter than ATD. ATD index decreases with bigger necrosis of the femoral head and poor result according to the Stulberg classification. This parameter is an evidence of the dysfunction proximal femoral growth plate in patients with LLD. The most decreased ATD index was observed after surgical treatment. There was no correlation between the age at the onset, gender and ATD index at last follow up.

  6. Experimental observation of runaway electrons near the axis of a Z-pinch in a high-Z medium

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A. N.; Zemchenkova, N. V.; Klyachin, N. A.; Prokhorovich, D. E.

    2011-03-15

    Generation of runaway electrons in the axial region of a Z-pinch (high-current vacuum spark) operating in a high-Z medium was observed experimentally using pulsed optical shadowgraphy and X-ray pinhole imaging.

  7. Regulation of histone H2A.Z expression is mediated by sirtuin 1 in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Tiago; Graça, Inês; Sousa, Elsa J; Oliveira, Ana I; Costa, Natália R; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Amado, Francisco; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Histone variants seem to play a major role in gene expression regulation. In prostate cancer, H2A.Z and its acetylated form are implicated in oncogenes' upregulation. SIRT1, which may act either as tumor suppressor or oncogene, reduces H2A.Z levels in cardiomyocytes, via proteasome-mediated degradation, and this mechanism might be impaired in prostate cancer cells due to sirtuin 1 downregulation. Thus, we aimed to characterize the mechanisms underlying H2A.Z and SIRT1 deregulation in prostate carcinogenesis and how they interact. We found that H2AFZ and SIRT1 were up- and downregulated, respectively, at transcript level in primary prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia compared to normal prostatic tissues. Induced SIRT1 overexpression in prostate cancer cell lines resulted in almost complete absence of H2A.Z. Inhibition of mTOR had a modest effect on H2A.Z levels, but proteasome inhibition prevented the marked reduction of H2A.Z due to sirtuin 1 overexpression. Prostate cancer cells exposed to epigenetic modifying drugs trichostatin A, alone or combined with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, increased H2AFZ transcript, although with a concomitant decrease in protein levels. Conversely, SIRT1 transcript and protein levels increased after exposure. ChIP revealed an increase of activation marks within the TSS region for both genes. Remarkably, inhibition of sirtuin 1 with nicotinamide, increased H2A.Z levels, whereas activation of sirtuin 1 by resveratrol led to an abrupt decrease in H2A.Z. Finally, protein-ligation assay showed that exposure to epigenetic modifying drugs fostered the interaction between sirtuin 1 and H2A.Z. We concluded that sirtuin 1 and H2A.Z deregulation in prostate cancer are reciprocally related. Epigenetic mechanisms, mostly histone post-translational modifications, are likely involved and impair sirtuin 1-mediated downregulation of H2A.Z via proteasome-mediated degradation. Epigenetic modifying drugs in conjunction with

  8. Regulation of histone H2A.Z expression is mediated by sirtuin 1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Tiago; Graça, Inês; Sousa, Elsa J.; Oliveira, Ana I.; Costa, Natália R.; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Amado, Francisco; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Histone variants seem to play a major role in gene expression regulation. In prostate cancer, H2A.Z and its acetylated form are implicated in oncogenes' upregulation. SIRT1, which may act either as tumor suppressor or oncogene, reduces H2A.Z levels in cardiomyocytes, via proteasome-mediated degradation, and this mechanism might be impaired in prostate cancer cells due to sirtuin 1 downregulation. Thus, we aimed to characterize the mechanisms underlying H2A.Z and SIRT1 deregulation in prostate carcinogenesis and how they interact. We found that H2AFZ and SIRT1 were up- and downregulated, respectively, at transcript level in primary prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia compared to normal prostatic tissues. Induced SIRT1 overexpression in prostate cancer cell lines resulted in almost complete absence of H2A.Z. Inhibition of mTOR had a modest effect on H2A.Z levels, but proteasome inhibition prevented the marked reduction of H2A.Z due to sirtuin 1 overexpression. Prostate cancer cells exposed to epigenetic modifying drugs trichostatin A, alone or combined with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, increased H2AFZ transcript, although with a concomitant decrease in protein levels. Conversely, SIRT1 transcript and protein levels increased after exposure. ChIP revealed an increase of activation marks within the TSS region for both genes. Remarkably, inhibition of sirtuin 1 with nicotinamide, increased H2A.Z levels, whereas activation of sirtuin 1 by resveratrol led to an abrupt decrease in H2A.Z. Finally, protein-ligation assay showed that exposure to epigenetic modifying drugs fostered the interaction between sirtuin 1 and H2A.Z. We concluded that sirtuin 1 and H2A.Z deregulation in prostate cancer are reciprocally related. Epigenetic mechanisms, mostly histone post-translational modifications, are likely involved and impair sirtuin 1-mediated downregulation of H2A.Z via proteasome-mediated degradation. Epigenetic modifying drugs in conjunction with

  9. The X and Y chromosomes assemble into H2A.Z-containing [corrected] facultative heterochromatin [corrected] following meiosis.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Ian K; Rangasamy, Danny; Devoy, Michael; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Tremethick, David J

    2006-07-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex sequential process that converts mitotically dividing spermatogonia stem cells into differentiated haploid spermatozoa. Not surprisingly, this process involves dramatic nuclear and chromatin restructuring events, but the nature of these changes are poorly understood. Here, we linked the appearance and nuclear localization of the essential histone variant H2A.Z with key steps during mouse spermatogenesis. H2A.Z cannot be detected during the early stages of spermatogenesis, when the bulk of X-linked genes are transcribed, but its expression begins to increase at pachytene, when meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) occurs, peaking at the round spermatid stage. Strikingly, when H2A.Z is present, there is a dynamic nuclear relocalization of heterochromatic marks (HP1beta and H3 di- and tri-methyl K9), which become concentrated at chromocenters and the inactive XY body, implying that H2A.Z may substitute for the function of these marks in euchromatin. We also show that the X and the Y chromosome are assembled into facultative heterochromatic structures postmeiotically that are enriched with H2A.Z, thereby replacing macroH2A. This indicates that XY silencing continues following MSCI. These results provide new insights into the large-scale changes in the composition and organization of chromatin associated with spermatogenesis and argue that H2A.Z has a unique role in maintaining sex chromosomes in a repressed state.

  10. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  11. H2A.Z Acidic Patch Couples Chromatin Dynamics to Regulation of Gene Expression Programs during ESC Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Vidya; Mazumder, Aprotim; Surface, Lauren E.; Butty, Vincent L.; Fields, Paul A.; Alwan, Allison; Torrey, Lillian; Thai, Kevin K.; Levine, Stuart S.; Bathe, Mark; Boyer, Laurie A.

    2013-01-01

    The histone H2A variant H2A.Z is essential for embryonic development and for proper control of developmental gene expression programs in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Divergent regions of amino acid sequence of H2A.Z likely determine its functional specialization compared to core histone H2A. For example, H2A.Z contains three divergent residues in the essential C-terminal acidic patch that reside on the surface of the histone octamer as an uninterrupted acidic patch domain; however, we know little about how these residues contribute to chromatin structure and function. Here, we show that the divergent amino acids Gly92, Asp97, and Ser98 in the H2A.Z C-terminal acidic patch (H2A.ZAP3) are critical for lineage commitment during ESC differentiation. H2A.Z is enriched at most H3K4me3 promoters in ESCs including poised, bivalent promoters that harbor both activating and repressive marks, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively. We found that while H2A.ZAP3 interacted with its deposition complex and displayed a highly similar distribution pattern compared to wild-type H2A.Z, its enrichment levels were reduced at target promoters. Further analysis revealed that H2A.ZAP3 was less tightly associated with chromatin, suggesting that the mutant is more dynamic. Notably, bivalent genes in H2A.ZAP3 ESCs displayed significant changes in expression compared to active genes. Moreover, bivalent genes in H2A.ZAP3 ESCs gained H3.3, a variant associated with higher nucleosome turnover, compared to wild-type H2A.Z. We next performed single cell imaging to measure H2A.Z dynamics. We found that H2A.ZAP3 displayed higher mobility in chromatin compared to wild-type H2A.Z by fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Moreover, ESCs treated with the transcriptional inhibitor flavopiridol resulted in a decrease in the H2A.ZAP3 mobile fraction and an increase in its occupancy at target genes indicating that the mutant can be properly incorporated into chromatin. Collectively, our work suggests

  12. Evidence for {gamma}-actin as a Z disc component in skeletal myofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Papponen, Hinni; Kaisto, Tuula; Leinonen, Sanna; Kaakinen, Mika; Metsikkoe, Kalervo

    2009-01-15

    We investigated the targeting of the {gamma}-actin isoform in skeletal myofibers. For this purpose we used expression vectors to produce green fluorescent protein (GFP-) as well as myc-tagged {gamma}-actin in rat flexor digitorum brevis myofibers. We found that the {gamma}-actin fusion proteins accumulated into Z discs but not beneath the sarcolemma. Instead, the GFP-tagged skeletal muscle-specific {alpha}-actin isoform was preferentially incorporated into the pointed ends of thin contractile filaments. The localization pattern of the {gamma}-actin fusion proteins was completely different from that of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex on the sarcolemma. The results emphasize the role of {gamma}-actin as a Z disc component but fail to reveal an actin-based sub-sarcolemmal cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle cells.

  13. Imaging XUV spectroscopy of a Z-pinch plasma in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, H.C.; Springer, P.T.; Emig, J.A.; Lanier, N.E.; Hernandez, J.A.

    1993-08-11

    In 1991 a group of scientists from the Angara 5 pulsed power facility at the Kurchatov Institute in Troitsk, Russia had determined the thermal emission from an implosion of xenon gas onto an annular, molybdenum doped foam liner to be 30 TW/cm{sup 2}. This represents an extremely efficient conversion of energy into a high fluence radiation field. In order to verify this claim and better understand the process of producing radiation by means of a Z-pinch plasma device, a series of experiments were proposed through a collaboration from Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Due to previous experience with x-ray spectroscopic measurements in the XUV region, the team from Lawrence Livermore Lab took on the task of designing, constructing, and fielding the necessary diagnostic equipment to spatially and temporally resolve plasma temperatures throughout the implosion of the high Z foam target.

  14. H2A.Z Maintenance During Mitosis Reveals Nucleosome Shifting on Mitotically Silenced Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Theresa K.; Miranda, Tina Branscombe; Liang, Gangning; Berman, Benjamin P.; Lin, Joy C.; Tanay, Amos; Jones, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Profound chromatin changes occur during mitosis to allow for gene silencing and chromosome segregation followed by re-activation of memorized transcription states in daughter cells. Using genome-wide sequencing, we found H2A.Z containing +1 nucleosomes of active genes shift upstream to occupy TSSs during mitosis, significantly reducing nucleosome-depleted regions. Single molecule analysis confirmed nucleosome shifting and demonstrated that mitotic shifting is specific to active genes that are silenced during mitosis and thus is not seen on promoters, which are silenced by methylation or mitotically expressed genes. Using the GRP78 promoter as a model, we found H3K4 tri-methylation is also maintained while other indicators of active chromatin are lost and expression is decreased. These key changes provide a potential mechanism for rapid silencing and re-activation of genes during the cell cycle. PMID:20864037

  15. Foxa2 and H2A.Z Mediate Nucleosome Depletion during Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoyu; Gadue, Paul; Chen, Kaifu; Jiao, Yang; Tuteja, Geetu; Schug, Jonathan; Li, Wei; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Nucleosome occupancy is fundamental for establishing chromatin architecture. However, little is known about the relationship between nucleosome dynamics and initial cell lineage specification. Here, we determine the mechanisms that control global nucleosome dynamics during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation into endoderm. Both nucleosome depletion and de novo occupation occur during the differentiation process, with higher overall nucleosome density after differentiation. The variant histone H2A.Z and the winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 both act to regulate nucleosome depletion and gene activation, thus promoting ES cell differentiation, while DNA methylation promotes nucleosome occupation and suppresses gene expression. Nucleosome depletion during ES cell differentiation is dependent on Nap1l1-coupled SWI/SNF and INO80 chromatin remodeling complexes. Thus, both epigenetic and genetic regulators cooperate to control nucleosome dynamics during ES cell fate decisions. PMID:23260146

  16. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  17. An Index Earthquake Frequency Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, E. M.; Baise, L. G.; Vogel, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter (GR) frequency magnitude relationship is the most widely used model of the series of earthquake magnitudes above a threshold. The GR model is equivalent to an exponential probability density function (pdf) which has a fixed skew and no upperbound. The GR model implies a Gumbel (GUM) pdf of the annual maximum (AM) series which also exhibits a fixed skew with no upperbound. We explore the possibility that a more complex pdf, such as the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) pdf, can more accurately model of the frequency of large earthquakes. We show that large regions of the globe are homogeneous in terms of the upper moments of earthquake AM series. Therefore, earthquake data within homogeneous regions can be pooled into a regional earthquake pdf, called the index earthquake distribution. We find that the GUM pdf sufficiently fits the AM series data from within these homogeneous regions. Regional pdfs are better at predicting the frequency of large events than pdfs based on site-specific data because pooling the data increases the number of observations in the upper tail of the distribution. The index earthquake distribution (analogous to the index flood method), is a dimensionless GUM distribution with fixed scale parameter which is obtained by pooling records throughout the homogeneous region. Only the location parameter of the GUM pdf must be estimated at each site. The Flinn-Engdahl (FE) seismic regionalization scheme is one of many possible methods for defining seismic sites. The region defined by all the FE zones, or sites, that are located in continental collision zones is an example of a region that we can demonstrate to be homogeneous in terms of the upper moments. Therefore, the index earthquake distribution for each continental collision zone is defined by the location parameter at each site, while the scale parameter is defined by the data recorded throughout all of the continental collision zones.

  18. H3.3/H2A.Z double variant-containing nucleosomes mark 'nucleosome-free regions' of active promoters and other regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunyuan; Zang, Chongzhi; Wei, Gang; Cui, Kairong; Peng, Weiqun; Zhao, Keji; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2009-08-01

    To understand how chromatin structure is organized by different histone variants, we have measured the genome-wide distribution of nucleosome core particles (NCPs) containing the histone variants H3.3 and H2A.Z in human cells. We find that a special class of NCPs containing both variants is enriched at 'nucleosome-free regions' of active promoters, enhancers and insulator regions. We show that preparative methods used previously in studying nucleosome structure result in the loss of these unstable double-variant NCPs. It seems likely that this instability facilitates the access of transcription factors to promoters and other regulatory sites in vivo. Other combinations of variants have different distributions, consistent with distinct roles for histone variants in the modulation of gene expression.

  19. Identification and characterization of the two isoforms of the vertebrate H2A.Z histone variant

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryo; Hori, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Kozo; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Harata, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Histone variants play important roles in the epigenetic regulation of genome function. The histone variant H2A.Z is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to vertebrates, and it has been reported to have multiple effects upon gene expression and insulation, and chromosome segregation. Recently two genes encoding H2A.Z were identified in the vertebrate genome. However, it is not yet clear whether the proteins transcribed from these genes are functionally distinct. To address this issue, we knocked out each gene individually in chicken DT40 cells. We found that two distinct proteins, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2, were produced from these genes, and that these proteins could be separated on a long SDS–PAGE gel. The two isoforms were deposited to a similar extent by the SRCAP chromatin-remodeling complex, suggesting redundancy to their function. However, cells lacking either one of the two isoforms exhibited distinct alterations in cell growth and gene expression, suggesting that the two isoforms have differential effects upon nucleosome stability and chromatin structure. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of the multiple functions of the H2A.Z gene products. PMID:20299344

  20. Oncogenic potential of histone-variant H2A.Z.1 and its regulatory role in cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Doo; Kim, Pum-Joon; Eun, Jung Woo; Shen, Qingyu; Kim, Hyung Seok; Shin, Woo Chan; Ahn, Young Min; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2016-03-08

    H2A.Z is a highly conserved H2A variant, and two distinct H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, have been identified as products of two non-allelic genes, H2AFZ and H2AFV. H2A.Z has been reported to be overexpressed in breast, prostate and bladder cancers, but most studies did not clearly distinguish between isoforms. One recent study reported a unique role for the H2A.Z isoform H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. Here we first report that H2A.Z.1 plays a pivotal role in the liver tumorigenesis by selectively regulating key molecules in cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). H2AFZ expression was significantly overexpressed in a large cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and high expression of H2AFZ was significantly associated with their poor prognosis. H2A.Z.1 overexpression was demonstrated in a subset of human HCC and cell lines. H2A.Z.1 knockdown suppressed HCC cell growth by transcriptional deregulation of cell cycle proteins and caused apoptotic cell death of HCC cells. We also observed that H2A.Z.1 knockdown reduced the metastatic potential of HCC cells by selectively modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory proteins such as E-cadherin and fibronectin. In addition, H2A.Z.1 knockdown reduced the in vivo tumor growth rate in a mouse xenograft model. In conclusion, our findings suggest the oncogenic potential of H2A.Z.1 in liver tumorigenesis and that it plays established role in accelerating cell cycle transition and EMT during hepatocarcinogenesis. This makes H2A.Z.1 a promising target in liver cancer therapy.

  1. Oncogenic potential of histone-variant H2A.Z.1 and its regulatory role in cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Jung Woo; Shen, Qingyu; Kim, Hyung Seok; Shin, Woo Chan; Ahn, Young Min; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2016-01-01

    H2A.Z is a highly conserved H2A variant, and two distinct H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, have been identified as products of two non-allelic genes, H2AFZ and H2AFV. H2A.Z has been reported to be overexpressed in breast, prostate and bladder cancers, but most studies did not clearly distinguish between isoforms. One recent study reported a unique role for the H2A.Z isoform H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. Here we first report that H2A.Z.1 plays a pivotal role in the liver tumorigenesis by selectively regulating key molecules in cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). H2AFZ expression was significantly overexpressed in a large cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and high expression of H2AFZ was significantly associated with their poor prognosis. H2A.Z.1 overexpression was demonstrated in a subset of human HCC and cell lines. H2A.Z.1 knockdown suppressed HCC cell growth by transcriptional deregulation of cell cycle proteins and caused apoptotic cell death of HCC cells. We also observed that H2A.Z.1 knockdown reduced the metastatic potential of HCC cells by selectively modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory proteins such as E-cadherin and fibronectin. In addition, H2A.Z.1 knockdown reduced the in vivo tumor growth rate in a mouse xenograft model. In conclusion, our findings suggest the oncogenic potential of H2A.Z.1 in liver tumorigenesis and that it plays established role in accelerating cell cycle transition and EMT during hepatocarcinogenesis. This makes H2A.Z.1 a promising target in liver cancer therapy. PMID:26863632

  2. Automating Index Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Automating Index Preparation* Pehong Chent Michael A. Harrison Computer Science Division University of CaliforniaI Berkeley, CA 94720 March 23, 1987...Abstract Index preparation is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper we indicate * how the indexing process can be automated in a way which...identified and analyzed. Specifically, we describe a framework for placing index commands in the document and a general purpose index processor which

  3. Thermal stress effects on grain yield in Brachypodium distachyon occur via H2A.Z-nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crop plants are highly sensitive to ambient temperature, with a 1 ºC difference in temperature sufficient to affect development and yield. Monocot crop plants are particularly vulnerable to higher temperatures during the reproductive and grain-filling phases. The molecular mechanisms by which temperature influences grain development are, however, unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, H2A.Z-nucleosomes coordinate transcriptional responses to higher temperature. We therefore investigated whether the effects of high temperature on grain development are mediated by H2A.Z-nucleosomes. Results We have analyzed the thermal responses of the Pooid grass, Brachypodium distachyon, a model system for crops. We find that H2A.Z-nucleosome occupancy is more responsive to increases in ambient temperature in the reproductive tissue of developing grains compared withvegetative seedlings. This difference correlates with strong phenotypic responses of developing grain to increased temperature, including early maturity and reduced yield. Conversely, temperature has limited impact on the timing of transition from the vegetative to generative stage, with increased temperature unable to substitute for long photoperiod induction of flowering. RNAi silencing of components necessary for H2A.Z-nucleosome deposition is sufficient to phenocopythe effects of warmer temperature on grain development. Conclusions H2A.Z-nucleosomes are important in coordinating the sensitivity of temperate grasses to increased temperature during grain development. Perturbing H2A.Z occupancy, through higher temperature or genetically, strongly reduces yield. Thus, we provide a molecular understanding of the pathways through which high temperature impacts on yield. These findings may be useful for breeding crops resilient to thermal stress. PMID:23800039

  4. What the Index Medicus Indexes, and Why *

    PubMed Central

    Truelson, Stanley D.

    1966-01-01

    The main criterion for selecting journals for indexing in Index Medicus, and thereby largely in MEDLARS, is quality. Subject scope varies with the voiced needs of the biomedical community. The Index aims to cover the best journals in all relevant subject fields, but the percentage of journals on a subject indexed depends on the quality of each journal. Country and language coverage depends on quality, even in the case of the best journals of each, although American biases may affect such selection. While a number of guidelines exist for identifying quality journals, information necessary to apply them confidently is often difficult to obtain. The National Library of Medicine is advised by an Ad Hoc Panel on the Selection of Journals for Index Medicus, composed both of NLM officers and extramural members. Criticism has been voiced that too many titles are indexed, compared with titles actually used, but no meaningful statistics of use exist which can identify titles which should be excluded from indexing. Continuing suggestions from users regarding titles indexed would benefit everyone. PMID:5922258

  5. The anisotropic redistribution of free energy for gyrokinetic plasma turbulence in a Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Alejandro Bañón Jenko, Frank; Teaca, Bogdan

    2016-04-15

    For a Z-pinch geometry, we report on the nonlinear redistribution of free energy across scales perpendicular to the magnetic guide field, for a turbulent plasma described in the framework of gyrokinetics. The analysis is performed using a local flux-surface approximation, in a regime dominated by electrostatic fluctuations driven by the entropy mode, with both ion and electron species being treated kinetically. To explore the anisotropic nature of the free energy redistribution caused by the emergence of zonal flows, we use a polar coordinate representation for the field-perpendicular directions and define an angular density for the scale flux. Positive values for the classically defined (angle integrated) scale flux, which denote a direct energy cascade, are shown to be also composed of negative angular sections, a fact that impacts our understanding of the backscatter of energy and the way in which it enters the modeling of sub-grid scales for turbulence. A definition for the flux of free energy across each perpendicular direction is introduced as well, which shows that the redistribution of energy in the presence of zonal flows is highly anisotropic.

  6. Single-molecule tools elucidate H2A.Z nucleosome composition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiji; Miller, Andrew; Kirchmaier, Ann L.; Irudayaraj, Joseph M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Although distinct epigenetic marks correlate with different chromatin states, how they are integrated within single nucleosomes to generate combinatorial signals remains largely unknown. We report the successful implementation of single molecule tools constituting fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), pulse interleave excitation-based Förster resonance energy transfer (PIE-FRET) and fluorescence lifetime imaging-based FRET (FLIM-FRET) to elucidate the composition of single nucleosomes containing histone variant H2A.Z (Htz1p in yeast) in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that yeast nucleosomes containing Htz1p are primarily composed of H4 K12ac and H3 K4me3 but not H3 K36me3 and that these patterns are conserved in mammalian cells. Quantification of epigenetic modifications in nucleosomes will provide a new dimension to epigenetics research and lead to a better understanding of how these patterns contribute to the targeting of chromatin-binding proteins and chromatin structure during gene regulation. PMID:22393239

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic solution for a Z pinch showing the production of a hot spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxon, S.; Hammer, J. H.; Eddleman, J. L.; Tabak, M.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Alley, W. E.; Estabrook, K. G.; Harte, J. A.; Nash, T. J.; Sanford, T. W. L.; De Groot, J. S.

    1996-05-01

    Two-dimensional LASNEX [National Technical Information Service Document No. DE 81026329 (Zimmerman, Report No. UCRL-74811, 1973)] calculations are made for a Z pinch on Saturn, the low-impedance, low-inductance electron accelerator at the Sandia National Laboratories [D. D. Bloomquist et al. Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Arlington, VA, edited by P. J. Turchi and B. H. Bernstein (Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, New York, 1987), p. 310]. The experiment is characterized by a current of 6 MA with a tungsten wire load (4 mg) at 2 mm. Two-dimensional calculations show the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to the bubble and spike phase, causing high-density islands to form in the pinch opposite the bubbles. The two-dimensional energy flow causes a ``hot spot'' to evolve, which is shown to agree in its size and brightness with pinhole camera measurements. This is the first explicit calculation of a hot spot in two dimensions employing the full magnetohydrodynamic equations.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic solution for a Z pinch showing the production of a hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Maxon, S.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Tabak, M.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Alley, W.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Harte, J.A.; Nash, T.J.; Sanford, T.W.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-05-01

    Two-dimensional LASNEX [National Technical Information Service Document No. DE 81026329 (Zimmerman, Report No. UCRL-74811, 1973)] calculations are made for a Z pinch on Saturn, the low-impedance, low-inductance electron accelerator at the Sandia National Laboratories [D. D. Bloomquist {ital et} {ital al}. {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} {ital Sixth} {ital IEEE} {ital Pulsed} {ital Power} {ital Conference}, Arlington, VA, edited by P. J. Turchi and B. H. Bernstein (Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, New York, 1987), p. 310]. The experiment is characterized by a current of 6 MA with a tungsten wire load (4 mg) at 2 mm. Two-dimensional calculations show the evolution of the Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability to the bubble and spike phase, causing high-density islands to form in the pinch opposite the bubbles. The two-dimensional energy flow causes a {open_quote}{open_quote}hot spot{close_quote}{close_quote} to evolve, which is shown to agree in its size and brightness with pinhole camera measurements. This is the first explicit calculation of a hot spot in two dimensions employing the full magnetohydrodynamic equations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Single-molecule tools elucidate H2A.Z nucleosome composition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiji; Miller, Andrew; Kirchmaier, Ann L; Irudayaraj, Joseph M K

    2012-06-15

    Although distinct epigenetic marks correlate with different chromatin states, how they are integrated within single nucleosomes to generate combinatorial signals remains largely unknown. We report the successful implementation of single molecule tools constituting fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), pulse interleave excitation-based Förster resonance energy transfer (PIE-FRET) and fluorescence lifetime imaging-based FRET (FLIM-FRET) to elucidate the composition of single nucleosomes containing histone variant H2A.Z (Htz1p in yeast) in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that yeast nucleosomes containing Htz1p are primarily composed of H4 K12ac and H3 K4me3 but not H3 K36me3 and that these patterns are conserved in mammalian cells. Quantification of epigenetic modifications in nucleosomes will provide a new dimension to epigenetics research and lead to a better understanding of how these patterns contribute to the targeting of chromatin-binding proteins and chromatin structure during gene regulation.

  10. A z-axis quartz cross-fork micromachined gyroscope based on shear stress detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liqiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Li, Shengyi; Wang, Haoxu; Su, Jianbin; Dong, Peitao

    2010-01-01

    Here we propose a novel quartz micromachined gyroscope. The sensor has a simple cross-fork structure in the x-y plane of quartz crystal. Shear stress rather than normal stress is utilized to sense Coriolis' force generated by the input angular rate signal. Compared to traditional quartz gyroscopes, which have two separate sense electrodes on each sidewall, there is only one electrode on each sidewall of the sense beam. As a result, the fabrication of the electrodes is simplified and the structure can be easily miniaturized. In order to increase sensitivity, a pair of proof masses is attached to the ends of the drive beam, and the sense beam has a tapered design. The structure is etched from a z-cut quartz wafer and the electrodes are realized by direct evaporation using the aperture mask method. The drive mode frequency of the prototype is 13.38 kHz, and the quality factor is approximately 1,000 in air. Therefore, the gyroscope can work properly without a vacuum package. The measurement ability of the shear stress detection design scheme is validated by the Coriolis' force test. The performance of the sensor is characterized on a precision rate table using a specially designed readout circuit. The experimentally obtained scale factor is 1.45 mV/°/s and the nonlinearity is 3.6% in range of ± 200 °/s.

  11. A Z-Axis Quartz Cross-Fork Micromachined Gyroscope Based on Shear Stress Detection

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liqiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Li, Shengyi; Wang, Haoxu; Su, Jianbin; Dong, Peitao

    2010-01-01

    Here we propose a novel quartz micromachined gyroscope. The sensor has a simple cross-fork structure in the x-y plane of quartz crystal. Shear stress rather than normal stress is utilized to sense Coriolis’ force generated by the input angular rate signal. Compared to traditional quartz gyroscopes, which have two separate sense electrodes on each sidewall, there is only one electrode on each sidewall of the sense beam. As a result, the fabrication of the electrodes is simplified and the structure can be easily miniaturized. In order to increase sensitivity, a pair of proof masses is attached to the ends of the drive beam, and the sense beam has a tapered design. The structure is etched from a z-cut quartz wafer and the electrodes are realized by direct evaporation using the aperture mask method. The drive mode frequency of the prototype is 13.38 kHz, and the quality factor is approximately 1,000 in air. Therefore, the gyroscope can work properly without a vacuum package. The measurement ability of the shear stress detection design scheme is validated by the Coriolis’ force test. The performance of the sensor is characterized on a precision rate table using a specially designed readout circuit. The experimentally obtained scale factor is 1.45 mV/°/s and the nonlinearity is 3.6% in range of ±200 °/s. PMID:22294887

  12. Understanding the In-Situ Star Formation in a z=1.7 Cluster Core Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Tracy

    2014-10-01

    We have discovered a rare beast of a central galaxy within a z=1.7 rich galaxy cluster (estimated ~4x10^14 Msun), forming stars at a prodigious rate of 1200 Msun/yr. This system is infrared bright and its SED and the detection of PAHs at the cluster redshift, implies the IR luminosity is dominated by star formation. Such an extreme system has to date, only been confirmed in the z=0.6 Phoenix cluster (McDonald et al. 2012, 2013, 2014), whereas this object is observed at a much earlier and more active epoch of galaxy and cluster evolution. Here we propose deep HST imaging with WFC3 F160W/F105W to investigate the morphology of the BCG galaxy and its nearest neighbours. Our main goal is to understand the physical processes fuelling the intense starburst, be it a major merger or infalling gas from a cooling flow. We will also characterize the morphological properties (with color information) of the central BCG. These data will be the first of their kind at this redshift and will relate overall formation and evolution of the central galaxy massive parent halo at a cosmological epoch where these processes may begin to dominate.

  13. A z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with an ultrabroad red wing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huan; Wang, JunXian; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Infante, Leopoldo E-mail: jxw@mail.ustc.edu.cn E-mail: smalhotr@asu.edu E-mail: linfante@astro.puc.cl

    2014-03-20

    Using the Lyα emission line as a tracer of high-redshift, star-forming galaxies, hundreds of Lyα emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low-mass young galaxies, critical to the re-ionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help both ionizing photons and Lyα photons escape from galaxies. However, we still know little about the outflows in high-redshift LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift >5. Models of Lyα radiative transfer predict asymmetric Lyα line profiles with broad red wings in LAEs with outflows. Here, we report a z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with a broad red wing extending to >1000 km s{sup –1} relative to the peak of Lyα line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs until now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of active galactic nucleus activity, the outflow velocity could be larger than the escape velocity (∼500 km s{sup –1}) of a typical halo mass of z ∼ 5.7 LAEs, which is consistent with the idea that outflows in LAEs disperse metals to CGM and IGM.

  14. Z{sub 2} index theorem for Majorana zero modes in a class D topological superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takanori

    2010-11-01

    We propose a Z{sub 2} index theorem for a generic topological superconductor in class D with a point defect. Introducing a particle-hole symmetry breaking term depending on a parameter and regarding it as a coordinate of an extra dimension, we define the index of the zero modes and corresponding topological invariant for such an extended Hamiltonian. It is shown that these are related with the number of the zero modes of the original Hamiltonian modulo 2.

  15. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  16. H2A.Z and H3.3 histone variants affect nucleosome structure: biochemical and biophysical studies.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Amit; Gupta, Pooja; Ishibashi, Toyotaka; Finn, Ron; Silva-Moreno, Begonia; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi; Tomschik, Miroslav; Ausio, Juan; Zlatanova, Jordanka

    2009-11-24

    Histone variants play important roles in regulation of chromatin structure and function. To understand the structural role played by histone variants H2A.Z and H3.3, both of which are implicated in transcription regulation, we conducted extensive biochemical and biophysical analysis on mononucleosomes reconstituted from either random-sequence DNA derived from native nucleosomes or a defined DNA nucleosome positioning sequence and recombinant human histones. Using established electrophoretic and sedimentation analysis methods, we compared the properties of nucleosomes containing canonical histones and histone variants H2A.Z and H3.3 (in isolation or in combination). We find only subtle differences in the compaction and stability of the particles. Interestingly, both H2A.Z and H3.3 affect nucleosome positioning, either creating new positions or altering the relative occupancy of the existing nucleosome position space. On the other hand, only H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes exhibit altered linker histone binding. These properties could be physiologically significant as nucleosome positions and linker histone binding partly determine factor binding accessibility.

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A z = 6.740 GALAXY BEHIND THE BULLET CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Bradac, Marusa; Hall, Nicholas; Vanzella, Eros; Treu, Tommaso; Fontana, Adriano; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Zaritsky, Dennis; Clement, Benjamin; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results of our spectroscopic follow-up of 6.5 < z < 10 candidate galaxies behind clusters of galaxies. We report the spectroscopic confirmation of an intrinsically faint Lyman break galaxy (LBG) identified as a z{sub 850LP}-band dropout behind the Bullet Cluster. We detect an emission line at {lambda} = 9412 A at >5{sigma} significance using a 16 hr long exposure with FORS2 VLT. Based on the absence of flux in bluer broadband filters, the blue color of the source, and the absence of additional lines, we identify the line as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.740 {+-} 0.003. The integrated line flux is f = (0.7 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (the uncertainties are due to random and flux calibration errors, respectively) making it the faintest Ly{alpha} flux detected at these redshifts. Given the magnification of {mu} = 3.0 {+-} 0.2 the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) flux is f {sup int} = (0.23 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (additional uncertainty due to magnification), which is {approx}2-3 times fainter than other such measurements in z {approx} 7 galaxies. The intrinsic H{sub 160W}-band magnitude of the object is m{sup int}{sub H{sub 1{sub 6{sub 0{sub W}}}}}=27.57{+-}0.17, corresponding to 0.5 L* for LBGs at these redshifts. The galaxy is one of the two sub-L* LBG galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at these high redshifts (the other is also a lensed z = 7.045 galaxy), making it a valuable probe for the neutral hydrogen fraction in the early universe.

  18. Shock waves in a Z-pinch and the formation of high energy density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Ney, P.; Presura, R.; Ellahi, Rahmat; Shukla, P. K.

    2012-12-15

    A Z-pinch liner, imploding onto a target plasma, evolves in a step-wise manner, producing a stable, magneto-inertial, high-energy-density plasma compression. The typical configuration is a cylindrical, high-atomic-number liner imploding onto a low-atomic-number target. The parameters for a terawatt-class machine (e.g., Zebra at the University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Terawatt Facility) have been simulated. The 2-1/2 D MHD code, MACH2, was used to study this configuration. The requirements are for an initial radius of a few mm for stable implosion; the material densities properly distributed, so that the target is effectively heated initially by shock heating and finally by adiabatic compression; and the liner's thickness adjusted to promote radial current transport and subsequent current amplification in the target. Since the shock velocity is smaller in the liner, than in the target, a stable-shock forms at the interface, allowing the central load to accelerate magnetically and inertially, producing a magneto-inertial implosion and high-energy density plasma. Comparing the implosion dynamics of a low-Z target with those of a high-Z target demonstrates the role of shock waves in terms of compression and heating. In the case of a high-Z target, the shock wave does not play a significant heating role. The shock waves carry current and transport the magnetic field, producing a high density on-axis, at relatively low temperature. Whereas, in the case of a low-Z target, the fast moving shock wave preheats the target during the initial implosion phase, and the later adiabatic compression further heats the target to very high energy density. As a result, the compression ratio required for heating the low-Z plasma to very high energy densities is greatly reduced.

  19. Revealing an Energetic Galaxy-Wide Outflow in a z ≍ 2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, I.; McDermid, R.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.

    2010-10-01

    Leading models of galaxy formation require large-scale energetic outflows to regulate the growth of distant galaxies and their central black holes. However, current observational support for this hypothesis at high redshift is mostly limited to rare z > 2 radio galaxies. Here we present Gemini-North NIFS Intregral Field Unit (IFU) observations of the [O iii] λ5007 emission from a z ≍ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG; LIR > 1012 Lodot;) with an optically identified Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The spatial extent (≍ 4-8 kpc) of the high velocity and broad [O iii] emission are consistent with that found in z > 2 radio galaxies, indicating the presence of a large-scale energetic outflow in a galaxy population potentially orders of magnitude more common than distant radio galaxies. The low radio luminosity of this system indicates that radio- bright jets are unlikely to be responsible for driving the outflow. However, the estimated energy input required to produce the large-scale outflow signatures (of order ≍ 1059 ergs over ≍ 30 Myrs) could be delivered by a wind radiatively driven by the AGN and/or supernovae winds from intense star formation. The energy injection required to drive the outflow is comparable to the estimated binding energy of the galaxy spheroid, suggesting that it can have a significant impact on the evolution of the galaxy. We argue that the outflow observed in this system is likely to be comparatively typical of the high-redshift ULIRG population and discuss the implications of these observations for galaxy formation models.

  20. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  1. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, A. R.; Bodenreider, O.; Chang, H. F.; Humphrey, S. M.; Mork, J. G.; Nelson, S. J.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Wilbur, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future. PMID:11079836

  2. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed

    Aronson, A R; Bodenreider, O; Chang, H F; Humphrey, S M; Mork, J G; Nelson, S J; Rindflesch, T C; Wilbur, W J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future.

  3. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  4. Depth of Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the question of the optimal depth of indexing in order to design an effective document retrieval system is presented. It is shown that some more fundamental questions about indexing and retrieval rather than indexing depth are central to the issue. (Author/MBR)

  5. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  6. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  7. Indexing for the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbo, Helen R.

    1994-01-01

    Humanists use a wide variety of textual, graphic, and aural materials in their research, each of which presents indexing challenges. Research into the nature of these materials and humanists' information-seeking behaviors indicate that indexing models from the sciences are not adequate. New controlled vocabulary and indexing frameworks are needed.…

  8. Kaiser's Systematic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a system of subject indexing developed by Julius Kaiser (1868-1927) which is based on "concretes" and "processes" to govern the form of subject headings and subdivisions. Elements of amplification, guides for the subject index, and criticism of Kaiser's systematic indexing are noted. Five sources are given. (EJS)

  9. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  10. Spaces of Surveillance: Indexicality and Solicitation on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Investigates significance of the index in the process of mapping and formatting sites, spaces, and words on the Internet as well as diagnosing, tracking, and soliciting users. Argues that indexical technologies are increasingly called upon by commercial interests to automate the solicitation process whereby entry into an Internet site triggers the…

  11. Differential deposition of H2A.Z in combination with histone modifications within related genes in Oryza sativa callus and seedling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Chunchao; Yi, Xin; Zhang, Wenli; Su, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    As a histone variant, H2A.Z is highly conserved among species and plays a significant role in diverse cellular processes. Here, we generated genome-wide maps of H2A.Z in Oryza sativa (rice) callus and seedling by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation using H2A.Z antibody and high-throughput sequencing. We found a significantly high peak and a small peak of H2A.Z distributed at the 5' and 3' ends of highly expressed genes, respectively. H2A.Z was also associated with inactive genes in both tissues. H3 lysine 4 trimethylation was associated with H2A.Z deposition at the 5' end of expressed genes, and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation peaks were partially associated with H2A.Z. In summary, our study provides global analysis data for the distribution of H2A.Z in the rice genome. Our results demonstrate that the differential deposition of H2A.Z might play important roles in gene transcription during rice development. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. DT ignition in a Z pinch compressed by an imploding liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, L.; Bernal, L.; Linhart, J. G.; Verri, G.

    2001-11-01

    It has been shown that an m = 0 instability of a Z pinch carrying a current of the order of 10 MA with a rise time of less than 10 ns can generate a spark capable of igniting a fusion detonation in the adjacent DT plasma channel. A possible method for generating such currents, necessary for the implosion of an initial large radius, low temperature Z pinch, can be a radial implosion of a cylindrical fast liner. The problem has been addressed in previous publications without considering the role played by an initially impressed m = 0 perturbation, a mechanism indispensable for the generation of a spark. The liner-Z pinch dynamics can be solved at several levels of physical model completeness. The first corresponds to a zero dimensional model in which the liner has a given mass per unit length and a zero thickness, the plasma is compressed adiabatically and is isotropic, and there are no energy losses or Joule heating. The second level is one dimensional. The Z pinch plasma is described by the full set of MHD, two-fluid equations. The liner is treated first as thin and incompressible, and subsequently it is assumed that it has a finite thickness and is composed of a heavy ion plasma, having an artificial but realistic equation of state. Both plasma and liner are considered uniform in the Z direction and only DT reactions are considered. It is shown that, given sufficient energy and speed of the liner, the Z pinch can reach a volume ignition. The third level is two dimensional. Plasma and liner are treated as in the second level but either the Z pinch or the liner is perturbed by an m = 0 non-uniformity. Provided the liner energy is high enough and the initial m = 0 perturbation is correctly chosen, the final neck plasma can act as a spark for DT ignition. It is also shown that the liner energy required for generating a spark and the subsequent detonation propagation are considerably less than in the case of volume ignition.

  13. Reconstructing the long-term aa index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Clarke, Ellen; Ulich, Thomas; Linthe, Joachim; Rishbeth, Henry

    2005-07-01

    The robustness of the aa geomagnetic index is of critical importance to the debate about the previously reported doubling of the solar coronal magnetic field in the last 100 years, inferred from an increasing trend in this index. To test the trend in aa, we have reconstructed the aa index using two long-running European stations (Sodankylä from 1914 and Niemegk from 1890) to provide data for the northern component of the index that are independent of data from the UK observatories used in the "official" aa index. Both the fully "reconstructed" aa series, based on Sodankylä (67°N, L = 5.2 RE) and Niemegk (52°N, L = 2.3 RE) data in combination with the official aa Southern Hemisphere data, confirm the increasing trend in the index. The Niemegk-based index shows little solar cycle variation in its deviation from the official index, probably because of the midlatitude location of the station. The high-latitude station, Sodankylä, is more affected by active geomagnetic conditions during solar maximum because of the proximity of the auroral oval to the station. Nevertheless, its index also clearly confirms the increasing trend in the aa index and hence supports the idea of a long-term increase in solar coronal magnetic field strength. As an added test, we reconstructed the aa index from a single site using data from two long-running UK stations, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, applying a technique known as interhourly variation (IHV) proposed by Svalgaard et al. (2004). The resulting series is designed to be primarily sensitive to solar wind conditions. Both the reconstructed aaIHV also showed an increasing trend with time and high consistency with the official aa index. Overall, we conclude that the robustness of the trend in the aa index supports the idea of a long-term increase in solar coronal magnetic field strength.

  14. Liquefaction potential index: Field assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Cone penetration test (CPT) soundings at historic liquefaction sites in California were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the liquefaction potential index (LPI), which was defined by Iwasaki et al. in 1978. LPI combines depth, thickness, and factor of safety of liquefiable material inferred from a CPT sounding into a single parameter. LPI data from the Monterey Bay region indicate that the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction is 58 and 93%, respectively, when LPI equals or exceeds 5 and 15. LPI values also generally correlate with surface effects of liquefaction: Decreasing from a median of 12 for soundings in lateral spreads to 0 for soundings where no surface effects were reported. The index is particularly promising for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping where it may be a useful parameter for characterizing the liquefaction potential of geologic units.

  15. Publicity through Better Web Site Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Describes how to design Web sites that will reach the most people possible. Discusses publicity; Web search engine sites; adopting Web development standards; using metatags to effectively index a site; Web site addresses and naming conventions; writing for the Web; mass submissions; subject area knowledge; making Web rings; and additional ideas to…

  16. DOCFIND -- Starlink document index searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, M. J.; Allan, P. M.

    One of the recurrent problems with Starlink is that as the volume of software grows, so does the number of documents describing it. These include project wide documents and documents which are local to other sites. It is often extremely difficult to find out which document should be consulted about a particular topic. Starlink maintains a list of currently valid project wide documents called `STARLINK DOCUMENTATION' in the file /star/docs/docs_lis. This may be printed if required. It is maintained at RAL by the Starlink Software Librarian and updated at other sites by the Starlink software update process. The current date is stated at the beginning of the file so you can see if your site is up to date by comparing your site's file with the RAL file available via the WWW. An alternative approach is to consult file /star/docs/subject_lis. This is a Key-Word index to Starlink documentation which does not rely only on document titles. Once again, it is maintained up to date at RAL but other sites may lag behind. The specified current date will tell all. /star/docs/analysis_lis is also centrally maintained. This is a list of the Starlink documents listed by which Software item is the main subject of each document. The docfind program has been developed to help users search this mass of information.

  17. Glycemic index, insulinemic index, and satiety index of kefir.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kai Ling; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2012-08-01

    To determine glycemic, insulinemic, and satiety indices of 3 types of kefir. This study was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1, 50 g of available carbohydrate from low-fat strawberry kefir or orange kefir was tested, and in phase 2, low-fat plain kefir containing 25 g of available carbohydrates was tested for glycemic index (GI), in both cases compared with an equivalent amount of glucose. In phase 3, 1000-kJ portions of all 3 types of kefirs were compared with white bread with the same energy content to determine the insulinemic index (II) and satiety index (SI) of all 3 kefirs. In all phases, a single-meal, randomized crossover design was performed in which the test meals were given to healthy adults, 5 men and 5 women. The total incremental plasma glucose area under the curve (iAUC) for strawberry, orange, and plain kefirs was significantly lower compared with the respective high-GI control food, which was glucose solution. However, the IIs and SIs of kefir did not differ significantly from the white bread. Kefir is a low- to moderate-GI food; however, its II was high. Although kefir had higher water content, the SI of kefir was not significantly different from white bread.

  18. Dual Role of the Histone Variant H2A.Z in Transcriptional Regulation of Stress-Response Genes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kabza, Michał; Karlowski, Wojciech M.; Kus-Slowinska, Marta; Pawełoszek, Łukasz; Sadowski, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the histone variant H2A.Z on transcription remains a long-standing conundrum. Here, by analyzing the actin-related protein6 mutant, which is impaired in H2A.Z deposition, and by H2A.Z profiling in stress conditions, we investigated the impact of this histone variant on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that the arp6 mutant exhibits anomalies in response to osmotic stress. Indeed, stress-responsive genes are overrepresented among those hyperactive in arp6. In wild-type plants, these genes exhibit high levels of H2A.Z in the gene body. Furthermore, we observed that in drought-responsive genes, levels of H2A.Z in the gene body correlate with transcript levels. H2A.Z occupancy, but not distribution, changes in parallel with transcriptional changes. In particular, we observed H2A.Z loss upon transcriptional activation and H2A.Z gain upon repression. These data suggest that H2A.Z has a repressive role in transcription and counteracts unwanted expression in noninductive conditions. However, reduced activity of some genes in arp6 is associated with distinct behavior of H2A.Z at their +1 nucleosome, which exemplifies the requirement of this histone for transcription. Our data support a model where H2A.Z in gene bodies has a strong repressive effect on transcription, whereas in +1 nucleosomes, it is important for maintaining the activity of some genes. PMID:28258158

  19. Soil-site relationships of the upland oaks

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1971-01-01

    Site quality for upland oaks can be estimated directly by using site-index curves, or indirect estimations can be made by using soil-site prediction methods. Presently available harmonized site-index curves may not be suitable for all upland oak species, or may not be suitable throughout their range. New stem-analysis data show that different species of oak have...

  20. Development and validation of a postmortem radiological alteration index: the RA-Index.

    PubMed

    Egger, C; Vaucher, P; Doenz, F; Palmiere, C; Mangin, P; Grabherr, S

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to derive an index quantifying the state of alteration of cadavers by quantifying the presence of gas in the body using postmortem multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging, and to validate the index by defining its sensitivity and specificity. The RA (radiological alteration)-index was derived from postmortem MDCT data from 118 nontraumatically deceased people. To validate the index, 100 additional scanned bodies (50 % traumatically deceased) were retrospectively examined by two independent observers. Presence of gas at 82 sites was assessed by a radiologist, whereas a forensic pathologist only investigated the seven sites used for the RA-index. The RA-index was highly correlated to the overall presence of gas in all 82 sites (R(2) = 0.98 in the derivation set and 0.85 in the validation set). Semiquantitative evaluation of gas presence in each site showed moderate reliability (Cohen's kappa range, 0.41-0.78); nevertheless, the overall RA-index was very reliable (ICC(2,1) = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.92-0.96). Examiner using the RA-index detected heart cavities full of gas with a sensitivity of 100 % (95 % CI 51.7-100) and a specificity of 98.8 % (92.6-99.9). We conclude that determining the presence of gas at seven sites is a valid means to measure the distribution of gas due to cadaveric alteration in the entire body. The RA-index is rapid, easy-to-use, and reliable for nonexperienced users, and it is a valid method to suspect the normal presence of gas from cadaveric alteration. MDCT can be used to screen for gas embolism and to give indications for gas composition analysis (gas chromatography).

  1. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    PubMed

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  2. New Concepts in Indexing *

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Russell

    1965-01-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting. PMID:14306025

  3. NMR structure of chaperone Chz1 complexed with histones H2A.Z-H2B.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; Feng, Hanqiao; Hansen, D Flemming; Kato, Hidenori; Luk, Ed; Freedberg, Daron I; Kay, Lewis E; Wu, Carl; Bai, Yawen

    2008-08-01

    The NMR structure of budding yeast chaperone Chz1 complexed with histones H2A.Z-H2B has been determined. Chz1 forms a long irregular chain capped by two short alpha-helices, and uses both positively and negatively charged residues to stabilize the histone dimer. A molecular model that docks Chz1 onto the nucleosome has implications for its potential functions.

  4. Indexing consistency in MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Funk, M E; Reid, C A

    1983-01-01

    The quality of indexing of periodicals in a bibliographic data base cannot be measured directly, as there is no one "correct" way to index an item. However, consistency can be used to measure the reliability of indexing. To measure consistency in MEDLINE, 760 twice-indexed articles from 42 periodical issues were identified in the data base, and their indexing compared. Consistency, expressed as a percentage, was measured using Hooper's equation. Overall, checktags had the highest consistency. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and subheadings were applied more consistently to central concepts than to peripheral points. When subheadings were added to a main heading, consistency was lowered. "Floating" subheadings were more consistent than were attached subheadings. Indexing consistency was not affected by journal indexing priority, language, or length of the article. Terms from MeSH Tree Structure categories A, B, and D appeared more often than expected in the high-consistency articles; whereas terms from categories E, F, H, and N appeared more often than expected in the low-consistency articles. MEDLINE, with its excellent controlled vocabulary, exemplary quality control, and highly trained indexers, probably represents the state of the art in manually indexed data bases. PMID:6344946

  5. The dimensions of indexing.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won

    2003-01-01

    Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decisions trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words.

  6. Mapping Soil Water-Holding Capacity Index to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation Protocols and ExposureRisk to Contaminated Soils in a National Interest Priority Site of the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important state variable that influences water flow and solute transport in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, and plays a key role in securing agricultural ecosystem services for nutrition and food security. Especially when environmental studies should be carried out at relatively large spatial scales, there is a need to synthesize the complex interactions between soil, plant behavior, and local atmospheric conditions. Although it relies on the somewhat loosely defined concepts of "field capacity" and "wilting point", the soil water-holding capacity seems a suitable indicator to meet the above-mentioned requirement, yet easily understandable by the public and stakeholders. This parameter is employed in this work to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation protocols funded by the EU-Life project EcoRemed and being implemented to remediate and restore contaminated agricultural soils of the National Interest Priority Site Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano. The study area is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 hectares. A high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on groundwater quality. With the availability of soil and land systems maps for this study area, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at two different soil depths to determine basic soil physico-chemical properties for the subsequent application of pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions were determined for a number of soil cores, in the laboratory with the evaporation experiments, and used to calibrate the PTFs. Efficient mapping of the soil hydraulic properties benefitted greatly from the use of the PTFs and the physically-based scaling procedure developed by Nasta et al. (2013, WRR, 49:4219-4229).

  7. Actin-related protein Arp6 influences H2A.Z-dependent and -independent gene expression and links ribosomal protein genes to nuclear pores.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takahito; Shimada, Kenji; Oma, Yukako; Kalck, Véronique; Akimura, Kazumi; Taddei, Angela; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kugou, Kazuto; Ohta, Kunihiro; Gasser, Susan M; Harata, Masahiko

    2010-04-15

    Actin-related proteins are ubiquitous components of chromatin remodelers and are conserved from yeast to man. We have examined the role of the budding yeast actin-related protein Arp6 in gene expression, both as a component of the SWR1 complex (SWR-C) and in its absence. We mapped Arp6 binding sites along four yeast chromosomes using chromatin immunoprecipitation from wild-type and swr1 deleted (swr1Delta) cells. We find that a majority of Arp6 binding sites coincide with binding sites of Swr1, the catalytic subunit of SWR-C, and with the histone H2A variant Htz1 (H2A.Z) deposited by SWR-C. However, Arp6 binding detected at centromeres, the promoters of ribosomal protein (RP) genes, and some telomeres is independent of Swr1 and Htz1 deposition. Given that RP genes and telomeres both show association with the nuclear periphery, we monitored the ability of Arp6 to mediate the localization of chromatin to nuclear pores. Arp6 binding is sufficient to shift a randomly positioned locus to nuclear periphery, even in a swr1Delta strain. Arp6 is also necessary for the pore association of its targeted RP promoters possibly through cell cycle-dependent factors. Loss of Arp6, but not Htz1, leads to an up-regulation of these RP genes. In contrast, the pore-association of GAL1 correlates with Htz1 deposition, and loss of Arp6 reduces both GAL1 activation and peripheral localization. We conclude that Arp6 functions both together with the nucleosome remodeler Swr1 and also without it, to mediate Htz1-dependent and Htz1-independent binding of chromatin domains to nuclear pores. This association is shown to have modulating effects on gene expression.

  8. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and…

  9. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  10. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  11. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  12. Indexing for Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Ernest J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a functional indexing system that is tailored to the thinking involved in the process of invention. Classification by function is discussed; matrix representation is explained; a controlled vocabulary of verbs, objects, and modifiers is described; and the relation to other indexing systems is examined. (13 references)…

  13. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  14. Indexing Editorial Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple-Sokol, Angie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses access to editorial cartoons, including the importance and worth of editorial cartoons; sources, including newspapers, museums, and special cartoon collections; indexing and classification; subject access; indexing by illustrator and subject; technology and access, including digital data; access to special collections; and access to…

  15. Linked Phrase Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted system for the production of printed indexes based on networks of concept relations expressed in natural-language-like form. The LIPHIS is designed to handle more complex networks of concept relations, and so produce better indexing of highly detailed subjects. (Author/CWM)

  16. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  17. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  18. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  19. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and…

  20. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study.

  1. GT-rich promoters can drive RNA pol II transcription and deposition of H2A.Z in African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Carolin; Förstner, Konrad U; Derr, Ramona; Siegel, T Nicolai

    2017-09-01

    Genome-wide transcription studies are revealing an increasing number of "dispersed promoters" that, unlike "focused promoters", lack well-conserved sequence motifs and tight regulation. Dispersed promoters are nevertheless marked by well-defined chromatin structures, suggesting that specific sequence elements must exist in these unregulated promoters. Here, we have analyzed regions of transcription initiation in the eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma brucei, in which RNA polymerase II transcription initiation occurs over broad regions without distinct promoter motifs and lacks regulation. Using a combination of site-specific and genome-wide assays, we identified GT-rich promoters that can drive transcription and promote the targeted deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z in a genomic context-dependent manner. In addition, upon mapping nucleosome occupancy at high resolution, we find nucleosome positioning to correlate with RNA pol II enrichment and gene expression, pointing to a role in RNA maturation. Nucleosome positioning may thus represent a previously unrecognized layer of gene regulation in trypanosomes. Our findings show that even highly dispersed, unregulated promoters contain specific DNA elements that are able to induce transcription and changes in chromatin structure. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  3. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1990-01-01

    Using standard data analysis techniques, researchers explore the links between disturbance growth and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradients; appearance and disappearance of cutoff lows and blocking highs and their relation to a zonal index (properly defined in terms of PV); and teleconnections between different flow patterns and their relation to the zonal index. It was found that the PV index and the eddy index correlate better than a zonal index (defined by zonal wind) and the eddy index. In the frequency domain there are three frequencies (.03, .07 and .17 cpd (cycle per day) corresponding to periods of 33, 14 and 6 days) at which PV index and the eddy index exhibit local maxima. The high correlation found at periods of 33 days is mainly due to eddy activity at high latitudes while the local correlation maxima found at the shorter periods are mainly due mid-latitude eddy activity. The correlation between the PV index and the geopotential height anomaly at 500 mb, at each grid point in the Northern Hemisphere, shows the existence of most of the teleconnection patterns summarized by Wallace and Gutzler (1981): the North Atlantic Oscillation, the North Pacific Oscillation, and the Pacific/North American patterns. Results show that the Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) analysis can be a very useful and powerful tool when used to understand the dynamics of several large scale atmospheric systems. Although the data are limited to only one winter, and it is difficult to assess the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients presented here, the results are encouraging from physical viewpoint.

  4. Glycemic index and disease.

    PubMed

    Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2002-07-01

    It has been suggested that foods with a high glycemic index are detrimental to health and that healthy people should be told to avoid these foods. This paper takes the position that not enough valid scientific data are available to launch a public health campaign to disseminate such a recommendation. This paper explores the glycemic index and its validity and discusses the effect of postprandial glucose and insulin responses on food intake, obesity, type 1 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Presented herein are the reasons why it is premature to recommend that the general population avoid foods with a high glycemic index.

  5. Index Construction, A Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Application in Science, S5G37 Technology , and Humanities, N.Y., N.Y: John Wiley & Sons, C 1969. Z695.9 Harrod, Leonard Montague, ed. Indexers on... Indexing Terminology, Posting Terms and KWOC, DESK Alexandria, VA: DDC, May, 1979. Z1035.1 Library of Congress. Main Reading Room, Reference Collection...A1544 750 INDEX CONSTRUCTON AR BI OGRAPHYU ARMY FIEL ARTILERY SHOOL FORT SIL OR MILE R SEP 84 USA FASM -DSB- A0 VNtASIIEFG 5/2 NI MONSOONSfl 0841

  6. The role of histone methylation and H2A.Z occupancy during rapid activation of ethylene responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongfeng; Shen, Yuan; Conde E Silva, Natalia; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway leads to rapid gene activation by two hierarchies of transcription factors with EIN3/EIL proteins as primary ones and ERF proteins as secondary ones. The role of chromatin modifications during the rapid gene activation is not known. In this work we studied trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3), two opposite histone methylation marks for gene activity, during the induction course of three ethylene-responsive genes (ERF1, AtERF14 and ChiB). We found that the three genes displayed different histone modification profiles before induction. After induction, H3K4me3 was increased in the 5' region and the gene body of ERF1, while H3K27me3 was decreased in the promoter of AtERF14. But the modification changes were later than the gene activation. Analysis of other rapidly inducible ERF genes confirmed the observation. In addition, histone H2A.Z occupancy on the three genes and the association of the H3K27me3-binding protein LHP1 with AtERF14 and ChiB were not affected by the inductive signal. However, the mutation of genes encoding H2A.Z and LHP1 attenuated and enhanced respectively the induction of target genes and altered H3K4me3. These results indicate that the induction of ethylene-responsive genes does not require immediate modulation of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and dissociation of LHP1 and H2A.Z from the targets, and suggest that the chromatin structure of the genes before induction is committed for transcriptional activation and that H3K4me3 is not required for ethylene-responsive gene activation, but may serve as a mark for gene activity.

  7. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, B B; Richardson, E; Siwal, D; Hudan, S; deSouza, R T

    2015-08-01

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s(-1) are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM).

  8. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, B. B.; Richardson, E.; Siwal, D.; Hudan, S.; Souza, R. T. de

    2015-08-15

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s{sup −1} are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM)

  9. Search for a $Z(4430)^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^{\\pm}$ resonance in hadron collisions at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Rubbo, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is the first search for a Z-(4430) resonance in hadron collisions and has been conceived, carried out and concluded entirely by the author. An ad-hoc analysis framework has been developed based on reconstruction code already consolidated in other analysis, adapted and modified for the purpose of this work. The progress of the work has been periodically presented in internal meetings of the CDF B-physics group and documented in internal notes.

  10. Search for neutral resonances decaying into a Z boson and a pair of b jets or τ leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.

    2016-08-01

    A search is performed for a new resonance decaying into a lighter resonance and a Z boson. Two channels are studied, targeting the decay of the lighter resonance into either a pair of oppositely charged τ leptons or a b b ‾ pair. The Z boson is identified via its decays to electrons or muons. The search exploits data collected by the CMS experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.8 fb-1. No significant deviations are observed from the standard model expectation and limits are set on production cross sections and parameters of two-Higgs-doublet models.

  11. Air-stable cationic gold(I) catalyst featuring a Z-type ligand: promoting enyne cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Okada, Yasuhiko; Maruyama, Naoya; Mukai, Chisato

    2015-01-12

    An air-stable cationic Au(I) complex featuring a Z-type ligand (boron atom) as a σ-acceptor was developed for elucidating the effect of B on catalytic reactions. An enyne cyclization in the presence of either [Au→B](+) or [Au](+) showed that [Au→B](+) promotes the reactivity, which enabled the effective construction of not only five- and six-membered rings, but also seven-membered rings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Dimensions of Indexing

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, W. John; Kim, Won

    2003-01-01

    Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH® terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE® in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decision trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words. PMID:14728266

  13. Environmental Quality Index webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Quality index, data reduction approaches to help improve statistical efficiency, summarizing information on the wider environment humans are exposed to. air, water, land, built, socio-demographic, human and environmental health

  14. Ankle-Brachial Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... to getting your blood pressure taken in a routine visit to your doctor. You may feel some ... mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/ankle-brachial-index/basics/definition/PRC-20014625 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  15. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  16. SAS-mediated acetylation of histone H4 Lys 16 is required for H2A.Z incorporation at subtelomeric regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Shia, Wei-Jong; Li, Bing; Workman, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    The yeast SAS (Something About Silencing) complex and the histone variant H2A.Z have both previously been linked to an antisilencing function at the subtelomeric regions. SAS is an H4 Lys 16-specific histone acetyltransferase complex. Here we demonstrate that the H4 Lys 16 acetylation by SAS is required for efficient H2A.Z incorporation near telomeres. The presence of H4 Lys 16 acetylation and H2A.Z synergistically prevent the ectopic propagation of heterochromatin. Overall, our data suggest a novel antisilencing mechanism near telomeres. PMID:16980580

  17. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NU14MU R GOVT ACCESSION No. 3

  18. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  19. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  20. Spatial diversity index mapping of classes in grid cell maps.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The landscape diversity index indicates the number of classes of land that are in proximity to each point in a digital grid cell map. The index is D=100(i-1)/(n-1), where i = the number of landscape classes within a selected distance of each grid cell and n = the total number of mapped classes. The use of the index is illustrated by calculating the diversity index at each grid cell for each of five mapped classes and displaying the resulting diversity index map that portrays the complexity of the scene. The method is applicable to land-use planning, site selection, or description of landscape complexity.-Author

  1. Value siting

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrar, T.A.; Howes, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Finding an appropriate site is becoming an increasing challenge in building new power projects. One of the first orders of business in project development is identifying a site that offers the maximum spread between the cost of fuel and net power price. The collection of sites that exhibit an adequate spread - presenting a first-order, acceptable economic expectation - must now be subjected to an ever increasing number of political, societal, technical, and economic exclusion screens. The barriers can include cooling water constraints, community resistance, visual incompatibility, archaeological concerns and endangered species preservation issues. Most power siting difficulties can be substantially mitigated by gaining access to developed, but under-used sites, whose current owners are bound by circumstances - political or financial - that prevent them from using such locations. There are two such categories of sites: Utilities that have sites on which depreciated power production assets rest; and, The federal government, with numerous sites throughout the country, particularly military bases subject to closure under the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) proceedings. It is in the interests of developers, as well as consumers, investors and taxpayers, ti undertake a thorough examination of these overlooked pearls of opportunities and develop their potential.

  2. Spatial resolution improvement and dose reduction potential for inner ear CT imaging using a z-axis deconvolution technique.

    PubMed

    McCollough, Cynthia H; Leng, Shuai; Sunnegardh, Johan; Vrieze, Thomas J; Yu, Lifeng; Lane, John; Raupach, Rainer; Stierstorfer, Karl; Flohr, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    To assess the z-axis resolution improvement and dose reduction potential achieved using a z-axis deconvolution technique with iterative reconstruction (IR) relative to filtered backprojection (FBP) images created with the use of a z-axis comb filter. Each of three phantoms were scanned with two different acquisition modes: (1) an ultrahigh resolution (UHR) scan mode that uses a comb filter in the fan angle direction to increase in-plane spatial resolution and (2) a z-axis ultrahigh spatial resolution (zUHR) scan mode that uses comb filters in both the fan and cone angle directions to improve both in-plane and z-axis spatial resolution. All other scanning parameters were identical. First, the ACR CT Accreditation phantom, rotated by 90° so that the high-contrast spatial resolution targets were parallel to the coronal plane, was scanned to assess limiting spatial resolution and image noise. Second, section sensitivity profiles (SSPs) were measured using a copper foil embedded in an acrylic cylinder and the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and full-width-at-tenth-maximum (FWTM) of the SSPs were calculated. Third, an anthropomorphic head phantom containing a human skull was scanned to assess clinical acceptability for imaging of the temporal bone. For each scan, FBP images were reconstructed for the zUHR scan using the narrowest image thickness available. For the CT accreditation phantom, zUHR images were also reconstructed using an IR algorithm (SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) to assess the influence of the IR algorithm on image noise. A z-axis deconvolution technique combined with the IR algorithm was used to reconstruct images at the narrowest image thickness possible from the UHR scan data. Images of the ACR and head phantoms were reformatted into the coronal plane. The head phantom images were evaluated by a neuroradiologist to assess acceptability for use in patients undergoing clinically indicated CT imaging of the temporal bone. The limiting

  3. Needs for Research in Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1994-01-01

    Uncovers issues in indexing that need scientific research, including the cognitive processes of indexers and users; vocabulary control; how best to supplement human indexers' intellectual effort with computer capabilities; structure and layout of indexes on the printed page and on the computer screen; and evaluation of indexes. (Contains 21…

  4. The histone variant H2A.Z is dynamically expressed in the developing mouse placenta and in differentiating trophoblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kafer, Georgia R; Carlton, Peter M; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2015-11-01

    The histone variant H2A.Z is important in establishing new chromatin environments necessary for permitting changes in gene expression and thus differentiation in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. In this study we show that H2A.Z is highly expressed in the early mouse placenta, and is specifically limited to progenitor-like trophoblast cells. Using in vitro models, we revealed distinct differences in H2A.Z abundance between undifferentiated, differentiating and differentiated mouse trophoblast stem (mTS) cells. Our work supports the hypothesis that in addition to roles in differentiating mES cells, H2A.Z is also involved in the differentiation of extra-embryonic tissues. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Expression of Non-acetylatable H2A.Z in Myoblast Cells Blocks Myoblast Differentiation through Disruption of MyoD Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Law, Cindy; Cheung, Peter

    2015-01-01

    H2A.Z is a histone H2A variant that is essential for viability in Tetrahymena and Drosophila and also during embryonic development of mice. Although implicated in diverse cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome segregation, and heterochromatin formation, its essential function in cells remains unknown. Cellular differentiation is part of the developmental process of multicellular organisms. To elucidate the roles of H2A.Z and H2A.Z acetylation in cellular differentiation, we examined the effects of expressing wild type (WT) or a non-acetylatable form of H2A.Z in the growth and differentiation of the myoblast C2C12 cell line. Ectopic expression of wild type or mutant H2A.Z resulted in distinct phenotypes in the differentiation of the C2C12 cells and the formation of myotubes. Most strikingly, expression of the H2A.Z non-acetylatable mutant (H2A.Z-Ac-mut) resulted in a complete block of myoblast differentiation. We determined that this phenotype is caused by a loss of MyoD expression in the Ac-mut-expressing cells prior to and after induction of differentiation. Moreover, chromatin accessibility assays showed that the promoter region of MyoD is less accessible in the differentiation-defective cells. Altogether, these new findings show that expression of the Ac-mut form of H2A.Z resulted in a dominant phenotype that blocked differentiation due to chromatin changes at the MyoD promoter. PMID:25839232

  6. 76 FR 71997 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: 1090-0008 American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Satisfaction Index (ACSI) E-Government Web Site Customer Satisfaction Surveys AGENCY: National Business Center...@nbc.gov . Individuals providing comments should reference Web site Customer Satisfaction Surveys. FOR... required to obtain a benefit. Title: American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) E-Government Web site...

  7. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  8. H2A.Z Facilitates Access of Active and Repressive Complexes to Chromatin in Embryonic Stem Cell Self-renewal and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gangqing; Cui, Kairong; Northrup, Daniel; Liu, Chengyu; Wang, Chaochen; Tang, Qingsong; Ge, Kai; Levens, David; Crane-Robinson, Colyn; Zhao, Keji

    2012-01-01

    Summary Chromatin modifications have been implicated in the self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the function of histone variant H2A.Z in ESCs remains unclear. We show that H2A.Z is highly enriched at promoters and enhancers and is required for both efficient self-renewal and differentiation of murine ESCs. H2A.Z deposition leads to an abnormal nucleosome structure, decreased nucleosome occupancy and increased chromatin accessibility. In self-renewing ESCs, knockdown of H2A.Z compromises OCT4 binding to its target genes and leads to decreased binding of MLL complexes to active genes and of PRC2 complex to repressed genes. During differentiation of ESCs, inhibition of H2A.Z also compromises RA-induced RARα binding, activation of differentiation markers and the repression of pluripotency genes. We propose that H2A.Z mediates such contrasting activities by acting as a ‘general facilitator’ that generates access for a variety of complexes both activating and repressive. PMID:23260488

  9. Effective heat strain index using pocket computer.

    PubMed

    Kamon, E; Ryan, C

    1981-08-01

    An effective heat strain index (EHSI) using a hand calculator with memory is suggested for on-site evaluation of prevailing hot ambient conditions. The inputs to the programmed calculator include dry-bulb, wet-bulb and globe temperatures, and estimates of metabolism and air movements. The index is based on a program for calculation of the total heat balance and on the efficiency of sweating. The display of information on the ambient conditions EHSI display is one of following: no strain; low strain; high strain; or time limits of exposure.

  10. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  11. Buildup Index as an Expression of Moisture Content in Duff

    Treesearch

    Von J. Johnson

    1968-01-01

    The relation between Buildup index and moisture content of grouped litter and duff samples from beneath four medium-site forest stands closely approximated the relation between Buildup index and moisture equivalent of 5-day timelag fuels having an equilibrium moisture content of 15 percent

  12. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765... THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a) The amounts of $6.25 (as specified in § 765.2(e) of this rule) $350 million (as specified in § 765.2(f) of...

  13. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765... THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a) The amounts of $6.25 (as specified in § 765.2(e) of this rule) $350 million (as specified in § 765.2(f) of...

  14. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765... THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a) The amounts of $6.25 (as specified in § 765.2(e) of this rule) $350 million (as specified in § 765.2(f) of...

  15. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765... THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a) The amounts of $6.25 (as specified in § 765.2(e) of this rule) $350 million (as specified in § 765.2(f) of...

  16. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765... THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a) The amounts of $6.25 (as specified in § 765.2(e) of this rule) $350 million (as specified in § 765.2(f) of...

  17. Site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO/sub 2/ content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate.

  18. Human Use Index (Future)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values indicate little disturbance of natural land cover. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  19. 5 CFR 2604.202 - Index identifying information for the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURE REPORTS FOIA Public Reading Room Facility and Web Site; Index Identifying Information for the... its public reading room facility which are required to be indexed under 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2). (b)...

  20. Indexes of severity: conceptual development.

    PubMed Central

    Krischer, J P

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of severity index development is presented in relation to conceptual issues in index definition, analytic issues in index formulation and validation issues in index application. The CHOP index is discussed along with six severity indexes described in an earlier paper dealing with underlying concepts to illustrate the material presented. Replies are provided to specific questions raised in an accompanying paper discussing the Injury Severity Score. This conceptual material is presented to provide a foundation for severity index development, to suggest criteria to be used in their formulation and testing, and to identify analyses that can lead to the successful selection and application of an index for a defined purpose. PMID:468553

  1. Nitrate leaching index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  2. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  3. Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

  4. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  5. A Sociodemographic Risk Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an index of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…

  6. Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  7. Utility-Theoretic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patrick

    1979-01-01

    Responds to W. S. Cooper's article on utility-theoretic indexing (Journal of the American Society for Information Science, v29 n3) and posits that the method's claim to predictive success rests solely on its appeal to the consequences of decisions. (FM)

  8. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  9. A Sociodemographic Risk Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an index of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…

  10. Drug Impact Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  11. The Vocational Commitment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.; Hubbard, Constance F.

    1973-01-01

    The Index is the result of an effort made to examine all components of vocational commitment and to translate this information into an instrument which could be used to assess the relationship of an individual to a vocation.. The predictive ability of the 74-item device requires further research. (Author/AG)

  12. Evaluation of sex, race, body mass index and pre-vaccination serum progesterone levels and post-vaccination serum anti-anthrax protective immunoglobulin G on injection site adverse events following anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) in the CDC AVA human clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pondo, Tracy; Rose, Charles E; Martin, Stacey W; Keitel, Wendy A; Keyserling, Harry L; Babcock, Janiine; Parker, Scott; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A; McNeil, Michael M

    2014-06-12

    Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) administered intramuscularly (IM) results in fewer adverse events (AEs) than subcutaneous (SQ) administration. Women experience more AEs than men. Antibody response, female hormones, race, and body mass index (BMI) may contribute to increased frequency of reported injection site AEs. We analyzed data from the CDC AVA human clinical trial. This double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled 1563 participants and followed them through 8 injections (AVA or placebo) over a period of 42 months. For the trial's vaccinated cohort (n=1267), we used multivariable logistic regression to model the effects of study group (SQ or IM), sex, race, study site, BMI, age, and post-vaccination serum anti-PA IgG on occurrence of AEs of any severity grade. Also, in a women-only subset (n=227), we assessed effect of pre-vaccination serum progesterone level and menstrual phase on AEs. Participants who received SQ injections had significantly higher proportions of itching, redness, swelling, tenderness and warmth compared to the IM study group after adjusting for other risk factors. The proportions of redness, swelling, tenderness and warmth were all significantly lower in blacks vs. non-black participants. We found arm motion limitation, itching, pain, swelling and tenderness were more likely to occur in participants with the highest anti-PA IgG concentrations. In the SQ study group, redness and swelling were more common for obese participants compared to participants who were not overweight. Females had significantly higher proportions of all AEs compared to males. Menstrual phase was not associated with any AEs. Female and non-black participants had a higher proportion of AVA associated AEs and higher anti-PA IgG concentrations. Antibody responses to other vaccines may also vary by sex and race. Further studies may provide better understanding for higher proportions of AEs in women and non-black participants. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Yeast X-chromosome-associated protein 5 (Xap5) functions with H2A.Z to suppress aberrant transcripts.

    PubMed

    Anver, Shajahan; Roguev, Assen; Zofall, Martin; Krogan, Nevan J; Grewal, Shiv I S; Harmer, Stacey L

    2014-08-01

    Chromatin regulatory proteins affect diverse developmental and environmental response pathways via their influence on nuclear processes such as the regulation of gene expression. Through a genome-wide genetic screen, we implicate a novel protein called X-chromosome-associated protein 5 (Xap5) in chromatin regulation. We show that Xap5 is a chromatin-associated protein acting in a similar manner as the histone variant H2A.Z to suppress expression of antisense and repeat element transcripts throughout the fission yeast genome. Xap5 is highly conserved across eukaryotes, and a plant homolog rescues xap5 mutant yeast. We propose that Xap5 likely functions as a chromatin regulator in diverse organisms.

  14. Search for neutral resonances decaying into a Z boson and a pair of b jets or τ leptons

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-05-31

    A search is performed for a new resonance decaying into a lighter resonance and a Z boson. Two channels are studied, targeting the decay of the lighter resonance into either a pair of oppositely charged tau leptons or a b-bbar pair. The Z boson is identified via its decays to electrons or muons. The search exploits data collected by the CMS experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.8 fb–1. Furthermore, no significant deviations are observed from the standard model expectation and limits are set on production cross sections and parameters of two-Higgs-doubletmore » models.« less

  15. Search for a Higgs boson produced in association with a Z boson in p anti-p collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP /Northeastern U.

    2007-04-01

    We describe a search for the standard model Higgs boson with a mass of 105 GeV/c{sup 2} to 145 GeV/c{sup 2} in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 450 pb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The Higgs boson is required to be produced in association with a Z boson, and the Z boson is required to decay to either electrons or muons with the Higgs boson decaying to a b{bar b} pair. The data are well described by the expected background, leading to 95% confidence level cross section upper limits {sigma}p{bar p} {yields} ZH x B(H {yields} b{bar b}) in the range of 3.1 pb to 4.4 pb.

  16. The COPD Helplessness Index

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. Methods: We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. Results: The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P < .001). Higher CHI scores were associated with worse generic (Short Form-12, Physical Component Summary Score) and respiratory-specific (Airways Questionnaire 20) health-related quality of life, greater depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety (all P < .001). Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P < .001). After also controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index ≤ median (hazard ratio = 1.35; P = .01), but not among subjects with higher BODE Index values (hazard ratio = 0.93; P = .34). Conclusions: The CHI is an internally consistent and valid measure, concurrently associated with health status and predictively associated with COPD exacerbations. The CHI may prove a useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes. PMID:19837823

  17. SWR1 Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Subunits and H2A.Z Have Non-overlapping Functions in Immunity and Gene Regulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Berriri, Souha; Gangappa, Sreeramaiah N; Kumar, S Vinod

    2016-07-06

    Incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z into nucleosomes by the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex is a critical step in eukaryotic gene regulation. In Arabidopsis, SWR1c and H2A.Z have been shown to control gene expression underlying development and environmental responses. Although they have been implicated in defense, the specific roles of the complex subunits and H2A.Z in immunity are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the SWR1c subunits, PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING1 (PIE1), ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN6 (ARP6), and SWR1 COMPLEX 6 (SWC6), as well as H2A.Z, in defense and gene regulation. We found that SWR1c components play different roles in resistance to different pathogens. Loss of PIE1 and SWC6 function as well as depletion of H2A.Z led to reduced basal resistance, while loss of ARP6 fucntion resulted in enhanced resistance. We found that mutations in PIE1 and SWC6 resulted in impaired effector-triggered immunity. Mutation in SWR1c components and H2A.Z also resulted in compromised jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated immunity. Genome-wide expression analyses similarly reveal distinct roles for H2A.Z and SWR1c components in gene regulation, and suggest a potential role for PIE1 in the regulation of the cross talk between defense signaling pathways. Our data show that although they are part of the same complex, Arabidopsis SWR1c components could have non-redundant functions in plant immunity and gene regulation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Waste management units: Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Molen, G.

    1991-09-01

    This report indexes every waste management unit of the Savannah River Site. They are indexed by building number and name. The waste units are also tabulated by solid waste units receiving hazardous materials with a known release or no known release to the environment. It also contains information on the sites which has received no hazardous waste, and units which have received source, nuclear, or byproduct material only. (MB)

  19. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  20. Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility

    ScienceCinema

    Mcllroy, Hugh

    2016-07-12

    What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mcllroy, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  3. Conformity index: a review.

    PubMed

    Feuvret, Loïc; Noël, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-02-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear.

  4. Conformity index: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Feuvret, Loic . E-mail: loic.feuvret@cpo.curie.net; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-02-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear.

  5. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  6. Cost Index Flying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    learning how they computed their particular cost indexes. Next, primary data was gathered from the AMC Fuel Efficiency Office and AMC Finance...fighting forces in the world . Today, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) has been called on to execute its mission like never before. With budgets...of the 2 previous DoD fuel consumption, with aviation accounting for approximately 84% of the Air Force’s energy consumption, or about 50% of the

  7. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1991-01-01

    Based on the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) IIIb data set in the 1978 to 1979 winter, a potential vorticity (PV) index was defined as a measure of the zonally averaged, mid-latitude PV gradient on the 300 K isentropic surface in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of that index and its relation to teleconnection patterns of 500 mb geopotential height anomaly are studied. The results of the temporal and spatial variation of blocking and cyclogenesis in the 1978 to 1979 winter and its relation to global and local PV gradients were obtained. Complex empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses were performed, using the same FGGE data set for the 1978 to 1979 winter, for a representative high latitude band and mid latitude band geopotential height anomalies at 500 mb, phi sub h, phi sub m, and PV gradient at 300 K, delta(Q), at each longitude for the three month period. The focus of current research is the following: (1) to perform Fourier analyses for the first three EOF's of phi sub h, phi sub m, and delta(Q) at given latitude bands, and to find the dominant wavenumbers and frequencies which are responsible for these EOF's; (2) to compare the results from EOF and Fourier analyses which will be used to explore the relations of blocking and cyclogensis with local and global PV gradients; and (3) to study the time dependence of the local PV gradients and relate it to the PV index vacillation cycles observed in the PV index cycle.

  8. Site Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a guide to planning and building a Web site, with an emphasis on setting up a Web server. Discussion includes hiring a consultant, contracts and payment, assembly of teams, training, development of a business plan, registration of domain name, purchase of hardware and software, local area networks, and types of Internet connection. (JKP)

  9. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  10. Arizona - Social Vulnerability Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over 64), population without a high school diploma, linguistically isolated households, and single female head of households with own children under 18 (single moms). The data is at the block group level. Each field for each block group is assigned an index score of 0-3, based on whether the value of that dataset falls in the top quartile (score=3), second quartile (score=2), third quartile (score=1), or bottom quartile (score=0). The scores for each field are then added together to assign a comprehensive score to each block group (0-21). The highest scores are block groups that have the highest percentage of sensitive populations (highest percent minority, lowest per capita income, highest percent of population under 18 and over 64, highest percentage of population without a high school degree, highest percent of linguistically isolated households, and highest percent of single female head of households). Zoe Heller of the US EPA Region 9's Communities and Ecosystems Division, is responsible for the design and development of the Social Vulnerability Index data set.

  11. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  12. Sequence of cDNAs for mammalian H2A.Z, an evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal histone H2A isoprotein species.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, C L; Bonner, W M

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for the evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal H2A isoprotein, H2A.Z, have been determined for the rat, cow, and human. As a basal histone, H2A.Z is synthesized throughout the cell cycle at a constant rate, unlinked to DNA replication, and at a much lower rate in quiescent cells. Each of the cDNA isolates encodes the entire H2A.Z polypeptide. The human isolate is about 1.0 kilobases long. It contains a coding region of 387 nucleotides flanked by 106 nucleotides of 5'UTR and 376 nucleotides of 3'UTR, which contains a polyadenylation signal followed by a poly A tail. The bovine and rat cDNAs have 97 and 94% nucleotide positional identity to the human cDNA in the coding region and 98% in the proximal 376 nucleotides of the 3'UTR which includes the polyadenylation signal. A potential stem-forming sequence imbedded in a direct repeat is found centered at 261 nucleotides into the 3'UTR. Each of the cDNA clones could be transcribed and translated in vitro to yield H2A.Z protein. The mammalian H2A.Z cDNA coding sequences are approximately 80% similar to those in chicken and 75% to those in sea urchin. PMID:3344202

  13. Definitions A-Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... PMMA: Polymethyl methacrylate. A material used in bone cement for orthopedic and spine surgery. posterior: Rear. Being ... repair fractures related to osteoporosis, where glue-like cement material is injected into a collapsed vertebra. W ...

  14. Reconstruction of a scanned topographic image distorted by the creep effect of a Z scanner in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Cheolsu; Chung, Chung Choo

    2011-05-01

    We analyzed the illusory slopes of scanned images caused by the creep of a Z scanner in an atomic force microscope (AFM) operated in constant-force mode. A method to reconstruct a real topographic image using two scanned images was also developed. In atomic force microscopy, scanned images are distorted by undesirable effects such as creep, hysteresis of the Z scanner, and sample tilt. In contrast to other undesirable effects, the illusory slope that appears in the slow scanning direction of an AFM scan is highly related to the creep effect of the Z scanner. In the controller for a Z scanner, a position-sensitive detector is utilized to maintain a user-defined set-point or force between a tip and a sample surface. This serves to eliminate undesirable effects. The position-sensitive detector that detects the deflection of the cantilever is used to precisely measure the topography of a sample. In the conventional constant-force mode of an atomic force microscope, the amplitude of a control signal is used to construct a scanned image. However, the control signal contains not only the topography data of the sample, but also undesirable effects. Consequently, the scanned image includes the illusory slope due to the creep effect of the Z scanner. In an automatic scanning process, which requires fast scanning and high repeatability, an atomic force microscope must scan the sample surface immediately after a fast approach operation has been completed. As such, the scanned image is badly distorted by a rapid change in the early stages of the creep effect. In this paper, a new method to obtain the tilt angle of a sample and the creep factor of the Z scanner using only two scanned images with no special tools is proposed. The two scanned images can be obtained by scanning the same area of a sample in two different slow scanning directions. We can then reconstruct a real topographic image based on the scanned image, in which both the creep effect of the Z scanner and the slope

  15. Reconstruction of a scanned topographic image distorted by the creep effect of a Z scanner in atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Cheolsu; Chung, Chung Choo

    2011-05-01

    We analyzed the illusory slopes of scanned images caused by the creep of a Z scanner in an atomic force microscope (AFM) operated in constant-force mode. A method to reconstruct a real topographic image using two scanned images was also developed. In atomic force microscopy, scanned images are distorted by undesirable effects such as creep, hysteresis of the Z scanner, and sample tilt. In contrast to other undesirable effects, the illusory slope that appears in the slow scanning direction of an AFM scan is highly related to the creep effect of the Z scanner. In the controller for a Z scanner, a position-sensitive detector is utilized to maintain a user-defined set-point or force between a tip and a sample surface. This serves to eliminate undesirable effects. The position-sensitive detector that detects the deflection of the cantilever is used to precisely measure the topography of a sample. In the conventional constant-force mode of an atomic force microscope, the amplitude of a control signal is used to construct a scanned image. However, the control signal contains not only the topography data of the sample, but also undesirable effects. Consequently, the scanned image includes the illusory slope due to the creep effect of the Z scanner. In an automatic scanning process, which requires fast scanning and high repeatability, an atomic force microscope must scan the sample surface immediately after a fast approach operation has been completed. As such, the scanned image is badly distorted by a rapid change in the early stages of the creep effect. In this paper, a new method to obtain the tilt angle of a sample and the creep factor of the Z scanner using only two scanned images with no special tools is proposed. The two scanned images can be obtained by scanning the same area of a sample in two different slow scanning directions. We can then reconstruct a real topographic image based on the scanned image, in which both the creep effect of the Z scanner and the slope

  16. The great contribution: Index Medicus, Index-Catalogue, and IndexCat

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Stephen J.; Gallagher, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The systematic indexing of medical literature by the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (now the National Library of Medicine) has been called “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.” In the 1870s, the library launched two indexes: the Index Medicus and the Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office. Index Medicus is better remembered today as the forerunner of MEDLINE, but Index Medicus began as the junior partner of what the library saw as its major publication, the Index-Catalogue. However, the Index-Catalogue had been largely overlooked by many medical librarians until 2004, when the National Library of Medicine released IndexCat, the online version of Index-Catalogue. Access to this huge amount of material raised new questions: What was the coverage of the Index-Catalogue? How did it compare and overlap with the Index Medicus? Method: Over 1,000 randomly generated Index Medicus citations were cross-referenced in IndexCat. Results: Inclusion, form, content, authority control, and subject headings were evaluated, revealing that the relationship between the two publications was neither simple nor static through time. In addition, the authors found interesting anomalies that shed light on how medical literature was selected and indexed in “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.” PMID:19404501

  17. Fidelity Index Determination of DNA Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Borgaro, Janine G.; Benner, Nicole; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is the most frequent form of epigenetic modification in the cell, which involves gene regulation in eukaryotes and protection against restriction enzymes in prokaryotes. Even though many methyltransferases exclusively modify their cognate sites, there have been reports of those that exhibit promiscuity. Previous experimental approaches used to characterize these methyltransferases do not provide the exact concentration at which off-target methylation occurs. Here, we present the first reported fidelity index (FI) for a number of DNA methyltransferases. We define the FI as the ratio of the highest amount of methyltransferase that exhibits no star activity (off-target effects) to the lowest amount that exhibits complete modification of the cognate site. Of the methyltransferases assayed, M.MspI and M.AluI exhibited the highest fidelity of ≥250 and ≥500, respectively, and do not show star activity even at very high concentrations. In contrast, M.HaeIII, M.EcoKDam and M.BamHI have the lowest fidelity of 4, 4 and 2, respectively, and exhibit star activity at concentrations close to complete methylation of the cognate site. The fidelity indexes provide vital information on the usage of methyltransferases and are especially important in applications where site specific methylation is required. PMID:23671703

  18. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  19. Commercial Web Sites: Lost in Cyberspace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 60,087 commercial worldwide Web sites that investigated their design and rate of search engine registration. Discusses the need to register sites with search engines to make them more accessible to potential customers and recommends the use of HTML META tags for proper indexing. (Author/LRW)

  20. Limitations on the predictions for p(T)-balance in events with a Z-boson and jets

    SciTech Connect

    Paramonov, Alexander A.; /Argonne

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the impact of theoretical uncertainties on the accuracy of measurements involving hadronic jets. The analysis is performed using events with a Z boson and a single jet observed in p {bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in 4.6 fb{sup -1} of data from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The transverse momenta (p{sub T}) of the jet and the boson should balance each other due to momentum conservation in the plane transverse to the direction of the p and {bar p} beams. We evaluate the dependence of the measured p{sub T}-balance on theoretical uncertainties associated with initial and final state radiation, choice of renormalization and factorization scales, parton distribution functions, jet-parton matching, calculations of matrix elements, and parton showering. We find that the uncertainty caused by parton showering at large angles is the largest among the listed uncertainties. The proposed method can be re-applied at the LHC experiments to investigate and evaluate the uncertainties on the predicted jet energies. The distributions produced at the CDF environment are intended for comparison to those from modern event generators and new tunes of parton showering. The comparison will allow higher accuracy of the predicted jet energies, and thus an improved discovery potential in signatures containing jets, at the LHC.

  1. Verification studies for a z-coordinate primitive-equation model: Tidal conversion at a mid-ocean ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaron, E. D.; Egbert, G. D.

    We document the accuracy and convergence of solutions for a z-coordinate primitive-equation model of internal tide generation and propagation. The model, which is based on MOM3 numerics, is linearized around a state of rest to facilitate comparison with analytic estimates of baroclinic generation at finite-amplitude topography in a channel forced by barotropic tidal flow at its boundaries. Unlike the analytical model, the numerical model includes mixing of both buoyancy and momentum, and several definitions of "baroclinic conversion" are possible. These are clarified by writing out the energetics of the linearized equations in terms of barotropic kinetic energy, baroclinic kinetic energy, and available potential energy. The tidal conversion computed from the model, defined as the rate of conversion of barotropic kinetic energy into available potential energy, agrees well with analytical predictions. A comparison of different treatments of bottom topography (full-cells, partial-cells, and ghost-cells) indicates that the partial-cell treatment is the most accurate in this application. Convergence studies of flow over a smooth supercritical ridge show that the dissipation along tidal characteristics is, apparently, an integrable singularity. When the ocean bottom is not smooth, the accuracy and convergence of the model depend on the power spectrum of the topography. A numerical experiment suggests that the power spectrum of the resolved topography must roll off faster than k-2 to obtain convergent results from a linear numerical model of this type.

  2. Discovery of a z = 0.65 post-starburst BAL quasar in the DES supernova fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, Dale; Martini, Paul; Tie, Suk Sien; Lidman, Chris; McMahon, Richard; Banerji, Manda; Davis, Tamara; Peterson, Bradley; Sharp, Rob; Seymour, Nicholas; Childress, Michael; Lewis, Geraint; Tucker, Brad; Yuan, Fang; Abbot, Tim; Abdalla, Filipe; Allam, Sahar; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Camero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Carretero, Jorge; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, Thomas; Eifler, Tim; Finley, David; Flaugher, Brenna; Glazebrook, Karl; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; Gutierrez, Gaston; Hinton, Samuel; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolav; Macaulay, Edward; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Miquel, Ramon; Ogando, Ricardo; Plazas, Andres; Riel, Kevin; Sanchez, Eusebio; Santiago, Basillio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, Robert C.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly; Tarle, Gregory; Thomas, Daniel; Uddin, Syed; Walker, Alistair; Zhang, Bonnie

    2017-07-01

    We present the discovery of a z = 0.65 low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar in a post-starburst galaxy in data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and spectroscopy from the Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES). LoBAL quasars are a minority of all BALs, and rarer still is that this object also exhibits broad Fe II (an FeLoBAL) and Balmer absorption. This is the first BAL quasar that has signatures of recently truncated star formation, which we estimate ended about 40 Myr ago. The characteristic signatures of an FeLoBAL require high column densities, which could be explained by the emergence of a young quasar from an early, dust-enshrouded phase, or by clouds compressed by a blast wave. The age of the starburst component is comparable to estimates of the lifetime of quasars, so if we assume the quasar activity is related to the truncation of the star formation, this object is better explained by the blast wave scenario.

  3. Sensitivity of the 252Cf(sf) neutron observables to the FREYA input yield functions Y(A, Z, TKE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randrup, Jørgen; Talou, Patrick; Vogt, Ramona

    2017-09-01

    Within the framework of the fission event generator FREYA, we are studying the sensitivity of various neutron observables to the yield distribution Y (A,Z,TKE) used as input to the code. Concentrating on spontaneous fission of 252Cf, we have sampled a large number of different input yield functions based on χ2 fits to the experimental data on Y (A) and Y (TKE|A). For each of these input yield distributions, we then use FREYA to generate a large sample of complete fission events from which we extract a variety of neutron observables, including the multiplicity distribution, the associated correlation coefficients, and its factorial moments, the dependence of the mean neutron multiplicity on the total fragment kinetic energy TKE and on the fragment mass number A, the neutron energy spectrum, and the two-neutron angular correlation function. In this way, we can determine the variation of these observables resulting from the uncertainties in the experimental mesurements. The imposition of a constraint on the resulting mean neutron multiplicity reduces the variation of the calculated neutron observables and provides a means for shrinking the uncertainties associated with the measured data.

  4. Jeffreys's Nursing Universal Retention and Success model: overview and action ideas for optimizing outcomes A-Z.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Marianne R

    2015-03-01

    Nursing student persistence, retention, and success are universally desired outcomes yet remain elusive and challenging worldwide. The aim of this study is to provide nurse educators with an organizing framework and action ideas for optimizing student outcomes. Jeffreys's Nursing Universal Retention and Success (NURS) model presents a globally-applicable framework for examining the multidimensional factors that affect undergraduate and graduate nursing student retention and success in order to make a positive difference. This article presents a brief overview of the empirically-based NURS model and indicates that retention decisions, persistence, and optimal outcomes will be based on the interaction of student profile characteristics, student affective factors, academic factors, environmental factors, academic outcomes, psychological outcomes, outside surrounding factors, and professional integration factors. An A-Z list of action ideas provides nurse educators with a springboard for further developing ideas tailored to individual program and student needs. Recommendations for global collaborative partnerships and networks are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of a Z Pinch X Ray Source for Heating ICF Relevant Hohlraums to 120-160eV

    SciTech Connect

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; OLSON,RICHARD E.; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; NASH,THOMAS J.; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; STRUVE,KENNETH W.; PETERSON,D.L.; BOWERS,R.L.; MATUSKA,W.

    2000-07-10

    A z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60 {+-} 20 KJ of x-rays with a peak power of 13 {+-} 4 TW through a 4-mm diameter axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated NIF (National Ignition Facility)-scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm high) hohlraums to 122 {+-} 6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm diameter by 4-mm high) hohlraums to 155 {+-} 8 eV -- providing environments suitable for indirect-drive ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-hydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm{sup 3} CH{sub 2} fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by {approximately}40% with only a 3--5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  6. Flow over a rounded backward-facing step, using a z-coordinate model and a σ-coordinate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygg, Kristin; Alendal, Guttorm; Haugan, Peter Mosby

    2011-10-01

    Homogeneous, nonrotating flow over a backward-facing rounded step is simulated using the 2D vertical version of two general circulation models, a z-coordinate model—the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm)—and a σ-coordinate model—the Bergen Ocean Model (BOM). The backward-facing step is a well-known testcase since it is geometrically simple but still embodies important flow characteristics such as separation point, reattachment length, and recirculation of the flow. The study compares the core of the two models and uses constant eddy viscosities and diffusivities. The Reynolds numbers ranges from 2·102 to 2·106. The results correspond with previously published results having a relatively stationary separation point and a fluctuating reattachment length due to downslope propagating eddies released from the reattachment zone for Reynolds numbers higher than or equal to 2 · 104. For Reynolds number within the laminar regime, the flow is stationary. The discrepancies between the models increase by enhancing Reynolds numbers. The σ-coordinate model experiences a reduction in eddy sizes with increasing resolution and Reynolds numbers in correspondence with published experiments, while the size of the eddies are independent of the Reynolds number using the MITgcm. Due to mixing generated by the staircase topography, the z-coordinate model gives a better convergence of the separation point and reattachment length compared with the BOM; however, this conclusion might change with the inclusion of a relevant turbulence scheme.

  7. Formation of hot spots in the plasma of a Z-pinch produced from low-density deuterated polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Akunets, A. A.; Anan'ev, S. S.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Bryzgunov, V. A.; Vikhrev, V. V.; Volobuev, I. V.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Zelenin, A. A.; Kazakov, E. D.; Korolev, V. D.; Meshcherov, B. R.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Pimenov, V. G.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Shchagin, V. A.

    2010-08-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the plasma formation dynamics in a Z-pinch produced from a cylindrical microporous agar-agar load. The experiments were performed on the S-300 facility at a current of 2 MA and current rise time of 100 ns. To enhance the energy concentration, a deuterated polyethylene neck with a mass density of 50-75 {mu}g/cm{sup 3} and diameter of 1-2 mm was made in the central part of the load. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the Z-pinch were studied using an optical streak camera and fast frame photography in the optical and soft X-ray spectral ranges. X-ray emission was detected using semiconductor and vacuum diodes, and neutron emission was studied by means of the time-of-flight method. It is found that, in the course of continuous plasma production, hot spots with a diameter of 100 {mu}m form in the pinch plasma. The hot spots emit short soft X-ray pulses with a duration of 2-4 ns, as well as neutron pulses with an average neutron energy of about 2.45 MeV. The maximum neutron yield was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup 9} neutrons per shot. The scenario of hot spot formation is adequately described by two-dimensional MHD simulations.

  8. Maintenance of cell fates through acetylated histone and the histone variant H2A.z in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yukimasa; Nishiwaki, Kiyoji

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of cell fates is essential for the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and involves the preservation of the expression status of selector genes that control many target genes. Epigenetic marks have pivotal roles in the maintenance of gene expression status, as occurs with methylation on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me) for Hox gene regulation. In contrast, because the levels of histone acetylation decrease during the mitotic phase, acetylated histone has not been believed to contribute to the maintenance of cell fates. Because members of the bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) family bind to acetylated histones localized on mitotic chromosomes, it is possible that they may regulate the transcriptional status of genes throughout the cell cycle. In this commentary, we discuss the recent analyses of C. elegans BET family protein BET-1, which contributes to the maintenance of cell fates through the histone H2A variant HTZ-1/H2A.z. This mechanism represses transcription of selector genes in the genomic region where lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) is demethylated by histone demethylase UTX-1. We discuss the possibility that BET-1 and HTZ-1 maintain the poised state of RNA polymerase II in the cell such that it is ready to respond to differentiation signals.

  9. Discovery of a z = 0.65 post-starburst BAL quasar in the DES supernova fields

    DOE PAGES

    Mudd, Dale; Martini, Paul; Tie, Suk Sien; ...

    2017-03-23

    In this paper, we present the discovery of a z = 0.65 low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar in a post-starburst galaxy in data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and spectroscopy from the Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES). LoBAL quasars are a minority of all BALs, and rarer still is that this object also exhibits broad Fe ii (an FeLoBAL) and Balmer absorption. This is the first BAL quasar that has signatures of recently truncated star formation, which we estimate ended about 40 Myr ago. The characteristic signatures of an FeLoBAL require high column densities, which could be explainedmore » by the emergence of a young quasar from an early, dust-enshrouded phase, or by clouds compressed by a blast wave. Finally, the age of the starburst component is comparable to estimates of the lifetime of quasars, so if we assume the quasar activity is related to the truncation of the star formation, this object is better explained by the blast wave scenario.« less

  10. Discovery of a z=0.65 Post-Starburst BAL Quasar in the DES Supernova Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, Dale; et al.

    2016-06-08

    We present the discovery of a z=0.65 low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar in a post-starburst galaxy in data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and spectroscopy from the Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES). LoBAL quasars are a minority of all BALs, and rarer still is that this object also exhibits broad FeII (an FeLoBAL) and Balmer absorption. This is the first BAL quasar that has signatures of recently truncated star formation, which we estimate ended about 40 Myr ago. The characteristic signatures of an FeLoBAL require high column densities, which could be explained by the emergence of a young quasar from an early, dust-enshrouded phase, or by clouds compressed by a blast wave. The age of the starburst component is comparable to estimates of the lifetime of quasars, so if we assume the quasar activity is related to the truncation of the star formation, this object is better explained by the blast wave scenario.

  11. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  12. EJSCREEN Indexes--2015 Intranet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating EJ indexes, which can be used for highlighting places that may be candidates for further review, analysis, or outreach as the agency develops programs, policies and other activities. The tool provides both summary and detailed information at the Census block group level or a user-defined area for both demographic and environmental indicators. The summary information is in the form of EJ Indexes which combine demographic information with a single environmental indicator (such as proximity to traffic) that can help identify communities living in areas with greater potential for environmental and health impacts. The tool also provides additional detailed demographic and environmental information to supplement screening analyses. EJSCREEN displays this information in color-coded maps, bar charts, and standard reports. Users should keep in mind that screening tools are subject to substantial uncertainty in their demographic and environmental data, particularly when looking at small geographic areas, such as Census block groups. Data on the full range of environmental impacts and demographic factors in any given location are almost certainly not available directly through this tool, and its initial results should be supplemented with additional information and local knowledge before making any judgments about poten

  13. PPSITE - A New Method of Site Evaluation for Longleaf Pine: Model Development and User's Guide

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington

    1990-01-01

    A model was developed to predict site index (base age 50 years) for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). The model, named PPSITE, was based on soil characteristics, site location on the landscape, and land history. The model was constrained so that the relationship between site index and each soil-site variable was consistent with what was known...

  14. Comparison of Rapid Arc and Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Plans Using Unified Dosimetry Index and the Impact of Conformity Index on Unified Dosimetry Index Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Jayapalan; Shetty, Jayarama; Rao, Suresh; Hegde, Sanath; Shambhavi, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of conformity index in the unified dosimetry index (UDI) score for two different planning techniques namely intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and Rapid Arc. Rapid Arc and IMRT plans of 57 patients were evaluated and compared using UDI score which incorporates four indices. To determine the impact of conformity index on the IMRT and Rapid Arc plans, UDI at conformity index one of all plan (UDIunit_CI) score was calculated by assuming conformity index is equal to one. Mean and standard deviations of all indices were calculated. Rapid Arc technique plans of different treatment sites of all patients scored lesser UDI than IMRT plans, and the conformity index of Rapid Arc plan was significantly better than IMRT plan. The average dose gradient, homogeneity, coverage, and conformity index of all sites with Rapid Arc plans were 0.212 ± 0.05, 1.123 ± 0.03, 0.959 ± 0.03, and 1.056 ± 0.09; with IMRT plans were 0.190 ± 0.05, 1.113 ± 0.04, 0.950 ± 0.04, and 1.172 ± 0.16, respectively. UDI score value with actual conformity index of Rapid Arc and IMRT plans differed significantly (P < 0.001). However, UDIunit_CI score values with assumed conformity index equal to one did not differ significantly (P = 0.528). In the comparison of IMRT and Rapid Arc plans using the UDI score, the impact of conformity index was significant.

  15. Comparison of Rapid Arc and Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Plans Using Unified Dosimetry Index and the Impact of Conformity Index on Unified Dosimetry Index Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Jayapalan; Shetty, Jayarama; Rao, Suresh; Hegde, Sanath; Shambhavi, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of conformity index in the unified dosimetry index (UDI) score for two different planning techniques namely intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and Rapid Arc. Rapid Arc and IMRT plans of 57 patients were evaluated and compared using UDI score which incorporates four indices. To determine the impact of conformity index on the IMRT and Rapid Arc plans, UDI at conformity index one of all plan (UDIunit_CI) score was calculated by assuming conformity index is equal to one. Mean and standard deviations of all indices were calculated. Rapid Arc technique plans of different treatment sites of all patients scored lesser UDI than IMRT plans, and the conformity index of Rapid Arc plan was significantly better than IMRT plan. The average dose gradient, homogeneity, coverage, and conformity index of all sites with Rapid Arc plans were 0.212 ± 0.05, 1.123 ± 0.03, 0.959 ± 0.03, and 1.056 ± 0.09; with IMRT plans were 0.190 ± 0.05, 1.113 ± 0.04, 0.950 ± 0.04, and 1.172 ± 0.16, respectively. UDI score value with actual conformity index of Rapid Arc and IMRT plans differed significantly (P < 0.001). However, UDIunit_CI score values with assumed conformity index equal to one did not differ significantly (P = 0.528). In the comparison of IMRT and Rapid Arc plans using the UDI score, the impact of conformity index was significant. PMID:28405103

  16. Indexing Depth and Retrieval Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seely, Barbara J.

    1972-01-01

    There are six major studies of the effect of indexing depth on retrieval performance. They differ in purpose, methodology, measures, indexing language, field of study, and data base--nevertheless, all have found depth of indexing to have the same effect upon information retrieval. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  17. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  18. [Ankle brachial index measurement].

    PubMed

    Rucigaj, Tanja Planinsek

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound examinations are noninvasive diagnostic methods which, along with appropriate history and clinical examination, provide basic information on the etiology and spread of the disease, as well as on treatment options required in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and arterial flow impairment. Doppler flow meter offers useful data on venous blood return, primarily in great veins, while both deep and superficial veins as well as arteries can be visualized and data on venous and arterial hemodynamics obtained by duplex ultrasonography. In addition, Doppler flow meter provides data on the peripheral arterial system action through ankle brachial index measurement, which will guide the choice of compression therapy when deciding on the treatment of peripheral arterial disease and mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers. However, diagnosis of arterial insufficiency requires additional examinations.

  19. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  1. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  2. LOFAR VLBI studies at 55 MHz of 4C 43.15, a z = 2.4 radio galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, Leah K.; Deller, Adam T.; Röttgering, Huub; Miley, George; Varenius, Eskil; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Moldón, Javier; Jackson, Neal; Morganti, Raffaella; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Oonk, J. B. R.

    2016-09-01

    The correlation between radio spectral index and redshift has been exploited to discover high-redshift radio galaxies, but its underlying cause is unclear. It is crucial to characterize the particle acceleration and loss mechanisms in high-redshift radio galaxies to understand why their radio spectral indices are steeper than their local counterparts. Low-frequency information on scales of ˜1 arcsec are necessary to determine the internal spectral index variation. In this paper we present the first spatially resolved studies at frequencies below 100 MHz of the z = 2.4 radio galaxy 4C 43.15 which was selected based on its ultrasteep spectral index (α < -1; Sν ˜ να) between 365 MHz and 1.4 GHz. Using the International Low Frequency Array Low Band Antenna we achieve subarcsecond imaging resolution at 55 MHz with very long baseline interferometry techniques. Our study reveals low-frequency radio emission extended along the jet axis, which connects the two lobes. The integrated spectral index for frequencies <500 MHz is -0.83. The lobes have integrated spectral indices of -1.31 ± 0.03 and -1.75 ± 0.01 for frequencies ≥1.4 GHz, implying a break frequency between 500 MHz and 1.4 GHz. These spectral properties are similar to those of local radio galaxies. We conclude that the initially measured ultrasteep spectral index is due to a combination of the steepening spectrum at high frequencies with a break at intermediate frequencies.

  3. 5 CFR 2604.202 - Index identifying information for the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supplements thereto, as provided in 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2). The Office will provide copies of such indexes upon... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index identifying information for the... DISCLOSURE REPORTS FOIA Public Reading Room Facility and Web Site; Index Identifying Information for the...

  4. 5 CFR 2604.202 - Index identifying information for the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supplements thereto, as provided in 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2). The Office will provide copies of such indexes upon... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Index identifying information for the... DISCLOSURE REPORTS FOIA Public Reading Room Facility and Web Site; Index Identifying Information for the...

  5. 5 CFR 2604.202 - Index identifying information for the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supplements thereto, as provided in 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2). The Office will provide copies of such indexes upon... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index identifying information for the... DISCLOSURE REPORTS FOIA Public Reading Room Facility and Web Site; Index Identifying Information for the...

  6. 5 CFR 2604.202 - Index identifying information for the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supplements thereto, as provided in 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2). The Office will provide copies of such indexes upon... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Index identifying information for the... DISCLOSURE REPORTS FOIA Public Reading Room Facility and Web Site; Index Identifying Information for the...

  7. Indexing Aids at Corporate Websites: The Use of Robots.txt and META Tags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drott, M. Carl

    2002-01-01

    This study examine 60 corporate Web sites to see if they provided support for automatic indexing, particularly use of the robots.txt and Meta tags for keywords and description. Discusses the use of Java and cookies and suggests that an increase in indexing aids would improve overall index coverage of the Web. (Author/LRW)

  8. Indexing Aids at Corporate Websites: The Use of Robots.txt and META Tags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drott, M. Carl

    2002-01-01

    This study examine 60 corporate Web sites to see if they provided support for automatic indexing, particularly use of the robots.txt and Meta tags for keywords and description. Discusses the use of Java and cookies and suggests that an increase in indexing aids would improve overall index coverage of the Web. (Author/LRW)

  9. Mineralizable soil nitrogen as an index of nitrogen availability to forest trees

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers

    1980-01-01

    Soil N mineralized during 14-day anaerobic incubation at 30°C is evaluated as an index of forest soil fertility and site productivity. Mineralizable soil N determined under standard conditions correlates significantly with N mineralized anaerobically for 6 months in the field, with site index and yield potential of Pinus ponderosa L....

  10. Measurement of the production cross sections for a Z boson and one or more b jets in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-02-06

    The production of a Z boson, decaying into two leptons and produced in association with one or more b jets, is studied using proton-proton collisions delivered by the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The data were recorded in 2011 with the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb-1. The Z(ℓℓ) + b-jets cross sections (where ℓℓ = μμ or ee) are measured separately for a Z boson produced with exactly one b jet and with at least two b jets. In addition, a cross section ratio is extracted for a Z boson producedmore » with at least one b jet, relative to a Z boson produced with at least one jet. The measured cross sections are compared to various theoretical predictions, and the data favour the predictions in the five-flavour scheme, where b quarks are assumed massless. The kinematic properties of the reconstructed particles are compared with the predictions from the MadGraph event generator using the pythia parton shower simulation.« less

  11. Measurement of the production cross sections for a Z boson and one or more b jets in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-02-06

    The production of a Z boson, decaying into two leptons and produced in association with one or more b jets, is studied using proton-proton collisions delivered by the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The data were recorded in 2011 with the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb-1. The Z(ℓℓ) + b-jets cross sections (where ℓℓ = μμ or ee) are measured separately for a Z boson produced with exactly one b jet and with at least two b jets. In addition, a cross section ratio is extracted for a Z boson produced with at least one b jet, relative to a Z boson produced with at least one jet. The measured cross sections are compared to various theoretical predictions, and the data favour the predictions in the five-flavour scheme, where b quarks are assumed massless. The kinematic properties of the reconstructed particles are compared with the predictions from the MadGraph event generator using the pythia parton shower simulation.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum metacaspase PfMCA-1 triggers a z-VAD-fmk inhibitable protease to promote cell death.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Benoît; Beavogui, Abdoul H; Fasel, Nicolas; Picot, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Activation of proteolytic cell death pathways may circumvent drug resistance in deadly protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania. To this end, it is important to define the cell death pathway(s) in parasites and thus characterize proteases such as metacaspases (MCA), which have been reported to induce cell death in plants and Leishmania parasites. We, therefore, investigated whether the cell death function of MCA is conserved in different protozoan parasite species such as Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania major, focusing on the substrate specificity and functional role in cell survival as compared to Saccharomyces cerevisae. Our results show that, similarly to Leishmania, Plasmodium MCA exhibits a calcium-dependent, arginine-specific protease activity and its expression in yeast induced growth inhibition as well as an 82% increase in cell death under oxidative stress, a situation encountered by parasites during the host or when exposed to drugs such as artemisins. Furthermore, we show that MCA cell death pathways in both Plasmodium and Leishmania, involve a z-VAD-fmk inhibitable protease. Our data provide evidence that MCA from both Leishmania and Plasmodium falciparum is able to induce cell death in stress conditions, where it specifically activates a downstream enzyme as part of a cell death pathway. This enzymatic activity is also induced by the antimalarial drug chloroquine in erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, we found that blocking parasite cell death influences their drug sensitivity, a result which could be used to create therapeutic strategies that by-pass drug resistance mechanisms by acting directly on the innate pathways of protozoan cell death.

  13. Associated production of a quarkonium and a Z boson at one loop in a quark-hadron-duality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansberg, Jean-Philippe; Shao, Hua-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    In view of the large discrepancy about the associated production of a prompt J/ψ and a Z boson between the ATLAS data at √{s}=8 TeV and theoretical predictions for Single Parton Scattering (SPS) contributions, we perform an evaluation of the corresponding cross section at one loop accuracy (Next-to-Leading Order, NLO) in a quark-hadron-duality approach, also known as the Colour-Evaporation Model (CEM). This work is motivated by (i) the extremely disparate predictions based on the existing NRQCD fits conjugated with the absence of a full NLO NRQCD computation and (ii) the fact that we believe that such an evaluation provides a likely upper limit of the SPS cross section. In addition to these theory improvements, we argue that the ATLAS estimation of the Double Parton Scattering (DPS) yield may be underestimated by a factor as large as 3 which then reduces the size of the SPS yield extracted from the ATLAS data. Our NLO SPS evaluation also allows us to set an upper limit on σ eff driving the size of the DPS yield. Overall, the discrepancy between theory and experiment may be smaller than expected, which calls for further analyses by ATLAS and CMS, for which we provide predictions, and for full NLO computations in other models. As an interesting side product of our analysis, we have performed the first NLO computation of dσ /dP T for prompt single- J/ψ production in the CEM from which we have fit the CEM non-pertubative parameter at NLO using the most recent ATLAS data.

  14. The Search for the Higgs Boson and New Resonances Decaying to a Z Boson and a Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Brian

    The Large Hadron Collider collected its first full sets of proton-proton collision data in 2011 and 2012. Using the Compact Muon Solenoid detector, two analyses were per- formed that searched for potential new physics with Z boson plus photon final states. The first analysis is a Higgs boson search, which looks for an enhancement of the recently discovered 125 GeV Higgs boson in the H → Zgamma → ℓℓgamma decay mode. The disintegration of the Higgs to a Z boson and a photon is expected to be at the per mil level, and any enhancement in this decay channel would be indirect evidence of new physics that would contribute to the loop diagrams responsible for the decay. The second analysis is a model independent search that looks for any potential A → Zgamma → ℓℓgamma signal, where A is any new resonance, in the mass range of 200 GeV or higher. The discovery of a signal in this channel would be direct evidence of physics beyond the standard model, and especially relevant for composite Higgs models that predict high sensitivity to the Zgamma decay mode. Both searches employ data driven background estimation methods and optimized event selection to maximum signal sensitivity. The results of the low mass Higgs boson search show agreement with the standard model of particle physics, with expected exclusion limits at about 10 times the standard model, and observed exclusion limits at about 9.5 times the standard model. The results of the A → Zgamma → ℓℓgamma search exclude the presence of this resonance and decay mode in excess of about 1 fb for 200 GeV and higher. The sensitivity of this channel is found to be stronger than all other diboson channels. These results place strong limits on new physics models, and will guide the next generation of searches at the LHC for Run 2.

  15. Searching for evidence of energetic feedback in distant galaxies: a galaxy wide outflow in a z ~ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; McDermid, R.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.

    2010-03-01

    Leading models of galaxy formation require large-scale energetic outflows to regulate the growth of distant galaxies and their central black holes. However, current observational support for this hypothesis at high redshift is mostly limited to rare z > 2 radio galaxies. Here, we present Gemini-North Near-Infrared Field Spectrometer (NIFS) observations of the [OIII]λ5007 emission from a z ~ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG; LIR > 1012Lsolar) with an optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGN). The spatial extent (~4-8 kpc) of the high velocity and broad [OIII] emission is consistent with that found in z > 2 radio galaxies, indicating the presence of a large-scale energetic outflow in a galaxy population potentially orders of magnitude more common than distant radio galaxies. The low radio luminosity of this system indicates that radio-bright jets are unlikely to be responsible for driving the outflow. However, the estimated energy input required to produce the large-scale outflow signatures (of the order of ~1059 erg over ~30 Myr) could be delivered by a wind radiatively driven by the AGN and/or supernovae winds from intense star formation. The energy injection required to drive the outflow is comparable to the estimated binding energy of the galaxy spheroid, suggesting that it can have a significant impact on the evolution of the galaxy. We argue that the outflow observed in this system is likely to be comparatively typical of the high-redshift ULIRG population and discuss the implications of these observations for galaxy formation models.

  16. Subspace-Aware Index Codes

    DOE PAGES

    Kailkhura, Bhavya; Theagarajan, Lakshmi Narasimhan; Varshney, Pramod K.

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, we generalize the well-known index coding problem to exploit the structure in the source-data to improve system throughput. In many applications (e.g., multimedia), the data to be transmitted may lie (or can be well approximated) in a low-dimensional subspace. We exploit this low-dimensional structure of the data using an algebraic framework to solve the index coding problem (referred to as subspace-aware index coding) as opposed to the traditional index coding problem which is subspace-unaware. Also, we propose an efficient algorithm based on the alternating minimization approach to obtain near optimal index codes for both subspace-aware and -unawaremore » cases. In conclusion, our simulations indicate that under certain conditions, a significant throughput gain (about 90%) can be achieved by subspace-aware index codes over conventional subspace-unaware index codes.« less

  17. Solar index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  18. Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential Implications For Chromatin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    González-Romero, Rodrigo; Rivera-Casas, Ciro; Frehlick, Lindsay J.; Méndez, Josefina; Ausió, Juan; Eirín-López, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Histone variants are used by the cell to build specialized nucleosomes, replacing canonical histones and generating functionally specialized chromatin domains. Among many other processes, the specialization imparted by histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) variants to the nucleosome core particle constitutes the earliest response to DNA damage in the cell. Consequently, chromatin-based genotoxicity tests have been developed in those cases where enough information pertaining chromatin structure and dynamics is available (i.e., human and mouse). However, detailed chromatin knowledge is almost absent in most organisms, specially protostome animals. Molluscs (which represent sentinel organisms for the study of pollution) are not an exception to this lack of knowledge. In the present work we first identified the existence of functionally differentiated histone H2A.X and H2A.Z variants in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z), a marine organism widely used in biomonitoring programs. Our results support the functional specialization of these variants based on: a) their active expression in different tissues, as revealed by the isolation of native MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z proteins in gonad and hepatopancreas; b) the evolutionary conservation of different residues encompassing functional relevance; and c) their ability to confer specialization to nucleosomes, as revealed by nucleosome reconstitution experiments using recombinant MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z histones. Given the seminal role of these variants in maintaining genomic integrity and regulating gene expression, their preliminary characterization opens up new potential applications for the future development of chromatin-based genotoxicity tests in pollution biomonitoring programs. PMID:22253857

  19. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  20. The glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Wolever, T M

    1990-01-01

    Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. Methods of processing, and other factors unrelated to the nutrient composition of foods may also have major effects on the glycemic response. The reason for differences in glycemic response appears to relate to the rate at which the foods are digested and the many factors influencing this. The glycemic index (GI) is a system of classification in which the glycemic responses of foods are indexed against a standard (white bread). This allows the results of different investigators to be pooled. GI values also depend upon a number of nonfood-related variables. The method of calculation of the glycemic response area is most important, but the method of blood sampling and length of time of studies also may have effects. Variability of glycemic responses arises from day-to-day variation in the same subject and variation between different subjects. There is less variability between the GI values of different subjects than there is within the same subject from day to day. Therefore, the mean GI values of foods are independent of the glucose tolerance status of the subjects being tested. Potentially clinically useful starchy foods producing relatively flat glycemic responses have been identified, including legumes, pasta, barley, bulgur, parboiled rice and whole grain breads such as pumpernickel. Specific incorporation of these foods into diets have been associated with reduced blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Low-GI foods may influence amino acid metabolism although the implications of these are unknown. In addition, low GI foods increase colonic fermentation. The physiologic and metabolic implications of this relate to increased bacterial urea utilization, and to the production and absorption of short chain fatty acids in the colon. The application of the GI to therapeutic diets should be in the context

  1. 2010 NCCA oligochaete trophic index results to inform benthic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. To assess benthic ecological condition, 393 PONARs were attempted, and collected macroinvertebrates were identified and enumerated. Biological condition at each site was classified as good, fair or poor using the Oligochaete Trophic Index (OTI). The Great Lakes coasts were then classified by calculating percent area within a condition class: good (20.3%), fair (11.6%), and poor (18.0%). Due to unsuccessful PONARs, unclassified oligochaetes or no oligochaetes captured, 50.1% of the sampled area was classified as missing. In order to help focus future discussion and development of a Great Lakes benthic index, OTI results were compared to other traditional biotic integrity indices. In addition, unclassified sites were examined to determine possible methods or metrics that could prevent missing data in a newly developed index. not applicable

  2. 2010 NCCA oligochaete trophic index results to inform benthic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. To assess benthic ecological condition, 393 PONARs were attempted, and collected macroinvertebrates were identified and enumerated. Biological condition at each site was classified as good, fair or poor using the Oligochaete Trophic Index (OTI). The Great Lakes coasts were then classified by calculating percent area within a condition class: good (20.3%), fair (11.6%), and poor (18.0%). Due to unsuccessful PONARs, unclassified oligochaetes or no oligochaetes captured, 50.1% of the sampled area was classified as missing. In order to help focus future discussion and development of a Great Lakes benthic index, OTI results were compared to other traditional biotic integrity indices. In addition, unclassified sites were examined to determine possible methods or metrics that could prevent missing data in a newly developed index. not applicable

  3. How To Succeed in Promoting Your Web Site: The Impact of Search Engine Registration on Retrieval of a World Wide Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunender, Heather; Ervin, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Character strings were planted in a World Wide Web site (Project Whistlestop) to test indexing and retrieval rates of five Web search tools (Lycos, infoseek, AltaVista, Yahoo, Excite). It was found that search tools indexed few of the planted character strings, none indexed the META descriptor tag, and only Excite indexed into the 3rd-4th site…

  4. Beyond body mass index.

    PubMed

    Prentice, A M; Jebb, S A

    2001-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is the cornerstone of the current classification system for obesity and its advantages are widely exploited across disciplines ranging from international surveillance to individual patient assessment. However, like all anthropometric measurements, it is only a surrogate measure of body fatness. Obesity is defined as an excess accumulation of body fat, and it is the amount of this excess fat that correlates with ill-health. We propose therefore that much greater attention should be paid to the development of databases and standards based on the direct measurement of body fat in populations, rather than on surrogate measures. In support of this argument we illustrate a wide range of conditions in which surrogate anthropometric measures (especially BMI) provide misleading information about body fat content. These include: infancy and childhood; ageing; racial differences; athletes; military and civil forces personnel; weight loss with and without exercise; physical training; and special clinical circumstances. We argue that BMI continues to serve well for many purposes, but that the time is now right to initiate a gradual evolution beyond BMI towards standards based on actual measurements of body fat mass.

  5. NASA Uniform Files Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files Index coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  6. Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.

  7. Inter- and intra-annual variations of clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liming; Liu, Jane; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Wang, Rong; Sprintsin, Michael; Zheng, Ting; Ryu, Youngryel; Pisek, Jan; Gonsamo, Alemu; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Clumping index quantifies the level of foliage aggregation, relative to a random distribution, and is a key structural parameter of plant canopies and is widely used in ecological and meteorological models. In this study, the inter- and intra-annual variations in clumping index values, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product, are investigated at six forest sites, including conifer forests, a mixed deciduous forest and an oak-savanna system. We find that the clumping index displays large seasonal variation, particularly for the deciduous sites, with the magnitude in clumping index values at each site comparable on an intra-annual basis, and the seasonality of clumping index well captured after noise removal. For broadleaved and mixed forest sites, minimum clumping index values are usually found during the season when leaf area index is at its maximum. The magnitude of MODIS clumping index is validated by ground data collected from 17 sites. Validation shows that the MODIS clumping index can explain 75% of variance in measured values (bias = 0.03 and rmse = 0.08), although with a narrower amplitude in variation. This study suggests that the MODIS BRDF product has the potential to produce good seasonal trajectories of clumping index values, but with an improved estimation of background reflectance.

  8. The SCUBA-2 cosmology legacy survey: Ultraluminous star-forming galaxies in a z = 1.6 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Simpson, J. M.; Geach, J. E.; Tadaki, K.; Arumugam, V.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Hartley, W.; Almaini, O.; Conselice, C.; Bremer, M. N.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Scott, D.; Simpson, C. J.; Karim, A.; Kodama, T.; and others

    2014-02-10

    We analyze new SCUBA-2 submillimeter and archival SPIRE far-infrared imaging of a z = 1.62 cluster, Cl 0218.3–0510, which lies in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey/Ultra-Deep Survey field of the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. Combining these tracers of obscured star-formation activity with the extensive photometric and spectroscopic information available for this field, we identify 31 far-infrared/submillimeter-detected probable cluster members with bolometric luminosities ≳10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and show that by virtue of their dust content and activity, these represent some of the reddest and brightest galaxies in this structure. We exploit ALMA submillimeter continuum observations, which cover one of these sources, to confirm the identification of a SCUBA-2-detected ultraluminous star-forming galaxy in this structure. Integrating the total star-formation activity in the central region of the structure, we estimate that it is an order of magnitude higher (in a mass-normalized sense) than clusters at z ∼ 0.5-1. However, we also find that the most active cluster members do not reside in the densest regions of the structure, which instead host a population of passive and massive, red galaxies. We suggest that while the passive and active populations have comparable near-infrared luminosities at z = 1.6, M{sub H} ∼ –23, the subsequent stronger fading of the more active galaxies means that they will evolve into passive systems at the present day that are less luminous than the descendants of those galaxies that were already passive at z ∼ 1.6 (M{sub H} ∼ –20.5 and M{sub H} ∼ –21.5, respectively, at z ∼ 0). We conclude that the massive galaxy population in the dense cores of present-day clusters were already in place at z = 1.6 and that in Cl 0218.3–0510 we are seeing continuing infall of less extreme, but still ultraluminous, star-forming galaxies onto a pre-existing structure.

  9. Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  10. Hardware Index to Permutation Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Hardware Index to Permutation Converter J. T. Butler T. Sasao Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Computer Science...generates a permutation in response to an index. Since there are n! n-element permutations , the index ranges from 0 to n! − 1. Such a circuit is needed...in the hardware implementation of unique- permutation hash functions to specify how parallel machines interact through a shared memory. Such a circuit

  11. Nuclear Energy Standards. KWIC index

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The KWIC Index is an alphabetical listing that provides rapid identification of NE standards based upon the specific subject areas. This index facilitates identification of a NE standard by major or key words located in the center of the alphabetical index listing. Alphanumerical designations for specific NE standards are shown in the right-hand column. Standards referenced in this listing include those that are active, inactive, or discontinued.

  12. Web Site Projects Evaluation: A Case Study of Romanian Faculties of Economics Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vultur, Sidonia Otilia; Marincas, Delia Adriana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of web sites regarded like projects is discussed. We give an overview of the Web Assessment Index (WAI), by presenting a web sites of Romanian Faculties of Economics case study. The WAI contains five categories: accessibility, access speed, navigability, content and reliability. We analyzed and presented a detailed…

  13. A survey of the current status of web-based databases indexing Iranian journals.

    PubMed

    Merat, Shahin; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Mesgarpour, Bita; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-05-01

    The scientific output of Iran is increasing rapidly during the recent years. Unfortunately, most papers are published in journals which are not indexed by popular indexing systems and many of them are in Persian without English translation. This makes the results of Iranian scientific research unavailable to other researchers, including Iranians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of current web-based databases indexing scientific articles published in Iran. We identified web-based databases which indexed scientific journals published in Iran using popular search engines. The sites were then subjected to a series of tests to evaluate their coverage, search capabilities, stability, accuracy of information, consistency, accessibility, ease of use, and other features. Results were compared with each other to identify strengths and shortcomings of each site. Five web sites were indentified. None had a complete coverage on scientific Iranian journals. The search capabilities were less than optimal in most sites. English translations of research titles, author names, keywords, and abstracts of Persian-language articles did not follow standards. Some sites did not cover abstracts. Numerous typing errors make searches ineffective and citation indexing unreliable. None of the currently available indexing sites are capable of presenting Iranian research to the international scientific community. The government should intervene by enforcing policies designed to facilitate indexing through a systematic approach. The policies should address Iranian journals, authors, and indexing sites. Iranian journals should be required to provide their indexing data, including references, electronically; authors should provide correct indexing information to journals; and indexing sites should improve their software to meet standards set by the government.

  14. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  15. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  16. Environmental Terminology Index (Permuted Index). Volume 2. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    This Environmental Terminology Index or Thesaurus was developed to help meet the urgent need for world-wide communication on practical as well as basic environmental problems. This working draft of the Index includes terms in the areas of physical sciences, social sciences, earth sciences, biology, and ecology. This edition of the thesaurus…

  17. Semiotics and Indexing: An Analysis of the Subject Indexing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Explains some major problems related to the subject indexing process and proposes semiotics as a framework for understanding the interpretive nature of the process. Explores the approach to studies of indexing and library and information science suggested by Fairthorne, Blair, Benediktsson, and others. Offers an explanation of what occurs in the…

  18. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  19. Semiotics and Indexing: An Analysis of the Subject Indexing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Explains some major problems related to the subject indexing process and proposes semiotics as a framework for understanding the interpretive nature of the process. Explores the approach to studies of indexing and library and information science suggested by Fairthorne, Blair, Benediktsson, and others. Offers an explanation of what occurs in the…

  20. Environmental Terminology Index (Permuted Index). Volume 2. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    This Environmental Terminology Index or Thesaurus was developed to help meet the urgent need for world-wide communication on practical as well as basic environmental problems. This working draft of the Index includes terms in the areas of physical sciences, social sciences, earth sciences, biology, and ecology. This edition of the thesaurus…

  1. Sensitivity optimization of the one beam Z-scan technique and a Z-scan technique immune to nonlinear absorption.

    PubMed

    Dávila Pintle, José A; Lara, Edmundo Reynoso; Iturbe Castillo, Marcelo D

    2013-07-01

    It is presented a criteria for selecting the optimum aperture radius for the one beam Z-scan technique (OBZT), based on the analysis of the transmittance of the aperture. It is also presented a modification to the OBZT by directly measuring the beam radius in the far field with a rotating disk, which allows to determine simultaneously the non-linear absorptive coefficient and non-linear refractive index, much less sensitive to wave front distortions caused by inhomogeneities of the sample with a negligible loss of signal to noise ratio. It is demonstrated its equivalence to the OBZT.

  2. Birthweight for length: ponderal index, body mass index or Benn index?

    PubMed

    Cole, T J; Henson, G L; Tremble, J M; Colley, N V

    1997-01-01

    This study compares how effectively the ponderal index and the body mass index adjust birthweight for length at different gestations, and derives an improved index suitable for all gestations. The study was a cross-sectional survey, in a London teaching hospital, using a total of 999 neonates of 33 weeks gestation or later. Main outcome measures were the ponderal index (birthweight/length3), body mass index (birthweight/length2), and Benn index (birthweight/length(n)), where the length power n varies with gestation and is estimated by log-log regression. Results showed that up to 39 weeks gestation, the ponderal index is uncorrelated with length and so is a good index of birthweight for length. Past 39 weeks gestation, the ponderal index is negatively correlated with length, while the body mass index is uncorrelated, so that the body mass index is better. Neither index is optimal at all gestations. Deriving the Benn index (birthweight/length(n)) for each week of gestation, choosing n to make the index uncorrelated with length, shows that n falls steadily and very significantly (p < 0.0001) with increasing gestation. This in turn means that predicted birthweight for length depends on gestation: for a neonate 48 cm long, predicted birthweight varies from 2485 g at 34 weeks to 3030 g at 43 weeks, a 20% range. However, for a 54 cm long infant, predicted birthweight is the same at all gestations. A Benn index where the value of n changes linearly with gestation is described. We conclude that the ponderal index is not appropriate for measuring intra-uterine malnutrition, as it fails to adjust for length at all gestations. No other index of birthweight/length(n) with constant n is any better, as different gestations require different indices. Birthweight predicted from an infant's length depends on the infant's gestation. If, as Barker proposes, thinness at birth assessed by birthweight for length is used to predict later health status, more account needs to be taken of

  3. An index of ecological integrity for the Mississippi alluvial plain ecoregion: index development and relations to selected landscape variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate community, fish community, water-quality, and habitat data collected from 36 sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregion during 1996-98 by the U.S. Geological Survey were considered for a multimetric test of ecological integrity. Test metrics were correlated to site scores of a Detrended Correspondence Analysis of the fish community (the biological community that was the most statistically significant for indicating ecological conditions in the ecoregion) and six metrics--four fish metrics, one chemical metric (total ammonia plus organic nitrogen) and one physical metric (turbidity)--having the highest correlations were selected for the index. Index results indicate that sites in the northern half of the study unit (in Arkansas and Missouri) were less degraded than sites in the southern half of the study unit (in Louisiana and Mississippi). Of 148 landscape variables evaluated, the percentage of Holocene deposits and cotton insecticide rates had the highest correlations to index of ecological integrity results. sites having the highest (best) index scores had the lowest percentages of Holocene deposits and the lowest cotton insecticide use rates, indicating that factors relating to the amount of Holocene deposits and cotton insecticide use rates partially explain differences in ecological conditions throughout the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregion.

  4. Study of Jets Production Association with a Z boson in pp Collision at 7 and 8 TeV with the CMS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kovitanggoon, Kittitkul

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the measurement of the rapidity distributions in events containing a Z boson and a jet in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of approximately 5 fb-11, recorded by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The measured angular distributions are compared with the predictions from next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations and two generator programs that combine tree-level matrix element calculations with parton showers. We also present a measurement of jet production rates in association with a Z boson using data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV and with an integrated luminosity of 19.8 fb-1. This measurement provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD calculations, and the result is compared with predictions from theoretical calculations.

  5. Measurements of the associated production of a Z boson and b jets in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet originating from a b quark in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV are presented. Differential cross sections are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.8 inverse femtobarns. Z bosons are reconstructed through their decays to electrons and muons. Cross sections are measured as a function of observables characterizing the kinematics of the b jet and the Z boson. Ratios of differential cross sections for the associated production with at least one b jet to the associated production with any jet are also presented. The production of a Z boson with two b jets is investigated, and differential cross sections are measured for the dijet system. Results are compared to theoretical predictions, testing two different flavour schemes for the choice of initial-state partons.

  6. Search for pair production of a new b' quark that decays into a Z boson and a bottom quark with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abouzeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Akiyama, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; 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Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staude, A; Stavina, P; Steele, G; Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stevenson, K; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoerig, K; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Strachota, P; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strang, M; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Strong, J A; Stroynowski, R; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stumer, I; Stupak, J; Sturm, P; Styles, N A; Soh, D A; Su, D; Subramania, Hs; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Suhr, C; Suita, K; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Sushkov, S; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Sviridov, Yu M; Swedish, S; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Szeless, B; Sánchez, J; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tamsett, M C; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, Y; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tappern, G P; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tatarkhanov, M; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teinturier, M; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Thadome, J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thioye, M; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokunaga, K; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, G; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torchiani, I; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trivedi, A; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuggle, J M; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Underwood, D G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Usai, G; Uslenghi, M; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valenta, J; Valente, P; Valentinetti, S; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Poel, E; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vandoni, G; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Vegni, G; Veillet, J J; Vellidis, C; Veloso, F; Veness, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Virchaux, M; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vlasov, N; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobiev, A P; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, J C; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Wendler, S; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Weydert, C; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; Whitaker, S P; White, A; White, M J; White, S; Whitehead, S R; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, C; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wunstorf, R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xie, S; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, G; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ybeles Smit, G V; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Young, C J; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaets, V G; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zanello, L; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeller, M; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zinonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, S; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zieminska, D; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2012-08-17

    A search is reported for the pair production of a new quark b' with at least one b' decaying to a Z boson and a bottom quark. The data, corresponding to 2.0 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, were collected from pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Using events with a b-tagged jet and a Z boson reconstructed from opposite-charge electrons, the mass distribution of large transverse momentum b' candidates is tested for an enhancement. No evidence for a b' signal is detected in the observed mass distribution, resulting in the exclusion at a 95% confidence level of b' quarks with masses m (b') < 400 GeV that decay entirely via b' → Z+b. In the case of a vectorlike singlet b' mixing solely with the third standard model generation, masses m(b') < 358 GeV are excluded.

  7. Podbat: a novel genomic tool reveals Swr1-independent H2A.Z incorporation at gene coding sequences through epigenetic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Laia; Bonilla, Carolina; Strålfors, Annelie; Ekwall, Karl; Svensson, J Peter

    2011-08-01

    Epigenetic regulation consists of a multitude of different modifications that determine active and inactive states of chromatin. Conditions such as cell differentiation or exposure to environmental stress require concerted changes in gene expression. To interpret epigenomics data, a spectrum of different interconnected datasets is needed, ranging from the genome sequence and positions of histones, together with their modifications and variants, to the transcriptional output of genomic regions. Here we present a tool, Podbat (Positioning database and analysis tool), that incorporates data from various sources and allows detailed dissection of the entire range of chromatin modifications simultaneously. Podbat can be used to analyze, visualize, store and share epigenomics data. Among other functions, Podbat allows data-driven determination of genome regions of differential protein occupancy or RNA expression using Hidden Markov Models. Comparisons between datasets are facilitated to enable the study of the comprehensive chromatin modification system simultaneously, irrespective of data-generating technique. Any organism with a sequenced genome can be accommodated. We exemplify the power of Podbat by reanalyzing all to-date published genome-wide data for the histone variant H2A.Z in fission yeast together with other histone marks and also phenotypic response data from several sources. This meta-analysis led to the unexpected finding of H2A.Z incorporation in the coding regions of genes encoding proteins involved in the regulation of meiosis and genotoxic stress responses. This incorporation was partly independent of the H2A.Z-incorporating remodeller Swr1. We verified an Swr1-independent role for H2A.Z following genotoxic stress in vivo. Podbat is open source software freely downloadable from www.podbat.org, distributed under the GNU LGPL license. User manuals, test data and instructions are available at the website, as well as a repository for third party

  8. Organizing, Indexing, and Retrieving Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the literature that examines new capabilities and new problems associated with online catalogs, online searching of bibliographic databases, indexing, full text retrieval, and expert systems. The need for research that focuses on individual needs and that adopts an integrated approach which views indexing and retrieval as interrelated…

  9. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  10. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  11. Linguistic Indexicality in Algebra Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as indexicals assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. Indexical words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…

  12. The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1997-01-01

    Describes early Hebrew citation indexes, both embedded and book-length, and discusses terminological variation, format, precision of locators, the order of index entries and assumption of user knowledge, knowledge of the compilers, and recommendations for further research. (59 references) (LRW)

  13. Estrada index and Chebyshev polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginosar, Yuval; Gutman, Ivan; Mansour, Toufik; Schork, Matthias

    2008-03-01

    Let G be a graph whose eigenvalues are λ1, λ2,…, λn. The Estrada index of G is equal to ∑i=1ne. We point out certain classes of graphs whose characteristic polynomials are closely connected to the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. Various relations, in particular approximations, for the Estrada index of these graphs are obtained.

  14. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  15. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  16. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  17. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  18. 75 FR 75170 - APHIS User Fee Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS User Fee Web Site AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... announces the availability of a Web site that contains information about the Agency's user fees. ADDRESSES: The Agency's user fee Web site is located at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/userfees/index.shtml . FOR...

  19. How To Create a Great Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the index at the back of a book is an important reader service. Discusses how and why to index, and how to make indexes interesting. Outlines programs, such as Filemaker and Adobe, which help the indexing process. (PM)

  20. How To Create a Great Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the index at the back of a book is an important reader service. Discusses how and why to index, and how to make indexes interesting. Outlines programs, such as Filemaker and Adobe, which help the indexing process. (PM)

  1. Proteome analysis of protein partners to nucleosomes containing canonical H2A or the variant histones H2A.Z or H2A.X.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Satoru; Seebart, Corrine; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Prenni, Jessica; Caiafa, Paola; Zlatanova, Jordanka

    2012-01-01

    Although the existence of histone variants has been known for quite some time, only recently are we grasping the breadth and diversity of the cellular processes in which they are involved. Of particular interest are the two variants of histone H2A, H2A.Z and H2A.X because of their roles in regulation of gene expression and in DNA double-strand break repair, respectively. We hypothesize that nucleosomes containing these variants may perform their distinct functions by interacting with different sets of proteins. Here, we present our proteome analysis aimed at identifying protein partners that interact with nucleosomes containing H2A.Z, H2A.X or their canonical H2A counterpart. Our development of a nucleosome-pull down assay and analysis of the recovered nucleosome-interacting proteins by mass spectrometry allowed us to directly compare nuclear partners of these variant-containing nucleosomes to those containing canonical H2A. To our knowledge, our data represent the first systematic analysis of the H2A.Z and H2A.X interactome in the context of nucleosome structure.

  2. Retrospective indexing (RI) - A computer-aided indexing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of a method for data base-updating designated 'computer-aided indexing' (CAI) which has been very efficiently implemented at NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Facility by means of retrospective indexing. Novel terms added to the NASA Thesaurus will therefore proceed directly into both the NASA-RECON aerospace information system and its portion of the ESA-Information Retrieval Service, giving users full access to material thus indexed. If a given term appears in the title of a record, it is given special weight. An illustrative graphic representation of the CAI search strategy is presented.

  3. Oak Forest Composition, Site Quality, and Dynamics in Relation to Site Factors in the Southeastern Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    John M. Kabrick; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen; David R. Larsen; Jennifer K. Grabner

    2004-01-01

    Physical site factors are known to affect forest species composition but the pattern and variation across forest landscapes has not been well quantified. We discuss relationships between site factors including soil parent materials, depth to dolomite bedrock, aspect, and landform position and the distribution of vegetation, site index, and short-term succession in oak...

  4. Source Indexing in Science Journals and Indexing Services: A Survey of Current Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil; Pearson, Karen

    1986-01-01

    Study of state of source indexing (indexing data published simultaneously with articles they represent) examines aspects of 685 science journals: science fields using source indexing; source indexing formats; assignment of indexing terms from controlled vocabularies; suppliers of indexing (authors, editors, indexers); use of source indexing by…

  5. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  6. PTSITE--a new method of site evaluation for loblolly pine: model development and user's guide

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington

    1991-01-01

    A model, named PTSITE, was developed to predict site index for loblolly pine based on soil characteristics, site location on the landscape, and land history. The model was tested with data from several sources and judged to predict site index within + 4 feet (P

  7. SITEQUAL--A User's Guide: Computerized Site Evaluation for 14 Southern Hardwood Species

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; Bettina M. Casson

    1986-01-01

    An interactive computer program, SITEQUAL, has been developed from the widely-used Baker and Broadfoot field guides, which evaluate site quality for 14 southern hardwood tree species. The SITEQUAL program calculates site index for all species simultaneously and provides a breakdown of site index into the component contributions by each of the four major soil factors...

  8. Analysis of active chromatin modifications in early mammalian embryos reveals uncoupling of H2A.Z acetylation and H3K36 trimethylation from embryonic genome activation.

    PubMed

    Bošković, Ana; Bender, Ambre; Gall, Laurence; Ziegler-Birling, Céline; Beaujean, Nathalie; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena

    2012-07-01

    Early embryonic development is characterized by dramatic changes in cell potency and chromatin organization. The role of histone variants in the context of chromatin remodeling during embryogenesis remains under investigated. In particular, the nuclear distribution of the histone variant H2A.Z and its modifications have not been examined. Here we investigated the dynamics of acetylation of H2A.Z and two other active chromatin marks, H3K9ac and H3K36me3, throughout murine and bovine pre-implantation development. We show that H2A.Z distribution is dynamic during the earliest stages of mouse development, with protein levels significantly varying across stages and lowest at the 2-cell stage. When present, H2A.Z localizes preferentially to euchromatin at all stages analyzed. H2A.Z is acetylated in pre-implantation blastomeres and is preferentially localized to euchromatin, in line with the known role of H2A.Zac in transcriptional activation. Interestingly, however, H2A.Zac is undetectable in mouse embryos at the 2-cell stage, the time of major embryonic genome activation (EGA). Similarly, H3K36me3 is present exclusively in the maternal chromatin immediately after fertilization but becomes undetectable in interphase nuclei at the 2-cell stage, suggesting uncoupling of these active marks with global embryonic transcription activation. In bovine embryos, which undergo EGA at the 8-cell stage, H2A.Zac can be detected in zygotes, 4-, 8- and 16-cell stage embryos as well as in blastocysts, indicating that the dynamics of H2A.Zac is not conserved in mammals. In contrast, H3K36me3 displays mostly undetectable and heterogeneous localization pattern throughout bovine pre-implantation development. Thus, our results suggest that 'canonical' active chromatin marks exhibit a dynamic behavior in embryonic nuclei, which is both stage- and species-specific. We hypothesize that chromatin of early embryonic nuclei is subject to fine-tuning through differential acquisition of histone marks

  9. UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIVE MOLDINESS INDEX - ERMI

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compared two binary classification methods to evaluate the mold condition in 271 homes of infants, 144 of which later developed symptoms of respiratory illness. A method using on-site visual mold inspection was compared to another method using a quantitative index of ...

  10. UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIVE MOLDINESS INDEX - ERMI

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compared two binary classification methods to evaluate the mold condition in 271 homes of infants, 144 of which later developed symptoms of respiratory illness. A method using on-site visual mold inspection was compared to another method using a quantitative index of ...

  11. Regional Hospital Input Price Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Schendler, Carol Ellen; Anderson, Gerard

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of regional hospital input price indexes that is consistent with the general methodology used for the National Hospital Input Price Index. The feasibility of developing regional indexes was investigated because individuals inquired whether different regions experienced different rates of increase in hospital input prices. The regional indexes incorporate variations in cost-share weights (the amount an expense category contributes to total spending) associated with hospital type and location, and variations in the rate of input price increases for various regions. We found that between 1972 and 1979 none of the regional price indexes increased at average annual rates significantly different from the national rate. For the more recent period 1977 through 1979, the increase in one Census Region was significantly below the national rate. Further analyses indicated that variations in cost-share weights for various types of hospitals produced no substantial variations in the regional price indexes relative to the national index. We consider these findings preliminary because of limitations in the availability of current, relevant, and reliable data, especially for local area wage rate increases. PMID:10309557

  12. Solar Index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978 with direction from a US Government interoffice agency committee which was headed by the Department of Energy. The purpose was to enhance public awareness of solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80-gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which in addition to solar service hot water systems, has the ability to estimate thermal performance of space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems. It also supplies economic analyses for these solar energy systems. The Index is generated daily for most large metropolitan locations in the country. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time, and a plan for the future are presented. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST Program), and future efforts.

  13. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Fallfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trial, Joan G.; Wade, Charles S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for fallfish (Semotilis corporalis), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater, marine and estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Fallfish habitat.

  15. Relationship Between Palmer's Drought Severity Index and the Moisture Index of Woody Debris in the Southern Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Richard H. Stagg; Allan E. Tiarks

    2004-01-01

    After the 1998 through 2000 drought in Louisiana, some prescribed burns had uncommonly severe fire behavior. A significant portion of the consumed fuels most likely were larger material normally unavailable for burning. Therefore at sites in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, we studied the relationship between Palmer’s Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the drying rate...

  16. Rock index properties for geoengineering in underground development

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, J.E.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the use of index testing to obtain rock properties that are useful in the design and construction planning of an underground development for civil engineering or mining projects. The index properties discussed include: point load; Schmidt hammer hardness; abrasion hardness; and total hardness. The first two index properties correlate to uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and Young's modulus. Discussions are given on empirical, normalized relationships of UCS to rock mass properties and the integrated use with semi-empirical, geotechnical design methods. The hardness property indices correlate to construction performance parameters and some relevant experience is cited. Examples of data are presented from an index testing program carried out primarily on siltstone, sandstone and limestone rock core samples retrieved from depths up to 1005 m (3300 ft) in a borehole drilled in the Paradox Basin in eastern Utah. The borehole coring was done for a nuclear waste repository site investigation.

  17. Spectral Gini Index for Quantifying the Depth of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    You, Kyung-Jin; Noh, Gyu-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    We propose indices that describe the depth of consciousness (DOC) based on electroencephalograms (EEGs) acquired during anesthesia. The spectral Gini index (SpG) is a novel index utilizing the inequality in the powers of the EEG spectral components; a similar index is the binarized spectral Gini index (BSpG), which has low computational complexity. A set of EEG data from 15 subjects was obtained during the induction and recovery periods of general anesthesia with propofol. The efficacy of the indices as indicators of the DOC was demonstrated by examining Spearman's correlation coefficients between the indices and the effect-site concentration of propofol. A higher correlation was observed for SpG and BSpG (0.633 and 0.770, resp., p < 0.001) compared to the conventional indices. These results show that the proposed indices can achieve a reliable quantification of the DOC with simplified calculations. PMID:27840633

  18. Epigenetic regulation of the ribosomal cistron seasonally modulates enrichment of H2A.Z and H2A.Zub in response to different environmental inputs in carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The specific deposition of histone variants into chromatin is an important epigenetic mechanism that contributes to gene regulation through chromatin architectural changes. The histone variant H2A.Z is essential in higher eukaryotes, and its incorporation within chromatin is a relevant process for gene expression and genome stability. However, the dual positive and negative roles of H2A.Z in gene regulation still remain unclear. We previously reported that acclimatization in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) involves cyclical seasonal gene reprogramming as an adaptation response to its natural environment, when rRNA synthesis and processing are profoundly affected. Epigenetic mechanisms primarily contribute to the transcriptional modulation of ribosomal genes concomitant with the acclimatization process, thus significantly regulating this process. The aim of this study was to describe the presence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp, and assess the role of H2A.Z on the ribosomal cistron in summer- and winter-acclimatized carp. Results This paper reports for the first time about the transcriptional expression of four different H2A.Z subtypes belonging to the same organism. Remarkably, a novel H2A.Z.7 was found, which corresponds to a tissue-specific histone subtype that contains seven amino acid residues longer than the canonical H2A.Z. Moreover, H2A.Z enrichment through the ribosomal cistron was significantly higher during summer, when rRNA transcription and processing are highly active, than it was in winter. Similar patterns of H2A.Z enrichment are found in two seasonally active promoters for genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, the L41 and Δ9-desaturase genes. Interestingly, ubiquitylated-H2A.Z (H2A.Zub) was strongly enriched on regulatory regions of the ribosomal cistron in summer-acclimatized carp. Additionally, H2A.Z was present in both heterochromatin and euchromatin states on ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters. Conclusions Our

  19. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  20. Statistical Approaches to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1978-01-01

    Views automatic indexing as a two-tiered word frequency analysis that involves selection of a technical vocabulary and identification of document keywords. Assumptions, criteria, evaluation, and relevance are discussed. (JD)