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Sample records for a0 lamb wave

  1. Harmonic generation of Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ing, Ros Kiri

    2002-11-01

    Lamb waves are dispersive waves that propagate following a number of distinct modes that depend on the values of the central frequency and frequency band. According to such properties and using the time-reversal process, it is shown that the hyperfocusing effect may be experienced [R. K. Ing and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 1032-1043 (1998)]. Such a focusing effect both relates the time recompression of the dispersive Lamb waves and constructive interference on the focus point of the modes involved. The hyperfocusing effect is interesting because it allows the amplitude of the Lamb waves to reach huge values on the focus point. In our experiments, Lamb waves with normal amplitudes of micrometer values have been achieved on the free surface of a Duralumin plate of 3 mm thickness. By analyzing the Lamb waves in the neighborhood of the focus point using the 2-D Fourier transform technique, a nonlinear process of harmonic generation is then observed--the fundamental frequency component is centered at 1.5 MHz. This nonlinear process is under study and quantified.

  2. Lamb wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Paul; Pizzolato, Marco; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Masserey, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. Guided ultrasonic waves offer the potential to efficiently detect micro-cracks in the thin wafers. Previous studies of ultrasonic wave propagation in silicon focused on effects of material anisotropy on bulk ultrasonic waves, but the dependence of the wave propagation characteristics on the material anisotropy is not well understood for Lamb waves. The phase slowness and beam skewing of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes A 0 and S 0 were investigated. Experimental measurements using contact wedge transducer excitation and laser measurement were conducted. Good agreement was found between the theoretically calculated angular dependency of the phase slowness and measurements for different propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation. Significant wave skew and beam widening was observed experimentally due to the anisotropy, especially for the S 0 mode. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted to visualize and quantify the guided wave beam skew. Good agreement was found for the A 0 mode, but a systematic discrepancy was observed for the S 0 mode. These effects need to be considered for the non-destructive testing of wafers using guided waves.

  3. Lamb Wave Tomography for Corrosion Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinders, Mark K.; McKeon, James C. P.

    1999-01-01

    As the world-wide civil aviation fleet continues to age, methods for accurately predicting the presence of structural flaws-such as hidden corrosion-that compromise airworthiness become increasingly necessary. Ultrasonic guided waves, Lamb waves, allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical-waveguide physics. Our work focuses on using a variety of different tomographic reconstruction techniques to graphically represent the Lamb wave data in images that can be easily interpreted by technicians. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, we can convert the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes into a thickness map of the inspection region. In this paper we show results for the identification of single or multiple back-surface corrosion areas in typical aluminum aircraft skin structures.

  4. Lamb waves increase sensitivity in nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Novi, R.

    1967-01-01

    Lamb waves improve sensitivity and resolution in the detection of small defects in thin plates and small diameter, thin-walled tubing. This improvement over shear waves applies to both longitudinal and transverse flaws in the specimens.

  5. Lamb Wave Multitouch Ultrasonic Touchscreen.

    PubMed

    Firouzi, Kamyar; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Carver, Thomas E; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus Pierre T

    2016-12-01

    Touchscreen sensors are widely used in many devices such as smart phones, tablets, and laptops with diverse applications. We present the design, analysis, and implementation of an ultrasonic touchscreen system that utilizes the interaction of transient Lamb waves with objects in contact with the screen. It attempts to improve on the existing ultrasound technologies, with the potential of addressing some of the weaknesses of the dominant technologies, such as the capacitive or resistive ones. Compared with the existing ultrasonic and acoustic modalities, among other advantages, it provides the capability of detecting several simultaneous touch points and also a more robust performance. The localization algorithm, given the hardware design, can detect several touch points with a very limited number of measurements (one or two). This in turn can significantly reduce the manufacturing cost.

  6. Interaction of Lamb Waves with Fatigue Cracks in Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Interaction of Lamb Waves with Fatigue Cracks in Aluminum E. D. SWENSON, C. T. OWENS and C. ALLEN ABSTRACT Elastic waves can travel across...the interaction of Lamb waves with both open and closed low-cycle fatigue cracks in aluminum plates using a three-dimensional laser Doppler vibrometer...and antisymmetric Lamb wave modes differ upon encountering fatigue cracks. INTRODUCTION The use of guided elastic waves (Lamb waves) has shown

  7. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Kobayashi, Naoki; Fukao, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the probable excitation source is atmospheric turbulence in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to thermospheric wave activity.

  8. Symmetry properties of second harmonics generated by antisymmetric Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wujun; Xiang, Yanxun; Liu, Chang-Jun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Symmetry properties of second harmonics generated by antisymmetric primary Lamb waves are systematically studied in this work. In theory, the acoustic field of second harmonic Lamb waves is obtained by using the perturbation approximation and normal modal method, and the energy flux transfer from the primary Lamb waves to second harmonics is mainly explored. Symmetry analyses indicate that either the symmetric or antisymmetric Lamb waves can merely generate the symmetric second harmonics. Finite element simulations are performed on the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation of the antisymmetric A0 mode in the low frequency region. The signals of the second harmonics and the symmetric second harmonic s0 mode are found to be exactly equivalent in the time domain. The relative acoustic nonlinearity parameter A2/A12 oscillates with the propagation distance, and the oscillation amplitude and spatial period are well consistent with the theoretical prediction of the A0-s0 mode pair, which means that only the second harmonic s0 mode is generated by the antisymmetric primary A0 mode. Experiments are further conducted to examine the cumulative generation of symmetric second harmonics for the antisymmetric-symmetric mode pair A3-s6. Results show that A2/A12 increases linearly with the propagation distance, which means that the symmetric second harmonic s6 mode is generated cumulatively by the antisymmetric primary A3 mode. The present investigation systematically corroborates the proposed theory that only symmetric second harmonics can be generated accompanying the propagation of antisymmetric primary Lamb waves in a plate.

  9. Quantitative Evaluation of Delamination in Composites Using Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalcová, L.; Hron, R.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring has become very popular in the area of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures. Any possible type of damage must be reliably assessed. The paper deals with delamination length determination in DCB specimens using Lamb waves. An analytical equation based on the velocity dependence on variable thickness is utilized. The group velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric A0 mode rapidly changes in a particular range of the frequency-thickness product. Using the same actuation frequency the propagation velocity is different for delaminated structure. Lamb wave based delamination lengths were compared to the visually determined lengths. The method of the wave velocity determination proved to be essential. More accurate results were achieved by tracking the maximum amplitude of A0 mode than the first signal arrival. These findings are considered as the basis for the damage evaluation of complex structures.

  10. Lamb Wave Response of Fatigued Composite Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, William H.; Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials are being more widely used today by aerospace, automotive, sports equipment, and a number of other commercial industries because of their advantages over conventional metals. Composites have a high strength-to-weight ratio and can be constructed to meet specific design needs. Composite structures are already in use in secondary parts of the Douglas MD-11 and are planned to be used in the new MD-12X. Plans also exist for their use in primary and secondary structures on the Boeing 777. Douglas proposed MD-XX may also incorporate composite materials into primary structures such as the wings and tail. Use of composites in these structures offers weight savings, corrosion resistance, and improved aerodynamics. Additionally, composites have been used to repair cracks in many B-1Bs where traditional repair techniques were not very effective. Plans have also been made to reinforce all of the remaining B-1s with composite materials. Verification of the structural integrity of composite components is needed to insure safe operation of these aerospace vehicles. One aspect of the use of these composites is their response to fatigue. To track this progression of fatigue in aerospace structures, a convenient method to nondestructively monitor this damage needs to be developed. Traditional NDE techniques used on metals are not easily adaptable to composites due to the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of these materials. Finding an effective means of nondestructively monitoring fatigue damage is extremely important to the safety and reliability of such structures. Lamb waves offer one method of evaluating these composite materials. As a material is fatigued, the modulus degrades. Since the Lamb wave velocity can be related to the modulus of the material, an effective tool can be developed to monitor fatigue damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. In this work, preliminary studies have been conducted which monitor fatigue damage in

  11. Crack Detection with Lamb Wave Wavenumber Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Rogge, Matt; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave crack detection using wavenumber analysis. The aim is to demonstrate the application of wavenumber analysis to 3D Lamb wave data to enable damage detection. The 3D wavefields (including vx, vy and vz components) in time-space domain contain a wealth of information regarding the propagating waves in a damaged plate. For crack detection, three wavenumber analysis techniques are used: (i) two dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) which can transform the time-space wavefield into frequency-wavenumber representation while losing the spatial information; (ii) short space 2D-FT which can obtain the frequency-wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space-frequency-wavenumber representation; (iii) local wavenumber analysis which can provide the distribution of the effective wavenumbers at different locations. All of these concepts are demonstrated through a numerical simulation example of an aluminum plate with a crack. The 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) was used to obtain the 3D wavefields, of which the vz (out-of-plane) wave component is compared with the experimental measurement obtained from a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for verification purposes. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The application of wavenumber analysis on 3D EFIT simulation data shows the effectiveness of the analysis for crack detection. Keywords: : Lamb wave, crack detection, wavenumber analysis, EFIT modeling

  12. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  13. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  14. Demonstration of Shear Waves, Lamb Waves, and Rayleigh Waves by Mode Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Introduces an experiment that can be demonstrated in the classroom to show that shear waves, Rayleigh waves, and Lamb waves can be easily generated and observed by means of mode conversion. (Author/CS)

  15. Topological valley-chiral edge states of Lamb waves in elastic thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Mei, Jun

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the nontrivial topology of the band structure of Lamb waves in a thin phononic crystal plate. When inversion symmetry is broken, a valley pseudospin degree of freedom is formed around K and K‧ valleys for the A0 Lamb mode, which is decoupled from the S0 and SH0 modes in the low-frequency regime. Chiral edge states are explicitly demonstrated, which are immune to defects and exhibit unidirectional transport behaviors when intervalley scattering is weak. The quantum valley Hall effect is thus simulated in a simple way in the context of Lamb waves.

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of Lamb wave propagation behavior in composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwon; Uprety, Bibhisha; Mathews, V. John; Adams, Daniel O.

    2015-03-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on Acoustic Emission (AE) is dependent on both the sensors to detect an impact event as well as an algorithm to determine the impact location. The propagation of Lamb waves produced by an impact event in thin composite structures is affected by several unique aspects including material anisotropy, ply orientations, and geometric discontinuities within the structure. The development of accurate numerical models of Lamb wave propagation has important benefits towards the development of AE-based SHM systems for impact location estimation. Currently, many impact location algorithms utilize the time of arrival or velocities of Lamb waves. Therefore the numerical prediction of characteristic wave velocities is of great interest. Additionally, the propagation of the initial symmetric (S0) and asymmetric (A0) wave modes is important, as these wave modes are used for time of arrival estimation. In this investigation, finite element analyses were performed to investigate aspects of Lamb wave propagation in composite plates with active signal excitation. A comparative evaluation of two three-dimensional modeling approaches was performed, with emphasis placed on the propagation and velocity of both the S0 and A0 wave modes. Results from numerical simulations are compared to experimental results obtained from active AE testing. Of particular interest is the directional dependence of Lamb waves in quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy composite plates. Numerical and experimental results suggest that although a quasi-isotropic composite plate may have the same effective elastic modulus in all in-plane directions, the Lamb wave velocity may have some directional dependence. Further numerical analyses were performed to investigate Lamb wave propagation associated with circular cutouts in composite plates.

  17. The Simple Lamb Wave Analysis to Characterize Concrete Wide Beams by the Practical MASW Test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hak; Oh, Taekeun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Lamb wave analysis by the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) for concrete structures has been an effective nondestructive evaluation, such as the condition assessment and dimension identification by the elastic wave velocities and their reflections from boundaries. This study proposes an effective Lamb wave analysis by the practical application of MASW to concrete wide beams in an easy and simple manner in order to identify the dimension and elastic wave velocity (R-wave) for the condition assessment (e.g., the estimation of elastic properties). This is done by identifying the zero-order antisymmetric (A0) and first-order symmetric (S1) modes among multimodal Lamb waves. The MASW data were collected on eight concrete wide beams and compared to the actual depth and to the pressure (P-) wave velocities collected for the same specimen. Information is extracted from multimodal Lamb wave dispersion curves to obtain the elastic stiffness parameters and the thickness of the concrete structures. Due to the simple and cost-effective procedure associated with the MASW processing technique, the characteristics of several fundamental modes in the experimental Lamb wave dispersion curves could be measured. Available reference data are in good agreement with the parameters that were determined by our analysis scheme. PMID:28773562

  18. Temperature effects in ultrasonic Lamb wave structural health monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Salamone, Salvatore

    2008-07-01

    There is a need to better understand the effect of temperature changes on the response of ultrasonic guided-wave pitch-catch systems used for structural health monitoring. A model is proposed to account for all relevant temperature-dependent parameters of a pitch-catch system on an isotropic plate, including the actuator-plate and plate-sensor interactions through shear-lag behavior, the piezoelectric and dielectric permittivity properties of the transducers, and the Lamb wave dispersion properties of the substrate plate. The model is used to predict the S(0) and A(0) response spectra in aluminum plates for the temperature range of -40-+60 degrees C, which accounts for normal aircraft operations. The transducers examined are monolithic PZT-5A [PZT denotes Pb(Zr-Ti)O3] patches and flexible macrofiber composite type P1 patches. The study shows substantial changes in Lamb wave amplitude response caused solely by temperature excursions. It is also shown that, for the transducers considered, the response amplitude changes follow two opposite trends below and above ambient temperature (20 degrees C), respectively. These results can provide a basis for the compensation of temperature effects in guided-wave damage detection systems.

  19. Using Ultrasonic Lamb Waves To Measure Moduli Of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of broad-band ultrasonic Lamb waves in plate specimens of ceramic-matrix/fiber and metal-matrix/fiber composite materials used to determine moduli of elasticity of materials. In one class of potential applications of concept, Lamb-wave responses of specimens measured and analyzed at various stages of thermal and/or mechanical processing to determine effects of processing, without having to dissect specimens. In another class, structural components having shapes supporting propagation of Lamb waves monitored ultrasonically to identify signs of deterioration and impending failure.

  20. Lamb wave propagation in Z-pin reinforced co-cured composite pi-joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Eric D.; Soni, Som R.; Kapoor, Hitesh

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an initial study on Lamb wave propagation characteristics in z-pin reinforced, co-cured composite pi-joints for the purposes of structural health monitoring (SHM). Pi-joint test articles were designed and created to replicate a co-cured, all composite skin-spar joint found within a typical aircraft wing structure. Because pi-joints exhibit various complex damage modes, formal studies are required if SHM systems are to be developed to monitor these types of joints for potential damage. Experiments were conducted on a undamaged (healthy) and damaged test articles where Lamb waves were excited using one lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer. A three-dimensional (3D) scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was used to collect high-density scans of both the in-plane and out-of-plane velocity measurements. In the damaged test article, where delamination, matrix cracking, and fiber breakage can clearly be seen, changes in both the fundamental antisymmetric A0 and symmetric S0 Lamb wave modes are apparent. In both test articles, the effects of narrow geometry, discontinuity due to the attachment of the web, and thickness has detectable effects on Lamb wave propagation. From the comparisons between Lamb waves propagating through the undamaged and damaged test articles, it is clear that damage can be detected using Lamb waves in z-pin reinforced, co-cured composite pi-joints for this case of extensive damage.

  1. Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring on Composite Bolted Joints under Tensile Load

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Xiang, Yanxun; Li, Dan; Zhu, Wujun; Tang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jichao; Yang, Kang; Luo, Chengqiang

    2017-01-01

    Online and offline monitoring of composite bolted joints under tensile load were investigated using piezoelectric transducers. The relationships between Lamb wave signals, pre-tightening force, the applied tensile load, as well as the failure modes were investigated. Results indicated that S0/A0 wave amplitudes decrease with the increasing of load. Relationships between damage features and S0/A0 mode were built based on the finite element (FE) simulation and experimental results. The possibility of application of Lamb wave-based structure health monitoring in bolted joint-like composite structures was thus achieved. PMID:28773014

  2. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fatigue and Thermal Damage in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of evaluating composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a structure, an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb wave measurements can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper describes two studies which monitor fatigue damage and two studies which monitor thermal damage in composites using Lamb waves. In the fatigue studies, the Lamb wave velocity is compared to modulus measurements obtained using strain gage measurements in the first experiment and the velocity is monitored along with the crack density in the second. In the thermal damage studies, one examines samples which were exposed to varying temperatures for a three minute duration and the second includes rapid thermal damage in composites by intense laser beams. In all studies, the Lamb wave velocity is demonstrated to be an excellent method to monitor damage in composites.

  3. The numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jingming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhou, Qingxiang; Han, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In order to explore the Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel, the numerical simulation is used to show the feature of Lamb wave. In this paper, according to Lamb dispersion equation, excites the Lamb wave on the edge of thin stainless steel plate, and presents the reflection coefficient for quantizing the Lamb wave energy, the results show that the reflection coefficient is increased with the welding width increasing,

  4. Nondestructive testing of CFRP plates by Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsushima, Satoshi; Fukiage, Norio; Ono, Masao

    1993-03-01

    Nondestructive testing based on low frequency Lamb waves was used to analyze the thickness of plates, the delamination, the fiber contents, and the wave velocities in composite laminates. The thickness of plates was predicted and the delamination was detected using the relationship between the phase velocities of Lamb waves and the product of frequency and plate thickness. The fiber content was predicted from the stationary waves, and the wave velocity propagating at an angle to the fiber direction was calculated using the Young's modulus.

  5. Investigating the thermally induced acoustoelastic effect in isotropic media with Lamb waves

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Jacob C.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Elastic wave velocities in metallic structures are affected by variations in environmental conditions such as changing temperature. This paper extends the theory of acoustoelasticity by allowing thermally induced strains in unconstrained isotropic media, and it experimentally examines the velocity variation of Lamb waves in aluminum plates (AL-6061) due to isothermal temperature deviations. This paper presents both thermally induced acoustoelastic constants and thermally varying effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio which include the third order elastic material constants. The experimental thermal sensitivity of the phase velocity (∂vP/∂θ) for both the symmetric and antisymmetric modes are bounded by two theories, the acoustoelastic Lamb wave theory with thermo-acoustoelastic tensors and the thermoelastic Lamb wave theory using an effective thermo-acoustoelastic moduli. This paper shows the theoretical thermally induced acoustoelastic Lamb wave thermal sensitivity (∂vP/∂θ) is an upper bound approximation of the experimental thermal changes, but the acoustoelastic Lamb wave theory is not valid for predicting the antisymmetric (A0) phase velocity at low frequency-thickness values, <1.55 MHz mm for various temperatures. PMID:25373955

  6. Second harmonic generation at fatigue cracks by low-frequency Lamb waves: Experimental and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Ng, Ching-Tai; Kotousov, Andrei; Sohn, Hoon; Lim, Hyung Jin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical analyses of the second harmonic generation due to non-linear interaction of Lamb waves with a fatigue crack. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) simulations and experimental studies are carried out to provide physical insight into the mechanism of second harmonic generation. The results demonstrate that the 3D FE simulations can provide a reasonable prediction on the second harmonic generated due to the contact nonlinearity at the fatigue crack. The effect of the wave modes on the second harmonic generation is also investigated in detail. It is found that the magnitude of the second harmonic induced by the interaction of the fundamental symmetric mode (S0) of Lamb wave with the fatigue crack is much higher than that by the fundamental anti-symmetric mode (A0) of Lamb wave. In addition, a series of parametric studies using 3D FE simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the fatigue crack length to incident wave wavelength ratio, and the influence of the excitation frequency on the second harmonic generation. The outcomes show that the magnitude and directivity pattern of the generated second harmonic depend on the fatigue crack length to incident wave wavelength ratio as well as the ratio of S0 to A0 incident Lamb wave amplitude. In summary, the findings of this study can further advance the use of second harmonic generation in damage detection.

  7. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  8. Lamb-Wave-Based Tomographic Imaging Techniques for Hole-Edge Corrosion Monitoring in Plate Structures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dengjiang; Zhang, Weifang; Wang, Xiangyu; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a novel monitoring method for hole-edge corrosion damage in plate structures based on Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques. An experimental procedure with a cross-hole layout using 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) was designed. The A0 mode of the Lamb wave was selected, which is sensitive to thickness-loss damage. The iterative algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method was used to locate and quantify the corrosion damage at the edge of the hole. Hydrofluoric acid with a concentration of 20% was used to corrode the specimen artificially. To estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the real corrosion damage was compared with the predicted corrosion damage based on the tomographic method. The results show that the Lamb-wave-based tomographic method can be used to monitor the hole-edge corrosion damage accurately. PMID:28774041

  9. Quantitative damage imaging using Lamb wave diffraction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Yan; Ruan, Min; Zhu, Wen-Fa; Chai, Xiao-Dong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the diffraction tomography for quantitative imaging damages of partly through-thickness holes with various shapes in isotropic plates by using converted and non-converted scattered Lamb waves generated numerically. Finite element simulations are carried out to provide the scattered wave data. The validity of the finite element model is confirmed by the comparison of scattering directivity pattern (SDP) of circle blind hole damage between the finite element simulations and the analytical results. The imaging method is based on a theoretical relation between the one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform of the scattered projection and two-dimensional (2D) spatial Fourier transform of the scattering object. A quantitative image of the damage is obtained by carrying out the 2D inverse Fourier transform of the scattering object. The proposed approach employs a circle transducer network containing forward and backward projections, which lead to so-called transmission mode (TMDT) and reflection mode diffraction tomography (RMDT), respectively. The reconstructed results of the two projections for a non-converted S0 scattered mode are investigated to illuminate the influence of the scattering field data. The results show that Lamb wave diffraction tomography using the combination of TMDT and RMDT improves the imaging effect compared with by using only the TMDT or RMDT. The scattered data of the converted A0 mode are also used to assess the performance of the diffraction tomography method. It is found that the circle and elliptical shaped damages can still be reasonably identified from the reconstructed images while the reconstructed results of other complex shaped damages like crisscross rectangles and racecourse are relatively poor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474195, 11274226, 11674214, and 51478258).

  10. Adhesive joint evaluation by ultrasonic interface and lamb waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokhlin, S. I.

    1986-01-01

    Some results on the application of interface and Lamb waves for the study of curing of thin adhesive layers were summarized. In the case of thick substrates (thickness much more than the wave length) the interface waves can be used. In this case the experimental data can be inverted and the shear modulus of the adhesive film may be explicitly found based on the measured interface wave velocity. It is shown that interface waves can be used for the study of curing of structural adhesives as a function of different temperatures and other experimental conditions. The kinetics of curing was studied. In the case of thin substrates the wave phenomena are much more complicated. It is shown that for successful measurements proper selection of experimental conditions is very important. This can be done based on theoretical estimations. For correctly selected experimental conditions the Lamb waves may be a sensitive probe of adhesive bond quality and may be used or cure monitoring.

  11. Re-radiation of acoustic waves from the A0 wave on a submerged elastic shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahyi, A. C.; Cao, Hui; Raju, P. K.; Überall, Herbert

    2005-07-01

    We consider evacuated thin semi-infinite shells immersed in a fluid, which may be either of cylindrical shape with a hemispherical shell endcap, or formed two-dimensionally by semi-infinite parallel plates joined together by a semi-cylinder. The connected shell portions are joined in a manner to satisfy continuity but with a discontinuous radius of curvature. Acoustic waves are considered incident along the axis of symmetry (say the z axis) onto the curved portion of the shell, where they, at the critical angle of coincidence, generate Lamb and Stoneley-type waves in the shell. Computations were carried out using a code developed by Cao et al. [Chinese J. Acoust. 14, 317 (1995)] and was used in order to computationally visualize the waves in the fluid that have been re-radiated by the shell waves a the critical angle. The frequency range was below that of the lowest Lamb wave, and only the A0 wave (and partly the S0 wave) was observed to re-radiate into the fluid under our assumptions. The results will be compared to experimental results in which the re-radiated waves are optically visualized by the Schardin-Cranz schlieren method. .

  12. Higher order acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation in stressed plates.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ning; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-11-01

    Modeling and experiments are used to investigate Lamb wave propagation in the direction perpendicular to an applied stress. Sensitivity, in terms of changes in velocity, for both symmetrical and anti-symmetrical modes was determined. Codes were developed based on analytical expressions for waves in loaded plates and they were used to give wave dispersion curves. The experimental system used a pair of compression wave transducers on variable angle wedges, with set separation, and variable frequency tone burst excitation, on an aluminum plate 0.16 cm thick with uniaxial applied loads. The loads, which were up to 600 με, were measured using strain gages. Model results and experimental data are in good agreement. It was found that the change in Lamb wave velocity, due to the acoustoelastic effect, for the S 1 mode exhibits about ten times more sensitive, in terms of velocity change, than the traditional bulk wave measurements, and those performed using the fundamental Lamb modes. The data presented demonstrate the potential for the use of higher order Lamb modes for online industrial stress measurement in plate, and that the higher sensitivity seen offers potential for improved measurement systems.

  13. Defect Detection on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (cfrp) with Laser Generated Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, O.; Huke, P.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2011-06-01

    Standard ultrasound methods using a phased-array or a single transducer are commonly used for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) parts and certificated testing schemes were developed for individual parts and geometries. However, most testing methods need direct contact, matching gels and remain therefore time consuming. Laser-Ultrasonics is advantageous due to the contactless measurement technology and high accessibility even on complex parts. Despite the non-destructive testing with body waves, we show that the NDE can be expanded using two-dimensional surface (Lamb) waves for detection of delaminations close to the surface or small deteriorations caused by e.g. impacts. Lamb waves have been excited with a single transducer and with a short-pulse Laser with additionally producing A0-and S0-Lamb waves. The waves were detected with a shearography setup that allows for measuring two-dimensionally the displacement of a surface. Short integration times of the camera were realized using a pulsed ruby laser for illumination. As a consequence to the anisotropy the propagation in different directions exhibits individual characteristics like amplitude, damping and velocity. This has motivated to build up models for the propagation of Lamb waves and to compare them with experimental results.

  14. Propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Il; Yoon, Suk Wang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro. The time-reversed Lamb waves were successfully launched at 200 kHz in 18 bovine tibiae through a time reversal process of Lamb waves. The group velocities of the time-reversed Lamb waves in the bovine tibiae were measured using the axial transmission technique. They showed a significant correlation with the cortical thickness and tended to follow the theoretical group velocity of the lowest order antisymmetrical Lamb wave fairly well, consistent with the behavior of the slow guided wave in long cortical bones.

  15. Excitation of plane Lamb wave in plate-like structures under applied surface loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kai; Xu, Xinsheng; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Zhengyan; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Wu, Zhanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lamb waves play an important role in structure health monitoring (SHM) systems. The excitation of Lamb waves has been discussed for a long time with absorbing results. However, little effort has been made towards the precise characterization of Lamb wave excitation by various transducer models with mathematical foundation. In this paper, the excitation of plane Lamb waves with plane strain assumption in isotropic plate structures under applied surface loading is solved with the Hamiltonian system. The response of the Lamb modes excited by applied loading is expressed analytically. The effect of applied loading is divided into the product of two parts as the effect of direction and the effect of distribution, which can be changed by selecting different types of transducer and the corresponding transducer configurations. The direction of loading determines the corresponding displacement of each mode. The effect of applied loading on the in-plane and normal directions depends on the in-plane and normal displacements at the surface respectively. The effect of the surface loading distribution on the Lamb mode amplitudes is mainly reflected by amplitude versus frequency or wavenumber. The frequencies at which the maxima and minima of the S0 or A0 mode response occur depend on the distribution of surface loading. The numerical results of simulations conducted on an infinite aluminum plate verify the theoretical prediction of not only the direction but also the distribution of applied loading. A pure S0 or A0 mode can be excited by selecting the appropriate direction and distribution at the corresponding frequency.

  16. Experimental study of the acoustoelastic Lamb wave in thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ning; Bond, Leonard J.

    2016-02-01

    Many factors can cause residual stresses in industry, like rolling, welding and coating. Residual stresses can have both benefits and shortcomings on components, so it is important to find the residual stresses out and enhance its benefits part and get rid of its harmful part. There are many methods for residual stresses detection and ultrasonic method turns out to be a good one for it is nondestructive, relative cheap and portable. The critically refracted longitudinal (LCR) wave is widely used for it is regarded most sensitive to stress and less sensitive to texture which can influence detection results. Ultrasonic methods for residual stresses detection are based on time of flight (TOF) measurement, but because the measurement should reach nanosecond to show stress change, there are many other factors that can influence TOF, like temperature, texture of the components and even the thickness of the couplant. So increasing the TOF's sensitivity to stress is very important. In this paper the relationships between velocity and frequency are studied experimentally[6] for different Lamb modes, under various stress loadings. The result shows that the sensitivity of different modes various a lot, the A1 mode is the most sensitivity, compared to S0, S1 and A0 modes; if the force is added to 100 MPa, the change stress of A1 mode can be as large to 80 m/s, which is about 10 times more sensitive than the traditional bulk wave. This makes it as a good choice for residual stress detection.

  17. Damage detection in composite materials using Lamb wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Soutis, Constantinos

    2002-04-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in situ damage detection of composite materials. Experimental results are presented for the application of Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy test specimens containing representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes. Linear wave scans were performed on narrow laminated specimens and sandwich beams with various cores by monitoring the transmitted waves with piezoceramic sensors. Optimal actuator and sensor configurations were devised through experimentation, and various types of driving signal were explored. These experiments provided a procedure capable of easily and accurately determining the time of flight of a Lamb wave pulse between an actuator and sensor. Lamb wave techniques provide more information about damage presence and severity than previously tested methods (frequency response techniques), and provide the possibility of determining damage location due to their local response nature. These methods may prove suitable for structural health monitoring applications since they travel long distances and can be applied with conformable piezoelectric actuators and sensors that require little power.

  18. Conversion of evanescent Lamb waves into propagating waves via a narrow aperture edge.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a quantitative study of conversion of evanescent Lamb waves into propagating in isotropic plates. The conversion is substantiated by prescribing time-harmonic Lamb displacements/tractions through a narrow aperture at an edge of a semi-infinite plate. Complex-valued dispersion and group velocity curves are employed to characterize the conversion process. The amplitude coefficient of the propagating Lamb modes converted from evanescent is quantified based on the complex reciprocity theorem via a finite element analysis. The power flow generated into the plate can be separated into radiative and reactive parts made on the basis of propagating and evanescent Lamb waves, where propagating Lamb waves are theoretically proved to radiate pure real power flow, and evanescent Lamb waves carry reactive pure imaginary power flow. The propagating power conversion efficiency is then defined to quantitatively describe the conversion. The conversion efficiency is strongly frequency dependent and can be significant. With the converted propagating waves from evanescent, sensors at far-field can recapture some localized damage information that is generally possessed in evanescent waves and may have potential application in structural health monitoring.

  19. Delamination detection in smart composite beams using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Kim-Ho; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on using Lamb waves to detect and locate through-width delamination in fiber-reinforced plastic beams. An active diagnostic system is proposed for clamped-free specimens. It consists of a piezoelectric patch and an accelerometer both mounted near the support. Such a system can locate damage in an absolute sense, that is, a priori knowledge on the response from pristine specimens is not required. The fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb wave mode is chosen as the diagnostic wave. It is generated by applying a voltage in the form of sinusoidal bursts to the piezoelectric patch. The proposed system was applied to locate delaminations in some fabricated Kevlar/epoxy beam specimens. With an appropriate actuating frequency, distortions of waveforms due to boundary reflections can be reduced. Based on their arrival times and the known propagating speed of Lamb waves, the delaminations can be located. The errors associated with the predicted damage positions range from 4.5% to 8.5%.

  20. Fatigue disbonding analysis of wide composite panels by means of Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalcová, Lenka; Rechcígel, Lukáš; Bělský, Petr; Kucharský, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Guided wave-based monitoring of composite structures plays an important role in the area of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures. Adhesively bonded joints have not yet fulfilled current airworthiness requirements; hence, assemblies of carbon fibre-reinforced parts still require mechanical fasteners, and a verified SHM method with reliable disbonding/delamination detection and propagation assessment is needed. This study investigated the disbonding/delamination propagation in adhesively bonded panels using Lamb waves during fatigue tests. Analyses focused on the proper frequency and mode selection, sensor placement and selection of parameter sensitive to the growth of disbonding areas. Piezoelectric transducers placed across the bonded area were used as actuators and sensors. Lamb wave propagation was investigated considering the actual shape of the crack front and the mode of the crack propagation. The actual cracked area was determined by ultrasonic A-scans. A correlation between the crack propagation rate and the A0 mode velocity was found.

  1. Low-cost ultrasonic lamb-wave transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    Transducer propagates Lamb wave through thin aluminum sheet material. Model includes two elements that measure effects of damping and loading which, in turn, are indirectly equated to bond integrity. Transducer has been used to evaluate bond integrity of aluminum facing adhesively bonded to aluminum facing. Because of versatility, it is now possible to inspect many objects of different configurations that could not be reached with earlier transducers.

  2. Lamb Waves Decomposition and Mode Identification Using Matching Pursuit Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Wigner - Ville distribution ( WVD ). However, WVD suffers from severe interferences, called cross-terms. Cross- terms are the area of a time-frequency...transform (STFT), wavelet transform, Wigner - Ville distribution , matching pursuit decomposition, etc. 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...MP decomposition using chirplet dictionary was applied to a simulated S0 mode Lamb wave shown previously in Figure 2a. Wigner - Ville distribution of

  3. Acoustoelastic Lamb Wave Propagation in Biaxially Stressed Plates (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2012...Journal Article 1 March 2012 – 1 March 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ACOUSTOELASTIC LAMB WAVE PROPAGATION IN BIAXIALLY STRESSED PLATES (PREPRINT

  4. Temperature Compensation of Aluminum Nitride Lamb Wave Resonators Utilizing the Lowest-Order Symmetric Mode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    PZT ceramic plate [40]. Since then Lamb wave devices utilizing the lowest-order antisymmetric (A0) mode propagation in ZnO thin plate were widely...Million Pt Platinum PVDF Polyvinylidene Flouride PZT Lead Zirconium Titanate Q Quality Factor R Resistor RIE Reactive Ion Etching Rm Motional...GaAs), silicon carbide (SiC), langasite (LGS), lead zirconium titanate ( PZT ), and polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF). Each piezoelectric material has

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Datta, Subhendu K.; Ju, T. H.

    1990-01-01

    Many space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom, contain critical thin-walled components. The structural integrity of thin-walled plates and shells can be monitored effectively using acoustic emission and ultrasonic testing in the Rayleigh-Lamb wave frequency range. A new PVDF piezoelectric sensor has been developed that is well suited to remote, inservice nondestructive evaluation of space structures. In the present study the new sensor was used to investigate Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation in a plate. The experimental apparatus consisted of a glass plate (2.3 m x 25.4 mm x 5.6 mm) with PVDF sensor (3 mm diam.) mounted at various positions along its length. A steel ball impact served as a simulated acoustic emission source, producing surface waves, shear waves and longitudinal waves with dominant frequencies between 1 kHz and 200 kHz. The experimental time domain wave-forms were compared with theoretical predictions of the wave propagation in the plate. The model uses an analytical solution for the Green's function and the measured response at a single position to predict response at any other position in the plate. Close agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical results.

  6. Damage assessment in composite laminates via broadband Lamb wave.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Shao, Yongsheng

    2018-05-01

    Time of flight (ToF) based method for damage detection using Lamb waves is widely used. However, due to the energy dissipation of Lamb waves and the non-ignorable size of damage in composite structure, the performance of damage detection is restricted. The objective of this research is to establish an improved method to locate and assess damages in composite structure. To choose appropriate excitation parameters, the propagation characters of Lamb waves in quasi-isotropic composite laminates are firstly studied and the broadband excitation is designed. Subsequently, the pulse compression technique is adopted for energy concentration and high-accuracy distance estimation. On this basis, the gravity center of intersections of path loci is employed for damage localization and the convex envelop of identified damage edge points is taken for damage contour estimation. As a result, both damage location and size can be evaluated, thereby providing the information for quantitative damage detection. The experiment consisting of five different sizes of damage is carried for method verification and the identified results show the efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixing of ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with quadratic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Li, Feilong; Zhao, Youxuan; Cao, Peng; Hu, Ning

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the propagation of Lamb waves in thin plates with quadratic nonlinearity by one-way mixing method using numerical simulations. It is shown that an A 0 -mode wave can be generated by a pair of S 0 and A 0 mode waves only when mixing condition is satisfied, and mixing wave signals are capable of locating the damage zone. Additionally, it is manifested that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increases linearly with quadratic nonlinearity but monotonously with the size of mixing zone. Furthermore, because of frequency deviation, the waveform of the mixing wave changes significantly from a regular diamond shape to toneburst trains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detecting Lamb waves with broadband acousto-ultrasonic signals in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1992-01-01

    Lamb waves can be produced and detected in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and metal matrix composites (MMC) plates using the acousto-ultrasonic configuration employing broadband transducers. Experimental dispersion curves of lowest symmetric and lowest antisymmetric modes behave in a manner analogous to the graphite/polymer theoretical curves. In this study a basis has been established for analyzing Lamb wave velocities for characterizing composite plates. Lamb wave disperison curves and group velocities were correlated with variations in axial stiffness and shear stiffness in MMC and CMC. For CMCs, interfacial shear strength was also correlated with the first antisymmetric Lamb mode.

  9. Detecting Lamb waves with broad-band acousto-ultrasonic signals in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1992-01-01

    Lamb waves can be produced and detected in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and metal matrix composites (MMC) plates using the acousto-ultrasonic configuration employing broadband transducers. Experimental dispersion curves of lowest symmetric and antisymmetric modes behave in a manner analogous to the graphite/polymer theoretical curves. In this study a basis has been established for analyzing Lamb wave velocities for characterizing composite plates. Lamb wave dispersion curves and group velocities were correlated with variations in axial stiffness and shear stiffness in MMC and CMC. For CMC, interfacial shear strength was also correlated with the first antisymmetric Lamb mode.

  10. Lamb wave tomographic imaging system for aircraft structural health assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Willi G.; Read, Michael E.; Kremer, Matthew J.; Hinders, Mark K.; Smith, Barry T.

    1999-01-01

    A tomographic imaging system using ultrasonic Lamb waves for the nondestructive inspection of aircraft components such as wings and fuselage is being developed. The computer-based system provides large-area inspection capability by electronically scanning an array of transducers that can be easily attached to flat and curved surface without moving parts. Images of the inspected area are produced in near real time employing a tomographic reconstruction method adapted from seismological applications. Changes in material properties caused by structural flaws such as disbonds, corrosion, and fatigue cracks can be effectively detected and characterized utilizing this fast NDE technique.

  11. Non-contact ultrasonic gas flow metering using air-coupled leaky Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zichuan; Jiang, Wentao; Wright, William M D

    2018-04-23

    This paper describes a completely non-contact ultrasonic method of gas flow metering using air-coupled leaky Lamb waves. To show proof of principle, a simplified representation of gas flow in a duct, comprising two separated thin isotropic plates with a gas flowing between them, has been modelled and investigated experimentally. An airborne compression wave emitted from an air-coupled capacitive ultrasonic transducer excited a leaky Lamb wave in the first plate in a non-contact manner. The leakage of this Lamb wave crossed the gas flow at an angle between the two plates as a compression wave, and excited a leaky Lamb wave in the second plate. An air-coupled capacitive ultrasonic transducer on the opposite side of this second plate then detected the airborne compression wave leakage from the second Lamb wave. As the gas flow shifted the wave field between the two plates, the point of Lamb wave excitation in the second plate was displaced in proportion to the gas flow rate. Two such measurements, in opposite directions, formed a completely non-contact contra-propagating Lamb wave flow meter, allowing measurement of the flow velocity between the plates. A COMSOL Multiphysics® model was used to visualize the wave fields, and accurately predicted the time differences that were then measured experimentally. Experiments using different Lamb wave frequencies and plate materials were also similarly verified. This entirely non-contact airborne approach to Lamb wave flow metering could be applied in place of clamp-on techniques in thin-walled ducts or pipes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Lamb Waves Acting within a Thin Aluminum Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    signal to avoid time aliasing % LambWaveMode % lamb wave mode to simulate; use proper phase velocity curve % thickness % thickness of...analysis of the simulated signal response data demonstrated that elevated temperatures delay wave propagation, although the delays are minimal at the...Echo Techniques Ultrasonic NDE techniques are based on the propagation and reflection of elastic waves , with the assumption that damage in the

  13. Numerical study on static component generation from the primary Lamb waves propagating in a plate with nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiang; Tse, Peter W.; Zhang, Xuhui; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Qing; Fan, Hongwei; Mao, Qinghua; Dong, Ming; Wang, Chuanwei; Ma, Hongwei

    2018-04-01

    Under the discipline of nonlinear ultrasonics, in addition to second harmonic generation, static component generation is another frequently used nonlinear ultrasonic behavior in non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) communities. However, most previous studies on static component generation are mainly based on using longitudinal waves. It is desirable to extend static component generation from primary longitudinal waves to primary Lamb waves. In this paper, static component generation from the primary Lamb waves is studied. Two major issues are numerically investigated. First, the mode of static displacement component generated from different primary Lamb wave modes is identified. Second, cumulative effect of static displacement component from different primary Lamb wave modes is also discussed. Our study results show that the static component wave packets generated from the primary S0, A0 and S1 modes share the almost same group velocity equal to the phase velocity of S0 mode tending to zero frequency c plate . The finding indicates that whether the primary mode is S0, A0 or S1, the static components generated from these primary modes always share the nature of S0 mode. This conclusion is also verified by the displacement filed of these static components that the horizontal displacement field is almost uniform and the vertical displacement filed is antisymmetric across the thickness of the plate. The uniform distribution of horizontal displacement filed enables the static component, regardless of the primary Lamb modes, to be a promising technique for evaluating microstructural damages buried in the interior of a structure. Our study also illustrates that the static components are cumulative regardless of whether the phase velocity of the primary and secondary waves is matched or not. This observation indicates that the static component overcomes the limitations of the traditional nonlinear Lamb waves satisfying phase velocity

  14. Analysis of Rayleigh-Lamb Modes in Soft-solids with Application to Surface Wave Elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benech, Nicolás; Grinspan, Gustavo; Aguiar, Sofía; Brum, Javier; Negreira, Carlos; tanter, Mickäel; Gennisson, Jean-Luc

    The goal of Surface Wave Elastography (SE) techniques is to estimate the shear elasticity of the sample by measuring the surface wave speed. In SE the thickness of the sample is often assumed to be infinite, in this way, the surface wave speed is directly linked to the sample's shear elasticity. However for many applications this assumption is not true. In this work, we study experimentally the Rayleigh-Lamb modes in soft solids of finite thickness to explore the optimal conditions for SWE. Experiments were carried out in three tissue mimicking phantoms of different thicknesses (10 mm, 20 mm and 60 mm) and same shear elasticity. The surface waves were generated at the surface of the phantom using piston attached to a mechanical vibrator. The central frequency of the excitation was varied between 60 Hz to 160 Hz. One component of the displacement field generated by the piston was measured at the surface and in the bulk of the sample trough a standard speckle tracking technique using a 256 element, 7.5 MHz central frequency linear array and an ultrasound ultrafast electronics. Finally, by measuring the phase velocity at each excitation frequency, velocity dispersion curves were obtained for each phantom. The results show that instead of a Rayleigh wave, zero order symmetric (S0) and antisymmetric (A0) Lamb modes are excited with this type of source. Moreover, in this study we show that due to the near field effects of the source, which are appreciable only in soft solids at low frequencies, both Lamb modes are separable in time and space. We show that while the Ao mode dominates close the source, the S0 mode dominates far away.

  15. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the backgroundmore » wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.« less

  16. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    PubMed

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electromagnetomechanical elastodynamic model for Lamb wave damage quantification in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2014-03-01

    Physics-based wave propagation computational models play a key role in structural health monitoring (SHM) and the development of improved damage quantification methodologies. Guided waves (GWs), such as Lamb waves, provide the capability to monitor large plate-like aerospace structures with limited actuators and sensors and are sensitive to small scale damage; however due to the complex nature of GWs, accurate and efficient computation tools are necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for dispersion, coupling, and interaction with damage. In this paper, the local interaction simulation approach (LISA) coupled with the sharp interface model (SIM) solution methodology is used to solve the fully coupled electro-magneto-mechanical elastodynamic equations for the piezoelectric and piezomagnetic actuation and sensing of GWs in fiber reinforced composite material systems. The final framework provides the full three-dimensional displacement as well as electrical and magnetic potential fields for arbitrary plate and transducer geometries and excitation waveform and frequency. The model is validated experimentally and proven computationally efficient for a laminated composite plate. Studies are performed with surface bonded piezoelectric and embedded piezomagnetic sensors to gain insight into the physics of experimental techniques used for SHM. The symmetric collocation of piezoelectric actuators is modeled to demonstrate mode suppression in laminated composites for the purpose of damage detection. The effect of delamination and damage (i.e., matrix cracking) on the GW propagation is demonstrated and quantified. The developed model provides a valuable tool for the improvement of SHM techniques due to its proven accuracy and computational efficiency.

  18. Improved ultrasonic TV images achieved by use of Lamb-wave orientation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, H.

    1967-01-01

    Lamb-wave sample orientation technique minimizes the interference from standing waves in continuous wave ultrasonic television imaging techniques used with thin metallic samples. The sample under investigation is oriented such that the wave incident upon it is not normal, but slightly angled.

  19. Characterization of Defects in Composite Material Using Rapidly Acquired Leaky Lamb Wave Dispersion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A.; Chang, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of Leaky Lamb Wave (LLW) in composite materials was first observed in 1982 using a Schlieren system. It has been studied extensively by numerous investigators and successfully shown to be an effective quantitative NDE tool.

  20. Study of Lamb Waves for Non-Destructive Testing Behind Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, P.; Ploix, M.-A.; Chaix, J.-F.; Gueudré, C.; Corneloup, G.; Baqué, F. AF(; )

    2018-01-01

    The inspection and control of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) is a major issue for the nuclear industry. Ultrasonic solutions are under study because of the opacity of liquid sodium. In this paper, the use of leaky Lamb waves is considered for non-destructive testing (NDT) on parallel and immersed structures assimilated as plates. The first phase of our approach involved studying the propagation properties of leaky Lamb waves. Equations that model the propagation of Lamb waves in an immersed plate were solved numerically. The phase velocity can be experimentally measured using a two dimensional Fourier transform. The group velocity can be experimentally measured using a short-time Fourier transform technique. Attenuation of leaky Lamb waves is mostly due to the re-emission of energy into the surrounding fluid, and it can be measured by these two techniques.

  1. A guided wave sensor enabling simultaneous wavenumber-frequency analysis for both lamb and shear-horizontal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Baiyang; Cho, Hwanjeong; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    Guided waves in plate-like structures have been widely investigated for structural health monitoring. Lamb waves and shear horizontal (SH) waves, two commonly used types of waves in plates, provide different benefits for the detection of various types of defects and material degradation. However, there are few sensors that can detect both Lamb and SH waves and also resolve their modal content, namely the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. A sensor that can detect both waves is desirable to take full advantage of both types of waves in order to improve sensitivity to different discontinuity geometries. As a result, we demonstrate that polyvinylidene difluoridemore » (PVDF) film provides the basis for a multi-element array sensor that detects both Lamb and SH waves and also measures their modal content, i.e., the wavenumber-frequency spectrum.« less

  2. A guided wave sensor enabling simultaneous wavenumber-frequency analysis for both lamb and shear-horizontal waves

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Baiyang; Cho, Hwanjeong; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2017-03-01

    Guided waves in plate-like structures have been widely investigated for structural health monitoring. Lamb waves and shear horizontal (SH) waves, two commonly used types of waves in plates, provide different benefits for the detection of various types of defects and material degradation. However, there are few sensors that can detect both Lamb and SH waves and also resolve their modal content, namely the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. A sensor that can detect both waves is desirable to take full advantage of both types of waves in order to improve sensitivity to different discontinuity geometries. As a result, we demonstrate that polyvinylidene difluoridemore » (PVDF) film provides the basis for a multi-element array sensor that detects both Lamb and SH waves and also measures their modal content, i.e., the wavenumber-frequency spectrum.« less

  3. A Guided Wave Sensor Enabling Simultaneous Wavenumber-Frequency Analysis for Both Lamb and Shear-Horizontal Waves.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baiyang; Cho, Hwanjeong; Lissenden, Cliff J

    2017-03-01

    Guided waves in plate-like structures have been widely investigated for structural health monitoring. Lamb waves and shear horizontal (SH) waves, two commonly used types of waves in plates, provide different benefits for the detection of various types of defects and material degradation. However, there are few sensors that can detect both Lamb and SH waves and also resolve their modal content, namely the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. A sensor that can detect both waves is desirable to take full advantage of both types of waves in order to improve sensitivity to different discontinuity geometries. We demonstrate that polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) film provides the basis for a multi-element array sensor that detects both Lamb and SH waves and also measures their modal content, i.e., the wavenumber-frequency spectrum.

  4. Lamb wave scattering by a surface-breaking crack in a plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, S. K.; Al-Nassar, Y.; Shah, A. H.

    1991-01-01

    An NDE method based on finite-element representation and modal expansion has been developed for solving the scattering of Lamb waves in an elastic plate waveguide. This method is very powerful for handling discontinuities of arbitrary shape, weldments of different orientations, canted cracks, etc. The advantage of the method is that it can be used to study the scattering of Lamb waves in anisotropic elastic plates and in multilayered plates as well.

  5. Load-Differential Imaging for Detection and Localization of Fatigue Cracks Using Lamb Waves (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0278 LOAD-DIFFERENTIAL IMAGING FOR DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION OF FATIGUE CRACKS USING LAMB WAVES (PREPRINT) X. Chen...OF FATIGUE CRACKS USING LAMB WAVES (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-09-C-5206 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6...Jan 2012. Preprint journal article to be submitted to NDT & E. This document contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Fatigue cracks are common and

  6. Refractive index modulation in LiNbO3: MgO slab through Lamb wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Suraj; Sharma, Gaurav; Yadav, Gulab Chand; Singh, Vivek

    2018-05-01

    Present theoretical analysis deals with inducing refractive index contrast in Y-Z LiNbO3:MgO plate via GHz Lamb wave perturbation for photonic applications. Dispersion curves for Lamb wave in plate are plotted by employing displacement potential technique. Selecting wave parameters from dispersion curve, fundamental symmetric Lamb mode (S0) is excited in slab for 6GHz frequency. Produced displacement field by propagating S0 mode and thus developed strain is estimated to calculate refractive index modulation by applying photo-elastic relations. Modulated refractive index is of sinusoidal nature with period of modulation dependence on Lamb's wavelength. This plate having periodically modulated refractive index can be used as photonic crystal for different applications with acoustically tunable photonic band gap.

  7. Real-Time Characterization of Materials Degradation Using Leaky Lamb Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiuh, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Leaky Lamb wave (LLW) propagation in composite materials has been studied extensively since it was first observed in 1982. The wave is induced using a pitch-catch arrangement and the plate wave modes are detected by searching minima in the reflected spectra.

  8. Lamb waves in phononic crystal slabs with square or rectangular symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Thomas; Vasseur, Jérôme; Bonello, Bernard; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine

    2008-08-01

    We report on both numerical and experimental results showing the occurrence of band gaps for Lamb waves propagating in phononic crystal plates. The structures are made of centered rectangular and square arrays of holes drilled in a silicon plate. A supercell plane wave expansion method is used to calculate the band structures and to predict the position and the magnitude of the gaps. The band structures of phononic crystal slabs are then measured using a laser ultrasonic technique. Lamb waves in the megahertz range and with wave vectors ranging over more than the first two reduced Brillouin zones are investigated.

  9. Lamb mode selection for accurate wall loss estimation via guided wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huthwaite, P.; Ribichini, R.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Cawley, P.

    2014-02-01

    Guided wave tomography offers a method to accurately quantify wall thickness losses in pipes and vessels caused by corrosion. This is achieved using ultrasonic waves transmitted over distances of approximately 1-2m, which are measured by an array of transducers and then used to reconstruct a map of wall thickness throughout the inspected region. To achieve accurate estimations of remnant wall thickness, it is vital that a suitable Lamb mode is chosen. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of the fundamental modes, S0 and A0, which are of primary interest in guided wave tomography thickness estimates since the higher order modes do not exist at all thicknesses, to compare their performance using both numerical and experimental data while considering a range of challenging phenomena. The sensitivity of A0 to thickness variations was shown to be superior to S0, however, the attenuation from A0 when a liquid loading was present was much higher than S0. A0 was less sensitive to the presence of coatings on the surface of than S0.

  10. Methods of localization of Lamb wave sources on thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Daniel, Guillaume; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Signal localization techniques are ubiquitous in both industry and academic communities. We propose a new localization method on plates which is based on energy amplitude attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison. This inversion is tested on synthetic data using Lamb wave propagation direct model and on experimental dataset (recorded with 4 Brüel & Kjær Type 4374 miniature piezoelectric shock accelerometers (1-26 kHz frequency range)). We compare the performance of the technique to the classical source localization algorithms, arrival time localization, time reversal localization, localization based on energy amplitude. Furthermore, we measure and compare the accuracy of these techniques as function of sampling rate, dynamic range, geometry, Signal to Noise Ratio, and we show that this very versatile technique works better than classical ones over the sampling rates 100kHz - 1MHz. Experimental phase consists of a glass plate having dimensions of 80cmx40cm with a thickness of 1cm. Generated signals due to a wooden hammer hit or a steel ball hit are captured by sensors placed on the plate on different locations with the mentioned sensors. Numerical simulations are done using dispersive far field approximation of plate waves. Signals are generated using a hertzian loading over the plate. Using imaginary sources outside the plate boundaries the effect of reflections is also included. This proposed method, can be modified to be implemented on 3d environments, monitor industrial activities (e.g boreholes drilling/production activities) or natural brittle systems (e.g earthquakes, volcanoes, avalanches).

  11. Measurement of viscoelastic properties of in vivo swine myocardium using Lamb Wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (LDUV)

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Matthew W.; Pislaru, Cristina; Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Kinnick, Randall R.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Viscoelastic properties of the myocardium are important for normal cardiac function and may be altered by disease. Thus, quantification of these properties may aid with evaluation of the health of the heart. Lamb Wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (LDUV) is a shear wave-based method that uses wave velocity dispersion to measure the underlying viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue with plate-like geometries. We tested this method in eight pigs in an open-chest preparation. A mechanical actuator was used to create harmonic, propagating mechanical waves in the myocardial wall. The motion was tracked using a high frame rate acquisition sequence, typically 2500 Hz. The velocities of wave propagation were measured over the 50–400 Hz frequency range in 50 Hz increments. Data were acquired over several cardiac cycles. Dispersion curves were fit with a viscoelastic, anti-symmetric Lamb wave model to obtain estimates of the shear elasticity, μ1, and viscosity, μ2 as defined by the Kelvin-Voigt rheological model. The sensitivity of the Lamb wave model was also studied using simulated data. We demonstrated that wave velocity measurements and Lamb wave theory allow one to estimate the variation of viscoelastic moduli of the myocardial walls in vivo throughout the course of the cardiac cycle. PMID:23060325

  12. A Baseline-Free Defect Imaging Technique in Plates Using Time Reversal of Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyunjo, Jeong; Sungjong, Cho; Wei, Wei

    2011-06-01

    We present an analytical investigation for a baseline-free imaging of a defect in plate-like structures using the time-reversal of Lamb waves. We first consider the flexural wave (A0 mode) propagation in a plate containing a defect, and reception and time reversal process of the output signal at the receiver. The received output signal is then composed of two parts: a directly propagated wave and a scattered wave from the defect. The time reversal of these waves recovers the original input signal, and produces two additional sidebands that contain the time-of-flight information on the defect location. One of the side-band signals is then extracted as a pure defect signal. A defect localization image is then constructed from a beamforming technique based on the time-frequency analysis of the side band signal for each transducer pair in a network of sensors. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables the accurate, baseline-free imaging of a defect.

  13. Imaging of a Defect in Thin Plates Using the Time Reversal of Single Mode Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Lee, Jung-Sik; Bae, Sung-Min

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation for a baseline-free imaging of a defect in plate-like structures using the time-reversal of Lamb waves. We first consider the flexural wave (A0 mode) propagation in a plate containing a defect, and reception and time reversal process of the output signal at the receiver. The received output signal is then composed of two parts: a directly propagated wave and a scattered wave from the defect. The time reversal of these waves recovers the original input signal, and produces two additional sidebands that contain the time-of-flight information on the defect location. One of the side band signals is then extracted as a pure defect signal. A defect localization image is then constructed from a beamforming technique based on the time-frequency analysis of the side band signal for each transducer pair in a network of sensors. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables the accurate, baseline-free detection of a defect, so that experimental studies are needed to verify the proposed method and to be applied to real structure.

  14. Acoustic Streaming and Microparticle Enrichment within a Microliter Droplet Using a Lamb-Wave Resonator Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Tang, Zifan; Wang, Zhan; Pan, Shuting; Han, Ziyu; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Menglun; Duan, Xuexin; Pang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    We report the nonlinear acoustic streaming effect and the fast manipulation of microparticles by microelectromechanical Lamb-wave resonators in a microliter droplet. The device, consisting of four Lamb-wave resonators on a silicon die, generates cylindrical traveling waves in a liquid and efficiently drives nine horizontal vortices within a 1 -μ l droplet; the performance of the device coincides with the numerical model prediction. Experimentally, the particles are enriched at the stagnation center of the main vortex on the free surface of the droplet in open space without microfluidic channels. In addition, the trajectories of the particles in the droplet can be controlled by the excitation power.

  15. Lamb wave line sensing for crack detection in a welded stiffener.

    PubMed

    An, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hong; Yim, Hong Jae

    2014-07-18

    This paper proposes a novel Lamb wave line sensing technique for crack detection in a welded stiffener. The proposed technique overcomes one of the biggest technical challenges of Lamb wave crack detection for real structure applications: crack-induced Lamb waves are often mixed with multiple reflections from complex waveguides. In particular, crack detection in a welded joint, one of the structural hot spots due to stress concentration, is accompanied by reflections from the welded joint as well as a crack. Extracting and highlighting crack-induced Lamb wave modes from Lamb wave responses measured at multi-spatial points along a single line can be accomplished through a frequency-wavenumber domain analysis. The advantages of the proposed technique enable us not only to enhance the crack detectability in the welded joint but also to minimize false alarms caused by environmental and operational variations by avoiding the direct comparison with the baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is experimentally and numerically validated in vertically stiffened metallic structures, revealing that it successfully identifies and localizes subsurface cracks, regardless of the coexistence with the vertical stiffener.

  16. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Yang, Jinsong

    2017-06-12

    Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE) for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification.

  17. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Yang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE) for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification. PMID:28773003

  18. Damage imaging using Lamb waves for SHM applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    2-D ultrasonic arrays, due to their beam-steering capability and all azimuth angle coverage are a very promising tool for the inspection of plate-like structures using Lamb waves (LW). Contrary to the classical linear phased arrays (PAs) the 2D arrays enable unequivocal defect localization and they are even capable of mode selectivity of the received LWs . Recently, it has been shown that multistatic synthetic focusing (SF) algorithms applied for 2D arrays are much more effective than the classical phase array mode commonly used in NDT. The multistatic SF assumes multiple transmissions of elements in a transmitting aperture and off-line processing of the data acquired by a receiving aperture. In the simplest implementation of the technique, only a single multiplexed input and a number of output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification compared with the PA systems. On the one hand implementation of the multistatic SF to 2D arrays creates additional degrees of freedom during the design of the array topology, which complicates the array design process. On the other hand, it enables designing sparse arrays with performance similar to that of the fully populated dense arrays. In this paper we present a general systematic approach to the design and optimization of imaging systems based on the 2D array operating in the multistatic mode. We start from presenting principles of the SF schemes applied to LW imaging. Then, we outline the coarray concept and demonstrate how it can be used for reducing number of elements of the 2D arrays. Finally, efficient tools for the investigation and experimental verification of the designed 2D array prototypes are presented. The first step in the investigation is theoretical evaluation performed using frequency-dependent structure transfer function (STF), which enables approximate simulation of an array excited with a tone-burst in a dispersive medium. Finally, we show how scanning laser vibrometer

  19. The propagation of Lamb waves in multilayered plates: phase-velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondel, Sébastien; Assaad, Jamal; Delebarre, Christophe; Blanquet, Pierrick; Moulin, Emmanuel

    1999-05-01

    Owing to the dispersive nature and complexity of the Lamb waves generated in a composite plate, the measurement of the phase velocities by using classical methods is complicated. This paper describes a measurement method based upon the spectrum-analysis technique, which allows one to overcome these problems. The technique consists of using the fast Fourier transform to compute the spatial power-density spectrum. Additionally, weighted functions are used to increase the probability of detecting the various propagation modes. Experimental Lamb-wave dispersion curves of multilayered plates are successfully compared with the analytical ones. This technique is expected to be a useful way to design composite parts integrating ultrasonic transducers in the field of health monitoring. Indeed, Lamb waves and particularly their velocities are very sensitive to defects.

  20. Intelligent feature selection techniques for pattern classification of Lamb wave signals

    SciTech Connect

    Hinders, Mark K.; Miller, Corey A.

    2014-02-18

    Lamb wave interaction with flaws is a complex, three-dimensional phenomenon, which often frustrates signal interpretation schemes based on mode arrival time shifts predicted by dispersion curves. As the flaw severity increases, scattering and mode conversion effects will often dominate the time-domain signals, obscuring available information about flaws because multiple modes may arrive on top of each other. Even for idealized flaw geometries the scattering and mode conversion behavior of Lamb waves is very complex. Here, multi-mode Lamb waves in a metal plate are propagated across a rectangular flat-bottom hole in a sequence of pitch-catch measurements corresponding to the double crossholemore » tomography geometry. The flaw is sequentially deepened, with the Lamb wave measurements repeated at each flaw depth. Lamb wave tomography reconstructions are used to identify which waveforms have interacted with the flaw and thereby carry information about its depth. Multiple features are extracted from each of the Lamb wave signals using wavelets, which are then fed to statistical pattern classification algorithms that identify flaw severity. In order to achieve the highest classification accuracy, an optimal feature space is required but it’s never known a priori which features are going to be best. For structural health monitoring we make use of the fact that physical flaws, such as corrosion, will only increase over time. This allows us to identify feature vectors which are topologically well-behaved by requiring that sequential classes “line up” in feature vector space. An intelligent feature selection routine is illustrated that identifies favorable class distributions in multi-dimensional feature spaces using computational homology theory. Betti numbers and formal classification accuracies are calculated for each feature space subset to establish a correlation between the topology of the class distribution and the corresponding classification accuracy.« less

  1. Lamb-type waves generated by a cylindrical bubble oscillating between two planar elastic walls

    PubMed Central

    Mekki-Berrada, F.; Thibault, P.; Marmottant, P.

    2016-01-01

    The volume oscillation of a cylindrical bubble in a microfluidic channel with planar elastic walls is studied. Analytical solutions are found for the bulk scattered wave propagating in the fluid gap and the surface waves of Lamb-type propagating at the fluid–solid interfaces. This type of surface wave has not yet been described theoretically. A dispersion equation for the Lamb-type waves is derived, which allows one to evaluate the wave speed for different values of the channel height h. It is shown that for h<λt, where λt is the wavelength of the transverse wave in the walls, the speed of the Lamb-type waves decreases with decreasing h, while for h on the order of or greater than λt, their speed tends to the Scholte wave speed. The solutions for the wave fields in the elastic walls and in the fluid are derived using the Hankel transforms. Numerical simulations are carried out to study the effect of the surface waves on the dynamics of a bubble confined between two elastic walls. It is shown that its resonance frequency can be up to 50% higher than the resonance frequency of a similar bubble confined between two rigid walls. PMID:27274695

  2. Lamb wave dispersion and anisotropy profiling of composite plates via non-contact air-coupled and laser ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb, M. S.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional ultrasound inspection has been a standard non-destructive testing method for providing an in-service evaluation and noninvasive means of probing the interior of a structure. In particular, measurement of the propagation characteristics of Lamb waves allows inspection of plates that are typical components in aerospace industry. A rapid, complete non-contact hybrid approach for excitation and detection of Lamb waves is presented and applied for non-destructive evaluation of composites. An air-coupled transducer (ACT) excites ultrasonic waves on the surface of a composite plate, generating different propagating Lamb wave modes and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is used to measure the out-of-plane velocity of the plate. This technology, based on direct waveform imaging, focuses on measuring dispersive curves for A0 mode in a composite laminate and its anisotropy. A two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) is applied to out-of-plane velocity data captured experimentally using LDV to go from the time-spatial domain to frequency-wavenumber domain. The result is a 2D array of amplitudes at discrete frequencies and wavenumbers for A0 mode in a given propagation direction along the composite. The peak values of the curve are then used to construct frequency wavenumber and phase velocity dispersion curves, which are also obtained directly using Snell's law and the incident angle of the excited ultrasonic waves. A high resolution and strong correlation between numerical and experimental results are observed for dispersive curves with Snell's law method in comparison to 2D-FFT method. Dispersion curves as well as velocity curves for the composite plate along different directions of wave propagation are measured. The visual read-out of the dispersion curves at different propagation directions as well as the phase velocity curves provide profiling and measurements of the composite anisotropy. The results proved a high sensitivity of the air-coupled and laser

  3. Identification of damage in composite structures using Gaussian mixture model-processed Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Ma, Shuxian; Yue, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Composite materials have comprehensively better properties than traditional materials, and therefore have been more and more widely used, especially because of its higher strength-weight ratio. However, the damage of composite structures is usually varied and complicated. In order to ensure the security of these structures, it is necessary to monitor and distinguish the structural damage in a timely manner. Lamb wave-based structural health monitoring (SHM) has been proved to be effective in online structural damage detection and evaluation; furthermore, the characteristic parameters of the multi-mode Lamb wave varies in response to different types of damage in the composite material. This paper studies the damage identification approach for composite structures using the Lamb wave and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The algorithm and principle of the GMM, and the parameter estimation, is introduced. Multi-statistical characteristic parameters of the excited Lamb waves are extracted, and the parameter space with reduced dimensions is adopted by principal component analysis (PCA). The damage identification system using the GMM is then established through training. Experiments on a glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composite laminate plate are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach in terms of damage classification. The experimental results show that different types of damage can be identified according to the value of the likelihood function of the GMM.

  4. Multi reflection of Lamb wave emission in an acoustic waveguide sensor.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Martin; Olfert, Sergei; Rautenberg, Jens; Lindner, Gerhard; Henning, Bernd; Reindl, Leonhard Michael

    2013-02-27

    Recently, an acoustic waveguide sensor based on multiple mode conversion of surface acoustic waves at the solid-liquid interfaces has been introduced for the concentration measurement of binary and ternary mixtures, liquid level sensing, investigation of spatial inhomogenities or bubble detection. In this contribution the sound wave propagation within this acoustic waveguide sensor is visualized by Schlieren imaging for continuous and burst operation the first time. In the acoustic waveguide the antisymmetrical zero order Lamb wave mode is excited by a single phase transducer of 1 MHz on thin glass plates of 1 mm thickness. By contact to the investigated liquid Lamb waves propagating on the first plate emit pressure waves into the adjacent liquid, which excites Lamb waves on the second plate, what again causes pressure waves traveling inside the liquid back to the first plate and so on. The Schlieren images prove this multi reflection within the acoustic waveguide, which confirms former considerations and calculations based on the receiver signal. With this knowledge the sensor concepts with the acoustic waveguide sensor can be interpreted in a better manner.

  5. Multi Reflection of Lamb Wave Emission in an Acoustic Waveguide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Martin; Olfert, Sergei; Rautenberg, Jens; Lindner, Gerhard; Henning, Bernd; Reindl, Leonhard Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recently, an acoustic waveguide sensor based on multiple mode conversion of surface acoustic waves at the solid—liquid interfaces has been introduced for the concentration measurement of binary and ternary mixtures, liquid level sensing, investigation of spatial inhomogenities or bubble detection. In this contribution the sound wave propagation within this acoustic waveguide sensor is visualized by Schlieren imaging for continuous and burst operation the first time. In the acoustic waveguide the antisymmetrical zero order Lamb wave mode is excited by a single phase transducer of 1 MHz on thin glass plates of 1 mm thickness. By contact to the investigated liquid Lamb waves propagating on the first plate emit pressure waves into the adjacent liquid, which excites Lamb waves on the second plate, what again causes pressure waves traveling inside the liquid back to the first plate and so on. The Schlieren images prove this multi reflection within the acoustic waveguide, which confirms former considerations and calculations based on the receiver signal. With this knowledge the sensor concepts with the acoustic waveguide sensor can be interpreted in a better manner. PMID:23447010

  6. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S 0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S 0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S 0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the resolution for Lamb wave testing via a smoothed Capon algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuwei; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Hua, Jiadong

    2018-04-01

    Lamb wave testing is promising for damage detection and evaluation in large-area structures. The dispersion of Lamb waves is often unavoidable, restricting testing resolution and making the signal hard to interpret. A smoothed Capon algorithm is proposed in this paper to estimate the accurate path length of each wave packet. In the algorithm, frequency domain whitening is firstly used to obtain the transfer function in the bandwidth of the excitation pulse. Subsequently, wavenumber domain smoothing is employed to reduce the correlation between wave packets. Finally, the path lengths are determined by distance domain searching based on the Capon algorithm. Simulations are applied to optimize the number of smoothing times. Experiments are performed on an aluminum plate consisting of two simulated defects. The results demonstrate that spatial resolution is improved significantly by the proposed algorithm.

  8. Reflection of Lamb waves obliquely incident on the free edge of a plate.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Sridhar; Demirli, Ramazan

    2013-01-01

    The reflection of obliquely incident symmetric and anti-symmetric Lamb wave modes at the edge of a plate is studied. Both in-plane and Shear-Horizontal (SH) reflected wave modes are spawned by an obliquely incident in-plane Lamb wave mode. Energy reflection coefficients are calculated for the reflected wave modes as a function of frequency and angle of incidence. This is done by using the method of orthogonal mode decomposition and by enforcing traction free conditions at the plate edge using the method of collocation. A PZT sensor network, affixed to an Aluminum plate, is used to experimentally verify the predictions of the analysis. Experimental results provide support for the analytically determined results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective Excitation of Lamb-Waves for Damage Detection in Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petculescu, G.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    2006-03-01

    Sensors based on periodic arrays of coherent piezoelectric sources (comb design) are used to selectively excite and detect Lamb waves in aluminum and AS4/3601 unidirectional carbon-epoxy plates. 110 μm PVDF film poled in the thickness direction is used as piezoelectric material. An algorithm to eliminate the effect of coupling in amplitude measurements, using individual Lamb modes excited/detected by the same transducer pair, is described. A multiple-impact test showing a decrease in amplitude and group velocity as damage progresses is used as an example.

  10. Lamb waves in plates covered by a two-dimensional phononic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonello, Bernard; Charles, Christine; Ganot, François

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of Lamb waves in silicon plates coated by a very thin two-dimensional phononic film is studied experimentally. The dispersion curves are measured using a laser ultrasonics technique. The data are then compared to the calculated dispersion curves of the uncoated silicon plate. The overall shapes of the lower-order symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb modes are not altered by the thin phononic film, except by the appearing of frequency band gaps at the edges of both the first and the second Brillouin zone. The influence of the filling fraction on the magnitude of the gaps is investigated experimentally.

  11. Lamb wave extraction of dispersion curves in micro/nano-plates using couple stress theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodrati, Behnam; Yaghootian, Amin; Ghanbar Zadeh, Afshin; Mohammad-Sedighi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Lamb wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic non-classical micro/nano-plates is investigated. To consider the effect of material microstructure on the wave propagation, three size-dependent models namely indeterminate-, modified- and consistent couple stress theories are used to extract the dispersion equations. In the mentioned theories, a parameter called 'characteristic length' is used to consider the size of material microstructure in the governing equations. To generalize the parametric studies and examine the effect of thickness, propagation wavelength, and characteristic length on the behavior of miniature plate structures, the governing equations are nondimensionalized by defining appropriate dimensionless parameters. Then the dispersion curves for phase and group velocities are plotted in terms of a wide frequency-thickness range to study the lamb waves propagation considering microstructure effects in very high frequencies. According to the illustrated results, it was observed that the couple stress theories in the Cosserat type material predict more rigidity than the classical theory; so that in a plate with constant thickness, by increasing the thickness to characteristic length ratio, the results approach to the classical theory, and by reducing this ratio, wave propagation speed in the plate is significantly increased. In addition, it is demonstrated that for high-frequency Lamb waves, it converges to dispersive Rayleigh wave velocity.

  12. Fast Lamb wave energy shift approach using fully contactless ultrasonic system to characterize concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Suyun; Popovics, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonic techniques provide an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor concrete structures, but the need to perform rapid and accurate structural assessment requires evaluation of hundreds, or even thousands, of measurement datasets. Use of a fully contactless ultrasonic system can save time and labor through rapid implementation, and can enable automated and controlled data acquisition, for example through robotic scanning. Here we present results using a fully contactless ultrasonic system. This paper describes our efforts to develop a contactless ultrasonic guided wave NDE approach to detect and characterize delamination defects in concrete structures. The developed contactless sensors, controlled scanning system, and employed Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) signal processing scheme are reviewed. Then a guided wave interpretation approach for MASW data is described. The presence of delamination is interpreted by guided plate wave (Lamb wave) behavior, where a shift in excited Lamb mode phase velocity, is monitored. Numerically simulated and experimental ultrasonic data collected from a concrete sample with simulated delamination defects are presented, where the occurrence of delamination is shown to be associated with a mode shift in Lamb wave energy.

  13. Unusual energy properties of leaky backward Lamb waves in a submerged plate.

    PubMed

    Nedospasov, I A; Mozhaev, V G; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-05-01

    It is found that leaky backward Lamb waves, i.e. waves with negative energy-flux velocity, propagating in a plate submerged in a liquid possess extraordinary energy properties distinguishing them from any other type of waves in isotropic media. Namely, the total time-averaged energy flux along the waveguide axis is equal to zero for these waves due to opposite directions of the longitudinal energy fluxes in the adjacent media. This property gives rise to the fundamental question of how to define and calculate correctly the energy velocity in such an unusual case. The procedure of calculation based on incomplete integration of the energy flux density over the plate thickness alone is applied. The derivative of the angular frequency with respect to the wave vector, usually referred to as the group velocity, happens to be close to the energy velocity defined by this mean in that part of the frequency range where the backward mode exists in the free plate. The existence region of the backward mode is formally increased for the submerged plate in comparison to the free plate as a result of the liquid-induced hybridization of propagating and nonpropagating (evanescent) Lamb modes. It is shown that the Rayleigh's principle (i.e. equipartition of total time-averaged kinetic and potential energies for time-harmonic acoustic fields) is violated due to the leakage of Lamb waves, in spite of considering nondissipative media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Near field effect on elasticity measurement for cartilage-bone structure using Lamb wave method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Chen, Shigao; An, Kai-Nan; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2017-10-30

    Cartilage elasticity changes with cartilage degeneration. Hence, cartilage elasticity detection might be an alternative to traditional imaging methods for the early diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Based on the wave propagation measurement, Shear wave elastography (SWE) become an emerging non-invasive elasticity detection method. The wave propagation model, which is affected by tissue shapes, is crucial for elasticity estimating in SWE. However, wave propagation model for cartilage was unclear. This study aimed to establish a wave propagation model for the cartilage-bone structure. We fabricated a cartilage-bone structure, and studied the elasticity measurement and wave propagation by experimental and numerical Lamb wave method (LWM). Results indicated the wave propagation model satisfied the lamb wave theory for two-layered structure. Moreover, a near field region, which affects wave speed measurements and whose occurrence can be prevented if the wave frequency is larger than one critical frequency, was observed. Our findings would provide a theoretical foundation for further application of LWM in elasticity measurement of cartilage in vivo. It can help the application of LWM to the diagnosis of osteoarthritis.

  15. Influence of crack opening and incident wave angle on second harmonic generation of Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Ng, Ching-Tai; Kotousov, Andrei

    2018-05-01

    Techniques utilising second harmonic generation (SHG) have proven their great potential in detecting contact-type damage. However, the gap between the practical applications and laboratory studies is still quite large. The current work is aimed to bridge this gap by investigating the effects of the applied load and incident wave angle on the detectability of fatigue cracks at various lengths. Both effects are critical for practical implementations of these techniques. The present experimental study supported by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) modelling has demonstrated that the applied load, which changes the crack opening and, subsequently, the contact nonlinearity, significantly affects the amplitude of the second harmonic generated by the fundamental symmetric mode (S0) of Lamb wave. This amplitude is also dependent on the length of the fatigue crack as well as the incident wave angle. The experimental and FE results correlate well, so the modelling approach can be implemented for practical design of damage monitoring systems as well as for the evaluation of the severity of the fatigue cracks.

  16. Numerical and experimental study of Lamb wave propagation in a two-dimensional acoustic black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Shiling; Shen, Zhonghua, E-mail: shenzh@njust.edu.cn; Lomonosov, Alexey M.

    2016-06-07

    The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves in a two-dimensional acoustic black-hole structure was studied numerically and experimentally. The geometrical acoustic theory has been applied to calculate the beam trajectories in the region of the acoustic black hole. The finite element method was also used to study the time evolution of propagating waves. An optical system based on the laser-Doppler vibration method was assembled. The effect of the focusing wave and the reduction in wave speed of the acoustic black hole has been validated.

  17. Impact damage detection in sandwich composite structures using Lamb waves and laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamboul, B.; Passilly, B.; Roche, J.-M.; Osmont, D.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study explores the feasibility of impact damage detection in composite sandwich structures using Lamb wave excitation and signals acquired with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Energy maps are computed from the transient velocity wave fields and used to highlight defect areas in impacted coupons of foam core and honeycomb core sandwich materials. The technique performs well for the detection of barely visible damage in this type of material, and is shown to be robust in the presence of wave reverberation. Defect extent information is not always readily retrieved from the obtained defect signatures, which depend on the wave - defect interaction mechanisms.

  18. Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV) method for quantifying mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids.

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Mitchell, Scott A; Greenleaf, James F

    2011-04-07

    Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle to supply sufficient stroke volumes under normal physiological conditions and is often accompanied by stiffening of the left-ventricular myocardium. A noninvasive technique capable of quantifying viscoelasticity of the myocardium would be beneficial in clinical settings. Our group has been investigating the use of shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV), a noninvasive ultrasound-based method for quantifying viscoelasticity of soft tissues. The primary motive of this study is the design and testing of viscoelastic materials suitable for validation of the Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV), an SDUV-based technique for measuring viscoelasticity of tissues with plate-like geometry. We report the results of quantifying viscoelasticity of urethane rubber and gelatin samples using LDUV and an embedded sphere method. The LDUV method was used to excite antisymmetric Lamb waves and measure the dispersion in urethane rubber and gelatin plates. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the wave speed dispersion data to estimate elasticity and viscosity of the materials. A finite element model of a viscoelastic plate submerged in water was used to study the appropriateness of the Lamb wave dispersion equations. An embedded sphere method was used as an independent measurement of the viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin. The FEM dispersion data were in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin obtained using the LDUV and embedded sphere methods agreed within one standard deviation. LDUV studies on excised porcine myocardium sample were performed to investigate the feasibility of the approach in preparation for open-chest in vivo studies. The results suggest that the LDUV technique can be used to quantify the mechanical properties of soft tissues with a plate-like geometry.

  19. Lamb wave characterization of the effects of long-term thermal-mechanical aging on composite stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, M. D.; Madaras, E. I.

    1999-01-01

    Lamb waves offer a promising method of evaluating damage in composite materials. The Lamb wave velocity is directly related to the material parameters, so an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. The Lamb Wave Imager (LWI) uses a pulse/receive technique that excites an antisymmetric Lamb mode and measures the time-of-flight over a wide frequency range. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the dispersion curve. In this study, the time-of-flight as well as the elastic stiffnesses D11, D22, A44, and A55 for composite samples which have undergone combined thermal and mechanical aging are obtained. The samples examined include a baseline specimen with 0 cycles, specimens which have been aged 2350 and 3530 cycles at high strain levels, and one specimen aged 3530 cycles at low strain levels.

  20. Temperature effects on the band gaps of Lamb waves in a one-dimensional phononic-crystal plate (L).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Liu, X J; Wu, D J

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates the temperature-tuned band gaps of Lamb waves in a one-dimensional phononic-crystal plate, which is formed by alternating strips of ferroelectric ceramic Ba(0.7)Sr(0.3)TiO(3) and epoxy. The sensitive and continuous temperature-tunability of Lamb wave band gaps is demonstrated using the analyses of the band structures and the transmission spectra. The width and position of Lamb wave band gaps shift prominently with variation of temperature in the range of 26 °C-50 °C. For example, the width of the second band gap increases from 0.066 to 0.111 MHz as the temperature is increased from 26 °C to 50 °C. The strong shift promises that the structure could be suitable for temperature-tuned multi-frequency Lamb wave filters. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  1. Lamb wave characterization of the effects of long-term thermal-mechanical aging on composite stiffness.

    PubMed

    Seale, M D; Madaras, E I

    1999-09-01

    Lamb waves offer a promising method of evaluating damage in composite materials. The Lamb wave velocity is directly related to the material parameters, so an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. The Lamb Wave Imager (LWI) uses a pulse/receive technique that excites an antisymmetric Lamb mode and measures the time-of-flight over a wide frequency range. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the dispersion curve. In this study, the time-of-flight as well as the elastic stiffnesses D11, D22, A44, and A55 for composite samples which have undergone combined thermal and mechanical aging are obtained. The samples examined include a baseline specimen with 0 cycles, specimens which have been aged 2350 and 3530 cycles at high strain levels, and one specimen aged 3530 cycles at low strain levels.

  2. Lamb Wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (LDUV) Method for Quantifying Mechanical Properties of Viscoelastic Solids

    PubMed Central

    Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Urban, Matthew W.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle to supply sufficient stroke volumes under normal physiological conditions and is often accompanied by stiffening of the left-ventricular myocardium. A noninvasive technique capable of quantifying viscoelasticity of the myocardium would be beneficial in clinical settings. Our group has been investigating the use of Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV), a noninvasive ultrasound based method for quantifying viscoelasticity of soft tissues. The primary motive of this study is the design and testing of viscoelastic materials suitable for validation of the Lamb wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (LDUV), an SDUV-based technique for measuring viscoelasticity of tissues with plate-like geometry. We report the results of quantifying viscoelasticity of urethane rubber and gelatin samples using LDUV and an embedded sphere method. The LDUV method was used to excite antisymmetric Lamb waves and measure the dispersion in urethane rubber and gelatin plates. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the wave speed dispersion data to estimate elasticity and viscosity of the materials. A finite element model of a viscoelastic plate submerged in water was used to study the appropriateness of the Lamb wave dispersion equations. An embedded sphere method was used as an independent measurement of the viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin. The FEM dispersion data were in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin obtained using the LDUV and embedded sphere methods agreed within one standard deviation. LDUV studies on excised porcine myocardium sample were performed to investigate the feasibility of the approach in preparation for open-chest in vivo studies. The results suggest that the LDUV technique can be used to quantify mechanical properties of soft tissues with a plate-like geometry. PMID:21403186

  3. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: thuzhangyu@foxmail.com; Huang, S. L., E-mail: huangsling@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, S.

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency formore » all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert–Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.« less

  4. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Huang, S L; Wang, S; Zhao, W

    2016-05-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert-Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  5. A micromachined thermally compensated thin film Lamb wave resonator for frequency control and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingqvist, G.; Arapan, L.; Yantchev, V.; Katardjiev, I.

    2009-03-01

    Micromachined thin film plate acoustic wave resonators (FPARs) utilizing the lowest order symmetric Lamb wave (S0) propagating in highly textured 2 µm thick aluminium nitride (AlN) membranes have been successfully demonstrated (Yantchev and Katardjiev 2007 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54 87-95). The proposed devices have a SAW-based design and exhibit Q factors of up to 3000 at a frequency around 900 MHz as well as design flexibility with respect to the required motional resistance. However, a notable drawback of the proposed devices is the non-zero temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) which lies in the range -20 ppm K-1 to -25 ppm K-1. Thus, despite the promising features demonstrated, further device optimization is required. In this work temperature compensation of thin AlN film Lamb wave resonators is studied and experimentally demonstrated. Temperature compensation while retaining at the same time the device electromechanical coupling is experimentally demonstrated. The zero TCF Lamb wave resonators are fabricated onto composite AlN/SiO2 membranes. Q factors of around 1400 have been measured at a frequency of around 755 MHz. Finally, the impact of technological issues on the device performance is discussed in view of improving the device performance.

  6. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingjing; Ran, Yunmeng; Liu, Bin; Yang, Jinsong; Guan, Xuefei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S0 mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions. PMID:28902148

  7. Impact induced damage assessment by means of Lamb wave image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is an analysis of full wavefield Lamb wave interaction with impact-induced damage at various impact energies in order to find out the limitation of the wavenumber adaptive image filtering method. In other words, the relation between impact energy and damage detectability will be shown. A numerical model based on the time domain spectral element method is used for modeling of Lamb wave propagation and interaction with barely visible impact damage in a carbon-epoxy laminate. Numerical studies are followed by experimental research on the same material with an impact damage induced by various energy and also a Teflon insert simulating delamination. Wavenumber adaptive image filtering and signal processing are used for damage visualization and assessment for both numerical and experimental full wavefield data. It is shown that it is possible to visualize and assess the impact damage location, size and to some extent severity by using the proposed technique.

  8. Bilinear Time-frequency Analysis for Lamb Wave Signal Detected by Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Liu, Guoqiang; Xia, Hui; Xia, Zhengwu

    2018-03-01

    Accurate acquisition of the detection signal travel time plays a very important role in cross-hole tomography. The experimental platform of aluminum plate under the perpendicular magnetic field is established and the bilinear time-frequency analysis methods, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) and the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD), are applied to analyse the Lamb wave signals detected by electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). By extracting the same frequency component of the time-frequency spectrum as the excitation frequency, the travel time information can be obtained. In comparison with traditional linear time-frequency analysis method such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the bilinear time-frequency analysis method PWVD is more appropriate in extracting travel time and recognizing patterns of Lamb wave.

  9. Modeling a surface-mounted Lamb wave emission-reception system: applications to structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Emmanuel; Grondel, Sébastien; Assaad, Jamal; Duquenne, Laurent

    2008-12-01

    The work described in this paper is intended to present a simple and efficient way of modeling a full Lamb wave emission and reception system. The emitter behavior and the Lamb wave generation are predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) hybrid finite element-normal mode expansion model. Then the receiver electrical response is obtained from a finite element computation with prescribed displacements. A numerical correction is applied to the 2D results in order to account for the in-plane radiation divergence caused by the finite length of the emitter. The advantage of this modular approach is that realistic configurations can be simulated without performing cumbersome modeling and time-consuming computations. It also provides insight into the physical interpretation of the results. A good agreement is obtained between predicted and measured signals. The range of application of the method is discussed.

  10. Spiral-shaped piezoelectric sensors for Lamb waves direction of arrival (DoA) estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, L.; Testoni, N.; Marzani, A.

    2018-04-01

    A novel strategy to design piezoelectric sensors suited for direction of arrival (DoA) estimation of incoming Lamb waves is presented in this work. The designed sensor is composed by two piezoelectric patches (P1, P2) bonded on the structure to be inspected. In particular, by exploiting the Radon transform, the proposed procedure computes the shape of P2 given the shape of P1 so that the difference in time of arrival (DToA) of the Lamb waves at the two patches is linearly related to the DoA while being agnostic of the waveguide dispersion curves. With a dedicated processing procedure, the waveforms acquired from the two electrodes and digitized can be used to retrieve the DoA information. Numerical and experimental results show that DoA estimation performed by means of the proposed shaped transducers is extremely robust.

  11. Rectification of Lamb wave propagation in thin plates with piezo-dielectric periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Yuhei; Tsuruta, Kenji; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Based on a heterostructured plate consisting of piezoelectric-ceramic/epoxy-resin composites with different periodicities, we design a novel acoustic diode for the symmetrical/asymmetrical (S/A) mode of Lamb wave at audible ranges. The acoustic diode is constructed with two parts, i.e., the mode conversion part and the mode selection part, and the mode conversion mechanism at the interface is applied to the mode hybridization from S to S+A and for the mode conversion from A to S. The phonon band structures for each part are calculated and optimized so that the mode selection is realized for a specific mode at the junction. Finite-element simulations prove that the proposed acoustic diode achieves efficient rectification at audio frequency ranges for both S and A mode incidences of the Lamb wave.

  12. Robust laser-based detection of Lamb waves using photo-EMF sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Marvin B.; Bacher, Gerald D.

    1998-03-01

    Lamb waves are easily generated and detected using laser techniques. It has been shown that both symmetric and antisymmetric modes can be produced, using single-spot and phased array generation. Detection has been demonstrated with Michelson interferometers, but these instruments can not function effectively on rough surfaces. By contrast, the confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer can interrogate rough surfaces, but generally is not practical for operation below 300 kHz. In this paper we will present Lamb wave data on a number of parts using a robust, adaptive receiver based on photo-emf detection. This receiver has useful sensitivity down to at least 100 kHz, can process speckled beams and can be easily configured to measure both out-of-plane and in- plane motion with a single probe beam.

  13. Signal Construction-Based Dispersion Compensation of Lamb Waves Considering Signal Waveform and Amplitude Spectrum Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Wang, Tongguang

    2016-01-01

    The results of Lamb wave identification for the aerospace structures could be easily affected by the nonlinear-dispersion characteristics. In this paper, dispersion compensation of Lamb waves is of particular concern. Compared with the similar research works on the traditional signal domain transform methods, this study is based on signal construction from the viewpoint of nonlinear wavenumber linearization. Two compensation methods of linearly-dispersive signal construction (LDSC) and non-dispersive signal construction (NDSC) are proposed. Furthermore, to improve the compensation effect, the influence of the signal construction process on the other crucial signal properties, including the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum, is considered during the investigation. The linear-dispersion and non-dispersion effects are firstly analyzed. Then, after the basic signal construction principle is explored, the numerical realization of LDSC and NDSC is discussed, in which the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum preservation is especially regarded. Subsequently, associated with the delay-and-sum algorithm, LDSC or NDSC is employed for high spatial resolution damage imaging, so that the adjacent multi-damage or quantitative imaging capacity of Lamb waves can be strengthened. To verify the proposed signal construction and damage imaging methods, the experimental and numerical validation is finally arranged on the aluminum plates. PMID:28772366

  14. Signal Construction-Based Dispersion Compensation of Lamb Waves Considering Signal Waveform and Amplitude Spectrum Preservation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Wang, Tongguang

    2016-12-23

    The results of Lamb wave identification for the aerospace structures could be easily affected by the nonlinear-dispersion characteristics. In this paper, dispersion compensation of Lamb waves is of particular concern. Compared with the similar research works on the traditional signal domain transform methods, this study is based on signal construction from the viewpoint of nonlinear wavenumber linearization. Two compensation methods of linearly-dispersive signal construction (LDSC) and non-dispersive signal construction (NDSC) are proposed. Furthermore, to improve the compensation effect, the influence of the signal construction process on the other crucial signal properties, including the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum, is considered during the investigation. The linear-dispersion and non-dispersion effects are firstly analyzed. Then, after the basic signal construction principle is explored, the numerical realization of LDSC and NDSC is discussed, in which the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum preservation is especially regarded. Subsequently, associated with the delay-and-sum algorithm, LDSC or NDSC is employed for high spatial resolution damage imaging, so that the adjacent multi-damage or quantitative imaging capacity of Lamb waves can be strengthened. To verify the proposed signal construction and damage imaging methods, the experimental and numerical validation is finally arranged on the aluminum plates.

  15. Nonlinear Lamb waves for fatigue damage identification in FRP-reinforced steel plates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yikuan; Guan, Ruiqi; Lu, Ye

    2017-09-01

    A nonlinear Lamb-wave-based method for fatigue crack detection in steel plates with and without carbon fibre reinforcement polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is presented in this study. Both numerical simulation and experimental evaluation were performed for Lamb wave propagation and its interaction with a fatigue crack on these two steel plate types. With the generation of the second harmonic, the damage-induced wave nonlinearities were identified by surface-bonded piezoelectric sensors. Numerical simulation revealed that the damage-induced wave component at the second harmonic was slightly affected by the existence of CFRP laminate, although the total wave energy was decreased because of wave leakage into the CFRP laminate. Due to unavoidable nonlinearity from the experimental environments, it was impractical to directly extract the time-of-flight of the second harmonic for locating the crack. To this end, the correlation coefficient of benchmark and signal with damage at double frequency in the time domain was calculated, based on which an imaging method was introduced to locate the fatigue crack in steel plates with and without CFRP laminates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lamb wave detection of limpet mines on ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Jill; Hinders, Mark; Friedman, Adam

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the use of ultrasonic guided waves for identifying the mass loading due to underwater limpet mines on ship hulls. The Dynamic Wavelet Fingerprint Technique (DFWT) is used to render the guided wave mode information in two-dimensional binary images because the waveform features of interest are too subtle to identify in time domain. The use of wavelets allows both time and scale features from the original signals to be retained, and image processing can be used to automatically extract features that correspond to the arrival times of the guided wave modes. For further understanding of how the guided wave modes propagate through the real structures, a parallel processing, 3D elastic wave simulation is developed using the finite integration technique (EFIT). This full field, technique models situations that are too complex for analytical solutions, such as built up 3D structures. The simulations have produced informative visualizations of the guided wave modes in the structures as well as mimicking directly the output from sensors placed in the simulation space for direct comparison to experiments. Results from both drydock and in-water experiments with dummy mines are also shown.

  17. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Semere A.; School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455; Li, Huan

    2015-11-16

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Ourmore » system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.« less

  18. Extremely low-frequency Lamb wave band gaps in a sandwich phononic crystal thin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Wu, Jiu Hui; Liu, Zhangyi; Fu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a kind of sandwich phononic crystal (PC) plate with silicon rubber scatterers embedded in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix is proposed to demonstrate its low-frequency Lamb wave band gap (BG) characteristics. The dispersion relationship and the displacement vector fields of the basic slab modes and the locally resonant modes are investigated to show the BG formation mechanism. The anti-symmetric Lamb wave BG is further studied due to its important function in reducing vibration. The analysis on the BG characteristics of the PC through changing their geometrical parameters is performed. By optimizing the structure, a sandwich PC plate with a thickness of only 3 mm and a lower boundary (as low as 23.9 Hz) of the first anti-symmetric BG is designed. Finally, sound insulation experiment on a sandwich PC plate with the thickness of only 2.5 mm is conducted, showing satisfactory noise reduction effect in the frequency range of the anti-symmetric Lamb BG. Therefore, this kind of sandwich PC plate has potential applications in controlling vibration and noise in low-frequency ranges.

  19. Detection of crack in thin cylindrical pipes using piezo-actuated Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tua, P. S.; Quek, S. T.; Wang, Q.

    2005-05-01

    The detection of cracks in beams and plates using piezo-actuated Lamb waves has been presented in the last SPIE Symposium. This paper is an extension of the technique to pipes. It has been shown that for a thin-walled pipe, the assumption of Lamb wave propagation is valid. Such waves can be efficiently excited using piezoceramic transducers (PZT) with good control on the pulse characteristics to assess the health of structural components, such as the presence of cracks. In this paper, a systematic methodology to detect and locate cracks in homogenous cylinder/pipe based on the time-of-flight and strength analysis of propagating Lamb wave is proposed. By observing the attenuation in strength of the direct wave incidence at the sensor, the presence of a crack along the propagation path can be determined. At least four actuation positions, two on each end of the pipe segment of interest, are needed to exhaustively interrogate for the presence of cracks. The detailed procedure for locating and tracing the geometry of the crack(s) is described. It is shown experimentally that the detection using circular PZT actuator and sensor, with dimensions of 5.0 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick, is possible for an aluminum pipe segment of up to at least 4.0 m in length. The proposed methodology is also explored for the aluminum pipe under more practical situations, such as burying it in sand with only the actuator and sensor positions exposed. Experimental results obtained showed the feasibility of detecting the 'concealed' crack on the pipe buried in sand.

  20. Scattering of Lamb waves by cracks in a composite graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratton, Robert; Datta, Subhendu K.; Shah, Arvind

    1990-01-01

    Recent investigations of space construction techniques have explored the used of composite materials in the construction of space stations and platforms. These composites offer superior strength to weight ratio and are thermally stable. For example, a composite material being considered is laminates of graphite fibers in an epoxy matrix. The overall effective elastic constants of such a medium can be calculated from fiber and matrix properties by using an effective modulus theory as shown in Datta, el. al. The investigation of propagation and scattering of elastic waves in composite materials is necessary in order to develop an ability to characterize cracks and predict the reliability of composite structures. The objective of this investigation is the characterization of a surface breaking crack by ultrasonic techniques. In particular, the use of Lamb waves for this purpose is studied here. The Lamb waves travel through the plate, encountering a crack, and scatter. Of interest is the modeling of the scattered wave in terms of the Lamb wave modes. The direct problem of propagation and scattering of Lamb waves by a surface breaking crack has been analyzed. This would permit an experimentalist to characterize the crack by comparing the measured response to the analytical model. The plate is assumed to be infinite in the x and y directions with a constant thickness in the z direction. The top and bottom surfaces are traction free. Solving the governing wave equations and using the stress-free boundary conditions results in the dispersion equation. This equation yields the guided modes in the homogeneous plate. The theoretical model is a hybrid method that combines analytical and finite elements techniques to describe the scattered displacements. A finite region containing the defects is discretized by finite elements. Outside the local region, the far field solution is expressed as a Fourier summation of the guided modes obtained from the dispersion equation

  1. Non-contact feature detection using ultrasonic Lamb waves

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-06-28

    Apparatus and method for non-contact ultrasonic detection of features on or within the walls of hollow pipes are described. An air-coupled, high-power ultrasonic transducer for generating guided waves in the pipe wall, and a high-sensitivity, air-coupled transducer for detecting these waves, are disposed at a distance apart and at chosen angle with respect to the surface of the pipe, either inside of or outside of the pipe. Measurements may be made in reflection or transmission modes depending on the relative position of the transducers and the pipe. Data are taken by sweeping the frequency of the incident ultrasonic waves, using a tracking narrow-band filter to reduce detected noise, and transforming the frequency domain data into the time domain using fast Fourier transformation, if required.

  2. Relationships of the group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave with bone properties in cortical bone in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Il; Yoon, Suk Wang

    2017-04-11

    The present study aims to investigate the feasibility of using the time-reversed Lamb wave as a new method for noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones. The group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave launched by using the modified time reversal method was measured in 15 bovine tibiae, and their correlations with the bone properties of the tibia were examined. The group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave showed significant positive correlations with the bone properties (r=0.55-0.81). The best univariate predictor of the group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave was the cortical thickness, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient (r 2 ) of 0.64. These results imply that the group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave, in addition to the velocities of the first arriving signal and the slow guided wave, could potentially be used as a discriminator for osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tunable modulation of refracted lamb wave front facilitated by adaptive elastic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shilong; Xu, Jiawen; Tang, J.

    2018-01-01

    This letter reports designs of adaptive metasurfaces capable of modulating incoming wave fronts of elastic waves through electromechanical-tuning of their cells. The proposed elastic metasurfaces are composed of arrayed piezoelectric units with individually connected negative capacitance elements that are online tunable. By adjusting the negative capacitances properly, accurately formed, discontinuous phase profiles along the elastic metasurfaces can be achieved. Subsequently, anomalous refraction with various angles can be realized on the transmitted lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave. Moreover, designs to facilitate planar focal lenses and source illusion devices can also be accomplished. The proposed flexible and versatile strategy to manipulate elastic waves has potential applications ranging from structural fault detection to vibration/noise control.

  4. Scattering of Lamb waves in a composite plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratton, Robert; Datta, Subhendu; Shah, Arvind

    1991-01-01

    A combined analytical and finite element technique is developed to gain a better understanding of the scattering of elastic waves by defects. This hybrid method is capable of predicting scattered displacements from arbitrary shaped defects as well as inclusions of different material. The continuity of traction and displacements at the boundaries of the two areas provided the necessary equations to find the nodal displacements and expansion coefficients. Results clearly illustrate the influence of increasing crack depth on the scattered signal.

  5. Statistical lamb wave localization based on extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    Guided wave localization methods based on delay-and-sum imaging, matched field processing, and other techniques have been designed and researched to create images that locate and describe structural damage. The maximum value of these images typically represent an estimated damage location. Yet, it is often unclear if this maximum value, or any other value in the image, is a statistically significant indicator of damage. Furthermore, there are currently few, if any, approaches to assess the statistical significance of guided wave localization images. As a result, we present statistical delay-and-sum and statistical matched field processing localization methods to create statistically significant images of damage. Our framework uses constant rate of false alarm statistics and extreme value theory to detect damage with little prior information. We demonstrate our methods with in situ guided wave data from an aluminum plate to detect two 0.75 cm diameter holes. Our results show an expected improvement in statistical significance as the number of sensors increase. With seventeen sensors, both methods successfully detect damage with statistical significance.

  6. Real-time nondestructive evaluation of fiber composite laminates using low-frequency Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    díAz Valdés, Sergio H.; Soutis, Costas

    2002-05-01

    Amid the nondestructive evaluation techniques available for the inspection of composite materials, only a few are suitable for implementation while the component is in service. The investigation examines the application of Lamb waves at low-frequency-thickness products for the detection of delaminations in thick composite laminates. Surface-mounted piezoelectric devices were excited with a tone burst to generate elastic waves in the structure. Experiments were carried out on composite beam specimens where wave propagation distances over 2 m were achieved and artificially induced delaminations as small as 1 cm2 were successfully identified. The feasibility of employing piezoelectric devices for the development of smart structures, where a small and lightweight transducer system design is required, has been demonstrated. The resonance spectrum method, which is based on the study of spectra obtained by forced mechanical resonance of samples using sine-sweep excitation, has been proposed as a technique for measuring the Ao Lamb mode phase velocity. The finite-element method was also used to investigate qualitatively the dynamic response of laminates to wave propagation. Several locations and spatial distribution of the actuators were examined showing the advantages of using transducers arrays for the inspection of large structures.

  7. Negative group velocity Lamb waves on plates and applications to the scattering of sound by shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2003-05-01

    Symmetric Lamb waves on plates exhibit anomalies for certain regions of frequency. The phase velocity appears to be double-valued [M. F. Werby and H. Überall, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2686-2691 (2002)] with one of the branches having a negative group velocity relative to the corresponding phase velocity. The classification of the symmetric plate modes for frequencies appearing to have a double-valued phase velocity is reviewed here. The complication of a double-valued velocity is avoided by examining mode orthogonality and the complex wave-number spectra. Various authors have noted an enhancement in the backscattering of sound by elastic shells in water that occurs for frequencies where symmetric leaky Lamb waves (generalized to case of a shell) have contra-directed group and phase velocities. The ray diagram for negative group velocity contributions to the scattering by shells [G. Kaduchak, D. H. Hughes, and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3704-3714 (1994)] is unusual since for this type of mode the energy on the shell flows in the opposite direction of the wave vector. Circumnavigation of the shell is not required for the leaky ray to be backward directed.

  8. A New Omni-Directional EMAT for Ultrasonic Lamb Wave Tomography Imaging of Metallic Plate Defects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Songling; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Shen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new omni-directional electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for the ultrasonic Lamb wave (ULW) tomography imaging (TI) of defects in metallic plates. The proposed EMAT is composed of a permanent magnet and a coil with a contra-flexure structure. This new EMAT coil structure is used for omni-directional ULW transmission and reception and ULW TI for the first time. The theoretical background and the working principles of this EMAT are presented and analyzed. The experimental results of its use on a 3 mm thick aluminum plate indicate that the EMAT with a contra-flexure coil (CFC) can transmit and receive a pure single A0 mode ULW with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, the extraction of the projection data used for ULW TI may be performed accurately. The circumferential consistency of the projection data is only slightly influenced by the distortion of the eddy current field that is induced by the new CFC with an irregular shape. When the new EMAT array is used for ULW TI using the cross-hole method and SIRT arithmetic, a desirable imaging quality can be achieved, and the estimated size of an artificial corrosion defect agreed well with its actual value. The relation between the reconstruction resolution and the number of the new EMATs used is analyzed. More TI experiments are carried out when the aluminum plate defect is in two different locations relative to the EMAT array, for the further investigation of the performances of the new EMATs. PMID:24561398

  9. Measurement of leaky Lamb wave dispersion curves with application on coating characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yung-Chun; Cheng, Sheng Wen

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a new measurement system for measuring dispersion curves of leaky Lamb waves. The measurement system is based on a focusing PVDF transducer, the defocusing measurement, the V(f,z) waveform processing method, and an image displaying technique. The measurement system is applied for the determination of thin-film elastic properties, namely Young's modulus and shear modulus, by the inversion of dispersion curves measured from a thin-film/plate configuration. Elastic constants of electro-deposited nickel layers are determined with this method.

  10. Lamb Wave Propagation in a Restricted Geometry Composite PI-Joint Specimen (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    adhesive, and were located along the length and height of the specimen as depicted in Figure 3. The sensors were 6.35 mm round disks of PZT , with a...in both cases for R1, R2, and R3. 3D Finite Element Model Geometry 200mm length 50mm width 140mm height x z y PZT Actuation Sensor...health monitoring using scanning laser vibrometry: III. Lamb waves for fatigue crack detection”, Smart Mater. Struct., Vol. 14, No. 6, 2005. 16

  11. Theoretical investigation of Lamb wave characteristics in AlN/3C-SiC composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yung-Yu; Pisano, Albert P.

    2010-11-01

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) layer can provide advantages of high frequency and high quality factor for Lamb wave devices due to the superior properties of high acoustic velocity and low acoustic loss. In this study, Lamb wave propagation characteristics in composite membranes consisting of a c-axis oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) film and an epitaxial 3C-SiC (100) layer are investigated by theoretical calculation. The lowest symmetric mode Lamb wave propagating along the [011] direction exhibits a phase velocity higher than 10 000 m/s and an electromechanical coupling coefficient above 2% in the AlN/3C-SiC multilayered membranes.

  12. Lamb wave propagation in a restricted geometry composite pi-joint specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackshire, James L.; Soni, Som

    2012-05-01

    The propagation of elastic waves in a material can involve a number of complex physical phenomena, resulting in both subtle and dramatic effects on detected signal content. In recent years, the use of advanced methods for characterizing and imaging elastic wave propagation and scattering processes has increased, where for example the use of scanning laser vibrometry and advanced computational models have been used very effectively to identify propagating modes, scattering phenomena, and damage feature interactions. In the present effort, the propagation of Lamb waves within a narrow, constrained geometry composite pi-joint structure are studied using 3D finite element models and scanning laser vibrometry measurements, where the effects of varying sample thickness, complex joint curvatures, and restricted structure geometries are highlighted, and a direct comparison of computational and experimental results are provided for simulated and realistic geometry composite pi-joint samples.

  13. Experimental assessment of the influence of welding process parameters on Lamb wave transmission across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochôa, Pedro; Fernandez Villegas, Irene; Groves, Roger M.; Benedictus, Rinze

    2018-01-01

    One of the advantages of thermoplastic composites relative to their thermoset counterparts is the possibility of assembling components through welding. Ultrasonic welding in particular is very promising for industrialization. However, uncertainty in the fatigue and fracture behaviour of composites is still an obstacle to the full utilisation of these materials. Health monitoring is then of vital importance, and Lamb wave techniques have been widely recognised as some of the most promising approaches for that end. This paper presents the first experimental study about the influence of welding travel on the transmission of Lamb waves across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints in single-lap configuration. The main aim of this research is to start to understand how guided waves interact with the internal structure of ultrasonic welds, so that benign, manufacturing-related structural features can be distinguished from damaging ones in signal interpretation. The power transmission coefficient and the correlation coefficient proved to be suitable for analysing the wave propagation phenomena, allowing quantitative identification of small variations of weld-line thickness and intermolecular diffusion at the weld interface. The conclusions are used to develop a tentative damage detection criterion which can later on assist the design of a Lamb wave based structural health monitoring system for thermoplastic composite structures. The Lamb wave test results are backed up by phased-array inspections, which also provide some extra insight on the internal structure of ultrasonic welds.

  14. Disbond Detection in Bonded Aluminum Joints Using Lamb Wave Amplitude and Time-of-Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Keun J.; Johnston, Patrick H.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, there was a need of developing efficient nondestructive integrity assessment techniques for large area laminate structures, such as detections of disbond, crack, and corrosion in fuselage of an aircraft. Together with the improving tomography and computer technologies, progress has been made in many fields in NDE towards a faster inspection. Ultrasonically, Lamb wave is considered to be a candidate for large area inspections based on its capability of propagating a relatively long distance in thin plates and its media-thickness-dependent propagation properties. Moreover, the occurence of disbonds, corrosion, and even cracks often results in reduction of effective thickness of a laminate. The idea is to assess the condition of a structure by sensing the response of propagating Lamb waves to these flaws over long path length. A series of tests in the sequence of disbond, corrosion, and crack have been done on various types of specimen to investigate the feasibility of this approach. This paper will present some of the test results for disbond detection on aluminum lap splice joints.

  15. Lamb wave based damage detection using Matching Pursuit and Support Vector Machine classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sushant; Mitra, Mira

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the suitability of using Matching Pursuit (MP) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for damage detection using Lamb wave response of thin aluminium plate is explored. Lamb wave response of thin aluminium plate with or without damage is simulated using finite element. Simulations are carried out at different frequencies for various kinds of damage. The procedure is divided into two parts - signal processing and machine learning. Firstly, MP is used for denoising and to maintain the sparsity of the dataset. In this study, MP is extended by using a combination of time-frequency functions as the dictionary and is deployed in two stages. Selection of a particular type of atoms lead to extraction of important features while maintaining the sparsity of the waveform. The resultant waveform is then passed as input data for SVM classifier. SVM is used to detect the location of the potential damage from the reduced data. The study demonstrates that SVM is a robust classifier in presence of noise and more efficient as compared to Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Out-of-sample data is used for the validation of the trained and tested classifier. Trained classifiers are found successful in detection of the damage with more than 95% detection rate.

  16. Real-Time Leaky Lamb Wave Spectrum Measurement and Its Application to NDE of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1999-01-01

    Numerous analytical and theoretical studies of the behavior of leaky Lamb waves (LLW) in composite materials were documented in the literature. One of the key issues that are constraining the application of this method as a practical tool is the amount of data that needs to be acquired and the slow process that is involved with such experiments. Recently, a methodology that allows quasi real-time acquisition of LLW dispersion data was developed. At each angle of incidence the reflection spectrum is available in real time from the experimental setup and it can be used for rapid detection of the defects. This technique can be used to rapidly acquire the various plate wave modes along various angles of incidence for the characterization of the material elastic properties. The experimental method and data acquisition technique will be described in this paper. Experimental data was used to examine a series of flaws including porosity and delaminations and demonstrated the efficiency of the developed technique.

  17. Optimizing a spectral element for modeling PZT-induced Lamb wave propagation in thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sungwon; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Use of surface-mounted piezoelectric actuators to generate acoustic ultrasound has been demonstrated to be a key component of built-in nondestructive detection evaluation (NDE) techniques, which can automatically inspect and interrogate damage in hard-to-access areas in real time without disassembly of the structural parts. However, piezoelectric actuators create complex waves, which propagate through the structure. Having the capability to model piezoelectric actuator-induced wave propagation and understanding its physics are essential to developing advanced algorithms for the built-in NDE techniques. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to develop an efficient hybrid spectral element for modeling piezoelectric actuator-induced high-frequency wave propagation in thin plates. With the hybrid element we take advantage of both a high-order spectral element in the in-plane direction and a linear finite element in the thickness direction in order to efficiently analyze Lamb wave propagation in thin plates. The hybrid spectral element out-performs other elements in terms of leading to significantly faster computation and smaller memory requirements. Use of the hybrid spectral element is proven to be an efficient technique for modeling PZT-induced (PZT: lead zirconate titanate) wave propagation in thin plates. The element enables fundamental understanding of PZT-induced wave propagation.

  18. Composite Materials NDE Using Enhanced Leaky Lamb Wave Dispersion Data Acquisition Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mal, Ajit; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu

    1999-01-01

    The leaky Lamb wave (LLW) technique is approaching a maturity level that is making it an attractive quantitative NDE tool for composites and bonded joints. Since it was first observed in 1982, the phenomenon has been studied extensively, particularly in composite materials. The wave is induced by oblique insonification using a pitch-catch arrangement and the plate wave modes are detected by identifying minima in the reflected spectra to obtain the dispersion data. The wave behavior in multi-orientation laminates has been well documented and corroborated experimentally with high accuracy. The sensitivity of the wave to the elastic constants of the material and to the boundary conditions led to the capability to measure the elastic properties of bonded joints. Recently, the authors significantly enhanced the LLW method's capability by increasing the speed of the data acquisition, the number of modes that can be identified and the accuracy of the data inversion. In spite of the theoretical and experimental progress, methods that employ oblique insonification of composites are still not being applied as standard industrial NDE methods. The authors investigated the issues that are hampering the transition of the LLW to industrial applications and identified 4 key issues. The current capability of the method and the nature of these issues are described in this paper.

  19. Influence of stacking sequence on scattering characteristics of the fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb wave at through holes in composite laminates.

    PubMed

    Veidt, Martin; Ng, Ching-Tai

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the scattering characteristics of the fundamental anti-symmetric (A(0)) Lamb wave at through holes in composite laminates. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) simulations and experimental measurements are used to study the physical phenomenon. Unidirectional, bidirectional, and quasi-isotropic composite laminates are considered in the study. The influence of different hole diameter to wavelength aspect ratios and different stacking sequences on wave scattering characteristics are investigated. The results show that amplitudes and directivity distribution of the scattered Lamb wave depend on these parameters. In the case of quasi-isotropic composite laminates, the scattering directivity patterns are dominated by the fiber orientation of the outer layers and are quite different for composite laminates with the same number of laminae but different stacking sequence. The study provides improved physical insight into the scattering phenomena at through holes in composite laminates, which is essential to develop, validate, and optimize guided wave damage detection and characterization techniques. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  20. A pulse coding and decoding strategy to perform Lamb wave inspections using simultaneously multiple actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Luca; Marzani, Alessandro; Moll, Jochen; Kudela, Paweł; Radzieński, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2017-07-01

    The performance of Lamb wave based monitoring systems, both in terms of diagnosis time and data complexity, can be enhanced by increasing the number of transducers used to actuate simultaneously the guided waves in the inspected medium. However, in case of multiple simultaneously-operated actuators the interference among the excited wave modes within the acquired signals has to be considered for the further processing. To this aim, in this work a code division strategy based on the Warped Frequency Transform is presented. At first, the proposed procedure encodes actuation pulses using Gold sequences. Next, for each considered actuator the acquired signals are compensated from dispersion by cross correlating the warped version of the actuated and received signals. Compensated signals form the base for a final wavenumber imaging meant at emphasizing defects and or anomalies by removing incident wavefield and edge reflections. The proposed strategy is tested numerically, and validated through an experiment in which guided waves are actuated in a plate by four piezoelectric transducers operating simultaneously.

  1. Broadband attenuation of Lamb waves through a periodic array of thin rectangular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Pennec, Yan; Marchal, Rémi; Bonello, Bernard; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2014-10-01

    We study theoretically subwavelength physical phenomena, such as resonant transmission and broadband sound shielding for Lamb waves propagating in an acoustic metamaterial made of a thin plate drilled with one or two row(s) of rectangular holes. The resonances and antiresonances of periodically arranged rectangular junctions separated by holes are investigated as a function of the geometrical parameters of the junctions. With one and two row(s) of holes, high frequency specific features in the transmission coefficient are explained in terms of a coupling of incident waves with both Fabry-Perot oscillations inside the junctions and induced surface acoustic waves between the homogeneous part of the plate and the row of holes. With two rows of holes, low frequency peaks and dips appear in the transmission spectrum. The choice of the distance between the two rows of holes allows the realization of a broadband low frequency acoustic shielding with attenuation over 99% for symmetric waves in a wide low frequency range and over 90% for antisymmetric ones. The origin of the transmission gap is discussed in terms of localized modes of the "H" element made by the junctions, connecting the two homogeneous parts of the plate.

  2. Damage detection in composite panels based on mode-converted Lamb waves sensed using 3D laser scanning vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczonka, Łukasz; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Staszewski, Wiesław J.; Barnoncel, David; Pérès, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces damage identification approach based on guided ultrasonic waves and 3D laser Doppler vibrometry. The method is based on the fact that the symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb wave modes differ in amplitude of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations. Moreover, the modes differ also in group velocities and normally they are well separated in time. For a given time window both modes can occur simultaneously only close to the wave source or to a defect that leads to mode conversion. By making the comparison between the in-plane and out-of-plane wave vector components the detection of mode conversion is possible, allowing for superior and reliable damage detection. Experimental verification of the proposed damage identification procedure is performed on fuel tank elements of Reusable Launch Vehicles designed for space exploration. Lamb waves are excited using low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers and 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer is used to characterize the Lamb wave propagation field. The paper presents theoretical background of the proposed damage identification technique as well as experimental arrangements and results.

  3. Lamb Wave Stiffness Characterization of Composites Undergoing Thermal-Mechanical Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of new, advanced composite materials into aviation systems requires a thorough understanding of the long term effects of combined thermal and mechanical loading upon those materials. Analytical methods investigating the effects of intense thermal heating combined with mechanical loading have been investigated. The damage mechanisms and fatigue lives were dependent on test parameters as well as stress levels. Castelli, et al. identified matrix dominated failure modes for out-of-phase cycling and fiber dominated damage modes for in-phase cycling. In recent years, ultrasonic methods have been developed that can measure the mechanical stiffness of composites. To help evaluate the effect of aging, a suitably designed Lamb wave measurement system is being used to obtain bending and out-of-plane stiffness coefficients of composite laminates undergoing thermal-mechanical loading. The system works by exciting an antisymmetric Lamb wave and calculating the velocity at each frequency from the known transducer separation and the measured time-of-flight. The same peak in the waveforms received at various distances is used to measure the time difference between the signals. The velocity measurements are accurate and repeatable to within 1% resulting in reconstructed stiffness values repeatable to within 4%. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the dispersion curve. A mechanical scanner is used to move the sensors over the surface to map the time-of-flight, velocity, or stiffnesses of the entire specimen. Access to only one side of the material is required and no immersion or couplants are required because the sensors are dry coupled to the surface of the plate. In this study, the elastic stiffnesses D(sub 11), D(sub 22), A(sub 44), and A(sub 55) as well as time-of-flight measurements for composite samples that have undergone combined thermal and mechanical aging for

  4. Analysis of Critically Refracted Longitudinal and Lamb Waves for Stress Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ning

    The global production of metal, in particular, steel and aluminum keeps increasing. This material is used with various fabrication processes, such as, welding, forging, and rolling that can induce stresses in the material that can subsequently impact product performance and cause phenomena such as cracking and corrosion. When investigating plate materials it is necessary to map both texture and stress under a range of loading conditions. To address these needs a wide range of both destructive and nondestructive tools have been used. One family of methods are those based on ultrasonic measurements that relate ultrasonic velocity to properties, in particular stress. Two particular challenges are faced which are the relative insensitivity of compression and shear waves to stress and that there are also other factors which can also change velocity and these are temperature, texture and grain size. This project focused on an analysis of ultrasonic velocity measurements and specifically ways to improve performance and capabilities for stress characterization. Two approaches were considered and are reported: the critically refracted ultrasonic longitudinal (LCR) wave and higher order Lamb waves. The LCR wave method was modelled and optimized based on the fact that the sensitivity between waves and stress can reach maximum when they propagate in the same direction. However, in reality this wave typically propagates at an angle to stress, which will decrease its sensitivity. This thesis reports a numerical model used to investigate the transducers parameters that can influence the directivity of the LCR wave and hence enable performance optimization when used for industrial applications. An orthogonal test method is used to study the transducer parameters which influence the LCR wave beams and this method provides a design tool that can be used to study and optimize multiple parameter experiments and identify which parameter or parameters are of most significance. The

  5. Lamb wave band gaps in a double-sided phononic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Tian-Ning; Yu, Kun-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Peng

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the theoretical investigation of the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave in a phononic crystal structure constituted by a square array of cylindrical stubs deposited on both sides of a thin homogeneous plate. The dispersion relations, the power transmission spectra, and the displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied by using the finite-element method. We investigate the evolution of band gaps in the double-sided phononic plate with stub height on both sides arranged from an asymmetrical distribution to a symmetrical distribution gradually. Numerical results show that as the double stubs in a unit cell arranged more symmetrically on both sides, band width shifts, new band gaps appear, and the bands become flat due to localized resonant modes which couple with plate modes. Specially, more band gaps and flat bands can be found in the symmetrical system as a result of local resonances of the stubs which interact in a stronger way with the plate modes. Moreover, the symmetrical double-sided plate exhibits lower and smaller band gap than that of the asymmetrical plate. These propagation properties of elastic or acoustic waves in the double-sided plate can potentially be utilized to generate filters, slow the group velocity, low-frequency sound insulation, and design acoustic sensors.

  6. Simulation of Detecting Damage in Composite Stiffened Panel Using Lamb Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Ross, Richard W.; Huang, Guo L.; Yuan, Fuh G.

    2013-01-01

    Lamb wave damage detection in a composite stiffened panel is simulated by performing explicit transient dynamic finite element analyses and using signal imaging techniques. This virtual test process does not need to use real structures, actuators/sensors, or laboratory equipment. Quasi-isotropic laminates are used for the stiffened panels. Two types of damage are studied. One type is a damage in the skin bay and the other type is a debond between the stiffener flange and the skin. Innovative approaches for identifying the damage location and imaging the damage were developed. The damage location is identified by finding the intersection of the damage locus and the path of the time reversal wave packet re-emitted from the sensor nodes. The damage locus is a circle that envelops the potential damage locations. Its center is at the actuator location and its radius is computed by multiplying the group velocity by the time of flight to damage. To create a damage image for estimating the size of damage, a group of nodes in the neighborhood of the damage location is identified for applying an image condition. The image condition, computed at a finite element node, is the zero-lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) of the time-reversed incident wave signal and the time reversal wave signal from the sensor nodes. This damage imaging process is computationally efficient since only the ZLCC values of a small amount of nodes in the neighborhood of the identified damage location are computed instead of those of the full model.

  7. Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo

    2016-03-03

    Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack length and uses a particle filter to deal with the crack evolution and monitoring uncertainties. The piezoelectric transducers (PZTs)-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The state space model relating to crack propagation is established by the data-driven and finite element methods. Fatigue experiments performed on hole-edge crack specimens have validated the advantages of the proposed method.

  8. Characterization of Degradation Progressive in Composite Laminates Subjected to Thermal Fatigue and Moisture Diffusion by Lamb Waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Weibin; Xu, Chunguang; Cho, Younho

    2016-02-19

    Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to investigate the coupling damages mechanism and characterize the degradation evolution of composite laminates for the particular application. In this paper, the degradation evolution in unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to thermal fatigue and moisture absorption is characterized by Lamb waves. The decrease rate of Lamb wave velocity is used to track the degradation evolution in the specimens. The results show that there are two stages for the progressive degradation of composites under the coupling effect of thermal cyclic loading and moisture diffusion. The present work provides an alternative to monitoring the degradation evolution of in-service aircraft composite Laminates.

  9. Mode separation in frequency-wavenumber domain through compressed sensing of far-field Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Luo, Zhi

    2017-07-01

    This method based on Lamb waves shows great potential for long-range damage detection. Mode superposition resulting from multi-modal and dispersive characteristics makes signal interpretation and damage feature extraction difficult. Mode separation in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain using a 1D sparse sensing array is a promising solution. However, due to the lack of prior knowledge about damage location, this method based on 1D linear measurement, for the mode extraction of arbitrary reflections caused by defects that are not in line with the sensor array, is restricted. In this paper, an improved compressed sensing method under the far-field assumption is established, which is beneficial to the reconstruction of reflections in the f-k domain. Hence, multiple components consisting of structure and damage features could be recovered via a limited number of measurements. Subsequently, a mode sweeping process based on theoretical dispersion curves has been designed for mode characterization and direction of arrival estimation. Moreover, 2D f-k filtering and inverse transforms are applied to the reconstructed f-k distribution in order to extract the purified mode of interest. As a result, overlapping waveforms can be separated and the direction of defects can be estimated. A uniform linear sensor array consisting of 16 laser excitations is finally employed for experimental investigations and the results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. Design and characterization of an ultrasonic lamb-wave power delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kural, Aleksander; Pullin, Rhys; Holford, Karen; Lees, Jonathan; Naylon, Jack; Paget, Christophe; Featherston, Carol

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a novel design for an ultrasonic power transmission system designed for use in aircraft structural monitoring systems is described. The prototype system uses ultrasonic Lamb waves to carry energy along plates, such as those used in aircraft structures, and commercially available piezoelectric patch transducers as the transmitter and receiver. This sets it apart from other acoustic power transmission systems reported to date. The optimum configuration transmitted 12.7 mW of power across a distance of 54 cm in a 1.5-mm-thick aluminum plate, while being driven by a 20-Vpp, 35-kHz sinusoidal electric signal. This is in the same order of magnitude as the power required by the wireless sensors nodes of a structural health monitoring system currently being developed by Cardiff University and its partners. Thus, the power transmission system can be considered a viable component of the power source combination considered for the sensor nodes, which will also include vibration and thermal energy harvesting. The paper describes the design and optimization of the transmission and reception circuits with the use of inductive compensation. The use of laser vibrometry to characterize the transducers and to understand the signal propagation between them is also reported.

  11. Scattering matrices of Lamb waves at irregular surface and void defects.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feilong; Shen, Jianzhong; Lin, Shuyu

    2012-08-01

    Time-harmonic solution of Lamb wave scattering in a plane-strain waveguide with irregular thickness is investigated based on stair-step discretization and stepwise mode matching. The transfer relations of the transmission matrices and reflection matrices are derived in both directions of the waveguide. With these, an explicit expression of the scattering matrix is derived. When the scattering region of an inner irregular defect is geometrically divided into several parts composed of sub-waveguides with variable thicknesses and void regions with vertical free edges corresponding to the plate surfaces, the scattering matrix of the whole region could then be derived by modal matching along the artificial boundaries, as explicit functions of all the scattering matrices of the sub-waveguides and reflection matrices of the free edges. The effectiveness of the formulation is examined by numerical examples; the calculated scattering coefficients are in good accordance with those obtained from numerical simulation models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental and theoretical study of Rayleigh-Lamb waves in a plate containing a surface-breaking crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paffenholz, Joseph; Fox, Jon W.; Gu, Xiaobai; Jewett, Greg S.; Datta, Subhendu K.

    1990-01-01

    Scattering of Rayleigh-Lamb waves by a normal surface-breaking crack in a plate has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The two-dimensionality of the far field, generated by a ball impact source, is exploited to characterize the source function using a direct integration technique. The scattering of waves generated by this impact source by the crack is subsequently solved by employing a Green's function integral expression for the scattered field coupled with a finite element representation of the near field. It is shown that theoretical results of plate response, both in frequency and time, are similar to those obtained experimentally. Additionally, implication for practical applications are discussed.

  13. Effect of Liquid Viscosity on Dispersion of Quasi-Lamb Waves in an Elastic-Layer-Viscous-Liquid-Layer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, A. N.; Bagno, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    The dispersion curves are constructed and propagation of quasi-Lamb waves are studied for wide range of frequencies based on the Navier -Stokes three-dimensional linearized equations for a viscous liquid and linear equations of the classical theory of elasticity for an elastic layer. For a thick liquid layer, the effect of the viscosity of the liquid and the thickness of elastic and liquid layers on the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of quasi-Lamb modes is analyzed. It is shown that in the case of a thick liquid layer for all modes, there are elastic layers of certain thickness with minimal effect of liquid viscosity on the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of modes. It is also discovered that for some modes, there are both certain thicknesses and certain ranges of thickness where the effect of liquid viscosity on the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of these modes is considerable. We ascertain that liquid viscosity promotes decrease of the penetration depth of the lowest quasi-Lamb mode into the liquid. The developed approach and the obtained results make it possible to ascertain for wave processes the limits of applicability of the model of ideal compressible fluid. Numerical results in the form of graphs are adduced and analyzed.

  14. Effect of Prestresses on the Dispersion of Quasi-Lamb Waves in the System Consisting of an Ideal Liquid Layer and a Compressible Elastic Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagno, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    The propagation of quasi-Lamb waves in a prestrained compressible elastic layer interacting with a layer of an ideal compressible fluid is studied. The three-dimensional equations of linearized elasticity and the assumption of finite strains for the elastic layer and the three-dimensional linearized Euler equations for the fluid are used. The dispersion curves for the quasi-Lamb modes are plotted over a wide frequency range. The effect of prestresses and the thickness of the elastic and liquid layers on the frequency spectrum of normal quasi-Lamb waves is analyzed. The localization properties of the lower quasi-Lamb modes in the elastic-fluid waveguides are studied. The numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and analyzed

  15. Comparative study of electromechanical impedance and Lamb wave techniques for fatigue crack detection and monitoring in metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Say Ian; Liu, Yu; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2012-04-01

    Fatigue cracks often initiate at the weld toes of welded steel connections. Usually, these cracks cannot be identified by the naked eyes. Existing identification methods like dye-penetration test and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) may be useful for detecting fatigue cracks at the weld toes. To apply these non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, the potential sites have to be accessible during inspection. Therefore, there is a need to explore other detection and monitoring techniques for fatigue cracks especially when their locations are inaccessible or cost of access is uneconomical. Electro-mechanical Impedance (EMI) and Lamb wave techniques are two fast growing techniques in the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) community. These techniques use piezoelectric ceramics (PZT) for actuation and sensing. Since the monitoring site is only needed to be accessed once for the instrumentation of the transducers, remote monitoring is made possible. The permanent locations of these transducers also translate to having consistent measurement for monitoring. The main focus of this study is to conduct a comparative investigation on the effectiveness and efficiency of the EMI technique and the Lamb wave technique for successful fatigue crack identification and monitoring of welded steel connections using piezoelectric transducers. A laboratory-sized non-load carrying fillet weld specimen is used in this study. The specimen is subjected to cyclic tensile load and data for both techniques are acquired at stipulated intervals. It can be concluded that the EMI technique is sensitive to the crack initiation phase while the Lamb wave technique correlates well with the crack propagation phase.

  16. Self-action of propagating and standing Lamb waves in the plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear zero-group velocity modes.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Ni, Chenyin; Shen, Zhonghua

    2017-09-01

    An analytical theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous plate material on the Lamb waves near the S 1 zero group velocity point is developed. The theory predicts that the main effect of the hysteretic quadratic nonlinearity consists in the modification of the frequency and the induced absorption of the Lamb modes. The effects of the nonlinear self-action in the propagating and standing Lamb waves are expected to be, respectively, nearly twice and three times stronger than those in the plane propagating acoustic waves. The theory is restricted to the simplest hysteretic nonlinearity, which is influencing only one of the Lamé moduli of the materials. However, possible extensions of the theory to the cases of more general hysteretic nonlinearities are discussed as well as the perspectives of its experimental testing. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous and cracked plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A New Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Design for Generating and Receiving S0 Lamb Waves in Ferromagnetic Steel Plate

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianpeng; Dixon, Steve; Hill, Samuel; Xu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are non-contact, ultrasonic transducers that are usually kept within 5 mm from the sample surface to obtain a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). One important issue associated with operation on a ferromagnetic plate is that the strong attraction force from the magnet can affect measurements and make scanning difficult. This paper investigates a method to generate fundamental, symmetric Lamb waves on a ferromagnetic plate. A coil-only, low-weight, generation EMAT is designed and investigated, operating at lift-offs of over 5 mm. Another design of an EMAT is investigated using a rectangular magnet with a much higher lift-off than the coil, of up to 19 mm. This results in a much lower force between the EMAT and sample, making scanning the EMAT much easier. PMID:28471377

  18. Corrosion and erosion monitoring in plates and pipes using constant group velocity Lamb wave inspection.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter B; Simonetti, Francesco; Instanes, Geir

    2014-09-01

    Recent improvements in tomographic reconstruction techniques generated a renewed interest in short-range ultrasonic guided wave inspection for real-time monitoring of internal corrosion and erosion in pipes and other plate-like structures. Emerging evidence suggests that in most cases the fundamental asymmetric A0 mode holds a distinct advantage over the earlier market leader fundamental symmetric S0 mode. Most existing A0 mode inspections operate at relatively low inspection frequencies where the mode is highly dispersive therefore very sensitive to variations in wall thickness. This paper examines the potential advantages of increasing the inspection frequency to the so-called constant group velocity (CGV) point where the group velocity remains essentially constant over a wide range of wall thickness variation, but the phase velocity is still dispersive enough to allow accurate wall thickness assessment from phase angle measurements. This paper shows that in the CGV region the crucial issue of temperature correction becomes especially simple, which is particularly beneficial when higher-order helical modes are also exploited for tomography. One disadvantage of working at such relatively high inspection frequency is that, as the slower A0 mode becomes faster and less dispersive, the competing faster S0 mode becomes slower and more dispersive. At higher inspection frequencies these modes cannot be separated any longer based on their vibration polarization only, which is mostly tangential for the S0 mode while mostly normal for the A0 at low frequencies, as the two modes become more similar as the frequency increases. Therefore, we propose a novel method for suppressing the unwanted S0 mode based on the Poisson effect of the material by optimizing the angle of inclination of the equivalent transduction force of the Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) used for generation and detection purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Smart Sound Processing for Defect Sizing in Pipelines Using EMAT Actuator Based Multi-Frequency Lamb Waves

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Joaquín; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Romero-Camacho, Antonio; Jiménez-Garrido, Jesús Antonio; García-Benavides, Víctor

    2018-01-01

    Pipeline inspection is a topic of particular interest to the companies. Especially important is the defect sizing, which allows them to avoid subsequent costly repairs in their equipment. A solution for this issue is using ultrasonic waves sensed through Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) actuators. The main advantage of this technology is the absence of the need to have direct contact with the surface of the material under investigation, which must be a conductive one. Specifically interesting is the meander-line-coil based Lamb wave generation, since the directivity of the waves allows a study based in the circumferential wrap-around received signal. However, the variety of defect sizes changes the behavior of the signal when it passes through the pipeline. Because of that, it is necessary to apply advanced techniques based on Smart Sound Processing (SSP). These methods involve extracting useful information from the signals sensed with EMAT at different frequencies to obtain nonlinear estimations of the depth of the defect, and to select the features that better estimate the profile of the pipeline. The proposed technique has been tested using both simulated and real signals in steel pipelines, obtaining good results in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). PMID:29518927

  20. Modeling of phase velocity and frequency spectrum of guided Lamb waves in piezoelectric-semiconductor multilayered structures made of AlAs and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-11-01

    Modeling of guided Lamb waves propagation in piezoelectric-semiconductor multilayered structures made of AlAs and GaAs is evaluated in this paper. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is used to calculate dispersion curves, frequency spectrum and field distributions of guided Lamb waves propagation modes in AlAs, GaAs, AlAs/GaAs and AlAs/GaAs/AlAs-1/2/1 structures. In fact, formulations are given for open-circuit surface. Consequently, the polynomial method is numerically stable according to the total number of layers and the frequency range. This analysis is meaningful for the applications of the piezoelectric-semiconductor multilayered structures made of AlAs and GaAs such as in novel acoustic devices.

  1. Theoretical study on the dispersion curves of Lamb waves in piezoelectric-semiconductor sandwich plates GaAs-FGPM-AlAs: Legendre polynomial series expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the propagation of the Lamb waves in the GaAs-FGPM-AlAs sandwich plate is studied. Based on the orthogonal function, Legendre polynomial series expansion is applied along the thickness direction to obtain the Lamb dispersion curves. The convergence and accuracy of this polynomial method are discussed. In addition, the influences of the volume fraction p and thickness hFGPM of the FGPM middle layer on the Lamb dispersion curves are developed. The numerical results also show differences between the characteristics of Lamb dispersion curves in the sandwich plate for various gradient coefficients of the FGPM middle layer. In fact, if the volume fraction p increases the phase velocity will increases and the number of modes will decreases at a given frequency range. All the developments performed in this paper were implemented in Matlab software. The corresponding results presented in this work may have important applications in several industry areas and developing novel acoustic devices such as sensors, electromechanical transducers, actuators and filters.

  2. Legendre polynomial modeling for vibrations of guided Lamb waves modes in [001]c, [011]c and [111]c polarized (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) piezoelectric plates: Physical phenomenon of multiple intertwining of An and Sn modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-12-01

    Guided wave devices have recently become one of the most important applications in the industry because such waves are directly related to applications in sensor technology, chemical sensing, agricultural science, fields of bio-sensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that are used in electronic filters and signal processing. On that account, this numerical investigation aims to study the propagation behavior of guided Lamb waves in a (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 [PMN- x PT] ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric single crystal plate. In fact, the PMN- xPT ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric crystals are being polarized along [001]c, [011]c and [111]c of the cubic reference directions so that the macroscopic symmetries are tetragonal 4 mm, orthogonal mm2 and rhombohedral 3 m, respectively. Both open- and short-circuit conditions are considered. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is proposed to solve the guided Lamb waves equations. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated by comparison with the ordinary differential equation (ODE). The convergence of this method is discussed. Consequently, the converged results are obtained with very low truncation order M . This constitutes a major advantage of the present method when compared with the other matrix methods. There is cross-crossings among multiple modes for both symmetric ( Sn) and the anti-symmetric ( An) guided Lamb waves propagation. A displacement field has been illustrated to judge whether Sn and An modes cross with each other. Moreover, electric displacement, stress field and electric potential for the open-circuit case were presented for both S0 and A0 Lamb modes.

  3. Inspection Method for Contact Condition of Soil on the Surface of Underground Pipe Utilizing Resonance of Transverse Lamb Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Seno, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Koshiro

    1998-05-01

    A nondestructive inspection method to estimate the contact condition of soil on the surface of an underground pipe, utilizing the resonance of a transverse Lamb wave circulating along the pipe wall is proposed.The Q factor of the resonance is considered and measured under some contact conditions by sweeping the vibrating frequency in a 150-mm-inner diameter Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar (FRPM) pipe. It is confirmed that the Q factor shows a clear response to the change in the contact conditions. For example, the Q factor is 8.4 when the pipe is in ideal contact with the soil plane and goes up to 19.2 when a 100-mm-diameter void is located at the contact surface of the soil.The spatial resolution of the proposed inspection method is also measured by moving the sensing point along the direction of laying the length of the pipe into a 85-mm-diameter void. The resolution of the proposed method is estimated at about 50 mm.

  4. On-line crack prognosis in attachment lug using Lamb wave-deterministic resampling particle filter-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Weibo; Qiu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Fatigue crack growth prognosis is important for prolonging service time, improving safety, and reducing maintenance cost in many safety-critical systems, such as in aircraft, wind turbines, bridges, and nuclear plants. Combining fatigue crack growth models with the particle filter (PF) method has proved promising to deal with the uncertainties during fatigue crack growth and reach a more accurate prognosis. However, research on prognosis methods integrating on-line crack monitoring with the PF method is still lacking, as well as experimental verifications. Besides, the PF methods adopted so far are almost all sequential importance resampling-based PFs, which usually encounter sample impoverishment problems, and hence performs poorly. To solve these problems, in this paper, the piezoelectric transducers (PZTs)-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The deterministic resampling PF (DRPF) is proposed to be used in fatigue crack growth prognosis, which can overcome the sample impoverishment problem. The proposed method is verified through fatigue tests of attachment lugs, which are a kind of important joint component in aerospace systems.

  5. Modeling the high-frequency complex modulus of silicone rubber using standing Lamb waves and an inverse finite element method.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Lindahl, Olof; Andersson, Britt

    2014-12-01

    To gain an understanding of the high-frequency elastic properties of silicone rubber, a finite element model of a cylindrical piezoelectric element, in contact with a silicone rubber disk, was constructed. The frequency-dependent elastic modulus of the silicone rubber was modeled by a fourparameter fractional derivative viscoelastic model in the 100 to 250 kHz frequency range. The calculations were carried out in the range of the first radial resonance frequency of the sensor. At the resonance, the hyperelastic effect of the silicone rubber was modeled by a hyperelastic compensating function. The calculated response was matched to the measured response by using the transitional peaks in the impedance spectrum that originates from the switching of standing Lamb wave modes in the silicone rubber. To validate the results, the impedance responses of three 5-mm-thick silicone rubber disks, with different radial lengths, were measured. The calculated and measured transitional frequencies have been compared in detail. The comparison showed very good agreement, with average relative differences of 0.7%, 0.6%, and 0.7% for the silicone rubber samples with radial lengths of 38.0, 21.4, and 11.0 mm, respectively. The average complex elastic moduli of the samples were (0.97 + 0.009i) GPa at 100 kHz and (0.97 + 0.005i) GPa at 250 kHz.

  6. Identification of delamination interface in composite laminates using scattering characteristics of lamb wave: numerical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ramadas, C.; Balachandra Shetty, P.; Satyanarayana, K. G.

    2017-04-01

    Considering the superior strength properties of polymer based composites over metallic materials, they are being used in primary structures of aircrafts. However, these polymeric materials are much more complex in behaviour due to their structural anisotropy along with existence of different materials unlike in metallic alloys. These pose challenge in flaw detection, residual strength determination and life of a structure with their high susceptibility to impact damage in the form of delaminations/disbonds or cracks. This reduces load-bearing capability and potentially leads to structural failure. With this background, this study presents a method to identify location of delamination interface along thickness of a laminate. Both numerical and experimental studies have been carried out with a view to identify the defect, on propagation, mode conversion and scattering characteristics of fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb mode (Ao) when it passed through a semi-infinite delamination. Further, the reflection and transmission scattering coefficients based on power and amplitude ratios of the scattered waves have been computed. The methodology was applied on numerically simulated delaminations to illustrate the efficacy of the method. Results showed that it could successfully identify delamination interface.

  7. In Situ Estimation of Applied Biaxial Loads with Lamb Waves (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    be correct. IV. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS Fatigue tests were conducted for an array of six surface-bonded PZT transducers permanently attached to...because of their cumulative effects on the fatigue life of the structures. Waves propagating between array elements are directly affected by applied loads...their cumulative effects on the fatigue life of the structures. Waves propagating between array elements are directly affected by applied loads

  8. Development of an ultrasonic inspection robot using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer for a Lamb wave and an SH-plate wave.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Riichi; Makiyama, Shunnichi; Kodama, Mitutoshi; Taniguchi, Yasutoshi

    2004-04-01

    For inspection of a storage tank and pipeline in service, the application of an automatic inspection system (nondestructive inspection robot) is desirable, because manual inspection is difficult to perfectly and exactly perform due to the enormous amount of inspection needed. However, an ultrasonic nondestructive inspection robot with a piezoelectric oscillator needs to touch only the material surface to be directly inspected using a coupling medium. That is, the material surface and the sensor must always be held by constant pressure in the vertical direction on the material side. Actually, it is difficult to overcome these problems; thus an ultrasonic inspection robot could not be widely applied. We then tried to develop an ultrasonic inspection robot with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) which did not require a coupling medium to inspect the circumferential pipe parts. We developed a special EMAT that could transmit and receive alternately a Lamb wave with high sensitivity and a SH-plate wave without influence by the welded part. The method by which the inspection robot turned around the direction of the steel pipe surroundings was executed by observing the tape pasted in the direction of the steel pipe surroundings with an installed CCD camera. In this report, the basic mechanism of this inspection robot and an examination of results are described.

  9. High-frequency Lamb wave device composed of MEMS structure using LiNbO3 thin film and air gap.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Michio; Ogami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kansho; Tochishita, Hikari; Negoro, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency devices operating at 3 GHz or higher are required, for instance, for future 4th generation mobile phone systems in Japan. Using a substrate with a high acoustic velocity is one method to realize a high-frequency acoustic or elastic device. A Lamb wave has a high velocity when the substrate thickness is thin. To realize a high-frequency device operating at 3 GHz or higher using a Lamb wave, a very thin (less than 0.5 μm thick) single-crystal plate must be used. It is difficult to fabricate such a very thin single crystal plate. The authors have attempted to use a c-axis orientated epitaxial LiNbO(3) thin film deposited by a chemical vapor deposition system (CVD) instead of using a thin LiNbO(3) single crystal plate. Lamb wave resonators composed of a interdigital transducer (IDT)/the LiNbO(3) film/air gap/base substrate structure like micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) transducers were fabricated. These resonators have shown a high frequency of 4.5 and 6.3 GHz, which correspond to very high acoustic velocities of 14,000 and 12,500 m/s, respectively, have excellent characteristics such as a ratio of resonant and antiresonant impedance of 52 and 38 dB and a wide band of 7.2% and 3.7%, respectively, and do not have spurious responses caused by the 0th modes of shear horizontal (SH(0)) and symmetric (S(0)) modes.

  10. Guided Lamb wave based 2-D spiral phased array for structural health monitoring of thin panel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Byungseok

    2011-12-01

    In almost all industries of mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering fields, structural health monitoring (SHM) technology is essentially required for providing the reliable information of structural integrity of safety-critical structures, which can help reduce the risk of unexpected and sometimes catastrophic failures, and also offer cost-effective inspection and maintenance of the structures. State of the art SHM research on structural damage diagnosis is focused on developing global and real-time technologies to identify the existence, location, extent, and type of damage. In order to detect and monitor the structural damage in plate-like structures, SHM technology based on guided Lamb wave (GLW) interrogation is becoming more attractive due to its potential benefits such as large inspection area coverage in short time, simple inspection mechanism, and sensitivity to small damage. However, the GLW method has a few critical issues such as dispersion nature, mode conversion and separation, and multiple-mode existence. Phased array technique widely used in all aspects of civil, military, science, and medical industry fields may be employed to resolve the drawbacks of the GLW method. The GLW-based phased array approach is able to effectively examine and analyze complicated structural vibration responses in thin plate structures. Because the phased sensor array operates as a spatial filter for the GLW signals, the array signal processing method can enhance a desired signal component at a specific direction while eliminating other signal components from other directions. This dissertation presents the development, the experimental validation, and the damage detection applications of an innovative signal processing algorithm based on two-dimensional (2-D) spiral phased array in conjunction with the GLW interrogation technique. It starts with general backgrounds of SHM and the associated technology including the GLW interrogation method. Then, it is focused on the

  11. Output characteristics of a 0.14 THz dual sheet beam backward wave oscillator based on a hole-grating slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaopin; Yang, Ziqiang; Shi, Zongjun

    A novel backward wave oscillator (BWO) based on a hole-grating slow wave structure is proposed as a dual sheet beam millimeter wave radiation source. In this paper, we focus on the output characteristics of a 0.14 THz hole-grating BWO. The output characteristics of the hole-grating BWO, the conventional single-beam grating BWO, and the dual-beam grating BWO are contrasted in detail. 3-D particle-in-cell results indicate that the hole-grating slow wave structure can help to increase the maximum output power as well as lower the operating current density. Meanwhile, the hole-grating BWO shows good insensitivity to the differences between two sheet electronmore » beams. These characteristics make the hole-grating BWO feasible to be a stable millimeter wave radiation source with higher output power.« less

  12. Determination of lamb wave dispersion data in lossy anisotropic plates using time domain finite element analysis. Part I: theory and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Gordon; Hyslop, Jamie

    2006-02-01

    A theoretical and experimental approach for extraction of guided wave dispersion data in plate structures is described. Finite element modeling is used to calculate the surface displacement data (in-plane and out-of-plane) when the plate is subject to either symmetrical or antisymmetrical impulsive force stimulation at one or both of the parallel faces. Fourier transformation of the resultant space-time displacement histories is then employed to obtain phase velocity as a function of frequency. Experimental verification in the case of antisymmetrical stimulation is provided by means of a high-power Q-switched laser source that is used to excite guided waves in the plate. The subsequent out-of-plane displacement data were then obtained by means of a scanning laser vibrometer, and good agreement between theory and experiment is demonstrated. Examples of dispersion data are provided for aluminum, and excellent correlation between the data sets and conventional Rayleigh-Lamb theory for plate structures was obtained. This was then extended to lossy polymeric plates, in addition to both unpolarized and polarized piezoelectric ceramic plates, again with good agreement between the finite element modeling and optical experiments. The last set of results prepares the way for a detailed investigation of the nonhomogeneous piezoelectric composite waveguides described in a companion paper (Part II).

  13. Simulations on Monitoring and Evaluation of Plasticity-Driven Material Damage Based on Second Harmonic of S0 Mode Lamb Waves in Metallic Plates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Xuyang; Liu, Yaolu; Hu, Ning; Zhao, Youxuan; Ding, Xiangyan; Qin, Shiwei; Zhang, Jianyu; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Feng; Fu, Shaoyun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a numerical approach—the discontinuous Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin-Eshelby Method (MLPGEM)—was adopted to simulate and measure material plasticity in an Al 7075-T651 plate. The plate was modeled in two dimensions by assemblies of small particles that interact with each other through bonding stiffness. The material plasticity of the model loaded to produce different levels of strain is evaluated with the Lamb waves of S0 mode. A tone burst at the center frequency of 200 kHz was used as excitation. Second-order nonlinear wave was extracted from the spectrogram of a signal receiving point. Tensile-driven plastic deformation and cumulative second harmonic generation of S0 mode were observed in the simulation. Simulated measurement of the acoustic nonlinearity increased monotonically with the level of tensile-driven plastic strain captured by MLPGEM, whereas achieving this state by other numerical methods is comparatively more difficult. This result indicates that the second harmonics of S0 mode can be employed to monitor and evaluate the material or structural early-stage damage induced by plasticity. PMID:28773188

  14. Focusing guided waves using surface bonded elastic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiang; Zhu, Rui; Huang, Guoliang; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2013-09-01

    Bonding a two-dimensional planar array of small lead discs on an aluminum plate with silicone rubber is shown numerically to focus low-frequency flexural guided waves. The "effective mass density profile" of this type of elastic metamaterials (EMMs), perpendicular to wave propagation direction, is carefully tailored and designed, which allows rays of flexural A0 mode Lamb waves to bend in succession and then focus through a 7 × 9 planar array. Numerical simulations show that Lamb waves can be focused beyond EMMs region with amplified displacement and yet largely retained narrow banded waveform, which may have potential application in structural health monitoring.

  15. Understanding of Materials State and its Degradation using Non-Linear Ultrasound Approaches for Lamb Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-31

    Institution : Indian Institute of Technology Madras - Mailing Address : MDS 301, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Campus, Chennia INDIA 600036...in ceramic composites using an ultrasonic guided wave scan system”, 30th Annual Rev. of Quan. NDE, 2003; NASA /TM-2003-212518. [15] J Y Kim, J Qu

  16. Visualization of Lamb Wave Interaction with a 5 mm Fatigue Crack using 1D Ultra High Frequency Laser Doppler Vibrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    detection of a fatigue crack via 3D LDV measurements, both in aluminum plates. All the referenced LDV/guided wave studies made use of PZT or similar...Figure 1a). (b) (a) (c) Figure 1: (a) Test specimen in MTS fatigue test machine, (b) hole with 5 mm crack, (c) PZT placement with...mm thick aluminum plates with a small (1.59 mm) center hole added to facilitate growth of a fatigue crack. One plate was left undamaged while the

  17. 7 CFR 1280.111 - Lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.111 Lamb. Lamb means ovine animals of any age, including ewes and rams. ...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.111 - Lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.111 Lamb. Lamb means ovine animals of any age, including ewes and rams. ...

  19. 7 CFR 1280.111 - Lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.111 Lamb. Lamb means ovine animals of any age, including ewes and rams. ...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.111 - Lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.111 Lamb. Lamb means ovine animals of any age, including ewes and rams. ...

  1. 7 CFR 1280.112 - Lamb products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb products. 1280.112 Section 1280.112 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.112 Lamb products. Lamb...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.111 - Lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb. 1280.111 Section 1280.111 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.111 Lamb. Lamb means...

  3. Economics of callipyge lamb production.

    PubMed

    Busboom, J R; Wahl, T I; Snowder, G D

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the economic implications of callipyge (CLPG) lamb production. The price, as it relates to competing meats and excess fat, significantly impact lamb demand, and CLPG genetics improves those factors. The CLPG phenotype does not affect number or weight of lambs weaned or postweaning ADG, but it does improve postweaning feed efficiency by approximately 10%; dressing percentage approximately 7.5%; and yields of wholesale leg (11.8%), loin (4.7%), rack (2.5%), and shoulder (2.3%). Total production costs for a 59-kg lamb are 4% lower in CLPG lambs due to improved feed efficiency. Assuming pelt and offal value pays for slaughter costs, the costs of normal (N) and CLPG carcasses are the same as for live lambs, $81 and $78, respectively; but, due to dressing percentage, the N carcass weighs 29.2 kg and the CLPG carcass, 31.4 kg. Thus, carcass costs for N and CLPG lambs are $2.77/kg and $2.49/kg, respectively. Decreased feed costs, combined with increased carcass and primal cut yields for CLPG lambs, lowers the price required to recover meat costs for leg, loin, rack, and shoulder by 19.7, 14.4, 12.6, and 11.9%, respectively. Successful marketing of CLPG loin and rack depends on the use of one of several postharvest tenderization procedures. Moisture-enhanced pork is accepted by consumers and often sells for a premium; and moisture enhancement may be appropriate for CLPG lamb. The meat cost per kilogram (including a $.10 per kilogram treatment cost) of tenderized and moisture-enhanced CLPG leg, loin, rack, and shoulder containing 10% added water and ingredients would be lowered to $2.51, $4.65, $5.34, and $1.85, respectively. That represents a total of a 20.9% reduction in cost-basis price. When expressed on the basis of increased revenue from the additional yield of cuts at a given market price, the value of CLPG and moisture-enhanced CLPG cuts from a 59-kg lamb would be, respectively, 14.2% and 23.4% higher than for N lamb. Industrywide adoption of CLPG

  4. 7 CFR 65.190 - Lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb. 65.190 Section 65.190 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.190 Lamb. Lamb means meat produced from sheep. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.217 Lamb purchases. (a...

  6. A multi-feature integration method for fatigue crack detection and crack length estimation in riveted lap joints using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Peng, Tishun; Liu, Yongming; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Goebel, Kai

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer-type sensors are employed to perform in situ non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during fatigue cyclical loading. PZT wafers are used to monitor the wave reflection from the boundaries of the fatigue crack at the edge of bolt joints. The group velocity of the guided wave is calculated to select a proper time window in which the received signal contains the damage information. It is found that the fatigue crack lengths are correlated with three main features of the signal, i.e., correlation coefficient, amplitude change, and phase change. It was also observed that a single feature cannot be used to quantify the damage among different specimens since a considerable variability was observed in the response from different specimens. A multi-feature integration method based on a second-order multivariate regression analysis is proposed for the prediction of fatigue crack lengths using sensor measurements. The model parameters are obtained using training datasets from five specimens. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using several lap joint specimens from different manufactures and under different loading conditions.

  7. Consumer Perception of the Quality of Lamb and Lamb Confit.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Guillermo; Joy, Margalida; Panea, Begoña

    2018-05-22

    The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called "Gourmet", "Disinterested", "Conservative", and "Basic". The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit. However, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.

  8. Consumer Perception of the Quality of Lamb and Lamb Confit

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called “Gourmet”, “Disinterested”, “Conservative”, and “Basic”. The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit. However, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market. PMID:29786652

  9. Lamb pulse observed in nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanamori, H.; Given, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that seismograms observed at Longmire, Washington, for four eruptions of Mt. St. Helens, those on May 18, June 13, August 7, and August 8, 1980, can be interpreted as Lamb pulses excited by a nearly vertical single force representing the counter force of the eruption. These data furnish reliable estimates of the impulse of the force K (time integral of the force), from which the total momentum and the kinetic energy, E, of the ejecta associated with the eruption can be estimated. The estimates made of K are 1.4 x 10 to the 19th, 1.4 x 10 to the 16th, 3.7 x 10 to the 15th, and 2.8 x 10 to the 15th dynes-sec for the four eruptions (given chronologically). The corresponding estimates for E range from 0.70 to 2.6 x 10 to the 23rd, 0.70 to 2.6 x 10 to the 20th, 1.9 x 10 to the 19th, and 1.4 to 5.3 x 10 to the 19th erg using values of ejecta velocity ranging from 100 to 375 m/sec. The ratio of K to the amplitude of the air wave excited by the eruption is found to be 20 to 40 times larger for the main event on May 18 than for the other events, indicating a significant difference in the eruptive mechanism. A digital seismograph in the vicinity of a volcano is shown to provide a simple means for quantifying the explosive power of a volcanic eruption.

  10. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lamb of skeletal origin that is produced in conformance with all applicable Food Safety and Inspection... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS...

  11. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lamb of skeletal origin that is produced in conformance with all applicable Food Safety and Inspection... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS...

  12. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... lamb of skeletal origin that is produced in conformance with all applicable Food Safety and Inspection... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS...

  13. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... lamb of skeletal origin that is produced in conformance with all applicable Food Safety and Inspection... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS...

  14. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lamb of skeletal origin that is produced in conformance with all applicable Food Safety and Inspection... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS...

  15. Lamb Wave Propagation in Varying Thermal Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    detection in structural joints (5). The Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse, which occurred on 7 November 1940, was due to a torsional or twisting mode that...operational, the airframes can be subjected to temperature swings (-40°F to 150°F) and the corrosive effects of salts, de-icing agents, and several types...aircraft-grade aluminum plate study was used to verify wavespeed dispersion characteristics (7:428). Techniques similar to these are implemented in the

  16. Guided ultrasonic wave beam skew in silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzolato, Marco; Masserey, Bernard; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Fromme, Paul

    2018-04-01

    In the photovoltaic industry, monocrystalline silicon wafers are employed for solar cells with high conversion efficiency. Micro-cracks induced by the cutting process in the thin wafers can lead to brittle wafer fracture. Guided ultrasonic waves would offer an efficient methodology for the in-process non-destructive testing of wafers to assess micro-crack density. The material anisotropy of the monocrystalline silicon leads to variations of the guided wave characteristics, depending on the propagation direction relative to the crystal orientation. Selective guided ultrasonic wave excitation was achieved using a contact piezoelectric transducer with custom-made wedges for the A0 and S0 Lamb wave modes and a transducer holder to achieve controlled contact pressure and orientation. The out-of-plane component of the guided wave propagation was measured using a non-contact laser interferometer. The phase slowness (velocity) of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes was measured experimentally for varying propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation and found to match theoretical predictions. Significant wave beam skew was observed experimentally, especially for the S0 mode, and investigated from 3D finite element simulations. Good agreement was found with the theoretical predictions based on nominal material properties of the silicon wafer. The important contribution of guided wave beam skewing effects for the non-destructive testing of silicon wafers was demonstrated.

  17. Willis Lamb, Jr., the Hydrogen Atom, and the Lamb Shift

    Science.gov Websites

    1955, Lamb won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discoveries concerning "the fine structure of , May 7 - September 30, 1979 Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom, Part I; Part II; Part III; Part IV ; Part V; Part VI (from Physical Review 1950-1953) Microwave Technique for Determining the Fine Structure

  18. QEDMOD: Fortran program for calculating the model Lamb-shift operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Yerokhin, V. A.

    2018-02-01

    We present Fortran package QEDMOD for computing the model QED operator hQED that can be used to account for the Lamb shift in accurate atomic-structure calculations. The package routines calculate the matrix elements of hQED with the user-specified one-electron wave functions. The operator can be used to calculate Lamb shift in many-electron atomic systems with a typical accuracy of few percent, either by evaluating the matrix element of hQED with the many-electron wave function, or by adding hQED to the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian.

  19. Sarcocystosis in a stillborn lamb

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Confirmed congenital sarcocystosis has not been reported in sheep and extremely rarely in other domestic ruminants. Sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a stillborn lamb with microscopic lesions predominantly in the central nervous system and placenta. Encephalitis was characterized by multiple foci of gl...

  20. Plane Evanescent Waves and Interface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luppé, F.; Conoir, J. M.; El Kettani, M. Ech-Cherif; Lenoir, O.; Izbicki, J. L.; Duclos, J.; Poirée, B.

    The evanescent plane wave formalism is used to obtain the characteristic equation of the normal vibration modes of a plane elastic solid embedded in a perfect fluid. Simple drawings of the real and imaginary parts of complex wave vectors make quite clear the choice of the Riemann sheets on which the roots of the characteristic equation are to be looked for. The generalized Rayleigh wave and the Scholte - Stoneley wave are then described. The same formalism is used to describe Lamb waves on an elastic plane plate immersed in water. The damping, due to energy leaking in the fluid, is shown to be directly given by the projection of evanescence vectors on the interface. Measured values of the damping coefficient are in good agreement with those derived from calculations. The width of the angular resonances associated to Lamb waves or Rayleigh waves is also directly related to this same evanescence vectors projection, as well as the excitation coefficient of a given Lamb wave excited by a plane incident wave. This study shows clearly the strong correlation between the resonance point of view and the wave one in plane interface problems.

  1. Guided wave propagation in metallic and resin plates loaded with water on single surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-02-01

    Our previous papers reported dispersion curves for leaky Lamb waves in a water-loaded plate and wave structures for several typical modes including quasi-Scholte waves [1,2]. The calculations were carried out with a semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method developed for leaky Lamb waves. This study presents SAFE calculations for transient guided waves including time-domain waveforms and animations of wave propagation in metallic and resin water-loaded plates. The results show that non-dispersive and non-attenuated waves propagating along the interface between the fluid and the plate are expected for effective non-destructive evaluation of such fluid-loaded plates as storage tanks and transportation pipes. We calculated transient waves in both steel and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates loaded with water on a single side and input dynamic loading from a point source on the other water-free surface as typical examples of metallic and resin plates. For a steel plate, there exists a non-dispersive and non-attenuated mode, called the quasi-Scholte wave, having an almost identical phase velocity to that of water. The quasi-Scholte wave has superior generation efficiency in the low frequency range due to its broad energy distribution across the plate, whereas it is localized near the plate-water interface at higher frequencies. This means that it has superior detectability of inner defects. For a PVC plate, plural non-attenuated modes exist. One of the non-attenuated modes similar to the A0 mode of the Lamb wave in the form of a group velocity dispersion curve is promising for the non-destructive evaluation of the PVC plate because it provides prominent characteristics of generation efficiency and low dispersion.

  2. Characteristics of lambs fed concentrates or grazed on ryegrass to traditional or heavy slaughter weights. II. Wholesale cuts and tissue accretion.

    PubMed

    Borton, R J; Loerch, S C; McClure, K E; Wulf, D M

    2005-06-01

    Targhee x Hampshire lambs (average BW 24 +/- 1 kg) were used to determine the effect of finishing on concentrate or by grazing ryegrass forage on slaughter weights of 52 kg (N) or 77 kg (H) on tissue accretion and lamb wholesale cutout. When fed to similar slaughter weights, the wholesale cuts of concentrate-fed lambs were heavier (P < 0.05) than the same cuts from forage-fed lambs; however, when expressed as a percentage of side weight, carcasses of forage-fed lambs had a higher (P < 0.001) percentage of leg than concentrate-fed lambs. Increasing slaughter weight from 52 to 77 kg resulted in a 1-kg increase in loin weight for lambs finished on concentrate and a 0.60-kg increase for lambs finished on forage (diet x slaughter weight, P < 0.03); however, the increased loin weight for lambs finished on concentrate was due largely to increased fat deposition. For lambs slaughtered at 77 kg, those finished on forage had more lean mass in the leg, loin, rack, and shoulder than those finished on concentrate, but lean mass in these cuts did not differ between diets for lambs slaughtered at 52 kg (diet x slaughter weight, P < 0.01). At the normal slaughter weight (52 kg), concentrate-fed lambs had 50% more dissectible fat than forage-fed lambs, whereas at the heavy slaughter weight, a 79% greater amount of dissectible fat was observed for concentrate- vs. forage-fed lambs (diet x slaughter weight, P < 0.001). Lean and fat accretion rates were higher (P < 0.001) for concentrate-fed lambs than for forage-fed lambs. The lean-to-fat ratio of forage-fed lambs was higher (P < 0.001) than that of concentrate-fed lambs; however, forage finishing decreased accretion rates of all tissues compared with concentrate feeding, and these differences between forage and concentrate feeding were magnified at heavier slaughter weights.

  3. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  4. Observation of sum-frequency-generation-induced cascaded four-wave mixing using two crossing femtosecond laser pulses in a 0.1 mm beta-barium-borate crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weimin; Zhu, Liangdong; Fang, Chong

    2012-09-15

    We demonstrate the simultaneous generation of multicolor femtosecond laser pulses spanning the wavelength range from UV to near IR in a 0.1 mm Type I beta-barium borate crystal from 800 nm fundamental and weak IR super-continuum white light (SCWL) pulses. The multicolor broadband laser pulses observed are attributed to two concomitant cascaded four-wave mixing (CFWM) processes as corroborated by calculation: (1) directly from the two incident laser pulses; (2) by the sum-frequency generation (SFG) induced CFWM process (SFGFWM). The latter signal arises from the interaction between the frequency-doubled fundamental pulse (400 nm) and the SFG pulse generated in between the fundamental and IR-SCWL pulses. The versatility and simplicity of this spatially dispersed multicolor self-compressed laser pulse generation offer compact and attractive methods to conduct femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved multicolor spectroscopy.

  5. Experimental investigation of leaky lamb modes by an optically induced grating.

    PubMed

    Van de Rostyne, Kris; Glorieux, Christ; Gao, Weimin; Lauriks, Walter; Thoen, Jan

    2002-09-01

    By removing the symmetry of a free plate configuration, fluid loading significantly modifies the nature of acoustic waves travelling along a plate, and it even gives existence to new acoustic modes. We present theoretical predictions for the existence, dispersive behavior, and spatial distribution of leaky Lamb waves in a fluid-loaded film. Although Lamb modes are often investigated by studying the radiated fluid waves resulting from their leakage, here their properties are assessed by detecting the wave displacements directly using laser beam deflection. By using crossed laser beam excitation, the detection and analysis of the different modes is done at a fixed wavelength, allowing one to verify the existence, the velocity, and the damping of each predicted mode in a simple and unambiguous way. Our theoretical predictions for the nature of the modes in a water-loaded Plexiglas film, including parts of looping modes, are experimentally confirmed.

  6. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  7. 7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the plant...

  8. 7 CFR 59.302 - Mandatory weekly reporting for lambs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for lambs. 59.302 Section... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.302 Mandatory weekly reporting for lambs. (a... domestic from imported market purchases: (1) The quantity of lambs purchased through a negotiated purchase...

  9. Energy requirements of Texel crossbred lambs.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, C C; Kozloski, G V; Wommer, T P

    2008-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the energy requirements of feedlot Texel crossbred lambs. In a comparative slaughter trial, thirty 11/16 Texel x 5/16 Ile de France crossbred noncastrated male lambs, weaned at 42 d of age (16.2 +/- 2.1 kg of shrunk BW; SBW), were used. Five lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered after 10 d of experimental management and diet adaptation (baseline group). Fifteen lambs then were fed for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 25, 30, or 35 kg of SBW. The remaining 10 lambs were randomly assigned to 2 levels of DMI, either 70 or 55% of the ad libitum intake, and were slaughtered concomitantly with lambs of the 35 kg of SBW group. Total body N, fat, and energy contents were determined. In a digestibility trial, 6 Texel x Ile de France crossbred lambs (30.4 +/- 2.6 kg of SBW) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. Net and ME requirements for maintenance were 58.6 and 91 kcal/kg(0.75) of SBW, respectively. Consequently, partial efficiency of energy use for maintenance was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 72.7 to 125.9 g/kg of empty BW, respectively, for 13.1 and 28.2 kg of empty BW. Net energy requirements for growth of lambs at 15 and 35 kg of SBW at an ADG of 250 g were 424 and 553 kcal/d, respectively. Partial efficiency of energy use for growth was 0.47. Texel x Ile de France crossbred growing lambs used in this study showed decreased nutritional requirements than those reported by most nutritional systems.

  10. Diprosopiasis in a lamb. A case report.

    PubMed

    Mazzullo, G; Germanà, A; De Vico, G; Germanà, G

    2003-02-01

    Conjoined twinning has been reported in most of the domestic animal species. Among them, sheep have the highest incidence of craniofacial defects. A live male crossbreed dystocic two-headed lamb was delivered from a 2-year-old Pinzerita sheep after first mating. After 40 h of life, the lamb spontaneously died. The most important gross findings involved the head, whereas the examination of different organ and tissue sections did not reveal remarkable histomorphological changes. The lamb was classified as a conjoined twinning and, on the basis of the facial duplication, as a diprosopus tetraophtalmus.

  11. Time evolution of the Lamb shift.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Li-Gang; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M Suhail

    2010-09-01

    The time evolution of the Lamb shift that accompanies the real photon emission is studied for the first time (to our knowledge). The investigation of the explicit time dependence of the Lamb shift becomes possible because the self-energy of the free electron, which is divergent, is subtracted from the Hamiltonian after a unitary transformation. The Lamb shift can then be separated into two parts: one is the time-independent shift due to the virtual photon exchange, and the other is the time-dependent shift due to the real photon emission. The time evolution depends on the nature of the coupling spectrum of the reservoir.

  12. Guided wave crack detection and size estimation in stiffened structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Md Yeasin; Faisal Haider, Mohammad; Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) deals with the nondestructive inspection of defects, corrosion, leaks in engineering structures by using ultrasonic guided waves. In the past, simplistic structures were often considered for analyzing the guided wave interaction with the defects. In this study, we focused on more realistic and relatively complicated structure for detecting any defect by using a non-contact sensing approach. A plate with a stiffener was considered for analyzing the guided wave interactions. Piezoelectric wafer active transducers were used to produce excitation in the structures. The excitation generated the multimodal guided waves (aka Lamb waves) that propagate in the plate with stiffener. The presence of stiffener in the plate generated scattered waves. The direct wave and the additional scattered waves from the stiffener were experimentally recorded and studied. These waves were considered as a pristine case in this research. A fine horizontal semi-circular crack was manufactured by using electric discharge machining in the same stiffener. The presence of crack in the stiffener produces additional scattered waves as well as trapped waves. These scattered waves and trapped wave modes from the cracked stiffener were experimentally measured by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). These waves were analyzed and compared with that from the pristine case. The analyses suggested that both size and shape of the horizontal crack may be predicted from the pattern of the scattered waves. Different features (reflection, transmission, and mode-conversion) of the scattered wave signals are analyzed. We found direct transmission feature for incident A0 wave mode and modeconversion feature for incident S0 mode are most suitable for detecting the crack in the stiffener. The reflection feature may give a better idea of sizing the crack.

  13. Adaptive elastic metasurfaces for wave front manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shilong; Xu, Jiawen; Tang, Jiong

    2018-04-01

    In this research, by combining the concept of elastic metasurfaces with piezoelectric transducer with shunted circuitry, we investigate the designs of elastic metasurfaces, consisting of an array of piezoelectric transducers shunted with negative capacitance, which is capable of modulating wave fronts adaptively. In order to construct different adaptive elastic metasurfaces, different phase profiles along the interface can be framed through properly adjusting the negative capacitance values. Flat planar lenses for focusing transmitted A0 Lamb waves are achieved, and possess the flexibility of changing focal locations through electromechanical tunings. Additionally, nonparaxial self-bending beams with arbitrary trajectories and source illusion devices can also be accomplished owing to the free manipulation of phase shifts. With their versatility and tunability, the adaptive elastic metasurfaces could pave new avenues to a wide variety of potential applications, such as nondestructive testing, ultrasound imaging, and caustic engineering.

  14. Determinants of heat production in newborn lambs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, F. A.; Small, J.

    1980-06-01

    Measurement of summit metabolism (the maximum rate of heat production) in lambs aged 1 or 4h revealed considerable between animal variation. Summit metabolism per unit body weight decreased as body weight increased whereas summit metabolism per unit body surface area was independent of body weight. Severe pre-partum hypoxia was apparently associated with a low summit metabolism at 1 or 4h of age which made such lambs very susceptible to hypothermia. This deficiency in heat production capacity did not appear to be a permanent featuresince most lambs so affected recovered full thermoregulatory ability by 12h of age. Feeding of colostrum conferred an immediate 18% increase in summit metabolism. The significance of these findings to the prevention of hypothermia in the newborn lamb is discussed.

  15. Mammary fibroadenoma in a lamb

    PubMed Central

    Guvenc, Tolga; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca B.; Sozgen, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    A fibroadenoma was diagnosed in the left udder of a 3-month-old female Chios lamb. No recurrence was observed after surgery. Grossly, the tumor had a whitish-gray lobular appearance, and the lobules were interlaced with thin septa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of proliferating fibroepithelial tissue, including differentiated ducts lined by whorls and interlacing bundles of abundant loose fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemistry revealed the ductal epithelium to be positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and loose fibrovascular stroma was positive for vimentin and basal cells covering the ductal epithelium of alpha-smooth-muscle actin. Immunostaining for the estrogen and progesterone receptors was negative. A diagnosis of mammary fibroadenoma was made based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:17993758

  16. Hypercalcemia and hypervitaminosis D in two lambs.

    PubMed

    Roberson, J R; Swecker, W S; Hullender, L L

    2000-04-01

    Twin 17-day-old crossbred male lambs were examined to determine the cause of weakness and failure to thrive. Hypercalcemia attributable to hypervitaminosis D was diagnosed. The milk replacer or an accidental overdose of an injectable vitamin D product was suspected to be the source, although a definite cause was not confirmed. Lambs responded favorably to palliative treatment (administration of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution to induce calcium diuresis) and changing the diet to another milk replacer.

  17. 7 CFR 59.303 - Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following information on total carlot-based lamb carcass transactions not later than 3 p.m. central time in... per hundredweight on an F.O.B. plant basis; (2) The quantity for each lot of each transaction, quoted... price for each lot of each boxed lamb cut sale, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on a F.O.B. plant...

  18. 7 CFR 59.303 - Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following information on total carlot-based lamb carcass transactions not later than 3 p.m. central time in... per hundredweight on an F.O.B. plant basis; (2) The quantity for each lot of each transaction, quoted... price for each lot of each boxed lamb cut sale, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on a F.O.B. plant...

  19. 7 CFR 59.303 - Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... following information on total carlot-based lamb carcass transactions not later than 3 p.m. central time in... per hundredweight on an F.O.B. plant basis; (2) The quantity for each lot of each transaction, quoted... price for each lot of each boxed lamb cut sale, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on a F.O.B. plant...

  20. Evaluation of barely visible indentation damage (BVID) in CF/EP sandwich composites using guided wave signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, Samir; Ye, Lin; Dong, Xingjian; Alamdari, Mehrisadat Makki

    2016-08-01

    Barely visible indentation damage after quasi-static indentation in sandwich CF/EP composites was assessed using ultrasonic guided wave signals. Finite element analyses were conducted to investigate the interaction between guided waves and damage, further to assist in the selection process of the Lamb wave sensitive modes for debonding identification. Composite sandwich beams and panels structures were investigated. Using the beam structure, a damage index was defined based on the change in the peak magnitude of the captured wave signals before and after the indentation, and the damage index was correlated with the residual deformation (defined as the depth of the dent), that was further correlated with the amount of crushing within the core. Both A0 and S0 Lamb wave modes showed high sensitivity to the presence of barely visible indentation damage with residual deformation of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, barely visible indentation damage was assessed in composite sandwich panels after indenting to 3 and 5 mm, and the damage index was defined, based on (a) the peak magnitude of the wave signals before and after indentation or (b) the mismatch between the original and reconstructed wave signals based on a time-reversal algorithm, and was subsequently applied to locate the position of indentation.

  1. Analysis of coiled stator ultrasound motor: Fundamental study on analysis of wave propagation on acoustic waveguide for coiled stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Seiya; Kurita, Keisuke; Uehara, Choyu; Nakane, Noriaki; Sato, Toshio; Takeuchi, Shinichi

    2018-07-01

    In our research group, we previously developed a coiled stator ultrasound motor (CS-USM) for medical applications such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) devices. However, wave propagation on acoustic waveguides has not been investigated sufficiently in previous studies. In this study, we analyze the propagation velocity of elastic waves from the simulated the vibration displacement mode profile along a straight line acoustic waveguide via three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). Concerning results, elastic waves with vibration displacement along the thickness direction show dispersion characteristics corresponding to the a0 and a1 mode plate waves (Lamb waves) in the acoustic waveguide. Our theoretical hypotheses of the propagation velocities were closely borne out by experimental results. We further find that the dispersion characteristic is affected by the width of the acoustic waveguide. We believe that our findings can contribute to improved CS-USM designs for practical application.

  2. Enhancing nutritiousness of lamb meat and preventing selenium deficiency.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lamb meat is a naturally flavorful and nutritious product. Our research indicates that feeding a specific wheat-milling coproduct will enhance the nutritiousness of lamb, potentially add monetary value to lamb, and prevent Se deficiency. Selenium is an essential micromineral, and Se supplementation ...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5640 - Lamb feeding nipple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lamb feeding nipple. 880.5640 Section 880.5640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5640 Lamb feeding nipple. (a) Identification. A lamb feeding nipple is a device intended for...

  4. Observations on the alimentary tract of gnotobiotic lambs.

    PubMed

    Lysons, R J; Alexander, T J; Wellstead, P D; Jennings, I W

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen gnotobiotic lambs were reared up to 21 weeks of age on cows' milk followed by sterile solid diets similar to diets fed to conventional lambs. Seven were inoculated with limited defined populations of rumen bacteria, seven were left uninoculated and three were dosed with rumen contents from conventional sheep ('conventionalised'). Seven naturally-born lambs were reared for purposes of comparison. As with other species of gnotobiotic animals, both the inoculated and the uninoculated gnotobiotic lambs had small, poorly developed lymph nodes, soft colon contents and thin intestinal walls. Unlike other species the caeca of gnotobiotic lambs were of normal size. The overall size of the reticulo-rumen including contents relative to body weight was similar in gnotobiotic and conventional lambs. However, macroscopically, the musculature of the rumen seemed to be poorly developed and histological studies showed hypoplasia of the muscle tissue of both the rumen and reticulum. Rumination was noted only infrequently in gnotobiotic lambs. The epithelium of the rumen and reticulum of the uninoculated gnotobiotic lambs was similar to that of neonatal lambs, but there was normal development of papillae in gnotobiotic lambs inoculated with limited defined populations of rumen bacteria and in conventionalised lambs. Degenerative changes were observed histologically in some of the organs of gnotobiotic lambs which were consistent with nutritional deficiencies.

  5. 7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall report to the Secretary at least once each reporting day not later than 2 p.m. central time the... categorized by: (1) The type of purchase; (2) The class of lamb; (3) The quantity of lambs purchased on a live..., quality grade, yield grade, or any type of purchase; (8) Lamb state of origin; (9) The pelt type; and (10...

  6. Application of the Pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution to the Measurement of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes in Graphite/Epoxy Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Seale, M. D.; Smith, B. T.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic waves propagate in thin plates as guided or Lamb modes. The velocities of these modes are dispersive in that they depend not only on the material elastic properties and density, but also on the frequency. Accurate characterization of Lamb wave dispersion is important in many acoustic based nondestructive evaluation techniques. It is necessary for ultrasonic measurements in thin plates to determine elastic properties and for flaw detection and localization. In acoustic emission (AE) testing, if not taken into account, highly dispersive Lamb mode propagation can lead to large errors in source location. In this study, the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD) was used for measurement of group velocity dispersion of Lamb waves in a unidirectional graphite/epoxy (AS4/3502) laminate. The PWVD is one of a number of transforms which provide a time-frequency representation of a digitized time series. Broad band acoustic waves were generated by a pencil lead fracture (Hsu-Neilsen source) and were detected with broad band ultrasonic transducers. The arrival times for the lowest order symmetric (S(sub 0)) and antisymmetric (A(sub 0)) Lamb modes were determined from measurements of the time at which the respective peak amplitudes occurred in the PWVD. Measurements were made at several source-to-detector distances and a least squares fit used to calculate the velocity. Results are presented for propagation along, and perpendicular to, the fiber direction. Theoretical dispersion curves were also calculated and a comparison between theory and experiment demonstrates good agreement.

  7. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  8. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    PubMed

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (P<0.005) and BCS (P<0.005) than the LPA ewes during pregnancy and postpartum (P<0.04), and had a greater milk yield than the LPA ewes (P<0.03). Treatments did not influence any behaviour at lambing, lambs' BW, neither the ewes' behavioural and physiological changes at weaning. HPA lambs paced and vocalized more than LPA lambs (P<0.0001). The variation of albumin concentration before and after weaning was greater in the HPA lambs than in the LPA lambs (P<0.0001). In conclusion, although ewes' BW, BCS and milk production were affected by pasture allowance until

  9. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of terms âPersian Lamb,â âBroadtail Lamb... Regulations § 301.8 Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted. (a) The term Persian Lamb may be used to describe the skin of the young lamb of the Karakul breed of sheep...

  10. Genetic parameters for meat quality traits of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J; Jacob, R H; Hopkins, D L; Pannier, L; Pearce, K L; Gardner, G E; Warner, R D; Geesink, G H; Edwards, J E Hocking; Ponnampalam, E N; Ball, A J; Gilmour, A R; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for a range of meat quality traits recorded on Australian lamb meat. Data were collected from Merino and crossbred progeny of Merino, terminal and maternal meat breed sires of the Information Nucleus programme. Lambs born between 2007 and 2010 (n=8968) were slaughtered, these being the progeny of 372 sires and 5309 dams. Meat quality traits were found generally to be of moderate heritability (estimates between 0.15 and 0.30 for measures of meat tenderness, meat colour, polyunsaturated fat content, mineral content and muscle oxidative capacity), with notable exceptions of intramuscular fat (0.48), ultimate pH (0.08) and fresh meat colour a* (0.08) and b* (0.10) values. Genetic correlations between hot carcass weight and the meat quality traits were low. The genetic correlation between intramuscular fat and shear force was high (-0.62). Several measures of meat quality (fresh meat redness, retail meat redness, retail oxy/met value and iron content) appear to have potential for inclusion in meat sheep breeding objectives. © 2013.

  11. Finishing Lambs and Goat Kids on Pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...

  12. Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wang, Shang; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of a modified Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation in conjunction with noncontact optical coherence elastography to quantify the viscoelastic properties of the cornea. Phase velocities of air-pulse-induced elastic waves were extracted by spectral analysis and used for calculating the Young's moduli of the samples using the Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE). Validation experiments were performed on 2% agar phantoms (n=3) and then applied to porcine corneas (n=3) in situ. The Young's moduli of the porcine corneas were estimated to be ˜60 kPa with a shear viscosity ˜0.33 Pa.s. The results demonstrate that the RLFE is a promising method for noninvasive quantification of the corneal biomechanical properties and may potentially be useful for clinical ophthalmological applications.

  13. On-Line Corrosion Monitoring of Plate Structures Based on Guided Wave Tomography Using Piezoelectric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Lisevych, Danylo; Hamzah Caffoor, Mahadhir; Fan, Zheng

    2017-12-12

    Corrosion is a major safety and economic concern to various industries. In this paper, a novel ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) system based on self-designed piezoelectric sensors is presented for on-line corrosion monitoring of large plate-like structures. Accurate thickness reconstruction of corrosion damages is achieved by using the dispersive regimes of selected guided waves and a reconstruction algorithm based on full waveform inversion (FWI). The system makes use of an array of miniaturised piezoelectric transducers that are capable of exciting and receiving highly dispersive A0 Lamb wave mode at low frequencies. The scattering from transducer array has been found to have a small effect on the thickness reconstruction. The efficiency and the accuracy of the new system have been demonstrated through continuous forced corrosion experiments. The FWI reconstructed thicknesses show good agreement with analytical predictions obtained by Faraday's law and laser measurements, and more importantly, the thickness images closely resemble the actual corrosion sites.

  14. A rigid lamb syndrome in sheep in Rhodesia.

    PubMed

    Rudert, C P; Lawrence, J A; Foggin, C; Barlow, R M

    1978-04-29

    A syndrome characterised by the birth of lambs with varying degrees of rigidity of the limbs and spine has been encountered on several occasions in Rhodesia. Outbreaks have occurred in autumn-born lambs from Dorper ewes grazing heavily fertilised Star grass cv No 2 (Cynodon aethiopicus) pastures. The condition appears to be exacerbated by the application of sulphur to the pasture and is partly prevented by the administration of selenium and vitamin E to the ewes before lambing. The aetiology is unknown.

  15. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamas, Tuncay; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  16. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Kamas, Tuncay, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu; Giurgiutiu, Victor, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu; Lin, Bin, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu

    2015-03-31

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as wellmore » as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.« less

  17. Is the Lamb shift chemically significant?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Schwenke, David W.; Pyykko, Pekka; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of the Lamb shift to the atomization energies of some prototype molecules, BF3, AlF3, and GaF3, is estimated by a perturbation procedure. It is found to be in the range of 3-5% of the one-electron scalar relativistic contribution to the atomization energy. The maximum absolute value is 0.2 kcal/mol for GaF3. These sample calculations indicate that the Lamb shift is probably small enough to be neglected for energetics of molecules containing light atoms if the target accuracy is 1 kcal/mol, but for higher accuracy calculations and for molecules containing heavy elements it must be considered.

  18. Sodium chlorate reduces presence of Escherichia coli in feces of lambs and ewes managed in shed-lambing systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to establish doses of orally-administered NaClO3 that reduced presence of generic Escherichia coli in intestines of ewes and neonatal lambs managed in a shed-lambing system. Neonatal lambs (n = 32; age = 7.1 ± 1.2 d; BW = 6.8 ± 1.0 kg) and yearling ewes (n = 44; BW = 74.8 ± 5.6 kg)...

  19. The effect of tilmicosin administered to ewes prior to lambing on incidence of clinical mastitis and subsequent lamb performance.

    PubMed Central

    Croft, A; Duffield, T; Menzies, P; Leslie, K; Bagg, R; Dick, P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of tilmicosin on the incidence of clinical mastitis and subsequent lamb performance was studied in 9 sheep flocks in Ontario. Ewes were treated randomly with either tilmicosin or placebo approximately one month prior to lambing. Outcome was assessed by comparing rates of clinical mastitis, palpable udder abnormalities, and preweaning (50-day) lamb weights between the 2 treatment groups, while controlling for other important variables. Lambs raised by multiparous ewes treated with tilmicosin were significantly heavier than lambs from placebo-treated multiparous ewes at 50 days. Lambs from tilmicosin-treated ewes were on average 0.52 kg heavier than lambs in the placebo group. There was no difference between treatment groups in the weight of lambs from first parity ewes. Tilmicosin treatment resulted in a 43% decrease in palpable udder abnormalities. Incidence of clinical mastitis did not differ between experimental groups. The administration of tilmicosin prelambing, at the time of routine clostridial disease vaccination, may be a beneficial and convenient way to reduce mastitis infection and improve the preweaning gain of lambs. PMID:10769768

  20. Damage Detection Using Lamb Waves for Structural Health Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    experiments have been reported by Seth Kessler [8]. 2.2 Large Aluminum Plate The second experiment included a 2024-0 aluminum plate with dimensions of...Mechanical Engineering Congress , (IMECE2002- 39017) (17-22 November 2002). 6. Kessler , Seth S. Piezoelectric-Based In-Situ Damage Detection of...Composite Materials for Structural Health Monitoring Systems. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, January 2002. 7. Kessler , Seth S. “Metis

  1. Modeling of Lamb Waves and Application to Crack Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    and Structures, vol. 13, pp. 621–630, 2004. [13] Seth S Kessler , S. Mark Spearing, and Constantinos Soutis, “Damage detection in composite materials...growth in metallic structures. Kessler et al. [13] presented part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in-situ damage

  2. Lamb Wave Polarization Techniques for Structural Damage Localization and Quantification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    11  Figure 11. Images showing (a) fatigued aluminum dog bone specimen with 53-mm crack and (b) 3-D SLDV test...Abaqus* and a 3-D model of a plate girder. Experimental measurements using piezoelectric ( PZT ) sensors were located on the web in pulse-echo mode, and...analyzed mode conversion of T- joint with collocated PZT sensors before and after the stiffener using a 2-D simulation under plane strain assumptions

  3. The complex phase gradient method applied to leaky Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, O; Conoir, J M; Izbicki, J L

    2002-10-01

    The classical phase gradient method applied to the characterization of the angular resonances of an immersed elastic plate, i.e., the angular poles of its reflection coefficient R, was proved to be efficient when their real parts are close to the real zeros of R and their imaginary parts are not too large compared to their real parts. This method consists of plotting the partial reflection coefficient phase derivative with respect to the sine of the incidence angle, considered as real, versus incidence angle. In the vicinity of a resonance, this curve exhibits a Breit-Wigner shape, whose minimum is located at the pole real part and whose amplitude is the inverse of its imaginary part. However, when the imaginary part is large, this method is not sufficiently accurate compared to the exact calculation of the complex angular root. An improvement of this method consists of plotting, in 3D, in the complex angle plane and at a given frequency, the angular phase derivative with respect to the real part of the sine of the incidence angle, considered as complex. When the angular pole is reached, the 3D curve shows a clear-cut transition whose position is easily obtained.

  4. Temperament and its heritability in Corriedale and Merino lambs.

    PubMed

    Zambra, N; Gimeno, D; Blache, D; van Lier, E

    2015-03-01

    Temperament can be defined as the fearfulness and reactivity of an animal in response to humans and strange, novel or threatening environments. The productive performance of an animal is affected by its temperament, and selection of calm animals might improve their adaptation to the farming environment and handling, as well as improve productivity. The temperament was measured in lambs of two breeds of sheep in Uruguay. The effects of dam's age, type of birth, age of the lamb and contemporary group (CG; lambs belonging to the same year, flock, sex and rearing group) on the temperament of the lambs and the heritability of temperament were estimated with a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Overall, 4962 Corriedale lambs and 2952 Merino lambs from 13 farms were tested. Temperament was measured using the isolation box test, isolating a lamb inside the box for 30 s, and recording the vibrations produced by its movements. The average temperament score (±s.e.m.) of the Corriedale lambs was 24.7 (±0.23) and that of the Merino was 36.8 (±0.45). Temperament was not associated with dam's age, type of birth or lamb's age. There were no relevant differences in the agitation score between lambs born in 2010 and 2011. The mean of the distribution of possible values of heritability (±s.d.) was 0.18 (±0.05) for the Corriedale and 0.31 (±0.06) for the Merino. The likelihood of heritability values to be greater than 0.15 exceeded 70% in the Corriedale and 90% in the Merino. The temperament of Merino and Corriedale sheep in Uruguay is moderately heritable. It is not related to dam's age, type of birth or age of the lambs; however, it is affected by some aspect of the CG.

  5. [Changes in the ECG telemetry of lambs infected with Cysticercus ovis].

    PubMed

    Kostov, I; Georgieva, D

    1985-01-01

    Six lambs were experimentally infected with Cysticercus ovis. Some changes were followed up in the ECG by means of the radiotelemetric method. The infection process led to the following more important changes, such as sinus tachicardia and arhythmia, auricular fibrilation, sinoauricular block, atrial dissociation, the incidence of a pathologic Q deflection; lowering of the R deflection amplitude, and inversion of the T wave. It was found that the changes referred to persist for a longer period (in the case of infarction), and could be made use of in dispensary studies.

  6. Intra-band gap in Lamb modes propagating in a periodic solid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, J.; Rénier, M.; Bonello, B.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.

    2012-05-01

    A laser ultrasonic technique is used to measure the dispersion of Lamb waves at a few MHz, propagating in phononic crystals made of dissymmetric air inclusions drilled throughout silicon plates. It is shown that the specific shape of the inclusions is at the origin of the intra-band gap that opens within the second Brillouin zone, at the crossing of both flexural and dilatational zero-order modes. The magnitude of the intra-band gap is measured as a function of the dissymmetry rate of the inclusions. Experimental data and the computed dispersion curves are in very good agreement.

  7. Numerical predictions and experiments for optimizing hidden corrosion detection in aircraft structures using Lamb modes.

    PubMed

    Terrien, N; Royer, D; Lepoutre, F; Déom, A

    2007-06-01

    To increase the sensitivity of Lamb waves to hidden corrosion in aircraft structures, a preliminary step is to understand the phenomena governing this interaction. A hybrid model combining a finite element approach and a modal decomposition method is used to investigate the interaction of Lamb modes with corrosion pits. The finite element mesh is used to describe the region surrounding the corrosion pits while the modal decomposition method permits to determine the waves reflected and transmitted by the damaged area. Simulations make easier the interpretation of some parts of the measured waveform corresponding to superposition of waves diffracted by the corroded area. Numerical results permit to extract significant information from the transmitted waveform and thus to optimize the signal processing for the detection of corrosion at an early stage. Now, we are able to detect corrosion pits down to 80-mum depth distributed randomly on a square centimeter of an aluminum plate. Moreover, thickness variations present on aircraft structures can be discriminated from a slightly corroded area. Finally, using this experimental setup, aircraft structures have been tested.

  8. Feed intake and efficiency of F1 lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective estimates of feed efficiency for progeny of terminal-sire breeds of sheep are needed to improve the value of market lambs. Because recent terminal-sire breed-comparison data are lacking, we determined effects of terminal-sire breed on feed efficiency of F1 lambs. Each year for 3 yr, Columb...

  9. High frequency guided wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzolato, Marco; Masserey, Bernard; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Fromme, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. The cutting process can introduce micro-cracks in the thin wafers and lead to varying thickness. High frequency guided ultrasonic waves are considered for the structural monitoring of the wafers. The anisotropy of the monocrystalline silicon leads to variations of the wave characteristics, depending on the propagation direction relative to the crystal orientation. Full three-dimensional Finite Element simulations of the guided wave propagation were conducted to visualize and quantify these effects for a line source. The phase velocity (slowness) and skew angle of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes (first anti-symmetric mode A0 and first symmetric mode S0) for varying propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation were measured experimentally. Selective mode excitation was achieved using a contact piezoelectric transducer with a custom-made wedge and holder to achieve a controlled contact pressure. The out-of-plane component of the guided wave propagation was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement was found with the simulation results and theoretical predictions based on nominal material properties of the silicon wafer.

  10. Directional nonlinear guided wave mixing: Case study of counter-propagating shear horizontal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanian, Mostafa; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2018-04-01

    While much nonlinear ultrasonics research has been conducted on higher harmonic generation, wave mixing provides the potential for sensitive measurements of incipient damage unencumbered by instrumentation nonlinearity. Studies of nonlinear ultrasonic wave mixing, both collinear and noncollinear, for bulk waves have shown the robust capability of wave mixing for early damage detection. One merit of bulk wave mixing lies in their non-dispersive nature, but guided waves enable inspection of otherwise inaccessible material and a variety of mixing options. Co-directional guided wave mixing was studied previously, but arbitrary direction guided wave mixing has not been addressed until recently. Wave vector analysis is applied to study variable mixing angles to find wave mode triplets (two primary waves and a secondary wave) resulting in the phase matching condition. As a case study, counter-propagating Shear Horizontal (SH) guided wave mixing is analyzed. SH wave interactions generate a secondary Lamb wave mode that is readily receivable. Reception of the secondary Lamb wave mode is compared for an angle beam transducer, an air coupled transducer, and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Results from the angle beam and air coupled transducers are quite consistent, while the LDV measurement is plagued by variability issues.

  11. Study of guided wave propagation on a plate between two solid bodies with imperfect contact conditions.

    PubMed

    Balvantín, A J; Diosdado-De-la-Peña, J A; Limon-Leyva, P A; Hernández-Rodríguez, E

    2018-02-01

    In this work, fundamental symmetric Lamb wave S0 mode is characterized in terms of its velocity variation as function of the interfacial conditions between solid bodies in contact. Imperfect contact conditions are numerically and experimentally determined by using ultrasonic Lamb wave propagation parameters. For the study, an experimental system was used, formed by two solid aluminum rods (25.4mm in diameter) axially loading a thin aluminum plate to control contact interfacial stiffness. The axially applied load on the aluminum plate was varied from 0MPa to 10MPa. Experimental Lamb wave signals were excited on the plate through two longitudinal contact transducers (1MHz of central frequency) using a pitch-catch configuration. Numerical simulations of contact conditions and Lamb wave propagation were performed through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in commercial software, ANSYS 15®. Simulated Lamb wave signals were generated by means of a 5 cycles tone burst signals with different frequency values. Results indicate a velocity change in both, experimental and simulated Lamb wave signals as function of the applied load. Finally, a comparison between numerical results and experimental measurements was performed obtaining a good agreement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Noncontact measurement of guided ultrasonic wave scattering for fatigue crack characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, P.

    2013-04-01

    Fatigue cracks can develop in aerospace structures at locations of stress concentration such as fasteners. For the safe operation of the aircraft fatigue cracks need to be detected before reaching a critical length. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in large aerospace structures. Noncontact excitation of guided waves was achieved using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). The transducers were developed for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb mode. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a simple theoretical model was developed and reasonably good agreement with the measurements was achieved. However, the detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the location and orientation of the crack relative to the measurement locations. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the characteristic defect size to wavelength. The detailed angular dependency of the guided wave field scattered at crack-like defects in plate structures has been measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement with 3D Finite Element simulation predictions was achieved for machined part-through and through-thickness notches. The amplitude of the scattered wave was quantified for a variation of angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and the defect depth. These results provide the basis for the defect characterization in aerospace structures using guided wave sensors.

  13. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT.

    PubMed

    Patra, Subir; Ahmed, Hossain; Banerjee, Sourav

    2018-01-18

    Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D) in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  14. Carcass classification in suckling lambs. Discrimination ability of the European Union scale.

    PubMed

    Miguel, E; Onega, E; Cañeque, V; Velasco, S; Díaz, M T; Lauzurica, S; Pérez, C; Blázquez, B; Ruiz de Huidobro, F

    2003-01-01

    Forty-nine Manchega suckling lambs were used in this trial. Lambs were slaughtered at 10, 12 and 14 kg liveweight (cold carcass weight lower than 13 kg). The degree of fatness was assessed by three assessors on colour photographs of the carcasses, using the European Union scale for light lambs (EU), and another new scale developed in our laboratory (Suckling Lamb scale, SL). Carcass degree of fatness was reassessed using the same scales divided into 0.25 point-intervals (EUI, SLI). Carcasses were allocated into four groups by means of a tree classification algorithm (cluster analysis), according to 27 variates, namely muscle percentage, whole fat percentage, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, kidney knob and channel fat percentage and muscle percentage, both in the carcass and in three joints (leg, best end neck plus loin, and shoulder). SL scale groups showed a higher number of variates well correlated to assessors' scoring than EU scale groups. Nevertheless, the EU scale showed significant between-groups differences in a higher number of variates (P<0.01). Using 0.25-points interval scales, EUI scale scoring was the best correlated to tissue composition. However, most variates were better correlated to dorsal fat thickness measurement (4 cm back from last rib and 4 cm from the carcass midline) than to assessors' scoring. All four groups in the tree classification were statistically different from one another, but assessors only were able to detect differences between whole fat percentage in group 1 and the rest. These results suggest that it is possible to improve the photographic standards of the EU method by using a 0.25 points interval scale. In abattoir conditions, the new SL method (1.0 point intervals) proved to be better. Measure of dorsal fat thickness proved to be a very good predictor of carcass tissue composition, but it is a more expensive measure.

  15. Structural health monitoring of plates with surface features using guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, P.

    2009-03-01

    Distributed array systems for guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient way for the long-term monitoring of the structural integrity of large plate-like structures. The measurement concept involving baseline subtraction has been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. For the application to real technical structures it needs to be shown that the methodology works equally well in the presence of structural and surface features. Problems employing this structural health monitoring concept can occur due to the presence of additional changes in the signal reflected at undamaged parts of the structure. The influence of the signal processing parameters and transducer placement on the damage detection and localization accuracy is discussed. The use of permanently attached, distributed sensors for the A0 Lamb wave mode has been investigated. Results are presented using experimental data obtained from laboratory measurements and Finite Element simulated signals for a large steel plate with a welded stiffener.

  16. Development and validation of equations utilizing lamb vision system output to predict lamb carcass fabrication yields.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; LeValley, S B; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2004-07-01

    This study was performed to validate previous equations and to develop and evaluate new regression equations for predicting lamb carcass fabrication yields using outputs from a lamb vision system-hot carcass component (LVS-HCC) and the lamb vision system-chilled carcass LM imaging component (LVS-CCC). Lamb carcasses (n = 149) were selected after slaughter, imaged hot using the LVS-HCC, and chilled for 24 to 48 h at -3 to 1 degrees C. Chilled carcasses yield grades (YG) were assigned on-line by USDA graders and by expert USDA grading supervisors with unlimited time and access to the carcasses. Before fabrication, carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th ribs and imaged using the LVS-CCC. Carcasses were fabricated into bone-in subprimal/primal cuts. Yields calculated included 1) saleable meat yield (SMY); 2) subprimal yield (SPY); and 3) fat yield (FY). On-line (whole-number) USDA YG accounted for 59, 58, and 64%; expert (whole-number) USDA YG explained 59, 59, and 65%; and expert (nearest-tenth) USDA YG accounted for 60, 60, and 67% of the observed variation in SMY, SPY, and FY, respectively. The best prediction equation developed in this trial using LVS-HCC output and hot carcass weight as independent variables explained 68, 62, and 74% of the variation in SMY, SPY, and FY, respectively. Addition of output from LVS-CCC improved predictive accuracy of the equations; the combined output equations explained 72 and 66% of the variability in SMY and SPY, respectively. Accuracy and repeatability of measurement of LM area made with the LVS-CCC also was assessed, and results suggested that use of LVS-CCC provided reasonably accurate (R2 = 0.59) and highly repeatable (repeatability = 0.98) measurements of LM area. Compared with USDA YG, use of the dual-component lamb vision system to predict cut yields of lamb carcasses improved accuracy and precision, suggesting that this system could have an application as an objective means for pricing carcasses in a value

  17. Understanding consumers' perception of lamb meat using free word association.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; de Aguiar Sobral, Louise; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to gather information about Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat and to study whether the perception is affected by the consumption frequency of this type of meat. A total of 1025 Brazilian consumers completed word association task with lamb meat. The elicited words were analyzed using inductive coding. Participants' associations with lamb meat were mainly related to sensory characteristics and hedonic attitudes and feelings, indicating that they might be the main motivations for consuming this product. Participants strongly associated lamb meat with special consumption occasions, which suggests that lack of perceived appropriateness for everyday consumption situations might be a barrier for increasing lamb meat consumption. Conceptualization of lamb meat was strongly affected by frequency of consumption of this product. Results from the present work provide a comprehensive insight on Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat, which can be used to develop strategies to increase its consumption and improve profitability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stable isotope ratio analysis for authentication of lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Piasentier, E; Valusso, R; Camin, F; Versini, G

    2003-07-01

    The effectiveness of the analysis of stable isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) in fractions of lamb meat, measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, was evaluated as a method of feeding and geographical origin authentication. Analyses were carried out on meat from 12 lamb types, produced in couples in six European countries (country of origin, CO) and divided in three groups according to the feeding regime during their finishing period: suckled milk only, pasture without any solid supplementation and supplementation containing maize grain (feeding regime, FR). These analyses were made on two samples of longissimus thoracis muscle, taken from the 13th rib section of the left side of two different lambs, randomly chosen between the 120 selected to represent each lamb type. δ(13)C values varied significantly in different meat fractions, the difference being higher in protein than in fat (average difference 5.0‰). However, the pairs δ(13)C values of crude fat and protein were highly correlated (r=0.976) and affected by lamb type in a similar fashion, mainly reflecting animals' feeding regime. Even δ(15)N values of meat protein fraction showed significant differences between lamb types, not dependant on the feeding regime. In fact, lambs fed on similar diets, but in different countries, gave meat with different (15)N relative abundances. These findings provide the possibility of discriminating lamb types within the same feeding regime. Canonical discriminant analysis was carried out to evaluate whether lamb meat from different CO or FR or CO×FR interaction could be mathematically distinguished by its stable isotope ratios. On the basis of CO, the corrected empirical allocation of 79.2% of the initial observations and the corrected cross-validation of two thirds of the individual meat samples was obtained. FR gave better results: 91.7% of the individual meat samples was both correctly allocated and cross-validated, indicating the high potential of

  19. Index selection in terminal sires improves lamb performance at finishing.

    PubMed

    Márquez, G C; Haresign, W; Davies, M H; Roehe, R; Bünger, L; Simm, G; Lewis, R M

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is often perceived by consumers as fatty, and consumption has decreased in recent decades. A lean growth index was developed in the UK for terminal sire breeds to increase carcass lean content and constrain fat content at a constant age end point. The purposes of this study were 1) to evaluate the effects of index selection of terminal sires on their crossbred offspring at finishing and 2) to evaluate its effectiveness within terminal sire breeds. Approximately 70% of lambs marketed in the UK have been sired by rams of breeds typically thought of as specialized terminal sires. The most widely used are Charollais, Suffolk, and Texel. These breeds participated in sire referencing schemes from the early 1990s by sharing rams among flocks selected on the lean growth index. From 1999 to 2002 approximately 15 "high" and 15 "low" lean growth index score rams were selected from within their sire referencing schemes and mated to Welsh and Scottish Mule ewes. Their crossbred offspring were commercially reared on 3 farms in the UK. Lambs were finished to an estimated 11% subcutaneous fat by visual evaluation. At finishing, lambs were weighed, ultrasonically scanned, and assessed for condition score and conformation. Records were obtained for 6356 lambs on finishing BW (FWT), ultrasonic muscle depth (UMD), ultrasonic fat depth, overall condition score (OCS), and conformation of gigot, loin, and shoulder. Ultrasonic fat depth was log transformed (logUFD) to approach normality. High-index-sired lambs were heavier at finishing (1.2±0.2 kg) with thicker UMD (0.7±0.2 mm) and less logUFD (0.08±0.01 mm; P<0.05). There were no differences in OCS or conformation based on the sire index or breed (P>0.08). Suffolk-sired lambs were heavier than Charollais (1.0±0.3 kg), which were heavier than Texel (0.9±0.3 kg; P<0.001). Texel-sired lambs had thicker UMD than Charollais (0.7±0.2 mm; P<0.001) but were not different than Suffolk. Charollais-sired lambs had greater log

  20. Plane Wave SH₀ Piezoceramic Transduction Optimized Using Geometrical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Guillaume; Viens, Martin; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-02-10

    Structural health monitoring is a prominent alternative to the scheduled maintenance of safety-critical components. The nondispersive nature as well as the through-thickness mode shape of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave mode (SH 0 ) make it a particularly attractive candidate for ultrasonic guided wave structural health monitoring. However, plane wave excitation of SH 0 at a high level of purity remains challenging because of the existence of the fundamental Lamb modes (A 0 and S 0 ) below the cutoff frequency thickness product of high-order modes. This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer concept optimized for plane SH 0 wave transduction based on the transducer geometry. The transducer parameter exploration was initially performed using a simple analytical model. A 3D multiphysics finite element model was then used to refine the transducer design. Finally, an experimental validation was conducted with a 3D laser Doppler vibrometer system. The analytical model, the finite element model, and the experimental measurement showed excellent agreement. The modal selectivity of SH 0 within a 20 ∘ beam opening angle at the design frequency of 425 kHz in a 1.59 mm aluminum plate was 23 dB, and the angle of the 6 dB wavefront was 86 ∘ .

  1. Evolution of Lamb Vector as a Vortex Breaking into Turbulence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. Z.; Lu, X. Y.

    1996-11-01

    In an incompressible flow, either laminar or turbulent, the Lamb vector is solely responsible to nonlinear interactions. While its longitudinal part is balanced by stagnation enthalpy, its transverse part is the unique source (as an external forcing in spectral space) that causes the flow to evolve. Moreover, in Reynolds-averaged flows the turbulent force can be derived exclusively from the Lamb vector instead of the full Reynolds stress tensor. Therefore, studying the evolution of the Lamb vector itself (both longitudinal and transverse parts) is of great interest. We have numerically examined this problem, taking the nonlinear distabilization of a viscous vortex as an example. In the later stage of this evolution we introduced a forcing to keep a statistically steady state, and observed the Lamb vector behavior in the resulting fine turbulence. The result is presented in both physical and spectral spaces.

  2. Molecular weights and subunit structure of LamB proteins.

    PubMed

    Nakae, T; Ishii, J N

    1982-01-01

    Phage lambda-receptor proteins of Escherichia coli, LamB proteins, form oligomeric aggregates to build transmembrane diffusion pores selective for maltose and maltodextrins. The molecular weights (MW) of functional oligomers as well as dissociated monomers were determined by sedimentation equilibrium analysis in homogeneous non-ionic surfactant and deuterium oxide and in 6 M guanidine-HCl, respectively. The MW of oligomers and monomers appeared as 135 600 and 45 900, respectively. Thus, functional Lamb proteins consisted of three identical subunits.

  3. 78 FR 31367 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...] RIN 0581-AD29 Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and... (including veal), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and...

  4. Comparison of parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau and Suffolk lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Alba-Hurtado, F; Romero-Escobedo, E; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Torres-Hernández, G; Becerril-Pérez, C M

    2010-09-20

    The study compares the parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau (CNCMP) and Suffolk (SU) lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. CNCMP lambs (n=20) and SU lambs (n=15) were infected with L3 of H. contortus while five lambs of each genotype were kept as controls. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), blood eosinophil number (BEN), ocular mucous membrane color (as measured by the FAMACHA index), changes in body condition score (BCS) and cumulative live weight gain (CLWG) were measured weekly during a 20-week period. On week 20, all animals were euthanized and the number of adult worms (AW) in the abomasum was counted. Infected SU lambs had higher (p<0.05) FEC and AW mean values compared to CNCMP lambs, which had a higher mean BEN count (p<0.05). Infected lambs had lower PCV values than controls, regardless of genotype, and had a negative correlation (r=-0.84, p<0.05) with the FAMACHA index. BCS tended to decline for infected SU lambs and increased slightly for infected CNCMP lambs. CLWG differed in all groups (p<0.05); infected SU lambs gained 12.1+/-1.9kg, infected CNCMP lambs gained 18.8+/-0.7kg, control SU lambs gained 34.6+/-1.6kg, and control CNCMP lambs gained 26.9+/-0.8kg. In conclusion, CNCMP lambs had a smaller worm burden, a better ability to maintain their productive traits, and were less affected by infection with Haemonchus contortus.

  5. Carcass and meat quality of Assaf milk fed lambs: Effect of rearing system and sex.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A B; Landa, R; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Mantecón, A R; Giráldez, F J

    2008-10-01

    The effect of sex and rearing system on growth and carcass and meat characteristics of milk fed Assaf lambs was studied. Thirty-six lambs, 18 males and 18 females were used. Twelve lambs remained with their mothers throughout the experiment (NR). Within 24-36h of birth, the rest were housed individually and fed twice a day ad libitum (AAR) or at 70% of ad libitum consumption (RAR) with reconstituted cow's milk. Sex did not affect animal performance, yet females showed higher carcass and non-carcass fat deposits. NR lambs showed greater BWG than AAR fed lambs, and AAR, higher than the RAR. Differences between naturally and artificially reared lambs in CCW and killing out percentage were not significant. Empty digestive tract and mesenteric fat weights were greater for RAR than NR lambs, with the AAR lambs demonstrating intermediate values; conversely, omental fat was greater in NR lambs. Carcass ether extract content was greater for NR lambs, possibly due to the greater growth. Use of ad libitum cow's milk substitute in suckling lambs twice a day resulted in less body weight gain but similar killing out percentages compared to naturally raised lambs. A 70% restricted supply increased the days in suckling and reduced carcass fatness and compactness. Except for water loss, which was less in NR than artificially fed lambs, no differences were found in meat characteristics.

  6. Body Composition of Lambs and Rams Fed Complete Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, F.; Rianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the proportion of body water, protein and fat of lambs and rams. The material used in this study were 6 lambs (weighed of 15.92 kg), and 6 rams (weighed 23.31 kg). The sheep were fed a complete feed. In weeks 1, 5 and 9, the body composition (water, protein and body fat) was measured using the “urea space” method. The results showed that the proportion of water, protein and fat in the body of lambs and sheep differed significantly (P <0.01). The proportion of lambs’ body water in weeks 1, 5 and 9 were 58.71, 58.43 and 58.43%, respectively; while thoset of the rams were 58.40, 58.14% and 58.14%, respectively. The proportion of body protein of lambs in weeks 1, 5 and 9 were 11.84, 11.94 and 11.99%, respectively; while those of rams were 13.01; 13.01 and 13.03%, respectively. The proportion of body fat of lambs in weeks 1, 5 and 9 were 20.51, 20.87 and 20.87%, respectively; while those of rams were 20.9, 21.26 and 21.25%, respectively. Body water of lambs and rams week decreased from week 1 to 9. On the other hand, the proportion of body protein and fat increased. It is concluded that the proportion of body water was higher while the proportions of body protein and fat were lower in lambs as compared with those in rams.

  7. Management of maternal-offspring behavior to improve lamb survival in easy care sheep systems.

    PubMed

    Everett-Hincks, J M; Dodds, K G

    2008-04-01

    This paper examines the environmental and management factors affecting lamb survival on high-performing sheep farms in New Zealand. Improved lambing percentage is the biggest contributor to higher profits on New Zealand sheep farms. Many sheep breeders have selected and bred ewes for increased fecundity over the last 4 decades. The increased proportion of ewes having triplets is of concern to farmers and to industry because neonatal lamb mortality is highest in triplets. The majority of lamb deaths occur in the first 3 d after birth and range from 5 to 30% for individual sheep flocks. The ability of a lamb to survive to weaning is determined by genetics, behavior, physiology, and the environment, including on-farm management practices. We investigated the effects of dam body condition in pregnancy, weather during lambing, lamb birth weight, and maternal behavior on single, twin, and triplet lamb viability at birth, lamb death risks from dystocia, and starvation exposure and survival through to weaning for 20 industry flocks from 2003 to 2004 (15,821 lambs). Ewes with higher body condition scores in mid pregnancy had heavier lambs at birth (P < 0.01). Lambs weighing 5.5 to 6 kg at birth (P < 0.01) were more likely to be viable at birth and survive to weaning than heavier or lighter lambs. Weather conditions during late pregnancy (P < 0.05) proved more important than conditions during lambing (P < 0.05) in determining lamb viability and survival through to weaning. Older ewes and ewes with triplets require considerably more attention for farmers to realize their production potential. This information can help formulate appropriate management programs to improve lamb survival rates under easy care farming systems.

  8. The power flow angle of acoustic waves in thin piezoelectric plates.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Iren E; Zaitsev, Boris D; Teplykh, Andrei A; Joshi, Shrinivas G; Kuznetsova, Anastasia S

    2008-09-01

    The curves of slowness and power flow angle (PFA) of quasi-antisymmetric (A(0)) and quasi-symmetric (S(0)) Lamb waves as well as quasi-shear-horizontal (SH(0)) acoustic waves in thin plates of lithium niobate and potassium niobate of X-,Y-, and Z-cuts for various propagation directions and the influence of electrical shorting of one plate surface on these curves and PFA have been theoretically investigated. It has been found that the group velocity of such waves does not coincide with the phase velocity for the most directions of propagation. It has been also shown that S(0) and SH(0) wave are characterized by record high values of PFA and its change due to electrical shorting of the plate surface in comparison with surface and bulk acoustic waves in the same material. The most interesting results have been verified by experiment. As a whole, the results obtained may be useful for development of various devices for signal processing, for example, electrically controlled acoustic switchers.

  9. The formulation of Lamb's Dust Veil Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, P. M.; Sear, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    A catalog of the major explosive volcanic eruptions since 1500 AD and formulated the Dust Veil Index (DVI) is presented. The DVI quantifies the impact on the Earth's energy balance of changes in atmospheric composition due to explosive volcanic eruptions. The DVI for a particular eruption quantifies the climatic impact of the dust and aerosol injection from the eruption integrated over the years following the event. The formulation of the DVI is described. All references are to Lamb (1970). A distinction is made between the catalog of volcanic activity, and the tabulation of the northern hemisphere DVI apportioned over the years. The DVI data are updated to 1975 for any particular eruption, the catalog gives three DVI values: global, Southern Hemisphere, and Northern Hemisphere. The global DVI given in the catalog is considered. The other two DVIs relate to the impact on the hemispheres considered separately and their estimation involves an additional factor apportioning the dust veil between the hemispheres on the basis of the latitude of injection.

  10. Rhodotorula minuta fungemia in a ewe lamb.

    PubMed

    Chitko-McKown, C G; Leymaster, K A; Heaton, M P; Griffin, D D; Veatch, J K; Jones, S A; Clawson, M L

    2014-12-01

    An 8-month-old crossbred ewe, normal upon physical examination, was humanely euthanized for tissue collection. After approximately 3 weeks in tissue culture, fungi began budding out of cells obtained from the choroid plexus. After an additional 3 weeks, budding was observed in kidney cell cultures and eventually in monocyte cultures as well. Serum from the lamb was submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Colorado State University for fungal diagnosis and was found negative for Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioidomycosis and Histoplasmosis. DNA was isolated from fungi collected from tissue culture supernatants and used in a set of pan-fungal PCR assays with DNA from Candida acting as a positive control. PCR products were sequenced and BLAST analysis performed. The unknown fungal sequence aligned with 100% identity to Rhodotorula minuta an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Samples were submitted to The Fungal Testing Laboratory at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio for additional validation. We believe this to be the first report of Rhodotorula fungemia in a sheep in the United States. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Monitoring pulse oximetry via radiotelemetry in freely-moving lambs.

    PubMed

    Reix, Philippe; Dumont, Sylvain; Duvareille, Charles; Cyr, Jonathan; Moreau-Bussière, François; Arsenault, Julie; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2005-05-12

    This study was aimed at validating the use of a custom-made wireless pulse oximeter in freely moving lambs, using radiotelemetry transmission. First, measurements obtained simultaneously using the new, wireless oximeter and a standard commercially-available pulse oximeter (Nonin 8500) were compared in five lambs during 5min episodes of normoxia, hypoxia and hyperoxia. Correlation between the two oximeters for both SpO(2) and heart rate was very good, regardless of oxygenation conditions. Secondly, the capabilities of our device were assessed during more than 45h of polysomnographic recordings in seven lambs. According to the plethysmographic pulse waveform, reliable SpO(2) values were obtained in more than 85% of recording time. Multiple decreases in SpO(2) were readily observed after spontaneous apneas in preterm lambs. It is concluded that our wireless pulse oximeter performs as reliably as a standard pulse oximeter for monitoring SpO(2) variations in lambs, and offers new perspectives for researchers interested in continuous monitoring of oxygenation throughout sleep stages and wakefulness.

  12. Quality factors in beef, pork, and lamb cooked by microwaves.

    PubMed

    Korschgen, B M; Baldwin, R E; Snider, S

    1976-12-01

    Three cooking treatments were applied to the longissimus muscle of beef and of pork and to deboned leg of lamb. Cooking treatments included: Intermittent energy application (3-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 220V and intermittent energy application (6-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 115V. Control roasts were cooked in a conventional gas oven (163+/-3 degrees C.). Cooking was adjusted so that roasts achieved an internal temperature of 70 degrees C. when cut for analyses. Cooking losses were significantly greater for microwave than for conventionally cooked beef. However, microwave cooking resulted in beef, pork, and lamb roasts with flavor of interior portions similar to those prepared conventionally. Flavor differences in samples from the edge of the slices of lamb and of pork and tenderness of lamb appeared to be related to cooking method. For these attributes, meat cooked conventionally was superior. In contrast, patterns in significant differences in tenderness and juiciness of beef and of pork were not consistent and were not related solely to method of cookery. Neither creatine nor creatinine was a good index of flavor of meat cooked by these methods. Aside from the time-saving aspect of microwave heating, there was no major advantage of one method of cooking over another. Thus, either high- or low- powered microwave equipment, operated at 2450 MHz, can be used satisfactorily for cooking tender cuts of beef, pork, and lamb.

  13. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance... National Office to fund loans to lamb processors for real estate purchases and improvements; working...

  14. Diprosopus with multiple craniofacial, musculoskeletal, and cardiac defects in a purebred Suffolk lamb.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Nancy J

    2007-10-01

    A stillborn Suffolk ewe lamb with 2 heads was found to have tarsal arthrogryposis, kypholordosis, craniorachischisis totalis, cheiloschisis, palatoschisis, deviation of the right maxilla, prognathia, patent ductus arteriosus, 3 ventricular septal defects, and 4 great vessels. The lamb was born twin to a normal lamb. No definitive etiology was established.

  15. Diprosopus with multiple craniofacial, musculoskeletal, and cardiac defects in a purebred Suffolk lamb

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Nancy J.

    2007-01-01

    A stillborn Suffolk ewe lamb with 2 heads was found to have tarsal arthrogryposis, kypholordosis, craniorachischisis totalis, cheiloschisis, palatoschisis, deviation of the right maxilla, prognathia, patent ductus arteriosus, 3 ventricular septal defects, and 4 great vessels. The lamb was born twin to a normal lamb. No definitive etiology was established. PMID:17987971

  16. Myopathy and hepatic lipidosis in weaned lambs due to vitamin E deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A sheep flock experienced losses in weaned lambs from myopathy and hepatic lipidosis. Investigation revealed painful ambulation, illthrift, and unexpected death in lambs with normal selenium levels, deficient vitamin E levels, and elevated muscle and liver enzyme levels. Vitamin E deficiency should be considered when investigating myopathy and illthrift in lambs. PMID:15072198

  17. Myopathy and hepatic lipidosis in weaned lambs due to vitamin E deficiency.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Paula; Langs, Lisa; Boermans, Herman; Martin, John; McNally, John

    2004-03-01

    A sheep flock experienced losses in weaned lambs from myopathy and hepatic lipidosis. Investigation revealed painful ambulation, illthrift, and unexpected death in lambs with normal selenium levels, deficient vitamin E levels, and elevated muscle and liver enzyme levels. Vitamin E deficiency should be considered when investigating myopathy and illthrift in lambs.

  18. Assessment of commercial lamb meat quality by British and Spanish taste panels.

    PubMed

    Sañudo, C; Nute, G R; Campo, M M; María, G; Baker, A; Sierra, I; Enser, M E; Wood, J D

    1998-01-01

    Trained sensory panels in Britain and Spain assessed loin meat from commercial lambs purchased in Spain, which included Welsh lamb (imported from Britain) and two Spanish breeds (Merino and Rasa Aragonesa). The British panel also assessed British lamb purchased in local butcher shops and supermarkets. Sensory panels, in each country, received meat from the same lambs and used their local methods of cooking and assessment. Spanish panels used unstructured line scales to measure lamb odour intensity, tenderness, juiciness, lamb flavour intensity and two hedonic scales of flavour liking and overall liking. The British panel used 8 point category scales with the same attributes. Results from both panels in objective parameters were in agreement, hence showing that different trained sensory panels may arrive at the same conclusion. However, when panellists were allowed to make hedonic judgements (preference), the British panel preferred British lamb and the Spanish panel preferred Spanish lamb. This finding has important consequences for lamb producers who export their lambs and demonstrates that the underlying reasons for different preferences should be investigated. Production variables are discussed in relation to their influence on lamb eating quality and as a way to tailor lamb eating quality attributes familiar to consumers in the importing country.

  19. Parasitic gastro-enteritis in lambs — A model for estimating the timing of the larval emergence peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J. R.; Thomas, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    The life history of the nematode parasites of domestic ruminants usually involves the development and survival of free-living stages on pasture. The pasture is, therefore, the site of deposition, development and transmission of nematode infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. Recently Thomas and Starr (1978) discussed an empirical technique for forecasting the timing of the summer wave of gastro-intestinal parasitism in North-East England in the lamb crop using meteorological data and in particular estimates of the duration of “surface wetness”. This paper presents an attempt to model “surface wetness” and the temperature limitation to nematode development.

  20. Monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using guided waves and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingyu; Qu, Yongwei; Lu, Ye; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Limin; Su, Zhongqing

    2012-04-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer (PZT) network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor. The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform (HHT), indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld, multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.

  1. Effect of system of lamb rearing and season on early post-partum fertility of ewes and growth performance of lambs in Katahdin sheep.

    PubMed

    Rastle-Simpson, S; D'Souza, K; Redhead, A; Singh-Knights, D; Baptiste, Q; Knights, M

    2017-10-01

    The effect of season (S), lamb rearing system (RT) and grain supplementation (GS) on post-partum fertility in Katahdin ewes and growth in Katahdin lambs was evaluated. Katahdin ewes were bred to lamb in fall (n = 36) or spring (n = 56) and at approximately 2.5 months post-partum were randomly assigned to be permanently separated or to continue to suckle their lambs for an additional 3 months. All ewes were joined with rams following treatment to synchronize oestrus. Weaned (W, n = 84) and continuously suckled lambs (CSK, n = 88) were fed forage only (n = 84; hay and pasture for fall- and spring-born lambs respectively) or were supplemented (n = 88; 18% crude protein ration ad libitum) and all weighed biweekly. Ewes rebred in the fall had a shorter ram introduction to lambing interval (p < 0.05), higher prolificacy (p = 0.001) and higher lambing rates (p = 0.02); however, the proportion of ewes lambing was not affected by season. The first service lambing rate was lower in ewes continuously suckling lambs in the spring, but not in the fall breeding season (S × RT, p = 0.03). Lambs that continuously suckled their dams and were supplemented grew quicker and gained more (p < 0.001) than their weaned and unsupplemented counterparts. The effect of CSK on growth rate of lambs was greater in the spring (RT × S; p = 0.05), and the effect of supplementation on growth rate of lambs was greater in the fall (GS × S; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Katahdin lambs achieved higher weight gains from continuous suckling and grain supplementation. Moreover, Katahdin ewes are capable of early rebreeding post-partum while suckling their lambs, which makes them suited for use in accelerated lambing programmes. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Time-Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the A(sub 0), A(sub 1), S(sub 0), and S(sub 2)Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along, and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.

  3. Time-Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the AO, A I , So, and S2 Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.

  4. Interception of the development of self tolerance in fetal lambs.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, P

    1989-08-01

    Investigation of the nature of immunological self tolerance has usually relied upon experimental protocols in which the tolerant state is interrupted in mature animals with the production of autoimmune disease. While such research has improved the understanding of those processes operative in overt autoimmunity, it has not been informative in relation to events associated with the establishment of self tolerance. Any description of this state which is to be based on observation will necessitate the use of experimental systems that permit observation of animals during the development of self tolerance. The present experiment entailed intervention approximately one third of the way through the gestation period of fetal lambs. An earlier experiment had established that 54-day fetal lambs would accept allografts of adult skin. This indicated that the capacity to discriminate between self and non-self had not been acquired at that age. Fetuses at this stage of gestation were submitted to either partial or total removal of the thyroid gland. The excised tissue was then implanted in nude mice for periods of 5 to 9 weeks. It was subsequently replaced subcutaneously, either in the original donor or in another fetus at a comparable stage of gestation. At postmortem examination, several weeks later, self implants in lambs from which the thyroid gland had been completely removed displayed autoimmune thyroiditis of varying degrees of severity. However, self implants in partially thyroidectomized animals were uniformly free from autoimmune manifestations. This implied that these reactions had not been directed against contaminating murine tissues in the implants replaced in completely thyroidectomized lambs. All allogeneic implants were subject to vey heavy lymphocytic infiltration, usually with accompanying necrosis consistent with allograft rejection. This was taken as an indication that hypothyroid fetal lambs had become immunocompetent by the time of thyroid reimplantation

  5. Cooperative Lamb shift and superradiance in an optoelectronic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frucci, G.; Huppert, S.; Vasanelli, A.; Dailly, B.; Todorov, Y.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Sirtori, C.

    2017-04-01

    When a single excitation is shared between a large number of two-level systems, a strong enhancement of the spontaneous emission appears. This phenomenon is known as superradiance. This enhanced rate can be accompanied by a shift of the emission frequency, the cooperative Lamb shift, issued from the exchange of virtual photons between the emitters. In this work we present a semiconductor optoelectronic device allowing the observation of these two phenomena at room temperature. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that plasma oscillations in spatially separated quantum wells interact through real and virtual photon exchange. This gives rise to a superradiant mode displaying a large cooperative Lamb shift.

  6. Higher-order binding corrections to the Lamb shift

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, K.

    1993-08-15

    In this work a new analytical method for calculating the one-loop self-energy correction to the Lamb shift is presented in detail. The technique relies on division into the low and the high energy parts. The low energy part is calculated using the multipole expansion and the high energy part is calculated by expanding the Dirac-Coulomb propagator in powers of the Coulomb field. The obtained results are in agreement with those previously known, but are more accurate. A new theoretical value of the Lamb shift is also given. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Higher-Order Binding Corrections to the Lamb Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, K.

    1993-08-01

    In this work a new analytical method for calculating the one-loop self-energy correction to the Lamb shift is presented in detail. The technique relies on division into the low and the high energy parts. The low energy part is calculated using the multipole expansion and the high energy part is calculated by expanding the Dirac-Coulomb propagator in powers of the Coulomb field. The obtained results are in agreement with those previously known, but are more accurate. A new theoretical value of the Lamb shift is also given.

  8. Effects of suckling duration on growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics of Kivircik lambs.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Bulent; Kocak, Omur; Yalcintan, Hulya; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-02-01

    Effects of suckling length (45, 75 and 120 days) and birth type (single and twin) on lamb growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics were investigated using 40 Kivircik lambs. SC-45 and SC-75 lambs were weaned at 45 and 75 days of age, respectively, whilst SC-120 lambs remained with their mothers until the end of the experimental period. Lambs from all studied groups were slaughtered at 120 days of age. Weaning treatment caused a decrease in average daily gain in SC-45 and SC-75 lambs, and therefore, final weight was higher in SC-120 lambs than lambs from weaned groups. SC-120 lambs had higher empty body weight, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass measurements, carcass fatness (proportions of the kidney knob and channel fat, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat in pelvic limb) and non-carcass fatness (omental and mesenteric fat proportion) than weaned lambs. As a conclusion, the potential losses in meat production due to weaning should be considered before deciding the weaning of lambs at early ages.

  9. The effects of feeding clinoptilolite on hematology, performance, and health of newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Norouzian, M A; Valizadeh, R; Khadem, A A; Afzalzadeh, A; Nabipour, A

    2010-11-01

    The effects of feeding clinoptilolite on hematology, performance, and health of newborn Balouchi lambs were evaluated in this experiment. In a completely randomized design, 30 newborn lambs were allocated to three groups and fed by basal diet (C0; without clinoptilolite) and C1 and C2 (the basal diet plus 1.5% and 3% clinoptilolite, respectively, for 6 weeks (3 weeks before and 3 weeks after weaning)). Blood samples were taken from all lambs, at the time when the animals were allocated to the experimental diet and at the end of each week of experiment, and analyzed for hematology, plasma fibrinogen, and total protein. Performance and health of all lambs were measured. Fecal consistency score and diarrhea severity were evaluated. There was no difference between lambs in case of hematological parameters. Lambs fecal consistency score and severity of diarrhea were lowest (P < 0.05) for lambs on C1 and C2 and highest for lambs on C0. Dry matter intake and feed conservation ratio were similar between the groups of lambs fed by different diets, but daily gain of lambs differed significantly (P < 0.05) and was higher in C2. It was concluded that addition of 3% clinoptilolite to starter diet of newborn lamb can reduce incidence and severity of diarrhea, although its effect on hematology and performance was negligible.

  10. Establishment and development of ruminal hydrogenotrophs in methanogen-free lambs.

    PubMed

    Fonty, Gérard; Joblin, Keith; Chavarot, Michel; Roux, Remy; Naylor, Graham; Michallon, Fabien

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether reductive acetogenesis can provide an alternative to methanogenesis in the rumen. Gnotobiotic lambs were inoculated with a functional rumen microbiota lacking methanogens and reared to maturity on a fibrous diet. Lambs with a methanogen-free rumen grew well, and the feed intake and ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations for lambs lacking ruminal methanogens were lower but not markedly dissimilar from those for conventional lambs reared on the same diet. A high population density (10(7) to 10(8) cells g(-1)) of ruminal acetogens slowly developed in methanogen-free lambs. Sulfate- and fumarate-reducing bacteria were present, but their population densities were highly variable. In methanogen-free lambs, the hydrogen capture from fermentation was low (28 to 46%) in comparison with that in lambs containing ruminal methanogens (>90%). Reductive acetogenesis was not a significant part of ruminal fermentation in conventional lambs but contributed 21 to 25% to the fermentation in methanogen-free meroxenic animals. Ruminal H(2) utilization was lower in lambs lacking ruminal methanogens, but when a methanogen-free lamb was inoculated with a methanogen, the ruminal H(2) utilization was similar to that in conventional lambs. H(2) utilization in lambs containing a normal ruminal microflora was age dependent and increased with the animal age. The animal age effect was less marked in lambs lacking ruminal methanogens. Addition of fumarate to rumen contents from methanogen-free lambs increased H(2) utilization. These findings provide the first evidence from animal studies that reductive acetogens can sustain a functional rumen and replace methanogens as a sink for H(2) in the rumen.

  11. Ewes Direct Most Maternal Attention towards Lambs that Show the Greatest Pain-Related Behavioural Responses

    PubMed Central

    Futro, Agnieszka; Masłowska, Katarzyna; Dwyer, Cathy M.

    2015-01-01

    Although neonatal farm animals are frequently subjected to painful management procedures, the role of maternal behaviour in pain coping, has not been much studied. We investigated whether ewes were able to distinguish between lambs in pain and those that were not, and whether their behaviour altered depending on the severity of lamb pain. Eighty male lambs were allocated to one of 4 pain treatments within 24 hours of birth. Lambs were either handled only (C), bilaterally castrated with tight rubber rings (RR), as for RR but with the application of a Burdizzo clamp immediately proximal to the ring (Combined) or subjected to short scrotum castration (SSC) where the testicles were retained within the abdomen and only the scrotum removed. The behaviour of the ewe, treated lamb and untreated sibling where present (n = 54) were recorded for 30 minutes after treatment. Castration treatment increased the expression of abnormal standing and lying postures, specific pain-related behaviours (head-turning, stamping/kicking, easing quarters, tail wagging) and composite pain scores (P<0.001 for all). The greatest expression of pain-related behaviours was shown by lambs in the RR group, which were the only group to show rolling responses indicative of severe pain, followed by the SSC group. Ewes expressed more licking/sniffing responses to the RR and SSC lambs than towards the Combined and C lambs (P<0.05), and oriented most to RR lambs and least to C lambs (P<0.001). Ewes with two lambs also directed more attention towards the treated than the untreated lamb (P<0.001). The quantity of maternal care directed towards the lamb was positively correlated with the expression of active pain behaviours. The data demonstrate that ewes are able to discriminate between lambs in pain and those that are not, and that their response is increased with a greater severity of pain. PMID:26217942

  12. STOCKPILED PRAIRIEGRASS PROVIDES HIGH-QUALITY FALL GRAZING FOR LAMBS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New varieties of prairiegrass (Bromus catharticus Vahl. = B. willdenowii Kunth.) exhibit improved persistence over ‘Matua’ under USA growing conditions, but animal performance data is lacking. We evaluated performance of lambs grazing stockpiled ‘Dixon’ prairiegrass on West Virginia hill pasture in...

  13. Enhanced Lamb dip for absolute laser frequency stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegman, A. E.; Byer, R. L.; Wang, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Enhanced Lamb dip width is 5 MHz and total depth is 10 percent of peak power. Present configuration is useful as frequency standard in near infrared. Technique extends to other lasers, for which low pressure narrow linewidth gain tubes can be constructed.

  14. A Review of the Latent and Manifest Benefits (LAMB) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Juanita; Waters, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The latent and manifest benefits (LAMB) scale (Muller, Creed, Waters & Machin, 2005) was designed to measure the latent and manifest benefits of employment and provide a single scale to test Jahoda's (1981) and Fryer's (1986) theories of unemployment. Since its publication in 2005 there have been 13 studies that have used the scale with 5692…

  15. Two-Port Fetoscopic Repair of Myelomeningocele in Fetal Lambs.

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, Lucie; Garabedian, Charles; Roux, Nathalie; Friszer, Stéphanie; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Vialle, Raphaël; Shah, Zoobia; Bessières, Bettina; Di Rocco, Federico; Zerah, Michel; Jouannic, Jean-Marie

    2018-02-21

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the effectiveness of a fetoscopic myelomeningocele (MMC) repair with a running single suture using a 2-port access in the sheep model. Eighteen fetuses underwent surgical creation of a MMC defect at day 75. Fetuses were then randomized into 3 groups. Four fetuses remained untreated (control group). In the other 14 fetuses, a prenatal repair was performed at day 90: 7 fetuses had an open repair (oMMC), and 7 fetuses had a fetoscopic repair (fMMC) using a single-layer running suture through a 2-port access. Lambs were sacrificed at term, and histological examinations were performed. Hindbrain herniation was observed in all live lambs in the control group. A complete closure of the defect was achieved in all the lambs of the fMMC group. A complete healing of the defect and no hindbrain herniation were observed in all live lambs of the oMMC and fMMC groups. The durations of surgeries were not statistically different between the oMMC and the fMMC groups (60 vs. 53 min, p = 0.40), as was the risk of fetal loss (fMMC: 1/7, oMMC: 3/7, p = 0.56). Fetoscopic repair of MMC can be performed using a single-layer running suture through a 2-port access and may be promising to reduce the risk of premature rupture of membranes. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effects of sunflower soap stocks on light lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, J F; Morán, L; Mateo, J; Villalobos-Delgado, L H; Andrés, S; Bodas, R

    2017-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were used to study the effect of sunflower soap stocks (SS), a by-product from the vegetable oil refinery industry, on meat chemical composition, fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and consumer acceptability. Lambs were finished (average length of fattening period 35 ± 7.3 d, 26.8 ± 0.09 kg final BW) on a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) with no SS (00SS) or including 15, 30 or 60 g SS/kg (15SS, 30SS, and 60SS, respectively). Sunflower soap stocks decreased the percentage of SFA, increased the proportion of -MUFA ( < 0.05), and modified the levels of several odor-active lipid-derived volatile compounds ( 0.05). Consumers were able to distinguish between control and 15SS meat samples in a triangular test ( < 0.05), but a well-defined preference for meat of any of these treatments was not exhibited ( > 0.05). Atherogenicity and saturation indexes decreased by 31% and 27%, respectively, in SS groups compared to control (linear 0.05). However, certain volatile compounds (benzene and toluene) and 10-18:1 fatty acid, known potential hazards for human health, were increased in meat from lambs fed TMR with SS. For this reason, only inclusion rates up to 15 g SS/kg TMR seem to sustain a satisfactory balance between beneficial and detrimental effects on lamb meat composition and quality.

  17. Preferences for lamb meat: a choice experiment for Spanish consumers.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Azucena; de-Magistris, Tiziana

    2013-10-01

    This paper analyzes consumers' preferences for different lamb meat attributes using a choice experiment. In particular, preferences for the type of commercial lamb meat ("Ternasco" and "Suckling") and the origin of production (locally produced "Ojinegra from Teruel") were evaluated. Moreover, we endogenously identify consumers' segments based on consumers' preferences for the analyzed attributes. Data come from a survey administrated in Spain during 2009. A latent class model was used to estimate the effect of the attributes on consumer utility, derive the willingness to pay and determine consumers' segments. Results suggest that consumers' preferences for both attributes are heterogeneous and two homogenous consumers' segments were detected. The largest segment (79%) did not value any of the analyzed attributes while the smaller one (21%) valued both of them positively. In particular, consumers in this second segment are willing to pay an extra premium for the "Ternasco" lamb meat, around double the premium they are willing to pay for the locally produced lamb meat "Ojinegra from Teruel". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Humoral and cellular immunity in chromium picolinate-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, B S L; McManus, C M; Caldeira, D F; Campeche, A; Burtet, R T; Paim, T P; Gomes, E F; Branquinho, R P; Braz, S V; Louvandini, H

    2013-08-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on humoral and cellular immunity in sheep were investigated. Twenty-four male lambs divided into four treatments and received different dosages of CrPic: placebo (0), 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg of chromium/animal/day during 84 days. The base ration was Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Blood samples were collected fortnightly for total and differential leukocyte counts. On days 28 and 56, the lambs were challenged with chicken ovalbumin I.M. Serum samples were collected on days 46 and 74 and subjected to an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure IgG anti-ovalbumin. The cell-mediated immune response was determined by a delay-type hypersensitivity test using phytohemagglutinin. CrPic did not significantly affect humoral immunity in lambs but there was a negative effect on cellular immunity (P < 0.05) as Cr supplementation increased. Therefore, the level of Cr supplementation for lambs must be better studied to address its effect on stressed animals or the possible toxic effects of Cr on the animal itself or its immune system.

  19. Grazing sericea lespedeza for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternatives to chemical dewormers are needed to counter anthelmintic resistance and improve organic management systems. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) compared with grass pastures for control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in lambs. In Experi...

  20. Using the Mystery of the Cyclopic Lamb to Teach Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jamie L.

    2010-01-01

    I present a learning cycle that explores different biotechnologies using the process of in situ hybridization as a platform. Students are presented with a cyclopic lamb and must use biotechnology to discover the mechanism behind the deformity. Through this activity, students learn about signal transduction and discover the processes of polymerase…

  1. Effect of age on pulmonary epithelial permeability in unanesthetized lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, A.A.; McNicol, K.J.; Loughlin, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial permeability was measured 1) in unanesthetized sheep, and 2) longitudinally in growing lambs. Awake sheep were intubated and a solution of /sup 51/Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and /sup 125/I-antipyrine was instilled in the intrathoracic trachea via the nasotracheal tube. Arterial blood was drawn 1-25 minutes after the instillation. The ratios of the counts of /sup 51/Cr to /sup 125/I at 7, 10, and 13 min were calculated and averaged for each animal. Data from six adult sheep showed that the mean +/- SE of the permeability ratio was 0.012 +/- 0.003 and was reproducible over three months. When measured twicemore » within two hours, the second ratio was significantly higher than the first. One hour of general anesthesia with methoxyflurane did not alter the permeability ratio significantly. Ten lambs were studied longitudinally 10 hours and 5, 10, 20, and 30 days after delivery. Within the first 24 hours of life the permeability ratio was, significantly greater than the adult value. At five days there was no significant difference between lambs and adult sheep. Throughout the first month of life, the permeability ratio in lambs remained at at the adult level.« less

  2. Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive performance and peri-parturient fecal egg counts and their genetic relationships with lamb body weights and fecal egg counts in Katahdin sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and number of lambs weaned (NLW)] and ewe peri-parturient rise (PPR) fecal egg counts (FEC) at lambing (PPR0) and at 30-d post lambing (PPR30), and their genetic relationships with lamb BW and FEC in Katahdin sheep were estim...

  3. A national audit of retail lamb loin quality in Australia.

    PubMed

    Safari, E; Channon, H A; Hopkins, D L; Hall, D G; van de Ven, R

    2002-07-01

    A retail audit of lamb loin tenderness was conducted over a 12-month period to determine the variation in tenderness of Australian lamb. Tenderness was objectively measured using Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force. Muscle pH and cooking loss were determined on all samples and colour was measured on a sub-sample of loins. A total of 909 midloins from retail butcher shops and supermarkets located in four Australian capital cities (Sydney, Canberra, Melbourne, and Perth) were evaluated at four sampling times (December 1997 and March, June, and October 1998). Overall, 20.3% of all midloins purchased had a WB shear force value above the threshold level of 5 kg. Generic samples from Melbourne butcher shops were similar for WB shear force on average to the generic samples from Canberra and Sydney, whereas those from Melbourne supermarkets had significantly (P<0.001) higher WB shear force and were in line with generic samples from Perth. In both Canberra and Perth, alliance (branded) lamb had a greater WB shear force (P<0.05) than generic lamb. No relationship was found between price per kg and shear force (r=0.02) for loins purchased in Sydney (n=220). Price per kg differed between months (P<0.001) and suburbs (P<0.001), but not between retail butcher shops and supermarkets. Of the midloins tested, 10.3% had a pH above the critical point of 5.8. Midloins from the December 1997 sampling had a lower pH (P<0.01) than those sampled at other months. Those sampled in Melbourne and Perth had a similar mean pH, which were lower (P<0.001) than Canberra and Sydney samples. The findings from this quality audit suggest that there is room to improve the tenderness of Australian lamb sold in the domestic market. A lamb eating quality assurance system, based on set protocols, is one approach that is currently being investigated in Australia to ensure the supply of consistently high eating quality lamb to consumers.

  4. Lamb survival, glutathione redox state and immune function of neonates and lambs from periparturient Merino ewes supplemented with rumen-protected methionine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shimin; Lei, Jason; Hancock, Serina; Scanlan, Victoria; Broomfield, Steve; Currie, Andrew; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Wool growth in Merino sheep demands a high level of sulphur amino acids, competing with body growth and the immune system, which may play a role in increasing the risk of lamb mortality. The hypothesis that dietary supplementation of methionine (Met) to Merino ewes during the late stages of pregnancy will improve foetal growth and alter immune competency of ewes and lambs was tested in a total of 120 grazing, pregnant Merino ewes. Sixty ewes were group-supplemented with 6.3 g/d rumen-protected Met (Met-Plus) per sheep from day 111 of pregnancy until day 7 after lambing, and the other 60 animals were used as a non-supplemented Control. Lambs from Met-supplemented ewes tended to be 10% heavier than Control lambs (p = 0.10), which did not affected the survival rate at weaning significantly. The supplemented ewes had slightly higher concentrations of total glutathione (GSH) in plasma at lambing (p < 0.06), but there were no differences between 1 and 3 months post-lambing in GSH, glutathione disulphide (GSSG) and the GSSG:GSH ratio. The GSSG:GSH ratio in the blood of ewes was elevated at lambing (p < 0.05), hinting that ewes were undergoing increased oxidative stress. The Met supplementation elevated the total IgG concentration (p < 0.05) in lambs aged 4 and 6 weeks, but did not change the IgG concentrations in colostrum and in plasma of 1-week-old lambs, and white blood cell counts and leukocyte types. The trend towards higher lamb birth weights in the Met-supplemented group requires further investigation as this may influence survival at birth and weaning.

  5. Skeletal deformities associated with nutritional congenital rickets in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, K E; Morley, R E; Smith, R L

    2017-01-01

    A group of 545 pregnant rising 2-year-old Coopdale ewes on a Southland sheep farm were grazed over winter on a fodder beet (Beta vulgaris) crop. Subsequently, 45 out of approximately 750 lambs were born with a variety of skeletal deformities, including shortened limbs, varus and valgus angular limb deformities, palmar grade stance and cranial bowing of the carpus. Analysis of the crop showed the fodder beet contained a low percentage of phosphorus. In addition, 60 out of 460 rising 2-year-old ewes that had been grazed on the fodder beet crop as 1-year-olds had incisor abnormalities and malocclusion. Two affected lambs (1-day-old and 3-days-old) with representative clinical signs examined postmortem were found to have markedly enlarged costochondral junctions, and noticeably enlarged long bone metaphyses. In addition, one lamb had a dense band of metaphyseal sclerosis beneath the physes of all long bones examined. Histopathological findings included small islands and columns of chondrocytes and eosinophilic cartilage matrix present in the metaphysis. Metaphyseal trabeculae were disorganised and often lined by accumulations of pale pink osteoid; similar pale pink osteoid was also present in the cortices. Unerupted molar teeth in the affected lambs lacked a layer of enamel, and the dentine was irregular with globular basophilia. The gross and histopathological lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of rickets. Nutritional congenital rickets has not been previously diagnosed in sheep, but is a recognised disease of human infants with vitamin D deficient mothers. The rickets in affected lambs was most likely associated with phosphorus deficiency as a result of the pregnant ewes grazing fodder beet during gestation. While vitamin D deficiency was not definitively ruled out in these cases, practitioners are alerted to the possible effects of feeding phosphorus-deficient fodder beet to ewes for long periods during gestation and to 1-year-old sheep during important growth

  6. Clinical and anatomical observations of a two-headed lamb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K R; Partlow, G D; Walker, A F

    1986-04-01

    The clinical and anatomical features of a live-born diprosopic lamb are described. There are no complete anatomical analyses of two-faced lambs in the literature despite the frequency of conjoined twinning in sheep. The lamb had two heads fused in the occipital region. Each head had two eyes. The pinnae of the medial ears were fused. Caudal to the neck the lamb appeared grossly normal. The lamb was unable to raise its heads or stand. Both heads showed synchronous sucking motions and cranial reflexes were present. Nystagmus, strabismus, and limb incoordination were present. The respiratory and heart rates were elevated. There was a grade IV murmur over the left heart base and a palpable thrill on the left side. Each head possessed a normal nasopharynx, oropharynx, and tongue. There was a singular laryngopharnyx and esophagus although the hyoid apparatus was partially duplicated. The cranial and cervical musculature reflected the head duplications. The aortic trunk emerged from the right ventricle just to the right of the conus arteriosus. A ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus were present along with malformed atrioventricular valves. Brainstem fusion began at the cranial medulla oblongata between cranial nerves IX and XII. The cerebella were separate but small. The ventromedial structures from each medulla oblongata were compressed into an extraneous midline remnant of tissue which extended caudally to the level of T2. The clinical signs therefore reflected the anatomical anomalies. A possible etiology for this diprosopus might be the presence early in development of an excessively large block of chordamesoderm. This would allow for the formation of two head folds and hence two "heads."

  7. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Two Different Oxytetracycline Treatments in Experimental Ehrlichia phagocytophila Infected Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Stuen, S; Bergström, K

    2001-01-01

    The effect of 2 different oxytetracycline treatments in acute E. phagocytophila infected lambs was investigated. Twenty 5-month-old lambs of the Dala and Rygja breeds were used. Ten lambs were inoculated intravenously with a stabilate of an ovine E. phagocytophila strain. On the third day of fever, 4 lambs were given long-acting oxytetracycline (Terramycin prolongatum vet®, Pfizer) (20 mg/kg) intramuscularly and another 4 lambs were given short-acting oxytetracycline (Terramycin vet®, Pfizer) (10 mg/kg) intravenously for 5 consecutive days. The lambs were examined for the presence of Ehrlichia infection by blood smear evaluation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody titre against E. equi. One month after the last antibiotic treatment, 250 ml citrate blood from each of these lambs were inoculated into each of 10 susceptible lambs, which were observed during the following 6 weeks. The results indicate that oxytetracycline given in the acute stage of the infection may effectively teminate the development of fever, rickettsemia and weight reduction in E. phagocytophila infected lambs. No difference was observed between the 2 treatment groups. However, at least 3 of 8 antibiotic treated lambs (37.5%) were still infected with granulocytic Ehrlichia 3 months after treatment. PMID:11887394

  9. Mineral composition of lamb carcasses from the United States and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lin, K C; Cross, H R; Johnson, H K; Breidenstein, B C; Randecker, V; Field, R A

    1988-01-01

    The mineral composition-iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), fluoride (F), and phosphorus (P) (New Zealand lamb only)-of lean tissue from lamb retail cuts was studied. Twenty-four US lamb carcasses of different ages (5 to 11 months), geographical regions (Texas, Colorado and Montana) and USDA quality grades (Prime and Choice) and 27 New Zealand lamb carcasses from three weight groups (11 to 12·5 kg, 13 to 14·5 kg, and 16·5 to 18 kg), age rangining from 7 to 8 months, were selected for use in this study. Mineral concentrations were influenced more by retail cut and age than by quality grade or weigth group. Foreshank and shoulder cuts from both the US and New Zealand group consistently had the highest (P < 0·05) Zn content among the cuts. The K content of the muscle in US lambs increased as age increased, while the level of Ca and Zn in New Zealand lambs decreased as carcass weight increased. Except for Ca, the mineral concentrations of the lean tissue from US lambs were higher than the New Zealand lambs, although the differences were not always significant. US lambs had approximately 20%, 30% and 37% more Fe, Zn and Mg, respectively, but 27% less Ca than lean tissue from the New Zealand lambs. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in flattened knuckled curls with a...; or (2) any other lamb skins having hair in a wavy or open curl pattern. ...

  11. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in flattened knuckled curls with a...; or (2) any other lamb skins having hair in a wavy or open curl pattern. ...

  12. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in flattened knuckled curls with a...; or (2) any other lamb skins having hair in a wavy or open curl pattern. ...

  13. 16 CFR 301.8 - Use of terms “Persian Lamb,” “Broadtail Lamb,” and “Persian-broadtail Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in knuckled curls. (b) The term Broadtail Lamb... breed of sheep or top-cross breed of such sheep, having hair formed in flattened knuckled curls with a...; or (2) any other lamb skins having hair in a wavy or open curl pattern. ...

  14. Finite element simulation of core inspection in helicopter rotor blades using guided waves.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel; Dayal, Vinay

    2015-09-01

    This paper extends the work presented earlier on inspection of helicopter rotor blades using guided Lamb modes by focusing on inspecting the spar-core bond. In particular, this research focuses on structures which employ high stiffness, high density core materials. Wave propagation in such structures deviate from the generic Lamb wave propagation in sandwich panels. To understand the various mode conversions, finite element models of a generalized helicopter rotor blade were created and subjected to transient analysis using a commercial finite element code; ANSYS. Numerical simulations showed that a Lamb wave excited in the spar section of the blade gets converted into Rayleigh wave which travels across the spar-core section and mode converts back into Lamb wave. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves in multi-layered half-space was also explored. Damage was modeled in the form of a notch in the core section to simulate a cracked core, and delamination was modeled between the spar and core material to simulate spar-core disbond. Mode conversions under these damaged conditions were examined numerically. The numerical models help in assessing the difficulty of using nondestructive evaluation for complex structures and also highlight the physics behind the mode conversions which occur at various discontinuities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Organic selenium supplementation increased selenium concentrations in ewe and newborn lamb blood and in slaughter lamb meat compared to inorganic selenium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Steen, Arvid; Strøm, Turid; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2008-03-31

    Selenium is part of the antioxidant defence system in animals and humans. The available selenium concentration in soil is low in many regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic versus inorganic selenium supplementation on selenium status of ewes, their lambs, and slaughter lambs. Ewes on four organic farms were allocated five or six to 18 pens. The ewes were given either 20 mg/kg inorganic selenium as sodium selenite or organic selenium as selenized nonviable yeast supplementation for the two last months of pregnancy. Stipulated selenium concentrations in the rations were below 0.40 mg/kg dry matter. In addition 20 male lambs were given supplements from November until they were slaughtered in March. Silage, hay, concentrates, and individual ewe blood samples were taken before and after the mineral supplementation period, and blood samples were taken from the newborn lambs. Blood samples from ewes and lambs in the same pens were pooled. Muscle samples were taken from slaughter lambs in March. Selenium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with a hydride generator system. In the ANOVA model, selenium concentration was the continuous response variable, and selenium source and farm were the nominal effect variables. Two-sample t-test was used to compare selenium concentrations in muscle samples from the slaughtered lambs that received either organic or inorganic selenium supplements. In all ewe pens the whole blood selenium concentrations increased during the experimental period. In addition, ewe pens that received organic selenium had significantly higher whole blood selenium concentrations (mean 0.28 microg/g) than ewe pens that received inorganic selenium (mean 0.24 microg/g). Most prominent, however, was the difference in their lambs; whole blood mean selenium concentration in lambs from mothers that received organic selenium (mean 0.27 microg/g) was 30% higher than in lambs from mothers that

  16. Organic selenium supplementation increased selenium concentrations in ewe and newborn lamb blood and in slaughter lamb meat compared to inorganic selenium supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Arvid; Strøm, Turid; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    Background Selenium is part of the antioxidant defence system in animals and humans. The available selenium concentration in soil is low in many regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic versus inorganic selenium supplementation on selenium status of ewes, their lambs, and slaughter lambs. Methods Ewes on four organic farms were allocated five or six to 18 pens. The ewes were given either 20 mg/kg inorganic selenium as sodium selenite or organic selenium as selenized nonviable yeast supplementation for the two last months of pregnancy. Stipulated selenium concentrations in the rations were below 0.40 mg/kg dry matter. In addition 20 male lambs were given supplements from November until they were slaughtered in March. Silage, hay, concentrates, and individual ewe blood samples were taken before and after the mineral supplementation period, and blood samples were taken from the newborn lambs. Blood samples from ewes and lambs in the same pens were pooled. Muscle samples were taken from slaughter lambs in March. Selenium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with a hydride generator system. In the ANOVA model, selenium concentration was the continuous response variable, and selenium source and farm were the nominal effect variables. Two-sample t-test was used to compare selenium concentrations in muscle samples from the slaughtered lambs that received either organic or inorganic selenium supplements. Results In all ewe pens the whole blood selenium concentrations increased during the experimental period. In addition, ewe pens that received organic selenium had significantly higher whole blood selenium concentrations (mean 0.28 μg/g) than ewe pens that received inorganic selenium (mean 0.24 μg/g). Most prominent, however, was the difference in their lambs; whole blood mean selenium concentration in lambs from mothers that received organic selenium (mean 0.27 μg/g) was 30% higher than in lambs

  17. Factors affecting fecal egg counts in periparturient Katahdin ewes and their lambs.

    PubMed

    Notter, D R; Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Morgan, J L M

    2017-01-01

    Selection for low fecal egg counts (FEC) can be used to genetically enhance resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in growing lambs, thereby reducing the frequency of use of anthelmintics, facilitating marketing of organic lamb, and reducing the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by the parasite. Recording of FEC in lambs has, therefore, been incorporated into several national sheep genetic evaluation programs. Ewes in late gestation and early lactation are also vulnerable to parasite infection and commonly experience a periparturient rise in FEC. This study was designed to assess factors associated with the periparturient rise in FEC in Katahdin ewes and associated changes in FEC in their lambs. Data came from 1,487 lambings by 931 Katahdin ewes from 11 farms in the Eastern United States. Fecal egg counts were measured in ewes at approximately 0, 30, and 60 d postpartum and in their lambs at approximately 60, 90, and 120 d of age. Approximately 1,400 lambs were evaluated at each measurement age. Data were analyzed separately for ewes and lambs and also initially analyzed separately for each measurement time. Repeated-measures analyses were then used to evaluate responses across measurement times. In ewes, FEC peaked at approximately 28 d postpartum, and we concluded that informative periparturient FEC could be obtained from 1 wk before until approximately 5 wk after lambing. Yearling ewes had higher FEC than adult ewes ( < 0.01), and ewes that nursed twin or triplet lambs had higher FEC than ewes that nursed single lambs ( < 0.01). In lambs, FEC increased through approximately 120 d of age. Lambs from yearling ewes and lambs nursed in larger litters were, like their dams, at greater risk of parasitism ( < 0.05). Ewes and lambs in these groups would benefit from enhanced monitoring of parasite loads at lambing and in early lactation. Correlations () between FEC in lambs at 90 d of age and FEC in ewes at 0, 30, and 60 d postpartum of 0.05 to 0

  18. Effects of asphyxia on lung fluid balance in baby lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, T N; Hazinski, T A; Bland, R D

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of combined hypoxia and hypercapnia and of severe asphyxia on lung water balance and protein transport in newborn lambs. We studied ten 2-4-wk-old anesthetized lambs which were mechanically ventilated first with air for 2-3 h, then with 10-12% oxygen in nitrogen for 2-4 h, and then with 10-12% oxygen and 10-12% carbon dioxide in nitrogen for 2-4 h. Next we stopped their breathing for 1-2 min to produce severe asphyxia, after which we followed their recovery in air for 2-4 h. In 5 of the 10 lambs we intravenously injected radioactive albumin and measured its turnover time between plasma and lymph during the baseline period and after recovery from asphyxia. During alveolar hypoxia alone, mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased 60% and lung lymph flow increased 74%, whereas lymph protein concentration decreased from 3.47 +/- 0.13 to 2.83 +/- 0.15 g/dl. Cardiac output, left atrial pressure, and plasma protein concentration did not change. When carbon dioxide was added to the inspired gas mixture, pulmonary arterial pressure increased 22%, cardiac output increased 13%, lung lymph flow increased 33%, and lymph protein concentration decreased from 2.83 +/- 0.15 to 2.41 +/- 0.13 g/dl. Left atrial pressure and plasma protein concentration did not change. After 60-90 s of induced asphyxia, vascular pressures and lung lymph flow rapidly returned to values the same as those obtained during the baseline period. The turnover time for radioactive albumin between plasma and lymph was the same between the baseline and recovery periods (185 +/- 16 vs. 179 +/- 12 min). The ratio of albumin to globulin in lymph relative to the same ratio in plasma did not change during any phase of these experiments. Five lambs killed after recovery from asphyxia had significantly less blood and extravascular water in their lungs than control lambs had. We conclude that in the newborn lamb both alveolar hypoxia and alveolar hypoxia with

  19. The development of the pupillary light reflex and menace response in neonatal lambs and kids.

    PubMed

    Raoofi, Afshin; Mirfakhraie, Pejman; Yourdkhani, Sorush

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of the pupillary light reflex and menace response in neonatal lambs and goat kids. Thirty lambs and 33 kids were assessed daily from birth until the pupillary light reflex and menace response had become established. All animals had a controlled pupillary light reflex within 20 h of birth. Lambs and kids had developed menace responses by 8 ± 3 and 14 ± 2 days, respectively. The Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in the ages at which lambs and kids developed a menace response. Male kids developed this response significantly (P = 0.006) later than females. There was no sex difference in the menace response in the lambs. Overall, the findings indicated that lambs develop a menace response earlier than kids, and female kids develop this response more rapidly than their male counterparts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The passive transfer of immunity to Taenia ovis in lambs via colostrum.

    PubMed

    Sutton, R J

    1979-09-01

    Colostrum from ewes that had been repeatedly exposed to cestode infection, whether or not their immunity was boosted by vaccination with Taenia ovis, transferred a strong immunity to the lambs. Susceptible ewes, not recently exposed to tapeworm eggs, gave no protection to their lambs via the colostrum. There was no evidence that colostrum-deprived lambs were more susceptible to infection with T ovis than lambs that received colostrum from non-immune ewes. Colostrum from naturally immune vaccinated ewes gave good protection to lambs for up to six weeks but thereafter the effect was variable. The immunity that developed in susceptible ewes after vaccination with activated embryos was not passed on to the lambs via the colostrum.

  1. Second order harmonic guided wave mutual interactions in plate: Vector analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanian, Mostafa; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2017-08-01

    The extraordinary sensitivity of nonlinear ultrasonic waves to the early stages of material degradation makes them excellent candidates for nondestructive material characterization. However, distinguishing weak material nonlinearity from instrumentation nonlinearity remains problematic for second harmonic generation approaches. A solution to this problem is to mix waves having different frequencies and to let their mutual interaction generate sum and difference harmonics at frequencies far from those of the instrumentation. Mixing of bulk waves and surface waves has been researched for some time, but mixing of guided waves has not yet been investigated in depth. A unique aspect of guided waves is their dispersive nature, which means we need to assure that a wave can propagate at the sum or difference frequency. A wave vector analysis is conducted that enables selection of primary waves traveling in any direction that generate phase matched secondary waves. We have tabulated many sets of primary waves and phase matched sum and difference harmonics. An example wave mode triplet of two counter-propagating collinear shear horizontal waves that interact to generate a symmetric Lamb wave at the sum frequency is simulated using finite element analysis and then laboratory experiments are conducted. The finite element simulation eliminates issues associated with instrumentation nonlinearities and signal-to-noise ratio. A straightforward subtraction method is used in the experiments to identify the material nonlinearity induced mutual interaction and show that the generated Lamb wave propagates on its own and is large enough to measure. Since the Lamb wave has different polarity than the shear horizontal waves the material nonlinearity is clearly identifiable. Thus, the mutual interactions of shear horizontal waves in plates could enable volumetric characterization of material in remote regions from transducers mounted on just one side of the plate.

  2. A supplement containing multiple types of gluconeogenic substrates alters intake but not productivity of heat-stressed Afshari lambs.

    PubMed

    Mahjoubi, E; Amanlou, H; Hossein Yazdi, M; Aghaziarati, N; Noori, G R; Vahl, C I; Bradford, B J; Baumgard, L H

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-two Afshari lambs were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate a nutritional supplement designed to provide multiple gluconeogenic precursors during heat stress (HS). Lambs were housed in thermal neutral (TN) conditions and fed ad libitum for 8 d to obtain covariate data (period 1 [P1]) for the subsequent experimental period (period 2 [P2]). During P2, which lasted 9 d, half of the lambs were subjected to HS and the other 16 lambs were maintained in TN conditions but pair fed (PFTN) to the HS lambs. Half of the lambs in each thermal regime were fed (top-dressed) 100 g/d of a feed supplement designed to provide gluconeogenic precursors (8 lambs in HS [heat stress with Glukosa {HSG}] and 8 lambs in PFTN [pair-fed thermal neutral with Glukosa]) and the other lambs in both thermal regimes were fed only the basal control diet (HS without Glukosa [HSC] and pair-fed thermal neutral without Glukosa). Heat stress decreased DMI (14%) and by design there were no differences between the thermal treatments, but HSG lambs had increased DMI (7.5%; < 0.05) compared with the HSC lambs. Compared with PFTN lambs, rectal temperature and skin temperature at the rump, shoulder, and legs of HS lambs were increased ( < 0.05) at 0700 and 1400 h. Rectal temperature at 1400 h decreased for HSG lambs (0.15 ± 0.03°C; < 0.05) compared with HSC lambs. Despite similar DMI between thermal treatments, ADG for HS and PFTN lambs in P2 was decreased 55 and 85%, respectively, compared with lambs in P1 ( < 0.01). Although the prefeeding glucose concentration was not affected by thermal treatment or diet, HSG lambs had increased postfeeding glucose concentration compared with HSC lambs ( < 0.05). In contrast to the glucose responses, circulating insulin was influenced only by thermal treatment; HS lambs had increased insulin concentration ( < 0.01) before feeding and decreased concentration ( < 0.05) after feeding compared with PFTN

  3. Genetic parameters for lamb birth weight, survival and death risk traits.

    PubMed

    Everett-Hincks, J M; Mathias-Davis, H C; Greer, G J; Auvray, B A; Dodds, K G

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports genetic parameters for lamb survival and mortality traits on sheep farms in New Zealand. Lamb survival and mortality records were obtained from 38 flocks (103,357 lambs) from 5 yr of lambing data (2007 to 2011) and include many breeds and their crosses (predominantly Romney, Perendale, Coopworth, and Texel). A number of models were tested, all including environmental weather effects and investigating the random environmental effect of dam and litter (dam/year) as well as logit transformation for binary traits. Total heritability (direct + maternal) estimates were low for lamb viability at birth (0.01), lamb death risk to dystocia (0.01), and lamb death risk to starvation exposure (0.01) from birth to 3 d of age in an analysis accounting for direct and maternal genetic effects and the maternal environmental effects. Lamb survival heritabilities reported are very low (total heritabilities range from 0.02 to 0.06). The total heritabilities for the lamb death risk traits are lower than reported estimates of survival to 3 d of age or to weaning suggesting selection for the postmortem traits are not warranted at this time within these flocks. The total heritability for lamb birth weight was moderate (0.38) and the genetic correlations with the lamb death risk traits suggested that directional selection on lamb birth weight would have an effect on survival, although it is likely to have a nonlinear effect and therefore an optimum birth weight at which survival is maximized. This study has also shown that the total heritabilities may be overestimated when not accounting for maternal genetic and environment effects and in particular not accounting for the random environmental effect of litter (dam/year).

  4. An evaluation of the lamb vision system as a predictor of lamb carcass red meat yield percentage.

    PubMed

    Brady, A S; Belk, K E; LeValley, S B; Dalsted, N L; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2003-06-01

    An objective method for predicting red meat yield in lamb carcasses is needed to accurately assess true carcass value. This study was performed to evaluate the ability of the lamb vision system (LVS; Research Management Systems USA, Fort Collins, CO) to predict fabrication yields of lamb carcasses. Lamb carcasses (n = 246) were evaluated using LVS and hot carcass weight (HCW), as well as by USDA expert and on-line graders, before fabrication of carcass sides to either bone-in or boneless cuts. On-line whole number, expert whole-number, and expert nearest-tenth USDA yield grades and LVS + HCW estimates accounted for 53, 52, 58, and 60%, respectively, of the observed variability in boneless, saleable meat yields, and accounted for 56, 57, 62, and 62%, respectively, of the variation in bone-in, saleable meat yields. The LVS + HCW system predicted 77, 65, 70, and 87% of the variation in weights of boneless shoulders, racks, loins, and legs, respectively, and 85, 72, 75, and 86% of the variation in weights of bone-in shoulders, racks, loins, and legs, respectively. Addition of longissimus muscle area (REA), adjusted fat thickness (AFT), or both REA and AFT to LVS + HCW models resulted in improved prediction of boneless saleable meat yields by 5, 3, and 5 percentage points, respectively. Bone-in, saleable meat yield estimations were improved in predictive accuracy by 7.7, 6.6, and 10.1 percentage points, and in precision, when REA alone, AFT alone, or both REA and AFT, respectively, were added to the LVS + HCW output models. Use of LVS + HCW to predict boneless red meat yields of lamb carcasses was more accurate than use of current on-line whole-number, expert whole-number, or expert nearest-tenth USDA yield grades. Thus, LVS + HCW output, when used alone or in combination with AFT and/or REA, improved on-line estimation of boneless cut yields from lamb carcasses. The ability of LVS + HCW to predict yields of wholesale cuts suggests that LVS could be used as an objective

  5. Cardiorespiratory response to cyanide of arterial chemoreceptors in fetal lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Itskovitz, J.; Rudolph, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Cardiorespiratory response to the stimulation of the carotid and aortic receptors by sodium cyanide was examined in fetal lambs in utero at 0.8 (120 days) gestation. Injections of 50-400 ..mu..g cyanide into the inferior vena cava or the carotid artery of intact fetuses elicited bradycardia and respiratory responses that varied from a single gasp to rhythmic respiratory movements but no significant change in arterial blood pressure. Carotid sinus denervation eliminated the cardiorespiratory response to intracarotid injection of cyanide and sinoaortic denervation abolished the response to inferior vena caval injection. It is concluded that in fetal lamb in utero the aorticmore » and carotid bodies are active, and hypoxic stimulation of these chemoreceptors results in cardiorespiratory response characterized by slowing of fetal heart rate, respiratory effort, and no consistent change in arterial blood pressure.« less

  6. Aprosencephaly with otocephaly in a lamb (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Brachthäuser, L; Klumpp, S; Hecht, W; Kuchelmeister, K; Reinacher, M; Ebbert, W; Herden, C

    2012-11-01

    Aprosencephaly is a rare condition in veterinary and human medicine characterized by the complete absence of telencephalon and diencephalon. Some cases are accompanied by a facial dysmorphism designated as otocephaly. A stillborn lamb had splanchnocranial anomalies that were classified by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and pathologic examination as aprosencephaly and otocephaly. The brain included parts of the cerebellum and brainstem but no telencephalon, diencephalon, or mesencephalon. The cerebellum had a structurally normal cortex with expression of neuronal nuclear antigen in the inner and doublecortin in the outer granular cell layers, as well as an irregularly situated nucleus dentatus. Aprosencephaly with otocephaly has been described in mice with heterozygous mutations in the Otx2 gene; however, no causative polymorphisms were detected in the Otx2 gene region of this lamb.

  7. Lamb Shift Measurement in Hydrogen by the Anisotropy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, G. W. F.; van Wijngaarden, A.; Holuj, F.

    1998-05-01

    The Lamb shift in hydrogen and hydrogenic ions continues to provide one of the most important tests of quantum electrodynamics. A previous measurement in He^+ by the anisotropy method( A. van Wijngaarden, J. Kwela and G. W. F. Drake, Phys. Rev. A 43), 3325 (1991). yields a value that is 70(12) parts per million higher than theory when two-loop binding corrections are included (K. Pachucki et al.), J. Phys. B 29, 117 (1996).. A new high-precision measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen by the same method will be reported( Can. J. Phys. 76), February (1998).. The result of 1057.852(15) MHz is consistent with theory and other measurements, thereby confirming that the anisotropy method and its interpretation are valid at the 15 parts per million level of accuracy. The remaining discrepancy for He^+ could be explained by an additional contribution to theory that scales as Z^6.

  8. Effect of morning vs. afternoon grazing on intramuscular fatty acid composition in lamb.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Pagano, Renato Italo; Luciano, Giuseppe; Scerra, Manuel; Caparra, Pasquale; Foti, Francesco; Cilione, Caterina; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro; Avondo, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether different grazing management affect animal performance and meat fatty acid composition. Thirty-five lambs were divided into three groups: 12 lambs grazed from 9 am to 5 pm (8 h group); 11 lambs grazed from 9 am to 1 pm (4hAM group) and 12 lambs grazed from 1 pm to 5 pm (4hPM group). The trial was conducted over 72 days. The 8 h lambs had greater DMI (P<0.0005) and final body weight (P<0.05) than the 4hPM and 4hAM lambs while carcass weight was not different between the three groups. The meat of the 4hPM lambs contained greater (P<0.05) percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids, C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 and lower saturated fatty acids and C18:0 than the meat of the 8 h and 4hAM lambs. It is concluded that allowing lambs to graze during the afternoon rather than during 8 h does not compromise the carcass yield and results in a healthier meat fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Extracorporeal Artificial Placenta Supports Extremely Premature Lambs for One Week

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Benjamin; Gray, Brian; Perkins, Elena; Davis, Ryan; Hoffman, Hayley; Barks, John; Owens, Gabe; Bocks, Martin; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Hirschl, Ronald; Bartlett, Robert; Mychaliska, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The treatment of extreme prematurity remains an unsolved problem. We developed an artificial placenta (AP) based on extracorporeal life support (ECLS) that simulates the intrauterine environment and provides gas exchange without mechanical ventilation (MV), and compared it to the current standard of neonatal care. Methods Extremely premature lambs (110-120d; term=145d) were used. AP lambs (n=9) were cannulated (jugular drainage, umbilical vein reinfusion) for ECLS .Control lambs (n=7) were intubated, ventilated, given surfactant, and transitioned to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. All lambs received parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, and steroids. Hemodynamics, blood gases, hemoglobin, and circuit flows were measured. Results Four premature lambs survived for 1 week on the AP; one survived 6 days. Adequate oxygenation and ventilation were provided by the AP. The MV lambs survived 2-8 hours. Each of these lambs experienced a transient improvement with surfactant, but developed progressive hypercapnea and hypoxia despite high airway pressures and HFOV. Conclusions Extremely premature lambs were supported for 1 week with the AP with hemodynamic stability and adequate gas exchange; mechanically ventilated lambs succumbed within 8 hours. Further studies will assess control of fetal circulation and organ maturation on the AP. PMID:25598091

  10. The duration of passive protection against Taenia ovis larvae in lambs.

    PubMed

    Heath, D D; Yong, W K; Osborn, P J; Parmeter, S N; Lawrence, S B; Twaalfhoven, H

    1979-10-01

    In an attempt to induce passive protection in lambs against Taenia ovis larvae that would last for the 15-20 weeks from birth to slaughter as fat lambs, one group of ewes was immunized by a series of injections of 2000, 4000, 8000, 16 000 and 32 000 activated oncospheres of Taenia ovis prior to parturition. Another group of ewes was not immunized. All ewes had previously grazed pasture lightly infected with T. ovis eggs. Most lambs from non-immunized ewes developed cysts after oral infection with T. ovis eggs. However, no lambs from immunized ewes developed cysts up to and including 6 weeks after birth. Between 8 and 16 weeks after birth a proportion of lambs were found to be susceptible to infection. By 18 weeks after birth all lambs were apparently susceptible. The 99% confidence band for the mean duration of demonstrable complement-fixing antibody titres was 6.2-7.8 weeks for lambs from immunized ewes. The persistence of maternal protective antibody in some lambs could possibly preclude successful active immunization of all lambs against T. ovis larvae before 18 weeks of age.

  11. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  12. The Lamb-shift experiment in Muonic helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, T.; Amaro, F. D.; Antognini, A.; Biraben, F.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Covita, D. S.; Dax, A.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Gouvea, A. L.; Graf, T.; Hänsch, T. W.; Hildebrandt, M.; Indelicato, P.; Julien, L.; Kirch, K.; Kottmann, F.; Liu, Y.-W.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Nez, F.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Schuhmann, K.; Taqqu, D.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Voss, A.; Pohl, R.

    2012-12-01

    We propose to measure several transition frequencies between the 2 S and the 2 P states (Lamb shift) in muonic helium ions ( μ 4He + and μ 3He + ) by means of laser spectroscopy, in order to determine the alpha-particle and helion root-mean-square (rms) charge radius. In addition, the fine and hyperfine structure components will be revealed, and the magnetic moment distribution radius will be determined. The contribution of the finite size effect to the Lamb shift (2 S - 2 P energy difference) in μHe + is as high as 20 %. Therefore a measurement of the transition frequencies with a moderate (for laser spectroscopy) precision of 50 ppm (corresponding to 1/20 of the linewidth) will lead to a determination of the nuclear rms charge radii with a relative accuracy of 3 ×10 - 4 (equivalent to 0.0005 fm). The limiting factor for the extraction of the radii from the Lamb shift measurements is given by the uncertainty of the nuclear polarizability contribution. Combined with an ongoing experiment at MPQ aiming to measure the 1 S - 2 S transition frequency in the helium ion, the Lamb shift measurement in μHe + will lead to a sensitive test of problematic and challenging bound-state QED terms. This measurement will also help to clarify the discrepancy found in our previous μ p experiment. Additionally, a precise knowledge of the absolute nuclear radii of the He isotopes and the hyperfine splitting of μ 3He + provide a relevant test of few-nucleon theories.

  13. The Lamb-shift experiment in Muonic helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, T.; Amaro, F. D.; Antognini, A.; Biraben, F.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Covita, D. S.; Dax, A.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Gouvea, A. L.; Graf, T.; Hänsch, T. W.; Hildebrandt, M.; Indelicato, P.; Julien, L.; Kirch, K.; Kottmann, F.; Liu, Y.-W.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Nez, F.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Schuhmann, K.; Taqqu, D.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Voss, A.; Pohl, R.

    We propose to measure several transition frequencies between the 2S and the 2P states (Lamb shift) in muonic helium ions (μ 4He + and μ 3He + ) by means of laser spectroscopy, in order to determine the alpha-particle and helion root-mean-square (rms) charge radius. In addition, the fine and hyperfine structure components will be revealed, and the magnetic moment distribution radius will be determined. The contribution of the finite size effect to the Lamb shift (2S - 2P energy difference) in μHe + is as high as 20 %. Therefore a measurement of the transition frequencies with a moderate (for laser spectroscopy) precision of 50 ppm (corresponding to 1/20 of the linewidth) will lead to a determination of the nuclear rms charge radii with a relative accuracy of 3 ×10 - 4 (equivalent to 0.0005 fm). The limiting factor for the extraction of the radii from the Lamb shift measurements is given by the uncertainty of the nuclear polarizability contribution. Combined with an ongoing experiment at MPQ aiming to measure the 1S - 2S transition frequency in the helium ion, the Lamb shift measurement in μHe + will lead to a sensitive test of problematic and challenging bound-state QED terms. This measurement will also help to clarify the discrepancy found in our previous μ p experiment. Additionally, a precise knowledge of the absolute nuclear radii of the He isotopes and the hyperfine splitting of μ 3He + provide a relevant test of few-nucleon theories.

  14. On the Lamb shift in neutral muonic helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, Miron; Karshenboim, Savely; Ivanov, Vladimir

    2015-05-01

    The neutral muonic helium is an exotic atomic system consisting of an electron, muon and a nucleus. We consider it as a hydrogen-like atom with a compound nucleus that is also hydrogen-like system. There are a number of corrections to the Bohr energy levels, which all can be treated as contributions of generic hydrogen-like theory. While the form of those contributions is the same for all hydrogen-like atoms, their relative numerical importance differs from an atom to an atom. Here, the leading contribution to the electronic Lamb shift in the neutral muonic helium is found in a close analytic form together with the most important corrections. We believe that the Lamb shift in the neutral muonic hydrogen is measurable, at least through a measurement of the electronic 1 s - 2 s transition. We present a theoretical prediction for the 1 s - 2 s transitions with the uncertainty of 2 ppm (4 GHz), as well as for the 2 s - 2 p Lamb shift with the uncertainty of 0.6 GHz.

  15. Cooking frozen and thawed roasts: beef, pork, and lamb cuts.

    PubMed

    Fulton, C; Davis, C

    1975-09-01

    Cooking time, yield, and palatability of paired beef, pork, and lamb roasts cooked from the frozen and thawed states were compared. Cooking time for all roasts averaged from 3 to 22 min. per pound longer for meat cooked from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state was greater for roasts with a large amount of bone and for cuts cooked by braising than for less bony roasts and cuts cooked by roasting. Except for thawed beef rump roasts, which had a higher yield of cooked lean meat, yield of cooked lean meat from the various cuts of beef, pork, and lamb was not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Collectively, all pork roasts had a higher yield of cooked lean meat when cooked from the frozen state. Juiciness and natural flavor of the roasts were not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Lamb leg and rib roasts were more tender when cooked from the thawed state.

  16. Cerebral Autoregulation Is Minimally Influenced by the Superior Cervical Ganglion in Two- Week-Old Lambs, and Absent in Preterm Lambs Immediately Following Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Czynski, Adam J.; Terry, Michael H.; Deming, Douglas D.; Power, Gordon G.; Buchholz, John N.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral vessels in the premature newborn brain are well supplied with adrenergic nerves, stemming from the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), but their role in regulation of blood flow remains uncertain. To test this function twelve premature or two-week-old lambs were instrumented with laser Doppler flow probes in the parietal cortices to measure changes in blood flow during changes in systemic blood pressure and electrical stimulation of the SCG. In lambs delivered prematurely at ∼129 days gestation cerebral perfusion and driving pressure demonstrated a direct linear relationship throughout the physiologic range, indicating lack of autoregulation. In contrast, in lambs two-weeks of age, surgical removal of one SCG resulted in ipsilateral loss of autoregulation during pronounced hypertension. Electrical stimulation of one SCG elicited unilateral increases in cerebral resistance to blood flow in both pre-term and two-week-old lambs, indicating functioning neural pathways in the instrumented, anesthetized lambs. We conclude cerebral autoregulation is non-functional in preterm lambs following cesarean delivery. Adrenergic control of cerebral vascular resistance becomes effective in newborn lambs within two-weeks after birth but SCG-dependent autoregulation is essential only during pronounced hypertension, well above the normal range of blood pressure. PMID:24349256

  17. 2D Analytical Model for the Directivity Prediction of Ultrasonic Contact Type Transducers in the Generation of Guided Waves.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Kumar Anubhav; Raisutis, Renaldas; Mazeika, Liudas; Samaitis, Vykintas

    2018-03-26

    In this paper, a novel 2D analytical model based on the Huygens's principle of wave propagation is proposed in order to predict the directivity patterns of contact type ultrasonic transducers in the generation of guided waves (GWs). The developed model is able to estimate the directivity patterns at any distance, at any excitation frequency and for any configuration and shape of the transducers with prior information of phase dispersive characteristics of the guided wave modes and the behavior of transducer. This, in turn, facilitates to choose the appropriate transducer or arrays of transducers, suitable guided wave modes and excitation frequency for the nondestructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The model is demonstrated for P1-type macro-fiber composite (MFC) transducer glued on a 2 mm thick aluminum (Al) alloy plate. The directivity patterns of MFC transducer in the generation of fundamental guided Lamb modes (the S0 and A0) and shear horizontal mode (the SH0) are successfully obtained at 80 kHz, 5-period excitation signal. The results are verified using 3D finite element (FE) modelling and experimental investigation. The results obtained using the proposed model shows the good agreement with those obtained using numerical simulations and experimental analysis. The calculation time using the analytical model was significantly shorter as compared to the time spent in experimental analysis and FE numerical modelling.

  18. Effects of early human handling on the pain sensitivity of young lambs.

    PubMed

    Guesgen, Mirjam J; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Stewart, Mairi

    2013-01-01

    Pain sensitivity of lambs changes over the first weeks of life. However, the effects of early treatments such as human handling on pain sensitivity are unknown for this species. This study investigated the effects of regular early gentle human handling on the pain sensitivity of lambs, indicated by their behavioural responses to tail docking. Prospective part-blinded experimental study. Twenty-nine singleton Coopworth lambs (females n=14, males n=15). Starting at one day of age, lambs were either handled twice daily for 2 weeks (Handled), were kept in the presence of lambs who were being handled but were not handled themselves (Presence), or were exposed to a human only during routine feeding and care (Control). At 3 weeks of age, all lambs were tail docked using rubber rings. Changes in behaviour due to docking were calculated and change data were analyzed using two-way anova with treatment and test pen as main factors. All lambs showed significant increases in the frequency and duration of behaviours indicative of pain, including 'abnormal' behaviours, and decreases in the frequency and duration of 'normal' behaviours after docking. Handled lambs showed a smaller increase in the time spent lying abnormally after docking than did Control lambs (mean transformed change in proportion of 30 minutes spent±SE: Control 0.55±0.04; Handled 0.38±0.03; Presence 0.48±0.03; C versus H t=3.45, p=0.007). These results provide some evidence that handling early in life may reduce subsequent pain sensitivity in lambs. While the behavioural effects of handling on pain behaviour were subtle, the results suggest, at the very least, that early handling does not increase pain sensitivity in lambs and suggests there is still flexibility postnatally in the pain processing system of a precocial species. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  19. Effect of pressurization on helical guided wave energy velocity in fluid-filled pipes.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, Brennan; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressurization stresses on helical guided waves in a thin-walled fluid-filled pipe is studied by modeling leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate bordered by fluid. Fluid pressurization produces hoop and longitudinal stresses in a thin-walled pipe, which corresponds to biaxial in-plane stress in a plate waveguide model. The effect of stress on guided wave propagation is accounted for through nonlinear elasticity and finite deformation theory. Emphasis is placed on the stress dependence of the energy velocity of the guided wave modes. For this purpose, an expression for the energy velocity of leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate is derived. Theoretical results are presented for the mode, frequency, and directional dependent variations in energy velocity with respect to stress. An experimental setup is designed for measuring variations in helical wave energy velocity in a thin-walled water-filled steel pipe at different levels of pressure. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental variations in energy velocity for the helical guided waves and the theoretical leaky Lamb wave solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of diet on carcass quality and consumer taste panel acceptance of intact or castrated hair lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forty hair-type lambs were examined in a 70-d study to determine the effects of gender (castrate; C vs. intact; I) and forage type on carcass traits and sensory acceptability. Lambs were procured from a single source in Missouri and one-half were randomly castrated. Lambs were randomly assigned to t...

  1. Correlations between measures of feed efficiency and feedlot return for F1 lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective estimates of feedlot return for progeny of terminal-sire breeds of sheep are needed to improve lamb profitability. Thus, we used recent economic data to determine the effects of terminal-sire breed on returns of F1 lambs. Annually for 3 yr, Columbia, USMARC Composite, Suffolk, and Texel ra...

  2. Adverse outcome of using tilmicosin in a lamb with multiple ventricular septal defects

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulopoulos, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    A 15-day-old, 6.08 kg, lamb was injected subcutaneously with tilmicosin 15 mg/kg body weight. Approximately 15 min later, the lamb died. During necropsy, the heart was found to have multiple ventricular septal defects. Death was attributed to sudden heart failure due to the cardiac effects of tilmicosin in a heart having congenital defects. PMID:19337615

  3. Adverse outcome of using tilmicosin in a lamb with multiple ventricular septal defects.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    A 15-day-old, 6.08 kg, lamb was injected subcutaneously with tilmicosin 15 mg/kg body weight. Approximately 15 min later, the lamb died. During necropsy, the heart was found to have multiple ventricular septal defects. Death was attributed to sudden heart failure due to the cardiac effects of tilmicosin in a heart having congenital defects.

  4. Effects of maternal lines and mating systems on lamb carcass merit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the carcass composition of lambs produced from different mating systems. Materials and Methods: Lambs (n = 1,237) were produced by a multi- sire mating of three maternal lines (Katahdin (KN), Polypay (PP), and Easycare (EZ)) in two mating system...

  5. Genetic evaluation of the probability of lambing in yearling Targhee ewes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the additive genetic control of lambing percentage in yearling Targhee ewes. The records of 3,103 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2011 and mated at approximately 7.5 mo of age were analyzed. Records included sire, dam, weaning weight, breeding pen, age of dam...

  6. 7 CFR 4279.279 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. 4279.279 Section 4279.279 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Biorefinery Assistance Loans § 4279.279 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. The provisions...

  7. 7 CFR 4279.279 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. 4279.279 Section 4279.279 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Biorefinery Assistance Loans § 4279.279 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. The provisions...

  8. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance...

  9. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance...

  10. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance...

  11. 7 CFR 4279.279 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. 4279.279 Section 4279.279 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Biorefinery Assistance Loans § 4279.279 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. The provisions...

  12. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance...

  13. Interplay between spontaneous decay rates and Lamb shifts in open photonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassalle, Emmanuel; Bonod, Nicolas; Durt, Thomas; Stout, Brian

    2018-05-01

    In this letter, we describe the modified decay rate and photonic Lamb (frequency) shift of quantum emitters in terms of the resonant states of a neighboring photonic resonator. This description illustrates a fundamental distinction in the behaviors of closed (conservative) and open (dissipative) systems: the Lamb shift is bounded by the emission linewidth in closed systems while it overcomes this limit in open systems.

  14. Lamb survival analysis from birth to weaning in Iranian Kermani sheep.

    PubMed

    Barazandeh, Arsalan; Moghbeli, Sadrollah Molaei; Vatankhah, Mahmood; Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2012-04-01

    Survival records from 1,763 Kermani lambs born between 1996 and 2004 from 294 ewes and 81 rams were used to determine genetic and non-genetic factors affecting lamb survival. Traits included were lamb survival across five periods from birth to 7, 14, 56, 70, and 90 days of age. Traits were analyzed under Weibull proportional hazard sire models. Several binary analyses were also conducted using animal models. Statistical models included the fixed class effects of sex of lamb, month and year of birth, a covariate effect of birth weight, and random genetic effects of both sire (in survival analyses) and animal (in binary analyses). The average survival to 90 days of age was 94.8%. Hazard rates ranged from 1.00 (birth to 90 days of age) to 1.73 (birth to 7 days of age) between the two sexes indicating that male lambs were at higher risk of mortality than females (P < 0.01). This study also revealed a curvilinear relationship between lamb survival and lamb birth weight, suggesting that viability and birth weight could be considered simultaneously in the selection programs to obtain optimal birth weight in Kermani lambs. Estimates of heritabilities from survival analyses were medium and ranged from 0.23 to 0.29. In addition, heritability estimates obtained from binary analyses were low and varied from 0.04 to 0.09. The results of this study suggest that progress in survival traits could be possible through managerial strategies and genetic selection.

  15. Gentle vs. aversive handling of pregnant ewes: II. Physiology and behavior of the lambs.

    PubMed

    Coulon, M; Hild, S; Schroeer, A; Janczak, A M; Zanella, A J

    2011-07-06

    We compared the effects of aversive and gentle handling in late pregnant ewes on fearfulness, heart rate variability and spatial learning in lambs. Twenty-four Norwegian-Dala ewes were studied. Ewes were subjected to gentle (i.e. soft talking and calm behavior) or aversive handling (i.e. swift movements and shouting) for 10 min twice a day during the last five weeks of pregnancy. Lambs from aversively (AVS) or gently (GEN) treated ewes were tested at 4 weeks of age. Lamb behavior was recorded during a) a human approach test, composed of 4 min of isolation and 4 min of exposure to an unfamiliar human, b) an umbrella startle test followed by 5-min recording, and c) two repetitions of a maze test. In addition, heart rate variability was recorded telemetrically before and after the human and startle tests. The baseline heart rate variability measures suggested a lower influence of vagal stimulation in AVS lambs. In the human approach test, AVS lambs vocalized and explored the environment less, and were slower to approach the human. They also tended to have higher flight distances during the startle test than the GEN lambs. The prenatal treatment had no significant effect in the maze test. In conclusion, we showed that aversive handling of pregnant ewes increased fearfulness and reduced vagal tone in their progeny compared to GEN lambs. These effects can have consequences for how lambs cope with rearing conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of aflatoxin on performance, hematology, and clinical immunology in lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, A; Hernández, M; Verde, M T; Sanz, M

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-four female lambs were intoxicated with a diet contaminated with 2 ppm aflatoxin for a period of 37 d. Twelve lambs were maintained as the control group. After this period, the lambs were left for 35 d without aflatoxin in their feed. Performance, hematology and clinical immunology were examined in the intoxicated lambs. A non-significant decrease in body weight was observed in the intoxicated lambs during the intoxication period, whereas a significant decrease (P<0.001) in average daily gain was noted on the last day of intoxication and during the clearance period. No significant differences were observed in erythrocyte count, white blood cell count or differential leukocyte count between the groups. Bacteriostatic activity of the serum was lower in the intoxicated lambs, however, there was no effect on serum opsonic activity. Phagocytosis by the neutrophils was higher during the intoxication period and the levels of IgG were elevated in the intoxicated lambs. In vivo cellular immunity was assessed by intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin; the response was lower during intoxication period. These results indicate that a lowering in the average daily gain was the most sensitive indicator of aflatoxicosis in lambs, and that the immune response was altered, which could render the animals more susceptible to infectious diseases. PMID:10680657

  17. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance of...

  18. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance of...

  19. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance of...

  20. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance of...

  1. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance of...

  2. Effect of feeding Mucuna pruriens on helminth parasite infestation in lambs.

    PubMed

    Huisden, C M; Adesogan, A T; Gaskin, J M; Courtney, C H; Raji, A M; Kang, T

    2010-02-17

    Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume anecdotally reputed to have anthelmintic properties. This study was conducted to examine the validity of such claims. The aim of this study was to determine if ingestion of Mucuna seeds reduces helminth parasite infestation in lambs. Thirty-six Dorper x Katahdin ram lambs were assigned to three treatments, a cottonseed meal based control diet, a diet in which Mucuna replaced cottonseed meal and the control diet with levamisole (7.5mg/kg body weight) administration. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The 12 lambs in each treatment were assigned randomly to 4 pens, each containing 3 lambs. Lambs were trickle infected three times per week by gavage with infectious Haemonchus contortus larvae (2000 larvae/lamb) for 3 weeks. Levamisole treatment decreased fecal egg counts by 87% and abomasal worm counts by 83%. Mucuna intake did not statistically affect fecal egg counts or abomasal worm counts, though numerical (P>0.10) reductions of 7.4% and 18.1%, respectively were evident. Anemia indicators, feed intake, and lamb growth were unaffected by treatment. Levamisole reduced the Haemonchus parasite burden in lambs significantly but feeding Mucuna reduced the burden by levels unlikely to eliminate the clinical effects of parasitism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sheep Stockmanship (Lambing). Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students gather and record information about sheep breeding, learn about treatment of diseases, prepare the lambing area, and assist with the aftercare of lambs and ewes. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended…

  4. Sericea lespdeza as an aid in the control of Emeria spp. in lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)] on control of coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n = 76) were weaned (102.7 ± 1.4 d of age) in May (spring) and randomly assigned to ...

  5. Sericea Lespedeza as an Aid in the Control of Coccidiosis in Lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have determined that feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal (SL) can effectively control coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n = 76) were weaned (103 days of age) in May and fed 2% of body weight daily of alfalfa pellets (control) or SL with or without Corrid added to drinkin...

  6. Factors affecting fecal egg counts in peri-parturient Katahdin ewes and their lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selection for low fecal egg counts (FEC) can be used to genetically enhance resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in growing lambs, thereby reducing the frequency of use of anthelmintics, facilitating marketing of organic lamb, and reducing the risk of development of anthelmintic resista...

  7. Mutagenicity of basic fractions derived from lamb and beef cooked by common household methods.

    PubMed

    Barrington, P J; Baker, R S; Truswell, A S; Bonin, A M; Ryan, A J; Paulin, A P

    1990-03-01

    Mutagen production was examined in lamb and beef in relation to certain common household cooking methods. Mutagenicity was assessed, after extraction of the basic fraction of cooked meat samples, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 with added rat-liver S-9 homogenate. Little or no mutagenicity was found in barbecued lamb chops, in microwave-cooked lamb chops, sirloin steak, leg of lamb, or rolled beef loaf, in roasted leg of lamb or rolled beef loaf, in stewed blade steak or in boiled chuck steak. However, the basic fraction from well-done, edible fried or grilled meat contained mutagenic activity equivalent to approximately 30,000 TA1538 revertants/100 g cooked meat. It was found tht the mutagenic activity of grilled lamb chops, sirloin and rump steaks was directly related to the average surface temperatures attained during cooking. Use of butter as a frying medium was particularly associated with higher mutagenicity in meat samples. Fried meats (rump and fillet steaks) generally yielded higher mutagenic activity than did grilled meats (rump steak, lamb chops) at comparable temperatures of the cooking medium. Using similar cooking procedures, lamb did not differ markedly from beef in mutagenic activity.

  8. Changes in concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets with or without dietary sodium molybdate.

    PubMed

    Acharya, M; Burke, J M; Coffey, K P; Kegley, E B; Miller, J E; Smyth, E; Welborn, M G; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Rosenkrans, C

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged feeding of sericea lespedeza (SL) previously led to reduced serum concentrations of Mo, a cofactor in an enzyme complex that may be involved in weight gain. The current objective was to determine the effect of Mo supplementation on changes in serum, fecal, urine, and liver concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed SL leaf meal pellets. Thirty ram lambs weaned in May (84 ± 1.5 d of age and 27 ± 1.1 kg; D 0) were blocked by BW, breed type (full or three-fourths Katahdin), and EBV of parasite resistance and randomly assigned to be fed 900 g/d of an alfalfa-based supplement (CON; = 10) or a SL-based supplement ( = 20) for 103 d. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to meet trace mineral requirements. Within the SL group, individual lambs were administered either 5 mL water or 5 mL of water with 163.3 mg of sodium molybdate (SLMO). Serum was collected on d 28, 56, and 104; a liver sample was collected by biopsy on d 104 to determine concentrations of trace minerals. Data were analyzed using a mixed model and orthogonal contrasts. Serum concentrations of Mo increased in response to the drench and were greatest in SLMO lambs and then CON lambs and lowest in SL lambs ( < 0.001). Concentrations of Mo in the liver ( < 0.001) were similar between CON and SLMO lambs and were lower in SL lambs than other groups. Serum ( < 0.001) and liver ( = 0.013) concentrations of zinc (Zn) were reduced in both SL and SLMO lambs compared with CON lambs. Serum concentrations of cobalt (Co) increased in CON lambs compared with SL and SLMO lambs between d 0 and 56 but were similar on d 104 (diet × day, < 0.005) as with concentrations in the liver. Serum and liver concentrations of copper (Cu) were greatest ( < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively) in CON lambs followed by SL lambs and then SLMO lambs. Serum concentrations of selenium (Se) tended ( = 0.10) to be reduced in SL lambs compared with CON and SLMO lambs, but concentrations in the liver were

  9. Crack detection in fastener holes using surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xiao-Qi; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the monitoring of cracks at the edge of fastener holes on plates using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. Our studies show that, if the surface of the plate surrounding the hold is free, an acoustic wave on the surface of the plate is able to detect the cracks located in an arc of 60 degree(s). When the inner surface of the hole is free, surface acoustic waves on the inner surface are alternate choices. For the case when all these surfaces are in tight contact with other parts, hence unavailable for mounting transducers, a particular type of Lamb wave mode is presented.

  10. Infrared thermal imaging as a method to evaluate heat loss in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Labeur, L; Villiers, G; Small, A H; Hinch, G N; Schmoelzl, S

    2017-12-01

    Thermal imaging technology has been identified as a potential method for non-invasive study of thermogenesis in the neonatal lamb. In comparison to measurement of the core body temperature, infrared thermography may observe thermal loss and thermogenesis linked to subcutaneous brown fat depots. This study aimed to identify a suitable method to measure heat loss in the neonatal lamb under a cold challenge. During late pregnancy (day 125), ewes were subjected to either shearing (n=15) or mock handling (sham-shorn for 2min mimicking the shearing movements) (n=15). Previous studies have shown an increase in brown adipose tissue deposition in lambs born to ewes shorn during pregnancy and we hypothesized that the shearing treatment would impact thermoregulatory capacities in newborn lambs. Lambs born to control ewes (n=14; CONTROL) and shorn ewes (n=13; SHORN) were subjected to a cold challenge of 1h duration at 4h after birth. During the cold challenge, thermography images were taken every 10min, from above, at a fixed distance from the dorsal midline. On each image, four fixed-size areas were identified (shoulder, mid loin, hips and rump) and the average and maximum temperatures of each recorded. In all lambs, body surface temperature decreased over time. Overall the SHORN lambs appeared to maintain body surface temperature better than CONTROL lambs, while CONTROL lambs appeared to have higher core temperature. At 30min post cold challenge SHORN lambs tended to have higher body surface temperatures than lambs (P=0.0474). Both average and maximum temperatures were highest at the hips. Average temperature was lowest at the shoulder (P<0.05), while maximum temperatures were lowest at both shoulder and rump (P<0.005). These results indicate that lambs born to shorn ewes maintained their radiated body surface temperature better than CONTROL lambs. In conjunction with core temperature changes under cold challenge, this insight will allow us to understand whether increased

  11. Coding and quantification of a facial expression for pain in lambs.

    PubMed

    Guesgen, M J; Beausoleil, N J; Leach, M; Minot, E O; Stewart, M; Stafford, K J

    2016-11-01

    Facial expressions are routinely used to assess pain in humans, particularly those who are non-verbal. Recently, there has been an interest in developing coding systems for facial grimacing in non-human animals, such as rodents, rabbits, horses and sheep. The aims of this preliminary study were to: 1. Qualitatively identify facial feature changes in lambs experiencing pain as a result of tail-docking and compile these changes to create a Lamb Grimace Scale (LGS); 2. Determine whether human observers can use the LGS to differentiate tail-docked lambs from control lambs and differentiate lambs before and after docking; 3. Determine whether changes in facial action units of the LGS can be objectively quantified in lambs before and after docking; 4. Evaluate effects of restraint of lambs on observers' perceptions of pain using the LGS and on quantitative measures of facial action units. By comparing images of lambs before (no pain) and after (pain) tail-docking, the LGS was devised in consultation with scientists experienced in assessing facial expression in other species. The LGS consists of five facial action units: Orbital Tightening, Mouth Features, Nose Features, Cheek Flattening and Ear Posture. The aims of the study were addressed in two experiments. In Experiment I, still images of the faces of restrained lambs were taken from video footage before and after tail-docking (n=4) or sham tail-docking (n=3). These images were scored by a group of five naïve human observers using the LGS. Because lambs were restrained for the duration of the experiment, Ear Posture was not scored. The scores for the images were averaged to provide one value per feature per period and then scores for the four LGS action units were averaged to give one LGS score per lamb per period. In Experiment II, still images of the faces nine lambs were taken before and after tail-docking. Stills were taken when lambs were restrained and unrestrained in each period. A different group of five

  12. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kural, A.; Pullin, R.; Featherston, C.; Paget, C.; Holford, K.

    2011-07-01

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  13. Eating quality of lamb meat: effects of breed, sex, degree of maturity and nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Arsenos, G; Banos, G; Fortomaris, P; Katsaounis, N; Stamataris, C; Tsaras, L; Zygoyiannis, D

    2002-04-01

    The eating quality of lamb meat of three indigenous Greek dairy breeds of sheep, reared under different nutritional management conditions, was assessed by Taste Panel Tests (TPT). Lean samples from the leg joints of 69 lamb carcasses of the Boutsko (B), Serres (S) and Karagouniko (K) breed were used. For the first TPT, 24 lambs (four males and four females of each breed) were reared in individual pens on a concentrate ration fed ad libitum. For the second TPT, 27 individual penned male lambs were fed on Lucerne hay ad libitum and on three different levels of concentrate: High (H), Medium, (M) and Low (L). For the third TPT, 18 male lambs were used; initially the groups were fed indoors for 63 days on three different levels of concentrate (H, M and L) together with ad libitum Lucerne hay, and subsequently finished on irrigated, sown pasture. For TPT 1, leg joints were obtained from lambs that had been slaughtered at 30, 45, 60 or 90% of mature weight (PMW) for each breed. For TPT 2, lambs were slaughtered at 23, 28 or 33 kg target slaughter live weights (TSLW), common for all breeds. For TPT 3, lambs were slaughtered at 48 or 55% of PMW for each breed. Panellists assessed warm, roasted lean samples of leg joints and rated Flavour, Juiciness, Tenderness and Overall Acceptability. In TPT 1, degree of maturity significantly affected Flavour, Tenderness and Overall Acceptability whereas sex affected only Flavour. In TPT 2, breed and concentrate level significantly affected the quality characteristics, but concentrate level had no significant effect in TPT 3. Effects associated with slaughter weight were significant for most characteristics in all TPT, with decreasing acceptability for older/heavier lambs. Significant interactions were found between breed and the other factors in TPT 2 and TPT 3 for most quality characteristics. Results from these studies suggest changing traditional production systems may enhance the eating quality of lamb meat.

  14. Effect of milk replacer and rumen inert fat on growth and reproduction of Malpura ram lambs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Bhatt, R S; Karim, S A; Naqvi, S M K

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of milk replacer and rumen inert fat on growth, testicular development, puberty, semen production and sperm motion characteristics of ram lambs reared under intensive management in semi-arid climatic conditions. Seven-day-old male lambs of Malpura breed (n=20) were divided equally into two groups. Up to weaning, the lambs in G1 group (control) were fed concentrate, green khejri (Prosopis cineraria) leaves and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) hay along with suckling of dams, whereas lambs in G2 group were fed reconstituted milk at 17 g/lamb per day for the 1st week and at 34 g/lamb per day from 2nd week in addition to the feed inputs given in G1. During post weaning, lambs in the G1 group were given control concentrate, whereas in G2 the control concentrate supplemented with 40 g rumen inert fat per kg of feed was offered along with dry pala (Zizyphus nummularia) and ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) leaves. BWs of lambs were recorded weekly up to 6 months of age. Ram lambs of both the groups were trained for semen collection at a weekly interval from the age of 5 months and simultaneously testicular measurements were recorded fortnightly. The feeding of milk replacer and rumen inert fat had positive (P<0.05) effects on BW, testicular length, testicular volume, semen volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, % motility, % rapid, medium or slow motile spermatozoa. However, no significant effect was observed on testicular breadth, scrotal circumference, age of puberty, sperm velocities and other CASA-derived parameters. The results of this study indicate that higher plane of nutrition in the form of milk-replacer feeding during preweaning and rumen inert fat-supplemented feed during the postweaning period to growing ram lambs enhances their growth, testicular development and semen quality.

  15. Evaluation of ewe vaccination as a tool for increasing bighorn lamb survival following pasteurellosis epizootics.

    PubMed

    Cassirer, E F; Rudolph, K M; Fowler, P; Coggins, V L; Hunter, D L; Miller, M W

    2001-01-01

    We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate whether treating pregnant bighorn ewes with a combination of an experimental Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica (formerly P. haemolytica) vaccine and a commercially-available bovine P. multocida and M. haemolytica vaccine would increase lamb survival following a pneumonia epidemic. Three free-ranging bighorn herds affected by pasteurellosis outbreaks between November 1995 and June 1996 were included in the field experiment. Post-epidemic lamb survival was low in all three herds in 1996, with November lamb:ewe ratios of < or = 8:100. In March 1997, thirty-six ewes (12/herd) were captured and radiocollared. Half of the ewes captured in each herd were randomly selected to receive both vaccines; the other half were injected with 0.9% saline solution as controls. Lambs born to radiocollared ewes were observed two or more times per week and were considered to have survived if they were alive in October 1997, about 6 mo after birth. Lamb survival differed among herds (range 22% to 100%), and survival of lambs born to vaccinated ewes was lower (P = 0.08) than survival of lambs born to unvaccinated ewes. Bronchopneumonia (pasteurellosis) was the dominant cause of mortality among lambs examined. We concurrently evaluated vaccine effects on survival of lambs born to seven captive ewes removed from the wild during the 1995-96 epidemic. Antibody titers were high in captive ewes prior to vaccination, and vaccines failed to enhance antibody titers in treated captive ewes. None of the captive-born lambs survived. These data suggest that, using existing technology, vaccinating bighorn ewes following pneumonia epidemics has little chance of increasing neonatal survival and population recovery.

  16. Do Lambs Perceive Regular Human Stroking as Pleasant? Behavior and Heart Rate Variability Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Peyrat, Julie; Chandèze, Hervé; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Stroking by humans is beneficial to the human-animal relationship and improves welfare in many species that express intraspecific allogrooming, but very few studies have looked at species like sheep that do not express such contact except around parturition. This study investigated the way lambs perceive regular human tactile contact using behavioral and physiological responses. Twenty-four lambs were reared and bucket-fed in groups of four. All were stroked daily by their familiar caregiver. At 8 weeks of age, the lambs were individually tested in their home pen but in a 1×1m open-barred pen after a 15h period of habituation to physical separation from peers while remaining in visual and auditory contact. Half of the lambs received stroking by their caregiver for 8min and half were exposed to their caregiver’s immobile presence. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded and analyzed by 2-min slots over the same interval based on three measures: mean heart rate value (HR), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and standard deviation of all intervals measured between consecutive sinus beats (SDNN). Behavioral responses (ear postures of the lamb and time spent in contact with the familiar caregiver, on the knees of the familiar caregiver, and moving) were recorded throughout the test. Lamb HR decreased continuously while in the presence of their caregiver. Lambs being stroked showed slower HR and higher RMSSD which reflected positive emotional states compared to lambs left unstroked. All behavioral variables were highly correlated with the main component axis of the PCA analyses: the more the animals stayed in contact with their caregiver, the less they moved and the more their ears were hanging. This first component clearly differentiates lambs being stroked or not. Behavioral and physiological observations support the hypothesis that gentle physical contact with the caregiver is perceived positively by lambs. PMID:25714604

  17. Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive performance and peri-parturient fecal egg counts and their genetic relationships with lamb body weights and fecal egg counts in Katahdin sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study estimated genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and weaned (NLW) per ewe lambing] and peri-parturient (PPR) fecal egg counts (FEC) at lambing (PPR0) and 30 d postpartum (PPR30), and their genetic relationships with lamb BW and FEC in Katahdin sheep. Th...

  18. Improving tenderness of normal and callipyge lambs with calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Clare, T L; Jackson, S P; Miller, M F; Elliott, C T; Ramsey, C B

    1997-02-01

    Effects of CaCl2 injection on meat quality traits of 10 normal and 10 callipyge phenotype crossbred lambs were studied. Primal cuts from one side of each carcass served as the control and cuts from the other side were injected. After storage for 14 d at 2 degrees C, chops were evaluated by Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force, trained sensory panel, and consumer sensory panel. Treatment of the muscles with 200 mM CaCl2 increased (P < .05) tenderness and lamb flavor intensity scores by the trained sensory panel and decreased (P < .05) WBS force in both normal and callipyge phenotypes. When callipyge muscles were not injected, consumers rated 94% of leg chops, 60% of loin chops, and 89.4% of shoulder chops acceptable in tenderness. However, when callipyge muscles were CaCl2-injected, consumers rated 96.5% of leg chops, 85.4% of loin chips, and 93.5% of shoulder chops acceptable in tenderness. Normal phenotype carcasses had more marbling (P < .05) in a firmer, finer-textured, brighter cherry red longissimus muscle. Injection of CaCl2 did not affect visual lean color or L, a or b values during retail display of the chops. However, CaCl2 injection decreased color uniformity, increased discoloration, and increased browning at d 2. Therefore, a 5% (wt/wt) injection of 200 mM CaCl2 solution can be applied to improve normal and callipyge lamb tenderness and reduce tenderness and juiciness variation without detrimental effects on other palatability traits when evaluated by trained sensory panelists or consumers.

  19. Co-housing of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infected Lambs with Immunocompetent or Immunosuppressed Lambs Does Not Result in Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; van Keulen, Lucien; Kant, Jet; Oreshkova, Nadia; Moormann, Rob J. M.; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted among susceptible animals by mosquito vectors. Although the virus can be isolated from nasal and oral swabs of infected animals and is known to be highly infectious when administered experimentally via oral or respiratory route, horizontal transmission of the virus is only sporadically reported in literature. We considered that immunosuppression resulting from stressful conditions in the field may increase the susceptibility to horizontally transmitted RVFV. Additionally, we reasoned that horizontal transmission may induce immune responses that could affect the susceptibility of contact-exposed animals to subsequent infection via mosquito vectors. To address these two hypotheses, viremic lambs were brought into contact with sentinel lambs. One group of sentinel lambs was treated with the immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone and monitored for signs of disease and presence of virus in the blood and target organs. Another group of contact-exposed sentinel lambs remained untreated for three weeks and was subsequently challenged with RVFV. We found that none of the dexamethasone-treated contact-exposed lambs developed detectable viremia, antibody responses or significant increases in cytokine mRNA levels. Susceptibility of immunocompetent lambs to RVFV infection was not influenced by previous contact-exposure. Our results are discussed in light of previous findings. PMID:27014211

  20. [Ultrasonography of the lower urethra in male sheep lambs].

    PubMed

    AlLugami, Ammar; von Pückler, Kerstin; Sickinger, Marlene

    2018-06-01

    In male small ruminants, voiding disturbances are not uncommon. A precise knowledge of the underlying disease is essential for prognostic evaluation as well as for a decision concerning the therapeutic approach. Common reasons for voiding disturbances in the male small ruminant are obstructive urolithiasis, traumata of the penis or inflammatory processes within the urethra or urinary bladder. The diagnostic method of choice - in addition to clinical examination - is diagnostic imaging. Because radiology is not always possible under field conditions, the aim of this article is a detailed presentation of ultrasonography of the distal urethra of the male lamb. Schattauer GmbH.

  1. Patent ductus arteriosus in a lamb: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, Afshin; Hoseini, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent patency of a vessel normally present in the fetus that connects the pulmonary arterial system to the aorta. The ductus arteriosus fails to close at birth when breathing commences and placental blood circulation is removed. Closure of the ductus arteriosus arises in response to decline pulmonary vascular resistance and increased systemic vascular resistance. This report describes a case of PDA in a two-month-old male lamb with clinical signs of machinery murmur, tachycardia, increase respiratory rate, weakness and ill thrift. Echocardiographic examination and necropsy finding confirmed PDA. PMID:27226893

  2. Importance of birthcoat for lamb survival and growth in the Romane sheep breed extensively managed on rangelands.

    PubMed

    Allain, D; Foulquié, D; Autran, P; Francois, D; Bouix, J

    2014-01-01

    The Romane sheep breed proved to be adapted to harsh conditions with high prolificacy and lamb survival in outdoor farming, even under bad climate conditions. This breed shows large variability in its fleece type at birth and it has been suggested that lamb survival could be related to birthcoat type. The aim of the present study was to: i) characterize the coat of the lamb at birth and quantify lamb survival in relation to the birthcoat type and its protective properties concerning heat loss in the Romane breed raised under permanent exposure outdoors from birth, and ii) estimate genetic parameters of birthcoat type in relation to lamb survival and live body weight. A total of 7,880 lambs from 104 sires and 1,664 dams were used in a 14-yr experiment. The pedigree file included 9,625 individuals over 15 generations. Birthcoat type, coat surface temperature, coat depth, lamb survival, and growth were measured from birth to weaning. Weather data (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation) were recorded daily during lambing time. Two types of coats were observed at birth: hairy coat (62.9% of lambs) with a long coat depth (average 23.3 mm) or woolly 1 (37.1% of lambs) with a short coat depth (average 8.3 mm). Birthcoat type was an important factor affecting lamb survival and growth from birth in the Romane breed. Total mortality rate was significantly less in hairy-bearing coat lambs than in short-woolly coat ones: 7.0% vs. 9.6%, 11.6 % vs. 14.8%, and 15.7 % vs. 20.1 % at 2, 10, and 50 d, respectively, and the relative risks of death increased by 37%, 67%, and 46 % at 2, 10, and 50 d of age, respectively, in short-woolly lambs. At birth, a significant lower coat surface temperature, indicating less heat loss, was observed in long-hairy coat lambs compared with others (21.1°C vs. 26.1°C). Heavier body weights and better growth performances up to the age of 50 d were observed in long-hairy-bearing coat lambs. Lamb survival was positively correlated

  3. Perinatal lamb mortality: an assessment of gross, histological and immunohistochemical changes in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Vd; Roe, Wd; Kenyon, Pr; Thompson, Kg

    2014-05-01

    To compare the vascular and neuronal changes in the central nervous system (CNS) of lambs that died in the first 3 days after birth, from various causes, with control lambs subject to euthanasia. Dead lambs (n=65) were collected daily during the period 07 September 2010 to 26 September 2010 from a flock of 200 twin-lamb-bearing ewes. Age-matched lambs from the same flock were subject to euthanasia as a control group (n=39). Necropsies were conducted on all study lambs. The cause of death in lambs found dead was categorised as starvation-mismothering-exposure complex (SME), dystocia, or other, based on gross necropsy findings. Deaths were categorised as SME in lambs with necropsy lesions of pericardial, perirenal and mesenteric fat catabolism, an empty gastrointestinal tract and completely inflated lungs. Dystocia was diagnosed by the presence of a swollen tongue, injected sclera and subcutaneous oedema and haemorrhage around the head and neck or hind limbs. Deaths were categorised as other if an obvious cause of death could not be ascertained and if evidence of infection was identified. The CNS of each lamb necropsied was assessed grossly for haemorrhage, and using histopathology to determine vascular and neuronal changes. Immunohistochemistry was performed on selected cases (n=36) to confirm neuronal death. Of the 65 lambs found dead, 16 (25%) had evidence of cerebral and spinal meningeal haemorrhage, whereas of the 39 clinically normal control lambs, all displayed gross evidence of cerebral and spinal meningeal haemorrhage. There was no evidence of parenchymal vacuolation, neuronal vacuolation or ischaemic neurons in any of the lamb brain sections including those that died with evidence of dystocia. There was no difference, within the regions examined, in mean vascular score between lambs categorised by cause of death (p>0.05). The overall mean vascular score for the brain stem was greater than the mid brain (p=0.02) and the cortex (p=0.005) but did not differ

  4. Carcass composition and meat quality of equally mature kids and lambs.

    PubMed

    Santos, V A C; Silva, S R; Azevedo, J M T

    2008-08-01

    Carcass composition and meat quality attributes of 55 suckling kids (27 males and 28 females) and 57 suckling lambs (28 males and 29 females) of Portuguese native breeds were investigated. These suckling kid and lamb meats are European meat quality labels produced according to "Cabrito de Barroso- PGI" and "Borrego Terrincho-PDO" specifications, respectively. Female kids were slaughtered at 9.1 +/- 0.36 kg of BW, and male kids were slaughtered at 10.4 +/- 0.37 kg of BW, corresponding to 20.1 and 17.7% of maturity, respectively. Female lambs were slaughtered at 8.6 +/- 0.53 kg of BW, and male lambs were slaughtered at 9.9 +/- 0.23 kg of BW, corresponding to 19.9 and 17.1% of maturity, respectively. At 24 h postmortem, various yield and quality measurements were collected. The left sides of the carcasses were dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and bone. Final pH, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*), carcass measurements, and kidney knob and pelvic fat were also determined. Samples of LM were taken from the lumbar and thoracic cuts for intramuscular and meat quality determinations. At 72 h postmortem, a sample of LM was used for cooking losses and Warner-Bratzler shear force determination. Suckling lambs had greater dressing proportion than suckling kids (P < 0.01). Carcass fatness was not affected by species (P > 0.05), but females had greater kidney knob and pelvic fat proportion than males (P < 0.01). Lambs had greater proportions of the highly valued leg cut and lower proportions of shoulder, anterior rib, and neck cuts than kids. Dissection results indicated that kid carcasses had greater muscle content and lower dissected fat and bone than lambs. Kids had greater (P < 0.001) muscle ultimate pH value than lambs (5.8 +/- 0.02 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.02). Males had greater (P < 0.05) muscle ultimate pH value than females (5.7 +/- 0.02 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.02). The kid meat was significantly lighter (P < 0.05) and less yellow (P < 0.001) than the lamb meat. Kids

  5. Impact of rotational grazing on management of gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H

    2009-07-07

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control for 'natural' or organic lamb production is needed, especially where Haemonchus contortus is prevalent. The objective was to determine the impact of rotational grazing on GIN infection of weaned lambs. In year 1, naturally infected Katahdin lambs (120 days of age) were randomly assigned to graze (1) continuous bermudagrass (CB; n=14), (2) rotational bermudagrass moved every 3.5 days and returned to original plot 35 days later for three rotations (RB; n=14), or (3) rotational bermudagrass rotated when forage height fell below 10 cm (RBH; n=7) where first day of grazing=Day 0. In late summer, all lambs were supplemented with 500 g corn/SBM because of poor condition. The following year, similar animals were used and included the CB (n=18) and the RB (n=36) groups only. In both years, fecal egg counts (FECs) and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were determined every 7-14 days and body weight every 28 days. Individuals were dewormed with 0.5 g copper oxide wire particles (COWP) when FAMACHA score increased to 3 or more. Between 0 and 3 deworming treatments per lamb were necessary and there tended to be fewer RB than CB lambs dewormed by Day 84 for both years combined (P<0.001). Worm free tracer lambs were introduced to CB (n=6) and RB (n=8) plots following the last rotation during the first year to determine worm burdens after 20 days of grazing. Abomasal worm burden tended to be greater in RB than CB or RBH tracer lambs (P<0.10), but intestinal worm numbers were similar. Differences may be due to differences in grazing patterns among groups. Body weight gains were similar between CB and RB groups. Economic value between the CB and RB lambs was similar based on number of lambs that could have been marketed as organic. For both years, lambs relied exclusively on COWP for GIN control with the exception of one lamb. In summary, while there was a reduced incidence of deworming in the RB compared with the CB group of lambs, estimated

  6. Low-temperature X-ray detectors for precise Lamb shift measurements on hydrogen-like heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleile, A.; Egelhof, P.; Kluge, H.-J.; Liebisch, U.; McCammon, D.; Meier, H. J.; Sebastián, O.; Stahle, C. K.; Weber, M.

    2000-04-01

    The precise determination of the Lamb shift in heavy hydrogen-like ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields, not accessible otherwise. For the investigation of the Lyman- α transitions in 208Pb81+ or 238U91+ with sufficient accuracy a high resolving calorimetric detector for hard X-rays ( E⩽100 keV) is presently developed. The detector modules consist of arrays of silicon thermistors and of X-ray absorbers made of high Z material to optimize the absorption efficiency. The detectors are housed in a specially designed 3He/ 4He dilution refrigerator with a side arm which fits to the geometry of the internal target of the storage ring ESR at GSI Darmstadt. The detector performance presently achieved is already close to fulfill the demands of the Lamb shift experiment. For a prototype detector pixel with a 0.3 mm 2×66 μm Sn absorber an energy resolution of Δ EFWHM=75 eV is obtained for 60 keV X-rays.

  7. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs Part 2: Ewe lamb rumen microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, S L; Yeoman, C J; Whitney, T R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated effects of ground redberry juniper () and urea in dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48) on rumen physiological parameters and bacterial diversity. In a randomized study (40 d), individually-penned lambs were fed ground sorghum-sudangrass hay and of 1 of 8 supplements (6 lambs/treatment; 533 g/d; as-fed basis) in a 4 × 2 factorial design with 4 concentrations of ground juniper (15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 levels of urea (1% or 3% of DM). Increasing juniper resulted in minor changes in microbial β-diversity (PERMANOVA, pseudo F = 1.33, = 0.04); however, concentrations of urea did not show detectable broad-scale differences at phylum, family, or genus levels according to ANOSIM ( > 0.05), AMOVA ( > 0.10), and PERMANOVA ( > 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis indicated some genera were specific to certain dietary treatments ( < 0.05), though none of these genera were present in high abundance; high concentrations of juniper were associated with and , low concentrations of urea were associated with , and high concentrations of urea were associated with and . were decreased by juniper and urea. , , and increased with juniper and were positively correlated (Spearman's, < 0.05) with each other but not to rumen factors, suggesting a symbiotic interaction. Overall, there was not a juniper × urea interaction for total VFA, VFA by concentration or percent total, pH, or ammonia ( 0.29). When considering only percent inclusion of juniper, ruminal pH and proportion of acetic acid linearly increased ( < 0.001) and percentage of butyric acid linearly decreased ( = 0.009). Lamb ADG and G:F were positively correlated with (Spearman's, < 0.05) and negatively correlated with Synergistaceae, the BS5 group, and Lentisphaerae. Firmicutes were negatively correlated with serum urea nitrogen, ammonia, total VFA, total acetate, and total propionate. Overall, modest differences in bacterial diversity among

  8. Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Inserra, L; Priolo, A; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Bognanno, M; Gravador, R; Luciano, G

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrates with high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates in which 24% and 35% dried citrus pulp were included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and saturation of meat after blooming (P<0.01). Regardless of the level of supplementation, dietary dried citrus pulp strongly reduced meat lipid oxidation over 6 days of aerobic storage (P<0.001), while colour parameters did not change noticeably over storage and their variation rate was not affected by the diet. In conclusion, replacing cereals with dried citrus pulp in concentrate-based diets might represent a feasible strategy to naturally improve meat oxidative stability and to promote the exploitation of this by-product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Defined bacterial populations in the rumens of gnotobiotic lambs.

    PubMed

    Lysons, R J; Alexander, T J; Wellstead, P D; Hobson, P N; Mann, S O; Stewart, C S

    1976-06-01

    Five gnotobiotic lambs were fed on sterile diets until they were killed at 13 to 21 weeks of age. They were dosed orally with different combinations of 11 species of rumen bacteria. The biochemical reactions of each of the bacteria inoculated had been determined in pure culture in vitro, and they were chosen to perform the main reactions known to be associated with digestion in the normal mature rumen. Two of the bacteria could not be reisolated, but the remainder had established readily in the rumen, forming stable, mixed, defined populations. The total numbers of bacteria in the rumen, and the viable counts of most of the individual species were comparable to those of normal sheep. The concentration of volatile fatty acids was lower, however, and in four of the lambs there was a higher proportion of butyric acid and a lower proportion of propionic acid than in normal sheep. Cellulolytic, ureolytic, and methanogenic activities appeared to be taking place and lactate-utilizing bacteria appeared to reverse the accumulation of lactate which resulted from the activity of lactate-producing bacteria. Some of the bacteria also established at high levels in the caecum.

  10. Sericea lespdeza as an aid in the control of Emeria spp. in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Orlik, S T; Acharya, M; Garza, J J; Mosjidis, J A

    2013-03-31

    The objective was to examine the effects of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal (SL) on control of coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n=76) were weaned (102.7±1.4 d of age) in May (spring) and randomly assigned in a 2×2 factorial design to receive 2% of BW/d of alfalfa pellets (control) or SL with or without amprolium added to drinking water (n=38/level or 19/treatment). Fecal oocyst counts (FOC), egg counts (FEC), and fecal score (1=solid pellets; 5=slurry) were determined every 7d between weaning and 21 d post-weaning. In Exp. 2, twin rearing ewes were randomly assigned to two groups, and their naturally infected lambs were fed a control creep supplement (16% CP; n=40) or SL pellets (14% CP; n=32) 30 d before weaning. Intake of SL was initially low (100g/lamb daily) and increased to 454 g/lamb daily after weaning. Lambs were weaned at 103.6±0.9 d of age and moved to semi-confinement. The FEC, FOC, packed cell volume (PCV), fecal score, and dag score (soiling around rear of lamb; 1=no soiling; 5=heavy soiling) were determined at d -14, 0 (weaning), 7, 14, and 21. In Exp. 3, lambs were randomly assigned to a control or SL diet (n=12/diet) fed at 1.4 kg/d for 22d and inoculated with 50,000 sporulated oocysts on d 8, 11, and 13. The FEC, FOC, and fecal score were determined every 2 to 3d between d 1 and 29 (d 0=first day of dietary treatment). Data on all experiments were analyzed using mixed models. The FOC and FEC data were log transformed. Chi squared analysis was used to determine differences in incidence of treatment (sulfadimethoxine) for coccidiosis in Exp. 1 and 2. In Exp. 1, FOC and FEC were similar between dietary groups, and FOC declined more rapidly in amprolium treated lambs following weaning (P<0.001). Fecal score was higher in the control compared with the SL fed lambs (P=0.05), suggesting more signs of coccidiosis in control lambs. In Exp. 2, FOC was similar initially but was reduced in SL fed lambs by weaning and remained

  11. Surfactant and pulmonary blood flow distributions following treatment of premature lambs with natural surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, A; Ikegami, M; Jacobs, H; Jones, S

    1984-01-01

    Prematurely delivered lambs were treated with radiolabeled natural surfactant by either tracheal instillation at birth and before the onset of mechanical ventilation, or after 23 +/- 1 (+/- SE) min of mechanical ventilation. Right ventricular blood flow distributions, left ventricular outputs, and left-to-right ductal shunts were measured with radiolabeled microspheres. After sacrifice, the lungs of lambs receiving surfactant at birth inflated uniformly with constant distending pressure while the lungs of lambs treated after a period of ventilation had aerated, partially aerated, and atelectatic areas. All lungs were divided into pieces which were weighed and catalogued as to location. The amount of radiolabeled surfactant and microsphere-associated radioactivity in each piece of lung was quantified. Surfactant was relatively homogenously distributed to pieces of lung from lambs that were treated with surfactant at birth; 48% of lung pieces received amounts of surfactant within +/- 25% of the mean value. Surfactant was preferentially recovered from the aerated pieces of lungs of lambs treated after a period of mechanical ventilation, and the distribution of surfactant to these lungs was very nonhomogeneous. Right ventricular blood flow distributions to the lungs were quite homogeneous in both groups of lambs. However, in 8 of 12 lambs, pulmonary blood flow was preferentially directed away from those pieces of lung that received relatively large amounts of surfactant and toward pieces of lung that received less surfactant. This acute redirection of pulmonary blood flow distribution may result from the local changes in compliances within the lung following surfactant instillation. PMID:6546766

  12. Report: Prevalence and antibiotic trials against Salmonella enterica isolated from diarrheic lambs and kids.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Ijaz, Muhammad; Aslam, Hassaan Bin; Farooqi, Shahid Hussain; Ahmad, Syed Saleem; Akhtar, Raheela

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the major zoonotic threat for small ruminants and humans responsible for huge economic losses and high mortality in Pakistan. Lambs and kids of Lahore district were examined to determine the prevalence, hematology and chemotherapy of S. enterica. A total of 200 diarrheic samples (n=100 lambs; n=100 kids) were collected and examined; 59 (29.50%) were found positive for S. enterica. Lambs had lightly greater prevalence (31%) than kids (29%). The frequency analysis (OR=1.16 [reciprocal =0.87]) showed non-significant difference in both the lambs and kids. The significant decrease (Pℜ0.001) in hemoglobin, pack cell volume and total erythrocyte count was observed in infected lambs and kids. Results of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that S. enteric isolated from both lambs and kids were susceptible to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin, tobramycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin and nalidixic acid. Where as the results of in vivo antibiotic trials showed that isolates from both lambs and the kids with diarrhea were susceptible to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.

  13. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter.

  14. A novel mutation of laminin β2 (LAMB2) in two siblings with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Falix, Farah A; Bennebroek, Carlien A M; van der Zwaag, Bert; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Florquin, Sandrine; Oosterveld, Michiel J S

    2017-04-01

    This report describes a novel mutation of LAMB2, the gene associated with Pierson syndrome (microcoria-congenital nephrosis syndrome), in two female siblings. The c.970T>C p.(Cys324Arg) mutation in the LAMB2 gene affects one of the eight highly conserved cysteine residues within the first EGF-like module of the laminin β2 protein. These residues form disulfide bonds in order to achieve a correct 3D structure of the protein. The reported phenotype is considered a relatively mild variant of Pierson syndrome and is associated with later-onset (18 months) therapy-resistant nephrotic syndrome leading to renal failure, and ocular abnormalities consisting of high myopia, microcoria, diverse retinal abnormalities, hence a low level of visual acuity. Importantly, the reported LAMB2 mutation was associated with normal neurological development in both siblings. this report presents the variability of the renal, ocular and neurological phenotypes associated with LAMB2 mutations and underscores the importance of ophthalmologic examination in all children with unexplained renal insufficiency or nephrotic syndrome. What is known • LAMB2 mutations are associated with Pierson syndrome • Pierson syndrome is associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome, microcoria and neurological deficits What is new • A novel mutation in the LAMB2 gene in two female siblings • Genotype and clinical phenotype description of a novel LAMB2 mutation.

  15. The impact of genetics on retail meat value in Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-07-01

    Lean (muscle), fat, and bone composition of 1554 lamb carcasses from Maternal, Merino and Terminal sired lambs was measured using computed tomography scanning. Lamb sires were diverse in their range of Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT). Lean value, representing predicted lean weight multiplied by retail value, was determined for lambs at the same carcass weight or the same age. At the same carcass weight, lean value was increased the most by reducing sire PFAT, followed by increasing PEMD and PWWT. However for lambs of the same age, increasing sire PWWT increased lean value the most. Terminal sired lambs, on average, had greater lean value irrespective of whether comparisons were made at the same age or weight. Lean value was greater in Merino compared to Maternal sired lambs at equal carcass weight, however the reverse was true when comparisons were made at the same age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of volatile branched-chain fatty acids in various lamb tissues.

    PubMed

    Brennand, C P; Lindsay, R C

    1992-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (C4-C11) including even-, odd-, and branched-chain members in lamb tissues were quantitatively analyzed. Volatile branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) were more concentrated in subcutaneous adipose tissue samples (rump, shoulder, breast) than in perinepheric adipose or muscle tissues. Perinepheric adipose tissue contained relatively high quantities of n-chain, even-numbered fatty acids and very low levels of BCFA. Greater variation existed in fatty acid profiles among similar subcutaneous adipose tissues from different lambs than between samples of adipose tissue from different carcass sites from a given lamb sample. 4-Methyl- and 4-ethyloctanoic acids were present at concentrations greatly above threshold levels in all lamb fats tested, and thus upon hydrolysis would contribute species-related flavors to lamb. 4-Methylnonanoic concentrations in lamb fats ranged from nondetectable to greater than the threshold level, and therefore this compound would not always contribute to the species-related flavors of lamb. Lean meat samples contained very low concentrations of 4-methyl- and 4-ethyloctanoic acids. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Embryo development, fetal growth and postnatal phenotype of eGFP lambs generated by lentiviral transgenesis.

    PubMed

    Crispo, M; Vilariño, M; dos Santos-Neto, P C; Núñez-Olivera, R; Cuadro, F; Barrera, N; Mulet, A P; Nguyen, T H; Anegón, I; Menchaca, A

    2015-02-01

    Lentiviral technology has been recently proposed to generate transgenic farm animals more efficiently and easier than traditional techniques. The objective was to evaluate several parameters of lambs obtained by lentiviral transgenesis in comparison with non-transgenic counterparts. In vitro produced embryos were microinjected (TG group) at two-cell stage with a lentiviral construct containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene, while embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF group) or intrauterine insemination (IUI group) were not microinjected. Microinjection technique efficiently generated eight-cell transgenic embryos (97.4%; 114/117). Development rate on day 5 after fertilization was similar for TG (39.3%, 46/117) and IVF embryos (39.6%, 44/111). Pregnancy rate was detected in 50.0% (6/12) of recipient ewes with TG embryos, in 46.7% (7/15) with IVF embryos, and in 65.0% (13/20) of IUI ewes (P = NS). Nine lambs were born in TG group, six lambs in IVF group, and 16 lambs in IUI group. All TG lambs (9/9) were GFP positive to real-time PCR and eight (88.9%) showed a strong and evident GFP expression in mucosae, eyes and keratin tissues. Fetal growth monitored every 15 day by ultrasonography did not show significant differences. Transgenic lambs neither differ in morphometric variables in comparison with non transgenic IVF lambs within 3 months after birth. Transmission of the transgene to the progeny was observed in green fluorescent embryos produced by IVF using semen from the TG founder lambs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the high efficiency of lentiviral technology to produce transgenic sheep, with no clinic differences in comparison with non transgenic lambs.

  18. Environmental impacts on offspring survival during the lambing period in central Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronato, F.

    Weather conditions are the main factors affecting the survival rate of newborn lambs. In the windy climate of Patagonia, the influence of weather conditions is exacerbated as the wind speed increases noticeably in spring. If the wind increases faster than the temperature rises, wind chill conditions worsen temporarily. This departure from the predictable improvement in bioclimatic conditions as the season moves towards summer may coincide with lambing, if this is not adequately regulated. This paper explores bioclimatic conditions during the 2-month period in which lambing may take place (i.e. mid-September to mid-November), and identifies the unfavourable period that occurs in the second fortnight of October. Starting from the Mount and Brown (Agric Meteorol 27:241-255, 1982) model to assess thermal stress in sheep by means of common meteorological records, a simpler model was developed employing in long-term records. For 2-week averages of temperature (Tf), wind speed (Vf) and total precipitation (Pf), the average heat loss in sheep (HLf) was 40.40-2.07Tf+5.64Vf+0.04Pf. (r2=0.95). A 24-year series of Tf, Vf and Pf data was employed in the calculation of HLf, and results showed this parameter was significantly higher in the second fortnight in October. HLf values were classified into four groups (from ''very good'' to ''very bad'' conditions); once again, significant differences appeared in the second fortnight in October. Finally, HLf during the lambing period was correlated to the percentage of lambs surviving 2 months later. Significant differences between the survival of lambs born under ''very bad'' and ''very good'' conditions were found, but intermediate HLf conditions did not show a clear pattern. The survival rate was best correlated to HLf in the fortnight preceding lambing (P<0.05). This suggests that bioclimatic conditions during late pregnancy are at least as important as conditions during lambing in determining the survival lambs.

  19. Stable isotopes to discriminate lambs fed herbage or concentrate both obtained from C(3) plants.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Vasta, Valentina; Lanza, Alfio; Luciano, Giuseppe; Ladroue, Virginie; Guillou, Claude; Priolo, Alessandro

    2008-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) enables us to discriminate between lambs fed herbage or concentrate, both obtained from C(3) plants, and those fed a concentrate obtained from C(4) plants. Thirty-four Comisana male lambs (age 45 days) were assigned to three feeding treatments. Fourteen lambs were fed vetch (Vicia sativa) ad libitum. Another fourteen lambs received a barley-based concentrate. The remaining six lambs were fed a maize-based concentrate. After 60 days of experimental treatment the animals were slaughtered and the wool, perirenal fat and muscle longissimus dorsi were sampled. The delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of the muscle, wool and feed were measured by continuous flow elemental analysis (CF-EA)-IRMS. The delta(13)C of the fat was determined likewise. The isotopic composition of the tissues reflected that of the three diets. For the lambs which were fed herbage the muscle delta(13)C values were higher (P < 0.0005) and delta(15)N values were lower (P < 0.0005) than those of the lambs receiving concentrates. The delta(15)N and delta(13)C values in the muscle and delta(13)C values in the adipose tissue allowed perfect discrimination between the lambs fed the three different diets. The regression between the delta(13)C values measured in muscle and in wool of lambs was linear (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.0005). This result shows that delta(13)C measured in the wool can predict muscle delta(13)C distribution, suggesting that wool is a valuable matrix for meat authentication.

  20. Multimodal sparse reconstruction in guided wave imaging of defects in plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golato, Andrew; Santhanam, Sridhar; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2016-07-01

    A multimodal sparse reconstruction approach is proposed for localizing defects in thin plates in Lamb wave-based structural health monitoring. The proposed approach exploits both the sparsity of the defects and the multimodal nature of Lamb wave propagation in plates. It takes into account the variation of the defects' aspect angles across the various transducer pairs. At low operating frequencies, only the fundamental symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb modes emanate from a transmitting transducer. Asymmetric defects scatter these modes and spawn additional converted fundamental modes. Propagation models are developed for each of these scattered and spawned modes arriving at the various receiving transducers. This enables the construction of modal dictionary matrices spanning a two-dimensional array of pixels representing potential defect locations in the region of interest. Reconstruction of the region of interest is achieved by inverting the resulting linear model using the group sparsity constraint, where the groups extend across the various transducer pairs and the different modes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is established with finite-element scattering simulations of the fundamental Lamb wave modes by crack-like defects in a plate. The approach is subsequently validated with experimental results obtained from an aluminum plate with asymmetric defects.

  1. Lamb and kid mortality in village flocks in the coastal savanna zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Turkson, P K

    2003-12-01

    A cohort study was designed to observe and follow up mortality in lambs and kids in 88 flocks of sheep and goats under the traditional production system in five villages within the coastal savanna zone of Ghana over a 2-year period. The overall mortality rates for kids and lambs were 30.8% and 33.5%, respectively. Significantly higher proportions of kids (80.2%) and lambs (75.6%) up to 3 months of age died compared to kids and lambs from 4 to 12 months of age. The differences in mortality rates, either between male and female kids and lambs or between single-born and multiple-birth kids and lambs, were not significant. The odds ratio (OR) and relative risks (RR) for lambs and kids, on the basis of sex and birth types, were not significant; neither were the values obtained for attributable risk, attributable fraction, population attributable risk and population attributable fraction. The overall mortality rate on the basis of species of animal was not significant. At the village level, significant differences in the proportions of mortality on the basis of sex were seen in two villages. At Akotokyir, more male lambs (54.2%) died compared to females (27.6%), while at Apewosika more female lambs (42.2%) died compared to males (16.7%). The only significant difference in mortality proportions on the basis of birth type at the village level was seen at Apewosika, where more single-born kids died (52.8%) compared to kids born with sibling(s) (28.4%). The significant ORs for mortalities were 3.10 for male lambs at Akotokyir, 3.35 for female lambs at Apewosika and 2.82 for single-born kids at Apewosika. The corresponding RRs were equally significant. On the basis of species, significantly more lambs died at Akotokyir (44.2%) and Kwesimprah (44.7%) compared to kids. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Periconceptional growth hormone treatment alters fetal growth and development in lambs.

    PubMed

    Koch, J M; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E

    2010-05-01

    Research in the area of fetal programming has focused on intrauterine growth restriction. Few studies have attempted to examine programming mechanisms that ultimately lead to lambs with a greater potential for postnatal growth. We previously demonstrated that treatment of ewes with GH at the time of breeding led to an increase in birth weight. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a single injection of sustained-release GH given during the periconceptional period on fetal growth and development and to determine if the GH axis would be altered in these offspring. Estrus was synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2alpha); at the time of the second injection, ewes assigned to treatment were also given an injection of sustained-release GH. A maternal jugular vein sample was taken weekly to analyze IGF-I as a proxy for GH to estimate the duration of the treatment effect. In ewes treated with GH, IGF-I increased (P < 0.05) by wk 1 and remained elevated until wk 4 postinjection. Lambs were weighed, crown-rump length and abdominal girth were determined, and a plasma sample was collected. In a subset of male lambs, liver, heart, and brain weights were obtained, as well as left and right ventricular wall thicknesses. On postnatal d 100, a subset of ewe lambs were weighed and challenged with an intravenous injection of GHRH. Lambs from treated ewes had increased (P < 0.05) birth weight and abdominal girth compared with control lambs; however, there was no difference in crown-rump length. Expression of GH receptor and IGF-I were increased (P < 0.05) in lambs gestated by GH-treated ewes compared with control ewes. The left ventricular wall was thinner (P < 0.05) from lambs in the GH-treated group compared with control lambs. On postnatal d 100, those ewe lambs born to ewes treated with GH continued to be heavier (P < 0.05) and had no IGF-I response to GHRH challenge. In conclusion, treating ewes with a single injection of GH appeared to alter

  4. Increase in Cardiac Troponin I in a Lamb with Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    NEUWALD, Elisa Barp; SOARES, Frederico Aécio Carvalho; DREYER, Cristina Terres; CARNESELLA, Samuel; WOUTERS, Angelica Terezinha Barth; GONZÁLEZ, Félix Hilario Diaz; DRIEMEIER, David

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes a case of tetralogy of Fallot in a lamb showing failure to thrive and signs of respiratory distress. Physical examination, electrocardiography, thoracic radiographies, echocardiography and cardiac troponin I evaluation were performed. The value of cardiac troponin I was compared with the values of 10 healthy lambs of the same age and breed, and the affected animal demonstrated an increase in cardiac troponin I. Due to the poor prognosis, euthanasia was indicated, and necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. This is the first report of an increase in cardiac troponin I in a lamb with tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:23685750

  5. The effect of cyclical and severe heat stress on growth performance and metabolism in Afshari lambs.

    PubMed

    Mahjoubi, E; Yazdi, M Hossein; Aghaziarati, N; Noori, G R; Afsarian, O; Baumgard, L H

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which reduced feed intake contributes to decreased growth during heat stress (HS) in the ovine model is not clear. To evaluate the impact of decreased DMI on performance, we conducted an experiment on growing lambs experiencing a cyclical but extensive heat load. Sixteen intact male Afshari lambs (40.1 ± 1.9 kg) were used in a completely randomized design in 2 periods. In period 1, all 16 lambs were housed in thermal neutral (TN) conditions (22.2 ± 3.1°C and a temperature-humidity index [THI] of 67.9 ± 3.2) and fed at libitum for 8 d. In period 2 (P2), which lasted 9 d, 8 lambs were subjected to a cyclical HS condition (33.0 to 45.0°C and a THI of more than 80 at least for 24 h/d and more than 90 for 8 h/d). The other 8 lambs were maintained in TN conditions but pair-fed (pair-fed thermal neutral [PFTN]) to the HS lambs. During each period, DMI and water intake were measured daily. Respiration rate, rectal temperature, and skin temperature at the shoulder, rump, and front and rear leg were recorded at 0700 and 1400 h daily. Dry matte intake declined (17.5%; P < 0.01) in HS lambs and, by design, the temporal pattern and magnitude of reduced feed intake was similar in the PFTN controls. Water intake increased (19%; P < 0.05) during P2 in HS but not in the PFTN controls. Heat stress increased the 0700 and 1400 h skin temperature at the shoulder (5 and 9.2%), rump (6.2 and 10.3%), rear (6 and 9.2%), and front leg (6.5 and 9.8%) and respiratory rates (84 and 163% [P < 0.01]at 0700 and 1400 h, respectfully), but only the 1400 h rectal temperature was increased (P < 0.01; 0.65°C) in HS lambs. Neither environment nor period affected blood urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations. However, circulating NEFA and insulin were increased and declined (P < 0.01) in PFTN lambs, respectively, but neither variable was altered in the HS lambs. Growth was reduced in P2 for lambs in both treatments, but despite being on a similar reduced plane of nutrition, the HS

  6. Enhancement technology improves palatability of normal and callipyge lambs.

    PubMed

    Everts, A K R; Wulf, D M; Wheeler, T L; Everts, A J; Weaver, A D; Daniel, J A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if BPI Processing Technology (BPT) improved palatability of normal (NN) and callipyge (CN) lamb meat and to determine the mechanism by which palatability was improved. Ten ewe and 10 wether lambs of each phenotype were slaughtered, and carcass traits were assessed by a trained evaluator. The LM was removed at 2 d postmortem. Alternating sides served as controls (CON) or were treated with BPT. Muscles designated BPT were injected to a target 120% by weight with a patented solution containing water, ammonium hydroxide, carbon monoxide, and salt. Muscle pH, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), sarcomere length, cooked moisture retention, and desmin degradation were measured. A trained sensory panel and a take-home consumer panel evaluated LM chops. Callipyge had a heavier BW and HCW, less adjusted fat thickness, reduced yield grades, and greater conformation scores than NN (P < 0.05). For LM, NN had shorter sarcomeres, smaller WBS values, greater juiciness ratings, more off-flavors, reduced consumer ratings for raw characteristics (like of portion size, like of color, like of leanness, overall like of appearance) and greater consumer ratings for eating characteristics (like of juiciness, like of flavor) than CN (P < 0.05). For LM, BPT had greater cooked moisture retention, smaller WBS values, greater juiciness ratings, less off-flavors, and greater consumer ratings for raw characteristics (like of portion size, like of color, overall like of appearance) and eating characteristics (like of juiciness, like of flavor) than CON (P < 0.05). Significant phenotype × treatment interactions occurred for LM muscle pH, desmin degradation, tenderness, consumer like of texture/tenderness, and consumer overall like of eating quality (P < 0.05). For LM, BPT increased muscle pH more for NN than CN (P < 0.01) and increased desmin degradation for NN but decreased desmin degradation for CN (P < 0.01). The BPT enhancement

  7. An extra-uterine system to physiologically support the extreme premature lamb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Emily A.; Davey, Marcus G.; Hornick, Matthew A.; McGovern, Patrick E.; Mejaddam, Ali Y.; Vrecenak, Jesse D.; Mesas-Burgos, Carmen; Olive, Aliza; Caskey, Robert C.; Weiland, Theodore R.; Han, Jiancheng; Schupper, Alexander J.; Connelly, James T.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Rychik, Jack; Hedrick, Holly L.; Peranteau, William H.; Flake, Alan W.

    2017-04-01

    In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed `amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb. We show that fetal lambs that are developmentally equivalent to the extreme premature human infant can be physiologically supported in this extra-uterine device for up to 4 weeks. Lambs on support maintain stable haemodynamics, have normal blood gas and oxygenation parameters and maintain patency of the fetal circulation. With appropriate nutritional support, lambs on the system demonstrate normal somatic growth, lung maturation and brain growth and myelination.

  8. An extra-uterine system to physiologically support the extreme premature lamb

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Emily A.; Davey, Marcus G.; Hornick, Matthew A.; McGovern, Patrick E.; Mejaddam, Ali Y.; Vrecenak, Jesse D.; Mesas-Burgos, Carmen; Olive, Aliza; Caskey, Robert C.; Weiland, Theodore R.; Han, Jiancheng; Schupper, Alexander J.; Connelly, James T.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Rychik, Jack; Hedrick, Holly L.; Peranteau, William H.; Flake, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed ‘amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb. We show that fetal lambs that are developmentally equivalent to the extreme premature human infant can be physiologically supported in this extra-uterine device for up to 4 weeks. Lambs on support maintain stable haemodynamics, have normal blood gas and oxygenation parameters and maintain patency of the fetal circulation. With appropriate nutritional support, lambs on the system demonstrate normal somatic growth, lung maturation and brain growth and myelination. PMID:28440792

  9. Metabolism of glucose, fructose and lactate in vivo in chronically cannulated foetuses and in suckling lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Warnes, D M; Seamark, R F; Ballard, F J

    1977-01-01

    1. Chronically cannulated sheep foetuses and suckling lambs were injected with 14C-labelled glucose, fructose or lactate, and sequential blood samples taken under conditions of minimal stress and without anaesthesia. 2. Gluconeogenesis from lactate was not detectable in foetal sheep, but the pathway was active in suckling lambs. 3. Fructose utilization rates were low in foetal sheep, with no measurable conversion into glucose or lactate. 4. The high rates of irreversible loss of both glucose and lactate in the foetus were decreased in suckling lambs. Radioactivity from labelled glucose entered both the lactate and fructose pools in foetal sheep, and entered the lactate pool in suckling lambs. 5. A model is proposed in which carbon flow between glucose, fructose and lactate has been quantified in foetal sheep. PMID:869907

  10. Histological assessment of testicular residues in lambs and calves after Burdizzo castration.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M H; von Rotz, A; Kocher, M; Merkli, M; Boesch, D; Steiner, A

    2009-04-25

    To assess the reliability of the Burdizzo procedure for castrating calves and lambs, testicular tissue from 63 bull calves (15 intact and 48 castrated) and 69 male lambs (35 intact and 34 castrated) was collected at slaughter and assessed histologically. The bull calves were castrated at either one, four to five or 12 to 16 weeks of age and the lambs at either one or 10 weeks. There was clear evidence of spermatogenesis in testicular tissue from all the intact animals. In the samples from the calves that had been castrated at 12 to 16 weeks functional testicular tissue was completely lacking. However, there was evidence of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in the calves that had been castrated at one week or four to five weeks, respectively. Failure to achieve complete involution of the testicular parenchyma was observed in the majority of lambs, irrespective of the age at which they had been castrated.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of helicopter rotor blades using guided Lamb modes.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel; Dayal, Vinay

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an application for turning and direct modes in a complex composite laminate structure. The propagation and interaction of turning modes and fundamental Lamb modes are investigated in the skin, spar and web sections of a helicopter rotor blade. Finite element models were used to understand the various mode conversions at geometric discontinuities such as web-spar joints. Experimental investigation was carried out with the help of air coupled ultrasonic transducers. The turning and direct modes were confirmed with the help of particle displacements and velocities. Experimental B-Scans were performed on damaged and undamaged samples for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the structure. A strong correlation between the numerical and experimental results was observed and reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of maternal dietary restriction during pregnancy on lamb carcass characteristics and muscle fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Z C T R; Brameld, J M; Craigon, J; Scollan, N D; Buttery, P J

    2007-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the decreased proportion of fast muscle fibers seen previously in 2-wk-old lambs from ewes that were dietary restricted from d 30 to 70 of gestation are still evident in older lambs and what the consequences may be in terms of growth rates and carcass composition. Throughout both experiments, ewes were fed on an individual basis according to the recommended dietary allowance throughout pregnancy relative to metabolic BW (BW(0.73)). Control groups were fed as above, and the treatment groups had their nutrient supply reduced to 50% of this recommended allowance from d 30 to 70 (Exp. 1) or d 30 to 85 (Exp. 2) of gestation, after which they were returned to the same level of nutrition as the control group. All twin lambs were kept with their dams, and at 2 wk were given access to creep. After weaning, lambs were individually housed and fed ad libitum to 24 or 17 wk of age for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Although not significant (P = 0.18), growth to 24 wk (Exp. 1) resulted in a small decrease in the protein content and therefore an increase in the fat:lean ratio in the carcass of lambs subjected to maternal dietary restriction. This was not apparent when animals were slaughtered at 17 wk (Exp. 2; P > 0.68). Few significant effects of maternal dietary restriction on the fiber type composition of muscles were observed. In Exp. 1 the number of fast fibers increased (P < 0.008) with no effect on slow fiber number in LM. In Exp. 2 an increase in the total number of fibers in male lambs and an increase in type II (A and B) fibers in female lambs were observed in the LM, and an increase in IIB fiber number was observed in semitendinosus (ST) muscle from male lambs. Prenatal maternal dietary restriction during the time of muscle differentiation demonstrated an increase in type IIB muscle fibers and increase in intramuscular fat; although significant, effects on subsequent carcass quality of lambs were relatively small. These

  13. Unpredictable Feeding Impairs Glucose Tolerance in Growing Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Jaquiery, Anne L.; Oliver, Mark H.; Landon-Lane, Nina; Matthews, Samuel J.; Harding, Jane E.; Bloomfield, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Irregular eating is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disease in adults but may affect young, growing children differently. We investigated the metabolic effects of unpredictable feeding in female juvenile lambs randomly assigned to receive, for six weeks, maintenance feed given twice daily in equal portions (Control Group, C; n = 24) or the same weekly feed amount in aliquots of variable size at unpredictable times (Unpredictable Group, U; n = 21). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), insulin tolerance tests (ITT), and measurement of diurnal plasma cortisol concentrations were performed pre and post the dietary intervention. Groups were compared using t test and RM ANOVA. Weight gain was similar in both groups (C 18±2%; U 16±2% of initial body weight). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was unchanged in C (AUC pre 818±34, post 801±33 mmol.min.l−1), but increased by 20% in U (pre 830±25, post 1010±19 mmol.min.l−1; p<0.0001), with an inadequate insulin response to glucose load (log(AUC insulin first 40 minutes) post intervention C 1.49±0.04 vs U 1.36±0.04 ng.min.ml−1; p = 0.03). Insulin tolerance and diurnal variation of plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Unpredictable feeding impairs insulin response to glucose in growing lambs despite high quality food and normal weight gain. Irregular eating warrants investigation as a potentially remediable risk factor for disordered glucose metabolism. PMID:23613779

  14. [Castration in the bull calf and ram lamb].

    PubMed

    Steiner, A; Janett, F

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the accepted techniques of pain relief and castration and guidelines of how to best perform these painful interventions in an animal-friendly way under Swiss conditions. Calves should be castrated at the age of 14 days or less, at least 10 minutes after local anesthesia with lidocaine, applying a single rubber ring. Concurrently, a NSAID should be administered intravenously (ketoprofen, 3 mg/kg of bodyweight) and Tetanus-serum subcutaneously (off label use). If possible, ketoprofen(4.5 mg/kg BW) should be orally administered for 3 - 5 days postoperatively. At 10 days after applying the rubber ring, the dried-off scrotum including the rubber ring should be removed with a clean knife or a scalpel. Local anesthesia is not necessary for this procedure. Ram lambs should be castrated at the age of 14 days or less, at least 10 minutes after local anesthesia with lidocaine, applying a rubber ring. The toxic dose of 4 mg lidocaine/kg BW (corresponds to 1 ml lidocaine 2 % per lamb of 5 kg BW) should not be exceeded. Concurrently, a NSAID (off label use) and Tetanus-serum should be administered systemically. Immunization against GnRH represents an animal-friendly and economically feasible alternative to rubber ring castration. With two immunizations at an interval of 3 - 4 weeks testicular development can be inhibited for at least 3 months and the onset of puberty clearly delayed. However, a specific vaccine for use in ruminants is currently registered neither in Switzerland nor in Europe.

  15. Hygienic Status Assessment of Two Lamb Slaughterhouses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Guerrero-Ramos, Emilia; Capita, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    A total of 180 lamb carcasses and 200 inert surfaces were sampled in two commercial abattoirs (plants A and B) from northwest Spain. A higher (P < 0.001) average microbial load (log CFU per square centimeter) on lamb carcasses was observed for total viable counts (TVC; 2.74 ± 1.15) than for Enterobacteriaceae (2.21 ± 1.16). Different microbial counts were found on carcasses from plants A and B, both for TVC (2.56 ± 0.96 versus 3.18 ± 1.47, respectively; P < 0.001) and Enterobacteriaceae (2.09 ± 0.97 versus 2.50 ± 1.61, respectively; P < 0.05). High correlations (P < 0.001) were observed for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae in both plants A (r = 0.708) and B (r = 0.912). The percentages of unsatisfactory daily mean log values for carcasses, according to European Union Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005, were 0.0 (TVC) and 30.8 (Enterobacteriaceae) in plant A and 10.0 (TVC) and 40.0 (Enterobacteriaceae) in plant B. Average counts for inert surfaces were all lower than 10 CFU/cm 2 (TVC) or 1 CFU/cm 2 (Enterobacteriaceae). The need to improve hygienic practices in order to adhere to the European Union microbiological performance criteria is emphasized. The detected different microbial counts between slaughterhouses could be attributed to differences in external hygiene of livestock and in the number of slaughterhouse workers. Microbiological analysis of carcasses and surfaces allows detection of hygienic concerns in the overall process.

  16. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment.

  17. Isolation and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens from healthy Merino lambs in Patagonia region, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mignaqui, A C; Marcellino, R B; Ronco, T; Pappalardo, J S; Nonnemann, B; Pedersen, K; Robles, C A

    2017-02-01

    The presence and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens in healthy Merino lambs over a six-month period was investigated in this study. Overall, a high prevalence of C. perfringens was detected, even in day-old lambs. Even though the majority of the isolates were characterized as being of type A, types C and D were also isolated. Furthermore, a high genetic diversity was observed by PFGE among the type A isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  19. The role of the environment in transmission of Dichelobacter nodosus between ewes and their lambs

    PubMed Central

    Muzafar, Mohd; Calvo-Bado, Leo A.; Green, Laura E.; Smith, Edward M.; Russell, Claire L.; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Wellington, Elizabeth M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus (D. nodosus) is the essential causative agent of footrot in sheep. The current study investigated when D. nodosus was detectable on newborn lambs and possible routes of transmission. Specific qPCR was used to detect and quantify the load of D. nodosus in foot swabs of lambs at birth and 5–13 h post-partum, and their mothers 5–13 h post-partum; and in samples of bedding, pasture, soil and faeces. D. nodosus was not detected on the feet of newborn lambs swabbed at birth, but was detected 5–13 h after birth, once they had stood on bedding containing naturally occurring D. nodosus. Multiple genotypes identified by cloning and sequencing a marker gene, pgrA, and by multi locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of community DNA from swabs on individual feet indicated a mixed population of D. nodosus was present on the feet of both ewes and lambs. There was high variation in pgrA tandem repeat number (between 3 and 21 repeats), and multiple MLVA types. The overall similarity index between the populations on ewes and lambs was 0.45, indicating moderate overlap. Mother offspring pairs shared some alleles but not all, suggesting lambs were infected from sources(s) other than just their mother's feet. We hypothesise that D. nodosus is transferred to the feet of lambs via bedding containing naturally occurring populations of D. nodosus, probably as a result of transfer from the feet of the group of housed ewes. The results support the hypothesis that the environment plays a key role in the transmission of D. nodosus between ewes and lambs. PMID:25953734

  20. Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Effects of early feeding on the host rumen transcriptome and bacterial diversity in lambs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weimin; Li, Chong; Li, Fadi; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Liu, Ting; Nian, Fang; Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Fei; Pan, Xiangyu; La, Yongfu; Mo, Futao; Wang, Fangbin; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Early consumption of starter feed promotes rumen development in lambs. We examined rumen development in lambs fed starter feed for 5 weeks using histological and biochemical analyses and by performing high-throughput sequencing in rumen tissues. Additionally, rumen contents of starter feed-fed lambs were compared to those of breast milk-fed controls. Our physiological and biochemical findings revealed that early starter consumption facilitated rumen development, changed the pattern of ruminal fermentation, and increased the amylase and carboxymethylcellulase activities of rumen micro-organisms. RNA-seq analysis revealed 225 differentially expressed genes between the rumens of breast milk- and starter feed-fed lambs. These DEGs were involved in many metabolic pathways, particularly lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and included HMGCL and HMGCS2. Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that ruminal bacterial communities were more diverse in breast milk-than in starter feed-fed lambs, and each group had a distinct microbiota. We conclude that early starter feeding is beneficial to rumen development and physiological function in lambs. The underlying mechanism may involve the stimulation of ruminal ketogenesis and butanoate metabolism via HMGCL and HMGCS2 combined with changes in the fermentation type induced by ruminal microbiota. Overall, this study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of rumen development in sheep. PMID:27576848

  2. Intramuscular fatty acid composition of lambs fed diets containing alternative protein sources.

    PubMed

    Scerra, M; Caparra, P; Foti, F; Cilione, C; Zappia, G; Motta, C; Scerra, V

    2011-03-01

    Thirty male Merinizzata italiana lambs were divided into three groups after weaning according to live weight. The diet of the three groups differed in the main protein source used in the concentrate, soybean meal for treatment SBM, faba bean for treatment FB and peas for treatment PEA. Lambs were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at about 160 days of age. Meat from the PEA group had higher proportions of the essential fatty acids C18:2 ω-6 and C18:3 ω-3 than from FB and SBM lambs and consequently its derivatives, C20:4 ω-6 and C20:5 ω-3 respectively, were higher in meat from PEA animals, compared to SBM and FB ones. The total n-3 fatty acids were highest in meat from PEA lambs and consequently PEA lambs showed a more favourable n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion the use of legume seeds such as peas in lamb diets positively affected intramuscular fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrient retention values and cooking yield factors for three South African lamb and mutton cuts.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, Salomina M; Strydom, Phillip E

    2017-11-01

    Nutrient content of raw and cooked foods is important for formulation of healthy diets. The retention of nutrients during cooking can be influenced by various factors, including animal age, carcass characteristics and cooking method, and these factors are often unique to specific countries. Here the effects of animal age (lamb and mutton) and carcass cut (shoulder, loin and leg) combined with cooking method (moist heat and dry heat) on yield and nutrient retention of selected nutrients of South African sheep carcasses were studied. Cooking yields and moisture retention were lower for lamb loin but higher for lamb leg. Energy and fat retention were higher for all cuts of mutton compared with lamb, while higher retention values for cholesterol were recorded for lamb. Mutton retained more iron (P = 0.10) and zinc and also more vitamin B 2 , B 6 and B 12 than lamb. Shoulder cooked according to moist heat cooking method retained more magnesium, potassium and sodium. Incorporating these retention and yield values into the South African Medical Research Council's Food Composition Tables provides a reliable reference to all concerned with nutrient content of food. It will also guide practitioners and primary industry to adjust animal production aimed at optimum nutrient content to specific diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Creatinine Excretion in Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnami, N. A.; Prima, A.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to examine the effect of concentrates supplementation on creatinine excretion in lambs and sheep. The study used 8 male thin tailed lambs (aged ±3-4 months, weighed ±15.20 kg) and 8 sheep (aged ±1 year and weighed ±22.71kg). The animals were fed the diet contained 100% napier grass (100G) and 50% napier grass 50% concentrate as much as 3.5% of body weight (50G50C). This study used a complete randomized nested design. The parameters observed were dry matter intake (DMI) and creatinine excretion. The results showed that the diet significantly affect (P<0.05) DMI. The consumption of 100G was lower than that of 50G50C both lambs (0.32 vs 0.62 kg/d) and sheep (0.47 vs 0.88 kg/d). On the other hand, the diet did not affect the creatinine excretion (P 0.05) either G100 or G50C50 in lambs or sheep. However, the creatinine excretion in sheep (185.66 mg/d) was higher than that of lambs (299.1 md/d) (P<0.05). It can be concluded that concentrate supplementation of grass diet increased DMI but did not affect creatinine excretion. The creatinine excretion of sheep was higher than that of lambs .

  5. Impact of changes in inspired oxygen and carbon dioxide on respiratory instability in the lamb.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Sia, Kah-Ling; Skuza, Elizabeth M; Brodecky, Vojta; Berger, Philip J

    2005-02-01

    We examined the effect of hypoxia and hypercapnia administered during deliberately induced periodic breathing (PB) in seven lambs following posthyperventilation apnea. Based on our theoretical analysis, the sensitivity or loop gain (LG) of the respiratory control system of the lamb is directly proportional to the difference between alveolar PO2 and inspired PO2. This analysis indicates that during PB, when by necessity LG is >1, replacement of the inspired gas with one of reduced PO2 lowers LG; if we made inspired PO2 approximate alveolar PO2, we predict that LG would be approximately zero and breathing would promptly stabilize. In six lambs, we switched the inspired gas from an inspiratory oxygen fraction of 0.4 to one of 0.12 during an epoch of PB; PB was immediately suppressed, supporting the view that the peripheral chemoreceptors play a pivotal role in the genesis and control of unstable breathing in the lamb. In the six lambs in which we administered hypercapnic gas during PB, breathing instability was also suppressed, but only after a considerable time lag, indicating the CO2 effect is likely to have been mediated through the central chemoreceptors. When we simulated both interventions in a published model of the adult respiratory controller, PB was immediately suppressed by CO2 inhalation and exacerbated by inhalation of hypoxic gas. These fundamentally different responses in lambs and adult humans demonstrate that PB has differing underlying mechanisms in the two species.

  6. Comparison of six crossbred lamb types: sensory, physical and nutritional meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Muller, M; Cloete, S W P; Schmidt, D

    2003-12-01

    The effect of crossbreeding on lamb meat quality was examined on the M. longissimus dorsi and M. semimembranosus of South African lamb breed combinations. The lambs were sired by Dormer (D) and Suffolk (S) rams and born to Merino (M), Dohne Merino (DM) and SA Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes to give six breed combinations. Ratings of sensory attributes on the M. semimembranosus of the different lamb breed combinations were obtained from a trained descriptive panel. The moisture, total lipids, protein, ash, mineral content and fatty acid composition of the M. semimembranosus were also obtained. Physical parameters measured on the M. longissimus dorsi were: pH(48), drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Breed did not have a significant effect (P>0.05) on the sensory quality of lamb, except for D×SAMM lambs which only showed a significantly higher (P⩽0.05) initial juiciness compared to S×M. However, breed had a significant effect on pH(48), WBS, protein content and the fatty acid and mineral composition.

  7. Microbial growth, communities and sensory characteristics of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged lamb shoulders.

    PubMed

    Kiermeier, Andreas; Tamplin, Mark; May, Damian; Holds, Geoff; Williams, Michelle; Dann, Alison

    2013-12-01

    Packaging fresh lamb in a vacuum (VAC) versus a 100% CO2 modified atmosphere (MAP) may influence product shelf-life and the bacterial communities. While VAC is a common packing method and 100% CO2 MAP is used in some countries, there is little information about how these different techniques affect the growth of spoilage bacteria and sensory attributes of lamb. The aim of this study was to assess changes in microbiological and organoleptic properties, and determine differences in microbial communities by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing, in bone-in (BI) and bone-out (BO) MAP- and VAC-packed lamb shoulders stored at -0.3 °C over 12 wk. VAC and MAP lamb shoulders were acceptable in sensory test scores over 12 wk of storage at -0.3 °C, despite total viable count (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) levels increasing to 8 log10 CFU/cm(2) for VAC lamb and 4-6 log10 CFU/cm(2) for MAP lamb. Similar to the sensory results, there were no significant differences in microbial communities between BI and BO product. However, types of bacteria were different between VAC and MAP packaging. Specifically, while VAC shoulder became dominated by Carnobacterium spp. in the middle of the storage period, the MAP shoulder microbial population remained similar from the start until later storage times. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonic, needle, and carcass measurements for predicting chemical composition of lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, C B; Kirton, A H; Hogg, B; Dobbie, J L

    1991-09-01

    Three groups (n = 147) of New Zealand mixed breed lambs averaging 170 d of age and 31.7 kg in weight were killed after a diet of pasture to determine whether the total depth of soft tissues over the 12th rib 11 cm from the dorsal midline (GR) could be measured in live lambs with sufficient accuracy to warrant its use as a selection tool for breeding flock replacements. Relationships among live and carcass measurements and carcass chemical composition also were determined. An ultrasonic measurement of GR in the live lambs was a more accurate predictor of carcass GR (r = .87) and percentage carcass fat (r = .80) than was a measurement of GR made with a needle (r = .80 and .67, respectively). Both measurements were sufficiently accurate to permit culling of over-fat lambs from breeding flock replacement prospects. The best single indicator of percentage carcass fat (r = .87) was a shoulder fat measurement, followed closely by carcass GR (r = .85). Both were superior to USDA yield grade for estimating carcass chemical composition in these young, lightweight lambs. These two measurements also were most highly related to percentage carcass protein (r = -.78 and r = -.77, respectively). These results indicate possibilities for improving the method of evaluating the composition of U. S. lamb carcasses.

  9. The Productivity of Male Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep Fed Complete Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aluns, M. S.; Luthfi, N.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the productivity of thin tailed lambs and sheep fed complete feed. The material used in this study were 6 thin tailed lambs aged ± 5 months with an average body weight of 15.41 ± 2.11 kg (CV 37.04%) and 6 thin tailed rams aged ± 1 year with an average body weight of 23, 01 ± 1.91 kg (CV 28.83%). The animals were raised intensively with complete feed as much as 3.5% of body weight. The feed contained 12% crude protein (CP) and 55% Total Digestible Nutrients (TDNs). The results showed that the average feed intake was 567.10 g DMI/d in lambs and 726.24 g DMI per day in sheep. An average of body gain of lambs was 0.02 kg/d and 0.01 kg/d. The day matter digestibility of lambs achieves 50.23% and 50.74% in sheep. Based on results, it can be inferred that lambs has same digestibility with sheep and has more efficient to be fattened than sheep.

  10. 3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.

  11. Vitamin E supplementation of undernourished ewes pre- and post-lambing reduces weight loss of ewes and increases weight of lambs.

    PubMed

    Rosales Nieto, César Augusto; Meza-Herrera, César Alberto; Moron Cedillo, Felipe de Jesús; Flores Najera, Manuel de Jesús; Gámez Vázquez, Hector Guillermo; Ventura Pérez, Felipe de Jesús; Liu, Shimin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test if vitamin E supplementation during late gestation and early lactation would affect the weight of ewes under nutritional restriction and the performance of their lambs. Mature Rambouillet ewes (n = 37) were fed a diet that supplied 70 % of the energy and 80 % of recommended protein requirements and randomly assigned to either vitamin E (vit E, n = 20, 4 IU of α-tocopherol kg(-1) of live weight) or control (n = 17, without vitamin E supplementation). During the experimental period, the mean weight of ewes decreased from 74.6 ± 2.4 to 58.1 ± 2.2 kg. Weight loss of ewes was slightly less for the vit E than the control (-65 vs -124 g day(-1), SEM = 46; P = 0.07). Lambs born from vit E-supplemented ewes were heavier than lambs from the control and grew significantly faster (239 vs 195 g day(-1), SEM = 29.3, P < 0.05) with heavier weights at weaning (16.5 vs 13.5 kg, SEM = 1.8, P < 0.05). Besides, birth weight, weaning weight and daily weight gain favoured to single lambs and to male lambs (P < 0.05). Weaning weight was positively correlated to birth weight (P < 0.05) and weight gain (P < 0.001). When the nutrient requirements for ewes are not met, supplementation of vitamin E during late gestation and early lactation might be an effective strategy to minimise ewe weight loss as well as to increase lamb growth.

  12. Hydrocortisone normalizes oxygenation and cGMP regulation in lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Wedgwood, Stephen; Czech, Lyubov; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Russell, James A.; Farrow, Kathryn N.; Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2012-01-01

    In the pulmonary vasculature, cGMP levels are regulated by soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). We previously reported that lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) demonstrate increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered sGC and PDE5 activity, with resultant decreased cGMP. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrocortisone on pulmonary vascular function, ROS, and cGMP in the ovine ductal ligation model of PPHN. PPHN lambs were ventilated with 100% O2 for 24 h. Six lambs received 5 mg/kg hydrocortisone every 8 h times three doses (PPHN-hiHC), five lambs received 3 mg/kg hydrocortisone followed by 1 mg·kg−1·dose−1 times two doses (PPHN-loHC), and six lambs were ventilated with O2 alone (PPHN). All groups were compared with healthy 1-day spontaneously breathing lambs (1DSB). O2 ventilation of PPHN lambs decreased sGC activity, increased PDE5 activity, and increased ROS vs. 1DSB lambs. Both hydrocortisone doses significantly improved arterial-to-alveolar ratios relative to PPHN lambs, decreased PDE5 activity, and increased cGMP relative to PPHN lambs. High-dose hydrocortisone also increased sGC activity, decreased PDE5 expression, decreased ROS, and increased total vascular SOD activity vs. PPHN lambs. These data suggest that hydrocortisone treatment in clinically relevant doses improves oxygenation and decreases hyperoxia-induced changes in sGC and PDE5 activity, increasing cGMP levels. Hydrocortisone reduces ROS levels in part by increasing SOD activity in PPHN lambs ventilated with 100% O2. We speculate that hydrocortisone increases cGMP by direct effects on sGC and PDE5 expression and by attenuating abnormalities induced by oxidant stress. PMID:22198909

  13. Making Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeClark, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity on waves that addresses the state standards and benchmarks of Michigan. Demonstrates waves and studies wave's medium, motion, and frequency. The activity is designed to address different learning styles. (YDS)

  14. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs' feeding behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Spackman, C; Goff, B M; Klotz, J L; Griggs, T; MacAdam, J W

    2016-02-01

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume such as sainfoin attenuates the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 legume species, sainfoin (SAN; 2.9% condensed tannins) or cicer milkvetch (CIC; without tannins) and a mixed ration containing tall fescue seed (50:30:20 seed:beet pulp:alfalfa) with 2 levels of endophyte infection (endophyte-infected tall fescue seed [E+; 3,150 ug/L ergovaline] or endophyte-free tall fescue seed [E-]). For a 10-d baseline period, half of the lambs were fed SAN and half were fed CIC and all lambs had ad libitum amounts of E-. In an ensuing 10-d experimental period, the protocol was the same except half of the lambs fed SAN or CIC received E+ instead of E-. Subsequently, all lambs could choose between their respective legume and seed-containing ration and between E+ and E-. Finally, an in vitro radial diffusion assay was conducted to determine whether tannins isolated from SAN would bind to alkaloids isolated from E+. All groups consumed similar amounts of E- during baseline period ( > 0.10), but lambs ate more E- than E+ during the experimental period ( < 0.05) and lambs offered SAN ate more E+ than lambs offered CIC ( < 0.05). Groups fed E- during the baseline and experimental periods had similar rectal temperatures ( > 0.10), but lambs fed E+ had lower rectal temperatures per gram of feed ingested when supplemented with SAN than with CIC ( < 0.05). Lambs fed E+ had greater concentrations of hemoglobin and more red blood cells than lambs fed E- ( < 0.05), but plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and prolactin did not differ among treatments ( > 0.10). All lambs preferred their treatment ration over their treatment legume, but lambs in the SAN and E+ treatment ate more legume + ration than lambs in the CIC and E+ (CIC-E+; < 0.05) treatment. All lambs preferred E- over E+, but lambs in the CIC

  15. Stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, K; Cheng, C H; Nikaido, H; Jap, B K

    1991-01-01

    We have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microM for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of our results. Images PMID:2001992

  16. Interaction between copper oxide wire particles and Duddingtonia flagrans in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Larsen, M; Terrill, T H

    2005-11-25

    An experiment was completed to determine if copper oxide wire particles (COWP) had any effect on the activity of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in growing lambs. COWP has been used recently as a dewormer in small ruminants because of nematode resistance to anthelmintics. D. flagrans has been used to control free-living stages of parasitic nematodes in livestock. Katahdin and Dorper lambs, 4 months of age, were administered no or 4 g COWP (n=24/dose) in early October 2003. Haemonchus contortus was the predominant gastrointestinal parasite during the trial, which was acquired naturally from pasture. Half the lambs from each COWP group were supplemented with corn/soybean meal with or without D. flagrans for 35 days. Fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined weekly between days 0 (day of COWP administration) and 35. Feces from lambs in each treatment group were pooled and three replicates per group were cultured for 14 days at room temperature. Larvae (L3) were identified and counted per gram of feces cultured. Treatment with COWP was effective in decreasing FEC, which remained low compared with FEC from lambs not treated with COWP. This led to an increase in PCV in these lambs (COWP x day, P<0.001). Number of larvae was decreased in feces from lambs treated with COWP and D. flagrans between days 14 and 35 compared to the other groups of lambs (COWP x D. flagrans x day, P<0.003). Percentage of larvae identified as H. contortus decreased in feces collected from lambs treated with COWP and D. flagrans between days 14 and 28 compared with other treatments (COWP x D. flagrans x day, P<0.05). Other trichostrongyles were present and remained less than 7% in feces collected from control lambs. There was no adverse effect of COWP on the ability of D. flagrans to trap residual larvae after COWP treatment. With fewer eggs being excreted due to the effect of copper on H. contortus, and the additional larval reducing effect exerted by

  17. Oocyte pick-up in juvenile lambs affects neither onset of puberty nor their future fertility.

    PubMed

    Valasi, Irene; Menegatos, I; Papanikolaou, Th; Goulas, P; Amiridis, G S

    2006-12-01

    A study was designed to evaluate whether the time of onset of puberty and fertility of young ewe lambs would be affected by oocyte pick-up conducted in single or repeated sessions during the first months of lambs' live. Five groups of lambs from the Karagouniko breed were used (A-E each n=12). In group A no treatments were applied (control group) while, laparoscopical follicular aspiration (OPU) was performed early in the third, fourth and fifth month of lambs age (groups C-E, respectively). From the second to fifth month of their age, group B lambs were aspirated four times in monthly intervals. All lambs were weighed at birth, weaning, at second month and monthly thereafter until the eighth month of age. Progesterone priming and ovarian stimulation by serial FSH administrations proceeded each OPU session. To determine onset of puberty blood progesterone concentration was assayed in samples collected initially every week and after the seventh month of age twice weekly. From the seventh month a fertile ram was introduced in each group and oestrous behavior/mating was daily monitored and recorded. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out by transabdominal ultrasound scanning 55 days after rams' removal. At the fourth and fifth month of age group B lambs were lighter (p<0.05) than controls, but this difference was later equalized. The time of onset of puberty did not differ between groups (p=0.069) and ranged between 224 and 270 days. Some animals (n=15) entered puberty with a full-length luteal phase having progesterone concentration greater than 1ng/ml, while others (n=32) exhibited one or two short luteal phases before luteal length restoration. During the first breeding season 41 animals were fertilized and maintained pregnancy to term, without noticeable differences between groups (p=0.555). During the second breeding season, all ewes were naturally served and lambed at the expected time. It is concluded that OPU in young dairy lambs does not affect the time of onset

  18. Microbial effect of steam vacuum pasteurisation implemented after slaughtering and dressing of sheep and lamb.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Skjerve, Eystein; Bergh, Claus; Nesbakken, Truls

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of steam vacuum pasteurisation on carcass contamination with focus on Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae and total plate count (TPC). Additionally, the effect of an additional tryptone soy agar (TSA) step for resuscitation of Enterobacteriaceae after steam vacuum pasteurisation was investigated. Steam vacuum pasteurisation was applied at a temperature of >82°C for a duration of 10s on sheep and lamb carcasses (n=120). Samples were taken immediately: i) after trimming just before the use of steam vacuum and ii) after use of steam vacuum. Nordic Committee on Food Analysis methods were used in microbial analyses. The differences in log reduction were found significant for all of the three microorganisms (p<0.05). For TPC, the general reduction was a 0.65 log10 in the number of colony forming units (CFU) per cm(2). For E. coli, the median reduction effect on carcasses positive before decontamination was 1.1 log10 CFU/cm(2). A large variability of the effect was however found, with 50% of the figures ranging from a 0.24 to 1.62 log10 CFU/cm(2) reduction and a 10-90% range of 0-2.1. The number of positive carcasses with Enterobacteriaceae after steam vacuum pasteurisation was higher in samples where TSA+violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA) was used compared to samples where only VRBGA was used (p<0.01). Steam vacuum pasteurisation was found efficient in reducing the total count, read as TPC, as well as the level of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-collinear interaction of guided elastic waves in an isotropic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yosuke; Biwa, Shiro; Adachi, Tadaharu

    2018-04-01

    The nonlinear wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic elastic plate is analyzed theoretically to investigate the non-collinear interaction of plate wave modes. In the presence of two primary plate waves (Rayleigh-Lamb or shear horizontal modes) propagating in arbitrary directions, an explicit expression for the modal amplitude of nonlinearly generated wave fields with the sum or difference frequency of the primary modes is derived by using the perturbation analysis. The modal amplitude is shown to grow in proportion with the propagation distance when the resonance condition is satisfied, i.e., when the wavevector of secondary wave coincides with the sum or difference of those of primary modes. Furthermore, the non-collinear interaction of two symmetric or two antisymmetric modes is shown to produce the secondary wave fields consisting only of the symmetric modes, while a pair of symmetric and antisymmetric primary modes is shown to produce only the antisymmetric modes. The influence of the intersection angle, the primary frequencies, and the mode combinations on the modal amplitude of secondary wave is examined for a low-frequency range where the lowest-order symmetric and antisymmetric Rayleigh-Lamb waves and the lowest-order symmetric shear horizontal wave are the only propagating modes.

  20. The effect of breed slaughter weight and nutritional management on cholesterol content of lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Arsenos; Zygoyjannis; Kufidis; Katsaounis; Stamataris

    2000-06-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effect of breed, sex, post-weaning nutrition, live weight at slaughter and their interactions on the cholesterol content in carcass fat of lambs. The carcasses were obtained from lambs of three indigenous Greek dairy breeds of sheep, the Boutsko (B), Serres (S) and Karagouniko (K) breed. After weaning (at approximately 42 days), the lambs of the three breeds had been reared under different conditions of housing and nutritional management in three consecutive experiments between 1992 and 1994. In experiment 1, lambs (males and females) were individually penned and fed ad libitum on a concentrate ration (11.3MJ Metabolizable Energy (ME)/kg DM and 192g crude protein (CP)/kg DM) together with 100g per day of Lucerne hay (8.3MJ ME/kg DM and 182g CP/kg DM). In experiment 2, lambs (males only) were also individually penned but were fed on three different levels of concentrate and ad libitum on Lucerne hay. In experiment 3, lambs (males only) were initially group fed indoors for 63 days on three different levels of concentrate together with ad libitum Lucerne hay, and thereafter the lambs finished on irrigated, sown pasture (Lolium perrene+Trifolium repens). Lambs were assigned to be slaughtered at one of five standard proportions of estimated mature weight for each breed in experiment 1; at three fixed live weights, common for all breeds in experiment 2 and at two fixed proportions of breed mature weight in experiment 3. The right-hand side of the lamb carcasses was minced and 150 lamb carcasses were selected out of a total of 300 minced carcasses. The concentration of total cholesterol content in carcass fat was determined by HPLC in samples of these 150 lamb carcasses. Mean cholesterol content of carcass fat in the three breeds, B, S and K, extracted from the whole ground carcasses samples, was 3.33, 4.41, 3.34mg/g of carcass fat (s.e.d. 0.18), respectively in experiment 1, whereas this content was 3.42, 4.50, 3.59mg/g of carcass

  1. Defects Detection and Characterization Using Leaky Lamb Wave (LLW) Dispersion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A.; Chang, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Composite materials are being used at a significant level of usage for flaw critical structures and they are taking a growing percentage of the makeup of aircraft and spacecraft. Composite structues are now reaching service duration, for which the issue of aging is requiring adquate attention.

  2. The Lamb wave bandgap variation of a locally resonant phononic crystal subjected to thermal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yun; Li, Zhen; Li, Yue-ming

    2018-05-01

    A study on dynamical characteristics of a ternary locally resonant phononic crystal (PC) plate (i.e., hard scatterer with soft coating periodically disperse in stiff host matrix) is carried out in this paper. The effect of thermal deformation on the structure stiffness, which plays an important role in the PC's dynamical characteristics, is considered. Results show that both the start and the stop frequency of bandgap shift to higher range with the thermal deformation. In particular, the characteristics of band structure change suddenly at critical buckling temperature. The effect of thermal deformation could be utilized for tuning of phononic band structures, which can promote their design and further applications.

  3. Genetic and environmental factors affecting perinatal and preweaning survival of D'man lambs.

    PubMed

    Boujenane, Ismaïl; Chikhi, Abdelkader; Lakcher, Oumaïma; Ibnelbachyr, Mustapha

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the viability of 4,554 D'man lambs born alive at Errachidia research station in south-eastern Morocco between 1988 and 2009. Lamb survival to 1, 10, 30 and 90 days old was 0.95, 0.93, 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. The majority of deaths (85.7%) occurred before 10 days of age. Type and period of birth both had a significant effect on lamb survival traits, whereas age of dam and sex of lamb did not. The study revealed a curvilinear relationship between lamb's birth weight and survival traits from birth to 90 days, with optimal birth weights for maximal perinatal and preweaning survival varying according to type of birth from 2.6 to 3.5 kg. Estimation of variance components, using an animal model including direct and maternal genetic effects, the permanent maternal environment as well as fixed effects, showed that direct and maternal heritability estimates for survival traits between birth and 90 days were mostly low and varied from 0.01 to 0.10; however, direct heritability for survival at 1 day from birth was estimated at 0.63. Genetic correlations between survival traits and birth weight were positive and low to moderate. It was concluded that survival traits of D'man lambs between birth and 90 days could be improved through selection, but genetic progress would be low. However, the high proportion of the residual variance to total variance reinforces the need to improve management and lambing conditions.

  4. Ovarian activity and fertility during the first breeding season of Friesland ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Ward, S J; Williams, H L

    1993-01-01

    The onset and duration of ovarian activity was assessed in 19 March-born, pure bred Friesland ewe lambs. Blood samples were collected for progesterone assay from 6 August-27 March when the lambs were 5-12 months of age. From 23 January a harnessed vasectomised ram was introduced. Colour marks on the rumps were taken as presumptive evidence of oestrus. During 1-25 March the vasectomised ram was replaced by a harnessed entire ram in order to assess fertility. The mean onset of the first normal luteal cycle, when progesterone levels exceeded 2 ng/ml-1 for two consecutive plasma samples, was on 7 October. The mean age and weight at this time were 29.9 +/- 2.73 weeks and 36.71 +/- 1.39 kg respectively. One ewe lamb became pregnant and lambed on 27 July. The mean date for cessation of ovarian activity (n = 18) was 1 March and the mean number of normal cycles monitored was 8.8 +/- 0.38. Few short luteal cycles were recorded (7/18 lambs) when only transient increases in progesterone levels were detected. The average duration of the breeding season was 142.6 +/- 4.95 days. It is concluded that pure bred Friesland ewe lambs, born during March, will reach puberty around 30 weeks of age and continue regular cyclic activity for approximately 5 months. Entire rams should be joined during January or February to ensure successful matings for lambing and milk production in late summer/early autumn.

  5. Does suckling offer protection to the lamb against Teladorsagia circumcincta infection?

    PubMed

    Iposu, S O; McAnulty, R W; Greer, A W; Xie, H L; Green, R S; Stankiewicz, M; Sykes, A R

    2008-05-31

    This study tested the hypothesis that milk has a direct effect on the establishment of infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta, and provides information on the effects of suckling on resilience to infection in young lambs. Of 46 six-week-old twin-born lambs, one from each twin was allowed to continue suckling (S-) and its twin-weaned (W-) while both were concurrently infected with an average of either 0 (-0; n=7/group), 250 (-250; n=8/group) or 1000 (-1000; n=8/group) third stage infective larvae (L3) of T. circumcincta per day, providing six treatment groups. All groups grazed minimally contaminated pasture, and after 42 days were slaughtered for necropsy. Low pasture larval contamination was confirmed in W0 and S0 lambs by faecal egg counts (FEC) of less than 30 eggs per gram (EPG) and burdens of less than 140 worms. There was no difference in FEC between weaned and suckled lambs. Within infection regime, total worm burdens were 55-60% greater in the weaned compared with their suckled counterparts (P=0.05), and represented 27 and 17%, respectively, net establishment of larvae. The greater worm burdens of both groups of weaned animals, which compared with their suckled counterparts, and of those infected with 1000 compared with 250 larvae per day, were associated with shorter female adults that had fewer eggs in utero, perhaps indicating intra-worm population regulation, but highlighting the limitation of FEC in assessing nematode burdens of such young lambs. There was no effect of infection on live weight gain of either weaned or suckled groups and the possibility was raised that, in such young lambs, immune unresponsiveness may be responsible. The major benefit of continued milk consumption appears to lie more in providing nutrients for enhanced growth rather than in improving resilience of the lambs to infection.

  6. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Churra and Assaf suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Mateo, J; Caro, I; Carballo, D E; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Arranz, J J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2018-05-01

    Suckling lamb meat is traditionally produced in Mediterranean Europe. Breed can affect the quality of the lamb carcass and meat. This study is aimed at comparing the carcass and meat quality between suckling lambs from a local and a non-native dairy breed, Churra and Assaf. Churra is included in the Spanish Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 'Lechazo de Castilla y León', whereas Assaf is not. However, Assaf breeders have requested the inclusion of the breed in the PGI. Carcasses and meat from 16 male lambs (eight Churra and eight Assaf) were used in this study. The lambs were all raised under an intensive rearing system and fed on a milk substitute to minimise maternal influence. The carcasses were evaluated for conformation, fatness, joint and leg tissue proportions and the meat was analysed for composition (i.e. proximate composition, iron, haematin, fatty acids and volatiles) and technological quality traits (i.e. texture, water holding capacity, colour and lipid stability). Churra carcasses were larger than Assaf carcasses. However, the proportions of commercial joints and main tissues did not differ between breeds. Cavity and intermuscular leg fat, but not total leg fat, were higher in Churra carcasses. Churra meat showed a higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, higher redness and better colour stability during aerobic storage. In contrast, Assaf lamb was more resistant to lipid oxidation after cooking. This is a preliminary study to measure the influence of breed on a wide range of quality characteristics in Churra and Assaf suckling lamb carcass and meat. It may be of relevance for breeders, consumers and food policy makers, setting the basis for future studies that include larger commercial populations.

  7. Efficacy assessment of an MVA vectored Rift Valley Fever vaccine in lambs.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Lorenzo, Gema; López-Gil, Elena; Rivas, Raquel; Solanes, David; Galindo-Cardiel, Iván; Abad, F Xavier; Rodríguez, Fernando; Bensaid, Albert; Warimwe, George; Gilbert, Sarah C; Domingo, Mariano; Brun, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    The present study has evaluated the protection conferred by a single subcutaneous dose of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccine encoding the Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) glycoproteins Gn and Gc in lambs. Three groups of six to seven lambs were immunized as follows: one group received the vaccine (termed rMVA-GnGc), a second group received an MVA vector (vector control) and a third group received saline solution (non-vaccinated control). Fourteen days later, all animals were subcutaneously challenged with 10(5) TCID50 of the virulent RVFV isolate 56/74 and vaccine efficacy assessed using standard endpoints. Two lambs (one from the vaccine group and one from the vector control group) succumbed to RVFV challenge, showing characteristic liver lesions. Lambs from both the vector control and non-vaccinated groups were febrile from days 2 to 5 post challenge (pc) while those in the rMVA-GnGc group showed a single peak of pyrexia at day 3 pc. RVFV RNA was detected in both nasal and oral swabs from days 3 to 7 pc in some lambs from the vector control and non-vaccinated groups, but no viral shedding could be detected in the surviving lambs vaccinated with rMVA-GnGc. Together, the data suggest that a single dose of the rMVA-GnGc vaccine may be sufficient to reduce RVFV shedding and duration of viremia but does not provide sterile immunity nor protection from disease. Further optimization of this vaccine approach in lambs is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of lamb carcass composition by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Altmann, M; Pliquett, U; Suess, R; von Borell, E

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare impedance spectroscopy with resistance measurements at a single frequency (50 kHz) for the prediction of lamb carcass composition. The impedance spectrum is usually recorded by measuring the complex impedance at various frequencies (frequency domain); however, in this study, we also applied the faster and simpler measurement in the time domain (application of a current step and measurement of the voltage response). The study was carried out on 24 male, German Black-headed Mutton lambs with an average BW of 45 kg. Frequency- and time domain-based impedance measurements were collected at 20 min and 24 h postmortem with different electrode placements. Real and imaginary parts at various frequencies were calculated from the locus diagram. Left sides were dissected into lean, fat, and bone, and right sides were ground to determine actual carcass composition. Crude fat, crude protein, and moisture were chemically analyzed on ground samples. Frequency- and time domain-based measurements did not provide the same absolute impedance values; however, the high correlations (P < 0.001) between these methods for the "real parts" showed that they ranked individuals in the same order. Most of the time domain data correlated higher to carcass composition than did the frequency domain data. The real parts of impedance showed correlations between -0.37 (P > 0.05) and -0.74 (P < 0.001) to water, crude fat, lean, and fatty tissue, whereas the relations to CP were much lower (from 0.00 to -0.47, P < 0.05). Electrode placements at different locations did not substantially improve the correlations with carcass composition. The "imaginary parts" of impedance were not suitable for the prediction of carcass composition. The highest accuracy (R2 = 0.66) was reached for the estimation of crude fat percentage by a regression equation with the time domain-based impedance measured at 24 h postmortem. Furthermore, there was not a clear superiority of

  9. Volatile Profile of Raw Lamb Meat Stored at 4 ± 1 °C: The Potential of Specific Aldehyde Ratios as Indicators of Lamb Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the aroma evolution of raw lamb packaged in multi-layer coating film and stored at 4 ± 1 °C, with respect to storage time and (b) to investigate whether specific aldehyde ratios could serve as markers of lamb meat freshness and degree of oxidation. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that the most dominant volatiles were 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl-heptane, hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-hexanol, carbon disulfide and p-cymene. Volatile compound content was increased during storage time. However, statistically significant differences were recorded only for hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal (p < 0.05). Additionally, the evolution of aldehydes during storage recorded a positive Pearson’s correlation (r) (p < 0.05), whereas hexanal to nonanal, heptanal to nonanal, octanal to nonanal ratios, along with the sum of aldehydes to nonanal ratio, were positively correlated (r = 0.83–1.00) with the degree of oxidation (mg malonic dialdehyde per kg of lamb meat). A perfect Pearson’s correlation (r = 1) was obtained for the ratio hexanal to nonanal. Therefore, this ratio is proposed as an indicator of lamb meat freshness and overall quality. PMID:29547528

  10. Ultrasonic stress wave characterization of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The work reported covers three simultaneous projects. The first project was concerned with: (1) establishing the sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic method for evaluating subtle forms of damage development in cyclically loaded composite materials, (2) establishing the ability of the acousto-ultrasonic method for detecting initial material imperfections that lead to localized damage growth and final specimen failure, and (3) characteristics of the NBS/Proctor sensor/receiver for acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of laminated composite materials. The second project was concerned with examining the nature of the wave propagation that occurs during acoustic-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates and demonstrating the role of Lamb or plate wave modes and their utilization for characterizing composite laminates. The third project was concerned with the replacement of contact-type receiving piezotransducers with noncontacting laser-optical sensors for acousto-ultrasonic signal acquisition.

  11. Determination of maternal pedigree and ewe-lamb spatial relationships by application of Bluetooth technology in extensive farming systems.

    PubMed

    Sohi, R; Trompf, J; Marriott, H; Bervan, A; Godoy, B I; Weerasinghe, M; Desai, A; Jois, M

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to validate the application of Bluetooth technology to determine maternal pedigree and to determine ewe-lamb spatial relationships in extensive farming systems. A total of 35 first-cross Merino ewes (Merino × Border Leicester and East Friesian) and 23 of their lambs aged 1 to 3 wk were fitted with activity monitors equipped with Bluetooth (BT) technology (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT) by means of halters and collars, respectively. The BT devices on lambs were programmed to receive wireless signals once every minute from nearby BT units on ewes, which were programmed as beacons sending BT signals 4 times every second. Ewes and lambs fitted with sensors were dispatched into the paddocks, and after 10 d, the sensor units were retrieved and the BT signals received by lambs were downloaded using the ActiGraph software. The maternal pedigree of the lambs was determined as the ewe from which the lamb received the most BT signals. The distance between the lamb receiving the signal and the ewe sending the signal was estimated from the strength of BT signal received. The pedigree determined by BT was compared with the pedigree determined by DNA profiling and verification. The results showed that the accuracy of maternal pedigree determined by BT signals reached 100% within the first 15 min of returning animals to pasture of ewes and lambs fitted with sensors. Maternal signals (counts/d) received by 1-, 2-, and 3-wk-old lambs were 617 ± 102, 603 ± 54, and 498 ± 36, respectively, and the corresponding nonmaternal signals received were 140 ± 27, 106 ± 30, and 155 ± 39, respectively. Maternal signals received during the dark period were significantly higher than the maternal signals received during the light period ( < 0.05). Maternal signals received during the light period by 3-wk-old lambs were significantly lower when compared with those received by 1- and 2-wk-old lambs. Over 90% of the BT signals received from within 2 m of the lamb were from

  12. Effectiveness of a short-term treatment with progesterone injections on synchrony of lambing and fertility in tropical hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Knights, Marlon; Ramgattie, Reeza; Siew, Narendra; Singh-Knights, Doolarie; Bourne, Gregory

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of using a low cost system for delivering progesterone as part of an estrous synchronization protocol in sheep was evaluated. In experiment 1, Barbados Black Belly ewes (n=34) and ewe lambs (n=35; 37.5±0.9 kg) were assigned to be untreated, control animals (C), or to receive PGF(2α) on d0 (PG), or receive two injections of progesterone (200mg, i.m. each) on D -5 and on D -2.5, prior to PGF(2α), on D 0 (2PPG). Treatment with 2PPG increased the proportion of animals lambing to the first service (P<0.05), an effect that was greater in ewe lambs than ewes (treatment × parity; P<0.05). The interval from ram introduction to lambing and the mean lambing day was less (P=0.04) in the 2PPG-treated animals compared to control animals. In Experiment 2, lactating ewes from experiment 1 (n=61) 60-85 days postpartum were assigned within parity and number of lambs reared to remain nursing (S; n=29) or weaned (W; n=32) 3 weeks prior to treatment with the 2PPG protocol. There was no effect of treatment on the proportion of animals lambing to the first service or overall, interval from ram introduction to lambing and lambing interval. An 8-month lambing interval was observed in ewes in which estrus was synchronized regardless of physiological state. In conclusion, the two-progesterone injection synchronization protocol may be used as a practical low cost and efficient method of synchronizing estrus to reduce the lambing interval and maximize productivity in tropical breeds of sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of feeding saltbush twigs on feed intake, weight gain, and some mineral levels of fattening awassi lambs.

    PubMed

    Alazzeh, A Y; Abughazaleh, A A; Awawdeh, F T; Abdelrahman, M M; Al-Rayyan, N A

    2009-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the inclusion of saltbush (Atriplex sp.) on the productive performance and blood mineral profile of fattening lambs. Eighteen Awassi lambs, 70 +/- 3 days of age and 23 +/- 1.8 kg body weights, were randomly selected and divided into three equal groups. Lambs in group one (control) were offered 0.2 kg/day shredded straw of barley (tibin) as the sole source of roughage, while lambs in treatment groups 2 and 3 were provided either 0.2 kg/day Atriplex nummularia or Atriplex halimus as their sole roughage content for 10 weeks. All lambs were also provided 1.1 kg/day of concentrate ration. Although lambs fed A. halimus had significantly (P < 0.05) lower dry matter intake than the control group, the daily weight gain of the two groups of lambs were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Lambs fed either A. nummularia or A. halimus had significantly lower (P < 0.05) calcium and copper levels but significantly higher (P < 0.05) cobalt levels in their blood serum than the control group. Zinc blood serum level was not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatment diets. These results suggested that A. nummularia and A. halimus can substitute for barley straw in the ration of fattening Awassi lambs without compromising lambs weight gain; however, special attention should be given to the mineral status in lambs if saltbush is a major feed component for prolonged periods of time.

  14. Effect of creep-fed supplement on the susceptibility of pasture-grazed suckling lambs to gastrointestinal helminths.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Gleice Kelli Ayardes; Ítavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Monteiro, Kedma Leonora Silva; da Silva, Jonilson Araújo; da Silva, Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves; Ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; de Almeida Borges, Fernando

    2017-05-30

    This study evaluated the effect of creep feeding a protein supplement on the susceptibility of suckling lambs to infection with gastrointestinal helminths. Male and female lambs were grazed on Brachiaria spp. pastures next to their mothers. Animals were allocated to one of two treatments: creep feeding (261g/d) and control (no supplementation). The trial period was the suckling of lambs during two years of study: May-October 2013 and March-July 2014. Supplementary creep feeding of lambs improved animal performance (P<0.05). Creep-fed lambs reached 18kg body weight in 64 d, but unsupplemented lambs required 77 d to reach the same weight. Lambs were susceptible to helminth infection during lactation; lambs in both treatments had high fecal egg counts (FECs), with means >1000 eggs per gram, as early as 45days of age, when the daily grazing time per animal increased. Creep feeding reduced the FECs of suckling lambs >60days of age in infections dominated by Haemonchus contortus. Totals of 20 and 48 anthelmintic treatments were administered to the supplemented and unsupplemented animals, respectively. The effect of this variable, however, was significant (P<0.05) only after 60days, when nine and 28 treatments had been administered to the supplemented and unsupplemented lambs, respectively. The number of strongyloid larvae recovered from the paddock did not differ significantly (P >0.05) between the two treatments, indicating similar challenges by infective larvae to both groups. The supplementation of lambs by creep feeding can thus be a strategy for the sustainable control of helminth infection, because it reduces the dependence on anthelmintic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Passive transfer in domestic and bighorn lambs Total IgG in ewe sera and colostrum and serum IgG kinetics in lambs following colostrum ingestion are similar in domestic sheep and bighorn sheep (ovis aries and ovis canadensis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pneumonia is a population-limiting disease of bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) and a recognized disease entity in domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries) worldwide. Respiratory disease in BHS lambs can persist for years after all-age outbreaks, resulting in suppressed lamb recruitment. It has been sugge...

  16. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, performance, and carcass yield of lambs fed licuri cake.

    PubMed

    Costa, J B; Oliveira, R L; Silva, T M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, A M; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R; Rocha, T C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of the inclusion of licuri cake in the diets of crossbred Santa Inês lambs, based on intake, digestibility, N balance, urea N, and performance. We used 44 male lambs that were vaccinated and wormed, with an average age of 6 mo and an average BW of 21.2 kg ± 2.7 kg. The lambs were fed a mixture of Tifton-85 hay (40%) and a concentrated mixture (60%) composed of ground corn, soybean meal, and mineral premix. For the treatments, licuri cake was added at levels of 0, 8, 16, and 24% of DM, with the licuri cake replacing soybean meal and ground corn. We used 11 lambs per treatment in a randomized design. The lambs were confined for 70 d, and the digestibility trial occurred between Day 40 and Day 55. The increased level of licuri cake inclusion promoted a linear reduction in DM intake ( = 0.00) with a 39% reduction between treatments with the 0 and 24% cakes. On the other hand, ether extract () consumption showed an initial quadratic increase ( = 0.00). The total weight gain and ADG showed a linear decrease ( = 0.00) with the addition of licuri cake. The inclusion of licuri cake linearly enhanced ( = 0.02) the digestibility of CP and EE, whereas the digestibility of other nutrients in lambs remained unchanged ( > 0.05). The licuri cake increase led to a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in the N intake, fecal N, and retained N in lambs. Urinary N was not changed. The slaughter carcass weight, HCW, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, and cold carcass yield showed linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the addition of licuri cake. Carcass morphometric measurements were influenced by experimental diets, showing linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the addition of licuri cake to diets. The fat thickness, conformation, external length, internal length, leg length, rump width, and chest circumference showed linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the inclusion of licuri cake in diets. The inclusion of licuri cake decreased DMI and digestibility, reflecting

  17. Exact closed-form solutions for Lamb's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Zhang, Haiming

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we report on an exact closed-form solution for the displacement at the surface of an elastic half-space elicited by a buried point source that acts at some point underneath that surface. This is commonly referred to as the 3-D Lamb's problem for which previous solutions were restricted to sources and receivers placed at the free surface. By means of the reciprocity theorem, our solution should also be valid as a means to obtain the displacements at interior points when the source is placed at the free surface. We manage to obtain explicit results by expressing the solution in terms of elementary algebraic expression as well as elliptic integrals. We anchor our developments on Poisson's ratio 0.25 starting from Johnson's integral solutions which must be computed numerically. In the end, our closed-form results agree perfectly with the numerical results of Johnson, which strongly confirms the correctness of our explicit formulae. It is hoped that in due time, these formulae may constitute a valuable canonical solution that will serve as a yardstick against which other numerical solutions can be compared and measured.

  18. Phenotypic characterisation of colour stability of lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Robin H; D'Antuono, Mario F; Gilmour, Arthur R; Warner, Robyn D

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken, using 2701 overwrapped loin samples aged for 5 days and subjected to a simulated retail display (SRD) for 3 days; sourced from lambs in the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation information nucleus flock, born 2007-2009. The ratio of reflectance of light in the wavelengths of 630 nm and 580 nm (oxy/met) was measured daily during the SRD, using a Hunterlab spectrophotometer. A series of linear mixed models was fitted to the oxy/met and time data to compare 4 breed types and identify relevant covariates, of 19, using a forward selection process. Breed type, pH at 24 h post slaughter and Linoleic acid concentration (LA) were the most important factors and covariates, in that order. Merino breed type, high pH and high LA reduced colour stability. Fitting a spline model to predict the time for oxy/met to reach a set value, represents an alternative to comparing oxy/met at a set time, for describing colour stability. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Exact Closed-form Solutions for Lamb's Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Zhang, Haiming

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we report on an exact closed-form solution for the displacement at the surface of an elastic half-space elicited by a buried point source that acts at some point underneath that surface. This is commonly referred to as the 3-D Lamb's problem, for which previous solutions were restricted to sources and receivers placed at the free surface. By means of the reciprocity theorem, our solution should also be valid as a means to obtain the displacements at interior points when the source is placed at the free surface. We manage to obtain explicit results by expressing the solution in terms of elementary algebraic expression as well as elliptic integrals. We anchor our developments on Poisson's ratio 0.25 starting from Johnson's (1974) integral solutions which must be computed numerically. In the end, our closed-form results agree perfectly with the numerical results of Johnson (1974), which strongly confirms the correctness of our explicit formulas. It is hoped that in due time, these formulas may constitute a valuable canonical solution that will serve as a yardstick against which other numerical solutions can be compared and measured.

  20. Muscle spindle autogenetic inhibition in the extraocular muscles of lamb.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Filippi, G M

    1981-09-01

    The role of extraocular muscle (EOM) proprioceptors on eye motility has been investigated in lambs on "encéphale isolé", by evaluating the tension of EOMs at various lengths and velocities of stretch before and after proprioceptive blocks. The EOM tension, in the absence of proprioceptive input, was higher than in normal conditions. Such an effect occurred at lengthening values greater than 3 mm of stretch from resting muscle length, corresponding to 18 degrees of eye deviation and was dependent on the velocity of the stretch, being more effective at high velocity. The muscle receptors responsible for this effect was determined by comparing the sensitivity to vibratory stimulation of spindles and tendon organs to the amount of inhibition provoked by the same stimulation on an EOM electromyographic activity. The tension inhibition appeared to be correlated to muscle spindle activation. Thus, the presence of muscle spindles can determine a reduction of the tension within the stretched muscles. This result suggests that the EOM length and velocity signals operate moment to moment reduction on the stiffness of the muscle which antagonizes eye displacement, thus facilitating the ocular movements.

  1. Effect of postweaning handling strategies on welfare and productive traits in lambs.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Alonso, María; Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Aguayo-Ulloa, Lorena; Ezquerro, Laura; Villarroel, Morris; Marín, Raúl H; Maria, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    Postweaning management strategies that include an element of social enrichment may reduce weaning stress and improve welfare and productive performance. We analyzed the effect of postweaning handling strategies on welfare and production traits in lambs. After weaning, 36 lambs were assigned to 3 experimental groups with 12 lambs each (control [C], fattening with gentle human female contact [H], and fattening with 2 adult ewes [E]). The average daily gain (ADG) was estimated. Blood samples were taken, and infrared thermography was used to estimate stress variables. There were significant differences among treatments (in favor of alternative strategies) regarding production and stress variables (cortisol, glucose, and creatine kinase). The results suggest that the lambs handled gently during the fattening were less reactive and better able to modulate their physiological stress. The E group adapted better to acute stress than the C group but was less efficient in modulating chronic stress. Both treatments showed higher slaughter live weights and better ADGs compared with the control. The use of social enrichment at weaning, especially to establish a positive human-nonhuman animal bond, alleviates lamb weaning stress and improves welfare and performance.

  2. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L ∗, a ∗, b ∗) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

  3. Effect of Heliox on Respiratory Outcomes during Rigid Bronchoscopy in Term Lambs.

    PubMed

    Sowder, Justin C; Dahl, Mar Janna; Zuspan, Kaitlin R; Albertine, Kurt H; Null, Donald M; Barneck, Mitchell D; Grimmer, J Fredrik

    2018-03-01

    Objective To (1) compare physiologic changes during rigid bronchoscopy during spontaneous and mechanical ventilation and (2) evaluate the efficacy of a helium-oxygen (heliox) gas mixture as compared with room air during rigid bronchoscopy. Study Design Crossover animal study evaluating physiologic parameters during rigid bronchoscopy. Outcomes were compared with predicted computational fluid analysis. Setting Simulated ventilation via computational fluid dynamics analysis and term lambs undergoing rigid bronchoscopy. Methods Respiratory and physiologic outcomes were analyzed in a lamb model simulating bronchoscopy during foreign body aspiration to compare heliox with room air. The main outcome measures were blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed with SOLIDWORKS within a rigid pediatric bronchoscope during simulated ventilation comparing heliox with room air. Results For room air, lambs desaturated within 3 minutes during mechanical ventilation versus normal oxygen saturation during spontaneous ventilation ( P = .01). No improvement in respiratory outcomes was seen between heliox and room air during mechanical ventilation. Computational fluid dynamics analysis demonstrates increased turbulence within size 3.5 bronchoscopes when comparing heliox and room air. Meaningful comparisons could not be made due to the intolerance of the lambs to heliox in vivo. Conclusion During mechanical ventilation on room air, lambs desaturate more quickly during rigid bronchoscopy on settings that should be adequate. Heliox does not improve ventilation during rigid bronchoscopy.

  4. A model-dependent approach to the non-relativistic Lamb shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Valdes, J. F.; Bruce, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The precise observation of the Lamb shift, between the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels in hydrogen, was a genuine motivation for the development of modern quantum electrodynamics. According to Dirac theory, the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels should have equal energies. However, "radiative corrections" due to the interaction between the atomic electron and the vacuum, shift the 2s_{1/2} level higher in energy by around 4.37493× 10^{-6} eV or 2π\\hbar× 1057.85 MHz relative to the 2p_{1/2} level. The measurement of Lamb and Retherford provided the stimulus for renormalization theory which has been so successful in handling troublesome divergences. The Lamb shift is still a central theme in atomic physics. W.E. Lamb was the first to see that this tiny shift, so elusive and hard to measure, would clarify in a fundamental way our thinking about particles and fields. In this article, the Lamb shift for the 2 s energy level in hydrogen is assessed for three different electron models by using the variational principle. It is then verified that this shift arises mostly from the interaction of a bound electron with the zero-point fluctuations of the free electromagnetic field (Welton's interpretation). We briefly comment on the construct validity of the proposed electron models.

  5. Lung ultrasound accurately detects pneumothorax in a preterm newborn lamb model.

    PubMed

    Blank, Douglas A; Hooper, Stuart B; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Kluckow, Martin; Gill, Andrew W; LaRosa, Domenic A; Inocencio, Ishmael M; Moxham, Alison; Rodgers, Karyn; Zahra, Valerie A; Davis, Peter G; Polglase, Graeme R

    2016-06-01

    Pneumothorax is a common emergency affecting extremely preterm. In adult studies, lung ultrasound has performed better than chest x-ray in the diagnosis of pneumothorax. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of lung ultrasound (LUS) examination to detect pneumothorax using a preterm animal model. This was a prospective, observational study using newborn Border-Leicester lambs at gestational age = 126 days (equivalent to gestational age = 26 weeks in humans) receiving mechanical ventilation from birth to 2 h of life. At the conclusion of the experiment, LUS was performed, the lambs were then euthanised and a post-mortem exam was immediately performed. We used previously published ultrasound techniques to identify pneumothorax. Test characteristics of LUS to detect pneumothorax were calculated, using the post-mortem exam as the 'gold standard' test. Nine lambs (18 lungs) were examined. Four lambs had a unilateral pneumothorax, all of which were identified by LUS with no false positives. This was the first study to use post-mortem findings to test the efficacy of LUS to detect pneumothorax in a newborn animal model. Lung ultrasound accurately detected pneumothorax, verified by post-mortem exam, in premature, newborn lambs. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L*a*b*) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  7. Aspects of quality related to the consumption and production of lamb meat. Consumers versus producers.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Maza, María T; Pardos, Luis

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the different evaluations made by the agents at either end of the lamb meat chain, i.e. producers and consumers, in relation to the parameters that consumers use when purchasing lamb meat and the factors that affect the production of quality lamb meat. In addition, consumer segments that can be targeted for action by the different agents in the chain were examined. The study was carried out in Aragón, a region in north east Spain that is a producer and consumer of lamb meat. 371 surveys were carried out on purchasers of lamb meat and 49 surveys on sheep farmers. Bivariant analyses and a cluster analysis were performed. The results suggest that there are certain congruencies and divergences between producers and consumers. Also, a segment of consumers for whom the hygiene and sanitary conditions on the farm, animal welfare and the environment are of great importance were found. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acidovorax valerianellae sp. nov., a novel pathogen of lamb's lettuce [Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr].

    PubMed

    Gardan, Louis; Stead, David E; Dauga, Catherine; Gillis, Moniek

    2003-05-01

    Bacterial spot disease of lamb's lettuce [Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.] was first observed in fields in 1991. This new bacterial disease is localized in western France in high-technology field production of lamb's lettuce for the preparation of ready-to-use salad. Nineteen strains isolated in 1992 and 1993 from typical black leaf spots of naturally infected lamb's lettuce were characterized and compared with reference strains of Acidovorax and Delftia. The pathogenicity of the 19 strains was confirmed by artificial inoculation. Biochemical and physiological tests, fatty acid profiles, DNA-DNA hybridization and other nucleic acid-based tests were performed. A numerical taxonomic analysis of the 19 lamb's lettuce strains showed a single homogeneous phenon closely related to previously described phytopathogenic taxa of the genus Acidovorax. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed that the lamb's lettuce strains were 91-100% related to a representative strain, strain CFBP 4730(T), and constituted a discrete DNA hybridization group, indicating that they belong to the same novel species. Results from DNA-rRNA hybridization, 16S rRNA sequence analysis and fatty acid analysis studies confirmed that this novel species belongs to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and, more specifically, to the family Comamonadaceae and the genus Acidovorax. The name Acidovorax valerianellae sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon of phytopathogenic bacteria. The type strain is strain CFBP 4730(T) (= NCPPB 4283(T)).

  9. Evaluation of Rambouillet, Polypay, and Romanov-White Dorper x Rambouillet ewes mated to terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: Lamb production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ewe productivity (i.e., total numbers or weight of lamb weaned ÷ number of breeding ewes) is a key indicator of lamb production efficiency. This second-generation study compared various measures of ewe productivity and ewe and lamb performance in an extensive rangeland production system of ewes of 3...

  10. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: VIII. Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi were evaluated in 514 crossbred wether lambs to assess sire breed differences. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were rear...

  11. Effects of prenatal stress and emotional reactivity of the mother on emotional and cognitive abilities in lambs.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Andanson, Stephane; Petit, Bérengère; Lévy, Frédéric; Boissy, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Consequences of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities in offspring are under-documented in precocial mammals. Here, we investigated to what extent emotional reactivity, judgment bias and spatial learning abilities of lambs are affected by chronic stress during late pregnancy and by their dams' emotional reactivity. The 20 highest-responsive (HR) and 20 lowest-responsive (LR) ewes from a population of 120 Romane ewes were selected according to their pre-mating reactivity to social isolation in a new environment. Over the final third of pregnancy, 10 HR ewes and 10 LR ewes were exposed daily to various unpredictable aversive events such as restraint, mixing groups and transport while the other 20 selected ewes were not. In a human and an object test, prenatally-stressed lambs were more fearful than control lambs, but the prenatal stress effect was moderated by the reactivity of the mothers: prenatally-stressed lambs from ewes with high emotional reactivity were more affected. Prenatally-stressed lambs did not perform as well as control lambs in a maze test and showed pessimistic-like judgment in a cognitive bias test. Prenatally-stressed lambs were thus characterized by a negative affective state with increased fear reactions and impaired cognitive evaluation. The development of negative moods could have long-lasting consequences on the coping strategies of the lambs in response to their rearing conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets. Sixteen wether lambs (avg initial BW = 28.6 ± 1.3 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square and randomly allotted to one of two treatments b...

  13. Effect of different corn processing methods on enzyme producing bacteria, protozoa, fermentation and histomorphometry of rumen in fattening lambs

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mohammad Amin; Forouzmand, Masihollah; Khajavi, Mokhtar; Hossienifar, Shima; Naghiha, Reza

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different corn processing methods on rumen microbial flora, histomorphometry and fermentation in fattening male lambs. Twenty male lambs (average age and weight of 90 days and 25.00 ± 1.10 kg, respectively) were used in a completely randomized design including four treatments and five replicates each over 80 days long period: 1) Lambs fed ground corn seeds; 2) Lambs fed steam-rolled corn; 3) Lambs fed soaked corn seeds (24 hr) and 4) Lambs fed soaked corn seeds (48 hr). At the end of the experiment, three lambs of each treatment were slaughtered and samples were collected for pH, volatile fatty acids, amylolytic, proteolytic, cellulytic and heterophilic bacteria and protozoa assessment. The number of proteolytic bacteria in soaked corn seeds was significantly increased in comparison with other treatments. The thickness of wall, papillae and muscular layers of rumen in the soaked corn seeds treatment was significantly increased. Overall, from a practical point of view, soaked corn processing could be generally used in lambs fattening system. PMID:29719663

  14. Live weight, conformation, carcass traits and economic values of ram lambs of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Zonabend König, E; Ojango, J M K; Audho, J; Mirkena, T; Strandberg, E; Okeyo, A M; Philipsson, J

    2017-01-01

    Meat production is the most important trait in the breeding objectives of sheep production in East Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate breed differences in live weight, conformation, carcass traits and economic values for meat production among Red Maasai and Dorper sheep and their crosses. In total, 88 ram lambs, which were reared at the ILRI experimental station, Kapiti plains Estate in Central Kenya, were used for the study. The lambs were slaughtered at Kenya Meat Commission (KMC) at about 1 year of age. Prior to slaughter, the lambs were weighed, measured and assessed by experienced evaluators, and at the abattoir carcass traits were recorded. Large breed differences were found for most traits. Dorper lambs were heavier at delivery for slaughter and had better carcass grade but lower dressing percentage and fat levels than Red Maasai. Crossbreds were generally better than the parental breeds. Evaluators were willing to pay more for the Dorper lambs for slaughter although carcass weights later were shown not to be higher than for Red Maasai. Evaluators undervalued Red Maasai lambs by 8-13 % compared to Dorper lambs according to the prices quoted per kilogramme live or carcass weight by KMC. Live weight was better than any other live measure in predicting carcass weight. Due to the overall higher ranking of the crossbred lambs for meat production, Dorper may be useful as a terminal sire breed for crossing with Red Maasai ewes.

  15. Corrections to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift induced by diagrams with second order radiative insertions in the electron line

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1994-12-31

    Contributions to HFS and to the Lamb shift intervals of order a{sup 2}(Za){sup 5} induced by gauge invariant set of nineteen topologically different graphs with two radiative photons inserted in the electron line are considered. Corrections both to HFS and Lamb shift induced by nine diagrams are calculated in the Fried-Yennie gauge.

  16. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the post-ruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs (n = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had cathet...

  17. Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  18. Genetic and physiological determinants of maternal behavior and lamb survival: implications for low-input sheep management.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, C M

    2008-04-01

    The relatively intensive supervision afforded many ewes at lambing time is a barrier to the development of low-input sheep management systems. However, in some flocks, reduction in this level of supervision may initially affect lamb mortality and animal welfare. In this review, possibilities for optimizing behavioral interaction between the ewe and lamb are considered, with the goal of improving lamb survival without the need for high levels of human supervision. At birth, ewes show specific behavioral patterns (e.g., licking or grooming, low-pitched bleats, udder acceptance) that facilitate the transition of the lamb from pre- to postnatal life and that accompany the formation of an exclusive olfactory memory for the lamb. The lamb also performs a specific sequence of behaviors directed toward standing, finding the udder, and sucking. The successful accomplishment of these behavior patterns is vital for the formation of a strong attachment between both partners, and for lamb survival. The expression of maternal behavior in the ewe is affected by her previous maternal experience, by nutrition in pregnancy, by breed, by temperament, and, to some extent, by the behavior of her lamb. The maternal care expressed by a ewe at parturition is indicative of her behavior throughout that lactation and in successive pregnancies, suggesting an underlying basis to maternal care intrinsic to that ewe. Studies with Scottish Blackface and Suffolk ewes show that ewes expressing high levels of maternal care have elevated plasma estradiol in late gestation compared with ewes with poorer maternal care, and that circulating estradiol concentration is correlated with maternal behaviors. Although the genetic basis of maternal behaviors has still to be fully determined, there are possibilities of improving maternal behavior by selection, and a better understanding of the neuroendocrine processes underlying individual differences in maternal behavior may help in developing selection

  19. Successful correction of D-lactic acid neurotoxicity (drunken lamb syndrome) by bolus administration of oral sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Jones, G L; Voigt, K; Grove-White, D H

    2013-08-31

    Drunken lamb syndrome (DLS) has recently been described as lamb D-lactic acidosis syndrome (LDLAS). In 2012, 18 lambs aged between 7 days and 28 days with LDLAS were identified. Biochemically, each lamb had a metabolic acidosis characterised by D-lactic acidosis and exhibited clinical signs including: not hyperthermic, no evidence of dehydration, demonstrating an ataxic gait tending to recumbency (DLS) and possibly somnolence. These lambs received 50 mmol of sodium bicarbonate as an 8.4 per cent solution given orally, together with parenteral long-acting amoxicillin. All 18 cases made a full clinical recovery. This study demonstrates a novel effective treatment for a disease that is usually fatal, and also demonstrates a strong correlation between venous plasma bicarbonate concentrations and venous plasma D-lactate concentrations (R(2)=0.49).

  20. Polwarth and Texel ewe parturition duration and its association with lamb birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Dutra, F; Banchero, G

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that parturition duration is related to birth asphyxia in lambs and that asphyxia affects newborn lamb viability and vigor. Two sire and dam genotypes (Texel: TX; Polwarth: PW) and their crosses were represented in the study. Eighty lambs (25 PW sire × PW dam, 13 TX × TX, 25 TX × PW, and 17 PW × TX) born to 69 grazing ewes were used. At birth, the log₁₀ length of the second stage of parturition, birth weight, placental weight, and several body measurements were recorded on all lambs, and jugular blood samples were analyzed with the i-Stat Portable Clinical Analyzer (Abbott, Montevideo, Uruguay). A modified Apgar viability score at birth and lamb behavior during their first hour of life were recorded. Brain weight, muscle:bone ratio, and bone density were recorded in 20 male lambs (5 from each breed group) that were euthanized and dissected 24 h after birth. Data were analyzed by linear regression, least squares ANOVA, and ordinal and binary logistic regressions. Mean blood gas and acid-base variables were 7.21 ± 0.09 for pH, 18.4 ± 9.8 mmHg for partial pressure of oxygen, 53 ± 12.5 mmHg for partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and -4 ± 5.1 mmol/L for extracellular fluid base excess. Parturition duration increased with birth weight (P < 0.001) and was shorter in TX ewes (P < 0.001), female lambs (P < 0.05), twins (P < 0.09), and twin females (sex × litter size interaction, P < 0.02). Twenty-six (32.9%) lambs were born asphyxiated (pO₂ < 10 mmHg or pH <7.1). Parturition duration increased the risk of asphyxia (P < 0.001), decreased the viability score (P < 0.001), and increased the latency to suckle the udder (P < 0.05). Twin-born lambs presented at birth a 16-fold greater risk of asphyxia (P < 0.01) and reduced placental efficiency (P < 0.05). Texel-sired lambs appeared immature at birth, with less bone density (P < 0.05), smaller brain (P < 0.05), shorter forelimbs (P < 0.05), greater

  1. Novel Feed Including Olive Oil Mill Wastewater Bioactive Compounds Enhanced the Redox Status of Lambs

    PubMed Central

    MAKRI, SOTIRIA; KAFANTARIS, IOANNIS; SAVVA, SALOMI; NTANOU, POLYXENI; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; ARGYROULIS, IOANNIS; KOTSAMPASI, BASILIKI; CHRISTODOULOU, VLADIMIROS; GERASOPOULOS, KONSTANTINOS; PETROTOS, KONSTANTINOS; KOMIOTIS, DIMITRIOS; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of a feed supplemented with polyphenolic additives from olive mill wastewater (OMW) on lambs. Materials and Methods: Lambs received breast milk until the postnatal period, and then they were divided into two groups and received control and OMW feed for 55 days. Redox biomarkers were measured in blood and tissues at days 15, 42 and 70 after feeding. Results: Feed supplemented with OMW reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls and increased total antioxidant capacity, glutathione and catalase activity in both blood and tissues. Conclusion: The administration of OMW-containing feed reinforced the antioxidant defense of lambs, which may improve their wellbeing and productivity. Additionally, this exploitation of OMW may solve problems of environmental pollution in areas with olive oil industries. PMID:29475912

  2. An overview of the nutritional value of beef and lamb meat from South America.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2014-11-01

    The southern region of South America, a subtropical and temperate zone, is an important region for the production of beef and lamb meat, which is mainly produced in extensive pasture-based systems. Because of its content in highly valuable nutrients such as iron, zinc, selenium, fatty acids, and vitamins, meat is a unique and necessary food for the human diet in order to secure a long and healthy life, without nutritional deficiencies. Beef and lamb production systems based on temperate or tropical grasslands show interesting and, in some cases, a differential content in minerals, fatty acids and vitamins. This review deals with the distinctive aspects of the nutritional quality of beef and lamb meat produced in this region in terms of nutritional composition and the bioavailability of key nutrients related to its contribution for a healthy diet for all ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Lamb vector divergence as a momentum field diagnostic employed in turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamman, Curtis W.; Kirby, Robert M.; Klewicki, Joseph C.

    2006-11-01

    Vorticity, enstrophy, helicity, and other derived field variables provide invaluable information about the kinematics and dynamics of fluids. However, whether or not derived field variables exist that intrinsically identify spatially localized motions having a distinct capacity to affect a time rate of change of linear momentum is seldom addressed in the literature. The purpose of the present study is to illustrate the unique attributes of the divergence of the Lamb vector in order to qualify its potential for characterizing such spatially localized motions. Toward this aim, we describe the mathematical properties, near-wall behavior, and scaling characteristics of the divergence of the Lamb vector for turbulent channel flow. When scaled by inner variables, the mean divergence of the Lamb vector merges to a single curve in the inner layer, and the fluctuating quantities exhibit a strong correlation with the Bernoulli function throughout much of the inner layer.

  4. Presence of Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in Baked Lamb: Their Properties and Potential Application for Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Xie, Yisha; Liu, Shan; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Xu, Xianbing; Tan, Mingqian

    2017-08-30

    The presence of nanoparticles in food has drawn much attention in recent years. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles are a new class of nanostructures; however, the distribution and physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles in food remain unclear. Herein, the presence of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles in baked lamb was confirmed, and their physicochemical properties were investigated. The fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from baked lamb emit strong blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light with a 10% fluorescent quantum yield. The nanoparticles are roughly spherical in appearance with a diameter of around 2.0 nm. Hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups exist on the surface of nanoparticles. In addition, the nanoparticles could serve as a fluorescence sensor for glucose detection through an oxidation-reduction reaction. This work is the first report on fluorescent carbon nanoparticles present in baked lamb, which provides valuable insight into the physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles and their potential application in sensors.

  5. Tissue residue depletion of moxidectin in lambs (Ovis aries) following subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Michelle Del Bianchi A; Fernandes, Maria Ângela M; Monteiro, Alda Lúcia G; Teles, Juliana A; Anadón, Arturo; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-06-07

    To date, a tissue depletion study of moxidectin (MOX) in lambs is not available. Thus, considering that lamb meat is of great commercial interest in the world, the aim of the present study was to determine the residue levels of MOX in lamb target-tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and fat) and subsequently calculate the MOX withdrawal period. For this purpose, the target-tissues were analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation was performed based on Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and VICH GL49. To quantify the analyte, matrix-matched analytical curves were constructed with spiked blank tissues. The limits of detection and quantitation were 1.5 and 5 ng g -1 , respectively, for all matrices. The linearity, decision limit, detection capability accuracy and inter- and intra-day precision of the method are reported. The lambs were treated with a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg MOX kg -1 body weight and were slaughtered in accordance with accepted animal care protocols. Samples of target-tissues were collected on 2, 4, 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after MOX administration. During the whole study, the highest drug residue level occurred in the fat. For the other target-tissues (muscle, liver and kidney), MOX concentrations were below the maximum residue limit (MRL). Considering the MRL value of 500 µg kg -1 for MOX residues in sheep fat, our results in lambs allowed the estimation of a MOX withdrawal period of 31 days. This indicates that the withdrawal period established for MOX in adult sheep (28 days) does not apply for lambs.

  6. Novel ENAM and LAMB3 mutations in Chinese families with hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yuming; Yang, Yuan; Qin, Man

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited diseases affecting the quality and quantity of dental enamel. To date, mutations in more than ten genes have been associated with non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Among these, ENAM and LAMB3 mutations are known to be parts of the etiology of hypoplastic AI in human cases. When both alleles of LAMB3 are defective, it could cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), while with only one mutant allele in the C-terminus of LAMB3, it could result in severe hypoplastic AI without skin fragility. We enrolled three Chinese families with hypoplastic autosomal-dominant AI. Despite the diagnosis falling into the same type, the characteristics of their enamel hypoplasia were different. Screening of ENAM and LAMB3 genes was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from blood samples. Disease-causing mutations were identified and perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in three families: a 19-bp insertion mutation in the exon 7 of ENAM (c.406_407insTCAAAAAAGCCGACCACAA, p.K136Ifs*16) in Family 1, a single-base deletion mutation in the exon 5 of ENAM (c. 139delA, p. M47Cfs*11) in Family 2, and a LAMB3 nonsense mutation in the last exon (c.3466C>T, p.Q1156X) in Family 3. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutations in ENAM and LAMB3 genes can cause hypoplastic AI with markedly different phenotypes in Chinese patients. And these findings extend the mutation spectrum of both genes and can be used for mutation screening of AI in the Chinese population.

  7. Identification of allergens responsible for canine cutaneous adverse food reactions to lamb, beef and cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Martín, Aurea; Sierra, María-Paz; González, José L; Arévalo, María-Angeles

    2004-12-01

    Lamb, beef and cow's milk are common causes of cutaneous adverse food reactions in dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins responsible for cutaneous adverse reactions to these foods. Ten dogs with allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E to lamb, beef and cow's milk were included in the study. These dogs had been diagnosed with cutaneous adverse food reactions by convincing clinical history and food-elimination diet trials followed by challenge exposure. Sera were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with bovine proteins and SDS-PAGE immunoblots with lamb, beef and cow's milk extracts. All the dogs had specific IgE against bovine IgG, and it was the only protein in the cow's milk extract that bound IgE from the sera studied. In the lamb and beef extracts, the major allergens recognized by the specific IgE of most sera had molecular masses between 51 and 58 kDa, which were identified as phosphoglucomutase and the IgG heavy chain. Other IgE-binding proteins with molecular masses of 27, 31, 33, 37 and 42 kDa were also detected with some sera. Our results indicate that bovine IgG is a major allergen in cow's milk and hence it appears to be a source of cross-reactivity with beef and probably with lamb because of the high homology with ovine immunoglobulins. These results are similar to those found for meat allergy in humans. However, this is the first time that phosphoglucomutase has been identified as an important allergen involved in allergic reactions to lamb and beef.

  8. Influence of distiller's dried grains with solubles on ram lamb growth and reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Crane, Alison R; Redden, Reid R; Crouse, Matthew S; Kirsch, James D; Borowicz, Pawel P; Held, Jeffrey E; Swanson, Kendall C; Schauer, Christopher S

    2018-04-14

    The hypothesis of this experiment was that increasing the inclusion level of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diets would decrease semen quality but have no negative effects on growth performance. Following the removal of DDGS from the diet, it was hypothesized that the ram lambs would recover and become reproductively sound, independent of treatment. To test this hypothesis, Suffolk and Hampshire ram lambs (n = 112) were allocated to 4 treatments (n = 4 pens per treatment; 7 rams per pen) in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments were 60% corn, 25% oats, and 15% commercial lamb pellet (CON), 15% of the ration as DDGS substituted for corn (% DM basis; 15DDGS), 30% of the ration as DDGS substituted for corn (% DM basis; 30DDGS), and 45% of the ration as DDGS substituted for corn (% DM basis; 45DDGS). Lambs were fed for 112 d on their respective treatment, after which they were placed on the CON ration until day 168. Lambs were weighed on consecutive d at the beginning (days 0 and 1) and end (days 167 and 168) of the study. Scrotal circumference was measured on all lambs on days 84, 112, 140, and 168. Semen samples were collected on a subset of 64 rams (4 rams per pen) to evaluate semen quality on days 84, 112, 140, and 168. Blood samples were collected on the same subset of rams every 14 d throughout the study. A quadratic effect on BW on day 112 and overall BW (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively), ADG on day 112 and overall ADG (P = 0.02 and P = 0.02, respectively), DMI (P = 0.007) on day 112, and a cubic effect (P = 0.05) for overall G:F were observed. Overall and day 168 scrotal circumference had a quadratic (P = 0.05) response. A linear increase in spermatozoa concentration on day 168 was observed (P = 0.03) as DDGS concentration increased in the treatment diets, although rams in this stage of the study were no longer receiving DDGS. Overall, testosterone concentrations exhibited a linear decrease (P = 0.005) as DDGS increased

  9. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  10. Melatonin and puberty in female lambs exposed to EMF: A replicate study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.M. Jr.; Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    In an earlier study, the authors found no effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from a 500 kV transmission line on serum melatonin patterns or on puberty in ten female Suffolk lambs (Ovis aries). The authors conducted a larger replicate study of 15 lambs exposed to a mean electric field of 6.3 kV/m and a mean magnetic field of 3.77 {mu}T and 15 controls exposed to EMF two orders of magnitude weaker than in the line area. The replicate produced essentially the same results as their previous study.

  11. Effect of milrinone on the developmental competence of growing lamb oocytes identified with brilliant cresyl blue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqin; Jiang, Xiangjiu; Wu, Yangsheng; Lin, Jiapeng; Zhang, Li; Yang, Nan; Huang, Juncheng

    2016-11-01

    Juvenile in vitro embryo transfer is a novel technique that can be used to increase the rate of genetic gain in a population and presents an alternative to embryo technologies on the basis of adult animals. However, oocytes from prepubertal animals have a lower viability than those obtained from adult ewe oocyte donors. In this research, we aimed to determine the optimum concentration and time of treatment of oocytes from prepubertal lambs with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) stain and milrinone during IVM. This would improve the developmental rate of lamb oocytes and embryos after IVF. First, lamb cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured under different concentrations (13 or 26 μM) of BCB staining. Treated lamb oocytes were then divided into BCB- (colorless cytoplasm) and BCB+ (colored cytoplasm) groups on the basis of their glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. The blastocyst efficiency rate of BCB+ oocytes treated with 13 μM BCB (37.03%) was significantly higher than that of BCB+ oocytes treated with 26 μM BCB (23.25%) and that of nontreated BCB control oocytes (15.37%), as well as that of BCB- oocytes (6.28%). Both control oocytes and BCB+ oocytes exhibited significantly higher cleavage rates (60.15% and 73.44%, respectively) than that of BCB- oocytes (36.19%). Moreover, the diameter and glutathione content of BCB+ oocytes were found to be significantly greater than those of BCB- oocytes (163.37 vs. 159.25 μm and 6.39 vs. 0.26 pM, respectively). After culturing BCB- oocytes in different concentrations of milrinone (0, 50, 75, and 100 μM) for 3, 6, or 9 hours, results reported that supplementation of IVM medium with 75 μM milrinone for 6 hours yielded a significantly higher proportion of blastocysts than the other treatments. These results show that the staining of lamb cumulus-oocyte complexes with 13 μM BCB before IVM may be used to select developmentally competent lamb oocytes. Furthermore, they suggest that milrinone can be used to promote

  12. The hadronic corrections to muonic hydrogen Lamb shift from ChPT and the proton radius

    SciTech Connect

    Peset, Clara

    2016-01-22

    We obtain a model independent expression for the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift. The leading hadronic effects are controlled by the chiral theory, which allows for their model independent determination. We give their complete expression including the pion and Delta particles. Out of this analysis and the experimental measurement of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift we determine the electromagnetic proton radius: r{sub p} = 0.8412(15) fm. This number is at 6.8σ variance with respect to the CODATA value. The parametric control of the uncertainties allows us to obtain a model independent determination of the error, which is dominated by hadronic effects.

  13. Tenderness of pre- and post rigor lamb longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Geesink, Geert; Sujang, Sadi; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2011-08-01

    Lamb longissimus muscle (n=6) sections were cooked at different times post mortem (prerigor, at rigor, 1dayp.m., and 7 days p.m.) using two cooking methods. Using a boiling waterbath, samples were either cooked to a core temperature of 70 °C or boiled for 3h. The latter method was meant to reflect the traditional cooking method employed in countries where preparation of prerigor meat is practiced. The time postmortem at which the meat was prepared had a large effect on the tenderness (shear force) of the meat (P<0.01). Cooking prerigor and at rigor meat to 70 °C resulted in higher shear force values than their post rigor counterparts at 1 and 7 days p.m. (9.4 and 9.6 vs. 7.2 and 3.7 kg, respectively). The differences in tenderness between the treatment groups could be largely explained by a difference in contraction status of the meat after cooking and the effect of ageing on tenderness. Cooking pre and at rigor meat resulted in severe muscle contraction as evidenced by the differences in sarcomere length of the cooked samples. Mean sarcomere lengths in the pre and at rigor samples ranged from 1.05 to 1.20 μm. The mean sarcomere length in the post rigor samples was 1.44 μm. Cooking for 3 h at 100 °C did improve the tenderness of pre and at rigor prepared meat as compared to cooking to 70 °C, but not to the extent that ageing did. It is concluded that additional intervention methods are needed to improve the tenderness of prerigor cooked meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chris Lamb: a visionary leader in plant science.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Christopher John Lamb (1950-2009) made major contributions to the field of plant defense gene activation, particularly through his studies on signal transduction mechanisms. Between 1994 and 2004, he published a series of seminal papers that outlined the involvement of hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, lipid transfer proteins, and aspartic proteases as critical components of local and/or systemic resistance during plant-microbe interactions. Prior to this, he had been one of the first to establish the fact that induced defense responses resulted from transcriptional activation of sets of coordinately regulated genes. Chris obtained his B.S and PhD degrees in biochemistry from the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, moving to the Botany School at the University of Oxford as a postdoctoral fellow in 1975 and to the Biochemistry Department in Oxford as a Departmental Demonstrator in 1978. He was appointed founding director of the Plant Biology Laboratory at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California in 1982, and occupied the last ten years of his life as Director of the John Innes Center, Norwich, United Kingdom. In spite of spending most of his career as a director at two of the world's most prestigious institutes, formal recognition of his achievements came late in life, with election to the Royal Society of London in 2008 and endowment of the honor of Commander of the British Empire (CBE) for his contributions to British plant science by Queen Elizabeth II in 2009. Sadly, Chris did not live to attend the official ceremony at which he would receive his CBE. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  15. Wavelet Spectral Finite Elements for Wave Propagation in Composite Plates with Damages - Years 3-4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-23

    study of Lamb wave interactions with holes and through thickness defects in thin metal plates . Distribution Code A: Approved for public release...Propagation in Composite Plates with Damages - Years 3-4 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA23861214005 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...14. ABSTRACT The objective of the proposed efforts: -Formulated Wavelet Spectral element for a healthy composite plates and used the formulated

  16. Gravitational Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  17. Using PVDF for wavenumber-frequency analysis and excitation of guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Baiyang; Cho, Hwanjeong; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2018-04-01

    The role of transducers in nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic guided waves cannot be overstated. Energy conversion from electrical to mechanical for actuation and then back to electrical for signal processing broadly describes transduction, but there are many other aspects of transducers that determine their effectiveness. Recently we have reported on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) array sensors that enable determination of the wavenumber spectrum, which enables modal content in the received signal to be characterized. Modal content is an important damage indicator because, for example, mode conversion is a frequent consequence of wave interaction with defects. Some of the positive attributes of PVDF sensors are: broad frequency bandwidth, compliance for use on curved surfaces, limited influence on the passing wave, minimal cross-talk between elements, low profile, low mass, and inexpensive. The anisotropy of PVDF films also enables them to receive either Lamb waves or shear horizontal waves by proper alignment of the material principal coordinate axes. Placing a patterned set of electrodes on the PVDF film provides data from an array of elements. A linear array of elements is used to enable a 2D fast Fourier transform to determine the wavenumber spectrum of both Lamb waves and shear horizontal waves in an aluminum plate. Moreover, since PVDF film can sustain high voltage excitation, high power pulsers can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The capability of PVDF as a transmitter has been demonstrated with high voltage excitation.

  18. Changes in hematology, serum biochemistry, and gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs fed sericea lespedeza with or without dietary sodium molybdate.

    PubMed

    Acharya, M; Burke, J M; Coffey, K P; Kegley, E B; Miller, J E; Huff, G R; Smyth, E; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Rosenkrans, C

    2015-04-01

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a legume rich in condensed tannins that can be grazed or fed to small ruminants for parasite control. Condensed tannins, a secondary plant compound in SL, may lead to unintended consequences such as changes in production. In our preliminary research, there was consistently a reduction in serum and liver concentrations of Mo. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of SL with or without Mo supplementation on changes in BW, hematology, and serum biochemistry in lambs. Thirty ram lambs weaned in May (84 ± 1.5 d of age; 27 ± 1.1 kg) were blocked by BW, breed type (full or three-fourths Katahdin), and EBV of parasite resistance and randomly assigned to be fed 900 g of alfalfa-based supplement (CON; n = 10) or SL-based supplement (n = 20) for 103 d. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to meet trace mineral requirements. Within the SL diet, half of the lambs received 490 mg sodium molybdate weekly (SLMO). Body condition scores and BW were determined every 14 d and blood and feces collected to determine hematological and serum biochemical profiles and fecal egg counts (FEC). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and orthogonal contrasts. The white blood cell counts tended to be reduced in SL- and SLMO-fed lambs compared with CON-fed lambs (P < 0.06), which was associated with a reduction in neutrophils (P < 0.001). Red blood cell counts were also reduced in SL but not SLMO lambs compared with CON lambs (P < 0.04). There was a reduction in blood packed cell volume (P < 0.04) and serum concentrations of albumin (P < 0.001) and creatinine (P < 0.02) in both SL and SLMO lambs compared with CON lambs. Similarly, concentrations of blood urea nitrogen were reduced in both SL and SLMO lambs, but differences among dietary treatments disappeared after 42 d of feeding (treatment × day, P < 0.004). Serum concentrations of total proteins were reduced only in SLMO

  19. Pulse based sensor networking using mechanical waves through metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, S.; Dong, B.; Huo, Q.; Tomlinson, W. J.; Biswas, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel wireless sensor networking technique using ultrasonic signal as the carrier wave for binary data exchange. Using the properties of lamb wave propagation through metal substrates, the proposed network structure can be used for runtime transport of structural fault information to ultrasound access points. Primary applications of the proposed sensor networking technique will include conveying fault information on an aircraft wing or on a bridge to an ultrasonic access point using ultrasonic wave through the structure itself (i.e. wing or bridge). Once a fault event has been detected, a mechanical pulse is forwarded to the access node using shortest path multi-hop ultrasonic pulse routing. The advantages of mechanical waves over traditional radio transmission using pulses are the following: First, unlike radio frequency, surface acoustic waves are not detectable outside the medium, which increases the inherent security for sensitive environments in respect to tapping. Second, event detection can be represented by the injection of a single mechanical pulse at a specific temporal position, whereas radio messages usually take several bits. The contributions of this paper are: 1) Development of a transceiver for transmitting/receiving ultrasound pulses with a pulse loss rate below 2·10-5 and false positive rate with an upper bound of 2·10-4. 2) A novel one-hop distance estimation based on the properties of lamb wave propagation with an accuracy of above 80%. 3) Implementation of a wireless sensor network using mechanical wave propagation for event detection on a 2024 aluminum alloy commonly used for aircraft skin construction.

  20. Introduction of meat sheep breeds in extensive systems of Patagonia: lamb growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M; Rodríguez Iglesias, R M; García Vinent, J; Giorgetti, H; Baselga, M

    2010-04-01

    Genotype effects on lamb growth, survival, and commercial finishing were estimated in a 5-yr study aimed at assessing potential benefits from introducing meat breeds into extensive sheep systems of northeastern Patagonia. Five ram [Corriedale: CO; Border Leicester: BL; Ile de France: IF; Texel: TX; and synthetic CRIII (25% Merino, 37.5% IF, 37.5% TX)] and 5 dam (CO; synthetic CRIII; BLCO: BL x CO; IFCO: IF x CO; and TXCO: TX x CO) genotypes were represented in the study. Data were collected from 1,426 born and 1,258 weaned lambs of 9 resulting genotypes (CO x CO, BL x CO, IF x CO, TX x CO, CRIII x CO, CRIII x BLCO, CRIII x IFCO, CRIII x TXCO, and CRIII x CRIII). Birth weight was recorded on all lambs; subsequently, BW and BCS (scale 1 to 5) were recorded at regular intervals until weaning. Body weights were adjusted to 60 and 90 (weaning) d of age, and ADG were calculated from the adjusted BW for the periods 0 to 60 d and 60 to 90 d; BCS was adjusted to 90 d. Survival to weaning and percentage of lambs reaching commercial finishing (BW >or= 23 kg and BCS >or= 2.5 points) were also recorded. Significant (P < 0.05) genotype x litter size interactions were detected for birth weight and ADG 60 to 90 d. With the exception of CRIII x CO, crossbred and synthetic genotypes presented greater (P < 0.05) ADG 0 to 60 d and BW at 60 and 90 d than CO x CO lambs. Second cross lambs reared as singles presented greater ADG 60 to 90 d (P < 0.05) than BL x CO, TX x CO, and CRIII x CO, but less (P < 0.05) ADG 60 to 90 d, and no differences were observed for twins. The IF x CO, CRIII x BLCO, CRIII x IFCO, and CRIII x CRIII genotypes showed greater BCS at 90 d (P < 0.05) than CO x CO. The probability of greater commercial finishing for crossbred and synthetic genotypes relative to CO x CO was at least 79%. Probabilities of greater survival to weaning in CO x CO and CRIII x BLCO lambs relative to IF x CO, TX x CO, CRIII x CO, and CRIII x CRIII lambs were greater than 81%. Results