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Sample records for a1 aviation safety

  1. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  2. Safety lessons from aviation.

    PubMed

    Higton, Phil

    2005-07-01

    Thirty years ago the world of Commercial Aviation provided a challenging environment. In my early flying days, aircraft accidents were not unusual, flying was seen as a risky business and those who took part, either as a provider or passenger, appeared grudgingly willing to accept the hazards involved. A reduction in the level of risk was sought in technological advances, greater knowledge of physics and science, and access to higher levels of skill through simulation, practice and experience. While these measures did have an impact, the expected safety dividend was not realized. The most experienced, technically competent individuals with the best equipment featured far too regularly in the accident statistics. We had to look at the human element, the impact of flaws or characteristics of the human condition. We call this area Human Factors. My paper describes the concept of Human Factors, its establishment as a key safety tool in aviation and the impact of this on my working life.

  3. Aviation Safety Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  4. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    During the second quarter of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the aviation community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.

  5. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During the third quarter of operation of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning aviation safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.

  6. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  7. The aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The aviation safety reporting system, an accident reporting system, is presented. The system identifies deficiencies and discrepancies and the data it provides are used for long term identification of problems. Data for planning and policy making are provided. The system offers training in safety education to pilots. Data and information are drawn from the available data bases.

  8. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  9. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The origins and development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the aviation system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national aviation system.

  10. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  11. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  12. Vortex safety in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchak, L. I.

    2012-10-01

    The objective is the general review of impact of aircraft wake vortices on the follower aircraft encountering the wake. Currently, the presence of wake vortices past aircraft limits the airspace capacity and flight safety level for aircraft of different purposes. However, wake vortex nature and evolution have not been studied in full measure. A mathematical model simulating the process of near wake generation past bodies of different shapes, as well as the wake evolution after rolling-up into wake vortices (far wake) is developed. The processes are suggested to be modeled by means of the Method of Discrete Vortices. Far wake evolution is determined by its complex interaction with the atmosphere and ground boundary layer. The main factors that are supposed to take into account are: wind and ambient turbulence 3Ddistributions, temperature stratification of the atmosphere, wind shear, as well as some others which effects will be manifested as considerable during the investigation. The ground boundary layer effects on wake vortex evolution are substantial at low flight altitudes and are determined through the boundary layer separation.

  13. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  14. The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the United States set a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years based on the recommendations by the Presidential Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Achieving this goal will require the combined efforts of government, industry, and academia in the areas of technology research and development, implementation, and operations. To respond to the national goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a program that will focus resources over a five year period on performing research and developing technologies that will enable improvements in many areas of aviation safety. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is organized into six research areas: Aviation System Modeling and Monitoring, System Wide Accident Prevention, Single Aircraft Accident Prevention, Weather Accident Prevention, Accident Mitigation, and Synthetic Vision. Specific project areas include Turbulence Detection and Mitigation, Aviation Weather Information, Weather Information Communications, Propulsion Systems Health Management, Control Upset Management, Human Error Modeling, Maintenance Human Factors, Fire Prevention, and Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial, Business, and General Aviation aircraft. Research will be performed at all four NASA aeronautics centers and will be closely coordinated with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other government agencies, industry, academia, as well as the aviation user community. This paper provides an overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program goals, structure, and integration with the rest of the aviation community.

  15. Aviation safety : FAA and DOD response to similar safety concerns

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Report to the Honorable Norman Y. Mineta, Secretary of Transportation, and the Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense. : Safety of aircraft is a paramount concern in both civilian and military aviation. The Federal Aviation Administration...

  16. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  17. Laser pointers and aviation safety.

    PubMed

    Nakagawara, V B; Montgomery, R W

    2000-10-01

    Laser pointers have been used by teachers and lecturers for years to highlight key areas on charts and screens during visual presentations. When used in a responsible manner, laser pointers are not considered to be hazardous. However, as the availability of such devices has increased, so have reports of their misuse. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning in December 1997 on the possibility of eye injury to children from handheld laser pointers. In October 1998, the American Academy of Ophthalmology upgraded an earlier caution to a warning, stating that laser pointers can be hazardous and should be kept away from children, after two reports of eye injuries involving young girls (age 11 and 13 yr). Of particular concern was the promotion of laser products as children's toys, such as those that can project cartoon figures and line drawings. Additionally, there have been reports involving the misuse of laser pointers (e.g., arrests made after police interpreted the red beam to be a laser-sighted weapon, spectators aiming laser lights at athletes during sporting events, cars illuminated on highways, and numerous incidents involving the illumination of aircraft). This technical note discusses physiological effects of exposure from a laser pointer, the regulation and classification of commercial laser products, and how the misuse of these pointers is a possible threat to aviation safety.

  18. Cardiovascular problems associated with aviation safety.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-01-01

    In April 1975, the American College of Cardiology held its Eighth Bethesda Conference Conference on Cardiovascular Problem in Aviation Safety. : Perhaps the most meaningful purpose of this meeting was to make clear, in a structured fashion, the avail...

  19. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation safety... must grant Aviation Safety Inspectors bearing FAA Form 110A free and uninterrupted access to public-use...

  20. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 900,000 reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 5,500 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation \\vill discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  1. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  2. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 1.4 million reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 6,000 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides selected de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http:asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation will discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  3. Aviation Safety Concerns for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Roelen, Alfred L. C.; den Hertog, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) is a multidisciplinary international group of aviation professionals that was established to identify possible future aviation safety hazards. The principle was adopted that future hazards are undesirable consequences of changes, and a primary activity of FAST became identification and prioritization of possible future changes affecting aviation. Since 2004, FAST has been maintaining a catalogue of "Areas of Change" (AoC) that could potentially influence aviation safety. The horizon for such changes is between 5 to 20 years. In this context, changes must be understood as broadly as possible. An AoC is a description of the change, not an identification of the hazards that result from the change. An ex-post analysis of the AoCs identified in 2004 demonstrates that changes catalogued many years previous were directly implicated in the majority of fatal aviation accidents over the past ten years. This paper presents an overview of the current content of the AoC catalogue and a subsequent discussion of aviation safety concerns related to these possible changes. Interactions among these future changes may weaken critical functions that must be maintained to ensure safe operations. Safety assessments that do not appreciate or reflect the consequences of significant interaction complexity will not be fully informative and can lead to inappropriate trade-offs and increases in other risks. The FAST strongly encourages a system-wide approach to safety risk assessment across the global aviation system, not just within the domain for which future technologies or operational concepts are being considered. The FAST advocates the use of the "Areas of Change" concept, considering that several possible future phenomena may interact with a technology or operational concept under study producing unanticipated hazards.

  4. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation safety...

  5. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation safety...

  6. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation safety...

  7. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation safety...

  8. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  9. NASA's aviation safety research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aviation safety is challenged by the practical necessity of compromising inherent factors of design, environment, and operation. If accidents are to be avoided these factors must be controlled to a degree not often required by other transport modes. The operational problems which challenge safety seem to occur most often in the interfaces within and between the design, the environment, and operations where mismatches occur due to ignorance or lack of sufficient understanding of these interactions. Under this report the following topics are summarized: (1) The nature of operating problems, (2) NASA aviation safety research, (3) clear air turbulence characterization and prediction, (4) CAT detection, (5) Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence (MAT) Program, (6) Lightning, (7) Thunderstorm gust fronts, (8) Aircraft ground operating problems, (9) Aircraft fire technology, (10) Crashworthiness research, (11) Aircraft wake vortex hazard research, and (12) Aviation safety reporting system.

  10. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  11. Aviation safety courses available through the FAA.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-02

    The FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) offers a 1-day training course to familiarize U.S. civil aviation pilots and flight crews with the physiological and psychological stresses of flight. Pilots who are knowledgeable about physiological p...

  12. Aviation safety data accessibility study index: a report on the issues related to public interest in aviation safety data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-20

    This paper reviews aviation safety data and measurement issues relevant to the determination of the best means of providing safety information to the public while ensuring the integrity of the aviation safety system. In addition , the paper examines ...

  13. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  14. Safety and business benefit analysis of NASA's aviation safety program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-09-20

    NASA Aviation Safety Program elements encompass a wide range of products that require both public and private investment. Therefore, two methods of analysis, one relating to the public and the other to the private industry, must be combined to unders...

  15. [Biomedical foundation for human safety in aviation].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B

    2004-01-01

    According to the author, preventive medical issues of providing human safety in aviation are related to the fundamental biomedical and socio-psychological problems of human beings in the present-day world. Factual material for analysis was compiled in the study performed at the State Research and Test Institute of Military Medicine. Outlined are main vectors of the future attack on the problem.

  16. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The study deals with 165 inadvertent operations on or into inappropriate portions of the aircraft areas at controlled airports. Pilot-initiated and controller-initiated incursions are described and discussed. It was found that a majority of the pilot-initiated occurrences involved operation without a clearance; controller-initiated occurrences usually involved failure to maintain assured separation. The factors associated with these occurrences are analyzed. It appears that a major problem in these occurrences is inadequate coordination among the various system participants. Reasons for this, and some possible solutions to various aspects of the problem, are discussed. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is presented. These relate to undesired occurrences in air transport, general aviation, and air traffic control operations; to ATC coordination problems; and to a recurrent problem in ASRS reports, parachuting operations. A sample of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  17. The effects of tobacco on aviation safety.

    PubMed

    Dille, J R; Linder, M K

    1981-02-01

    In 1976, the Federal Aviation Administration was petitioned to issue regulations that would prohibit all smoking in the cockpit during commercial flight operations and prohibit preflight smoking by flight crewmembers within 8 h before commercial flight operations. A review of the literature was conducted to determine the effects on pilot performance of carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine, and smoking withdrawal. The records of 2,660 fatal general aviation aircraft accidents in 1973-1976 have been examined. Smoking was not identified as a causal factor but may have contributed to the cause of some of these accidents. However, the compound factors that were often found and the dire consequences are far less likely to occur in air commerce operations. For some, withdrawal symptoms may occur and more than offset any benefits to aviation safety that are claimed for a ban on preflight and in-flight smoking.

  18. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A sample of reports relating to operations during winter weather is presented. Several reports involving problems of judgment and decisionmaking have been selected from the numerous reports representative of this area. Problems related to aeronautical charts are discussed in a number of reports. An analytic study of reports involving potential conflicts in the immediate vicinity of uncontrolled airports was performed; the results are discussed in this report. It was found that in three-fourths of 127 such conflicts, neither pilot, or only one of the pilots, was communicating position and intentions on the appropriate frequency. The importance of providing aural transfer of information, as a backup to the visual see and avoid mode of information transfer is discussed. It was also found that a large fraction of pilots involved in potential conflicts on final approach had executed straight-in approaches, rather than the recommended traffic pattern entries, prior to the conflicts. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them by various segments of the aviation community is presented.

  19. 76 FR 57635 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... ``Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors'' (76 FR 52231... of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct responsibility to inspect...

  20. Federal Aviation Regulations Part 135 : cabin safety subject index.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-03-01

    To promote awareness and facilitate finding the most frequently mentioned cabin safety subjects pertinent to Federal Aviation Administration (FAR) Part 135 operations, an index of references was developed. This includes Federal Aviation Regulation nu...

  1. 75 FR 34520 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... of the global economy. The Aviation Safety Subcommittee will develop a list of priority safety issues...-- 1. Develop a list of priority safety issues to be referred to the full committee for deliberation. 2...

  2. Parallels in safety between aviation and healthcare.

    PubMed

    Gerstle, Claudia R

    2018-05-01

    Aviation and healthcare are complex industries and share many similarities: the cockpit and the operating theater, the captain and the surgeon. While North American commercial aviation currently enjoys a tremendous safety record, it was not always this way. A spike of accidents in 1973 caused 3214 aviation-related fatalities. Over the past 20years, the rate of fatal accidents per million flights fell by a factor of five, while air traffic increased by more than 86%. There have been no fatalities on a U.S. carrier for over 12years. Last year, there were 251,454 deaths in the United States owing to medical error. Pilots pioneered ways to address risks through crew resource management (CRM), and threat and error management (TEM). Both strategies, which are aimed at minimizing risk and optimizing safety, are applicable to surgery and the healthcare industry. These strategies as well as the Swiss Cheese Model, Checklists and the Normalization of Deviance will be reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 67805 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of..., announces a meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Aviation Safety, which will be held at the offices [[Page... needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Subcommittee on Aviation Safety will...

  4. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Aviation Repair Stations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-05-07

    Testimony of Gerald L. Dillingham, Associate Director, Transportation Issues, : Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division before the Subcommittee : on Aviation, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate on : the Fe...

  5. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  6. Aviation.

    PubMed

    Karl, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    An increased awareness of the need for safety in medicine in general and in surgery in particular has prompted comparisons between the cockpit and the operating room. These comparisons seem to make sense but tend to be oversimplified. Attempts in healthcare to mimic programs that have been credited for the safety of commercial aviation have met with varying results. The risk here is that oversimplified application of an aviation model may result in the abandonment of good ideas in medicine. This paper describes in more depth the differences between medicine and commercial aviation: from the hiring process, through initial operating experience, recurrent training, and the management of emergencies. These programs add up to a cultural difference. Aviation assumes that personnel are subject to mistake making and that systems and culture need to be constructed to catch and mitigate error; medicine is still focused on the perfection of each individual's performance. The implications of these differences are explored.

  7. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  8. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-07-01

    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  9. The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.

    PubMed

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-04-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.

  10. FAA National Aviation Safety Inspection Program. Annual Report FY90

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-06-01

    This report was undertaken to document, analyze, and place : into national perspective the findings from the 1990 National : Aviation Safety Inspection Program (NASIP). This report is the : fifth in a series of annual reports covering the results of ...

  11. Safe skies for tomorrow : aviation safety in a competitive environment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-07-01

    It has been 10 years since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 transformed the : rules of the game for the commercial aviation industry. Questions linger about : the adequacy of existing Federal safety policies and programs. Congress asked : the Off...

  12. The actual development of European Aviation Safety Requirements in Aviation Medicine: Prospects of Future EASA Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-01-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990ies. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Awiation Requirement - Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781

  13. Applying lessons from commercial aviation safety and operations to resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2014-02-01

    Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  15. 75 FR 44998 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... evolving transportation needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Aviation Safety... activities associated with the list of priority safety issues developed during the first meeting. The subcommittee will also develop a work plan for future meetings. DATES: The meeting will be held on August 24...

  16. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  17. [Learning from aviation - how to increase patient safety in surgery].

    PubMed

    Renz, B; Angele, M K; Jauch, K-W; Kasparek, M S; Kreis, M; Müller, M H

    2012-04-01

    During the last years attempts have been made to draw lessons from aviation to increase patient safety in medicine. In particular similar conditions are present in surgery as pilots and surgeons may have to support high physical and mental pressure. The use of a few safety instruments from aviation is feasible in an attempt to increase safety in surgery. First a "root caused" accident research may be established. This is achievable by morbidity and mortality conferences and critical incident reporting systems (CIRS). Second, standard operating procedures may assure a uniform mental model of team members. Furthermore, crew resource management illustrates a strategy and attitude concept, which is applicable in all situations. Safety instruments from aviation, therefore, seem to have a high potential to increase safety in surgery when properly employed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  18. Summary of Federal Aviation Administration Responses to National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Langhorne M. Bond Administrator Federal Aviation Administration ) SAFETY RECOMMENDATICN(S) Washington, D. C. 20591, A-79-73 and -74... Langhorne M. Bond -2- Therefore, the National Transportation Safety Board recommends that the Federal Aviation Administration: Prescribe an appropriate method...TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. ISSUED: October 17,.1979 i ----------- ----------------------- Forwarded to: Honorable Langhorne M. Bond

  19. 76 FR 52231 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... responsible for the oversight of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority for This Rulemaking The FAA's authority to issue rules on aviation safety...

  20. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  1. A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

  2. Aviation Jobs and Safety Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Costello, Jerry F. [D-IL-12

    2011-07-26

    House - 07/27/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Aviation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1079, which became Public Law 112-7 on 3/31/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Proposed English Standards Promote Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Robert L.; Thomas, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Air Navigation's Commission approval of a task to develop minimum skill level requirements in English for air traffic control. The ICAO collaborated with the Defense Language Institute English Language Center to propose a minimum standard for English proficiency for international…

  4. Development and initial validation of an Aviation Safety Climate Scale.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bronwyn; Glendon, A Ian; Creed, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    A need was identified for a consistent set of safety climate factors to provide a basis for aviation industry benchmarking. Six broad safety climate themes were identified from the literature and consultations with industry safety experts. Items representing each of the themes were prepared and administered to 940 Australian commercial pilots. Data from half of the sample (N=468) were used in an exploratory factor analysis that produced a 3-factor model of Management commitment and communication, Safety training and equipment, and Maintenance. A confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample showed the 3-factor model to be an adequate fit to the data. The results of this study have produced a scale of safety climate for aviation that is both reliable and valid. This study developed a tool to assess the level of perceived safety climate, specifically of pilots, but may also, with minor modifications, be used to assess other groups' perceptions of safety climate.

  5. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the authority...

  6. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the authority...

  7. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the authority...

  8. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the authority...

  9. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the authority... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation...

  10. Aviation Safety: FAA Generally Agrees With But is Slow in Implementing Safety Recommendations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-09-23

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), within the Department of : Transportation (DOT), is responsible for promoting safety in civil air : transportation. General Accounting Office (GAO) and DOT's Office of Inspector : General review FAA's safety...

  11. Aviation Safety: Targeting and Training of FAA's Safety Inspector Workforce

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-04-30

    This is the statement of Gerald L. Dillingham, Associate Director, : Transportation and Telecommunications Issues, Resources, Community, and : Economic Development Division, General Accounting Office, on the Federal : Aviation Administration's (FAA) ...

  12. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever, in... presents form FAA 110A, “Aviation Safety Inspector's Credential,” to the pilot in command of an aircraft...

  13. Shock waves in aviation security and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, G. S.; Keane, B. T.; Anderson, B. W.; Gatto, J. A.

    Accident investigations such as of Pan Am 103 and TWA 800 reveal the key role of shock-wave propagation in destroying the aircraft when an on-board explosion occurs. This paper surveys shock wave propagation inside an aircraft fuselage, caused either by a terrorist device or by accident, and provides some new experimental results. While aircraft-hardening research has been under way for more than a decade, no such experiments to date have used the crucial tool of high-speed optical imaging to visualize shock motion. Here, Penn State's Full-Scale Schlieren flow visualization facility yields the first shock-motion images in aviation security scenarios: 1) Explosions beneath full-size aircraft seats occupied by mannequins, 2) Explosions inside partially-filled luggage containers, and 3) Luggage-container explosions resulting in hull-holing. Both single-frame images and drum-camera movies are obtained. The implications of these results are discussed, though the overall topic must still be considered in its infancy.

  14. Navigating towards improved surgical safety using aviation-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Kao, Lillian S; Thomas, Eric J

    2008-04-01

    Safety practices in the aviation industry are being increasingly adapted to healthcare in an effort to reduce medical errors and patient harm. However, caution should be applied in embracing these practices because of limited experience in surgical disciplines, lack of rigorous research linking these practices to outcome, and fundamental differences between the two industries. Surgeons should have an in-depth understanding of the principles and data supporting aviation-based safety strategies before routinely adopting them. This paper serves as a review of strategies adapted to improve surgical safety, including the following: implementation of crew resource management in training operative teams; incorporation of simulation in training of technical and nontechnical skills; and analysis of contributory factors to errors using surveys, behavioral marker systems, human factors analysis, and incident reporting. Avenues and challenges for future research are also discussed.

  15. Comparing safety climate in naval aviation and hospitals: implications for improving patient safety.

    PubMed

    Singer, Sara J; Rosen, Amy; Zhao, Shibei; Ciavarelli, Anthony P; Gaba, David M

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of variation in safety climate suggests the need for improvement among at least some hospitals. However, comparisons only among hospitals may underestimate the improvement required. Comparison of hospitals with analogous industries may provide a broader perspective on the safety status of our nation's hospitals. The purpose of this study was to compare safety climate among hospital workers with personnel from naval aviation, an organization that operates with high reliability despite intrinsically hazardous conditions. We surveyed a random sample of health care workers in 67 U.S. hospitals and, for generalizability, 30 veterans affairs hospitals using questions comparable with those posed at approximately the same time (2007) to a census of personnel from 35 squadrons of U.S. naval aviators. We received 13,841 (41%) completed surveys in U.S. hospitals, 5,511 (50%) in veterans affairs hospitals, and 14,854 (82%) among naval aviators. We examined differences in respondents' perceptions of safety climate at their institution overall and for 16 individual items. Safety climate was three times better on average among naval aviators than among hospital personnel. Naval aviators perceived a safer climate (up to seven times safer) than hospital personnel with respect to each of the 16 survey items. Compared with hospital managers, naval commanders perceived climate more like frontline personnel did. When contrasting naval aviators with hospital personnel working in comparably hazardous areas, safety climate discrepancies increased rather than decreased. One individual hospital performed as well as naval aviation on average, and at least one hospital outperformed the Navy benchmark for all but three individual survey items. Results suggest that hospitals have not sufficiently created a uniform priority of safety. However, if each hospital performed as well as the top-performing hospital in each area measured, hospitals could achieve safety climate levels comparable

  16. Aviation safety/automation program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal is to provide a technology base leading to improved safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers. Information on the problems, specific objectives, human-automation interaction, intelligent error-tolerant systems, and air traffic control/cockpit integration is given in viewgraph form.

  17. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  18. From aviation to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk management in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Wilf-Miron, R; Lewenhoff, I; Benyamini, Z; Aviram, A

    2003-02-01

    The development of a medical risk management programme based on the aviation safety approach and its implementation in a large ambulatory healthcare organisation is described. The following key safety principles were applied: (1). errors inevitably occur and usually derive from faulty system design, not from negligence; (2). accident prevention should be an ongoing process based on open and full reporting; (3). major accidents are only the "tip of the iceberg" of processes that indicate possibilities for organisational learning. Reporting physicians were granted immunity, which encouraged open reporting of errors. A telephone "hotline" served the medical staff for direct reporting and receipt of emotional support and medical guidance. Any adverse event which had learning potential was debriefed, while focusing on the human cause of error within a systemic context. Specific recommendations were formulated to rectify processes conducive to error when failures were identified. During the first 5 years of implementation, the aviation safety concept and tools were successfully adapted to ambulatory care, fostering a culture of greater concern for patient safety through risk management while providing support to the medical staff.

  19. From aviation to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk management in ambulatory care

    PubMed Central

    Wilf-Miron, R; Lewenhoff, I; Benyamini, Z; Aviram, A

    2003-01-01

    

 The development of a medical risk management programme based on the aviation safety approach and its implementation in a large ambulatory healthcare organisation is described. The following key safety principles were applied: (1) errors inevitably occur and usually derive from faulty system design, not from negligence; (2) accident prevention should be an ongoing process based on open and full reporting; (3) major accidents are only the "tip of the iceberg" of processes that indicate possibilities for organisational learning. Reporting physicians were granted immunity, which encouraged open reporting of errors. A telephone "hotline" served the medical staff for direct reporting and receipt of emotional support and medical guidance. Any adverse event which had learning potential was debriefed, while focusing on the human cause of error within a systemic context. Specific recommendations were formulated to rectify processes conducive to error when failures were identified. During the first 5 years of implementation, the aviation safety concept and tools were successfully adapted to ambulatory care, fostering a culture of greater concern for patient safety through risk management while providing support to the medical staff. PMID:12571343

  20. Adverse weather impact on aviation safety, investigation and oversight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of the weather factors that effect aviation safety with respect to U.S. Coast Guard operations is presented. Precise meteorological information is an absolute necessity to the Coast Guard which must conduct life saving and rescue operations under the worst of weather conditions. Many times the weather conditions in which they operate are the cause of or a contributing factor to the predicament from which they must execute a rescue operation.

  1. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever, in...

  2. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever, in...

  3. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever, in...

  4. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever, in...

  5. Aviation Safety: FAA Has Begun Efforts to Make Data More Publicly Available

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-25

    Public concern about the safety of the nation's aviation system escalated : following the crashes of ValuJet flight 592 and TWA flight 800. The Congress : and the public expressed interest in having the Federal Aviation Administration : (FAA) publish...

  6. Effects of training school type and examiner type on general aviation flight safety.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-03-01

    This study addresses the question Do training school type and certifying examiner type affect a general aviation (GA) pilots subsequent aviation safety record? Education was operationalized as private pilot instruction in either a Part...

  7. Report of the workshop on Aviation Safety/Automation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    As part of NASA's responsibility to encourage and facilitate active exchange of information and ideas among members of the aviation community, an Aviation Safety/Automation workshop was organized and sponsored by the Flight Management Division of NASA Langley Research Center. The one-day workshop was held on October 10, 1989, at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Participants were invited from industry, government, and universities to discuss critical questions and issues concerning the rapid introduction and utilization of advanced computer-based technology into the flight deck and air traffic controller workstation environments. The workshop was attended by approximately 30 discipline experts, automation and human factors researchers, and research and development managers. The goal of the workshop was to address major issues identified by the NASA Aviation Safety/Automation Program. Here, the results of the workshop are documented. The ideas, thoughts, and concepts were developed by the workshop participants. The findings, however, have been synthesized into a final report primarily by the NASA researchers.

  8. Reducing health care hazards: lessons from the commercial aviation safety team.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Goeschel, Christine A; Olsen, Kyle L; Pham, Julius C; Miller, Marlene R; Berenholtz, Sean M; Sexton, J Bryan; Marsteller, Jill A; Morlock, Laura L; Wu, Albert W; Loeb, Jerod M; Clancy, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    The movement to improve quality of care and patient safety has grown, but examples of measurable and sustained progress are rare. The slow progress made in health care contrasts with the success of aviation safety. After a tragic 1995 plane crash, the aviation industry and government created the Commercial Aviation Safety Team to reduce fatal accidents. This public-private partnership of safety officials and technical experts is responsible for the decreased average rate of fatal aviation accidents. We propose a similar partnership in the health care community to coordinate national efforts and move patient safety and quality forward.

  9. [Learning from errors: applying aviation safety concepts to medicine].

    PubMed

    Sommer, K-J

    2012-11-01

    Health care safety levels range below other complex industries. Civil aviation has throughout its history developed methods and concepts that have made the airplane into one of the safest means of mass transport. Key elements are accident investigations that focus on cause instead of blame, human-centered design of machinery and processes, continuous training of all personnel and a shared safety culture. These methods and concepts can basically be applied to medicine which has successfully been achieved in certain areas, however, a comprehensive implementation remains to be completed. This applies particularly to including the topic of safety into relevant curricula. Physicians are obliged by the oath"primum nil nocere" to act, but economic as well as political pressure will eventually confine professional freedom if initiative is not taken soon.

  10. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) data base were used to determine problems in general aviation single pilot IFR operations. The data examined consisted of incident reports involving flight safety in the National Aviation System. Only those incidents involving general aviation fixed wing aircraft flying under IFR in instrument meteorological conditions were analyzed. The data were cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgement and response problems; (2) pilot judgement and response problems; (3) air traffic control intrafacility and interfacility conflicts; (4) ATC and pilot communications problems; and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. The significance of the related problems, and the various underlying elements associated with each are discussed. Previous ASRS reports covering several areas of analysis are reviewed.

  11. [Safety in intensive care medicine. Can we learn from aviation?].

    PubMed

    Graf, J; Pump, S; Maas, W; Stüben, U

    2012-05-01

    Safety is of extraordinary value in commercial aviation. Therefore, sophisticated and complex systems have been developed to ensure safe operation. Within this system, the pilots are of specific concern: they form the human-machine interface and have a special responsibility in controlling and monitoring all aircraft systems. In order to prepare pilots for their challenging task, specific selection of suitable candidates is crucial. In addition, for every commercial pilot regulatory requirements demand a certain number of simulator training sessions and check flights to be completed at prespecified intervals. In contrast, career choice for intensive care medicine most likely depends on personal reasons rather than eligibility or aptitude. In intensive care medicine, auditing, licensing, or mandatory training are largely nonexistent. Although knowledge of risk management and safety culture in aviation can be transferred to the intensive care unit, the diversity of corporate culture and tradition of leadership and training will represent a barrier for the direct transfer of standards or procedures. To accomplish this challenging task, the analysis of appropriate fields of action with regard to structural requirements and the process of change are essential.

  12. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  13. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items. ...

  14. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items. ...

  15. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items. ...

  16. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items. ...

  17. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  18. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  19. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Repair Stations Needs Improvement

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-10-24

    This report by the General Accounting Office examines the Federal Aviation : Administration's (FAA) oversight of the aviation repair station industry. : Specifically, this report addresses the following questions: (1) What is the : nature and scope o...

  20. Aviation safety and automation technology for subsonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are aviation safety human factors and air traffic control (ATC) automation research conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center. Research results are given in the areas of flight deck and ATC automations, displays and warning systems, crew coordination, and crew fatigue and jet lag. Accident investigation and an incident reporting system that is used to guide the human factors research is discussed. A design philosophy for human-centered automation is given, along with an evaluation of automation on advanced technology transports. Intelligent error tolerant systems such as electronic checklists are discussed along with design guidelines for reducing procedure errors. The data on evaluation of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training indicates highly significant positive changes in appropriate flight deck behavior and more effective use of available resources for crew members receiving the training.

  1. [From aviation to surgery: the challenge of safety].

    PubMed

    Suva, D; Haller, G; Lübbeke-Wolff, A; Macheret, F; Kindler, V; Hoffmeyer, P

    2011-03-23

    Medical errors result in 44,000 to 98,000 deaths per year in the United States of America. Within the surgical specialties, half of these errors occur in the operating room. The origin of these errors is multifactorial, and is generally associated with problems in communication and teamwork. In order to improve safety in the operating room, many hospitals now propose to the medical staff "crew resource management" (CRM) training programs inspired by the aviation industry. This approach favors a better utilization of surgical checklists, improves efficiency during chirurgical interventions, and reduces patient mortality. In October 2009 we introduced a CRM course within the department of surgery at the Geneva University Hospitals. We are presenting this program as well as the first results following its application.

  2. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to develop and demonstrate technologies that contribute to a reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio. Safety benefits analyses are currently being conducted. Preliminary results for the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) projects of the AvSP have been completed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model. The integrated safety analysis method comprises two principal components: a reliability model and a simulation model. In the reliability model, the results indicate how different technologies and systems will perform in normal, degraded, and failed modes of operation. In the simulation, an operational scenario is modeled. The primary purpose of the SVS project is to improve safety by providing visual-flightlike situation awareness during instrument conditions. The current analyses are an estimate of the benefits of SVS in avoiding controlled flight into terrain. The scenario modeled has an aircraft flying directly toward a terrain feature. When the flight crew determines that the aircraft is headed toward an obstruction, the aircraft executes a level turn at speed. The simulation is ended when the aircraft completes the turn.

  3. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Narinder; Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing.

  4. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing. PMID:26770817

  5. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against... to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Aviation Safety Reporting Program (or...

  6. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has been made to determine the problem areas in general aviation single-pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations. The Aviation Safety Reporting System data base is a compilation of voluntary reports of incidents from any person who has observed or been involved in an occurrence which was believed to have posed a threat to flight safety. This paper examines only those reported incidents specifically related to general aviation single-pilot IFR operations. The frequency of occurrence of factors related to the incidents was the criterion used to define significant problem areas and, hence, to suggest where research is needed. The data was cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgment and response problems, (2) pilot judgment and response problems, (3) air traffic control (ATC) intrafacility and interfacility conflicts, (4) ATC and pilot communication problems, and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. In addition, several points common to all or most of the problems were observed and reported. These included human error, communications, procedures and rules, and work load.

  7. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  8. National Research and Development Plan for Aviation Safety, Security, Efficiency and Environmental Compatibility.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    This plan describes coordinated long-term research initiatives to bring about advances in aviation that will be required in the opening decades of the next century. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security and the National Civil Avi...

  9. National Research and Development Plan For Aviation Safety, Security, Efficiency, and Environmental Compatibility

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    This plan describes coordinated long-term research initiatives to bring about advances in aviation that will be required in the opening decades of the next century. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security and the National Civil Avi...

  10. NASA aviation safety program aircraft engine health management data mining tools roadmap

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    Aircraft Engine Health Management Data Mining Tools is a project led by NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling Thrust. The objective of the Glenn-led effort is to develop en...

  11. 76 FR 1386 - Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in San Diego, CA in support of the Centennial of Naval... February 12, 2010, the Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff will take place in San Diego Bay. In support of...

  12. Aviation safety and maintenance under major organizational changes, investigating non-existing accidents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Ivonne A; Nordskag, Arve O; Myhre, Grete; Halvorsen, Kåre

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the following questions: Do concurrent organizational changes have a direct impact on aviation maintenance and safety, if so, how can this be measured? These questions were part of the investigation carried out by the Accident Investigation Board, Norway (AIBN). The AIBN investigated whether Norwegian aviation safety had been affected due to major organizational changes between 2000 and 2004. The main concern was the reduction in safety margins and its consequences. This paper presents a summary of the techniques used and explains how they were applied in three airlines and by two offshore helicopter operators. The paper also discusses the development of safety related indicators in the aviation industry. In addition, there is a summary of the lessons learned and safety recommendations. The Norwegian Ministry of Transport has required all players in the aviation industry to follow up the findings and recommendations of the AIBN study.

  13. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on safety issues related to... the Next Level,'' will be chaired by NTSB Chairman Deborah A. P. Hersman and all five Board Members...

  14. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  15. Extracting Information from Narratives: An Application to Aviation Safety Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; Matzke, Brett D.; Anderson, Catherine M.

    2005-05-12

    Aviation safety reports are the best available source of information about why a flight incident happened. However, stream of consciousness permeates the narratives making difficult the automation of the information extraction task. We propose an approach and infrastructure based on a common pattern specification language to capture relevant information via normalized template expression matching in context. Template expression matching handles variants of multi-word expressions. Normalization improves the likelihood of correct hits by standardizing and cleaning the vocabulary used in narratives. Checking for the presence of negative modifiers in the proximity of a potential hit reduces the chance of false hits.more » We present the above approach in the context of a specific application, which is the extraction of human performance factors from NASA ASRS reports. While knowledge infusion from experts plays a critical role during the learning phase, early results show that in a production mode, the automated process provides information that is consistent with analyses by human subjects.« less

  16. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  17. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against...

  18. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against...

  19. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against...

  20. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against...

  1. A review and discussion of flight management system incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-02-01

    This report covers the activities related to the description, classification and : analysis of the types and kinds of flight crew errors, incidents and actions, as : reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, that can occur as ...

  2. Pilot-controller communication errors : an analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that contribute to pilot-controller communication errors. Resports submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) offer detailed accounts of specific types of errors and a great deal of ...

  3. Aviation safety : information on FAA's data on operational errors at air traffic control towers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-09-23

    A fundamental principle of aviation safety is the need to maintain adequate separation between aircraft and to ensure that aircraft maintain a safe distance from terrain, obstructions, and airspace that is not designated for routine air travel. Air t...

  4. Safety in the skies : personnel and parties in NTSB aviation accident investigations : master volume

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    Recent high-profile commercial aviation mishaps have stretched the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) resources to the limit and are testing the agency's ability to unravel the sorts of complex failures that lead to tragic accidents. In re...

  5. Flight deck party line issues : an Aviation Safety Reporting System analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-06-01

    This document describes an analysis of the Aviation Safety Reporting System : (ASRS) database with regards to human factors aspects concerning the : implementation of Data Link into the flightdeck. The ASRS database contains : thousands of reports co...

  6. Measuring weather for aviation safety in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for an improved aviation weather system are defined and specifically include the need for (1) weather observations at all airports with instrument approaches, (2) more accurate and timely radar detection of weather elements hazardous to aviation, and (3) better methods of timely distribution of both pilot reports and ground weather data. The development of the discrete address beacon system data link, Doppler weather radar network, and various information processing techniques are described.

  7. Can the Aviation Industry be Useful in Teaching Oncology about Safety?

    PubMed

    Davies, J M; Delaney, G

    2017-10-01

    Healthcare practitioners have long considered aviation as a domain from which much can be learned about safety. Over the past 30 years, attempts have been made to apply aviation safety-related concepts to healthcare. Although some applications have been successful, a few decades later, many healthcare safety experts have learned that the appeal of the aviation-healthcare analogy is an illusion. Both domains are so basically dissimilar that simple adoption of aviation concepts will not be successful. However, what has succeeded is healthcare's adaptation of specific aviation safety concepts. Three concepts, investment in safety, human factors and safety management systems, are described and examples are given of adapted applications to healthcare/clinical oncology. Finally, there is a need to ensure that these concepts are applied systematically throughout healthcare rather than sporadically and without a centralised mandate, to help ensure success and improved patient and provider safety. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selling safety: the use of celebrities in improving awareness of safety in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Molesworth, Brett R C; Seneviratne, Dimuth; Burgess, Marion

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influential power of a celebrity to convey key safety messages in commercial aviation using a pre-flight safety briefing video. In addition, the present research sought to examine the effectiveness of subtitles in aiding the recall of these important messages as well as how in-cabin aircraft noise affects recall of this information. A total of 101 participants were randomly divided into four groups (no noise without subtitles, no noise with subtitles, noise without subtitles and noise with subtitles) and following exposure to a pre-recorded pre-flight safety briefing video were tested for recall of key safety messages within that video. Participants who recognised and recalled the name of the celebrity in the safety briefing video recalled significantly more of the messages than participants who did not recognise the celebrity. Subtitles were also found to be effective, however, only in the presence of representative in-cabin aircraft noise. Practitioner Summary: Passenger attention to pre-flight safety briefings on commercial aircraft is poor. Utilising the celebrity status of a famous person may overcome this problem. Results suggest that celebrities do increase the recall of safety-related information.

  9. Proceedings of the Second NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzaklis, K. Gus (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The Second NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Annual Project Review held June 5-7, 2001, in Cleveland, Ohio, presented the NASA technical plans and accomplishments to the aviation community. NASA-developed technologies presented included an Aviation Weather Information System with associated digital communications links, electronic atmospheric reporting technologies, forward-looking turbulence warning systems, and turbulence mitigation procedures. The meeting provided feedback and insight from the aviation community of diverse backgrounds and assisted NASA in steering its plans in the direction needed to meet the national safety goal of 80-percent reduction of aircraft accidents by 2007. The proceedings of the review are enclosed.

  10. Report to NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems Relative to Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The following report highlights some of the work accomplished by the Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Division of the Flight Safety Foundations since the last report to the NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems on 22 May 1963. The information presented is in summary form. Additional details may be provided upon request of the reports themselves may be obtained from AvSER.

  11. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  12. NASA Aviation Safety Program Systems Analysis/Program Assessment Metrics Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louis, Garrick E.; Anderson, Katherine; Ahmad, Tisan; Bouabid, Ali; Siriwardana, Maya; Guilbaud, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to evaluate the metrics and processes used by NASA's Aviation Safety Program in assessing technologies that contribute to NASA's aviation safety goals. There were three objectives for reaching this goal. First, NASA's main objectives for aviation safety were documented and their consistency was checked against the main objectives of the Aviation Safety Program. Next, the metrics used for technology investment by the Program Assessment function of AvSP were evaluated. Finally, other metrics that could be used by the Program Assessment Team (PAT) were identified and evaluated. This investigation revealed that the objectives are in fact consistent across organizational levels at NASA and with the FAA. Some of the major issues discussed in this study which should be further investigated, are the removal of the Cost and Return-on-Investment metrics, the lack of the metrics to measure the balance of investment and technology, the interdependencies between some of the metric risk driver categories, and the conflict between 'fatal accident rate' and 'accident rate' in the language of the Aviation Safety goal as stated in different sources.

  13. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  14. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  15. New Refractive Surgery Procedures and Their Implications for Aviation Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    airmen with laser refractive surgery, i.e., photorefractive keratectomy ( PRK ) and laser in situ keratomileusis ( LASIK ). A reference guide on refractive...surgery was published in September of 1998 (DOT/FAA/AM-98/25); however, at that time long-term clinical data on PRK and LASIK were not available...fractive surgery procedures (Photorefractive Keratectomy [ PRK ], Laser1 in situ Keratomileusis [ LASIK ]) and to assist Aviation Medical Examiners in

  16. Incident reporting: Its role in aviation safety and the acquisition of human error data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynard, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The rationale for aviation incident reporting systems is presented and contrasted to some of the shortcomings of accident investigation procedures. The history of the United State's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) is outlined and the program's character explained. The planning elements that resulted in the ASRS program's voluntary, confidential, and non-punitive design are discussed. Immunity, from enforcement action and misuse of the volunteered data, is explained and evaluated. Report generation techniques and the ASRS data analysis process are described; in addition, examples of the ASRS program's output and accomplishments are detailed. Finally, the value of incident reporting for the acquisition of safety information, particularly human error data, is explored.

  17. Duty of Notification and Aviation Safety-A Study of Fatal Aviation Accidents in the United States in 2015.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti; Laukkala, Tanja; Junttila, Ilkka; Kravik, Stein E; Griffiths, Robin

    2018-06-13

    After the Germanwings accident, the French Safety Investigation Authority (BEA) recommended that the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Community (EC) develop clear rules for the duty of notification process. Aeromedical practitioners (AMEs) face a dilemma when considering the duty of notification and conflicts between pilot privacy and public and third-party safety. When balancing accountability, knowledge of the duty of notification process, legislation and the clarification of a doctor’s own set of values should be assessed a priori. Relatively little is known of the magnitude of this problem in aviation safety. To address this, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was searched to identify fatal accidents during 2015 in the United States in which a deceased pilot used a prescribed medication or had a disease that potentially reduced pilot performance and was not reported to the AME. Altogether, 202 finalized accident reports with toxicology were available from (the year) 2015. In 5% (10/202) of these reports, the pilot had either a medication or a disease not reported to an AME which according to the accident investigation was causal to the fatal accident. In addition, the various approaches to duty of notification in aviation in New Zealand, Finland and Norway are discussed. The process of notification of authorities without a pilot’s express permission needs to be carried out by using a guidance protocol that works within legislation and professional responsibilities to address the pilot and the public, as well as the healthcare provider. Professional guidance defining this duty of notification is urgently needed.

  18. An Overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program Propulsion Health Monitoring Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has been initiated with aggressive goals to reduce the civil aviation accident rate, To meet these goals, several technology investment areas have been identified including a sub-element in propulsion health monitoring (PHM). Specific AvSP PHM objectives are to develop and validate propulsion system health monitoring technologies designed to prevent engine malfunctions from occurring in flight, and to mitigate detrimental effects in the event an in-flight malfunction does occur. A review of available propulsion system safety information was conducted to help prioritize PHM areas to focus on under the AvSP. It is noted that when a propulsion malfunction is involved in an aviation accident or incident, it is often a contributing factor rather than the sole cause for the event. Challenging aspects of the development and implementation of PHM technology such as cost, weight, robustness, and reliability are discussed. Specific technology plans are overviewed including vibration diagnostics, model-based controls and diagnostics, advanced instrumentation, and general aviation propulsion system health monitoring technology. Propulsion system health monitoring, in addition to engine design, inspection, maintenance, and pilot training and awareness, is intrinsic to enhancing aviation propulsion system safety.

  19. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  20. Automating the Generation of Heterogeneous Aviation Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganesh J.; Pohl, Josef M.

    2012-01-01

    A safety case is a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence, which provides a convincing and valid justification that a system is acceptably safe for a given application in a given operating environment. This report describes the development of a fragment of a preliminary safety case for the Swift Unmanned Aircraft System. The construction of the safety case fragment consists of two parts: a manually constructed system-level case, and an automatically constructed lower-level case, generated from formal proof of safety-relevant correctness properties. We provide a detailed discussion of the safety considerations for the target system, emphasizing the heterogeneity of sources of safety-relevant information, and use a hazard analysis to derive safety requirements, including formal requirements. We evaluate the safety case using three classes of metrics for measuring degrees of coverage, automation, and understandability. We then present our preliminary conclusions and make suggestions for future work.

  1. Counterheroism, Common Knowledge, and Ergonomics: Concepts from Aviation That Could Improve Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Geraint H; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Hockey, Peter M; Hirst, Guy; Bagian, James P

    2011-01-01

    Context: Many safety initiatives have been transferred successfully from commercial aviation to health care. This article develops a typology of aviation safety initiatives, applies this to health care, and proposes safety measures that might be adopted more widely. It then presents an economic framework for determining the likely costs and benefits of different patient safety initiatives. Methods: This article describes fifteen examples of error countermeasures that are used in public transport aviation, many of which are not routinely used in health care at present. Examples are the sterile cockpit rule, flight envelope protection, the first-names-only rule, and incentivized no-fault reporting. It develops a conceptual schema that is then used to argue why analogous initiatives might be usefully applied to health care and why physicians may resist them. Each example is measured against a set of economic criteria adopted from the taxation literature. Findings: The initiatives considered in the article fall into three themes: safety concepts that seek to downplay the role of heroic individuals and instead emphasize the importance of teams and whole organizations; concepts that seek to increase and apply group knowledge of safety information and values; and concepts that promote safety by design. The salient costs to be considered by organizations wishing to adopt these suggestions are the compliance costs to clinicians, the administration costs to the organization, and the costs of behavioral distortions. Conclusions: This article concludes that there is a range of safety initiatives used in commercial aviation that could have a positive impact on patient safety, and that adopting such initiatives may alter the safety culture of health care teams. The desirability of implementing each initiative, however, depends on the projected costs and benefits, which must be assessed for each situation. PMID:21418311

  2. Counterheroism, common knowledge, and ergonomics: concepts from aviation that could improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Geraint H; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Hockey, Peter M; Hirst, Guy; Bagian, James P

    2011-03-01

    Many safety initiatives have been transferred successfully from commercial aviation to health care. This article develops a typology of aviation safety initiatives, applies this to health care, and proposes safety measures that might be adopted more widely. It then presents an economic framework for determining the likely costs and benefits of different patient safety initiatives. This article describes fifteen examples of error countermeasures that are used in public transport aviation, many of which are not routinely used in health care at present. Examples are the sterile cockpit rule, flight envelope protection, the first-names-only rule, and incentivized no-fault reporting. It develops a conceptual schema that is then used to argue why analogous initiatives might be usefully applied to health care and why physicians may resist them. Each example is measured against a set of economic criteria adopted from the taxation literature. The initiatives considered in the article fall into three themes: safety concepts that seek to downplay the role of heroic individuals and instead emphasize the importance of teams and whole organizations; concepts that seek to increase and apply group knowledge of safety information and values; and concepts that promote safety by design. The salient costs to be considered by organizations wishing to adopt these suggestions are the compliance costs to clinicians, the administration costs to the organization, and the costs of behavioral distortions. This article concludes that there is a range of safety initiatives used in commercial aviation that could have a positive impact on patient safety, and that adopting such initiatives may alter the safety culture of health care teams. The desirability of implementing each initiative, however, depends on the projected costs and benefits, which must be assessed for each situation. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  3. Laser exposure incidents: pilot ocular health and aviation safety issues.

    PubMed

    Nakagawara, Van B; Wood, Kathryn J; Montgomery, Ron W

    2008-09-01

    A database of aviation reports involving laser illumination of flight crewmembers has been established and maintained at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. A review of recent laser illumination reports was initiated to investigate the significance of these events. Reports that involved laser exposures of civilian aircraft in the United States were analyzed for the 13-month period (January 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005). There were 90 reported instances of laser illumination during the study period. A total of 53 reports involved laser exposure of commercial aircraft. Lasers illuminated the cockpit in 41 (46%) of the incidents. Of those, 13 (32%) incidents resulted in a visual impairment or distraction to a pilot, including 1 incident that reportedly resulted in an ocular injury. Nearly 96% of these reports occurred in the last 3 months of the study period. There were no aviation accidents in which laser light illumination was found to be a contributing factor. Operational problems have resulted from laser illumination incidents in the national airspace system. Eye care practitioners, to provide effective consultations to their pilot patients, should be familiar with the problems that can occur with laser exposure.

  4. Evaluation of aviation-based safety team training in a hospital in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    De Korne, Dirk F; Van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; Van Dyck, Cathy; Hiddema, U Francis; Klazinga, Niek S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the implementation of a broad-scale team resource management (TRM) program on safety culture in a Dutch eye hospital, detailing the program's content and procedures. Aviation-based TRM training is recognized as a useful approach to increase patient safety, but little is known about how it affects safety culture. Pre- and post-assessments of the hospitals' safety culture was based on interviews with ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, residents, nurses, and support staff. Interim observations were made at training sessions and in daily hospital practice. The program consisted of safety audits of processes and (team) activities, interactive classroom training sessions by aviation experts, a flight simulator session, and video recording of team activities with subsequent feedback. Medical professionals considered aviation experts inspiring role models and respected their non-hierarchical external perspective and focus on medical-technical issues. The post-assessment showed that ophthalmologists and other hospital staff had become increasingly aware of safety issues. The multidisciplinary approach promoted social (team) orientation that replaced the former functionally-oriented culture. The number of reported near-incidents greatly increased; the number of wrong-side surgeries stabilized to a minimum after an initial substantial reduction. The study was observational and the hospital's variety of efforts to improve safety culture prevented us from establishing a causal relation between improvement and any one specific intervention. Aviation-based TRM training can be a useful to stimulate safety culture in hospitals. Safety and quality improvements are not single treatment interventions but complex socio-technical interventions. A multidisciplinary system approach and focus on "team" instead of "profession" seems both necessary and difficult in hospital care.

  5. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  6. Projected Impact of Compositional Verification on Current and Future Aviation Safety Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    The projected impact of compositional verification research conducted by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies on aviation safety risk was assessed. Software and compositional verification was described. Traditional verification techniques have two major problems: testing at the prototype stage where error discovery can be quite costly and the inability to test for all potential interactions leaving some errors undetected until used by the end user. Increasingly complex and nondeterministic aviation systems are becoming too large for these tools to check and verify. Compositional verification is a "divide and conquer" solution to addressing increasingly larger and more complex systems. A review of compositional verification research being conducted by academia, industry, and Government agencies is provided. Forty-four aviation safety risks in the Biennial NextGen Safety Issues Survey were identified that could be impacted by compositional verification and grouped into five categories: automation design; system complexity; software, flight control, or equipment failure or malfunction; new technology or operations; and verification and validation. One capability, 1 research action, 5 operational improvements, and 13 enablers within the Federal Aviation Administration Joint Planning and Development Office Integrated Work Plan that could be addressed by compositional verification were identified.

  7. EMS helicopter incidents reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Reynard, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this evaluation were to: Identify the types of safety-related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopter operations; Describe the operational conditions surrounding these incidents, such as weather, airspace, flight phase, time of day; and Assess the contribution to these incidents of selected human factors considerations, such as communication, distraction, time pressure, workload, and flight/duty impact.

  8. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  9. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  10. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  11. Integrating Safety in the Aviation System: Interdepartmental Training for Pilots and Maintenance Technicians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, Marifran; Petrin, Donald A.; Young, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The study of human factors has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, the entire aviation system often is not considered in researching, training, and evaluating human factors issues especially with regard to safety. In both conceptual and practical terms, we argue for the proactive management of human error from both an individual and organizational systems perspective. The results of a multidisciplinary research project incorporating survey data from professional pilots and maintenance technicians and an exploratory study integrating students from relevant disciplines are reported. Survey findings suggest that latent safety errors may occur during the maintenance discrepancy reporting process because pilots and maintenance technicians do not effectively interact with one another. The importance of interdepartmental or cross-disciplinary training for decreasing these errors and increasing safety is discussed as a primary implication.

  12. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  13. Assessing Knowledge Retention of an Immersive Serious Game vs. a Traditional Education Method in Aviation Safety.

    PubMed

    Chittaro, Luca; Buttussi, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to the increasing availability of consumer head-mounted displays, educational applications of immersive VR could now reach to the general public, especially if they include gaming elements (immersive serious games). Safety education of citizens could be a particularly promising domain for immersive serious games, because people tend not to pay attention to and benefit from current safety materials. In this paper, we propose an HMD-based immersive game for educating passengers about aviation safety that allows players to experience a serious aircraft emergency with the goal of surviving it. We compare the proposed approach to a traditional aviation safety education method (the safety card) used by airlines. Unlike most studies of VR for safety knowledge acquisition, we do not focus only on assessing learning immediately after the experience but we extend our attention to knowledge retention over a longer time span. This is a fundamental requirement, because people need to retain safety procedures in order to apply them when faced with danger. A knowledge test administered before, immediately after and one week after the experimental condition showed that the immersive serious game was superior to the safety card. Moreover, subjective as well as physiological measurements employed in the study showed that the immersive serious game was more engaging and fear-arousing than the safety card, a factor that can contribute to explain the obtained superior retention, as we discuss in the paper.

  14. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  15. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  16. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  17. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  18. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  19. An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2003-09-01

    This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to anmore » aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.« less

  20. Aviation medicine, FAA-1966.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1967-12-01

    The health and safety of more than 80,000,000 aircraft passengers, approximately 500,000 active civilian pilots and other civilian aviation personnel is the concern of the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine.

  1. An Examination of Safety Management Systems and Aviation Technologies in the Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, Steven A.

    The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) industry has a significant role in the transportation of injured patients, but has experienced more accidents than all other segments of the aviation industry combined. With the objective of addressing this discrepancy, this study assesses the effect of safety management systems implementation and aviation technologies utilization on the reduction of HEMS accident rates. Participating were 147 pilots from Federal Aviation Regulations Part 135 HEMS operators, who completed a survey questionnaire based on the Safety Culture and Safety Management System Survey (SCSMSS). The study assessed the predictor value of SMS implementation and aviation technologies to the frequency of HEMS accident rates with correlation and multiple linear regression. The correlation analysis identified three significant positive relationships. HEMS years of experience had a high significant positive relationship with accident rate (r=.90; p<.05); SMS had a moderate significant positive relationship to Night Vision Goggles (NVG) (r=.38; p<.05); and SMS had a slight significant positive relationship with Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS) (r=.234; p<.05). Multiple regression analysis suggested that when combined with NVG, TAWS, and SMS, HEMS years of experience explained 81.4% of the variance in accident rate scores (p<.05), and HEMS years of experience was found to be a significant predictor of accident rates (p<.05). Additional quantitative regression analysis was recommended to replicate the results of this study and to consider the influence of these variables for continued reduction of HEMS accidents, and to induce execution of SMS and aviation technologies from a systems engineering application. Recommendations for practice included the adoption of existing regulatory guidance for a SMS program. A qualitative analysis was also recommended for future study SMS implementation and HEMS accident rate from the pilot's perspective. A

  2. Human factors in airport surface incidents : an analysis of pilot reports submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human factors involved in airport surface incidents as reported by pilots. Reports submitted to the : Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are a good source of information regarding the human performance is...

  3. Results of a field study of the performance enhancement system : a support system for aviation safety inspectors.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-12-01

    The Performance Enhancement System (PENS) is a prototype electronic performance support system for Aviation Safety Inspectors (ASIs). PENS facilitates field data collection, information management, and on-line references, thus eliminating paperwork, ...

  4. Visual analytics for aviation safety: A collaborative approach to sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew

    Visual analytics, the "science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces", is more than just visualization. Understanding the human reasoning process is essential for designing effective visualization tools and providing correct analyses. This thesis describes the evolution, application and evaluation of a new method for studying analytical reasoning that we have labeled paired analysis. Paired analysis combines subject matter experts (SMEs) and tool experts (TE) in an analytic dyad, here used to investigate aircraft maintenance and safety data. The method was developed and evaluated using interviews, pilot studies and analytic sessions during an internship at the Boeing Company. By enabling a collaborative approach to sensemaking that can be captured by researchers, paired analysis yielded rich data on human analytical reasoning that can be used to support analytic tool development and analyst training. Keywords: visual analytics, paired analysis, sensemaking, boeing, collaborative analysis.

  5. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  6. Correlated Topics in a Scalable Multidimensional Text Cube: Algorithms and Aviation Safety Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Bo; Lin, Cindy X.; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Oza, Nikunj C.; Han, Jiawei

    2010-01-01

    As world-wide air traffic continues to grow even at a modest pace, the overall complexity of the system will increase significantly. This increased complexity can lead to a larger number of fatalities per year even if the extremely low fatality rate that we currently enjoy is maintained. One important source of information about the safety of the aviation system is in Aviation Safety Text Reports which are written by members of the flight crew, air traffic controllers, and other parties involved with the aviation system. These anonymized narrative reports contain fixed-field contextual information about the flight but also contain free-form narratives that describe, in the author s own words, the nature of the safety incident and, in many cases, the contributing factors that led to the safety incident. Several thousand such reports are filed each month, each of which is read and analyzed by highly trained experts. However, it is possible that there are emerging safety issues due to the fact that they may be reported very infrequently and in different contexts with different descriptions. The goal of this research paper is to develop correlated topic models which uncover correlations in the subspaces defined by the intersection of numerous fixed fields and discovered correlated topics. This task requires the discovery of latent topics in the text reports and the creation of a topic cube. Furthermore, because the number of potential cells in the topic cube is very large, we discuss novel methods of pruning the search space in the topic cells, thereby making the analysis feasible. We demonstrate the new algorithms on an analysis of pilot fatigue and its contributing factors, as well as the safety incidents that are correlated with this phenomenon.

  7. Partnerships With Aviation: Promoting a Culture of Safety in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Lori; Tripp, Terrance R; Scouler, David; Pechacek, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 1999, p. 1), "Medical errors can be defined as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim." The current health care culture is disjointed, as evidenced by a lack of consistent reporting standards for all providers; provider licensing pays little attention to errors, and there are no financial incentives to improve safety (IOM, 1999). Many errors in health care are preventable. "Near misses" and adverse events that do occur can offer insight on how to improve practice and prevent future events. The aim of this article is to better understand underreporting of errors in health care, to present a model of change that increases voluntary error reporting, and to discuss the role nurse executives play in creating a culture of safety. This article explores how high reliability organizations such as aviation improve safety through enhanced error reporting, culture change, and teamwork.

  8. A comparison of leading and lagging indicators of safety in naval aviation.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Paul; Cowan, Shawn; Alton, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the results of two different methods of identifying human factors safety concerns in U.S. Naval aviation. In both studies, the information was collected using the Department of Defense Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (DoD-HFACS). In the first study, aviation mishap data (a lagging indictor) was obtained on 47 F/A-18 and 16 H-60 mishaps. In the second study, the responses of 68 squadrons to a survey regarding the human factors issues that they considered to be of the greatest safety concern were examined (a leading indicator). First study results revealed that skill-based errors were the most commonly cited factors for both F/A-18 and H-60 mishaps (70.2% and 81.3%, respectively). More specifically, the most commonly used nanocodes were 'over control/ under control' (27.7% and 56.3%, respectively), 'breakdown in visual scan' (27.7% and 12.5%, respectively), and 'procedural errors' (23.4% and 37.6%, respectively). The second study identified that the main concern of F/A-18 and H-60 aviators was workload and operational tempo (identified by 85% of squadrons). It can be concluded that the nanocodes that were most commonly used to classify the causes of past mishaps were not identified as major concerns by the squadrons who responded to the survey. The findings from these studies emphasize the importance of examining a number of performance metrics to ensure that effective measures are being taken to improve safety.

  9. Association of Postmortem Blood Hemoglobin A1c Levels With Diabetic Conditions in Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    A1c ( HbA1c ) at selected time intervals during the 52-day period. Postmortem blood specimens from 34 aviation accident pilot fatalities were also...analyzed. Some of these pilots had a known history of diabetes. Results. HbA1c values in blood from volunteers did not significantly change for up to 52...days. The HbA1c concentration in postmortem blood samples from pilots ranged from 3.9-10.5%. Only one pilot with a HbA1c over 6.0% did not have a

  10. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report reviews incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) for system-component-failure- or-malfunction- (SCFM-) related and human-factor-related incidents for commercial or cargo air carriers (Part 121), commuter airlines (Part 135), and general aviation (Part 91). The data was analyzed by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) part, phase of flight, SCFM category, human factor category, and a variety of anomalies and results. There were 38 894 SCFM-related incidents and 83 478 human-factorrelated incidents analyzed between January 1993 and April 2011.

  11. Safety And Promotion in the Federal Aviation Administration- Enabling Safe and Successful Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repcheck, Randall J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) authorizes the launch and reentry of expendable and reusable launch vehicles and the operation of launch and reentry sites by United States citizens or within the United States. It authorizes these activities consistent with public health and safety, the safety of property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States. In addition to its safety role, AST has the role to encourage, facilitate, and promote commercial space launches and reentries by the private sector. AST’s promotional role includes, among other things, the development of information of interest to industry, the sharing of information of interest through a variety of methods, and serving as an advocate for Commercial Space Transportation within the United States government. This dual safety and promotion role is viewed by some as conflicting. AST views these two roles as complementary, and important for the current state of commercial space transportation. This paper discusses how maintaining a sound safety decision-making process, maintaining a strong safety culture, and taking steps to avoid complacency can together enable safe and successful commercial space transportation.

  12. Assessment of a Conceptual Flap System Intended for Enhanced General Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Carter, Melissa B.

    2017-01-01

    A novel multielement trailing-edge flap system for light general aviation airplanes was conceived for enhanced safety during normal and emergency landings. The system is designed to significantly reduce stall speed, and thus approach speed, with the goal of reducing maneuveringflight accidents and enhancing pilot survivability in the event of an accident. The research objectives were to assess the aerodynamic performance characteristics of the system and to evaluate the extent to which it provided both increased lift and increased drag required for the low-speed landing goal. The flap system was applied to a model of a light general aviation, high-wing trainer and tested in the Langley 12- Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were obtained for several device deflection angles, and component combinations at a dynamic pressure of 4 pounds per square foot. The force and moment data supports the achievement of the desired increase in lift with substantially increased drag, all at relatively shallow angles of attack. The levels of lift and drag can be varied through device deflection angles and inboard/outboard differential deflections. As such, it appears that this flap system may provide an enabling technology to allow steep, controllable glide slopes for safe rapid descent to landing with reduced stall speed. However, a simple flat-plate lower surface spoiler (LSS) provided either similar or superior lift with little impact on pitch or drag as compared to the proposed system. Higher-fidelity studies are suggested prior to use of the proposed system.

  13. Principles of Automation for Patient Safety in Intensive Care: Learning From Aviation.

    PubMed

    Dominiczak, Jason; Khansa, Lara

    2018-06-01

    The transition away from written documentation and analog methods has opened up the possibility of leveraging data science and analytic techniques to improve health care. In the implementation of data science techniques and methodologies, high-acuity patients in the ICU can particularly benefit. The Principles of Automation for Patient Safety in Intensive Care (PASPIC) framework draws on Billings's principles of human-centered aviation (HCA) automation and helps in identifying the advantages, pitfalls, and unintended consequences of automation in health care. Billings's HCA principles are based on the premise that human operators must remain "in command," so that they are continuously informed and actively involved in all aspects of system operations. In addition, automated systems need to be predictable, simple to train, to learn, and to operate, and must be able to monitor the human operators, and every intelligent system element must know the intent of other intelligent system elements. In applying Billings's HCA principles to the ICU setting, PAPSIC has three key characteristics: (1) integration and better interoperability, (2) multidimensional analysis, and (3) enhanced situation awareness. PAPSIC suggests that health care professionals reduce overreliance on automation and implement "cooperative automation" and that vendors reduce mode errors and embrace interoperability. Much can be learned from the aviation industry in automating the ICU. Because it combines "smart" technology with the necessary controls to withstand unintended consequences, PAPSIC could help ensure more informed decision making in the ICU and better patient care. Copyright © 2018 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators.

  15. An Overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) Systemwide Accident Prevention (SWAP) Human Performance Modeling (HPM) Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Goodman, Allen; Hooley, Becky L.

    2003-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Human Performance Modeling (HPM) element within the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). Two separate model development tracks for performance modeling of real-world aviation environments are described: the first focuses on the advancement of cognitive modeling tools for system design, while the second centers on a prescriptive engineering model of activity tracking for error detection and analysis. A progressive implementation strategy for both tracks is discussed in which increasingly more complex, safety-relevant applications are undertaken to extend the state-of-the-art, as well as to reveal potential human-system vulnerabilities in the aviation domain. Of particular interest is the ability to predict the precursors to error and to assess potential mitigation strategies associated with the operational use of future flight deck technologies.

  16. Reporter Concerns in 300 Mode-Related Incident Reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    A model has been developed which represents prominent reporter concerns expressed in the narratives of 300 mode-related incident reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The model objectively quantifies the structure of concerns which persist across situations and reporters. These concerns are described and illustrated using verbatim sentences from the original narratives. Report accession numbers are included with each sentence so that concerns can be traced back to the original reports. The results also include an inventory of mode names mentioned in the narratives, and a comparison of individual and joint concerns. The method is based on a proximity-weighted co-occurrence metric and object-oriented complexity reduction.

  17. The U.S. Commercial Air Tour Industry: A Review of Aviation Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as “flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing.” The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators. PMID:24597160

  18. Surface Movement Incidents Reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Hubener, Simone

    1997-01-01

    Increasing numbers of aircraft are operating on the surface of airports throughout the world. Airport operations are forecast to grow by more that 50%, by the year 2005. Airport surface movement traffic would therefore be expected to become increasingly congested. Safety of these surface operations will become a focus as airport capacity planning efforts proceed toward the future. Several past events highlight the prevailing risks experienced while moving aircraft during ground operations on runways, taxiways, and other areas at terminal, gates, and ramps. The 1994 St. Louis accident between a taxiing Cessna crossing an active runway and colliding with a landing MD-80 emphasizes the importance of a fail-safe system for airport operations. The following study explores reports of incidents occurring on an airport surface that did not escalate to an accident event. The Aviation Safety Reporting System has collected data on surface movement incidents since 1976. This study sampled the reporting data from June, 1993 through June, 1994. The coding of the data was accomplished in several categories. The categories include location of airport, phase of ground operation, weather /lighting conditions, ground conflicts, flight crew characteristics, human factor considerations, and airport environment. These comparisons and distributions of variables contributing to surface movement incidents can be invaluable to future airport planning, accident prevention efforts, and system-wide improvements.

  19. Aviation safety : safer skies initiative has taken initial steps to reduce accident rates by 2007

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-06-01

    The continued growth forecast for U.S. aviation in the coming decade will likely bring a rise in fatal accidents if the current accident rate is not reduced. Commercial aviation, used by most Americans when they fly, experienced an average of 6 fatal...

  20. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  1. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  2. Aviation Safety: Opportunities Exist for FAA to Refine the Controller Staffing Process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-09

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responsible for managing the : nation's air transportation system so more than 18,000 aircraft can annually : carry 500 million passengers safely and on schedule. Because of significant : hiring in the ear...

  3. Aviation Safety: Weaknesses in Inspection and Enforcement Limit FAA in Identifying and Responding to Risks

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-02-27

    This General Accounting Office report examines (1) the outcomes of the Federal : Aviation Administration's (FAA) inspection process in fiscal years 1990 through : 1996 and how this process could be strengthened to better assess and encourage : compli...

  4. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  5. Association of postmortem blood hemoglobin A1c levels with diabetic conditions in aviation accident pilot fatalities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-07-01

    Purpose. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Office of Aerospace Medicine evaluates present and proposed medical certification standards for pilots. Under this responsibility, the FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute investigates the role ...

  6. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    PubMed

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  7. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  8. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G101 Aviation Mathematics and Physics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain three instructional modules covering safety, aviation mathematics, and aviation physics. Each module may contain an introduction and module objective, specific objectives, an instructor's module implementation guide, technical information supplements, transparency…

  9. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  10. Aviation System Safety and Pilot Risk Perception: Implications for Enhancing Decision-Making Skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Mavis F.

    2001-01-01

    This research explores risk perception in a defined population of flight instructors and the implications of these views for flight training. Flight instructors and students engaged in collegiate aviation flight training were interviewed for this qualitative study. Thirty-three percent of the instructors interviewed reported that flying is not a risky activity. This is important because research identifies risk perception as one factor influencing instructional choices. These choices can then impact the subsequent decision-making processes of flight students. Facilitating pilot decision-making through the use of an appropriate type of learning that incorporates the modeling of consensually validated cognitive procedures and risk management processes is discussed.

  11. Management Advisory Memorandum on Airline Safety Data for Consumers; Federal Aviation Administration

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-10-28

    This is a review of whether the Department of Transportation (DOT) provides adequate comparative information to consumers on the safety record of airlines. This review was undertaken in light of recent concerns over airline safety and DOT's efforts t...

  12. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  13. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  14. The Relationship Between Naval Aviation Mishaps and Squadron Maintenance Safety Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    automobile and personal safety. The Safety Department strives to ensure that safety is emphasized and is viewed by all squadron members as...Quessenberry & Boyer, 2004). These informal rules and personal values can influence the developed culture within a squadron, both positively and...management will lower morale and cause employees to get frustrated and pessimistic with the process in general. Reaction may also hold the person who

  15. Crew resource management: using aviation techniques to improve operating room safety.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Michael A; Brumsted, John R

    2012-04-01

    Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine report estimating nearly 100,000 deaths per year from medical errors, hospitals and physicians have a renewed focus upon error reduction. We implemented a surgical crew resource management (CRM) program for all operating room (OR) personnel. In our academic medical center, 19,000 procedures per year are performed in 27 operating rooms. Mandatory CRM training was implemented for all peri-operative personnel. Aviation techniques introduced included a pre-operative checklist and brief, post-operative debrief, read and initial files, and various other aviation-based techniques. Compliance with conduct of the brief/debrief was monitored as well as wrong-site surgeries and retained foreign body events. The malpractice insurance database for claims was also queried for the period prior to and after training. Initial training was accomplished for 517 people, including all anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and OR assistants. Pre-operative briefing increased from 6.7 to 99% within 4 mo. Wrong site surgeries and retained foreign bodies decreased from a high of seven in 2007 to none in 2008, but, after 14 mo without additional training, these rose to five in 2009. Malpractice expenses (payouts and legal fees) totaled $793,000 (2003-2007), but have been zero since 2008. CRM training and implementation had an impact on reducing the incidence of wrong site surgery and retained foreign bodies in our operating rooms. However, constant reinforcement and refresher training is necessary for sustained results. Though no one technique can prevent all errors, CRM can effect culture change, producing a safer environment.

  16. [Radiation safety of exploitation of radiation sources at the civil aviation airlines].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, R V; Zuev, V G; Berezin, G I; Sereda, V N; Zasiad'ko, A K

    2004-01-01

    Radiation risks from isotope-containing equipment, and ionizing and unused X-ray radiation sources are characterized and relevant normative documents with safety requirements to radiation sources installation, radiation safety of aircraft servicing and repair, hand luggage control and heavy luggage registration, personal protection items, system of radiation monitoring at airlines and aircraft works, and liability for breach of performance guidelines are cited.

  17. Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC): An Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Reports Concerning PDC Related Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalyo, Michael L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Airlines operating in the United States are required to operate under instrument flight rules (EFR). Typically, a clearance is issued via voice transmission from clearance delivery at the departing airport. In 1990, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began deployment of the Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) system at 30 U.S. airports. The PDC system utilizes aeronautical datalink and Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACARS) to transmit departure clearances directly to the pilot. An objective of the PDC system is to provide an immediate reduction in voice congestion over the clearance delivery frequency. Participating airports report that this objective has been met. However, preliminary analysis of 42 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports has revealed problems in PDC procedures and formatting which have caused errors in the proper execution of the clearance. It must be acknowledged that this technology, along with other advancements on the flightdeck, is adding more responsibility to the crew and increasing the opportunity for error. The present study uses these findings as a basis for further coding and analysis of an additional 82 reports obtained from an ASRS database search. These reports indicate that clearances are often amended or exceptions are added in order to accommodate local ATC facilities. However, the onboard ACARS is limited in its ability to emphasize or highlight these changes which has resulted in altitude and heading deviations along with increases in ATC workload. Furthermore, few participating airports require any type of PDC receipt confirmation. In fact, 35% of all ASRS reports dealing with PDC's include failure to acquire the PDC at all. Consequently, this study examines pilots' suggestions contained in ASRS reports in order to develop recommendations to airlines and ATC facilities to help reduce the amount of incidents that occur.

  18. [Organize quality assurance as in aviation; improve patient safety in Dutch hospitals].

    PubMed

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Beekmann, Roland T A; van den Elzen, Guus J P; Lansbergen, Michael D I; Berlijn, Dick L

    2009-01-01

    Failing teamwork is a major cause of adverse events in hospitals in the Netherlands. Training team-skills can improve the safety standards in clinical heath care. An adapted version of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training is proving to be a usable format in the hospital environment. We emphasize that paying attention to the subject of safety has to start early in medical education in order to incorporate non-technical skills into the hospital culture.

  19. Airport Managers' Perspectives on Security and Safety Management Systems in Aviation Operations: A Multiple Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Willie L., Jr.

    Global terrorism continues to persist despite the great efforts of various countries to protect and safely secure their citizens. As airports form the entry and exit ports of a country, they are one of the most vulnerable locations to terror attacks. Managers of international airports constantly face similar challenges in developing and implementing airport security protocols. Consequently, the technological advances of today have brought both positive and negative impacts on security and terrorism of airports, which are mostly managed by the airport managers. The roles of the managers have greatly increased over the years due to technological advances. The developments in technology have had different roles in security, both in countering terrorism and, at the same time, increasing the communication methods of the terrorists. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to investigate the perspectives of airport managers with regard to societal security and social interactions in the socio-technical systems of the National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS). Through the data gained regarding managers' perception and experiences, the researcher hoped to enable the development of security measures and policies that are appropriate for airports as socio-technical systems. The researcher conducted interviews with airport managers to gather relevant data to fulfill the rationale of the study. Ten to twelve airport managers based in three commercial aviation airports in Maryland, United States participated in the study. The researcher used a qualitative thematic analysis procedure to analyze the data responses of participants in the interview sessions.

  20. Exploring human error in military aviation flight safety events using post-incident classification systems.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Brionny J; O'Hare, David P A

    2013-08-01

    Human error classification systems theoretically allow researchers to analyze postaccident data in an objective and consistent manner. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework is one such practical analysis tool that has been widely used to classify human error in aviation. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy (CET) is another. It has been postulated that the focus on interrelationships within HFACS can facilitate the identification of the underlying causes of pilot error. The CET provides increased granularity at the level of unsafe acts. The aim was to analyze the influence of factors at higher organizational levels on the unsafe acts of front-line operators and to compare the errors of fixed-wing and rotary-wing operations. This study analyzed 288 aircraft incidents involving human error from an Australasian military organization occurring between 2001 and 2008. Action errors accounted for almost twice (44%) the proportion of rotary wing compared to fixed wing (23%) incidents. Both classificatory systems showed significant relationships between precursor factors such as the physical environment, mental and physiological states, crew resource management, training and personal readiness, and skill-based, but not decision-based, acts. The CET analysis showed different predisposing factors for different aspects of skill-based behaviors. Skill-based errors in military operations are more prevalent in rotary wing incidents and are related to higher level supervisory processes in the organization. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy provides increased granularity to HFACS analyses of unsafe acts.

  1. Aviation's Normal Operations Safety Audit: a safety management and educational tool for health care? Results of a small-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Simon A

    2017-01-01

    A National Health Service (NHS) contingent liability for medical error claims of over £26 billion. To evaluate the safety management and educational benefits of adapting aviation's Normal Operations Safety Audit (NOSA) to health care. In vivo research, a NOSA was performed by medical students at an English NHS Trust. After receiving training from the author, the students spent 6 days gathering data under his supervision. The data revealed a threat-rich environment, where errors - some consequential - were made (359 threats and 86 errors were recorded over 2 weeks). The students claimed that the exercise improved their observational, investigative, communication, teamworking and other nontechnical skills. NOSA is potentially an effective safety management and educational tool for health care. It is suggested that 1) the UK General Medical Council mandates that all medical students perform a NOSA in fulfillment of their degree; 2) the participating NHS Trusts be encouraged to act on students' findings; and 3) the UK Department of Health adopts NOSA as a cornerstone risk assessment and management tool.

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  3. A Review of the Safety Climate Literature as it Relates to Naval Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    mines, the opposite effect also appears to hold true. Brown , Willis and Prussia (2000) found that safety hazards directly caused accidents and...low performers (Braithwait, 1985; DeMichiei, Langton, Bullock, & Wiles , 1982). High levels of management control over work organization and task...thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Brown , K.A., Willis, P.G., & Prussia, G.E. (2000). Predicting safe employee behaviour in the steel

  4. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  5. Paediatric Patient Safety and the Need for Aviation Black Box Thinking to Learn From and Prevent Medication Errors.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Chi; Wong, Ian C K; Correa-West, Jo; Terry, David; McCarthy, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Since the publication of To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999, there has been much research conducted into the epidemiology, nature and causes of medication errors in children, from prescribing and supply to administration. It is reassuring to see growing evidence of improving medication safety in children; however, based on media reports, it can be seen that serious and fatal medication errors still occur. This critical opinion article examines the problem of medication errors in children and provides recommendations for research, training of healthcare professionals and a culture shift towards dealing with medication errors. There are three factors that we need to consider to unravel what is missing and why fatal medication errors still occur. (1) Who is involved and affected by the medication error? (2) What factors hinder staff and organisations from learning from mistakes? Does the fear of litigation and criminal charges deter healthcare professionals from voluntarily reporting medication errors? (3) What are the educational needs required to prevent medication errors? It is important to educate future healthcare professionals about medication errors and human factors to prevent these from happening. Further research is required to apply aviation's 'black box' principles in healthcare to record and learn from near misses and errors to prevent future events. There is an urgent need for the black box investigations to be published and made public for the benefit of other organisations that may have similar potential risks for adverse events. International sharing of investigations and learning is also needed.

  6. Safety of working patterns among UK neuroradiologists: what can we learn from the aviation industry and cognitive science?

    PubMed

    Reicher, John; Currie, Stuart; Birchall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to strike the necessary balance between achieving satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities. Our results demonstrate that some neuroradiologists report for up to 12 h a day and for 4 h before taking a break. Mean duration of breaks is less than 15 min and these often consist of computer screen-based or cognitively demanding tasks. Many areas of medicine have looked to the aviation industry to develop improvements in safety through regulated, standardised practices. There are parallels between the work of air traffic controllers (ATCs) and radiologists. We review the legislation that controls the working hours of UK ATCs to minimise fatigue-related errors, and its scientific basis. We also consider the vigilance decrement, a concept in cognitive science which describes the reduction in performance with increasing time-on-task. We conclude that, in comparison with ATCs, work patterns among radiologists are poorly standardised and potentially dangerous. Evidence suggests that placing limits on reporting time and minimum break duration, as well as ensuring appropriate break activities, can benefit reporting quality. It is imperative that radiologists and managers heed these lessons, to improve standards and protect patients from error.

  7. Aviation Safety: Modeling and Analyzing Complex Interactions between Humans and Automated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha; Brat, Guillaume; Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Raimondi, Franco; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The on-going transformation from the current US Air Traffic System (ATS) to the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) will force the introduction of new automated systems and most likely will cause automation to migrate from ground to air. This will yield new function allocations between humans and automation and therefore change the roles and responsibilities in the ATS. Yet, safety in NextGen is required to be at least as good as in the current system. We therefore need techniques to evaluate the safety of the interactions between humans and automation. We think that current human factor studies and simulation-based techniques will fall short in front of the ATS complexity, and that we need to add more automated techniques to simulations, such as model checking, which offers exhaustive coverage of the non-deterministic behaviors in nominal and off-nominal scenarios. In this work, we present a verification approach based both on simulations and on model checking for evaluating the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation. Models are created using Brahms (a multi-agent framework) and we show that the traditional Brahms simulations can be integrated with automated exploration techniques based on model checking, thus offering a complete exploration of the behavioral space of the scenario. Our formal analysis supports the notion of beliefs and probabilities to reason about human behavior. We demonstrate the technique with the Ueberligen accident since it exemplifies authority problems when receiving conflicting advices from human and automated systems.

  8. Technical highlights in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Improvements in performance, safety, efficiency, and emissions control in general aviation craft are reviewed. While change is slow, the U.S. industries still account for the bulk (90%) of the world's general aviation fleet. Advances in general aviation aerodynamics, structures and materials, acoustics, avionics, and propulsion are described. Supercritical airfoils, drag reduction design, stall/spin studies, crashworthiness and passenger safety, fiberglass materials, flight noise abatement, interior noise and vibration reduction, navigation systems, quieter and cleaner (reciprocating, turboprop, turbofan) engines, and possible benefits of the Global Position Satellite System to general aviation navigation are covered in the discussion. Some of the developments are illustrated.

  9. A Milestone of Aeromedical Research Contributions to Civil Aviation Safety: The 1000th Report in the CARI/OAM Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Civil Aero Polytechnology Institute in Bejing , China , and to the Australian Civil Aviation Authority and aviation industry representatives in Sydney...changes, split medical responsibility into research and opera - tions, with separate reporting heads. That circumstance lasted until 1940 when the CAA...CARI’s opera - ton and organzaton. From 160 to 162, CARI was under the Research Requrements Dvson n Wash- ngton. In June 162, the Office of the

  10. Aviation Weather Information Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in aviation safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on aviation safety and is associated with 30% of all aviation accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current aviation weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for aviation weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of aviation weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.

  11. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  12. Criminal Acts against Civil Aviation: 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Aviation Security maintains records of aircraft hijackings, bombing attacks, and other significant criminal acts against civil aviation worldwide. These records include actual and attempted hijackings: explosions aboard aircraft, at airports, and at airline offices; and other selected criminal acts against civil aviation. These offenses represent serious threats to the safety of civil aviation and, in those incidents involving U.S. air carriers or facilities outside the United States, are often intended as symbolic attacks against the United States. This edition summarizes

  13. The value of Doppler LiDAR systems to monitor turbulence intensity during storm events in order to enhance aviation safety in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shu; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Finger, David C.

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence and wind shear are a major natural hazards for aviation safety in Iceland. The temporal and spatial scale of atmospheric turbulence is very dynamic, requiring an adequate method to detect and monitor turbulence with high resolution. The Doppler Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system can provide continuous information about the wind field using the Doppler effect form emitted light signals. In this study, we use a Leosphere Windcube 200s LiDAR systems stationed near Reykjavik city Airport and at Keflavik International Airport, Iceland, to evaluate turbulence intensity by estimating eddy dissipation rate (EDR). For this purpose, we retrieved radial wind velocity observations from Velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) scans (360°scans at 15° and 75° elevation angle) to compute EDR. The method was used to monitor and characterize storm events in fall 2016 and the following winter. The preliminary result reveal that the LiDAR observations can detect and quantify atmospheric turbulence with high spatial and temporal resolution. This finding is an important step towards enhanced aviation safety in subpolar climate characterized by sever wind turbulence.

  14. [Safety culture in orthopedics and trauma surgery : Course concept: interpersonal competence by the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) and Lufthansa Aviation Training].

    PubMed

    Doepfer, A-K; Seemann, R; Merschin, D; Stange, R; Egerth, M; Münzberg, M; Mutschler, M; Bouillon, B; Hoffmann, R

    2017-10-01

    Patient safety has become a central and measurable key factor in the routine daily medical practice. The human factor plays a decisive role in safety culture and has moved into focus regarding the reduction of treatment errors and undesired critical incidents. Nonetheless, the systematic training in communication and interpersonal competences has so far only played a minor role. The German Society of Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) in cooperation with the Lufthansa Aviation Training initiated a course system for interpersonal competence. Several studies confirmed the reduction of critical incidents and costs after implementation of a regular and targeted human factor training. The interpersonal competence should be an essential component of specialist training within the framework of a 3‑column model.

  15. 40 Years of Safer Aviation Through Reporting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-28

    NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) is one of the tools used to make aviation in the United States as safe as it is. Celebrating its 40th anniversary this year, NASA’s confidential ASRS is widely used by pilots and other airline employees to identify potential hazards. Over the past 40 years, the ASRS has issued more than 6,200 safety alerts to the FAA and other decision makers in the aviation community.

  16. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  17. Aviation Safety Modeling and Simulation (ASMM) Propulsion Fleet Modeling: A Tool for Semi-Automatic Construction of CORBA-based Applications from Legacy Fortran Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sang, Janche

    2003-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, NASA GRC participates in the Modeling and Simulation Project called ASMM. NASA GRC s focus is to characterize the propulsion systems performance from a fleet management and maintenance perspective by modeling and through simulation predict the characteristics of two classes of commercial engines (CFM56 and GE90). In prior years, the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program funded, NASA Glenn in developing a large scale, detailed simulations for the analysis and design of aircraft engines called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Three major aspects of this modeling included the integration of different engine components, coupling of multiple disciplines, and engine component zooming at appropriate level fidelity, require relatively tight coupling of different analysis codes. Most of these codes in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with distributed objects can increase these codes reusability. Aviation Safety s modeling and simulation use in characterizing fleet management has similar needs. The modeling and simulation of these propulsion systems use existing Fortran and C codes that are instrumental in determining the performance of the fleet. The research centers on building a CORBA-based development environment for programmers to easily wrap and couple legacy Fortran codes. This environment consists of a C++ wrapper library to hide the details of CORBA and an efficient remote variable scheme to facilitate data exchange between the client and the server model. Additionally, a Web Service model should also be constructed for evaluation of this technology s use over the next two- three years.

  18. Federal Aviation Administration : challenges in modernizing the agency

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-02-01

    FAA's efforts to implement initiatives in five key areas-air traffic control modernization, procurement and personnel reform, aviation safety, aviation and computer security, and financial management-have met with limited success. For example, FAA ha...

  19. Medical factors in U.S. general aviation accidents.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1969-01-01

    About ninety percent of fatal U. S. general aviation accidents involve factors other than the aircraft or outside circumstances. This necessarily brings the flight surgeon into the mainstream of aviation safety activities. The paper describes some re...

  20. Satellite Delivery of Aviation Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Haendel, Richard

    2001-01-01

    With aviation traffic continuing to increase worldwide, reducing the aviation accident rate and aviation schedule delays is of critical importance. In the United States, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Aviation Safety Program and the Aviation System Capacity Program to develop and test new technologies to increase aviation safety and system capacity. Weather is a significant contributor to aviation accidents and schedule delays. The timely dissemination of weather information to decision makers in the aviation system, particularly to pilots, is essential in reducing system delays and weather related aviation accidents. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating improved methods of weather information dissemination through satellite broadcasting directly to aircraft. This paper describes an on-going cooperative research program with NASA, Rockwell Collins, WorldSpace, Jeppesen and American Airlines to evaluate the use of satellite digital audio radio service (SDARS) for low cost broadcast of aviation weather information, called Satellite Weather Information Service (SWIS). The description and results of the completed SWIS Phase 1 are presented, and the description of the on-going SWIS Phase 2 is given.

  1. Surgical specimen handover from the operating theatre to laboratory-Can we improve patient safety by learning from aviation and other high-risk organisations?

    PubMed

    Brennan, Peter A; Brands, Marieke T; Caldwell, Lucy; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Turley, Nic; Foley, Susie; Rahimi, Siavash

    2018-02-01

    Essential communication between healthcare staff is considered one of the key requirements for both safety and quality care when patients are handed over from one clinical area to other. This is particularly important in environments such as the operating theatre and intensive care where mistakes can be devastating. Health care has learned from other high-risk organisations (HRO) such as aviation where the use of checklists and human factors awareness has virtually eliminated human error and mistakes. To our knowledge, little has been published around ways to improve pathology specimen handover following surgery, with pathology request forms often conveying the bare minimum of information to assist the laboratory staff. Furthermore, the request form might not warn staff about potential hazards. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the factors involved in human error and introduce a novel checklist that can be readily completed at the same time as the routine pathology request form. This additional measure enhances safety, can help to reduce processing and mislabelling errors and provides essential information in a structured way assisting both laboratory staff and pathologists when handling head and neck surgical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mindful Application of Aviation Practices in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Brennan, Peter A; Peerally, Mohammad Farhad; Kapur, Narinder; Hynes, Jonny M; Hodkinson, Peter D

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports the efficacy of incorporating select recognized aviation practices and procedures into healthcare. Incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and crew resource management (CRM) have all been assessed for implementation within the UK healthcare system, a world leader in aviation-based patient safety initiatives. Mindful application, in which aviation practices are specifically tailored to the unique healthcare setting, show promise in terms of acceptance and long-term sustainment. In order to establish British healthcare applications of aviation practices, a PubMed search of UK authored manuscripts published between 2005-2016 was undertaken using search terms 'aviation,' 'healthcare,' 'checklist,' and 'CRM.' A convenience sample of UK-authored aviation medical conference presentations and UK-authored patient safety manuscripts were also reviewed. A total of 11 of 94 papers with UK academic affiliations published between 2005-2016 and relevant to aviation modeled healthcare delivery were found. The debrief process, incident analysis, and CRM are the primary practices incorporated into UK healthcare, with success dependent on cultural acceptance and mindful application. CRM training has gained significant acceptance in UK healthcare environments. Aviation modeled incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and CRM training are increasingly undertaken within the UK healthcare system. Nuanced application, in which the unique aspects of the healthcare setting are addressed as part of a comprehensive safety approach, shows promise for long-term success. The patient safety brief and aviation modeled incident analysis are in earlier phases of implementation, and warrant further analysis.Powell-Dunford N, Brennan PA, Peerally MF, Kapur N, Hynes JM, Hodkinson PD. Mindful application of aviation practices in healthcare. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(12):1107-1116.

  3. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  4. Evaluation of Safety Programs with Respect to the Causes of General Aviation Accidents. Volume I. Technical Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    65 Physical Impairment 66 Spatial disorientation. 67 Psychological condition. 71 Misused or failed to use flaps. 74 Left aircraft unattended, engine...ARTS III - (Software) (1975) 203 Weather Radar Display System (ASR - 57) 204 ATARS - Automated Terminal Area Radar Service (1974) 205 Instrument Landing...Generated Trauma, Pathological and Psychological Dysfunction accident causes. Collectively, the distribution of safety programs throughout the fault

  5. Understanding Human Error in Naval Aviation Mishaps.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Andrew T

    2018-04-01

    To better understand the external factors that influence the performance and decisions of aviators involved in Naval aviation mishaps. Mishaps in complex activities, ranging from aviation to nuclear power operations, are often the result of interactions between multiple components within an organization. The Naval aviation mishap database contains relevant information, both in quantitative statistics and qualitative reports, that permits analysis of such interactions to identify how the working atmosphere influences aviator performance and judgment. Results from 95 severe Naval aviation mishaps that occurred from 2011 through 2016 were analyzed using Bayes' theorem probability formula. Then a content analysis was performed on a subset of relevant mishap reports. Out of the 14 latent factors analyzed, the Bayes' application identified 6 that impacted specific aspects of aviator behavior during mishaps. Technological environment, misperceptions, and mental awareness impacted basic aviation skills. The remaining 3 factors were used to inform a content analysis of the contextual information within mishap reports. Teamwork failures were the result of plan continuation aggravated by diffused responsibility. Resource limitations and risk management deficiencies impacted judgments made by squadron commanders. The application of Bayes' theorem to historical mishap data revealed the role of latent factors within Naval aviation mishaps. Teamwork failures were seen to be considerably damaging to both aviator skill and judgment. Both the methods and findings have direct application for organizations interested in understanding the relationships between external factors and human error. It presents real-world evidence to promote effective safety decisions.

  6. General aviation technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The existing problem areas in general aviation were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.

  7. Radiation dose predictions for SPE events during solar cycle 23 from NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Blattnig, Steve; Slaba, Tony; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Solomon, Stan

    NASA's High Charge and Energy Transport (HZETRN) code is a deterministic model for rapid and accurate calculations of the particle radiation fields in the space environment. HZETRN is used to calculate dosimetric quantities on the International Space Station (ISS) and assess astronaut risk to space radiations, including realistic spacecraft and human geometry for final exposure evaluation. HZETRN is used as an engineering design tool for materials research for radiation shielding protection. Moreover, it is used to calculate HZE propagation through the Earth and Martian atmospheres, and to evaluate radiation exposures for epidemiological studies. A new research project has begun that will use HZETRN as the transport engine for the development of a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure for both background galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure and radiation exposure during solar particle events (SPE) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model, which utilizes real-time observations from ground-based, atmospheric, and satellite measurements. In this paper, we compute the global distribution of atmospheric radiation dose for several SPE events during solar cycle 23, with particular emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure.

  8. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  9. Optimization of Nanocomposite Solar Cell/Liquid Crystal Matrix to Diminish High Intensity Laser Light Relevant to Aviation Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, James A.

    An increasing threat to the aviation industry is laser light illumination on airplanes during critical phases of flight. If a laser hits the cockpit, it not only distracts the pilots, but it can cause flash blindness or permanently damage the vision of the pilots. This research attempts to mitigate these lasers illuminations through the application of both liquid crystal (LC's) technologies and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technologies. The LC of choice is N-(4-Methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline, or MBBA, because it has special optical properties including the ability to undergo phase transitions when exposed to an electric field. By applying an external electric field, MBBA switches from its transparent nematic phase, to its non-transparent crystalline phase, blocking the laser light. This research optimized the application of MBBA by reducing the triggering voltage and relaxation time of the LC using spacer thicknesses and scratching techniques. The liquid to solid phase transition was reduced to a 3V differential, and the time required for the crystals to relax into its transparent liquid phase was reduced to less than ten seconds. The phase transition was studied using an external electric field generated by DSSCs constructed from a titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite layer coated with dye. To maximize the voltage output by the DSSCs, layer thickness and dye sensitizer were studied to investigate their impact on the performance of the DSSC when illuminated by solar lamps and green light (532nm). Three different layer thicknesses and five different dyes were tested: Eosin Y, Eriochrome Black, Congo Red, Fast Green, and Alizarine Yellow. The experimental results showed a thin layer of nanocomposite sensitized with Eosin Y dye produced the most efficient DSSCs for the scope of this research. Experimental testing showed the DSSCs can generate 381 +/- 10mV under solar lamp exposure, 356 +/- 10mV under laser light exposure, and a voltage increase of 60 +/- 16m

  10. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chirara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2013-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico’s most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene–Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl’s reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the “Ochre Pumice” Plinian eruption (4965 14C

  11. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chiara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2014-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico's most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene-Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl's reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the "Ochre Pumice" Plinian eruption (4965 14C yr BP

  12. Towards a Three-Dimensional Near-Real Time Cloud Product for Aviation Safety and Weather Diagnoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Spangeberg, Douglas; Nordeen, Michele L.; Yi, Yu-Hong; Ayers, J. Kirk

    2004-01-01

    Satellite data have long been used for determining the extent of cloud cover and for estimating the properties at the cloud tops. The derived properties can also be used to estimate aircraft icing potential to improve the safety of air traffic in the region. Currently, cloud properties and icing potential are derived in near-real time over the United States of America (USA) from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES) imagers at 75 W and 135 W. Traditionally, the results have been given in two dimensions because of the lack of knowledge about the vertical extent of clouds and the occurrence of overlapping clouds. Aircraft fly in a three-dimensional space and require vertical as well as horizontal information about clouds, their intensity, and their potential for icing. To improve the vertical component of the derived cloud and icing parameters, this paper explores various methods and datasets for filling in the three-dimensional space over the USA with cloud water.

  13. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  14. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency?…

  15. Aviation Program Administrators' Perceptions of Specialized Aviation Accreditation under Public Law 111-216

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Cody

    2013-01-01

    Sherman (2006) and Prather (2007) studied why so few of the schools offering aviation-related curriculum leading to an associate's or bachelor's degree do not seek specialized accreditation. The goal of this study was to update the field of specialized aviation accreditation in the new environment of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation…

  16. Understanding Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: Perceptions of Korean Aviation Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Researchers exploring the use of language use in radiotelephony communication have tended to focus on the limitations of the non-native English user and the threats which their limited control of English may pose for aviation safety (e.g. Atsushi, 2003, 2004). Hence the recent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) policy places the onus…

  17. Aviation safety : FAA has not fully implemented weather-related recommendations : report to the Subcommittee on Technology, Committee on Science, House of Representatives

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-06-01

    In the last 10 years, icing, turbulence, dangerous winds, a lack of visibility, : and other weather conditions have been cited as a cause or contributing factor : in nearly a quarter of aviation accidents. The General Accounting Office (GAO) : examin...

  18. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  19. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  20. Bipolar Disorder in Aviation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Laukkala, Tanja; Navathe, Pooshan; Budowle, Bruce; Bor, Robert; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in aviation medicine is to diagnose, as early as possible, pilots with psychiatric disorders that may impair pilot performance and increase the risk of incidents and accidents. This diagnosis applies particularly to bipolar disorder (BD), where return to flying duty is not an option in the majority of cases. BD is a long-term mental disorder presenting remittent depressive, hypomanic, manic, or mixed episodes between low symptomatic or asymptomatic intermediate periods. Onset in most cases is in late teen or early adult years. Suicidal intentions and suicide risk are significantly elevated in individuals with BD compared to the general population. A systematic literature search was performed of BD and aviation accidents and the National Transportation Safety Board database of fatal general aviation accidents was searched. One case report and two database reports of interest from 1994 to 2014 were identified. The findings set a minimum frequency of BD in general aviation fatalities to be approximately 2 out of 8648 (0.023%) in the United States. The reported incidence may underestimate the real number of BD cases for several reasons, including the fact that the medical history of pilots is not always available or is sometimes not the primary interest of a safety investigation. This study suggests that the demarcation of psychiatric disorder related to fitness to fly is an important step in safety.Vuorio A, Laukkala T, Navathe P, Budowle B, Bor R, Sajantila A. Bipolar disorder in aviation medicine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):42-47.

  1. 77 FR 39745 - General Aviation Search and Rescue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Search and Rescue The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on general aviation search and rescue..., inland searches for the aircraft are conducted by the Air Force Rescue Coordination Center, who are...

  2. Sports aviation accidents: fatality and aircraft specificity.

    PubMed

    de Voogt, Alexander J; van Doorn, Robert R A

    2010-11-01

    Sports aviation is a special category of general aviation characterized by diverse aircraft types and a predominantly recreational flight operation. A general comparison of aircraft accidents within sports aviation is missing, but should guide future research. A comparison of accidents in sports aviation was made using 2118 records from the National Transportation Safety Board for the period 1982-2007. In addition, the available denominator data from the Federal Aviation Administration were used to interpret the data. The highest number of accidents was found with gliders (N = 991), but the highest relative number of fatal accidents came from ultra-light (45%) and gyroplane operations (40%), which are homebuilt more often than other aircraft types. The most common cause of accident in sports aviation was in-flight planning and decision-making (N = 200, 9.4%). The most frequent occurrences were hard landings and undershoots, of which the numbers differ significantly from one aircraft type to the other. Homebuilt aircraft are at particular risk in sports aviation. Although denominator data remain problematic for motorized sports aviation, these aircraft show a high proportion of homebuilt aircraft and, more importantly, a higher relative number of fatal accidents.

  3. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A decline in reports concerning small aircraft was noted; more reports involved transport aircraft, professional pilots, instrument meteorological conditions, and weather problems. A study of 136 reports of operational problems in terminal radar service areas was made. Pilot, controller, and system factors were found to be associated with these occurrences. Information transfer difficulties were prominent. Misunderstandings by pilots, and in some cases by controllers, of the policies and limitations of terminal radar programs were observed.

  4. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study of reports relating to cockpit altitude alert systems was performed. A recent change in the Federal Air Regulation permits the system to be modified so that the alerting signal approaching altitude has only a visual component; the auditory signal would continue to be heard if a deviation from an assigned altitude occurred. Failure to observe altitude alert signals and failure to reset the system were the commonest cause of altitude deviations related to this system. Cockpit crew distraction was the most frequent reason for these failures. It was noted by numerous reporters that the presence of altitude alert system made them less aware of altitude; this lack of altitude awareness is discussed. Failures of crew coordination were also noted. It is suggested that although modification of the altitude alert system may be highly desirable in short-haul aircraft, it may not be desirable for long-haul aircraft in which cockpit workloads are much lower for long periods of time. In these cockpits, the aural alert approaching altitudes is perceived as useful and helpful. If the systems are to be modified, it appears that additional emphasis on altitude awareness during recurrent training will be necessary; it is also possible that flight crew operating procedures during climb and descent may need examination with respect to monitoring responsibilities. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  5. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive study of near midair collisions in terminal airspace, derived from the ASRS database is presented. A selection of controller and pilot reports on airport perimeter security, unauthorized takeoffs and landings, and on winter operations is presented. A sampling of typical Alert Bulletins and their responses is presented.

  6. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of limitations of the Air Traffic Control system in conflict avoidance capabilities is discussed. Assumptions and expectations held by by airmen regarding the capabilities of the system are presented. Limitations related to communication are described and problems associated with visual approaches, airspace configurations, and airport layouts are discussed. A number of pilot and controller reports illustrative of three typical problem types: occurrences involving pilots who have limited experience; reports describing inflight calls for assistance; and flights in which pilots have declined to use available radar services are presented. Examples of Alert Bulletins and the FAA responses to them are included.

  7. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Reports describing various types of communication problems are presented along with summaries dealing with judgment and decision making. Concerns relating to the ground proximity warning system are summarized and several examples of true terrain proximity warnings are provided. An analytic study of reports relating to profile descents was performed. Problems were found to be associated with charting and graphic presentation of the descents, with lack of uniformity of the descent procedures among facilities using them, and with the flight crew workload engendered by profile descents, particularly when additional requirements are interposed by air traffic control during the execution of the profiles. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them were reviewed.

  8. Considering Object Oriented Technology in Aviation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Few developers of commercial aviation software products are using object-oriented technology (OOT), despite its popularity in some other industries. Safety concerns about using OOT in critical applications, uncertainty about how to comply with regulatory requirements, and basic conservatism within the aviation community have been factors behind this caution. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have sponsored research to investigate and workshops to discuss safety and certification concerns about OOT and to develop recommendations for safe use. Two Object Oriented Technology in Aviation (OOTiA) workshops have been held and numerous issues and comments about the effect of OOT features and languages have been collected. This paper gives a high level overview of the OOTiA project, and discusses selected specific results from the March 2003 workshop. In particular, results in the form of questions to consider before making the decision to use OOT are presented.

  9. Notes on Antarctic aviation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic aviation has been evolving for the best part of a century, with regular air operations developing over the past three or four decades. Antarctica is the last continent where aviation still depends almost entirely on expeditionary airfields ...

  10. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  11. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  12. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  13. A Workshop for the Aviation Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, William; Combs, Larry; Kunches, Joseph

    2004-06-01

    On 23-24 February 2004 at NOAA's Space Environment Center in Boulder, Colo., the SEC, Virgin Atlantic Airways, and SolarMetrics hosted an aviation workshop on integrating space weather information into the operating procedures for commercial airlines. The meeting, with representatives from the industry and academic communities, led to the formation of the International Committee for Space Weather Impacts on Aviation Safety working group.

  14. OS Aviation Information

    Science.gov Websites

    Aviation Weather Program is to couple the art and science of meteorology to enhance the safe and efficient significant weather forecasts crossing international boundaries. Keeping Our National Airspace System Safe The System Newsletter Aviation Weather Center (AWC) Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) Space Environment

  15. 75 FR 79952 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON.... List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Safety. Adoption of.... (1) DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 airplanes, Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E...

  16. 75 FR 43878 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    .... List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Safety. The Proposed... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2009-0864; Directorate Identifier 2008-NM-202-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION...

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Robinson R-22/R-44 Special Training and Experience Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., may obtain an endorsement from an FAA aviation safety inspector in lieu of completing the awareness... authorized by endorsement from an FAA aviation safety inspector or authorized designated examiner that the... Experience Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  18. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  19. Aviation Acquisition: A Comprehensive Strategy Is Needed for Cultural Change at FAA

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-08-22

    The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) timely acquisition of new air : traffic control equipment has become increasingly critical for aviation safety : and efficiency. However, persistent acquisition problems raise questions about : the agency's...

  20. Aviation security : weaknesses in airport security and options for assigning screening responsibilities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-09-21

    This is the statement of Gerald L. Dillingham, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues before the Subcommittee on Aviation, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives regarding aviation safety and security. The statemen...

  1. Physiological training courses for civil aviation pilots.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-12-03

    Pilots who are knowledge able about physiological phenomena encountered in the aviation environment are better prepared to deal with such potentially fatal in flight events. The FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute offers a 1-day training course to ...

  2. Cabin safety subject index.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-01-01

    The most frequently used Federal Aviation Administration published cabin safety information is indexed and cross referenced. This includes Federal Aviation Regulations numbers, Air Carrier Operations Bulletin numbers, Advisory Circular numbers, and O...

  3. Designing a Better Navy Aviation Retention Bonus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    5 A. AVIATOR CAREER PROGRESSION ...................................................5 1. Flight...7  Figure 3.  Aviation Officer Career Progression...ABBREVIATIONS ACCP Aviation Career Continuation Pay ACIP Aviation Career Incentive Pay ACP Aviation Continuation Pay ACRB Aviation Command Retention Bonus

  4. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    aspects of Fire Prevention under NASA's Aviation Safety Program.

  5. Tolerability, safety, and efficacy of PEG 3350 as a 1-day bowel preparation in children.

    PubMed

    Walia, Ritu; Steffen, Rita; Feinberg, Lisa; Worley, Sarah; Mahajan, Lori

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 without electrolytes as a 1-day bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children. A prospective study of 45 children undergoing colonoscopy prescribed PEG 3350 without electrolytes mixed with a commercial electrolyte beverage was performed. Patients <45 kg received 136 g of PEG 3350 without electrolytes mixed in 32 ounces of Gatorade. Patients ≥ 45 kg were given 255 g of PEG 3350 without electrolytes in 64 ounces of Gatorade A basic metabolic panel was performed at the time of the clinic visit and just before colonoscopy. Patients completed a survey related to bowel preparation. Endoscopists graded bowel preparation and noted the proximal extent of the examination. A total of 44 patients (14 ± 3 years) completed the study. One patient was excluded due to protocol breach. All subjects reported the preparation was easy (61%) or tolerable (39%). Adverse events included nausea (34%), abdominal pain (23%), vomiting (16%), abdominal distension (20%), bloating (23%), and dizziness (7%). Although significant changes in serum glucose and CO2 were noted, no therapeutic interventions were indicated. Significant changes in sodium, potassium chloride, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine did not occur. Colonic preparation was rated as excellent in 23%, good in 52%, fair in 23%, and poor in 2% of patients. Intubation of the ileum was successful in 100%. One-day bowel preparation with high dose PEG 3350 mixed with commercial electrolyte solution is tolerable, safe, and effective in children before colonoscopy.

  6. Human error and crew resource management failures in Naval aviation mishaps: a review of U.S. Naval Safety Center data, 1990-96.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, D A; Shappell, S A

    1999-12-01

    The present study examined the role of human error and crew-resource management (CRM) failures in U.S. Naval aviation mishaps. All tactical jet (TACAIR) and rotary wing Class A flight mishaps between fiscal years 1990-1996 were reviewed. Results indicated that over 75% of both TACAIR and rotary wing mishaps were attributable, at least in part, to some form of human error of which 70% were associated with aircrew human factors. Of these aircrew-related mishaps, approximately 56% involved at least one CRM failure. These percentages are very similar to those observed prior to the implementation of aircrew coordination training (ACT) in the fleet, suggesting that the initial benefits of the program have not persisted and that CRM failures continue to plague Naval aviation. Closer examination of these CRM-related mishaps suggest that the type of flight operations (preflight, routine, emergency) do play a role in the etiology of CRM failures. A larger percentage of CRM failures occurred during non-routine or extremis flight situations when TACAIR mishaps were considered. In contrast, a larger percentage of rotary wing CRM mishaps involved failures that occurred during routine flight operations. These findings illustrate the complex etiology of CRM failures within Naval aviation and support the need for ACT programs tailored to the unique problems faced by specific communities in the fleet.

  7. Aviation Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    DARcorporation developed a General Aviation CAD package through a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Langley Research Center. This affordable, user-friendly preliminary design system for General Aviation aircraft runs on the popular 486 IBM-compatible personal computers. Individuals taking the home-built approach, small manufacturers of General Aviation airplanes, as well as students and others interested in the analysis and design of aircraft are possible users of the package. The software can cut design and development time in half.

  8. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Developed by the Aviation Education Staff of the Office of General Aviation Affairs, this document identifies sources of teaching materials. Included in this resource guide is information pertaining to: (1) films and filmstrips, (2) aviation education workshops, (3) career opportunities in aviation, (4) aviation organizations, (5) government…

  9. Safety of a 1-Day Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy in Children.

    PubMed

    Sahn, Benjamin; Chen-Lim, Mei Lin; Ciavardone, Denise; Farace, Lisa; Jannelli, Frances; Nieberle, Megan; Ely, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuemei; Kelsen, Judith; Puma, Anita; Mamula, Petar

    2016-07-01

    Electrolyte-free polyethylene glycol powder (PEG-3350) has been widely used for colonoscopy preparation (prep); however, limited safety data on electrolyte changes exists with 1-day prep regimens. The primary aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with significant serum chemistry abnormalities before and at the time of colonoscopy. Secondary aims included evaluation of prep tolerance and bowel cleansing efficacy. We performed a prospective descriptive observational study of pediatric patients scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy who received our standard 1-day, weight-based 4 g/kg PEG-3350 prep with a single stimulant laxative dose and had serum chemistry testing within 60 days before and at the time of colonoscopy. A standardized bowel cleanliness tool (Aronchick scale) was completed by the endoscopist. One hundred fifty-five patients had serum electrolytes data pre- and postprep. Comparison of each patient's chemistries demonstrated statistical equivalence with the 1 exception of blood urea nitrogen levels (P = 0.56). Hypokalemia was detected postprep in 37 subjects (24%), but none had a serum level <3.3 mmol/L, which was deemed to be of no clinical significance. Five patients were hypoglycemic post prep; 3 were 7 years or younger (P = 0.02). The colon cleanliness rating was excellent or good in 77% and suboptimal in 23% of patients. A 1-day, weight-based PEG-3350 bowel prep in children appears safe. Changes in electrolyte levels and renal function were not clinically significant. Children of 7 years or younger seem to be at a higher risk of hypoglycemia compared with older children.

  10. Future Aspiring Aviators, Primary: An Aviation Curriculum Guide K-3

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1995. The Federal Aviation Administration is pleased to present the Aviation Education Teacher's Guide Series. The series includes four publications specifically designed as resources to those interested in aviation education. The guides...

  11. Collegiate Aviation Review 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R., Ed.; Johnson, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document contains four peer-reviewed papers about university-level aviation education that were presented at the 1998 Fall Education Conference of the University Aviation Association. "Setting the Foundation for Effective Learning: Utilizing the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains to Establish Rigorous Performance Learning…

  12. International Aviation (Selected Articles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    The Manufacturing Capabilities of the Shanghai Aviation Company Leap to a New Level, by Yang Xinbang Zhang Shiyuan , Zheng Huilin............9 Setting...international cooperation. 8 THE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES OF THE SHANGHAI AVIATION COMPANY LEAP TO A NEW LEVEL Yang Xinbang Zhang Shiyuan Zheng

  13. Aviation Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance instructors, providing beginning instructors the foundation to understand and apply fundamentals of instruction. The handbook also provides aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to…

  14. Aviation. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on aviation. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Airmail Art; Eyewitness; Kite Power); (2) "Geography" (U.S. Airports); (3) "Information" (Aviation Alphabet; Glossary; Four Forces…

  15. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  16. Aeromedical waiver status in U.S. Naval aviators involved in Class A mishaps.

    PubMed

    Weber, David K

    2002-08-01

    U.S. Naval aviators are subject to stringent aeromedical standards. Aeromedic waivers are considered when a naval aviator develops a medical condition that is deemed safe for flight, allowing that aviator to continue in a flying status. No Class A (serious) mishap to date has been directly attributable to an aviator's waivered condition. However, to date no study has been conducted to review the overall mishap rate among aviators who are flying with a waiver. This study evaluated the aeromedical waiver status of naval aviators involved in Class A mishaps from 1992-1999. Aviation mishaps in the U.S. Navy are investigated by trained personnel, who report their detailed findings to the U.S. Naval Safety Center (NSC). The Navy Operational Medicine Institute (NOMI) maintains a database of all aviation physicals, including the waiver status of individual aviators. A collaborative NSC/NOMI study was done to investigate the prevalence of waivers in mishap and non-mishap aviators. Records were retrieved on 234 naval aviators who were the "pilot at the controls" of Class A mishaps occurring from 1992-1999. This mishap waiver rate was compared with the baseline waiver rate for all pilots in 1994 (midpoint). Odds Ratios were calculated of having a Class A mishap if the aviator had a waiver. Analysis failed to find a statistical difference in waiver rates between mishap aviators and the general naval aviator population indicating that the U.S. Naval Aeromedical Service is providing aeromedically safe naval aviators to the fleet.

  17. Documents | Office of Marine and Aviation Operations

    Science.gov Websites

    ; Facilities Public & Legislative Affairs Publication Regulation Report Safety Security Specifications ) 2007 NOAA Diving Program Annual Report This report highlights the significant achievements of the NOAA Program, Office of Marine and Aviation Operation, Report Download from OMAO OMAO (2008) 2008 NOAA Diving

  18. NASA and General Aviation. NASA SP-485.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethell, Jeffrey L.

    A detailed examination of the nature and function of general aviation and a discussion of how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology are offered in this publication. The intricacies of aerodynamics, energy, and safety as well as the achievements in aeronautical experimentation are…

  19. General aviation structures directly responsible for trauma in crash decelerations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-01-01

    An analytical study of general aviation accident injuries is presented. Needs for improvement of both the crash design of the interior of the cockpit and the structural integrity of the cockpit itself are clearly illustrated. Crash safety design in l...

  20. General aviation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  1. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  2. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a) (1) The applicant must analyze the engine, including the control system, to assess the likely...

  3. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  4. Rating hydrogen as a potential aviation fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The viability of liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene as future alternate fuels for transport aircraft is analyzed, and the results of a comparative assessment are given in terms of cost, energy resource utilization, areas of fuel production, transmission airport facilities, and ultimate use in the aircraft. Important safety (fires) and some environmental aspects (CO2 balance) are also described. It is concluded that fuel price estimates indicate the price of synthetic aviation kerosene (synjet) would be approximately half of the price calculated for liquid hydrogen and somewhat less than that of liquid methane, with synjet from oil shale reported to be the least expensive.

  5. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Aviation/Aerospace Teacher Education Workshops: Program Development and Implementation" (Mavis F. Green) discusses practical issues in the development of an aviation/aerospace teacher education workshop designed to help elementary school teachers promote aviation to their…

  6. Aviation and climate change

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-27

    This report provides background on aviation emissions and the factors affecting them; it discusses the tools available to control emissions, including existing authority under the Clean Air Act and proposed economy-wide cap-and-trade legislation; and...

  7. Oxygen in general aviation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1966-09-01

    General aviation pilots are increasingly ascending to altitudes exceeding ten thousand feet. As one becomes exposed to heights above twelve thousand feet, blood oxygen saturation diminishes in accordance with a predicable schedule. Recommended measur...

  8. [Aviation medicine: yesterday, today and tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Iamenskov, V V; Khafizov, N N; Morozov, A V

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the history and current state of medical support of the Air Force. On December 1, 2009 Air Force Medical Service was renamed into the service of aviation medicine of Command Air Forces, and many of the functions of medical support of the Air Force transferred to the newly formed Air Force Center of Aviation Medicine. April 29, 2011 office of Aviation Medicine of the High Command of the Air Force has stepped 95-year milestone. The changes affected all structures entrusted with the issues of medical support of the Air Force. Today, the medical service of the Air Force faces challenges--ensuring safety, the study of flight conditions and their impact on health, job performance and psychological characteristics of flight personnel.

  9. An analysis of students' perceptions to Just Culture in the aviation industry: A study of a Midwest aviation training program (case study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Lazo Akram

    The research will focus on the discussion of the ways in which the top-down nature of Safety Management Systems (SMS) can be used to create `Just Culture' within the aviation industry. Specific focus will be placed on an aviation program conducted by an accredited university, with the institution in focus being the midwest aviation training program. To this end, a variety of different aspects of safety culture in aviation and aviation management will be considered. The focus on the implementation strategies vital for the existence of a `Just Culture' within the aviation industry in general, and particularly within the aforementioned institution's aerospace program. Some ideas and perspectives will be subsequently suggested and designed for implementation, within the institution's program. The aspect of enhancing the overall safety output gained, from the institution, as per standards set within the greater American Aviation industry will be examined. Overall, the paper will seek to showcase the vital importance of implementing the SMS standardization model in the institution's Aerospace program, while providing some areas of concern. Such concerns will be based on a number of issues, which are pertinent to the overall enhancement of the institution's observance of aviation safety. This will be both in general application of an SMS, as well as personalized/ specific applications in areas in need of improvement. Overall, through the paper, the author hopes to provide a better understanding of the institution's placement, with regard to not only aviation safety, but also the implementation of an effective `Just Culture' within the program.

  10. Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsung

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training for aviation mechanics has become mandatory in many industrialized countries since 1998. Yet, to date, MRM training remains optional in the U.S. Interestingly, a similar safety discipline, namely Crew/Cockpit Resource Management (CRM), is mandatory for pilots, flight engineers, flight attendants, and dispatchers and is regulated in the Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs). If MRM training is important to enhance aviation technicians working behavior, the rationale to not regulate it opens a window for study. This research aims to inductively investigate the FAA s regulatory rationale concerning MRM training based on direct inputs from the FAA s Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) members. Delphi methodology associated with purposive sampling technique was adopted. The result revealed that the FAA cannot regulate MRM because the aviation industry is strongly opposed to it due to the lack of training budgets, the need of a quantifiable cost-effect analysis, concern over the FAA s inspection workforce, an ongoing voluntary alternative called the Air Transportation Surveillance System (ATOS), the government s lower priority on maintenance after 9/11, and the airlines tight embracement of operational flexibility without regulation.

  11. General Aviation Aircraft Safety, The Princeton University Conference (119th) Held at Princeton, N.J. on October 24-25 1973

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    of the fact that we want to get information to pilots which will create a meaningful mental picture for the pilot, we still teach classical high and...universities and other flight safety groups ) I that porbapq bove R creat deal of safety technology nvailable in order that we c.’n nssRil..tp mtn,,ifacturers to...Dr. David Kehlman, who directs the project at Kansas, is with us and I am sure he will be glad to talk abuut the airplanc with you. In thiR program

  12. Cockpit Technology for Prevention of General Aviation Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    General aviation accounted for 74 percent of runway incursions but only 57 percent of the operations during the four-year period from fiscal year (FY) 2001 through FY2004. Elements of the NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System were adapted and tested for general aviation aircraft. Sixteen General Aviation pilots, of varying levels of certification and amount of experience, participated in a piloted simulation study to evaluate the system for prevention of general aviation runway incursions compared to existing moving map displays. Pilots flew numerous complex, high workload approaches under varying weather and visibility conditions. A rare-event runway incursion scenario was presented, unbeknownst to the pilots, which represented a typical runway incursion situation. The results validated the efficacy and safety need for a runway incursion prevention system for general aviation aircraft.

  13. General Aviation Pilots' Perceived Usage and Valuation of Aviation Weather Information Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara; Lane, Suzanne; Garland, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Aviation suffers many accidents due to the lack of good weather information in flight. Existing aviation weather information is difficult to obtain when it is most needed and is not well formatted for in-flight use. Because it is generally presented aurally, aviation weather information is difficult to integrate with spatial flight information and retain for reference. Efforts, by NASA's Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) team and others, to improve weather information accessibility, usability and decision aiding will enhance General Aviation (GA) pilots' weather situation awareness and decision-making and therefore should improve the safety of GA flight. Consideration of pilots' economic concerns will ensure that in-flight weather information systems are financially accessible to GA pilots as well. The purpose of this survey was to describe how aviation operator communities gather and use weather information as well as how weather related decisions are made between flight crews and supporting personnel. Pilots of small GA aircraft experience the most weather-related accidents as well as the most fatal weather related accident. For this reason, the survey design and advertisement focused on encouraging participation from GA pilots. Perhaps as a result of this emphasis, most responses, 97 responses or 85% of the entire response set, were from GA pilots, This paper presents only analysis of these GA pilots' responses. The insights provided by this survey regarding GA pilots' perceived value and usage of current aviation weather information. services, and products provide a basis for technological approaches to improve GA safety. Results of this survey are discussed in the context of survey limitations and prior work, and serve as the foundation for a model of weather information value, guidance for the design of in-flight weather information systems, and definition of further research toward their development.

  14. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1994. This publication is designed to provide: : - a brief history of the role of aviation in motivating young : people to learn. : - examples of aviation magnet activities, programs, projects and : school curriculums. : - documentation ...

  15. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  16. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-09-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In

  17. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-05-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ± 40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In

  18. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection

  19. FAA statistical handbook of aviation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-01-01

    This report presents statistical information pertaining to the Federal Aviation Administration, the National Airspace System, Airports, Airport Activity, U.S. Civil Air Carrier Fleet, U.S. Civil Air Carrier Operating Data, Airmen, General Aviation Ai...

  20. Forecasting aviation activity by airport

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-07-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a responsibility to review aviation forecasts that are submitted to the agency in conjunction with airport planning, including airport master plans and environmental studies. FAA reviews such forecasts wi...

  1. General Aviation Avionics Statistics : 1976

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-11-01

    This report presents avionics statistics for the 1976 general aviation (GA) aircraft fleet and is the third in a series titled "General Aviation Avionics Statistics." The statistics are presented in a capability group framework which enables one to r...

  2. Teachers' Guide For Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This teacher's guide outlines the objectives, instructional procedures, student activities, and expected outcomes of an instructional unit on careers in aviation, designed for fifth and sixth grade students. It emphasizes aerospace activities and job opportunities in aviation. (GA)

  3. General Aviation Avionics Statistics : 1975

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-06-01

    This report presents avionics statistics for the 1975 general aviation (GA) aircraft fleet and updates a previous publication, General Aviation Avionics Statistics: 1974. The statistics are presented in a capability group framework which enables one ...

  4. Criminal acts against civil aviation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation reports on incidents that have taken place against civil aviation aircraft and interests worldwide. Incidents that are recorded are summarized in regional geographic overviews. In addition, one or more feature art...

  5. Major depression and fitness to fly by different aviation authorities.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Laukkala, Tanja; Navathe, Pooshan

    2012-09-01

    Safety issues are paramount in aviation and careful treatment protocols have been developed to ensure fitness to fly among aviators recovering from major depressive episodes (MDE). Aeromedical examiners (AMEs) do not necessarily treat depressive patients frequently, so they often consult psychiatrists; however, psychiatrists are rarely familiar with aviator treatment protocols. U.S., Canadian, and Australian regulations allow several choices among antidepressant drugs for flying pilots recovering from an MDE. Symptom stability times before the possible return to flying duties vary from 4 wk to 12 mo. So far European regulations have not allowed antidepressants, but the situation may change.

  6. National Strategy for Aviation Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-26

    for Aviation Security (hereafter referred to as the Strategy) to protect the Nation and its interests from threats in the Air Domain. The Secretary of... Aviation security is best achieved by integrating public and private aviation security global activities into a coordinated effort to detect, deter...might occur. The Strategy aligns Federal government aviation security programs and initiatives into a comprehensive and cohesive national effort

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Construction or Alteration in the Vicinity of the Private Residence of the President of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... presumed to adversely affect aviation safety and therefore is a hazard to air navigation. (b) A... of the Private Residence of the President of the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 98 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  8. Risk management in mental health: applying lessons from commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Simon

    2010-02-01

    Risk management in mental health focuses on risks in patients and fails to predict rare but catastrophic events such as suicide. Commercial aviation has a similar task in preventing rare but catastrophic accidents. This article describes the systems in place in commercial aviation that allows that industry to prevent disasters and contrasts this with the situation in mental health. In mental health we should learn from commercial aviation by having: national policies to promote patient safety; a national body responsible for implementing this policy which maintains a database of safety occurrences, sets targets and investigates adverse outcomes; legislation in place which encourages clinicians to report safety occurrences; and a common method and language for investigating safety occurrences.

  9. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  10. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to students at Aviation High School at a lunch and learn session Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students at Aviation High School at a lunch and learn session Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    A list of sources of information and material relating to aviation education is presented in this pamphlet issued in May, 1972. Following a brief description of the mission of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), reference materials mostly appropriate for school use are incorporated under the headings: Aviation Education Workshops, Careers…

  13. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  14. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains four papers on aviation education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of aviation research into the causes of human performance errors in aviation and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…

  15. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate Aviation Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate aviation education if students expect to…

  16. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  17. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue contains these 12 papers: "Exploring the Viability of an Organizational Readiness Assessment for Participatory Management Programs in a Passenger Airline Carrier" (Al Bellamy); "Teaching the Pilots of the New Millennium: Adult Cooperative Education in Aviation Education" (Joseph F. Clark, III); "The Transfer of…

  18. Collegiate Aviation Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Henry R., Ed.

    This document contains five research papers devoted to aviation education and training. The first paper, "An Examination of the U.S. Airline Policy Regarding Child Restraint Systems" (Larry Carstenson, Donald Sluti, and Jacqueline Luedtke), examines communication of airline policy from airline management to airline personnel to the…

  19. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  20. Aviation Forecasting in ICAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, J.

    1972-01-01

    Opinions or plans of qualified experts in the field are used for forecasting future requirements for air navigational facilities and services of international civil aviation. ICAO periodically collects information from Stators and operates on anticipated future operations, consolidates this information, and forecasts the future level of activity at different airports.

  1. Aviation in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary unit approach for teaching social science concepts using aviation as a vehicle to create interest and provide a meaningful context for grades K through 8. The general objectives and understandings for each grade level are described and some sample activities listed. (BR)

  2. Fatigue in aviation activities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1965-03-01

    The report gives a comprehensive survey of work in the field of aviation fatigue. Both current work still in process and earlier work are surveyed. The nature of fatigue itself is discussed, along with all possible factors that contribute to both phy...

  3. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  4. Guidelines for Federal Aviation Administration Regional Aviation Education Coordinators and Aviation Education Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/aviation education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  6. Tricyclic Antidepressants Found in Pilots Fatally Injured in Civil Aviation Accidents.

    PubMed

    Dulkadir, Zeki; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Hickerson, Jeffery S; Cliburn, Kacey D

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has not been explored in pilots. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aviation accident and the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicology and medical certification databases were searched for pilots fatally injured in aviation accidents. During 1990-2012, CAMI received bio-samples of pilots from 7037 aviation accidents. Of these, 2644 cases were positive for drugs. TCAs were present in 31. TCA blood concentrations ranged from therapeutic to toxic levels. The NTSB determined that the use of drugs and ethanol as the probable cause or contributing factor in 35% (11 of 31) of the accidents. None of the 31 pilots reported the use of TCAs during their aviation medical examination. The prevalence of TCAs in aviators was less than 0.5% (31 of 7037 cases). There is a need for aviators to fully disclose the use of medications at the time of their medical examination. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Aviation Communications Emulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehe, Charles; Mulkerin, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Aviation related applications that rely upon datalink for information exchange are increasingly being developed and deployed. The increase in the quantity of applications and associated data communications will expose problems and issues to resolve. NASA Glenn Research Center has prepared to study the communications issues that will arise as datalink applications are employed within the National Airspace System (NAS) by developing a aviation communications emulation testbed. The Testbed is evolving and currently provides the hardware and software needed to study the communications impact of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and surveillance applications in a densely populated environment. The communications load associated with up to 160 aircraft transmitting and receiving ATC and surveillance data can be generated in real time in a sequence similar to what would occur in the NAS.

  8. Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.

  9. International Aviation (Selected Articles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-11

    THE ANAYLYSIS OF DYNAMIC FORCES IN AVIATION STRUCTURES Following along with the development of test manufacturing projects for many types of aircraft...type water troughs. All the main equipment embodies automated measurement controls. It is capable of obtaining test data and curves in a real time...results from thousands of calculations, and decisions were made to select the imaginary origin point to act as the turbulence flow origination point

  10. Review of Aviator Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    with a large-scale meta- analysis of 19 commonly used personnel selection methods across many occupations (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998)" (p. 24). Regarding...information was used to identify knowledge, skills, attributes, and other factors that should be included in a job analysis focusing on the Army aviator...military; personality; psychomotor; cognitive; job analysis ; review SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. LIMITATION OF 20. NUMBER 21. RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  11. International Aviation (Selected Articles).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-12

    and advanced quality control. ,onclusions 10 ____ -c ’~-, nznu i’’ hrm ,~ :~~r i f aviation rcli~cts and ral-eLn -ecr 7conomld ethe’ :’orlnnzs and...have basically attained or approached .he level of foreign countries. The successful development of directional conden- sation technique means that...attenuation, softness , and light weight in addition to an advantage that no metal reflection lining is required. Once such materials are developed, radar

  12. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2018-06-06

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  13. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    PubMed

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  14. Agent Architecture for Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Wei, Mei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed agent-based architecture of the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS). ADIS is a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support aviation problem-solving activities. Examples of aviation problem-solving activities include engineering troubleshooting, incident and accident investigation, routine flight operations monitoring, safety assessment, maintenance procedure debugging, and training assessment. A wide variety of information is typically referenced when engaging in these activities. Some of this information includes flight recorder data, Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) reports, Jeppesen charts, weather data, air traffic control information, safety reports, and runway visual range data. Such wide-ranging information cannot be found in any single unified information source. Therefore, this information must be actively collected, assembled, and presented in a manner that supports the users problem-solving activities. This information integration task is non-trivial and presents a variety of technical challenges. ADIS has been developed to do this task and it permits integration of weather, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts with flight data. ADIS has been implemented and used by several airlines FOQA teams. The initial feedback from airlines is that such a system is very useful in FOQA analysis. Based on the feedback from the initial deployment, we are developing a new version of the system that would make further progress in achieving following goals of our project.

  15. The Impact of Commercial Aviation on Naval Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    the service after 10 years stand to earn significantly more money than those who remain until retirement. Aviation Career Continuation Pay was...to spend more money on compensation, they can close the compensation gap and hopefully prevent future retention problems. 14. SUBJECT TERMS...aviators who decide to leave the service after 10 years stand to earn significantly more money than those who remain until retirement. Aviation

  16. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume 4: General aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A substantially improved flow of new technology is imperative if the general aviation industry is to maintain a strong world position. Although NASA is the most eminently suited entity available to carry out the necessary research and technology development effort because of its facilities, expertise, and endorsement by the aircraft industry, less than 3% of its aeronautical R&T budget is devoted to general aviation aeronautics. It is recommended that (1) a technology program, particularly one that focuses on improving fuel efficienty and safety, be aggressively pursued by NASA; (2) NASA be assigned the role of leading basic research technology effort in general aviation up through technology demonstration; (3) a strategic plan be developed by NASA, in cooperation with the industry, and implemented in time for the 1982 budget cycle; and (4) a NASA R&T budget be allocated for general aviation adequate to support the proposed plan.

  17. It's time to reinvent the general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Current designs for general aviation airplanes have become obsolete, and avenues for major redesign must be considered. New designs should incorporate recent advances in electronics, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and propulsion. Future airplanes should be optimized to operate satisfactorily in a positive air traffic control environment, to afford safety and comfort for point-to-point transportation, and to take advantage of automated manufacturing techniques and high production rates. These requirements have broad implications for airplane design and flying qualities, leading to a concept for the Modern Equipment General Aviation (MEGA) airplane. Synergistic improvements in design, production, and operation can provide a much needed fresh start for the general aviation industry and the traveling public. In this investigation a small four place airplane is taken as the reference, although the proposed philosophy applies across the entire spectrum of general aviation.

  18. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  19. Cabin Safety Subject Index,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    1949 CABIN SAFETY SUBJECT XNDEX(U) FEDERAL AVIATION /~D-AiS 4e9 ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF RYIRTION MEDICINE D N POLLARD ET AL. JAN 84...City, Oklahoma 73125 13. Type of Report and Period Covered 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and AddressOffice of Aviation Medicine & Office of Flight...Regulations numbers, Air Carrier Operations Bulletin numbers, Advisory Circular numbers, and Office of Aviation Medicine report numbers. U

  20. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Aviation High School student, Katie McConville, introduces herself at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Austin McHenry, a student at Aviation High School, introduces himself at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Chris Lu (third from left), a student at Aviation High School, asks a question at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. The Future of Green Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Edwards'presentation provides an overview of aviation's economic impact in the U.S. including aviation's impact on environment and energy. The presentation discusses NASA's contributions to the advancement of commercial aircraft design highlighting the technology drivers and recent technology advancements for addressing community noise, energy efficiency and emissions. The presentation concludes with a preview of some of NASA's integrated systems solutions, such as novel aircraft concepts and advancements in propulsion that will enable the future of more environmentally compatible aviation.

  4. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  5. General aviation avionics equipment maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of general aviation avionics equipment was investigated with emphasis on single engine and light twin engine general aviation aircraft. Factors considered include the regulatory agencies, avionics manufacturers, avionics repair stations, the statistical character of the general aviation community, and owners and operators. The maintenance, environment, and performance, repair costs, and reliability of avionics were defined. It is concluded that a significant economic stratification is reflected in the maintenance problems encountered, that careful attention to installations and use practices can have a very positive impact on maintenance problems, and that new technologies and a general growth in general aviation will impact maintenance.

  6. General Aviation Task Force report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    General aviation is officially defined as all aviation except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general aviation aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General aviation manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.

  7. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  8. Soviet Frontal Aviation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Oxplail thLtI th\\ v ,:crL’ v , turiou-, only because of tile " r’ .e.r e.i,:: t, tan. un , ol e - in, :, t.Lictics, as well as the u.-, e of -, V "I 01I o, L...Pilot". Soviet Military Review. No. 2, 1979. Mikryukov , L. "Upravleniye istrebitelyami v vozdushnom boyu" (Controlling Fighter Planes in Aerial Combat...4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD CeVERED SOVIET FRONTAL AVIATION,./ - r E -RrSWUN r.oR. *ep**T NumaE.R 7. AUTHOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR

  9. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  10. 76 FR 11845 - Notice of Intent To Review Structure of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Management Facility at 202-493-2251. Hand Delivery: Bring comments to the Docket Management Facility in Room... technical subject areas (presently, air carrier operations, maintenance, occupant safety, general aviation...: Renee Butner, Office of Rulemaking, ARM-24, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Ave., SW...

  11. Drugs and alcohol found in fatal civil aviation accidents between 1989 and 1993.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-11-01

    The FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) is tasked under public law 100-591 [H.R. 46861; November 3, 1988, AVIATION SAFETY RESEARCH ACT OF 1988 to conduct toxicology tests on aviation accidents and determine the...

  12. 76 FR 36283 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Model FALCON 7X Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    .... List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation by... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011... (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing...

  13. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education [National Aviation Education Workshop].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual, compiled by a Committee of the Curriculum Laboratory of the Civil Air Patrol, contains 105 demonstrations and activities which can be used to introduce the elementary student to the properties of air as related to aviation, what makes airplanes fly, and the role of weather in aviation. (CP)

  14. A guide to aviation education resources

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-01-01

    The National Coalition for Aviation Education represents industry and labor, united to promote : aviation education activities and resources; increase public understanding of the importance of aviation; and support educational initiatives at the loca...

  15. Aviation system indicators : 1996 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-03-14

    This report presents graphs and data tables for 36 aviation system and environmental indicators that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed to give a broad view of the national aviation system operation and environment. The 24 system...

  16. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft... 9, West Chicago, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Surveillance Radar, Model 9, West Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  17. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to... address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports...

  18. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on...

  19. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY... Nicely, Manager, Federal Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports...

  20. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  1. Aviation Communications Emulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehe, Charles; Mulkerin, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Aviation related applications that rely upon datalink for information exchange are increasingly being developed and deployed. The increase in the quantity of applications and associated data communications will expose problems and issues to resolve. NASA s Glenn Research Center has prepared to study the communications issues that will arise as datalink applications are employed within the National Airspace System (NAS) by developing an aviation communications emulation testbed. The Testbed is evolving and currently provides the hardware and software needed to study the communications impact of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and surveillance applications in a densely populated environment. The communications load associated with up to 160 aircraft transmitting and receiving ATC and surveillance data can be generated in realtime in a sequence similar to what would occur in the NAS. The ATC applications that can be studied are the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network s (ATN) Context Management (CM) and Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). The Surveillance applications are Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services - Broadcast (TIS-B).

  2. General Aviation Data Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Elaine M.; Chung, Victoria I.

    2006-01-01

    The Flight Research Services Directorate at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides development and operations services associated with three general aviation (GA) aircraft used for research experiments. The GA aircraft includes a Cessna 206X Stationair, a Lancair Colombia 300X, and a Cirrus SR22X. Since 2004, the GA Data Framework software was designed and implemented to gather data from a varying set of hardware and software sources as well as enable transfer of the data to other computers or devices. The key requirements for the GA Data Framework software include platform independence, the ability to reuse the framework for different projects without changing the framework code, graphics display capabilities, and the ability to vary the interfaces and their performance. Data received from the various devices is stored in shared memory. This paper concentrates on the object oriented software design patterns within the General Aviation Data Framework, and how they enable the construction of project specific software without changing the base classes. The issues of platform independence and multi-threading which enable interfaces to run at different frame rates are also discussed in this paper.

  3. Aviation Safety Enhancement Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Snowe, Olympia J. [R-ME

    2009-06-04

    Senate - 06/04/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. NASA's aviation safety - meteorology research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winblade, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The areas covering the meteorological hazards program are: severe storms and the hazards to flight generated by severe storms; clear air turbulence; icing; warm fog dissipation; and landing systems. Remote sensing of ozone by satellites, and the use of satellites as data relays is also discussed.

  5. Saracini Aviation Safety Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2013-09-11

    Senate - 09/11/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. The effects of tobacco on aviation safety.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-08-01

    In 1976, the FAA was petitioned to issue regulations that would prohibit all smoking in the cockpit during commercial flight operations and prohibit preflight smoking by flight crew members within 8 hours before commercial flight operations. A review...

  7. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  8. Portraying Careers Awareness in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Roy A.; Amato, Vincent

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of the half-day program at Indiana State University which provides some notion of careers available in the aviation industry focusing on the professional pilot career. It utilizes the simulators and aviation teaching materials within the Aerospace Department's inventory to help orient college-bound high school students to…

  9. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  10. Overcoming Stereotypes: Women in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Beth; Lea, Luanne

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes how certain traits became associated with women in aviation. Uses media of popular culture to compare prevailing cultural misconceptions to the reality of research studies and personal experiences. Offers four recommendations to dispel myths and to encourage more women to participate in rewarding nontraditional careers in aviation. (NB)

  11. A study of general aviation accidents involving children in 2011.

    PubMed

    Poland, Kristin M; Marshall, Nora M

    2014-08-01

    General aviation accidents involving children are rare, but when they do happen, little is known about the children involved, including their age, restraint status, and injuries. This lack of information is due to the fact that the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) did not always collect detailed data about passengers involved in accidents. Consequently, in 2011, NTSB investigators collected detailed information on children involved in general aviation accidents and this report provides a summary of the outcomes. During 2011, 19 general aviation accidents and incidents included 39 children who were 14 yr old and younger. In total, 26 children sustained fatal injuries, 2 sustained serious injuries, 5 sustained minor injuries, and 6 sustained no injuries. All of the children less than 2 yr old were restrained in a child restraint system and sustained no injuries in the accidents. At least one 4-yr-old child would have benefited from being restrained in a child restraint system. In addition, in two accidents, it was determined that children were likely sharing a single seat belt. This year-long data collection regarding children involved in general aviation accidents provided substantial information concerning age, restraint status, and injuries. In response to issues identified, the NTSB made improvements to its aviation data management system to routinely collect this information for future investigations and enable subsequent evaluation of the data regarding child passengers involved in general aviation accidents over the long term.

  12. Piston Aviation Fuel Initiative (PAFI) – A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanikasalam, K.; Rahmat, M.; Fahmi, A. G. Mohammad; Zulkifli, A. M.; Shawal, N. Noor; Ilanchelvi, K.; Ananth, M.; Elayarasan, R.

    2018-05-01

    Aviation gasoline (Avgas) has remained unchanged for seventy years and the existing fleet of piston aircraft was designed to be compatible with its chemical and physical properties to achieve superior levels of safety. Tetra-ethyl lead (TEL) is an octane-enhancing metal additive used in aviation gasoline to prevent knocking. Studies have shown that lead causes brain damage in children reducing their IQ and cardiovascular difficulties and kidney failure in adults. Friends of the Earth (FOE) petitioned the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006 to make a finding that lead emissions from general aviation (GA) aircraft cause to public health endangerment or carry out studies and issue a report on its findings. PAFI was set up by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to find most suitable unleaded replacements for Avgas to recognize best unleaded fuel that have the capacity to in fact satisfy the requirements of the present aircraft fleet while additionally considering the creation, dispersion, cost, availability, environmental impacts. This study will technically review PAFI and broaden the limited knowledge on piston aviation fuels in Malaysia by giving a comprehensive analysis and possible gap in reciprocation aviation engine market in Malaysia.

  13. Aviation Turbulence: Dynamics, Forecasting, and Response to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storer, Luke N.; Williams, Paul D.; Gill, Philip G.

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric turbulence is a major hazard in the aviation industry and can cause injuries to passengers and crew. Understanding the physical and dynamical generation mechanisms of turbulence aids with the development of new forecasting algorithms and, therefore, reduces the impact that it has on the aviation industry. The scope of this paper is to review the dynamics of aviation turbulence, its response to climate change, and current forecasting methods at the cruising altitude of aircraft. Aviation-affecting turbulence comes from three main sources: vertical wind shear instabilities, convection, and mountain waves. Understanding these features helps researchers to develop better turbulence diagnostics. Recent research suggests that turbulence will increase in frequency and strength with climate change, and therefore, turbulence forecasting may become more important in the future. The current methods of forecasting are unable to predict every turbulence event, and research is ongoing to find the best solution to this problem by combining turbulence predictors and using ensemble forecasts to increase skill. The skill of operational turbulence forecasts has increased steadily over recent decades, mirroring improvements in our understanding. However, more work is needed—ideally in collaboration with the aviation industry—to improve observations and increase forecast skill, to help maintain and enhance aviation safety standards in the future.

  14. [Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Mazaĭkin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

    2013-05-01

    The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency.

  15. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-31

    Passenger Screening Results 12. Scope of Civil Aviation Security Program 13. Basic Policies 14. Explosives Detection Dog Teams 15. Explosives Detection... policies guiding the program recognize airline responsibilities for the safety of passengers, baggage and cargo in their care as well as for the...U *i * (U U Los -7 .cn cf) 1-4 ~~LL _m e- Hf LMU 0- u,-C -oL -ccJLL LII -~ LLIOL 0 _ CL. LLJ cr-L LCnIJ C ~ ~ CnCD C. ) &j 2ic- nc r JL AJ -L JC C.- L

  16. Developing proactive methods for general aviation data collection

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-01

    Introduction. Over the last 20 years, nearly 40,000 general aviation (GA) aircraft were involved in accidents, : roughly 20% of which were fatal. To address this safety concern, scientists have often relied on accident data. : Because of the rare nat...

  17. Federal Aviation Administration aging aircraft nondestructive inspection research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seher, Chris C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper highlights the accomplishments and plans of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the development of improved nondestructive evaluation (NDE) equipment, procedures, and training. The role of NDE in aircraft safety and the need for improvement are discussed. The FAA program participants, and coordination of activities within the program and with relevant organizations outside the program are also described.

  18. Aviation Weather for Pilots and Flight Operations Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    The revised Aviation Weather book discusses each aspect of weather as it relates to aircraft operations and flight safety. The book is not an aircraft operating manual and omits all reference to specific weather services. Much of the book has been devoted to marginal, hazardous, and violent weather. It teaches pilots to learn to appreciate good…

  19. Department of Energy Order 440.2: Aviation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-10-26

    Archival copy of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 440.2 regulating aviation safety of : aircraft used by DOE. Superseded by DOE O 440.2A dated March 8, 2002. For latest : listing of DOE directives and orders, users should consult DOE Directives, Regu...

  20. Aviation behavioral technology program cockpit human factors research plan

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-15

    The safety, reliability, and efficiency of the National Airspace System depend : upon the men and women who operate and use it. Aviation human factors : research is the study of how these people function in the performance of their : jobs as pilots, ...

  1. Aviation Behavioral Technology Program: Cockpit Human Factors Research Plan

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-15

    The safety, reliability, and efficiency of the National Airspace System depend upon the men and women who operate and use it. Aviation human factors research is the study of how these people function in the performance of their jobs as pilots, cont...

  2. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.

  3. Field study evaluation of cepstrum coefficient speech analysis for fatigue in aviation cabin crew.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-10-01

    Impaired neurobehavioral performance induced by fatigue may compromise safety in 24-hr operational : environmentssuch as aviation. As such, non-invasive, reliable, and valid methods of objectively detecting : compromised performance capacity in opera...

  4. Workshop Addresses Aviation Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, Jennifer; Kunches, Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Delta Airlines had an unprecedented experience in 2011: For the first time, a flight was rerouted because of space weather activity. Flight 189 from Detroit, Mich., to Beijing, China, had to reroute due to solar activity that occurred 24-28 September 2011. Over the last decade most airlines that fly routes across the North Pole region have had diversions as a result of solar activity. As cross-polar air traffic increases, standing at 10,993 one-way crossings in 2011, the aviation industry is becoming more aware of the impacts that space weather can have on operations, communications, and navigation, as well as the issue of increased radiation exposure for passengers and flight crew on board.

  5. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet andmore » every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.« less

  6. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  7. 78 FR 34139 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking... Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591, 8th floor, Conference...

  8. Aviation security : vulnerabilities still exist in the aviation security system

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-06

    The testimony today discusses the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) efforts to implement and improve security in two key areas: air traffic control computer systems and airport passenger screening checkpoints. Computer systems-and the informati...

  9. Aviation security : terrorist acts illustrate severe weaknesses in aviation security

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-09-20

    This is the statement of Gerald L. Dillingham, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Senate and House Committees on Appropriations regarding vulnerabilities to terrorist attacks of the nation's aviation s...

  10. The Great Aviation Transformation Begins

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-19

    On National Aviation Day, August 19, NASA goes “X.” While we celebrate the birthday of one of America’s original U.S. aviation pioneers – Orville Wright – we also celebrate the pioneers of right now. The women and men at NASA who are changing the face of aviation by going “X.” We’re starting the design and build of a series of piloted experimental aircraft – X-planes – for the final proof that new advanced tech and revolutionary shapes will give us faster, quieter, cleaner ways to get from here to there.

  11. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  12. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2001-01-01

    The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

  13. Aviation. Career Focus, Volume 3, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    This special section on aviation careers describes the programs of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, the Metro Tech Aviation Career Campus in Oklahoma City, the Aviation Technology Center at Vincennes University in Indianapolis, and the Miami-Dade Community College's Eig-Watson School of Aviation. (JOW)

  14. A Hypermedia Information System for Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Karin M.

    The Hypermedia Information System (HIS) is being developed under the auspices of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine's (AAM) Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance (HFAM) research program. The goal of the hypermedia project is to create new tools and methods for aviation-related information storage and retrieval.…

  15. A Guide To Aviation Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Aviation Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide to aviation education resources was compiled by the National Coalition for Aviation Education (NCAE) which represents government, industry, and labor. NCAE's mission is to: (1) promote aviation education activities and resources; (2) increase public understanding of the importance of aviation; and (3) support educational initiatives at…

  16. A Study to Estimate the Effectiveness of Visual Testing Training for Aviation Maintenance Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Lewis Lyle

    2007-01-01

    The Air Commerce Act of 1926 set the beginning for standards in aviation maintenance. Even after deregulation in the late l970s, maintenance standards and requirements still have not changed far from their initial criteria. After a potential candidate completes Federal Aviation Administration training prerequisites, they may test for their Airframe and Powerplant (A&P) certificate. Performing maintenance in the aviation industry for a minimum of three years, the technician may then test for their Inspection Authorization (IA). After receiving their Airframe and Powerplant certificate, a technician is said to have a license to perform. At no time within the three years to eligibility for Inspection Authorization are they required to attend higher-level inspection training. What a technician learns in the aviation maintenance industry is handed down from a seasoned technician to the new hire or is developed from lessons learned on the job. Only in Europe has the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) required higher-level training for their aviation maintenance technicians in order to control maintenance related accidents (Lu, 2005). Throughout the 1990s both the General Accounting Office (GAO) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made public that the FAA is historically understaffed (GAO, 1996). In a safety recommendation the NTSB stated "The Safety Board continues to lack confidence in the FAA's commitment to provide effective quality assurance and safety oversight of the ATC system (NTSB, 1990)." The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been known to be proactive in creating safer skies. With such reports you would suspect the FAA to also be proactive in developing more stringent inspection training for aviation maintenance technicians. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effectiveness of higher-level inspection training, such as Visual Testing (VT) for aviation maintenance technicians, to improve the safety of aircraft and to make

  17. The Federal Aviation Administration Plan for Research, Engineering and Development. Volume 1. Program Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Mid * Advanced Propulsion System Far * Rotor Burst Protection Reports Mid 11.4 Flight Safety / * Aircraft Icing Handbook Near Atmospheric Hazards...with operating the national aviation system include air traffic controllers, flight service specialists, maintenance technicians, safety inspectors...address the design and certification of flight deck systems and revised crew training requirements. In FY 1988, studies of safety data were initiated to

  18. General Aviation Avionics Statistics : 1974

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-08-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to (1) provide a framework for viewing the general aviation (GA) aircraft fleet, which would relate airborne avionics equipment to the capability for an aircraft to perform in the National Airspace System, an...

  19. General aviation avionics statistics : 1977.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-06-01

    This report presents avionics statistics for the 1977 general aviation (GA) aircraft fleet and is the fourth in a series. The statistics are presented in a capability group framework which enables one to relate airborne avionics equipment to the capa...

  20. Aviation Capacity Enhancement (ACE) Plan

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive review of Federal Aviation Administration programs intended to improve the capacity of the National Air Transportation System. The Plan describes the extent of capacity and delay problems currently associated with air travel in the U....

  1. Aviation system capacity : annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-10-01

    The Aviation System Capacity Plan is published annually and, in addition to providing airport delay statistics, serves to identify programs that have potential for increasing capacity and reducing delay.

  2. Human-Centered Aviation Automation: Principles and Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents principles and guidelines for human-centered automation in aircraft and in the aviation system. Drawing upon operational experience with highly automated aircraft, it describes classes of problems that have occurred in these vehicles, the effects of advanced automation on the human operators of the aviation system, and ways in which these problems may be avoided in the design of future aircraft and air traffic management automation. Many incidents and a few serious accidents suggest that these problems are related to automation complexity, autonomy, coupling, and opacity, or inadequate feedback to operators. An automation philosophy that emphasizes improved communication, coordination and cooperation between the human and machine elements of this complex, distributed system is required to improve the safety and efficiency of aviation operations in the future.

  3. A feasibility study for advanced technology integration for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Matsuyama, G. T.; Hawley, K. E.; Meredith, P. T.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to identify candidate technologies and specific developments which offer greatest promise for improving safety, fuel efficiency, performance, and utility of general aviation airplanes. Interviews were conducted with general aviation airframe and systems manufacturers and NASA research centers. The following technologies were evaluated for use in airplane design tradeoff studies conducted during the study: avionics, aerodynamics, configurations, structures, flight controls, and propulsion. Based on industry interviews and design tradeoff studies, several recommendations were made for further high payoff research. The most attractive technologies for use by the general aviation industry appear to be advanced engines, composite materials, natural laminar flow airfoils, and advanced integrated avionics systems. The integration of these technologies in airplane design can yield significant increases in speeds, ranges, and payloads over present aircraft with 40 percent to 50 percent reductions in fuel used.

  4. Friction of Aviation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W; Thorne, M A

    1928-01-01

    The first portion of this report discusses measurements of friction made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards between 1920 and 1926 under research authorization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. These are discussed with reference to the influence of speed, barometric pressure, jacket-water temperature, and throttle opening upon the friction of aviation engines. The second section of the report deals with measurements of the friction of a group of pistons differing from each other in a single respect, such as length, clearance, area of thrust face, location of thrust face, etc. Results obtained with each type of piston are discussed and attention is directed particularly to the fact that the friction chargeable to piston rings depends upon piston design as well as upon ring design. This is attributed to the effect of the rings upon the thickness and distribution of the oil film which in turn affects the friction of the piston to an extent which depends upon its design.

  5. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-26

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  6. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  7. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White Pattern ECG in USAF Aviators.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Eddie D; Rupp, Karen A N; Palileo, Edwin; Haynes, Jared

    2017-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern is occasionally found in asymptomatic aviators during routine ECGs. Aeromedical concerns regarding WPW pattern include risk of dysrhythmia or sudden cardiac death (SCD), thus affecting the safety of flight. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and outcomes of aviators with asymptomatic WPW pattern and assess for risk factors that contribute to progression to dysrhythmia or symptoms. The U.S. Air Force (USAF) ECG library database containing over 1.2 million ECGs collected over the past 68 yr was used to identify 638 individual aviators with WPW pattern. Demographic, medical history, and outcome data were obtained by medical record review. Aviators who developed high risk features defined as symptoms, arrhythmia, or ablation of a high risk pathway, were compared to those who remained asymptomatic. Prevalence of WPW pattern was 0.30% among all USAF aviators. Of the 638 individuals, 64 (10%) progressed to the combined endpoint of SCD, arrhythmia, and/or ablation of a high risk pathway over 6868 patient years, with average follow-up of 10.5 yr. There were two sudden cardiac deaths (0.3%). Annual risk of possible sudden incapacitation was 0.95% and of SCD 0.03%. Those that progressed to high risk were significantly younger, had lower diastolic blood pressure, lower total cholesterol, and better physical fitness testing scores. WPW pattern on ECG found in asymptomatic aviators confers < 1% annual risk of arrhythmia or incapacitating events with the highest risk in the younger, healthier, and most fit populations.Davenport ED, Rupp KAN, Palileo E, Haynes J. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern ECG in USAF aviators. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):56-60.

  8. Examining the Relationship between Safety Management System Implementation and Safety Culture in Collegiate Flight Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Mike Fuller

    2017-01-01

    Safety Management Systems (SMS) are becoming the industry standard for safety management throughout the aviation industry. As the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) continues to mandate SMS for different segments, the assessment of an organization's safety culture becomes more important. An SMS can facilitate the development of a strong…

  9. Correlates of pilot fatality in general aviation crashes.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Baker, S P

    1999-04-01

    General aviation accounts for the majority of aviation crashes and casualties in the United States, and general aviation safety has not improved in the past decade. This study identifies factors associated with pilot fatality in general aviation crashes. We analyzed the National Transportation Safety Board's Factual Reports for all airplane and helicopter crashes of general aviation flights that occurred in North Carolina and Maryland during 1985 through 1994. Surviving pilots were compared with fatally injured pilots in relation to crash circumstances, and pilot and aircraft characteristics, at bivariate level and multivariate level. A total of 667 crashes resulted in 276 deaths and 368 injuries during the 10-yr period in the two states. Of the pilots-in-command involved in these crashes, 146 (22%) died. The case fatality rate for pilots was significantly higher in crashes that occurred between 6 p.m. and 5 a.m. (34%), away from airports (36%), with aircraft fire (69%), or in instrument meteorological weather conditions (IMC) (71%). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the significant correlates of pilot fatality were aircraft fire [odds ratio (OR) 13.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.9-27.2], off-airport location (OR 9.9, 95% CI 5.0-19.6), IMC (OR 9.1, 95% CI 4.3-19.6), nighttime (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.7), and pilot age > or = 50 yr (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0). Pilot gender, flight experience, principal profession, and type of aircraft (airplane vs. helicopter) were not significantly associated with the likelihood of survival. The most important correlates of pilot fatality are variables likely related to increased impact forces. Better occupant protection equipment, such as air bag and crashworthy fuel system, are needed for general aviation aircraft.

  10. Developing a fatigue questionnaire for Chinese civil aviation pilots.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing; Luo, Min; Hu, Wendong; Ma, Jin; Wen, Zhihong

    2018-03-23

    To assess the fatigue risk is an important challenge in improving flight safety in aviation industry. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive fatigue risk management indicators system and a fatigue questionnaire for Chinese civil aviation pilots. Participants included 74 (all males) civil aviation pilots. They finished the questionnaire in 20 minutes before a flight mission. The estimation of internal consistency with Cronbach's α and Student's t test as well as Pearson's correlation analysis were the main statistical methods. The results revealed that the fatigue questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency reliability and construct validity; there were significant differences on fatigue scores between international and domestic flight pilots. And some international flight pilots, who had taken medications as a sleep aid, had worse sleep quality than those had not. The long-endurance flight across time zones caused significant differences in circadian rhythm. The fatigue questionnaire can be used to measure Chinese civil aviation pilots' fatigue, which provided a reference for fatigue risk management system to civil aviation pilots.

  11. Rate of Perceived Exertion of Female Aviation Workers Pertaining to Selected Aviation Workspace and Recommended Fitness Regime to Reduce Exertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harridon, Mohd

    2018-05-01

    In aviation maintenance, workers usually work in tight spaces to maintain or repair aircraft. These constricted spaces provide uncomfortable feeling to these workers and in return the workmanship of the workers declined in terms of quality and thus affect the safety of the aircraft. However, some workers are fit enough to go through these conditions without hassle or without much pain. This paper focused upon female aviation workers and collected data on their rate of perceived exertion pertaining to two selected aviation workspaces. The data and analyses showed that those who are fit felt less exertion while those who are not fit felt more exertion. This paper then recommended several physical exercises to increase their fitness and in turn reduce the exertion felt.

  12. General Aviation: A Stepping Stone to a World Career in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulley, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 27 countries identified private pilot flight-hour requirements, pilot training costs, youth aviation programs, and career information about aviation occupations. The information can be used to motivate young people to enter aviation careers. (JOW)

  13. System for Secure Integration of Aviation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Keller, Rich; Chidester, Tom; Statler, Irving; Lynch, Bob; Patel, Hemil; Windrem, May; Lawrence, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) of Ames Research Center has been established to promote analysis of aviation data by airlines and other interested users for purposes of enhancing the quality (especially safety) of flight operations. The ADIS is a system of computer hardware and software for collecting, integrating, and disseminating aviation data pertaining to flights and specified flight events that involve one or more airline(s). The ADIS is secure in the sense that care is taken to ensure the integrity of sources of collected data and to verify the authorizations of requesters to receive data. Most importantly, the ADIS removes a disincentive to collection and exchange of useful data by providing for automatic removal of information that could be used to identify specific flights and crewmembers. Such information, denoted sensitive information, includes flight data (here signifying data collected by sensors aboard an aircraft during flight), weather data for a specified route on a specified date, date and time, and any other information traceable to a specific flight. The removal of information that could be used to perform such tracing is called "deidentification." Airlines are often reluctant to keep flight data in identifiable form because of concerns about loss of anonymity. Hence, one of the things needed to promote retention and analysis of aviation data is an automated means of de-identification of archived flight data to enable integration of flight data with non-flight aviation data while preserving anonymity. Preferably, such an automated means would enable end users of the data to continue to use pre-existing data-analysis software to identify anomalies in flight data without identifying a specific anomalous flight. It would then also be possible to perform statistical analyses of integrated data. These needs are satisfied by the ADIS, which enables an end user to request aviation data associated with de-identified flight data. The ADIS

  14. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  15. The National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS): A Documentation of the Development of a Survey Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Mauro, Robert; Statler, Irving C.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS) was a research project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program during the years from 2000 to 2005. The purpose of this project was to develop a methodology for gaining reliable information on changes over time in the rates-of-occurrence of safety-related events as a means of assessing the safety of the national airspace. The approach was a scientifically designed survey of the operators of the aviation system concerning their safety-related experiences. This report presents the results of the methodology developed and a demonstration of the NAOMS concept through a survey of nearly 20,000 randomly selected air-carrier pilots. Results give evidence that the NAOMS methodology can provide a statistically sound basis for evaluating trends of incidents that could compromise safety. The approach and results are summarized in the report and supporting documentation and complete analyses of results are presented in 14 appendices.

  16. The identification of factors contributing to self-reported anomalies in civil aviation.

    PubMed

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Thompson, William

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze anomalies voluntarily reported by pilots in civil aviation sector and identify factors leading to such anomalies. Experimental data were obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) database. These data contained a range of text records spanning 30 years of civilian aviation, both commercial (airline operations) and general aviation (private aircraft). Narrative data as well as categorical data were used. The associations between incident contributing factors and self-reported anomalies were investigated using data mining and correspondence analysis. The results revealed that a broadly defined human factors category and weather conditions were the main contributors to self-reported civil aviation anomalies. New associations between identified factors and reported anomaly conditions were also reported.

  17. An Exploratory Study on the Post-Implementation of Threat and Error Management Training in Australian General Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung Yong; Bates, Paul R.; Murray, Patrick S.; Martin, Wayne L.

    2017-01-01

    Threat and Error Management (TEM) training, endorsed and recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), was mandated in Australia with the aim of improving aviation safety. However, to date, there has been very limited, if any, formal post-implementation review, assessment or evaluation to examine the "after-state"…

  18. Diffusing aviation innovations in a hospital in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Korne, Dirk F; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; Hiddema, U Frans; Bleeker, Fred G; Pronovost, Peter J; Klazinga, Niek S

    2010-08-01

    Many authors have advocated the diffusion of innovations from other high-risk industries into health care to improve safety. The aviation industry is comparable to health care because of its similarities in (a) the use of technology, (b) the requirement of highly specialized professional teams, and (c) the existence of risk and uncertainties. For almost 20 years, The Rotterdam Eye Hospital (Rotterdam, the Netherlands) has been engaged in diffusing several innovations adapted from aviation. A case-study methodology was used to assess the application of innovations in the hospital, with a focus on the context and the detailed mechanism for each innovation. Data on hospital performance outcomes were abstracted from the hospital information data management system, quality and safety reports, and the incident reporting system. Information on the innovations was obtained from a document search; observations; and semistructured, face-to-face interviews. Aviation industry-based innovations diffused into patient care processes were as follows: patient planning and booking system, taxi service/valet parking, risk analysis (as applied to wrong-site surgery), time-out procedure (also for wrong-site surgery), Crew Resource Management training, and black box. Observations indicated that the innovations had a positive effect on quality and safety in the hospital: Waiting times were reduced, work processes became more standardized, the number of wrong-site surgeries decreased, and awareness of patient safety was heightened. A near-20-year experience with aviation-based innovation suggests that hospitals start with relatively simple innovations and use a systematic approach toward the goal of improving safety.

  19. Advanced Software V&V for Civil Aviation and Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume P.

    2017-01-01

    With the advances in high-computing platform (e.g., advanced graphical processing units or multi-core processors), computationally-intensive software techniques such as the ones used in artificial intelligence or formal methods have provided us with an opportunity to further increase safety in the aviation industry. Some of these techniques have facilitated building safety at design time, like in aircraft engines or software verification and validation, and others can introduce safety benefits during operations as long as we adapt our processes. In this talk, I will present how NASA is taking advantage of these new software techniques to build in safety at design time through advanced software verification and validation, which can be applied earlier and earlier in the design life cycle and thus help also reduce the cost of aviation assurance. I will then show how run-time techniques (such as runtime assurance or data analytics) offer us a chance to catch even more complex problems, even in the face of changing and unpredictable environments. These new techniques will be extremely useful as our aviation systems become more complex and more autonomous.

  20. Q-FANSTM for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worobel, R.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general aviation over the next 10 to 15 years is dependent on continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance and cost. Moreover, these advanced aircraft will need to conform to expected government regulations controlling propulsion system emissions and noise levels. An attractive compact low noise propulsor concept, the Q-FANTM when matched to piston, rotary combustion, or gas turbine engines opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general aviation aircraft which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restriction of the 1980 time period. New Q-FAN methodology which was derived to predict Q-FAN noise, weight and cost is presented. Based on this methodology Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. Then the impact of this propulsion system type on the complete aircraft is investigated for several representative aircraft size categories. Finally, example conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  1. Transferring Aviation Practices into Clinical Medicine for the Promotion of High Reliability.

    PubMed

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; McPherson, Mark K; Pina, Joseph S; Gaydos, Steven J

    2017-05-01

    Aviation is a classic example of a high reliability organization (HRO)-an organization in which catastrophic events are expected to occur without control measures. As health care systems transition toward high reliability, aviation practices are increasingly transferred for clinical implementation. A PubMed search using the terms aviation, crew resource management, and patient safety was undertaken. Manuscripts authored by physician pilots and accident investigation regulations were analyzed. Subject matter experts involved in adoption of aviation practices into the medical field were interviewed. A PubMed search yielded 621 results with 22 relevant for inclusion. Improved clinical outcomes were noted in five research trials in which aviation practices were adopted, particularly with regard to checklist usage and crew resource-management training. Effectiveness of interventions was influenced by intensity of application, leadership involvement, and provision of staff training. The usefulness of incorporating mishap investigation techniques has not been established. Whereas aviation accident investigation is highly standardized, the investigation of medical error is characterized by variation. The adoption of aviation practices into clinical medicine facilitates an evolution toward high reliability. Evidence for the efficacy of the checklist and crew resource-management training is robust. Transference of aviation accident investigation practices is preliminary. A standardized, independent investigation process could facilitate the development of a safety culture commensurate with that achieved in the aviation industry.Powell-Dunford N, McPherson MK, Pina JS, Gaydos SJ. Transferring aviation practices into clinical medicine for the promotion of high reliability. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):487-491.

  2. Aviation Safety Program Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies (AEST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Engine Icing: Characterization and Simulation Capability: Develop knowledge bases, analysis methods, and simulation tools needed to address the problem of engine icing; in particular, ice-crystal icing Airframe Icing Simulation and Engineering Tool Capability: Develop and demonstrate 3-D capability to simulate and model airframe ice accretion and related aerodynamic performance degradation for current and future aircraft configurations in an expanded icing environment that includes freezing drizzle/rain Atmospheric Hazard Sensing and Mitigation Technology Capability: Improve and expand remote sensing and mitigation of hazardous atmospheric environments and phenomena

  3. Safety and efficacy of canagliflozin in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year post-marketing surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goda, Maki; Yamakura, Tomoko; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Tajima, Takumi; Ueno, Makoto

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of canagliflozin in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in clinical settings. The authors conducted a 1-year post-marketing surveillance (PMS) of canagliflozin in almost all the elderly patients (≥65 years old) with T2DM who began taking canagliflozin during the first 3 months after its launch in Japan. The main outcomes included the incidences of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), serious ADRs, and the changes of laboratory tests as well as efficacy variables. An ADR was reported in 9.09% (125 of 1375 patients) in the safety analysis set. The main ADRs were dehydration, constipation, thirst, pollakiuria, dizziness, cystitis, eczema, pruritus, and rash. The incidence of serious ADRs was 1.02% (14 patients), which included urinary tract infection, dehydration, hypoglycemia, and cerebral infarction (two patients each). ADRs of special interest that had been reported in clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors, such as hypoglycemia, volume depletion-related events, genital/urinary tract infection, polyuria/pollakiuria, and ketone body increased were also observed in this PMS. The safety profiles were similar to the results of a previous clinical study of canagliflozin, and new safety concerns were not identified in this survey. The mean change in HbA1c was -0.77% after 12 months of treatment in the efficacy analysis set. In this PMS, the safety and efficacy profiles of canagliflozin in elderly patients with T2DM were obtained in the clinical settings in Japan and the drug was well tolerated and effective in improving glycemic control.

  4. General aviation IFR operational problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Operational problems of general aviation IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general aviation avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.

  5. SHM reliability and implementation - A personal military aviation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Eric A.

    2016-02-01

    Structural Health Monitoring has been proposed as a solution to address the needs of military aviation to reduce the time and cost to perform nondestructive inspections. While the potential to realize significant benefits exist, there are considerations that have to be addressed before such systems can be integrated into military platforms. Some considerations are pervasive to all aviation, such as how to assess the reliability and reproducible capability of these systems. However, there are other challenges unique to military aviation that must be overcome before these types of systems can be used. This presentation and paper are intended as a complement to the review of the outcome of the SAE G-11 SHM committee special workshop on SHM reliability in April of 2015. It will address challenges unique to military aviation that stem from different approaches to managing structural integrity (i.e. safety), frequency of use, design differences, various maintenance practices, and additional descriptions addressing differences in the execution of inspections. The objective of this presentation is to improve the awareness of the research and development community to the different and unique requirements found in military aviation, including the differences between countries, services, and aircraft type. This information should assist the research and development community in identifying and attacking key challenges. It is not intended to be comprehensive overview of all stakeholders' perspectives, but to serve as a launch point for additional discussion and exploration of opportunities to realize the potential of Structural Health Monitoring to assist in the management of military aviation assets. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government.

  6. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  7. Driving-while-intoxicated history as a risk marker for general aviation pilots.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2005-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration conducts background checking for driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) convictions on all pilots. This study examined the association between DWI history and crash risk in a cohort of 335,672 general aviation pilots. These pilots were followed up from 1994 to 2000 through the aviation crash surveillance system of the National Transportation Safety Board. At baseline, 3.4% of the pilots had a DWI history. DWI history was associated with a 43% increased risk of crash involvement (adjusted relative risk: 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.77). The population-attributable risk fraction for DWI history was estimated as 1.4%. In addition to DWI history, male gender, older age, and inexperience were associated with significantly increased risk of crash involvement. The results of this study support DWI history as a valid risk marker for general aviation pilots. The safety benefit of background checking for DWI history needs to be further evaluated.

  8. Principles and Guidelines for Duty and Rest Scheduling in Commercial Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinges, David F.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.; Samel, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    The aviation industry requires 24-hour activities to meet operational demands. Growth in global long-haul, regional, overnight cargo, and short-haul domestic operations will continue to increase these round-the-clock requirements. Flight crews must be available to support 24-hour-a-day operations to meet these industry demands. Both domestic and international aviation can also require crossing multiple time zones. Therefore, shift work, night work, irregular work schedules, unpredictable work schedules, and dm zone changes will continue to be commonplace components of the aviation industry. These factors pose known challenges to human physiology, and because they result in performance-impairing fatigue, they pose a risk to safety. It is critical to acknowledge and, whenever possible, incorporate scientific information on fatigue, human sleep, and circadian physiology into 24-hour aviation operations. Utilization of such scientific information can help promote crew performance and alertness during flight operations and thereby maintain and improve the safety margin.

  9. 77 FR 56909 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a...

  10. 75 FR 60493 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY... Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2-year period beginning September 17, 2010. The...

  11. Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) System Architecture

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-29

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Environment and Energy (FAA-AEE) is : developing a comprehensive suite of software tools that will allow for thorough assessment of the environmental effects of aviation. The main goal of the effort is ...

  12. Selected abstracts on aviation weather hazard research

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This paper consists of bibliographic information and abstracts for literature on the topics of weather-related aviation hazards. These abstracts were selected from reports written for the ASR-9, ITWS, TDWR programs, sponsored by the Federal Aviation ...

  13. Office of Aviation Medicine Strategic Plan

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-02-01

    This was the first strategic plan for the Office of Aviation Medicine (AAM). : The AAM is a geographically and functionally diverse organization that provides : a wide range of aviation medical services to the FAA and the national and : international...

  14. Assessment of the Aviation Environmental Design Tool

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-29

    A comprehensive Tools Suite to allow for : thorough evaluation of the environmental effects and impacts : of aviation is currently being developed by the U.S. This suite : consists of the Environmental Design Space (EDS), the : Aviation Environmental...

  15. General aviation statistical databook & industry outlook

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    2009 was one of the toughest years the general aviation industry has ever : experienced. The global economic crisis which included major constraints : on credit, coupled with the mischaracterization of business aviation led some : operators to divest...

  16. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Operations Specifications AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments...

  17. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is...

  18. General Aviation Avionics Statistics : 1978 Data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-12-01

    The report presents avionics statistics for the 1978 general aviation (GA) aircraft fleet and is the fifth in a series titled "General Aviation Statistics." The statistics are presented in a capability group framework which enables one to relate airb...

  19. General Aviation Avionics Statistics : 1979 Data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-04-01

    This report presents avionics statistics for the 1979 general aviation (GA) aircraft fleet and is the sixth in a series titled General Aviation Avionics Statistics. The statistics preseneted in a capability group framework which enables one to relate...

  20. The Dynamic Aviation Data System (DADS).

    PubMed

    Soman, S; Strome, T; Francescutti, L H

    1997-08-01

    This paper proposes The Dynamic Aviation Data System (DADS), which integrates a variety of existing information sources regarding flight to serve as a tool to pilots in dealing with the challenges of flight. The system is composed of three main parts: a pilot's history on disk; a system that can read proposed flight plans and make suggestions based upon Geographical Information Systems, weather, aircraft, and case report databases that exist throughout North America; and a small hand-held computer that interfaces with the aircraft's instruments and that can be brought into the cockpit to aid the pilot before and during flight. The system is based upon technology that currently exists and information that is already regularly collected. While many issues regarding implementation and cost efficiency of the system need to be addressed, the system shows promise in its ability to make useful flight safety information available to all pilots in order to save lives.

  1. Effects of long and short simulated flights on the saccadic eye movement velocity of aviators.

    PubMed

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; McCamy, Michael B; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Gayles, Ellis; Hoare, Chad; Foster, Michael; Catena, Andrés; Macknik, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Aircrew fatigue is a major contributor to operational errors in civil and military aviation. Objective detection of pilot fatigue is thus critical to prevent aviation catastrophes. Previous work has linked fatigue to changes in oculomotor dynamics, but few studies have studied this relationship in critical safety environments. Here we measured the eye movements of US Marine Corps combat helicopter pilots before and after simulated flight missions of different durations.We found a decrease in saccadic velocities after long simulated flights compared to short simulated flights. These results suggest that saccadic velocity could serve as a biomarker of aviator fatigue.

  2. Low-Cost Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies for General Aviation Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Gavinsky, Bob; Semanskee, Grant

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) Program has as a goal to reduce the overall cost of producing private aviation aircraft while maintaining the safety of these aircraft. In order to successfully meet this goal, it is necessary to develop nondestructive inspection techniques which will facilitate the production of the materials used in these aircraft and assure the quality necessary to maintain airworthiness. This paper will discuss a particular class of general aviation materials and several nondestructive inspection techniques that have proven effective for making these inspections. Additionally, this paper will discuss the investigation and application of other commercially available quality control techniques applicable to these structures.

  3. Aviation Pilot Training I and Aviation Technician I: Task Analyses. Semester I. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot and aviation technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aviation career opportunities; comprehending the history of aviation; understanding classes, categories, and types of aircraft;…

  4. Federal Aviation Administration Plan for Research, Engineering & Development, 1998.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    release rate. • Improved fracture toughness of non-combustible geopolymer composite fire barriers to enable use as interior and secondary composites ...Fire Resistant, Non-Toxic Interior Panels for Evaluation of Heat Release Rate ♦ Improved Fracture Toughness of Non-Combustible Geopolymer Composite ... composites , atmospheric hazards, crash worthiness, fire safety, and forensics capabilities to support accident investigations. Aviation Security R,E&D

  5. Special Aviation Fire and Explosion Reduction (SAFER) Advisory Committee. Volume IIB.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-26

    Virginia 22161. ". iIf NOTICE This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information...7inal Report Office of Aviation Safety 1nt, 26, l78 - ’t::L Federal Aviation Administration U.S. Department of Transportation t. Spo-o.rng A-ge-,co L...members, oroposea the following scope for the Committee’s activities: * That the Committee confine izself to transport category airplanes. * That, with

  6. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orser, N. A.; Glascoff, W. G., III

    This book, which is to be used only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and the intricacies and procedures of the use of flying. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter describes varieties of…

  7. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.

    This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter…

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of this...

  9. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...

  10. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...

  11. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of this...

  12. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of this...

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of this...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of this...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2...

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2...

  1. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2...

  2. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of this...

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of this...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2...

  6. Aviation and Space Education. Why? What? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Merridee L.

    1983-01-01

    Aviation and space (aerospace education) is the study of aviation and space and its impact on society. Discusses the nature and scope of aviation and space education in general and basic education. Also considers typical programs and scope at the elementary, secondary, and higher educational levels. (JN)

  7. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-26034 Filed 10-22-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  8. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments... 4. U.S. Mail: Leslie Grey--AAL-614, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th...

  9. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-16464 Filed 7-8-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  10. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. Curriculum Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John, Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum implementation guide is a scope and sequence for the general section of a course in aviation maintenance technology. The course materials were prepared through a cooperative effort of airframe and powerplant mechanics, general aviation industry representatives, Federal Aviation Administration representatives, and vocational…

  11. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  12. Managing the Aviation Insider Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    World Airport NSAS National Strategy for Aviation Security OIS Office of Intelligence SIDA Security Identification Display Area STA Security...Security of the secured area”, 1542.205, “Security of the security identification display area ( SIDA )”, and 1542.209, “Fingerprint-based criminal

  13. 78 FR 6276 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 [WT Docket No. 01-289; FCC 13-2] Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rules. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) invites comment on issues regarding 121.5 MHz emergency...

  14. 76 FR 17347 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 2 and 87 [WT Docket No. 01-289; FCC 10-103] Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or FCC) addresses a number of important issues...

  15. Aviation combustion toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-01-01

    Aviation combustion toxicology is a subspecialty of the field of aerospace toxicology, which is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace, that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth, is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology, including combustion toxicology, are the three main branches of toxicology. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed and information related to aviation combustion toxicology collected. The overview included introduction; combustion, fire, and smoke; smoke gas toxicity; aircraft material testing; fire gases and their interactive effects; result interpretation; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion levels; pyrolytic products of aircraft engine oils, fluids, and lubricants; and references. This review is anticipated to be an informative resource for aviation combustion toxicology and fire-related casualties.

  16. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains two papers on aviation education. "Chief Pilots of Regional Airlines Perceive Basic Instrument Skills as Most Important with Respect to Need for Additional Training of Entry-Level Pilots" (William C. Herrick) reports the results of a study in which 126 (of a population of 197) randomly selected regional airlines' chief…

  17. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  18. Review of Safety Reports Involving Electronic Flight Bags.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    Safety events in which Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) were a factor are reviewed. Relevant reports were obtained from the public Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident report datab...

  19. A review of civil aviation fatal accidents in which "lost/disoriented" was a cause/factor : 1981-1990.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) analyzes circumstances and data from civil aviation accidents and ascribes one or more causes and/or related factors to help explain each accident. Among the formally accepted NTSB categories of acciden...

  20. Human factors in anaesthesia: lessons from aviation.

    PubMed

    Toff, N J

    2010-07-01

    Aviation safety has evolved over more than a century and has achieved remarkable results. Applying some of the lessons learned may help make healthcare safer. From the perspective of an anaesthetic background and some thousands of hours of airline flying, I offer a personal perspective, try to give a sense of the place of human factors in airline operations and some of the current problems, and make some suggestions as to what the NHS and anaesthesia might learn from this. Although many of the ingredients for safe operation are frequently already present in our hospitals, and some individual clinical areas and departments achieve high levels of reliability and safety, I will emphasize my firm belief that we cannot expect improvements in human factors training and awareness to be fully effective in the healthcare setting without the parallel development of a simple and strong safety system across organizations. In the process, we may find that the safe hospital turns out somewhat differently to the safe airline.

  1. Cost and workforce implications of subjecting all physicians to aviation industry work-hour restrictions.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Weeks, William B

    2009-06-01

    Efforts to improve patient safety have attempted to incorporate aviation industry safety standards. We sought to evaluate the cost and workforce implications of applying aviation duty-hour restrictions to the entire practicing physician workforce. The work hours and personnel deficit for United States residents and practicing physicians that would be created by the adoption of aviation standards were calculated. Application of aviation standards to the resident workforce creates an estimated annual cost of $6.5 billion, requiring a 174% increase in the number of residents to meet the deficit. Its application to practicing physicians creates an additional annual cost of $80.4 billion, requiring a 71% increase in the physician workforce. Adding in the aviation industry's mandatory retirement age (65 years) increases annual costs by $10.5 billion. The cost per life-year saved would be $1,035,227. Application of aviation duty-hour restrictions to the United States health care system would be prohibitively costly. Alternate approaches for improving patient safety are warranted.

  2. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    PubMed

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  3. Toxicological findings in 889 fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Botch, Sabra R; Ricaurte, Eduard M

    2012-03-01

    Prevalence of drugs in fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents has not been evaluated. Therefore, toxicological findings in such pilots (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ) were examined in a data set derived from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Scientific Information System for 1990-2005. Aeromedical histories of these aviators were retrieved from the CAMI medical certification and toxicology databases, and the cause/factors in the related accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board's database. In 311 of the 889 pilots, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs were found, and glucose and hemoglobin A(1c) were elevated. Of the 889 pilots, 107 had an obesity-related medical history. The health and/or medical condition(s) of, and/or the use of ethanol and/or drugs by, pilots were the cause/factors in 55 (18%) of the 311 accidents. Drugs found were primarily for treating obesity-related medical conditions such as depression, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  4. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Game changing advances come about by the introduction of new technologies at a time when societal needs create the opportunity for new market solutions. A unique opportunity exists for NASA to bring about such a mobility revolution in General Aviation, extendable to other aviation markets, to maintain leadership in aviation by the United States. This report outlines the research carried out so far under NASA's leadership towards developing a new mobility choice, called Zip Aviation1,2,3. The feasibility, technology and system gaps that need to be addressed, and pathways for successful implementation have been investigated to guide future investment. The past decade indicates exciting trends in transportation technologies, which are quickly evolving. Automobiles are embracing automation to ease driver tasks as well as to completely control the vehicle with added safety (Figure 1). Electric propulsion is providing zero tail-pipe emission vehicles with dramatically lower energy and maintenance costs. These technologies have not yet been applied to aviation, yet offer compelling potential benefits across all aviation markets, and in particular to General Aviation (GA) as an early adopter market. The benefits of such an adoption are applicable in the following areas: ?? Safety: The GA market experiences accident rates that are substantially higher than automobiles or commercial airlines, with 7.5 fatal accidents per 100 million vehicle miles compared to 1.3 for automobiles and.068 for airlines. Approximately 80% of these accidents are caused by some form of pilot error, with another 13% caused by single point propulsion system failure. ?? Emissions: Environmental constraints are pushing for the elimination of 100Low Lead (LL) fuel used in most GA aircraft, with aviation fuel the #1 source of lead emissions into the environment. Aircraft also have no emission control systems (i.e. no catalytic converters etc.), so they are gross hydrocarbon polluters compared to

  5. Managing human error in aviation.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L

    1997-05-01

    Crew resource management (CRM) programs were developed to address team and leadership aspects of piloting modern airplanes. The goal is to reduce errors through team work. Human factors research and social, cognitive, and organizational psychology are used to develop programs tailored for individual airlines. Flight crews study accident case histories, group dynamics, and human error. Simulators provide pilots with the opportunity to solve complex flight problems. CRM in the simulator is called line-oriented flight training (LOFT). In automated cockpits CRM promotes the idea of automation as a crew member. Cultural aspects of aviation include professional, business, and national culture. The aviation CRM model has been adapted for training surgeons and operating room staff in human factors.

  6. Dynamic Safety Cases for Through-Life Safety Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Habli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    We describe dynamic safety cases, a novel operationalization of the concept of through-life safety assurance, whose goal is to enable proactive safety management. Using an example from the aviation systems domain, we motivate our approach, its underlying principles, and a lifecycle. We then identify the key elements required to move towards a formalization of the associated framework.

  7. Human error in aviation operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lanber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    This report is a brief description of research being undertaken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The project is designed to seek out factors in the aviation system which contribute to human error, and to search for ways of minimizing the potential threat posed by these factors. The philosophy and assumptions underlying the study are discussed, together with an outline of the research plan.

  8. General aviation fuel quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Quality control measures for aviation gasoline, and some of the differences between quality control on avgas and mogas are discussed. One thing to keep in mind is that with motor gasoline you can always pull off to the side of the road. It's not so easy to do in an airplane. Consequently, there are reasons for having the tight specifications and the tight quality control measures on avgas as compared to motor gasoline.

  9. Improving Naval Aviation Depot Responsiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    for Naval Analyses (CNA) has researched the construc- tion of AVCALs (Evanovich, 1987; Evanovich and Measell , 1986). It produced a readiness-based AVCAL...improvements, a finding that is consistent with the CNA findings on readiness-based sparing AVCALs (Evanovich and Measell , 1986; Evanovich et al., 1987).3...Aviation Components: Contractor vs. Organic Repair, RAND, N-2225-NAVY, March 1985. Evanovich, Peter J., and Barbara H. Measell , Full Airwing

  10. Researcher Role in Aviation Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-31

    Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding...14-D-6501-0009 Researcher Role in Aviation Operations 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...the symposium. The overarching goal of the two sessions was to foster a dialogue between operational personnel and researchers towards a safer and more

  11. MARSOC Aviation: An Incremental Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-24

    MARSOC. Through a series of near, mid, and long term investments in building and training a cadre of experienced aircrew, the creation of aMarine Corps...investments in building and training a cadre of experienced aircrew, the creation of a Marine Corps special operations aviation element can be...from the current AH-1W attack helicopter. The Zulu has increased speed, range, payload, endurance, standoff ability, and situational awareness

  12. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  13. Common mental disorders among civil aviation pilots.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Denise; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Camara, Volney Magalhães

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suspected cases of common mental disorders (CMD) on Brazilian civil aviation pilots and to investigate associations between CMD, demographics, and labor variables. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on 807 working pilots between October 2009 and October 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic data and information about workload. CMD prevalence was estimated with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 items (SRQ-20). Multiple logistic regression was used in statistical data analyses. The overall prevalence of CMD was 6.7% with the cutoff point of 8 used in this study, i.e., scores greater than or equal to 8 in SRQ-20 define positive cases. Using alternative cutoffs, the prevalence was 9.2% (cut off point 7) or 12% (cutoff point 6). Among the individuals who did not exercise, 10.2% presented suspected CMD. Among those with a heavy workload, 23.7% presented scores indicating suspected CMD. Only variables relating to workload and the practice of physical activity were significantly correlated with the estimate of CMD after multivariate analysis. Regular physical exercise afforded a possible protective effect against suspected cases of CMD, while there was a higher prevalence of suspected cases among subjects with heavy workloads. The inclusion of the topic of mental health among the targets and priorities of civil aviation in Brazil is imperative. Addressing issues such as the regular practice of physical activity and workload can contribute to achieving a better balance between flight safety and productivity.

  14. Aviator's Fluid Balance During Military Flight.

    PubMed

    Levkovsky, Anna; Abot-Barkan, Sivan; Chapnik, Leah; Doron, Omer; Levy, Yuval; Heled, Yuval; Gordon, Barak

    2018-02-01

    A loss of 1% or more of bodyweight due to dehydration has a negative effect on cognitive performance, which could critically affect flight safety. There is no mention in the literature concerning the amounts of military pilots' fluid loss during flight. The aim of this study was to quantify fluid loss of pilots during military flight. There were 48 aviators (mean age 23.9) from the Israeli Air Force who participated in the study, which included 104 training flights in various flight platforms. Bodyweight, urine specific gravity, and environmental heat strain were measured before and after each flight. Fluid loss was calculated as the weight differences before and after the flight. We used a univariate and one-way ANOVA to analyze the effect of different variables on the fluid loss. The mean fluid loss rate was 462 ml · h-1. The results varied among different aircraft platforms and depended on flight duration. Blackhawk pilots lost the highest amount of fluids per flight, albeit had longer flights (mean 108 min compared to 35.5 in fighter jets). Jet fighter pilots had the highest rate of fluid loss per hour of flight (up to 692 ml, extrapolated). Overall, at 11 flights (11%) aircrew completed their flight with a meaningful fluid loss. We conclude that military flights may be associated with significant amount of fluid loss among aircrew.Levkovsky A, Abot-Barkan S, Chapnik L, Doron O, Levy Y, Heled Y, Gordon B. Aviator's fluid balance during military flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):9498.

  15. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  16. Alcohol violations and aviation accidents: findings from the U.S. mandatory alcohol testing program.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2007-05-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing has been implemented in the U.S. aviation industry since 1995. This study documents the prevalence of alcohol violations and the association between alcohol violations and aviation accidents among aviation employees with safety-sensitive functions. Data from the random alcohol testing and post-accident alcohol testing programs reported by major airlines to the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995 through 2002 were analyzed. A violation was defined as an alcohol level of > or = 0.04% or a refusal to submit to testing. Relative and attributable risks of accident involvement associated with alcohol violations were estimated using the case-control method. During the study period, random alcohol testing yielded a total of 440 violations, with an overall prevalence rate of 0.09% and a prevalence rate of 0.03% for flight crews. Alcohol violations were associated with an increased yet not statistically significant risk of accident involvement (odds ratio 2.56, 95% confidence interval 0.81-7.08) and were attributed to 0.13% of aviation accidents. Alcohol violations among U.S. major airline employees with safety-sensitive functions are rare and play a negligible role in aviation accidents.

  17. Human error and commercial aviation accidents: an analysis using the human factors analysis and classification system.

    PubMed

    Shappell, Scott; Detwiler, Cristy; Holcomb, Kali; Hackworth, Carla; Boquet, Albert; Wiegmann, Douglas A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend previous examinations of aviation accidents to include specific aircrew, environmental, supervisory, and organizational factors associated with two types of commercial aviation (air carrier and commuter/ on-demand) accidents using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). HFACS is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research has shown that HFACS can be reliably used to identify human factors trends associated with military and general aviation accidents. Using data obtained from both the National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Aviation Administration, 6 pilot-raters classified aircrew, supervisory, organizational, and environmental causal factors associated with 1020 commercial aviation accidents that occurred over a 13-year period. The majority of accident causal factors were attributed to aircrew and the environment, with decidedly fewer associated with supervisory and organizational causes. Comparisons were made between HFACS causal categories and traditional situational variables such as visual conditions, injury severity, and regional differences. These data will provide support for the continuation, modification, and/or development of interventions aimed at commercial aviation safety. HFACS provides a tool for assessing human factors associated with accidents and incidents.

  18. Alcohol Violations and Aviation Accidents: Findings from the U.S. Mandatory Alcohol Testing Program

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P.; Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; McCarthy, Melissa L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Mandatory alcohol testing has been implemented in the U.S. aviation industry since 1995. This study documents the prevalence of alcohol violations and the association between alcohol violations and aviation accidents among aviation employees with safety-sensitive functions. Methods: Data from the random alcohol testing and post-accident alcohol testing programs reported by major airlines to the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995 through 2002 were analyzed. A violation was defined as an alcohol level of ≥ 0.04% or a refusal to submit to testing. Relative and attributable risks of accident involvement associated with alcohol violations were estimated using the case-control method. Results: During the study period, random alcohol testing yielded a total of 440 violations, with an overall prevalence rate of 0.09% and a prevalence rate of 0.03% for flight crews. Alcohol violations were associated with an increased yet not statistically significant risk of accident involvement (odds ratio 2.56, 95% confidence interval 0.81–7.08) and were attributed to 0.13% of aviation accidents. Discussion: Alcohol violations among U.S. major airline employees with safety-sensitive functions are rare and play a negligible role in aviation accidents. PMID:17539446

  19. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  20. Aviators intoxicated by inhalation of JP-5 fuel vapors.

    PubMed

    Porter, H O

    1990-07-01

    This case of intoxication of two aviators by inhalation of JP-5 fuel vapors emphasizes a dangerous safety hazard. One or both aviators experienced burning eyes, nausea, fatigue, impairment of eye-hand coordination, euphoria, and memory defects when their cockpit became overwhelmed with the odor of JP-5 fuel. Physical and laboratory examinations were normal except for their ill appearance, conjunctivitis, and mild hypertension, which resolved without sequelae. Exposure to JP-5 fuel vapor occurs frequently, particularly after acrobatic flight in some aircraft. The neurologic effects and insidious nature of intoxication makes continued operation under such conditions extremely hazardous. The following is recommended: in the event the odor of JP-5 or any noxious or irritating substance is detected in the cockpit, serious consideration should be given to terminating the flight, using precautionary emergency landing procedures and 100% O2.