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Sample records for a1 aviation safety

  1. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  2. Aviation Safety Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  3. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    During the second quarter of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the aviation community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.

  4. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During the third quarter of operation of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning aviation safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.

  5. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  6. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  7. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The origins and development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the aviation system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national aviation system.

  8. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  9. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  10. Aviation Safety Analyst Flies with Blue Angels

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Abegael "Abby" Jakey has aviation in her blood, taking her first flight at six months old in a Globe Swift. Now a contractor with Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. working for NASA's Aviation Safety Report...

  11. Vortex safety in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchak, L. I.

    2012-10-01

    The objective is the general review of impact of aircraft wake vortices on the follower aircraft encountering the wake. Currently, the presence of wake vortices past aircraft limits the airspace capacity and flight safety level for aircraft of different purposes. However, wake vortex nature and evolution have not been studied in full measure. A mathematical model simulating the process of near wake generation past bodies of different shapes, as well as the wake evolution after rolling-up into wake vortices (far wake) is developed. The processes are suggested to be modeled by means of the Method of Discrete Vortices. Far wake evolution is determined by its complex interaction with the atmosphere and ground boundary layer. The main factors that are supposed to take into account are: wind and ambient turbulence 3Ddistributions, temperature stratification of the atmosphere, wind shear, as well as some others which effects will be manifested as considerable during the investigation. The ground boundary layer effects on wake vortex evolution are substantial at low flight altitudes and are determined through the boundary layer separation.

  12. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  13. The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the United States set a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years based on the recommendations by the Presidential Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Achieving this goal will require the combined efforts of government, industry, and academia in the areas of technology research and development, implementation, and operations. To respond to the national goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a program that will focus resources over a five year period on performing research and developing technologies that will enable improvements in many areas of aviation safety. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is organized into six research areas: Aviation System Modeling and Monitoring, System Wide Accident Prevention, Single Aircraft Accident Prevention, Weather Accident Prevention, Accident Mitigation, and Synthetic Vision. Specific project areas include Turbulence Detection and Mitigation, Aviation Weather Information, Weather Information Communications, Propulsion Systems Health Management, Control Upset Management, Human Error Modeling, Maintenance Human Factors, Fire Prevention, and Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial, Business, and General Aviation aircraft. Research will be performed at all four NASA aeronautics centers and will be closely coordinated with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other government agencies, industry, academia, as well as the aviation user community. This paper provides an overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program goals, structure, and integration with the rest of the aviation community.

  14. Aviation Safety: FAA and DOD Response to Similar Safety Concerns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    General Accounting Office GAO January 2002 AVIATION SAFETY FAA and DOD Response to Similar Safety Concerns GAO-02-77 Report Documentation Page Report...Date 00JAN2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle AVIATION SAFETY FAA and DOD: Response to Similar Safety Concerns ...public release, distribution unlimited Supplementary Notes Abstract Safety of aircraft is a paramount concern in both civilian and military aviation

  15. 75 FR 44998 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...-OST-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice.... ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of meeting... meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held August 24, 2010, in Chicago,...

  16. 75 FR 60163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19,...

  17. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  18. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  19. Laser pointers and aviation safety.

    PubMed

    Nakagawara, V B; Montgomery, R W

    2000-10-01

    Laser pointers have been used by teachers and lecturers for years to highlight key areas on charts and screens during visual presentations. When used in a responsible manner, laser pointers are not considered to be hazardous. However, as the availability of such devices has increased, so have reports of their misuse. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning in December 1997 on the possibility of eye injury to children from handheld laser pointers. In October 1998, the American Academy of Ophthalmology upgraded an earlier caution to a warning, stating that laser pointers can be hazardous and should be kept away from children, after two reports of eye injuries involving young girls (age 11 and 13 yr). Of particular concern was the promotion of laser products as children's toys, such as those that can project cartoon figures and line drawings. Additionally, there have been reports involving the misuse of laser pointers (e.g., arrests made after police interpreted the red beam to be a laser-sighted weapon, spectators aiming laser lights at athletes during sporting events, cars illuminated on highways, and numerous incidents involving the illumination of aircraft). This technical note discusses physiological effects of exposure from a laser pointer, the regulation and classification of commercial laser products, and how the misuse of these pointers is a possible threat to aviation safety.

  20. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 900,000 reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 5,500 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation \\vill discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  1. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  2. Aviation Safety Concerns for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Roelen, Alfred L. C.; den Hertog, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) is a multidisciplinary international group of aviation professionals that was established to identify possible future aviation safety hazards. The principle was adopted that future hazards are undesirable consequences of changes, and a primary activity of FAST became identification and prioritization of possible future changes affecting aviation. Since 2004, FAST has been maintaining a catalogue of "Areas of Change" (AoC) that could potentially influence aviation safety. The horizon for such changes is between 5 to 20 years. In this context, changes must be understood as broadly as possible. An AoC is a description of the change, not an identification of the hazards that result from the change. An ex-post analysis of the AoCs identified in 2004 demonstrates that changes catalogued many years previous were directly implicated in the majority of fatal aviation accidents over the past ten years. This paper presents an overview of the current content of the AoC catalogue and a subsequent discussion of aviation safety concerns related to these possible changes. Interactions among these future changes may weaken critical functions that must be maintained to ensure safe operations. Safety assessments that do not appreciate or reflect the consequences of significant interaction complexity will not be fully informative and can lead to inappropriate trade-offs and increases in other risks. The FAST strongly encourages a system-wide approach to safety risk assessment across the global aviation system, not just within the domain for which future technologies or operational concepts are being considered. The FAST advocates the use of the "Areas of Change" concept, considering that several possible future phenomena may interact with a technology or operational concept under study producing unanticipated hazards.

  3. The controller, aviation medicine and air safety.

    PubMed

    Watkin, B L

    1983-03-01

    Aviation medicine has researched many important facts on pilots, but little on direct relationships between controllers, aviation medicine and air safety. The unsuspecting flying public accepts a 'blind faith' in aircraft and pilots, unaware that aircraft are controlled within 'suspect' ATC systems. The deceptive simplicity of controlling air traffic in apparently limitless skies belies the complexity of man-machine ATC systems operated in ever-crowded airspace, sometimes with antiquated equipment and indifferent communications. The indivisible operational controller/pilot team strives to meet similar ICAO medical standards and operate within the limitations of non-standardised recorded air traffic. Despite controllers' intensive stress at air disasters and 'almost' air disasters, air traffic must continually be controlled for air safety; but, countless human lives (and insurance dollars) saved are possibly camouflaged within the smoke screen of ATC. In New Zealand aviation, the Accident Compensation Corporation is statutorily responsible for air-safety, but accident investigators need controllers' expertise. Has a climate of complacency evolved towards air safety such that New Zealand's Erebus and other air disasters could have been avoided? Controllers are that crucial link in aviation with personal medical fitness vital to the air safety of the unsuspecting flying public. Controllers' dedicated aim for complete air safety in ATC shall benefit from greater understanding within aviation medicine and in-depth medical research.

  4. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  5. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  6. NASA's aviation safety research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aviation safety is challenged by the practical necessity of compromising inherent factors of design, environment, and operation. If accidents are to be avoided these factors must be controlled to a degree not often required by other transport modes. The operational problems which challenge safety seem to occur most often in the interfaces within and between the design, the environment, and operations where mismatches occur due to ignorance or lack of sufficient understanding of these interactions. Under this report the following topics are summarized: (1) The nature of operating problems, (2) NASA aviation safety research, (3) clear air turbulence characterization and prediction, (4) CAT detection, (5) Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence (MAT) Program, (6) Lightning, (7) Thunderstorm gust fronts, (8) Aircraft ground operating problems, (9) Aircraft fire technology, (10) Crashworthiness research, (11) Aircraft wake vortex hazard research, and (12) Aviation safety reporting system.

  7. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  8. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  9. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  10. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  11. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  12. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  13. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The study deals with 165 inadvertent operations on or into inappropriate portions of the aircraft areas at controlled airports. Pilot-initiated and controller-initiated incursions are described and discussed. It was found that a majority of the pilot-initiated occurrences involved operation without a clearance; controller-initiated occurrences usually involved failure to maintain assured separation. The factors associated with these occurrences are analyzed. It appears that a major problem in these occurrences is inadequate coordination among the various system participants. Reasons for this, and some possible solutions to various aspects of the problem, are discussed. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is presented. These relate to undesired occurrences in air transport, general aviation, and air traffic control operations; to ATC coordination problems; and to a recurrent problem in ASRS reports, parachuting operations. A sample of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  14. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A sample of reports relating to operations during winter weather is presented. Several reports involving problems of judgment and decisionmaking have been selected from the numerous reports representative of this area. Problems related to aeronautical charts are discussed in a number of reports. An analytic study of reports involving potential conflicts in the immediate vicinity of uncontrolled airports was performed; the results are discussed in this report. It was found that in three-fourths of 127 such conflicts, neither pilot, or only one of the pilots, was communicating position and intentions on the appropriate frequency. The importance of providing aural transfer of information, as a backup to the visual see and avoid mode of information transfer is discussed. It was also found that a large fraction of pilots involved in potential conflicts on final approach had executed straight-in approaches, rather than the recommended traffic pattern entries, prior to the conflicts. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them by various segments of the aviation community is presented.

  15. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 129 International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program... statement describes a policy change to the FAA's International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) program... appropriate IASA category rating for a country using information collected during an in-country assessment of...

  16. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  17. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  18. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  19. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-07-01

    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  20. Aviation.

    PubMed

    Karl, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    An increased awareness of the need for safety in medicine in general and in surgery in particular has prompted comparisons between the cockpit and the operating room. These comparisons seem to make sense but tend to be oversimplified. Attempts in healthcare to mimic programs that have been credited for the safety of commercial aviation have met with varying results. The risk here is that oversimplified application of an aviation model may result in the abandonment of good ideas in medicine. This paper describes in more depth the differences between medicine and commercial aviation: from the hiring process, through initial operating experience, recurrent training, and the management of emergencies. These programs add up to a cultural difference. Aviation assumes that personnel are subject to mistake making and that systems and culture need to be constructed to catch and mitigate error; medicine is still focused on the perfection of each individual's performance. The implications of these differences are explored.

  1. Comparative Qualitative Research Distinguishing Safety Features Among Aviation Safety Action Programs in the United States Airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilakalapudi, Naga Swathi Kiran

    Over the years, aviation safety has been influenced by continuous implementations of both proactive and reactive policies by both regulatory boards and also, aviation service providers. This achievement has been possible mainly because of the safety management tools like the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) which derives its roots from the much earlier Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides guidelines and procedures for installation and development of an ASAP, for every airline in the United States. In this study, how different United States air carriers apply ASAP in their organizations is investigated.

  2. The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.

    PubMed

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-04-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.

  3. Applying lessons from commercial aviation safety and operations to resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2014-02-01

    Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance.

  4. Using aviation safety measures to enhance patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Russell M; Swain, Diane; Nixon, William R

    2003-01-01

    Recent media reports have put a spotlight on the increasing number of medical errors occurring in US health care institutions. In contrast to health care's increasing error rate, the aviation industry is experiencing a decreasing error rate. Could the safety techniques used in the aviation industry be applied to health care? This article explores that question. The dynamics of the surgical suite are not unlike those of the cockpit of an airplane; therefore, perioperative services was selected to pilot test the aviation model of safety training.

  5. The actual development of European Aviation Safety Requirements in Aviation Medicine: Prospects of Future EASA Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-01-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990ies. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Awiation Requirement - Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781

  6. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  7. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  8. [Learning from aviation - how to increase patient safety in surgery].

    PubMed

    Renz, B; Angele, M K; Jauch, K-W; Kasparek, M S; Kreis, M; Müller, M H

    2012-04-01

    During the last years attempts have been made to draw lessons from aviation to increase patient safety in medicine. In particular similar conditions are present in surgery as pilots and surgeons may have to support high physical and mental pressure. The use of a few safety instruments from aviation is feasible in an attempt to increase safety in surgery. First a "root caused" accident research may be established. This is achievable by morbidity and mortality conferences and critical incident reporting systems (CIRS). Second, standard operating procedures may assure a uniform mental model of team members. Furthermore, crew resource management illustrates a strategy and attitude concept, which is applicable in all situations. Safety instruments from aviation, therefore, seem to have a high potential to increase safety in surgery when properly employed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  9. A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

  10. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  11. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  12. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  13. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  14. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  15. Review of aviation safety measures which have application to aviation accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Doughtery, J D

    1975-01-01

    Introduction of certain human-factors techniques has been followed by market reduction in military and airline accident rates. In this study, these safety measures are analyzed to determine the value of their application to general aviation activity. Some techniques are already in use. They are: 1. medical evaluation of iarcrews; 2. aeronautical innovations which tailor the machine to the man; 3. imporvement of precision navigational air traffic control and flight procedures; 4. standardization of flight training and flight procedures. A remaining field of interest, and one which appears to be underused, is that of supervision. After ending his association with the flight instructor, the general aviation pilot is essentially unsupervised. Accident data gathered over several years show that with increases in the proportion of pilots who have not maintained an association with a flight instructor, the general aviation fatal accident rate is increased. Current regulations, which require revalidation of airman's certificates, provide a method by which this association can be maintained. The flight instructor, or some similar aviation professional, can maintain an element of supervision with otherwise independent general aviation pilots. Data from previous years supports the hypothesis that such a program would make a substantial improvement in general aviation safety.

  16. Development and initial validation of an Aviation Safety Climate Scale.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bronwyn; Glendon, A Ian; Creed, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    A need was identified for a consistent set of safety climate factors to provide a basis for aviation industry benchmarking. Six broad safety climate themes were identified from the literature and consultations with industry safety experts. Items representing each of the themes were prepared and administered to 940 Australian commercial pilots. Data from half of the sample (N=468) were used in an exploratory factor analysis that produced a 3-factor model of Management commitment and communication, Safety training and equipment, and Maintenance. A confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample showed the 3-factor model to be an adequate fit to the data. The results of this study have produced a scale of safety climate for aviation that is both reliable and valid. This study developed a tool to assess the level of perceived safety climate, specifically of pilots, but may also, with minor modifications, be used to assess other groups' perceptions of safety climate.

  17. Aviation Jobs and Safety Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Costello, Jerry F. [D-IL-12

    2011-07-26

    07/27/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Aviation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1079, which became Public Law 112-7 on 3/31/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Aviation Jobs and Safety Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Costello, Jerry F. [D-IL-12

    2011-07-26

    House - 07/27/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Aviation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1079, which became Public Law 112-7 on 3/31/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Proposed English Standards Promote Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Robert L.; Thomas, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Air Navigation's Commission approval of a task to develop minimum skill level requirements in English for air traffic control. The ICAO collaborated with the Defense Language Institute English Language Center to propose a minimum standard for English proficiency for international…

  20. Aviation Jobs and Safety Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Costello, Jerry F. [D-IL-12

    2011-07-26

    07/27/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Aviation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1079, which became Public Law 112-7 on 3/31/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Proposed English Standards Promote Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Robert L.; Thomas, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Air Navigation's Commission approval of a task to develop minimum skill level requirements in English for air traffic control. The ICAO collaborated with the Defense Language Institute English Language Center to propose a minimum standard for English proficiency for international…

  2. 75 FR 67805 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the... the Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Aviation...

  3. Operational Risk Management and Military Aviation Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    accidents has caused the leadership to seek to reduce its mishap rate. The Army’s Class A aviation mishap rate declined after it implemented risk management (RM...principles in 1987. This reduction caught the attention of Air Force leadership who have since stated that the application of operational risk ... management (ORM) is how the Air Force will reduce, even eliminate, mishaps. With current budget constraints, ORM is considered to be the most cost

  4. Comparing safety climate in naval aviation and hospitals: implications for improving patient safety.

    PubMed

    Singer, Sara J; Rosen, Amy; Zhao, Shibei; Ciavarelli, Anthony P; Gaba, David M

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of variation in safety climate suggests the need for improvement among at least some hospitals. However, comparisons only among hospitals may underestimate the improvement required. Comparison of hospitals with analogous industries may provide a broader perspective on the safety status of our nation's hospitals. The purpose of this study was to compare safety climate among hospital workers with personnel from naval aviation, an organization that operates with high reliability despite intrinsically hazardous conditions. We surveyed a random sample of health care workers in 67 U.S. hospitals and, for generalizability, 30 veterans affairs hospitals using questions comparable with those posed at approximately the same time (2007) to a census of personnel from 35 squadrons of U.S. naval aviators. We received 13,841 (41%) completed surveys in U.S. hospitals, 5,511 (50%) in veterans affairs hospitals, and 14,854 (82%) among naval aviators. We examined differences in respondents' perceptions of safety climate at their institution overall and for 16 individual items. Safety climate was three times better on average among naval aviators than among hospital personnel. Naval aviators perceived a safer climate (up to seven times safer) than hospital personnel with respect to each of the 16 survey items. Compared with hospital managers, naval commanders perceived climate more like frontline personnel did. When contrasting naval aviators with hospital personnel working in comparably hazardous areas, safety climate discrepancies increased rather than decreased. One individual hospital performed as well as naval aviation on average, and at least one hospital outperformed the Navy benchmark for all but three individual survey items. Results suggest that hospitals have not sufficiently created a uniform priority of safety. However, if each hospital performed as well as the top-performing hospital in each area measured, hospitals could achieve safety climate levels comparable

  5. Navigating towards improved surgical safety using aviation-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Kao, Lillian S; Thomas, Eric J

    2008-04-01

    Safety practices in the aviation industry are being increasingly adapted to healthcare in an effort to reduce medical errors and patient harm. However, caution should be applied in embracing these practices because of limited experience in surgical disciplines, lack of rigorous research linking these practices to outcome, and fundamental differences between the two industries. Surgeons should have an in-depth understanding of the principles and data supporting aviation-based safety strategies before routinely adopting them. This paper serves as a review of strategies adapted to improve surgical safety, including the following: implementation of crew resource management in training operative teams; incorporation of simulation in training of technical and nontechnical skills; and analysis of contributory factors to errors using surveys, behavioral marker systems, human factors analysis, and incident reporting. Avenues and challenges for future research are also discussed.

  6. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  7. Adverse weather impact on aviation safety, investigation and oversight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of the weather factors that effect aviation safety with respect to U.S. Coast Guard operations is presented. Precise meteorological information is an absolute necessity to the Coast Guard which must conduct life saving and rescue operations under the worst of weather conditions. Many times the weather conditions in which they operate are the cause of or a contributing factor to the predicament from which they must execute a rescue operation.

  8. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  9. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  10. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  11. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  12. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  13. From aviation to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk management in ambulatory care

    PubMed Central

    Wilf-Miron, R; Lewenhoff, I; Benyamini, Z; Aviram, A

    2003-01-01

    

 The development of a medical risk management programme based on the aviation safety approach and its implementation in a large ambulatory healthcare organisation is described. The following key safety principles were applied: (1) errors inevitably occur and usually derive from faulty system design, not from negligence; (2) accident prevention should be an ongoing process based on open and full reporting; (3) major accidents are only the "tip of the iceberg" of processes that indicate possibilities for organisational learning. Reporting physicians were granted immunity, which encouraged open reporting of errors. A telephone "hotline" served the medical staff for direct reporting and receipt of emotional support and medical guidance. Any adverse event which had learning potential was debriefed, while focusing on the human cause of error within a systemic context. Specific recommendations were formulated to rectify processes conducive to error when failures were identified. During the first 5 years of implementation, the aviation safety concept and tools were successfully adapted to ambulatory care, fostering a culture of greater concern for patient safety through risk management while providing support to the medical staff. PMID:12571343

  14. From aviation to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk management in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Wilf-Miron, R; Lewenhoff, I; Benyamini, Z; Aviram, A

    2003-02-01

    The development of a medical risk management programme based on the aviation safety approach and its implementation in a large ambulatory healthcare organisation is described. The following key safety principles were applied: (1). errors inevitably occur and usually derive from faulty system design, not from negligence; (2). accident prevention should be an ongoing process based on open and full reporting; (3). major accidents are only the "tip of the iceberg" of processes that indicate possibilities for organisational learning. Reporting physicians were granted immunity, which encouraged open reporting of errors. A telephone "hotline" served the medical staff for direct reporting and receipt of emotional support and medical guidance. Any adverse event which had learning potential was debriefed, while focusing on the human cause of error within a systemic context. Specific recommendations were formulated to rectify processes conducive to error when failures were identified. During the first 5 years of implementation, the aviation safety concept and tools were successfully adapted to ambulatory care, fostering a culture of greater concern for patient safety through risk management while providing support to the medical staff.

  15. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department`s helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team`s appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  16. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department's helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team's appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  17. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety...-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event, ``General Aviation Safety: Climbing to the Next Level,''...

  18. Report of the workshop on Aviation Safety/Automation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    As part of NASA's responsibility to encourage and facilitate active exchange of information and ideas among members of the aviation community, an Aviation Safety/Automation workshop was organized and sponsored by the Flight Management Division of NASA Langley Research Center. The one-day workshop was held on October 10, 1989, at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Participants were invited from industry, government, and universities to discuss critical questions and issues concerning the rapid introduction and utilization of advanced computer-based technology into the flight deck and air traffic controller workstation environments. The workshop was attended by approximately 30 discipline experts, automation and human factors researchers, and research and development managers. The goal of the workshop was to address major issues identified by the NASA Aviation Safety/Automation Program. Here, the results of the workshop are documented. The ideas, thoughts, and concepts were developed by the workshop participants. The findings, however, have been synthesized into a final report primarily by the NASA researchers.

  19. NASA to begin construction of aviation-safety test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Construction of a $7.5-million facility to research aviation safety will begin in April at NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Scheduled for completion in 1983, the facility will give scientists their first opportunity to identify and study psychological factors involved in the relationship between pilots, crew members, and modern aircraft.The center will have two simulators. One will be a replica of a current transport airplane cockpit, complete with flight engineer's station, flight display, and control systems. The second will represent transport aircraft of the future. With advanced technology flight controls, displays, and other flight deck systems to accommodate a flight crew and observer, the advanced simulator will be designed to test human responses to the newest aviation technologies.

  20. Reducing health care hazards: lessons from the commercial aviation safety team.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Goeschel, Christine A; Olsen, Kyle L; Pham, Julius C; Miller, Marlene R; Berenholtz, Sean M; Sexton, J Bryan; Marsteller, Jill A; Morlock, Laura L; Wu, Albert W; Loeb, Jerod M; Clancy, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    The movement to improve quality of care and patient safety has grown, but examples of measurable and sustained progress are rare. The slow progress made in health care contrasts with the success of aviation safety. After a tragic 1995 plane crash, the aviation industry and government created the Commercial Aviation Safety Team to reduce fatal accidents. This public-private partnership of safety officials and technical experts is responsible for the decreased average rate of fatal aviation accidents. We propose a similar partnership in the health care community to coordinate national efforts and move patient safety and quality forward.

  1. [Learning from errors: applying aviation safety concepts to medicine].

    PubMed

    Sommer, K-J

    2012-11-01

    Health care safety levels range below other complex industries. Civil aviation has throughout its history developed methods and concepts that have made the airplane into one of the safest means of mass transport. Key elements are accident investigations that focus on cause instead of blame, human-centered design of machinery and processes, continuous training of all personnel and a shared safety culture. These methods and concepts can basically be applied to medicine which has successfully been achieved in certain areas, however, a comprehensive implementation remains to be completed. This applies particularly to including the topic of safety into relevant curricula. Physicians are obliged by the oath"primum nil nocere" to act, but economic as well as political pressure will eventually confine professional freedom if initiative is not taken soon.

  2. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) data base were used to determine problems in general aviation single pilot IFR operations. The data examined consisted of incident reports involving flight safety in the National Aviation System. Only those incidents involving general aviation fixed wing aircraft flying under IFR in instrument meteorological conditions were analyzed. The data were cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgement and response problems; (2) pilot judgement and response problems; (3) air traffic control intrafacility and interfacility conflicts; (4) ATC and pilot communications problems; and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. The significance of the related problems, and the various underlying elements associated with each are discussed. Previous ASRS reports covering several areas of analysis are reviewed.

  3. [Safety in intensive care medicine. Can we learn from aviation?].

    PubMed

    Graf, J; Pump, S; Maas, W; Stüben, U

    2012-05-01

    Safety is of extraordinary value in commercial aviation. Therefore, sophisticated and complex systems have been developed to ensure safe operation. Within this system, the pilots are of specific concern: they form the human-machine interface and have a special responsibility in controlling and monitoring all aircraft systems. In order to prepare pilots for their challenging task, specific selection of suitable candidates is crucial. In addition, for every commercial pilot regulatory requirements demand a certain number of simulator training sessions and check flights to be completed at prespecified intervals. In contrast, career choice for intensive care medicine most likely depends on personal reasons rather than eligibility or aptitude. In intensive care medicine, auditing, licensing, or mandatory training are largely nonexistent. Although knowledge of risk management and safety culture in aviation can be transferred to the intensive care unit, the diversity of corporate culture and tradition of leadership and training will represent a barrier for the direct transfer of standards or procedures. To accomplish this challenging task, the analysis of appropriate fields of action with regard to structural requirements and the process of change are essential.

  4. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  5. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.37 FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety... on International Civil Aviation for the sponsor of an FSTD located in that contracting State may...

  6. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.37 FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety... on International Civil Aviation for the sponsor of an FSTD located in that contracting State may...

  7. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.37 FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety... on International Civil Aviation for the sponsor of an FSTD located in that contracting State may...

  8. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.37 FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety... on International Civil Aviation for the sponsor of an FSTD located in that contracting State may...

  9. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). 60.37 Section 60.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.37 FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety... on International Civil Aviation for the sponsor of an FSTD located in that contracting State may...

  10. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to develop and demonstrate technologies that contribute to a reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio. Safety benefits analyses are currently being conducted. Preliminary results for the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) projects of the AvSP have been completed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model. The integrated safety analysis method comprises two principal components: a reliability model and a simulation model. In the reliability model, the results indicate how different technologies and systems will perform in normal, degraded, and failed modes of operation. In the simulation, an operational scenario is modeled. The primary purpose of the SVS project is to improve safety by providing visual-flightlike situation awareness during instrument conditions. The current analyses are an estimate of the benefits of SVS in avoiding controlled flight into terrain. The scenario modeled has an aircraft flying directly toward a terrain feature. When the flight crew determines that the aircraft is headed toward an obstruction, the aircraft executes a level turn at speed. The simulation is ended when the aircraft completes the turn.

  11. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the authority... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety. 800.25 Section 800.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  12. 76 FR 57635 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...-7] RIN 2120-AJ36 Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety... Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors'' (76 FR 52231). In that final rule the FAA... preceding 2 year period directly served as, or was directly responsible for the oversight of, a Flight...

  13. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items....

  14. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items....

  15. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items....

  16. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items....

  17. 48 CFR 209.270 - Aviation and ship critical safety items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aviation and ship critical safety items. 209.270 Section 209.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements 209.270 Aviation and ship critical safety items....

  18. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  19. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, A.F.; Burnazyan, A.I.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  20. Extracting Information from Narratives: An Application to Aviation Safety Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; Matzke, Brett D.; Anderson, Catherine M.; Brothers, Alan J.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2005-05-12

    Aviation safety reports are the best available source of information about why a flight incident happened. However, stream of consciousness permeates the narratives making difficult the automation of the information extraction task. We propose an approach and infrastructure based on a common pattern specification language to capture relevant information via normalized template expression matching in context. Template expression matching handles variants of multi-word expressions. Normalization improves the likelihood of correct hits by standardizing and cleaning the vocabulary used in narratives. Checking for the presence of negative modifiers in the proximity of a potential hit reduces the chance of false hits. We present the above approach in the context of a specific application, which is the extraction of human performance factors from NASA ASRS reports. While knowledge infusion from experts plays a critical role during the learning phase, early results show that in a production mode, the automated process provides information that is consistent with analyses by human subjects.

  1. [From aviation to surgery: the challenge of safety].

    PubMed

    Suva, D; Haller, G; Lübbeke-Wolff, A; Macheret, F; Kindler, V; Hoffmeyer, P

    2011-03-23

    Medical errors result in 44,000 to 98,000 deaths per year in the United States of America. Within the surgical specialties, half of these errors occur in the operating room. The origin of these errors is multifactorial, and is generally associated with problems in communication and teamwork. In order to improve safety in the operating room, many hospitals now propose to the medical staff "crew resource management" (CRM) training programs inspired by the aviation industry. This approach favors a better utilization of surgical checklists, improves efficiency during chirurgical interventions, and reduces patient mortality. In October 2009 we introduced a CRM course within the department of surgery at the Geneva University Hospitals. We are presenting this program as well as the first results following its application.

  2. Aviation safety and automation technology for subsonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are aviation safety human factors and air traffic control (ATC) automation research conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center. Research results are given in the areas of flight deck and ATC automations, displays and warning systems, crew coordination, and crew fatigue and jet lag. Accident investigation and an incident reporting system that is used to guide the human factors research is discussed. A design philosophy for human-centered automation is given, along with an evaluation of automation on advanced technology transports. Intelligent error tolerant systems such as electronic checklists are discussed along with design guidelines for reducing procedure errors. The data on evaluation of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training indicates highly significant positive changes in appropriate flight deck behavior and more effective use of available resources for crew members receiving the training.

  3. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Narinder; Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing.

  4. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing. PMID:26770817

  5. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  6. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  7. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has been made to determine the problem areas in general aviation single-pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations. The Aviation Safety Reporting System data base is a compilation of voluntary reports of incidents from any person who has observed or been involved in an occurrence which was believed to have posed a threat to flight safety. This paper examines only those reported incidents specifically related to general aviation single-pilot IFR operations. The frequency of occurrence of factors related to the incidents was the criterion used to define significant problem areas and, hence, to suggest where research is needed. The data was cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgment and response problems, (2) pilot judgment and response problems, (3) air traffic control (ATC) intrafacility and interfacility conflicts, (4) ATC and pilot communication problems, and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. In addition, several points common to all or most of the problems were observed and reported. These included human error, communications, procedures and rules, and work load.

  8. Aviation safety and maintenance under major organizational changes, investigating non-existing accidents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Ivonne A; Nordskag, Arve O; Myhre, Grete; Halvorsen, Kåre

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the following questions: Do concurrent organizational changes have a direct impact on aviation maintenance and safety, if so, how can this be measured? These questions were part of the investigation carried out by the Accident Investigation Board, Norway (AIBN). The AIBN investigated whether Norwegian aviation safety had been affected due to major organizational changes between 2000 and 2004. The main concern was the reduction in safety margins and its consequences. This paper presents a summary of the techniques used and explains how they were applied in three airlines and by two offshore helicopter operators. The paper also discusses the development of safety related indicators in the aviation industry. In addition, there is a summary of the lessons learned and safety recommendations. The Norwegian Ministry of Transport has required all players in the aviation industry to follow up the findings and recommendations of the AIBN study.

  9. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  10. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  11. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  12. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition...

  13. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition...

  14. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition...

  15. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition...

  16. 14 CFR 91.25 - Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation Safety Reporting Program... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition...

  17. A Review of the Safety Climate Literature as it Relates to Naval Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    training effectiveness and relational supervision. Gill and Shergill (2004) conducted a safety climate review across the New Zealand commercial...Gill, G.K., & Shergill , G.S. (2004). Perceptions of safety management and safety culture in the aviation industry in New Zealand. Journal of Air

  18. Selling safety: the use of celebrities in improving awareness of safety in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Molesworth, Brett R C; Seneviratne, Dimuth; Burgess, Marion

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influential power of a celebrity to convey key safety messages in commercial aviation using a pre-flight safety briefing video. In addition, the present research sought to examine the effectiveness of subtitles in aiding the recall of these important messages as well as how in-cabin aircraft noise affects recall of this information. A total of 101 participants were randomly divided into four groups (no noise without subtitles, no noise with subtitles, noise without subtitles and noise with subtitles) and following exposure to a pre-recorded pre-flight safety briefing video were tested for recall of key safety messages within that video. Participants who recognised and recalled the name of the celebrity in the safety briefing video recalled significantly more of the messages than participants who did not recognise the celebrity. Subtitles were also found to be effective, however, only in the presence of representative in-cabin aircraft noise. Practitioner Summary: Passenger attention to pre-flight safety briefings on commercial aircraft is poor. Utilising the celebrity status of a famous person may overcome this problem. Results suggest that celebrities do increase the recall of safety-related information.

  19. Human factors and aviation safety: what the industry has, what the industry needs.

    PubMed

    Maurino, D E

    2000-07-01

    The use of statistical analyses to assert safety levels has persuasively been established within the aviation industry. Likewise, variations in regional statistics have led to generalizations about safety levels in different contexts. Caution is proposed when qualitatively linking statistics and aviation's resilience to hazards. Further caution is proposed when extending generalizations across contexts. Statistical analyses--the favoured diagnostic tool of aviation--show sequences of cause/effect relationships reflecting agreed categorizations prevalent in safety breakdowns. They do not, however, reveal the processes underlying such relationships. It is contended that the answers to the safety questions in contemporary aviation will not be found through the numbers, but through the understanding of the processes underpinning the numbers. These processes and their supporting beliefs are influenced by contextual constraints and cultural factors, which in turn influence individual and organizational performance. It is further contended that the contribution of human factors is fundamental in achieving this understanding. This paper, therefore (1) argues in favour of a macro view of aviation safety, (2) suggests the need to revise a long-standing safety paradigm that appears to have ceased to be effective, and (3) discusses the basic premises upon which a revised safety paradigm should build.

  20. Can the Aviation Industry be Useful in Teaching Oncology about Safety?

    PubMed

    Davies, J M; Delaney, G

    2017-10-01

    Healthcare practitioners have long considered aviation as a domain from which much can be learned about safety. Over the past 30 years, attempts have been made to apply aviation safety-related concepts to healthcare. Although some applications have been successful, a few decades later, many healthcare safety experts have learned that the appeal of the aviation-healthcare analogy is an illusion. Both domains are so basically dissimilar that simple adoption of aviation concepts will not be successful. However, what has succeeded is healthcare's adaptation of specific aviation safety concepts. Three concepts, investment in safety, human factors and safety management systems, are described and examples are given of adapted applications to healthcare/clinical oncology. Finally, there is a need to ensure that these concepts are applied systematically throughout healthcare rather than sporadically and without a centralised mandate, to help ensure success and improved patient and provider safety. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  2. Proceedings of the Second NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzaklis, K. Gus (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The Second NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Annual Project Review held June 5-7, 2001, in Cleveland, Ohio, presented the NASA technical plans and accomplishments to the aviation community. NASA-developed technologies presented included an Aviation Weather Information System with associated digital communications links, electronic atmospheric reporting technologies, forward-looking turbulence warning systems, and turbulence mitigation procedures. The meeting provided feedback and insight from the aviation community of diverse backgrounds and assisted NASA in steering its plans in the direction needed to meet the national safety goal of 80-percent reduction of aircraft accidents by 2007. The proceedings of the review are enclosed.

  3. Mesoscale Weather and Aviation Safety: The Case of Denver International Airport.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Steven L.

    1992-04-01

    The new Denver International Airport will be the first new major commercial airport to be built in the United States in 20 years. Concern has been expressed about the meteorology at the new airport site and its potential impact on aviation safety. Several levels of assessment of weather safety at and in the vicinity of the new airport site have been conducted by airport planners. In addition, the new airport site area has been intensively studied by research scientists. Meteorologists and aviation experts have concluded that the site of the new Denver airport does not raise special concerns regarding weather safety. Denver International should enhance aviation weather safety as a consequence of the improved alignment and spacing of runways, greater distance from the Rocky Mountains, and technological advances at the new facility.

  4. Report to NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems Relative to Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The following report highlights some of the work accomplished by the Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Division of the Flight Safety Foundations since the last report to the NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems on 22 May 1963. The information presented is in summary form. Additional details may be provided upon request of the reports themselves may be obtained from AvSER.

  5. NASA Aviation Safety Program Systems Analysis/Program Assessment Metrics Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louis, Garrick E.; Anderson, Katherine; Ahmad, Tisan; Bouabid, Ali; Siriwardana, Maya; Guilbaud, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to evaluate the metrics and processes used by NASA's Aviation Safety Program in assessing technologies that contribute to NASA's aviation safety goals. There were three objectives for reaching this goal. First, NASA's main objectives for aviation safety were documented and their consistency was checked against the main objectives of the Aviation Safety Program. Next, the metrics used for technology investment by the Program Assessment function of AvSP were evaluated. Finally, other metrics that could be used by the Program Assessment Team (PAT) were identified and evaluated. This investigation revealed that the objectives are in fact consistent across organizational levels at NASA and with the FAA. Some of the major issues discussed in this study which should be further investigated, are the removal of the Cost and Return-on-Investment metrics, the lack of the metrics to measure the balance of investment and technology, the interdependencies between some of the metric risk driver categories, and the conflict between 'fatal accident rate' and 'accident rate' in the language of the Aviation Safety goal as stated in different sources.

  6. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James

    2002-10-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  7. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  8. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  9. Incident reporting: Its role in aviation safety and the acquisition of human error data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynard, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The rationale for aviation incident reporting systems is presented and contrasted to some of the shortcomings of accident investigation procedures. The history of the United State's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) is outlined and the program's character explained. The planning elements that resulted in the ASRS program's voluntary, confidential, and non-punitive design are discussed. Immunity, from enforcement action and misuse of the volunteered data, is explained and evaluated. Report generation techniques and the ASRS data analysis process are described; in addition, examples of the ASRS program's output and accomplishments are detailed. Finally, the value of incident reporting for the acquisition of safety information, particularly human error data, is explored.

  10. NASA aviation safety program: Aircraft Engine Health Management Data Mining Tools roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Simon, Donald L.; Meyer, Claudia; DePold, Hans; Curtiss, J. R.; Winston, Howard; Wang, Yao; Statler, Irv; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2000-04-01

    Aircraft Engine Health Management Data Mining Tools is a project led by NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling Thrust. The objective of the Glenn-led effort is to develop enhanced aircraft engine health management prognostic and diagnostic methods through the application of data mining technologies to operational data and maintenance records. This will lead to the improved safety of air transportation, optimized scheduling of engine maintenance, and optimization of engine usage. This paper presents a roadmap for achieving these goals.

  11. Incident reporting: Its role in aviation safety and the acquisition of human error data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynard, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The rationale for aviation incident reporting systems is presented and contrasted to some of the shortcomings of accident investigation procedures. The history of the United State's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) is outlined and the program's character explained. The planning elements that resulted in the ASRS program's voluntary, confidential, and non-punitive design are discussed. Immunity, from enforcement action and misuse of the volunteered data, is explained and evaluated. Report generation techniques and the ASRS data analysis process are described; in addition, examples of the ASRS program's output and accomplishments are detailed. Finally, the value of incident reporting for the acquisition of safety information, particularly human error data, is explored.

  12. An Overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program Propulsion Health Monitoring Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has been initiated with aggressive goals to reduce the civil aviation accident rate, To meet these goals, several technology investment areas have been identified including a sub-element in propulsion health monitoring (PHM). Specific AvSP PHM objectives are to develop and validate propulsion system health monitoring technologies designed to prevent engine malfunctions from occurring in flight, and to mitigate detrimental effects in the event an in-flight malfunction does occur. A review of available propulsion system safety information was conducted to help prioritize PHM areas to focus on under the AvSP. It is noted that when a propulsion malfunction is involved in an aviation accident or incident, it is often a contributing factor rather than the sole cause for the event. Challenging aspects of the development and implementation of PHM technology such as cost, weight, robustness, and reliability are discussed. Specific technology plans are overviewed including vibration diagnostics, model-based controls and diagnostics, advanced instrumentation, and general aviation propulsion system health monitoring technology. Propulsion system health monitoring, in addition to engine design, inspection, maintenance, and pilot training and awareness, is intrinsic to enhancing aviation propulsion system safety.

  13. Automating the Generation of Heterogeneous Aviation Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganesh J.; Pohl, Josef M.

    2012-01-01

    A safety case is a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence, which provides a convincing and valid justification that a system is acceptably safe for a given application in a given operating environment. This report describes the development of a fragment of a preliminary safety case for the Swift Unmanned Aircraft System. The construction of the safety case fragment consists of two parts: a manually constructed system-level case, and an automatically constructed lower-level case, generated from formal proof of safety-relevant correctness properties. We provide a detailed discussion of the safety considerations for the target system, emphasizing the heterogeneity of sources of safety-relevant information, and use a hazard analysis to derive safety requirements, including formal requirements. We evaluate the safety case using three classes of metrics for measuring degrees of coverage, automation, and understandability. We then present our preliminary conclusions and make suggestions for future work.

  14. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  15. Counterheroism, Common Knowledge, and Ergonomics: Concepts from Aviation That Could Improve Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Geraint H; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Hockey, Peter M; Hirst, Guy; Bagian, James P

    2011-01-01

    Context: Many safety initiatives have been transferred successfully from commercial aviation to health care. This article develops a typology of aviation safety initiatives, applies this to health care, and proposes safety measures that might be adopted more widely. It then presents an economic framework for determining the likely costs and benefits of different patient safety initiatives. Methods: This article describes fifteen examples of error countermeasures that are used in public transport aviation, many of which are not routinely used in health care at present. Examples are the sterile cockpit rule, flight envelope protection, the first-names-only rule, and incentivized no-fault reporting. It develops a conceptual schema that is then used to argue why analogous initiatives might be usefully applied to health care and why physicians may resist them. Each example is measured against a set of economic criteria adopted from the taxation literature. Findings: The initiatives considered in the article fall into three themes: safety concepts that seek to downplay the role of heroic individuals and instead emphasize the importance of teams and whole organizations; concepts that seek to increase and apply group knowledge of safety information and values; and concepts that promote safety by design. The salient costs to be considered by organizations wishing to adopt these suggestions are the compliance costs to clinicians, the administration costs to the organization, and the costs of behavioral distortions. Conclusions: This article concludes that there is a range of safety initiatives used in commercial aviation that could have a positive impact on patient safety, and that adopting such initiatives may alter the safety culture of health care teams. The desirability of implementing each initiative, however, depends on the projected costs and benefits, which must be assessed for each situation. PMID:21418311

  16. Counterheroism, common knowledge, and ergonomics: concepts from aviation that could improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Geraint H; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Hockey, Peter M; Hirst, Guy; Bagian, James P

    2011-03-01

    Many safety initiatives have been transferred successfully from commercial aviation to health care. This article develops a typology of aviation safety initiatives, applies this to health care, and proposes safety measures that might be adopted more widely. It then presents an economic framework for determining the likely costs and benefits of different patient safety initiatives. This article describes fifteen examples of error countermeasures that are used in public transport aviation, many of which are not routinely used in health care at present. Examples are the sterile cockpit rule, flight envelope protection, the first-names-only rule, and incentivized no-fault reporting. It develops a conceptual schema that is then used to argue why analogous initiatives might be usefully applied to health care and why physicians may resist them. Each example is measured against a set of economic criteria adopted from the taxation literature. The initiatives considered in the article fall into three themes: safety concepts that seek to downplay the role of heroic individuals and instead emphasize the importance of teams and whole organizations; concepts that seek to increase and apply group knowledge of safety information and values; and concepts that promote safety by design. The salient costs to be considered by organizations wishing to adopt these suggestions are the compliance costs to clinicians, the administration costs to the organization, and the costs of behavioral distortions. This article concludes that there is a range of safety initiatives used in commercial aviation that could have a positive impact on patient safety, and that adopting such initiatives may alter the safety culture of health care teams. The desirability of implementing each initiative, however, depends on the projected costs and benefits, which must be assessed for each situation. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  17. Visual performance effects and user acceptance of the M43A1 aviation protective mask frontserts.

    PubMed

    Wildzunas, R M

    1995-12-01

    The initial M43 aviation protective mask was fielded without provisions for optical corrective devices. Contact lenses, an interim solution, were not entirely acceptable since a small segment of the population could not be fitted adequately with contacts. This study evaluated visual performance affects and user acceptance of the M43A1 mask with frontsert correction modifications. The investigation was divided into three phases: 1) a helicopter simulator evaluation designed to experimentally test the suitability of the M43A1 frontserts, both in single vision and bifocal forms, for use in the aviation environment; 2) a static cockpit evaluation, designed to identify aircraft-specific problems with the frontsert system; and 3) an inflight evaluation to examine the stability and usability of the frontserts under actual flight conditions. The subjects were 30 U.S. Army aviators (28 men and 2 women). Objective data from flight simulation evaluations suggested there were no significant differences between flight performance with and without the mask, despite refractive status. Subjective data from static and flight evaluations reflected positive user acceptance of the new mask and frontserts. Problems may exist in smaller cockpits (OH-58 A/C, D), but evidence suggested that this may have been an artifact resulting from testing the mask while wearing protective body armor. Within the range of flight conditions and profiles examined, the M43A1 frontsert system meets U.S. Army aviation needs for optical correction when mission requirements dictate flying with chemical-biological protective masks.

  18. Evaluation of aviation-based safety team training in a hospital in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    De Korne, Dirk F; Van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; Van Dyck, Cathy; Hiddema, U Francis; Klazinga, Niek S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the implementation of a broad-scale team resource management (TRM) program on safety culture in a Dutch eye hospital, detailing the program's content and procedures. Aviation-based TRM training is recognized as a useful approach to increase patient safety, but little is known about how it affects safety culture. Pre- and post-assessments of the hospitals' safety culture was based on interviews with ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, residents, nurses, and support staff. Interim observations were made at training sessions and in daily hospital practice. The program consisted of safety audits of processes and (team) activities, interactive classroom training sessions by aviation experts, a flight simulator session, and video recording of team activities with subsequent feedback. Medical professionals considered aviation experts inspiring role models and respected their non-hierarchical external perspective and focus on medical-technical issues. The post-assessment showed that ophthalmologists and other hospital staff had become increasingly aware of safety issues. The multidisciplinary approach promoted social (team) orientation that replaced the former functionally-oriented culture. The number of reported near-incidents greatly increased; the number of wrong-side surgeries stabilized to a minimum after an initial substantial reduction. The study was observational and the hospital's variety of efforts to improve safety culture prevented us from establishing a causal relation between improvement and any one specific intervention. Aviation-based TRM training can be a useful to stimulate safety culture in hospitals. Safety and quality improvements are not single treatment interventions but complex socio-technical interventions. A multidisciplinary system approach and focus on "team" instead of "profession" seems both necessary and difficult in hospital care.

  19. 76 FR 52231 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...] RIN 2120-AJ36 Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety... preceding 2-year period directly served as, or was directly responsible for the oversight of, a Flight... with promoting the safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations and...

  20. NASA Aviation Safety Program Aircraft Engine Health Management Data Mining Tools Roadmap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Aircraft Engine Health Management Data Mining Tools is a project led by NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the NASA Aviation Safety Program’s...prognostic and diagnostic methods through the application of data mining technologies to operational data and maintenance records. This will lead to the

  1. Projected Impact of Compositional Verification on Current and Future Aviation Safety Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    The projected impact of compositional verification research conducted by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies on aviation safety risk was assessed. Software and compositional verification was described. Traditional verification techniques have two major problems: testing at the prototype stage where error discovery can be quite costly and the inability to test for all potential interactions leaving some errors undetected until used by the end user. Increasingly complex and nondeterministic aviation systems are becoming too large for these tools to check and verify. Compositional verification is a "divide and conquer" solution to addressing increasingly larger and more complex systems. A review of compositional verification research being conducted by academia, industry, and Government agencies is provided. Forty-four aviation safety risks in the Biennial NextGen Safety Issues Survey were identified that could be impacted by compositional verification and grouped into five categories: automation design; system complexity; software, flight control, or equipment failure or malfunction; new technology or operations; and verification and validation. One capability, 1 research action, 5 operational improvements, and 13 enablers within the Federal Aviation Administration Joint Planning and Development Office Integrated Work Plan that could be addressed by compositional verification were identified.

  2. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  3. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  4. EMS helicopter incidents reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Reynard, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this evaluation were to: Identify the types of safety-related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopter operations; Describe the operational conditions surrounding these incidents, such as weather, airspace, flight phase, time of day; and Assess the contribution to these incidents of selected human factors considerations, such as communication, distraction, time pressure, workload, and flight/duty impact.

  5. Measuring Safety Climate in Aviation: A Review and Recommendations for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-20

    state ’’, at a particular moment in time (Cox and Flin, 1998). Wiegmann and colleagues (Wiegmann et al., 2004) report that ‘‘few formally documented...previous safety climate research and in- put from aviation safety experts. Data from half of the sample were used in an exploratory factor analysis ( EFA ...responses obtained. Fol- lowing an EFA an eight factor questionnaire resulted (see Table 1 for a description of the factors). Gordon et al. (2007

  6. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  7. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  8. Assessing Knowledge Retention of an Immersive Serious Game vs. a Traditional Education Method in Aviation Safety.

    PubMed

    Chittaro, Luca; Buttussi, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to the increasing availability of consumer head-mounted displays, educational applications of immersive VR could now reach to the general public, especially if they include gaming elements (immersive serious games). Safety education of citizens could be a particularly promising domain for immersive serious games, because people tend not to pay attention to and benefit from current safety materials. In this paper, we propose an HMD-based immersive game for educating passengers about aviation safety that allows players to experience a serious aircraft emergency with the goal of surviving it. We compare the proposed approach to a traditional aviation safety education method (the safety card) used by airlines. Unlike most studies of VR for safety knowledge acquisition, we do not focus only on assessing learning immediately after the experience but we extend our attention to knowledge retention over a longer time span. This is a fundamental requirement, because people need to retain safety procedures in order to apply them when faced with danger. A knowledge test administered before, immediately after and one week after the experimental condition showed that the immersive serious game was superior to the safety card. Moreover, subjective as well as physiological measurements employed in the study showed that the immersive serious game was more engaging and fear-arousing than the safety card, a factor that can contribute to explain the obtained superior retention, as we discuss in the paper.

  9. Integrating Safety in the Aviation System: Interdepartmental Training for Pilots and Maintenance Technicians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, Marifran; Petrin, Donald A.; Young, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The study of human factors has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, the entire aviation system often is not considered in researching, training, and evaluating human factors issues especially with regard to safety. In both conceptual and practical terms, we argue for the proactive management of human error from both an individual and organizational systems perspective. The results of a multidisciplinary research project incorporating survey data from professional pilots and maintenance technicians and an exploratory study integrating students from relevant disciplines are reported. Survey findings suggest that latent safety errors may occur during the maintenance discrepancy reporting process because pilots and maintenance technicians do not effectively interact with one another. The importance of interdepartmental or cross-disciplinary training for decreasing these errors and increasing safety is discussed as a primary implication.

  10. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  11. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  12. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  13. An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2003-09-01

    This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

  14. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.

    1996-03-13

    This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

  15. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  16. An Examination of Safety Management Systems and Aviation Technologies in the Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, Steven A.

    The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) industry has a significant role in the transportation of injured patients, but has experienced more accidents than all other segments of the aviation industry combined. With the objective of addressing this discrepancy, this study assesses the effect of safety management systems implementation and aviation technologies utilization on the reduction of HEMS accident rates. Participating were 147 pilots from Federal Aviation Regulations Part 135 HEMS operators, who completed a survey questionnaire based on the Safety Culture and Safety Management System Survey (SCSMSS). The study assessed the predictor value of SMS implementation and aviation technologies to the frequency of HEMS accident rates with correlation and multiple linear regression. The correlation analysis identified three significant positive relationships. HEMS years of experience had a high significant positive relationship with accident rate (r=.90; p<.05); SMS had a moderate significant positive relationship to Night Vision Goggles (NVG) (r=.38; p<.05); and SMS had a slight significant positive relationship with Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS) (r=.234; p<.05). Multiple regression analysis suggested that when combined with NVG, TAWS, and SMS, HEMS years of experience explained 81.4% of the variance in accident rate scores (p<.05), and HEMS years of experience was found to be a significant predictor of accident rates (p<.05). Additional quantitative regression analysis was recommended to replicate the results of this study and to consider the influence of these variables for continued reduction of HEMS accidents, and to induce execution of SMS and aviation technologies from a systems engineering application. Recommendations for practice included the adoption of existing regulatory guidance for a SMS program. A qualitative analysis was also recommended for future study SMS implementation and HEMS accident rate from the pilot's perspective. A

  17. Correlated Topics in a Scalable Multidimensional Text Cube: Algorithms and Aviation Safety Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Bo; Lin, Cindy X.; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Oza, Nikunj C.; Han, Jiawei

    2010-01-01

    As world-wide air traffic continues to grow even at a modest pace, the overall complexity of the system will increase significantly. This increased complexity can lead to a larger number of fatalities per year even if the extremely low fatality rate that we currently enjoy is maintained. One important source of information about the safety of the aviation system is in Aviation Safety Text Reports which are written by members of the flight crew, air traffic controllers, and other parties involved with the aviation system. These anonymized narrative reports contain fixed-field contextual information about the flight but also contain free-form narratives that describe, in the author s own words, the nature of the safety incident and, in many cases, the contributing factors that led to the safety incident. Several thousand such reports are filed each month, each of which is read and analyzed by highly trained experts. However, it is possible that there are emerging safety issues due to the fact that they may be reported very infrequently and in different contexts with different descriptions. The goal of this research paper is to develop correlated topic models which uncover correlations in the subspaces defined by the intersection of numerous fixed fields and discovered correlated topics. This task requires the discovery of latent topics in the text reports and the creation of a topic cube. Furthermore, because the number of potential cells in the topic cube is very large, we discuss novel methods of pruning the search space in the topic cells, thereby making the analysis feasible. We demonstrate the new algorithms on an analysis of pilot fatigue and its contributing factors, as well as the safety incidents that are correlated with this phenomenon.

  18. Partnerships With Aviation: Promoting a Culture of Safety in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Lori; Tripp, Terrance R; Scouler, David; Pechacek, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 1999, p. 1), "Medical errors can be defined as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim." The current health care culture is disjointed, as evidenced by a lack of consistent reporting standards for all providers; provider licensing pays little attention to errors, and there are no financial incentives to improve safety (IOM, 1999). Many errors in health care are preventable. "Near misses" and adverse events that do occur can offer insight on how to improve practice and prevent future events. The aim of this article is to better understand underreporting of errors in health care, to present a model of change that increases voluntary error reporting, and to discuss the role nurse executives play in creating a culture of safety. This article explores how high reliability organizations such as aviation improve safety through enhanced error reporting, culture change, and teamwork.

  19. A comparison of leading and lagging indicators of safety in naval aviation.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Paul; Cowan, Shawn; Alton, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the results of two different methods of identifying human factors safety concerns in U.S. Naval aviation. In both studies, the information was collected using the Department of Defense Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (DoD-HFACS). In the first study, aviation mishap data (a lagging indictor) was obtained on 47 F/A-18 and 16 H-60 mishaps. In the second study, the responses of 68 squadrons to a survey regarding the human factors issues that they considered to be of the greatest safety concern were examined (a leading indicator). First study results revealed that skill-based errors were the most commonly cited factors for both F/A-18 and H-60 mishaps (70.2% and 81.3%, respectively). More specifically, the most commonly used nanocodes were 'over control/ under control' (27.7% and 56.3%, respectively), 'breakdown in visual scan' (27.7% and 12.5%, respectively), and 'procedural errors' (23.4% and 37.6%, respectively). The second study identified that the main concern of F/A-18 and H-60 aviators was workload and operational tempo (identified by 85% of squadrons). It can be concluded that the nanocodes that were most commonly used to classify the causes of past mishaps were not identified as major concerns by the squadrons who responded to the survey. The findings from these studies emphasize the importance of examining a number of performance metrics to ensure that effective measures are being taken to improve safety.

  20. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report reviews incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) for system-component-failure- or-malfunction- (SCFM-) related and human-factor-related incidents for commercial or cargo air carriers (Part 121), commuter airlines (Part 135), and general aviation (Part 91). The data was analyzed by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) part, phase of flight, SCFM category, human factor category, and a variety of anomalies and results. There were 38 894 SCFM-related incidents and 83 478 human-factorrelated incidents analyzed between January 1993 and April 2011.

  1. Lasers Aimed at Aircraft Cockpits: Background and Possible Options to Address the Threat to Aviation Safety and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-26

    1 Van B. Nakagawara and Ronald W. Montgomery. Laser Pointers : Their Potential Affects on Vision and Aviation Safety. Federal Aviation...powerful at extended viewing distances. Because lasers remain powerful over large distances, a laser pointer can expose pilots to radiation levels above...airliner by aiming a handheld laser pointer into the cockpit is highly unlikely, there is concern that a military laser , such as the Chinese-made ZM-87 laser

  2. Safety And Promotion in the Federal Aviation Administration- Enabling Safe and Successful Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repcheck, Randall J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) authorizes the launch and reentry of expendable and reusable launch vehicles and the operation of launch and reentry sites by United States citizens or within the United States. It authorizes these activities consistent with public health and safety, the safety of property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States. In addition to its safety role, AST has the role to encourage, facilitate, and promote commercial space launches and reentries by the private sector. AST’s promotional role includes, among other things, the development of information of interest to industry, the sharing of information of interest through a variety of methods, and serving as an advocate for Commercial Space Transportation within the United States government. This dual safety and promotion role is viewed by some as conflicting. AST views these two roles as complementary, and important for the current state of commercial space transportation. This paper discusses how maintaining a sound safety decision-making process, maintaining a strong safety culture, and taking steps to avoid complacency can together enable safe and successful commercial space transportation.

  3. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators.

  4. Assessment of a Conceptual Flap System Intended for Enhanced General Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Carter, Melissa B.

    2017-01-01

    A novel multielement trailing-edge flap system for light general aviation airplanes was conceived for enhanced safety during normal and emergency landings. The system is designed to significantly reduce stall speed, and thus approach speed, with the goal of reducing maneuveringflight accidents and enhancing pilot survivability in the event of an accident. The research objectives were to assess the aerodynamic performance characteristics of the system and to evaluate the extent to which it provided both increased lift and increased drag required for the low-speed landing goal. The flap system was applied to a model of a light general aviation, high-wing trainer and tested in the Langley 12- Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were obtained for several device deflection angles, and component combinations at a dynamic pressure of 4 pounds per square foot. The force and moment data supports the achievement of the desired increase in lift with substantially increased drag, all at relatively shallow angles of attack. The levels of lift and drag can be varied through device deflection angles and inboard/outboard differential deflections. As such, it appears that this flap system may provide an enabling technology to allow steep, controllable glide slopes for safe rapid descent to landing with reduced stall speed. However, a simple flat-plate lower surface spoiler (LSS) provided either similar or superior lift with little impact on pitch or drag as compared to the proposed system. Higher-fidelity studies are suggested prior to use of the proposed system.

  5. An Overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) Systemwide Accident Prevention (SWAP) Human Performance Modeling (HPM) Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Goodman, Allen; Hooley, Becky L.

    2003-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Human Performance Modeling (HPM) element within the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). Two separate model development tracks for performance modeling of real-world aviation environments are described: the first focuses on the advancement of cognitive modeling tools for system design, while the second centers on a prescriptive engineering model of activity tracking for error detection and analysis. A progressive implementation strategy for both tracks is discussed in which increasingly more complex, safety-relevant applications are undertaken to extend the state-of-the-art, as well as to reveal potential human-system vulnerabilities in the aviation domain. Of particular interest is the ability to predict the precursors to error and to assess potential mitigation strategies associated with the operational use of future flight deck technologies.

  6. Reporter Concerns in 300 Mode-Related Incident Reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    A model has been developed which represents prominent reporter concerns expressed in the narratives of 300 mode-related incident reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The model objectively quantifies the structure of concerns which persist across situations and reporters. These concerns are described and illustrated using verbatim sentences from the original narratives. Report accession numbers are included with each sentence so that concerns can be traced back to the original reports. The results also include an inventory of mode names mentioned in the narratives, and a comparison of individual and joint concerns. The method is based on a proximity-weighted co-occurrence metric and object-oriented complexity reduction.

  7. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  8. Summary of Federal Aviation Administration Responses to National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    subsurface fatigue cracks. The present method of inspecting crankshafts is magnaflux, a procedure which is not capable of detecting subsurface cracks... extending from the leading edge approximately 2 inches. This crack may not have been detectable by visual examination prior to flight. The Safety...total tine requirement for initial inspection and the 100-hour recurring inspection interval may be inadequate to detect ixtential failures. Also

  9. Summary of Federal Aviation Administration Responses to National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    to the goal of realistic simulation and which perpetuates the "delayed response syndrome " that the Safety Board discusses in its narrative. Therefore...Delayed Response Syndrome ," which discussed the pilot’s response to the ground proximity warning system. The paper noted that, although human factors...rationale concerning the existence of a "delayed response syndrome " within the pilot community to this type of warning, and, therefore, corrective action

  10. The U.S. Commercial Air Tour Industry: A Review of Aviation Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as “flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing.” The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators. PMID:24597160

  11. Surface Movement Incidents Reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Hubener, Simone

    1997-01-01

    Increasing numbers of aircraft are operating on the surface of airports throughout the world. Airport operations are forecast to grow by more that 50%, by the year 2005. Airport surface movement traffic would therefore be expected to become increasingly congested. Safety of these surface operations will become a focus as airport capacity planning efforts proceed toward the future. Several past events highlight the prevailing risks experienced while moving aircraft during ground operations on runways, taxiways, and other areas at terminal, gates, and ramps. The 1994 St. Louis accident between a taxiing Cessna crossing an active runway and colliding with a landing MD-80 emphasizes the importance of a fail-safe system for airport operations. The following study explores reports of incidents occurring on an airport surface that did not escalate to an accident event. The Aviation Safety Reporting System has collected data on surface movement incidents since 1976. This study sampled the reporting data from June, 1993 through June, 1994. The coding of the data was accomplished in several categories. The categories include location of airport, phase of ground operation, weather /lighting conditions, ground conflicts, flight crew characteristics, human factor considerations, and airport environment. These comparisons and distributions of variables contributing to surface movement incidents can be invaluable to future airport planning, accident prevention efforts, and system-wide improvements.

  12. Sickle cell anemia trait in the military aircrew population: a report from the Military Aviation Safety Subcommittee of the Aviation Safety Committee, AsMA.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M; Rosado, N R; Contiguglia, J J

    1991-11-01

    The question of whether sickle cell trait (SCT) is potentially dangerous to military aircrew personnel who have it and, consequently, whether such individuals should be allowed to fly in military aircraft is a very emotional issue. This article traces the evolution of how the U.S. military has dealt with the problem, and the present status of individuals with SCT in the U.S. military aviation community. Extensive studies and means for subjectively evaluating the problem were instituted by the Department of Defense in 1981, after making the decision not to restrict aircrew with the trait from aviation duties. All research projects and educational programs were abruptly stopped in 1985. Today, there are no actual restrictions on individuals with SCT for duty in the aviation and diving communities.

  13. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  14. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  15. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  16. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  17. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  18. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  19. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Uryasev, S.; Sampath, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    A synthetic model of scheduled-commercial U.S. aviation fatalities was constructed from linear combinations of the time-spectra of critical systems reporting using 5.5 years of Service Difficulty Reports (SDR){sup 2} and Accident Incident Data System (AIDS) records{sup 3}. This model, used to predict near-future trends in aviation accidents, was tested by using the first 36 months of data to construct the synthetic model which was used to predict fatalities during the following eight months. These predictions were tested by comparison with the fatality data. A reliability block diagram (RBD) and third-order extrapolations also were used as predictive models and compared with actuality. The synthetic model was the best predictor because of its use of systems data. Other results of the study are a database of service difficulties for major aviation systems, and a rank ordering of systems according to their contribution to the synthesis. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. 76 FR 1386 - Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... provide for the safety of the participants, crew, spectators, participating vessels, and other vessels and... safety of the crew, spectators, participants, and other users and vessels of the waterway. Discussion of... the safety of the crew, spectators, participants, and other users and vessels of the waterway....

  1. Aviation System Safety and Pilot Risk Perception: Implications for Enhancing Decision-Making Skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Mavis F.

    2001-01-01

    This research explores risk perception in a defined population of flight instructors and the implications of these views for flight training. Flight instructors and students engaged in collegiate aviation flight training were interviewed for this qualitative study. Thirty-three percent of the instructors interviewed reported that flying is not a risky activity. This is important because research identifies risk perception as one factor influencing instructional choices. These choices can then impact the subsequent decision-making processes of flight students. Facilitating pilot decision-making through the use of an appropriate type of learning that incorporates the modeling of consensually validated cognitive procedures and risk management processes is discussed.

  2. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G101 Aviation Mathematics and Physics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain three instructional modules covering safety, aviation mathematics, and aviation physics. Each module may contain an introduction and module objective, specific objectives, an instructor's module implementation guide, technical information supplements, transparency…

  3. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G101 Aviation Mathematics and Physics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain three instructional modules covering safety, aviation mathematics, and aviation physics. Each module may contain an introduction and module objective, specific objectives, an instructor's module implementation guide, technical information supplements, transparency…

  4. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  5. [Radiation safety of exploitation of radiation sources at the civil aviation airlines].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, R V; Zuev, V G; Berezin, G I; Sereda, V N; Zasiad'ko, A K

    2004-01-01

    Radiation risks from isotope-containing equipment, and ionizing and unused X-ray radiation sources are characterized and relevant normative documents with safety requirements to radiation sources installation, radiation safety of aircraft servicing and repair, hand luggage control and heavy luggage registration, personal protection items, system of radiation monitoring at airlines and aircraft works, and liability for breach of performance guidelines are cited.

  6. Crew resource management: using aviation techniques to improve operating room safety.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Michael A; Brumsted, John R

    2012-04-01

    Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine report estimating nearly 100,000 deaths per year from medical errors, hospitals and physicians have a renewed focus upon error reduction. We implemented a surgical crew resource management (CRM) program for all operating room (OR) personnel. In our academic medical center, 19,000 procedures per year are performed in 27 operating rooms. Mandatory CRM training was implemented for all peri-operative personnel. Aviation techniques introduced included a pre-operative checklist and brief, post-operative debrief, read and initial files, and various other aviation-based techniques. Compliance with conduct of the brief/debrief was monitored as well as wrong-site surgeries and retained foreign body events. The malpractice insurance database for claims was also queried for the period prior to and after training. Initial training was accomplished for 517 people, including all anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and OR assistants. Pre-operative briefing increased from 6.7 to 99% within 4 mo. Wrong site surgeries and retained foreign bodies decreased from a high of seven in 2007 to none in 2008, but, after 14 mo without additional training, these rose to five in 2009. Malpractice expenses (payouts and legal fees) totaled $793,000 (2003-2007), but have been zero since 2008. CRM training and implementation had an impact on reducing the incidence of wrong site surgery and retained foreign bodies in our operating rooms. However, constant reinforcement and refresher training is necessary for sustained results. Though no one technique can prevent all errors, CRM can effect culture change, producing a safer environment.

  7. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  8. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  9. [Organize quality assurance as in aviation; improve patient safety in Dutch hospitals].

    PubMed

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Beekmann, Roland T A; van den Elzen, Guus J P; Lansbergen, Michael D I; Berlijn, Dick L

    2009-01-01

    Failing teamwork is a major cause of adverse events in hospitals in the Netherlands. Training team-skills can improve the safety standards in clinical heath care. An adapted version of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training is proving to be a usable format in the hospital environment. We emphasize that paying attention to the subject of safety has to start early in medical education in order to incorporate non-technical skills into the hospital culture.

  10. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  11. Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC): An Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Reports Concerning PDC Related Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalyo, Michael L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Airlines operating in the United States are required to operate under instrument flight rules (EFR). Typically, a clearance is issued via voice transmission from clearance delivery at the departing airport. In 1990, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began deployment of the Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) system at 30 U.S. airports. The PDC system utilizes aeronautical datalink and Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACARS) to transmit departure clearances directly to the pilot. An objective of the PDC system is to provide an immediate reduction in voice congestion over the clearance delivery frequency. Participating airports report that this objective has been met. However, preliminary analysis of 42 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports has revealed problems in PDC procedures and formatting which have caused errors in the proper execution of the clearance. It must be acknowledged that this technology, along with other advancements on the flightdeck, is adding more responsibility to the crew and increasing the opportunity for error. The present study uses these findings as a basis for further coding and analysis of an additional 82 reports obtained from an ASRS database search. These reports indicate that clearances are often amended or exceptions are added in order to accommodate local ATC facilities. However, the onboard ACARS is limited in its ability to emphasize or highlight these changes which has resulted in altitude and heading deviations along with increases in ATC workload. Furthermore, few participating airports require any type of PDC receipt confirmation. In fact, 35% of all ASRS reports dealing with PDC's include failure to acquire the PDC at all. Consequently, this study examines pilots' suggestions contained in ASRS reports in order to develop recommendations to airlines and ATC facilities to help reduce the amount of incidents that occur.

  12. Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC): An Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Reports Concerning PDC Related Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalyo, Michael L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Airlines operating in the United States are required to operate under instrument flight rules (EFR). Typically, a clearance is issued via voice transmission from clearance delivery at the departing airport. In 1990, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began deployment of the Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) system at 30 U.S. airports. The PDC system utilizes aeronautical datalink and Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACARS) to transmit departure clearances directly to the pilot. An objective of the PDC system is to provide an immediate reduction in voice congestion over the clearance delivery frequency. Participating airports report that this objective has been met. However, preliminary analysis of 42 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports has revealed problems in PDC procedures and formatting which have caused errors in the proper execution of the clearance. It must be acknowledged that this technology, along with other advancements on the flightdeck, is adding more responsibility to the crew and increasing the opportunity for error. The present study uses these findings as a basis for further coding and analysis of an additional 82 reports obtained from an ASRS database search. These reports indicate that clearances are often amended or exceptions are added in order to accommodate local ATC facilities. However, the onboard ACARS is limited in its ability to emphasize or highlight these changes which has resulted in altitude and heading deviations along with increases in ATC workload. Furthermore, few participating airports require any type of PDC receipt confirmation. In fact, 35% of all ASRS reports dealing with PDC's include failure to acquire the PDC at all. Consequently, this study examines pilots' suggestions contained in ASRS reports in order to develop recommendations to airlines and ATC facilities to help reduce the amount of incidents that occur.

  13. Aviation's Normal Operations Safety Audit: a safety management and educational tool for health care? Results of a small-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Simon A

    2017-01-01

    A National Health Service (NHS) contingent liability for medical error claims of over £26 billion. To evaluate the safety management and educational benefits of adapting aviation's Normal Operations Safety Audit (NOSA) to health care. In vivo research, a NOSA was performed by medical students at an English NHS Trust. After receiving training from the author, the students spent 6 days gathering data under his supervision. The data revealed a threat-rich environment, where errors - some consequential - were made (359 threats and 86 errors were recorded over 2 weeks). The students claimed that the exercise improved their observational, investigative, communication, teamworking and other nontechnical skills. NOSA is potentially an effective safety management and educational tool for health care. It is suggested that 1) the UK General Medical Council mandates that all medical students perform a NOSA in fulfillment of their degree; 2) the participating NHS Trusts be encouraged to act on students' findings; and 3) the UK Department of Health adopts NOSA as a cornerstone risk assessment and management tool.

  14. Airport Managers' Perspectives on Security and Safety Management Systems in Aviation Operations: A Multiple Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Willie L., Jr.

    Global terrorism continues to persist despite the great efforts of various countries to protect and safely secure their citizens. As airports form the entry and exit ports of a country, they are one of the most vulnerable locations to terror attacks. Managers of international airports constantly face similar challenges in developing and implementing airport security protocols. Consequently, the technological advances of today have brought both positive and negative impacts on security and terrorism of airports, which are mostly managed by the airport managers. The roles of the managers have greatly increased over the years due to technological advances. The developments in technology have had different roles in security, both in countering terrorism and, at the same time, increasing the communication methods of the terrorists. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to investigate the perspectives of airport managers with regard to societal security and social interactions in the socio-technical systems of the National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS). Through the data gained regarding managers' perception and experiences, the researcher hoped to enable the development of security measures and policies that are appropriate for airports as socio-technical systems. The researcher conducted interviews with airport managers to gather relevant data to fulfill the rationale of the study. Ten to twelve airport managers based in three commercial aviation airports in Maryland, United States participated in the study. The researcher used a qualitative thematic analysis procedure to analyze the data responses of participants in the interview sessions.

  15. Exploring human error in military aviation flight safety events using post-incident classification systems.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Brionny J; O'Hare, David P A

    2013-08-01

    Human error classification systems theoretically allow researchers to analyze postaccident data in an objective and consistent manner. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework is one such practical analysis tool that has been widely used to classify human error in aviation. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy (CET) is another. It has been postulated that the focus on interrelationships within HFACS can facilitate the identification of the underlying causes of pilot error. The CET provides increased granularity at the level of unsafe acts. The aim was to analyze the influence of factors at higher organizational levels on the unsafe acts of front-line operators and to compare the errors of fixed-wing and rotary-wing operations. This study analyzed 288 aircraft incidents involving human error from an Australasian military organization occurring between 2001 and 2008. Action errors accounted for almost twice (44%) the proportion of rotary wing compared to fixed wing (23%) incidents. Both classificatory systems showed significant relationships between precursor factors such as the physical environment, mental and physiological states, crew resource management, training and personal readiness, and skill-based, but not decision-based, acts. The CET analysis showed different predisposing factors for different aspects of skill-based behaviors. Skill-based errors in military operations are more prevalent in rotary wing incidents and are related to higher level supervisory processes in the organization. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy provides increased granularity to HFACS analyses of unsafe acts.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  17. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    PubMed

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  18. Paediatric Patient Safety and the Need for Aviation Black Box Thinking to Learn From and Prevent Medication Errors.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Chi; Wong, Ian C K; Correa-West, Jo; Terry, David; McCarthy, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Since the publication of To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999, there has been much research conducted into the epidemiology, nature and causes of medication errors in children, from prescribing and supply to administration. It is reassuring to see growing evidence of improving medication safety in children; however, based on media reports, it can be seen that serious and fatal medication errors still occur. This critical opinion article examines the problem of medication errors in children and provides recommendations for research, training of healthcare professionals and a culture shift towards dealing with medication errors. There are three factors that we need to consider to unravel what is missing and why fatal medication errors still occur. (1) Who is involved and affected by the medication error? (2) What factors hinder staff and organisations from learning from mistakes? Does the fear of litigation and criminal charges deter healthcare professionals from voluntarily reporting medication errors? (3) What are the educational needs required to prevent medication errors? It is important to educate future healthcare professionals about medication errors and human factors to prevent these from happening. Further research is required to apply aviation's 'black box' principles in healthcare to record and learn from near misses and errors to prevent future events. There is an urgent need for the black box investigations to be published and made public for the benefit of other organisations that may have similar potential risks for adverse events. International sharing of investigations and learning is also needed.

  19. Aviation Safety: Modeling and Analyzing Complex Interactions between Humans and Automated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha; Brat, Guillaume; Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Raimondi, Franco; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The on-going transformation from the current US Air Traffic System (ATS) to the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) will force the introduction of new automated systems and most likely will cause automation to migrate from ground to air. This will yield new function allocations between humans and automation and therefore change the roles and responsibilities in the ATS. Yet, safety in NextGen is required to be at least as good as in the current system. We therefore need techniques to evaluate the safety of the interactions between humans and automation. We think that current human factor studies and simulation-based techniques will fall short in front of the ATS complexity, and that we need to add more automated techniques to simulations, such as model checking, which offers exhaustive coverage of the non-deterministic behaviors in nominal and off-nominal scenarios. In this work, we present a verification approach based both on simulations and on model checking for evaluating the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation. Models are created using Brahms (a multi-agent framework) and we show that the traditional Brahms simulations can be integrated with automated exploration techniques based on model checking, thus offering a complete exploration of the behavioral space of the scenario. Our formal analysis supports the notion of beliefs and probabilities to reason about human behavior. We demonstrate the technique with the Ueberligen accident since it exemplifies authority problems when receiving conflicting advices from human and automated systems.

  20. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  1. Progress and Status on the Development of NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Blattnig, S. R.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.; Murray, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program recently selected a project for funding through the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) solicitation. The project objective is to develop a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time radiation dose predictions of biologically harmful radiation at commercial airline altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP reanalysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. In this paper we discuss the concept and design of the NAIRAS model, and present recent progress in the implementation and give examples of the model results. Specifically, we show predictions of representative annual background exposure levels and radiation exposure levels for selected SEP events during solar cycle 23, with emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure. We discuss the key uncertainties and areas that need improvement in both model and data, the timeline for project completion, and access to model results.

  2. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...Laughlin, Deputy Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, ADG-2, Federal Aviation Administration... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public...

  3. Technical highlights in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Improvements in performance, safety, efficiency, and emissions control in general aviation craft are reviewed. While change is slow, the U.S. industries still account for the bulk (90%) of the world's general aviation fleet. Advances in general aviation aerodynamics, structures and materials, acoustics, avionics, and propulsion are described. Supercritical airfoils, drag reduction design, stall/spin studies, crashworthiness and passenger safety, fiberglass materials, flight noise abatement, interior noise and vibration reduction, navigation systems, quieter and cleaner (reciprocating, turboprop, turbofan) engines, and possible benefits of the Global Position Satellite System to general aviation navigation are covered in the discussion. Some of the developments are illustrated.

  4. Aviation Weather Information Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in aviation safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on aviation safety and is associated with 30% of all aviation accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current aviation weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for aviation weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of aviation weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.

  5. Evaluation of Safety Programs with Respect to the Causes of General Aviation Accidents. Volume I. Technical Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Projects; and various general aviation aircraft compani es. QUALIFICATIONS IN INTERPRETING THE STUDY RESULTS The findings and conclusions presented later...attendants, air traffic control person- nel, maintenance personnel, company management, dispatchers, ground crew, air- craft designers, and...CORP) -(previously Executive) - Any use of an aircraft by a corporation, company or other organization for the purposes of transporting its employees

  6. The value of Doppler LiDAR systems to monitor turbulence intensity during storm events in order to enhance aviation safety in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shu; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Finger, David C.

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence and wind shear are a major natural hazards for aviation safety in Iceland. The temporal and spatial scale of atmospheric turbulence is very dynamic, requiring an adequate method to detect and monitor turbulence with high resolution. The Doppler Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system can provide continuous information about the wind field using the Doppler effect form emitted light signals. In this study, we use a Leosphere Windcube 200s LiDAR systems stationed near Reykjavik city Airport and at Keflavik International Airport, Iceland, to evaluate turbulence intensity by estimating eddy dissipation rate (EDR). For this purpose, we retrieved radial wind velocity observations from Velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) scans (360°scans at 15° and 75° elevation angle) to compute EDR. The method was used to monitor and characterize storm events in fall 2016 and the following winter. The preliminary result reveal that the LiDAR observations can detect and quantify atmospheric turbulence with high spatial and temporal resolution. This finding is an important step towards enhanced aviation safety in subpolar climate characterized by sever wind turbulence.

  7. [Safety culture in orthopedics and trauma surgery : Course concept: interpersonal competence by the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) and Lufthansa Aviation Training].

    PubMed

    Doepfer, A-K; Seemann, R; Merschin, D; Stange, R; Egerth, M; Münzberg, M; Mutschler, M; Bouillon, B; Hoffmann, R

    2017-06-22

    Patient safety has become a central and measurable key factor in the routine daily medical practice. The human factor plays a decisive role in safety culture and has moved into focus regarding the reduction of treatment errors and undesired critical incidents. Nonetheless, the systematic training in communication and interpersonal competences has so far only played a minor role. The German Society of Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) in cooperation with the Lufthansa Aviation Training initiated a course system for interpersonal competence. Several studies confirmed the reduction of critical incidents and costs after implementation of a regular and targeted human factor training. The interpersonal competence should be an essential component of specialist training within the framework of a 3‑column model.

  8. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  9. 49 CFR 1.82 - The Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Federal Aviation Administration. 1.82 Section... AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.82 The Federal Aviation Administration. Is responsible for... countries; (9) Promoting aviation safety and efficiency through technical aviation assistance to...

  10. 49 CFR 1.82 - The Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Federal Aviation Administration. 1.82 Section... AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.82 The Federal Aviation Administration. Is responsible for... countries; (9) Promoting aviation safety and efficiency through technical aviation assistance to...

  11. 49 CFR 1.82 - The Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Federal Aviation Administration. 1.82 Section... AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.82 The Federal Aviation Administration. Is responsible for... countries; (9) Promoting aviation safety and efficiency through technical aviation assistance to...

  12. 40 Years of Safer Aviation Through Reporting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-28

    NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) is one of the tools used to make aviation in the United States as safe as it is. Celebrating its 40th anniversary this year, NASA’s confidential ASRS is widely used by pilots and other airline employees to identify potential hazards. Over the past 40 years, the ASRS has issued more than 6,200 safety alerts to the FAA and other decision makers in the aviation community.

  13. Aviation Weather Program (AWP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, Brant

    1993-01-01

    The Aviation Weather Program (AWP) combines additional weather observations, improved forecast technology, and more efficient distribution of information to pilots, controllers, and automated systems to improve the weather information provided to the air traffic control system, pilots, and other users of aviation weather information. Specific objectives include the needs to: improve airport and en-route capacity by accurate, high resolution, timely forecasts of changing weather conditions affecting airport and en-route operations; improve analyses and forecasts of upper-level winds for efficient flight planning and traffic management; and increase flight safety through improved aviation weather hazard forecasting (e.g. icing, turbulence, severe storms, microbursts, or strong winds). The AWP would benefit from participation in a cooperative multiscale experiment by obtaining data for: evaluation of aviation weather forecast products, analysis of four dimensional data assimilation schemes, and experimental techniques for retrieving aerosol and other visibility parameters. A multiscale experiment would also be helpful to AWP by making it possible to evaluate the added benefit of enhanced data sets collected during the experiment on those forecast and analysis products. The goals of the Coperative Multiscale Experiment (CME) are an essential step in attaining the long-term AWP objective of providing two-to-four hour location-specific forecasts of significant weather. Although the possibility of a funding role for the AWP in the CME is presently unclear, modest involvement of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/AWP personnel could be expected.

  14. Federal Aviation Administration. Aviation Safety Counselor Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-17

    walking or driving unauthorized vehicles onto the aircraft operational areas. ASC’s should be alert for the presence of animals on the airport and...areas should be clean and free of debris. There should be no apparent fuel leaks or spills . Pumps should be placarded for proper octane and/or fuel...serve: You need: Coffee , Tea ____Thermal cups ____Spoons ____Sugar or substitute ____Cream or substitute ____Napkins Carbonated Soft Drinks or Fruit

  15. Aviation Safety Modeling and Simulation (ASMM) Propulsion Fleet Modeling: A Tool for Semi-Automatic Construction of CORBA-based Applications from Legacy Fortran Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sang, Janche

    2003-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, NASA GRC participates in the Modeling and Simulation Project called ASMM. NASA GRC s focus is to characterize the propulsion systems performance from a fleet management and maintenance perspective by modeling and through simulation predict the characteristics of two classes of commercial engines (CFM56 and GE90). In prior years, the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program funded, NASA Glenn in developing a large scale, detailed simulations for the analysis and design of aircraft engines called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Three major aspects of this modeling included the integration of different engine components, coupling of multiple disciplines, and engine component zooming at appropriate level fidelity, require relatively tight coupling of different analysis codes. Most of these codes in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with distributed objects can increase these codes reusability. Aviation Safety s modeling and simulation use in characterizing fleet management has similar needs. The modeling and simulation of these propulsion systems use existing Fortran and C codes that are instrumental in determining the performance of the fleet. The research centers on building a CORBA-based development environment for programmers to easily wrap and couple legacy Fortran codes. This environment consists of a C++ wrapper library to hide the details of CORBA and an efficient remote variable scheme to facilitate data exchange between the client and the server model. Additionally, a Web Service model should also be constructed for evaluation of this technology s use over the next two- three years.

  16. Aviation Safety Modeling and Simulation (ASMM) Propulsion Fleet Modeling: A Tool for Semi-Automatic Construction of CORBA-based Applications from Legacy Fortran Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sang, Janche

    2003-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, NASA GRC participates in the Modeling and Simulation Project called ASMM. NASA GRC s focus is to characterize the propulsion systems performance from a fleet management and maintenance perspective by modeling and through simulation predict the characteristics of two classes of commercial engines (CFM56 and GE90). In prior years, the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program funded, NASA Glenn in developing a large scale, detailed simulations for the analysis and design of aircraft engines called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Three major aspects of this modeling included the integration of different engine components, coupling of multiple disciplines, and engine component zooming at appropriate level fidelity, require relatively tight coupling of different analysis codes. Most of these codes in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with distributed objects can increase these codes reusability. Aviation Safety s modeling and simulation use in characterizing fleet management has similar needs. The modeling and simulation of these propulsion systems use existing Fortran and C codes that are instrumental in determining the performance of the fleet. The research centers on building a CORBA-based development environment for programmers to easily wrap and couple legacy Fortran codes. This environment consists of a C++ wrapper library to hide the details of CORBA and an efficient remote variable scheme to facilitate data exchange between the client and the server model. Additionally, a Web Service model should also be constructed for evaluation of this technology s use over the next two- three years.

  17. Patient handover from surgery to intensive care: using Formula 1 pit-stop and aviation models to improve safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Ken R; de Leval, Marc R; McEwan, Angus; Pigott, Nick; Elliott, Martin J; McQuillan, Annette; MacDonald, Carol; Goldman, Allan J

    2007-05-01

    We aimed to improve the quality and safety of handover of patients from surgery to intensive care using the analogy of a Formula 1 pit stop and expertise from aviation. A prospective intervention study measured the change in performance before and after the implementation of a new handover protocol that was developed through detailed discussions with a Formula 1 racing team and aviation training captains. Fifty (23 before and 27 after) postsurgery patient handovers were observed. Technical errors and information omissions were measured using checklists, and teamwork was scored using a Likert scale. Duration of the handover was also measured. The mean number of technical errors was reduced from 5.42 (95% CI +/-1.24) to 3.15 (95% CI +/-0.71), the mean number of information handover omissions was reduced from 2.09 (95% CI +/-1.14) to 1.07 (95% CI +/-0.55), and duration of handover was reduced from 10.8 min (95% CI +/-1.6) to 9.4 min (95% CI +/-1.29). Nine out of twenty-three (39%) precondition patients had more than one error in both technical and information handover prior to the new protocol, compared with three out of twnety-seven (11.5%) with the new handover. Regression analysis showed that the number of technical errors were significantly reduced with the new handover (t = -3.63, P < 0.001), and an interaction suggested that teamwork (t = 3.04, P = 0.004) had a different effect with the new handover protocol. The introduction of the new handover protocol lead to improvements in all aspects of the handover. Expertise from other industries can be extrapolated to improve patient safety, and in particular, areas of medicine involving the handover of patients or information.

  18. The monitoring and forecasting system of Etna volcanic plumes for reinforcement of the aviation safety on the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1979 explosive activity of Etna volcano produced many short-lived and two long-lived ash plume forming eruptions that disrupted the operations of Catania and Reggio Calabria airports and create difficulties to the air traffic in the central Mediterranean region. National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) is charged of the monitoring of Etna eruptive phenomena. It cooperates with the National Civil Protection Department, the Agency for Civil Aviation (ENAC), the Air Traffic Control company (ENAV) and the Italian Air Force for warning continuously the aviation authorities about the occurring of the ash cloud on Sicilian airspace and the ash fallout on Catania airport. The objective of INGV is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present on multispectral infrared satellite imagery received at high-rate from METEOSAT, ground-based visual and thermal cameras, a Doppler Radar for volcanic-jet monitoring and some ash fallout detectors. Forecasting is using a multi-model approach that is performed every day through a fully automatic procedures for: i) downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii) running models of tephra dispersal, iii) plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv) publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing of field data collected from recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring network. The monitoring and forecasting system was tested successfully on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007, and will be tested again during the Volcanic Ash Exercise of ICAO EUR/NAT in November 2009.

  19. 77 FR 39745 - General Aviation Search and Rescue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... No: 2012-16410] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Search and Rescue The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on general aviation search and rescue operations on July 17 and 18, 2012. In the United States, following the crash of a general aviation...

  20. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  1. An Assessment of the Relationship between Safety Climate and Mishap Risk in U.S. Naval Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Cleveland, 1983; Cohen, Smith, & Cohen, 1975; Diaz & Cabrera, 1997; Hale & Hovden , 1998). However, it is difficult to identify those variables that...dependent variable (Hale & Hovden , 1998). Nonetheless, the early studies that compared high- and low-accident-rate organizations did identify issues that... Hovden , J. (1998). Management and culture: The third age of safety. A review of approaches to organizational aspects of safety, health and

  2. Surgical specimen handover from the operating theatre to laboratory-Can we improve patient safety by learning from aviation and other high-risk organisations?

    PubMed

    Brennan, Peter A; Brands, Marieke T; Caldwell, Lucy; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Turley, Nic; Foley, Susie; Rahimi, Siavash

    2017-07-10

    Essential communication between healthcare staff is considered one of the key requirements for both safety and quality care when patients are handed over from one clinical area to other. This is particularly important in environments such as the operating theatre and intensive care where mistakes can be devastating. Health care has learned from other high-risk organisations (HRO) such as aviation where the use of checklists and human factors awareness has virtually eliminated human error and mistakes. To our knowledge, little has been published around ways to improve pathology specimen handover following surgery, with pathology request forms often conveying the bare minimum of information to assist the laboratory staff. Furthermore, the request form might not warn staff about potential hazards. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the factors involved in human error and introduce a novel checklist that can be readily completed at the same time as the routine pathology request form. This additional measure enhances safety, can help to reduce processing and mislabelling errors and provides essential information in a structured way assisting both laboratory staff and pathologists when handling head and neck surgical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Federal Aviation Administration Plan for Research, Engineering & Development, 1998.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    long-term research, and program area descriptions of air traffic services, airports technology, aircraft safety, aviation security , human factors and aviation medicine, environment and energy, and R,E&D program management.

  4. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  5. 75 FR 43878 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    .... List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Safety. The Proposed... this AD, certificated in any category. (1) DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 airplanes, Model FAN JET... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION...

  6. Satellite Delivery of Aviation Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Haendel, Richard

    2001-01-01

    With aviation traffic continuing to increase worldwide, reducing the aviation accident rate and aviation schedule delays is of critical importance. In the United States, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Aviation Safety Program and the Aviation System Capacity Program to develop and test new technologies to increase aviation safety and system capacity. Weather is a significant contributor to aviation accidents and schedule delays. The timely dissemination of weather information to decision makers in the aviation system, particularly to pilots, is essential in reducing system delays and weather related aviation accidents. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating improved methods of weather information dissemination through satellite broadcasting directly to aircraft. This paper describes an on-going cooperative research program with NASA, Rockwell Collins, WorldSpace, Jeppesen and American Airlines to evaluate the use of satellite digital audio radio service (SDARS) for low cost broadcast of aviation weather information, called Satellite Weather Information Service (SWIS). The description and results of the completed SWIS Phase 1 are presented, and the description of the on-going SWIS Phase 2 is given.

  7. An interdisciplinary effort to identify source parameters for models that predict eruption cloud transport and dispersion for aviation safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, L. G.; Guffanti, M.; Servranckx, R.

    2007-12-01

    During recent decades, dozens of commercial and military jets have inadvertently flown through volcanic ash clouds downwind from eruptions. These encounters have caused up to tens of millions of dollars (U.S.) in damage to each jet; a few nearly crashed when ceramitized deposits of ingested ash caused engines to fail. In order to avoid such encounters, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has established Volcano Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) throughout the world to detect eruptions using satellite imagery and to notify aircraft. VAACs also predict the paths of ash clouds using atmospheric transport models, using information on volcanic plume height, the mass rate of tephra entering the atmosphere, the vertical distribution of tephra, eruption duration, and grain size distribution as input parameters. In some cases, these "source parameters" must be estimated during an ongoing eruption with few or no observational constraints. In other cases, satellite or ground-based observations obtained during an eruption constrain plume height, umbrella cloud dimensions or growth rate, and other properties, allowing VAACs to refine source parameters, re-run models, and improve predictions. ICAOs International Airways Volcano Watch Operations Group has recommended improving methods of estimating eruption source parameters as a key step towards improving predictions of volcanic ash transport and dispersion. In the spring of 2007, members of the USGS; NOAA; the Universities of Michigan, Alaska, Pisa, and South Florida; the Air Force Weather Agency; the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; and the Canadian Meteorological Centre began an interagency effort to establish constraints on eruption source parameters. This effort has involved (1) assigning default parameters to volcanoes based on magma and eruption type; (2) improving characterization of total grain-size distribution and the size distribution in distal ash clouds; (3) refining empirical and model

  8. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chiara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2014-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico's most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene-Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl's reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the "Ochre Pumice" Plinian eruption (4965 14C yr BP

  9. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chirara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2013-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico’s most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene–Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl’s reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the “Ochre Pumice” Plinian eruption (4965 14C

  10. [Advancement and goals of the aviation human engineering].

    PubMed

    Stupakov, G P; Ushakov, I B; Turzin, P S

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed were the efforts of the State Scientific-Research Test Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine to weigh and account the human factor in designing and upgrading avionics and aviation machinery. Described are the policy of human engineering support to the development, evaluation, and operation of aviation machinery, and the benefits from the human factor knowledge to the specifications for aviation machinery and allowance for the psychophysiological aptitudes of human on different phases of development of ergatic aviation systems. Outlined is the mainstream of ergonomic enhancement of the quality and safety, and humanization of the activities of different aviation specialists.

  11. Fatigue in aviation.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, John A

    2005-05-01

    Pilot fatigue is a significant, but often under-reported problem in both civilian and military aviation operations. Although estimates vary, official statistics indicate that fatigue is involved in at least 4-8% of aviation mishaps, and surveys of pilots and aircrew members reveal that fatigue is an important concern throughout today's 24/7 flight operations. Regulatory efforts aimed at limiting flight hours and ensuring at least minimal periods of crew rest have to some extent mitigated fatigue-related difficulties in the cockpit, but it is clear that much remains to be done about this insidious threat to air safety. Scheduling factors, sleep deprivation, circadian disruptions, and extended duty periods continue to challenge the alertness and performance levels of both short-haul and long-haul pilots and crews. Solutions for these problems are not straightforward, but they can be developed through the cooperative efforts of scientists, regulators, managers, and the pilots themselves. Over the past 20 years, scientific understanding of human sleep, fatigue, and circadian rhythms has expanded considerably. The thorough integration of this new knowledge into modern crew-resource management practices will facilitate the establishment of optimal crew scheduling routines and the implementation of valid aviation fatigue countermeasures.

  12. General aviation technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The existing problem areas in general aviation were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.

  13. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  14. Fatigue countermeasures in aviation.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, John A; Mallis, Melissa M; Caldwell, J Lynn; Paul, Michel A; Miller, James C; Neri, David F

    2009-01-01

    Pilot fatigue is a significant problem in modern aviation operations, largely because of the unpredictable work hours, long duty periods, circadian disruptions, and insufficient sleep that are commonplace in both civilian and military flight operations. The full impact of fatigue is often underappreciated, but many of its deleterious effects have long been known. Compared to people who are well-rested, people who are sleep deprived think and move more slowly, make more mistakes, and have memory difficulties. These negative effects may and do lead to aviation errors and accidents. In the 1930s, flight time limitations, suggested layover durations, and aircrew sleep recommendations were developed in an attempt to mitigate aircrew fatigue. Unfortunately, there have been few changes to aircrew scheduling provisions and flight time limitations since the time they were first introduced, despite evidence that updates are needed. Although the scientific understanding of fatigue, sleep, shift work, and circadian physiology has advanced significantly over the past several decades, current regulations and industry practices have in large part failed to adequately incorporate the new knowledge. Thus, the problem of pilot fatigue has steadily increased along with fatigue-related concerns over air safety. Accident statistics, reports from pilots themselves, and operational flight studies all show that fatigue is a growing concern within aviation operations. This position paper reviews the relevant scientific literature, summarizes applicable U.S. civilian and military flight regulations, evaluates various in-flight and pre-/postflight fatigue countermeasures, and describes emerging technologies for detecting and countering fatigue. Following the discussion of each major issue, position statements address ways to deal with fatigue in specific contexts with the goal of using current scientific knowledge to update policy and provide tools and techniques for improving air safety.

  15. Aviation Program Administrators' Perceptions of Specialized Aviation Accreditation under Public Law 111-216

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Cody

    2013-01-01

    Sherman (2006) and Prather (2007) studied why so few of the schools offering aviation-related curriculum leading to an associate's or bachelor's degree do not seek specialized accreditation. The goal of this study was to update the field of specialized aviation accreditation in the new environment of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation…

  16. Understanding Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: Perceptions of Korean Aviation Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Researchers exploring the use of language use in radiotelephony communication have tended to focus on the limitations of the non-native English user and the threats which their limited control of English may pose for aviation safety (e.g. Atsushi, 2003, 2004). Hence the recent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) policy places the onus…

  17. Understanding Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: Perceptions of Korean Aviation Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Researchers exploring the use of language use in radiotelephony communication have tended to focus on the limitations of the non-native English user and the threats which their limited control of English may pose for aviation safety (e.g. Atsushi, 2003, 2004). Hence the recent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) policy places the onus…

  18. Aviation Program Administrators' Perceptions of Specialized Aviation Accreditation under Public Law 111-216

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Cody

    2013-01-01

    Sherman (2006) and Prather (2007) studied why so few of the schools offering aviation-related curriculum leading to an associate's or bachelor's degree do not seek specialized accreditation. The goal of this study was to update the field of specialized aviation accreditation in the new environment of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation…

  19. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  20. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency?…

  1. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency?…

  2. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study of reports relating to cockpit altitude alert systems was performed. A recent change in the Federal Air Regulation permits the system to be modified so that the alerting signal approaching altitude has only a visual component; the auditory signal would continue to be heard if a deviation from an assigned altitude occurred. Failure to observe altitude alert signals and failure to reset the system were the commonest cause of altitude deviations related to this system. Cockpit crew distraction was the most frequent reason for these failures. It was noted by numerous reporters that the presence of altitude alert system made them less aware of altitude; this lack of altitude awareness is discussed. Failures of crew coordination were also noted. It is suggested that although modification of the altitude alert system may be highly desirable in short-haul aircraft, it may not be desirable for long-haul aircraft in which cockpit workloads are much lower for long periods of time. In these cockpits, the aural alert approaching altitudes is perceived as useful and helpful. If the systems are to be modified, it appears that additional emphasis on altitude awareness during recurrent training will be necessary; it is also possible that flight crew operating procedures during climb and descent may need examination with respect to monitoring responsibilities. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  3. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A decline in reports concerning small aircraft was noted; more reports involved transport aircraft, professional pilots, instrument meteorological conditions, and weather problems. A study of 136 reports of operational problems in terminal radar service areas was made. Pilot, controller, and system factors were found to be associated with these occurrences. Information transfer difficulties were prominent. Misunderstandings by pilots, and in some cases by controllers, of the policies and limitations of terminal radar programs were observed.

  4. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of limitations of the Air Traffic Control system in conflict avoidance capabilities is discussed. Assumptions and expectations held by by airmen regarding the capabilities of the system are presented. Limitations related to communication are described and problems associated with visual approaches, airspace configurations, and airport layouts are discussed. A number of pilot and controller reports illustrative of three typical problem types: occurrences involving pilots who have limited experience; reports describing inflight calls for assistance; and flights in which pilots have declined to use available radar services are presented. Examples of Alert Bulletins and the FAA responses to them are included.

  5. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive study of near midair collisions in terminal airspace, derived from the ASRS database is presented. A selection of controller and pilot reports on airport perimeter security, unauthorized takeoffs and landings, and on winter operations is presented. A sampling of typical Alert Bulletins and their responses is presented.

  6. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Reports describing various types of communication problems are presented along with summaries dealing with judgment and decision making. Concerns relating to the ground proximity warning system are summarized and several examples of true terrain proximity warnings are provided. An analytic study of reports relating to profile descents was performed. Problems were found to be associated with charting and graphic presentation of the descents, with lack of uniformity of the descent procedures among facilities using them, and with the flight crew workload engendered by profile descents, particularly when additional requirements are interposed by air traffic control during the execution of the profiles. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them were reviewed.

  7. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  8. 78 FR 29669 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    .... Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), which is the Technical Agent for Member States of the...-12A. P/N 811456. P/N 111-355-32142A. APU Fire Extinguisher Bottle....... P/N 111-011-324-12A. P/N... European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) (or its delegated agent). (iii) For Model MYSTERE-FALCON 200...

  9. Bipolar Disorder in Aviation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Laukkala, Tanja; Navathe, Pooshan; Budowle, Bruce; Bor, Robert; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in aviation medicine is to diagnose, as early as possible, pilots with psychiatric disorders that may impair pilot performance and increase the risk of incidents and accidents. This diagnosis applies particularly to bipolar disorder (BD), where return to flying duty is not an option in the majority of cases. BD is a long-term mental disorder presenting remittent depressive, hypomanic, manic, or mixed episodes between low symptomatic or asymptomatic intermediate periods. Onset in most cases is in late teen or early adult years. Suicidal intentions and suicide risk are significantly elevated in individuals with BD compared to the general population. A systematic literature search was performed of BD and aviation accidents and the National Transportation Safety Board database of fatal general aviation accidents was searched. One case report and two database reports of interest from 1994 to 2014 were identified. The findings set a minimum frequency of BD in general aviation fatalities to be approximately 2 out of 8648 (0.023%) in the United States. The reported incidence may underestimate the real number of BD cases for several reasons, including the fact that the medical history of pilots is not always available or is sometimes not the primary interest of a safety investigation. This study suggests that the demarcation of psychiatric disorder related to fitness to fly is an important step in safety.Vuorio A, Laukkala T, Navathe P, Budowle B, Bor R, Sajantila A. Bipolar disorder in aviation medicine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):42-47.

  10. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  11. Considering Object Oriented Technology in Aviation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Few developers of commercial aviation software products are using object-oriented technology (OOT), despite its popularity in some other industries. Safety concerns about using OOT in critical applications, uncertainty about how to comply with regulatory requirements, and basic conservatism within the aviation community have been factors behind this caution. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have sponsored research to investigate and workshops to discuss safety and certification concerns about OOT and to develop recommendations for safe use. Two Object Oriented Technology in Aviation (OOTiA) workshops have been held and numerous issues and comments about the effect of OOT features and languages have been collected. This paper gives a high level overview of the OOTiA project, and discusses selected specific results from the March 2003 workshop. In particular, results in the form of questions to consider before making the decision to use OOT are presented.

  12. Sports aviation accidents: fatality and aircraft specificity.

    PubMed

    de Voogt, Alexander J; van Doorn, Robert R A

    2010-11-01

    Sports aviation is a special category of general aviation characterized by diverse aircraft types and a predominantly recreational flight operation. A general comparison of aircraft accidents within sports aviation is missing, but should guide future research. A comparison of accidents in sports aviation was made using 2118 records from the National Transportation Safety Board for the period 1982-2007. In addition, the available denominator data from the Federal Aviation Administration were used to interpret the data. The highest number of accidents was found with gliders (N = 991), but the highest relative number of fatal accidents came from ultra-light (45%) and gyroplane operations (40%), which are homebuilt more often than other aircraft types. The most common cause of accident in sports aviation was in-flight planning and decision-making (N = 200, 9.4%). The most frequent occurrences were hard landings and undershoots, of which the numbers differ significantly from one aircraft type to the other. Homebuilt aircraft are at particular risk in sports aviation. Although denominator data remain problematic for motorized sports aviation, these aircraft show a high proportion of homebuilt aircraft and, more importantly, a higher relative number of fatal accidents.

  13. Web-Based Information Management System for the Investigation, Reporting, and Analysis of Human Error in Naval Aviation Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    anticipation of future development in the prototype. C. DATA COLLECTION 1. Subjects/Participants Students (n = 12) attending the Aviation Safety Officer...ASO) course at the School of Aviation Safety, and students at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California participated in the study...to participants from a School of Aviation SafetyAviation Safety Officer” course and students attending graduate education at the Naval Postgraduate

  14. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  15. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  16. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  17. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  18. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  19. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  20. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  1. Human error and crew resource management failures in Naval aviation mishaps: a review of U.S. Naval Safety Center data, 1990-96.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, D A; Shappell, S A

    1999-12-01

    The present study examined the role of human error and crew-resource management (CRM) failures in U.S. Naval aviation mishaps. All tactical jet (TACAIR) and rotary wing Class A flight mishaps between fiscal years 1990-1996 were reviewed. Results indicated that over 75% of both TACAIR and rotary wing mishaps were attributable, at least in part, to some form of human error of which 70% were associated with aircrew human factors. Of these aircrew-related mishaps, approximately 56% involved at least one CRM failure. These percentages are very similar to those observed prior to the implementation of aircrew coordination training (ACT) in the fleet, suggesting that the initial benefits of the program have not persisted and that CRM failures continue to plague Naval aviation. Closer examination of these CRM-related mishaps suggest that the type of flight operations (preflight, routine, emergency) do play a role in the etiology of CRM failures. A larger percentage of CRM failures occurred during non-routine or extremis flight situations when TACAIR mishaps were considered. In contrast, a larger percentage of rotary wing CRM mishaps involved failures that occurred during routine flight operations. These findings illustrate the complex etiology of CRM failures within Naval aviation and support the need for ACT programs tailored to the unique problems faced by specific communities in the fleet.

  2. International standardization compliance in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Tyler B.

    The commercial aviation industry is global in the sense that passengers travel around the world from destination to destination. It is also global in that the states of the world (countries) regulate the industry domestically and internationally. There is a unique stage where the world comes together to promote aviation, discuss ideas and establish international standards. This stage is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The 191 current member states signed treaties acknowledging their commitment to abiding by the standards and practices established by ICAO. No state is 100 percent compliant with international standards, however, and the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the fulfillment of compliance by individual member states and the safety of the commercial aviation industry in terms of fatality rates. Analysis of the results suggested that there is a relationship between compliance and fatalities, as compliance percentage increases the fatality rate decreases. Further analysis indicated the results were statistically significant regardless of the wealth of a state or size of a state's commercial operation.

  3. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    aspects of Fire Prevention under NASA's Aviation Safety Program.

  4. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.15 Safety analysis. (a)(1) The applicant must analyze the propeller system to assess the likely consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to...

  5. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Developed by the Aviation Education Staff of the Office of General Aviation Affairs, this document identifies sources of teaching materials. Included in this resource guide is information pertaining to: (1) films and filmstrips, (2) aviation education workshops, (3) career opportunities in aviation, (4) aviation organizations, (5) government…

  6. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Medical History of Fatally Injured Aviation Accident Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Civil Aviation Safety Authority; 2005 Sep. 13. Silberman WS. Medications in civil aviation: what is acceptable and what is not? Aviat Space Environ Med...2003; 74:85–6. 14. Silberman WS. SSRI policy reminder. Fed Air Surg Med Bull 2005; 43(2):9. 15. Sweetman SC, ed. Martindale: the complete drug

  7. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  8. General Aviation Pilots Over 70 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Asmayawati, Saryani; Budowle, Bruce; Griffiths, Robin; Strandberg, Timo; Kuoppala, Jaana; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-02-01

    Currently it is not unusual for general aviation pilots in the United States to continue to fly beyond the age of 70, even into their 80s and 90s. Pilots have regular examinations according to protocols which do not specify special or additional requirements for pilots over 70 yr of age. Additionally, the third class medical reforms passed by the U.S. Senate on 15 July 2016 could potentially result in even less stringent medical certification requirements for general aviation pilots. Accident rates, medical parameters, autopsy findings, and toxicological findings from the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) general aviation (GA) accident database were analyzed to assess potential risk factors with accident outcomes. During 2003-2012, there were 114 (113 men, 1 woman) general aviation fatal accidents involving pilots ages 70 to 92 yr. A combination of 3 or more drugs were found in 13 (13%) of deceased pilots. The most frequent drugs were first generation antihistamines and antidepressants represented the next highest proportion of possible performance-affecting medications. This study indicates that there are critical medical factors that may contribute to fatal accidents among elderly pilots. Polypharmacy use should be taken into consideration, especially during periodic health examinations and fatal aviation investigations involving elderly pilots.Vuorio A, Asmayawati S, Budowle B, Griffiths R, Strandberg T, Kuoppala J, Sajantila A. General aviation pilots over 70 years old. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):142-145.

  9. NASA and General Aviation. NASA SP-485.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethell, Jeffrey L.

    A detailed examination of the nature and function of general aviation and a discussion of how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology are offered in this publication. The intricacies of aerodynamics, energy, and safety as well as the achievements in aeronautical experimentation are…

  10. Medication administration process assessment: applying lessons learned from commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Moreen; Brown, Joseph P; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2009-02-01

    Medication administration is a major safety issue for patients and providers. The authors describe a commercial aviation-based system safety assessment conducted on the medication administration process for a community teaching hospital in the northeast United States. Processes on 2 medical units and 1 surgical unit were assessed. A sampling of qualitative outcomes is presented in a risk prioritization framework, along with practical recommendations predicated on the valuable lessons learned in commercial aviation.

  11. Aviation Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance instructors, providing beginning instructors the foundation to understand and apply fundamentals of instruction. The handbook also provides aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to…

  12. Aviation. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on aviation. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Airmail Art; Eyewitness; Kite Power); (2) "Geography" (U.S. Airports); (3) "Information" (Aviation Alphabet; Glossary; Four Forces…

  13. Aviation Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance instructors, providing beginning instructors the foundation to understand and apply fundamentals of instruction. The handbook also provides aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to…

  14. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  15. Rating hydrogen as a potential aviation fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The viability of liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene as future alternate fuels for transport aircraft is analyzed, and the results of a comparative assessment are given in terms of cost, energy resource utilization, areas of fuel production, transmission airport facilities, and ultimate use in the aircraft. Important safety (fires) and some environmental aspects (CO2 balance) are also described. It is concluded that fuel price estimates indicate the price of synthetic aviation kerosene (synjet) would be approximately half of the price calculated for liquid hydrogen and somewhat less than that of liquid methane, with synjet from oil shale reported to be the least expensive.

  16. NASA general aviation research overview - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winblade, R. L.; Westfall, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent accomplishments in the field of general aviation are reviewed which resulted from NASA's steadily improving communication with the industry and user community, both on a formal level and through more direct involvement in the research activities. Several NASA programs are examined whose aim is to provide new technologies across the board for improvements in safety, efficiency, and reduction of the impact of general aviation on the environment. The use of the results of some NASA programs in designing new aircraft is demonstrated. A list of technical reports generated by the NASA program is given in an appendix.

  17. General aviation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  18. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  19. Aviation turbine fuels, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.; Dickson, C.L.

    1983-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1982 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1982 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 14 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 90 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and HP-5, and commercial type Jet A.

  20. Aviation turbine fuels, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1981-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1980 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1980 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 17 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 98 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and JP-5 and commercial type Jet A.

  1. An analysis of students' perceptions to Just Culture in the aviation industry: A study of a Midwest aviation training program (case study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Lazo Akram

    The research will focus on the discussion of the ways in which the top-down nature of Safety Management Systems (SMS) can be used to create `Just Culture' within the aviation industry. Specific focus will be placed on an aviation program conducted by an accredited university, with the institution in focus being the midwest aviation training program. To this end, a variety of different aspects of safety culture in aviation and aviation management will be considered. The focus on the implementation strategies vital for the existence of a `Just Culture' within the aviation industry in general, and particularly within the aforementioned institution's aerospace program. Some ideas and perspectives will be subsequently suggested and designed for implementation, within the institution's program. The aspect of enhancing the overall safety output gained, from the institution, as per standards set within the greater American Aviation industry will be examined. Overall, the paper will seek to showcase the vital importance of implementing the SMS standardization model in the institution's Aerospace program, while providing some areas of concern. Such concerns will be based on a number of issues, which are pertinent to the overall enhancement of the institution's observance of aviation safety. This will be both in general application of an SMS, as well as personalized/ specific applications in areas in need of improvement. Overall, through the paper, the author hopes to provide a better understanding of the institution's placement, with regard to not only aviation safety, but also the implementation of an effective `Just Culture' within the program.

  2. [Aviation medicine: yesterday, today and tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Iamenskov, V V; Khafizov, N N; Morozov, A V

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the history and current state of medical support of the Air Force. On December 1, 2009 Air Force Medical Service was renamed into the service of aviation medicine of Command Air Forces, and many of the functions of medical support of the Air Force transferred to the newly formed Air Force Center of Aviation Medicine. April 29, 2011 office of Aviation Medicine of the High Command of the Air Force has stepped 95-year milestone. The changes affected all structures entrusted with the issues of medical support of the Air Force. Today, the medical service of the Air Force faces challenges--ensuring safety, the study of flight conditions and their impact on health, job performance and psychological characteristics of flight personnel.

  3. An overview of aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Safety of flight is the first concern of the aviation weather service, the economics of air transportation is a second major interest. Weather is a significant causal factor impacting on the efficiency of air transportation. A discussion is presented on the functions of various weather service agencies as they relate to one another in the dissemination of information to the pilot and to the air traffic controller. Improvements in the aviation weather service and weather knowledge are cited as future goals. The weather service at the present time is an efficient system but future aviation objectives dictate more improvements are needed (especially in automation technology) to enhance flight planning and for safe and efficient flight execution.

  4. Fighting human error : what surgeons can learn from aviators.

    PubMed

    Aerden, D; Smets, D; Poelaert, J; Oste, J; Van den Brande, P

    2014-01-01

    The rigorous implementation of safety policies have made air travel one of the safest modes of transport. Health institutions and hospital managing bodies increasingly adopt cues from aviation safety protocols and policies in an attempt to reduce medical errors and patient harm. Among hospital staff, surgeons are most likely to be confronted with these aviation-derived safety concepts. This article aims to familiarize surgeons with the concepts and methodology of safety policies in modern aviation safety, many of which have been applied in the setting of surgery, or have potential to do so. We review the use of checklists, crew resource management, the sterile cockpit, blame free reporting and human fatigue. We discuss how these concepts can be translated to the operating room and illustrate their relevance through a comparative description of historical air accidents and surgical incidents from our own clinical experience. We also indicate relevant differences and similarities between flight crews and surgical teams and their respective infrastructures, as these may impede or facilitate the adoption of aviation safety policies. Finally, we offer some recommendations to effectively implement aviation safety policies in the operating room. Copyright© Acta Chirurgica Belgica.

  5. Aviation in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayten, Gerald G.

    1974-01-01

    Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

  6. Aviation in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayten, Gerald G.

    1974-01-01

    Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

  7. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-05-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ± 40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In

  8. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-09-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In

  9. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection

  10. Future aviation fuels overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  11. Review of Aviator Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    The amount approaches $500,000 per candidate by the end of flight school for US Army aviators. 2 Since World War I, the military services have explored...34Simulation-based tests may significantly increment the validity of cognitive tests when the two approaches are used together. These results are consistent...Conscientiousness (Norman, 1963; Tupes & 5 Christal, 1961) would likely be enlightening , but has not (yet) been done in the aviator selection arena. Griffin and

  12. Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsung

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training for aviation mechanics has become mandatory in many industrialized countries since 1998. Yet, to date, MRM training remains optional in the U.S. Interestingly, a similar safety discipline, namely Crew/Cockpit Resource Management (CRM), is mandatory for pilots, flight engineers, flight attendants, and dispatchers and is regulated in the Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs). If MRM training is important to enhance aviation technicians working behavior, the rationale to not regulate it opens a window for study. This research aims to inductively investigate the FAA s regulatory rationale concerning MRM training based on direct inputs from the FAA s Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) members. Delphi methodology associated with purposive sampling technique was adopted. The result revealed that the FAA cannot regulate MRM because the aviation industry is strongly opposed to it due to the lack of training budgets, the need of a quantifiable cost-effect analysis, concern over the FAA s inspection workforce, an ongoing voluntary alternative called the Air Transportation Surveillance System (ATOS), the government s lower priority on maintenance after 9/11, and the airlines tight embracement of operational flexibility without regulation.

  13. Cockpit Technology for Prevention of General Aviation Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    General aviation accounted for 74 percent of runway incursions but only 57 percent of the operations during the four-year period from fiscal year (FY) 2001 through FY2004. Elements of the NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System were adapted and tested for general aviation aircraft. Sixteen General Aviation pilots, of varying levels of certification and amount of experience, participated in a piloted simulation study to evaluate the system for prevention of general aviation runway incursions compared to existing moving map displays. Pilots flew numerous complex, high workload approaches under varying weather and visibility conditions. A rare-event runway incursion scenario was presented, unbeknownst to the pilots, which represented a typical runway incursion situation. The results validated the efficacy and safety need for a runway incursion prevention system for general aviation aircraft.

  14. Louis H. Bauer and the origins of civil aviation medicine.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Theresa L

    2012-12-01

    With the passage of the Air Commerce Act in May 1926, civil aviation safety became a federal responsibility under the Department of Commerce (DoC). In November of that year, Louis Hopewell Bauer (1888-1964) became the DoC's first Aviation Medical Director. After earning his medical degree at the Harvard School of Medicine in 1912, Bauer joined the U.S. Army Medical Corps, where he helped develop the role of the military flight surgeon and then served as director of the Army's School of Aviation Medicine. Upon taking the federal position, he undertook to define medical standards and examination frequencies for civilian pilots and identifiy disqualifying conditions that could compromise a pilot's ability to operate an aircraft safely. Bauer also personally selected 57 private physicians (soon to be known as Aviation Medical Examiners) distributed across the country to give medical examinations for pilot licenses. Bauer subsequently played a leading role in organizing the Aviation Medical Association in 1929.

  15. General Aviation Pilots' Perceived Usage and Valuation of Aviation Weather Information Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara; Lane, Suzanne; Garland, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Aviation suffers many accidents due to the lack of good weather information in flight. Existing aviation weather information is difficult to obtain when it is most needed and is not well formatted for in-flight use. Because it is generally presented aurally, aviation weather information is difficult to integrate with spatial flight information and retain for reference. Efforts, by NASA's Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) team and others, to improve weather information accessibility, usability and decision aiding will enhance General Aviation (GA) pilots' weather situation awareness and decision-making and therefore should improve the safety of GA flight. Consideration of pilots' economic concerns will ensure that in-flight weather information systems are financially accessible to GA pilots as well. The purpose of this survey was to describe how aviation operator communities gather and use weather information as well as how weather related decisions are made between flight crews and supporting personnel. Pilots of small GA aircraft experience the most weather-related accidents as well as the most fatal weather related accident. For this reason, the survey design and advertisement focused on encouraging participation from GA pilots. Perhaps as a result of this emphasis, most responses, 97 responses or 85% of the entire response set, were from GA pilots, This paper presents only analysis of these GA pilots' responses. The insights provided by this survey regarding GA pilots' perceived value and usage of current aviation weather information. services, and products provide a basis for technological approaches to improve GA safety. Results of this survey are discussed in the context of survey limitations and prior work, and serve as the foundation for a model of weather information value, guidance for the design of in-flight weather information systems, and definition of further research toward their development.

  16. Risk management in mental health: applying lessons from commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Simon

    2010-02-01

    Risk management in mental health focuses on risks in patients and fails to predict rare but catastrophic events such as suicide. Commercial aviation has a similar task in preventing rare but catastrophic accidents. This article describes the systems in place in commercial aviation that allows that industry to prevent disasters and contrasts this with the situation in mental health. In mental health we should learn from commercial aviation by having: national policies to promote patient safety; a national body responsible for implementing this policy which maintains a database of safety occurrences, sets targets and investigates adverse outcomes; legislation in place which encourages clinicians to report safety occurrences; and a common method and language for investigating safety occurrences.

  17. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Pitari, G.; Grewe, V.; Gierens, K.; Penner, J. E.; Petzold, A.; Prather, M. J.; Schumann, U.; Bais, A.; Berntsen, T.; Iachetti, D.; Lim, L. L.; Sausen, R.

    2010-12-01

    has also improved: a limited number of studies have demonstrated an increase in cirrus cloud attributable to aviation although the magnitude varies: however, these trend analyses may be impacted by satellite artefacts. The effect of aviation particles on clouds (with and without contrails) may give rise to either a positive forcing or a negative forcing: the modelling and the underlying processes are highly uncertain, although the overall effect of contrails and enhanced cloudiness is considered to be a positive forcing and could be substantial, compared with other effects. The debate over quantification of aviation impacts has also progressed towards studying potential mitigation and the technological and atmospheric tradeoffs. Current studies are still relatively immature and more work is required to determine optimal technological development paths, which is an aspect that atmospheric science has much to contribute. In terms of alternative fuels, liquid hydrogen represents a possibility and may reduce some of aviation's impacts on climate if the fuel is produced in a carbon-neutral way: such fuel is unlikely to be utilized until a 'hydrogen economy' develops. The introduction of biofuels as a means of reducing CO 2 impacts represents a future possibility. However, even over and above land-use concerns and greenhouse gas budget issues, aviation fuels require strict adherence to safety standards and thus require extra processing compared with biofuels destined for other sectors, where the uptake of such fuel may be more beneficial in the first instance.

  18. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin by baseline HbA1c and known duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wilding, John P H; Blonde, Lawrence; Leiter, Lawrence A; Cerdas, Sonia; Tong, Cindy; Yee, Jacqueline; Meininger, Gary

    2015-04-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, has demonstrated glycemic improvements across studies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The impact of canagliflozin on HbA1c lowering was assessed by baseline HbA1c and known duration of T2DM. This post hoc analysis pooled data from patients with T2DM enrolled in four 26-week, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 studies of canagliflozin (N=2313). Change in HbA1c from baseline to Week 26 was assessed in the overall population and in subgroups by baseline HbA1c (<8.0%, 8.0%-<9.0%, and ≥9.0%) and known duration of T2DM (<5 years, 5-<10 years, and ≥10 years). Relative to placebo, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided greater HbA1c reductions in the overall population. Progressively larger placebo-subtracted reductions in HbA1c with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg were seen with increasing baseline HbA1c. HbA1c reductions were similar across subgroups based on known duration of T2DM. Both canagliflozin doses were generally well tolerated across subgroups, with a safety and tolerability profile consistent with that seen in Phase 3 studies. Canagliflozin provided glycemic improvements in patients with T2DM across a range of baseline HbA1c and known duration of T2DM. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol fuels for aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauffler, P.

    1982-06-01

    The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.

  20. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  1. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and its predecessor organizations, Civil Aeronautics Agency (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) have pioneered the use of aviation education in working with schools and colleges of the nation to attain their objectives. This publication includes: a brief history of the role of aviation in…

  2. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Aviation Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee... and cost, and have a lower impact on the commerce of aviation. The Aviation Security...

  3. Teachers' Guide For Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This teacher's guide outlines the objectives, instructional procedures, student activities, and expected outcomes of an instructional unit on careers in aviation, designed for fifth and sixth grade students. It emphasizes aerospace activities and job opportunities in aviation. (GA)

  4. Teachers' Guide For Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This teacher's guide outlines the objectives, instructional procedures, student activities, and expected outcomes of an instructional unit on careers in aviation, designed for fifth and sixth grade students. It emphasizes aerospace activities and job opportunities in aviation. (GA)

  5. Human factors in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the pilot to the aircraft in general aviation is considered. The human component is analyzed, along with general aviation facilities. The man-machine interface, and the man-environment interface are discussed.

  6. National Strategy for Aviation Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-26

    for Aviation Security (hereafter referred to as the Strategy") to protect the Nation and its interests from threats in the Air Domain. The Secretary of... Aviation security is best achieved by integrating public and private aviation security global activities into a coordinated effort to detect, deter...might occur. The Strategy aligns Federal government aviation security programs and initiatives into a comprehensive and cohesive national effort

  7. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate Aviation Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate aviation education if students expect to…

  8. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    A list of sources of information and material relating to aviation education is presented in this pamphlet issued in May, 1972. Following a brief description of the mission of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), reference materials mostly appropriate for school use are incorporated under the headings: Aviation Education Workshops, Careers…

  9. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  10. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate Aviation Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate aviation education if students expect to…

  11. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains four papers on aviation education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of aviation research into the causes of human performance errors in aviation and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…

  12. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains four papers on aviation education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of aviation research into the causes of human performance errors in aviation and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…

  13. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to students at Aviation High School at a lunch and learn session Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students at Aviation High School at a lunch and learn session Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  16. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  17. Aviation in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary unit approach for teaching social science concepts using aviation as a vehicle to create interest and provide a meaningful context for grades K through 8. The general objectives and understandings for each grade level are described and some sample activities listed. (BR)

  18. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  19. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue contains these 12 papers: "Exploring the Viability of an Organizational Readiness Assessment for Participatory Management Programs in a Passenger Airline Carrier" (Al Bellamy); "Teaching the Pilots of the New Millennium: Adult Cooperative Education in Aviation Education" (Joseph F. Clark, III); "The Transfer of…

  20. General Aviation Avionics Statistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 5" FAA-MS-80-7* a and. SubtitleDecember 1&80 "GENERAL AVIATION AVIONICS STATISTICS 0 6...Altimeter 8. Fuel gage 3. Compass 9. Landing gear 4. Tachometer 10. Belts 5. Oil temperature 11. Special equipment for 6. Emergency locator over water

  1. General Aviation Manpower Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a study examining manpower supply/demand in general aviation. Eight job categories were examined: pilots, flight instructors, engineers, machinists/toolers, and A&P, airframe, and avionics technicians. Findings among others indicate that shortages in indicated job categories exist because personnel are recruited by other industries.…

  2. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  3. General Aviation Manpower Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a study examining manpower supply/demand in general aviation. Eight job categories were examined: pilots, flight instructors, engineers, machinists/toolers, and A&P, airframe, and avionics technicians. Findings among others indicate that shortages in indicated job categories exist because personnel are recruited by other industries.…

  4. Metrics for Aviation Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of aviation electronics students, this instructional package is one of four for the transportation occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  5. Collegiate Aviation Review, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R., Ed.; Johnson, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document, published annually, contains six papers devoted to aviation education. "Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments" (Brent D. Bowen, Dean Headley, Karisa D. Kane, Rebecca K. Lutte) outlines a model to help policymakers and others evaluate the effects of…

  6. Aviation and Space News

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-24

    demonstrated at Jingmen City, where the campers also visited a hydroplane and boarded a China-made Y-5 airplane to have a bird’s-eye view of the city in the rain...Mansion of Yellow Crane). Lectures on the history of aviation, the MiG fighters, military transports, hydroplanes , balloons and blimps were given to the

  7. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue contains these 12 papers: "Exploring the Viability of an Organizational Readiness Assessment for Participatory Management Programs in a Passenger Airline Carrier" (Al Bellamy); "Teaching the Pilots of the New Millennium: Adult Cooperative Education in Aviation Education" (Joseph F. Clark, III); "The Transfer of…

  8. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  9. Collegiate Aviation Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Henry R., Ed.

    This document contains five research papers devoted to aviation education and training. The first paper, "An Examination of the U.S. Airline Policy Regarding Child Restraint Systems" (Larry Carstenson, Donald Sluti, and Jacqueline Luedtke), examines communication of airline policy from airline management to airline personnel to the…

  10. Aviation Forecasting in ICAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, J.

    1972-01-01

    Opinions or plans of qualified experts in the field are used for forecasting future requirements for air navigational facilities and services of international civil aviation. ICAO periodically collects information from Stators and operates on anticipated future operations, consolidates this information, and forecasts the future level of activity at different airports.

  11. Tricyclic Antidepressants Found in Pilots Fatally Injured in Civil Aviation Accidents.

    PubMed

    Dulkadir, Zeki; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Hickerson, Jeffery S; Cliburn, Kacey D

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has not been explored in pilots. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aviation accident and the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicology and medical certification databases were searched for pilots fatally injured in aviation accidents. During 1990-2012, CAMI received bio-samples of pilots from 7037 aviation accidents. Of these, 2644 cases were positive for drugs. TCAs were present in 31. TCA blood concentrations ranged from therapeutic to toxic levels. The NTSB determined that the use of drugs and ethanol as the probable cause or contributing factor in 35% (11 of 31) of the accidents. None of the 31 pilots reported the use of TCAs during their aviation medical examination. The prevalence of TCAs in aviators was less than 0.5% (31 of 7037 cases). There is a need for aviators to fully disclose the use of medications at the time of their medical examination.

  12. Guidelines for Federal Aviation Administration Regional Aviation Education Coordinators and Aviation Education Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/aviation education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…

  13. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  14. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  16. Agent Architecture for Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Wei, Mei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed agent-based architecture of the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS). ADIS is a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support aviation problem-solving activities. Examples of aviation problem-solving activities include engineering troubleshooting, incident and accident investigation, routine flight operations monitoring, safety assessment, maintenance procedure debugging, and training assessment. A wide variety of information is typically referenced when engaging in these activities. Some of this information includes flight recorder data, Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) reports, Jeppesen charts, weather data, air traffic control information, safety reports, and runway visual range data. Such wide-ranging information cannot be found in any single unified information source. Therefore, this information must be actively collected, assembled, and presented in a manner that supports the users problem-solving activities. This information integration task is non-trivial and presents a variety of technical challenges. ADIS has been developed to do this task and it permits integration of weather, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts with flight data. ADIS has been implemented and used by several airlines FOQA teams. The initial feedback from airlines is that such a system is very useful in FOQA analysis. Based on the feedback from the initial deployment, we are developing a new version of the system that would make further progress in achieving following goals of our project.

  17. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    PubMed

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  18. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume 4: General aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A substantially improved flow of new technology is imperative if the general aviation industry is to maintain a strong world position. Although NASA is the most eminently suited entity available to carry out the necessary research and technology development effort because of its facilities, expertise, and endorsement by the aircraft industry, less than 3% of its aeronautical R&T budget is devoted to general aviation aeronautics. It is recommended that (1) a technology program, particularly one that focuses on improving fuel efficienty and safety, be aggressively pursued by NASA; (2) NASA be assigned the role of leading basic research technology effort in general aviation up through technology demonstration; (3) a strategic plan be developed by NASA, in cooperation with the industry, and implemented in time for the 1982 budget cycle; and (4) a NASA R&T budget be allocated for general aviation adequate to support the proposed plan.

  19. It's time to reinvent the general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Current designs for general aviation airplanes have become obsolete, and avenues for major redesign must be considered. New designs should incorporate recent advances in electronics, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and propulsion. Future airplanes should be optimized to operate satisfactorily in a positive air traffic control environment, to afford safety and comfort for point-to-point transportation, and to take advantage of automated manufacturing techniques and high production rates. These requirements have broad implications for airplane design and flying qualities, leading to a concept for the Modern Equipment General Aviation (MEGA) airplane. Synergistic improvements in design, production, and operation can provide a much needed fresh start for the general aviation industry and the traveling public. In this investigation a small four place airplane is taken as the reference, although the proposed philosophy applies across the entire spectrum of general aviation.

  20. Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.

  1. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2016-07-12

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  2. Aviation Noise Effects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    included , ,.,-,;. 17 e18 . Distribution StatementA rcrafe, aviation, noise, annoyance, This document is available to the public helicopter, sleep, speech...measurement of real-ear protection of hearing protectors and physical attenuation of earmuffs. ANSI/ ASTM E336-77 (1977): Standard test method for...measurement of airborne sound insulation in buildings. ANSI/ ASTM E413-73 (1980): Standard classification for sound transmission class. ANSI/SAE ARP1071

  3. Saracini Aviation Safety Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2013-09-11

    Senate - 09/11/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Aviation Safety Enhancement Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Snowe, Olympia J. [R-ME

    2009-06-04

    Senate - 06/04/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Factors associated with pilot error in aviation crashes.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Baker, S P; Grabowski, J G; Rebok, G W

    2001-01-01

    The importance of pilot error in aviation crashes has long been recognized. However, understanding and preventing pilot error remains the foremost challenge in aviation safety. This study aims to identify pilot characteristics and crash circumstances that are associated with the presence of pilot error in a large sample of aviation crashes. Different data files compiled by the National Transportation Safety Board for 329 major airline crashes, 1,627 commuter/air taxi crashes, and 27,935 general aviation crashes for the years 1983-96 were merged; and the presence of pilot error was analyzed in relation to variables indicating the characteristics of the pilot-in-command, crash circumstance, and aircraft. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to assess the associations of individual variables with the likelihood of pilot error given a crash. Pilot error was a probable cause in 38% of the major airline crashes, 74% of the commuter/air taxi crashes, and 85% of the general aviation crashes. Among the factors examined, instrument meteorological condition and on-airport location were each associated with a significantly increased odds of pilot error. The likelihood of pilot error decreased as pilot certificate rating increased in commuter/air taxi and general aviation crashes. Neither pilot age nor gender was independently associated with the odds of pilot error. With adjustment for pilot characteristics and crash circumstances, flight experience as measured in total flight time showed a significant protective effect on pilot error in general aviation crashes. The prevalence and correlates of pilot error in aviation crashes vary with the type of flight operations. Adverse weather is consistently associated with a significantly elevated likelihood of pilot error, possibly due to increased performance demand.

  6. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and alcohol... percent of safety- sensitive employees for random drug testing and 10 percent of safety- sensitive...

  7. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and... 25 percent of safety- sensitive employees for random drug testing and 10 percent of safety- sensitive...

  8. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and... 25 percent of safety- sensitive employees for random drug testing and 10 percent of safety- sensitive...

  9. Reset Aviation Maintenance Program Study of U.S. Army Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Department of the Army. 57 Department of Army. (2008). TM 1-1520-BLACKHAWK: Aviation Unit and Intermediate Maintenance Manual for UH -60A, UH - 60L ...Department of Army. (2009). HH- 60L / UH -60A/L Aircraft Desert Operations Special Inspection and Cleaning Requirement. (Department of the Army Publication No...26
 Among All Groups, RESET Improves Safety of UH -60 Helicopters........................... 27
 iv Among All Groups, RESET Improves

  10. Confidential incident reporting systems create vital awareness of safety problems.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, M; Chappell, S L

    1996-10-01

    The aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) developed by NASA is discussed as an example of aviation incident reporting. Approaches which encourage reporting include trust and confidentiality. Reporting and analysis systems and their administration at organizational and national levels are reviewed.

  11. The Future of Green Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Edwards'presentation provides an overview of aviation's economic impact in the U.S. including aviation's impact on environment and energy. The presentation discusses NASA's contributions to the advancement of commercial aircraft design highlighting the technology drivers and recent technology advancements for addressing community noise, energy efficiency and emissions. The presentation concludes with a preview of some of NASA's integrated systems solutions, such as novel aircraft concepts and advancements in propulsion that will enable the future of more environmentally compatible aviation.

  12. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Austin McHenry, a student at Aviation High School, introduces himself at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Aviation High School student, Katie McConville, introduces herself at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Chris Lu (third from left), a student at Aviation High School, asks a question at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  16. Contributive factors to aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

  17. General Aviation Task Force report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    General aviation is officially defined as all aviation except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general aviation aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General aviation manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.

  18. General aviation avionics equipment maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of general aviation avionics equipment was investigated with emphasis on single engine and light twin engine general aviation aircraft. Factors considered include the regulatory agencies, avionics manufacturers, avionics repair stations, the statistical character of the general aviation community, and owners and operators. The maintenance, environment, and performance, repair costs, and reliability of avionics were defined. It is concluded that a significant economic stratification is reflected in the maintenance problems encountered, that careful attention to installations and use practices can have a very positive impact on maintenance problems, and that new technologies and a general growth in general aviation will impact maintenance.

  19. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  20. Proceedings of the Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems (6th) Held at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on 26-28 October 1982,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    the National Technical Information Training Service , Springfield, VA 22161. Flight Operations General Aviation Aviation Weather Research and Services ...Safety Foundation, Inc. Arlington, Virginia SPEAKERS TOPIC TITLES Charles H. Sprinkle Aviation Weather Services National Weather Service National ...Program NASA/Langley Research Center GEM: Statistical Weather Forecasting Robert G. Miller Procedure National Weather Service The NASA Aircraft Icing

  1. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  2. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  3. Aviation Officer Requirements Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-31

    In the dynamics of the planning process, when potential force level changes are fre- quent, these computations are tedious and subject to error . Since...was tedious and subject to both computational and entry errors . The current ver- sion of the model corrects this deficiency. The Aviation Officer...k.N )) ,iFY(Fr\\) ,NniALT c nTn ,TIVP.W £-430 PROJ3 = POS-:(PRn1 Z=m4m) f-440 PROC, = Pnr3(PrOnf2="-) E.4! - INI T (1-F(20) )TR(PrOFL,. 137> C,460 = TIPO

  4. [Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Mazaĭkin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

    2013-05-01

    The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency.

  5. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education [National Aviation Education Workshop].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual, compiled by a Committee of the Curriculum Laboratory of the Civil Air Patrol, contains 105 demonstrations and activities which can be used to introduce the elementary student to the properties of air as related to aviation, what makes airplanes fly, and the role of weather in aviation. (CP)

  6. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  7. Sources of situation awareness errors in aviation.

    PubMed

    Jones, D G; Endsley, M R

    1996-06-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) is a crucial factor in effective decision-making, especially in the dynamic flight environment. Consequently, an understanding of the types of SA errors that occur in this environment is beneficial. This study uses reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database (accessed by the term "situational awareness") to investigate the types of SA errors that occur in aviation. The errors were classified into one of three major categories: Level 1 (failure to correctly perceive the information), Level 2 (failure to comprehend the situation), or Level 3 (failure to project the situation into the future). Of the errors identified, 76.3% were Level 1 SA errors, 20.3% were Level 2, and 3.4% were Level 3. Level 1 SA errors occurred when relevant data were not available, when data were hard to discriminate or detect, when a failure to monitor or observe data occurred, when presented information was misperceived, or when memory loss occurred. Level 2 SA errors involved a lack of or an incomplete mental model, the use of an incorrect mental model, over-reliance on default values, and miscellaneous other factors. Level 3 errors involved either an overprojection of current trends or miscellaneous other factors. These results give an indication of the types and frequency of SA errors that occur in aviation, with failure to monitor or observe available information forming the largest single category. Many other causal factors are also indicated, however, including vigilance, automation problems, and poor mental models.

  8. 75 FR 27926 - Special Conditions: Dassault Aviation Falcon Model 2000EX; Autobraking System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ..., Airframe/Cabin Safety, ANM-115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind..., 2010. Ali Bahrami, Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. BILLING.... SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Dassault Aviation Falcon Model 2000EX airplane....

  9. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.

  10. 78 FR 40065 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... through accomplishment of Dassault Aviation Service Bulletin F7X-214) of the Fly-By-Wire (FBW) current... continued operational safety of the airplane. Costs of Compliance Based on the service information, we... service information lists required parts costs that are covered under warranty, we have assumed that...

  11. Federal Aviation Administration aging aircraft nondestructive inspection research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seher, Chris C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper highlights the accomplishments and plans of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the development of improved nondestructive evaluation (NDE) equipment, procedures, and training. The role of NDE in aircraft safety and the need for improvement are discussed. The FAA program participants, and coordination of activities within the program and with relevant organizations outside the program are also described.

  12. Aviation Weather for Pilots and Flight Operations Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    The revised Aviation Weather book discusses each aspect of weather as it relates to aircraft operations and flight safety. The book is not an aircraft operating manual and omits all reference to specific weather services. Much of the book has been devoted to marginal, hazardous, and violent weather. It teaches pilots to learn to appreciate good…

  13. Low-temperature properties of aviation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Brunton, C.; Voisey, M.A.; Willcock, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of work on the low-temperature properties of aviation turbine fuels that has been carried out in recent years at Thornton Research Centre. Details of both simulated full-scale aircraft tank tests and laboratory evaluations are included. Zero holdup is considered as a low-temperature specification parameter and a novel method for measuring its value is described. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that a change from a freezing point to a flow criterion could provide an increase in fuel availability without prejudicing flight safety.

  14. CAPPS II: the foundation of aviation security?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Arnold

    2004-08-01

    A new computer system is being developed to classify U.S. air travelers by the degree of terrorist threat they might pose. Reports indicate that the system--called CAPPS II--would use large amounts of information about each passenger, perhaps including such personal details as his or her magazine-subscription behavior. We argue that what is publicly known about CAPPS II raises questions about how substantially the system would improve aviation security. We discuss conditions under which CAPPS II could yield safety benefits, but suggest that it might be more prudent to view the system as one component of future security arrangements rather than the centerpiece of these arrangements.

  15. [Aviation and space flight ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Daumann, F J; Draeger, J

    1993-08-01

    So far it has not been possible to adapt man genetically to the specific environmental conditions of flying. A variety of disturbing factors act on the human body and affect its vital as well as sensory functions, vision being considered the most important sense for providing information. The effects of oxygen deficiency caused by increasing altitude, acceleration and centrifugal force affecting visual function, ocular motility, and pupillary reactions are well known. Like visual illusions, vibrations, high accelerative forces, high illuminance and glare at high altitudes impair the visual perception of the environment. In space flight further problems ensue from weightlessness and short-wave radiation. The high medical standards that must be met by the eyes of flying personnel, as will as for air-traffic controllers, result in the enhancement of flight safety. After operations on the cornea or retina or cataract operations in pilote, the retinal findings and DOP must be monitored closely. Special attention must be paid to means of visual aids, corrective lenses, contact lenses, and intraocular lenses. Ophthalmology is a very important element of aviation and aerospace medicine.

  16. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  17. 75 FR 22352 - Aviation Service Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... the Federal Communications Commission we address pending issues regarding certain Aviation Service... Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), and supported by the Federal Aviation Administration...

  18. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th Avenue, Box 14, Anchorage, AK 99513. 5....

  19. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  20. General Aviation Data Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Elaine M.; Chung, Victoria I.

    2006-01-01

    The Flight Research Services Directorate at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides development and operations services associated with three general aviation (GA) aircraft used for research experiments. The GA aircraft includes a Cessna 206X Stationair, a Lancair Colombia 300X, and a Cirrus SR22X. Since 2004, the GA Data Framework software was designed and implemented to gather data from a varying set of hardware and software sources as well as enable transfer of the data to other computers or devices. The key requirements for the GA Data Framework software include platform independence, the ability to reuse the framework for different projects without changing the framework code, graphics display capabilities, and the ability to vary the interfaces and their performance. Data received from the various devices is stored in shared memory. This paper concentrates on the object oriented software design patterns within the General Aviation Data Framework, and how they enable the construction of project specific software without changing the base classes. The issues of platform independence and multi-threading which enable interfaces to run at different frame rates are also discussed in this paper.

  1. Aviation Communications Emulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehe, Charles; Mulkerin, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Aviation related applications that rely upon datalink for information exchange are increasingly being developed and deployed. The increase in the quantity of applications and associated data communications will expose problems and issues to resolve. NASA s Glenn Research Center has prepared to study the communications issues that will arise as datalink applications are employed within the National Airspace System (NAS) by developing an aviation communications emulation testbed. The Testbed is evolving and currently provides the hardware and software needed to study the communications impact of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and surveillance applications in a densely populated environment. The communications load associated with up to 160 aircraft transmitting and receiving ATC and surveillance data can be generated in realtime in a sequence similar to what would occur in the NAS. The ATC applications that can be studied are the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network s (ATN) Context Management (CM) and Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). The Surveillance applications are Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services - Broadcast (TIS-B).

  2. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  3. Classification of Air Force Aviation Accidents: Mishap trends and Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-02

    proactive are Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) and Line Operational Safety Audits ( LOSA ). These two safety initiatives collect data during...2004). LOSA , is similar to an annual flight physical, periodically using expert observers to collect data on flight crew performance as the pilots...interact with the aircraft, the operational environment, and each other (Federal Aviation Administration [FAA], 2006). LOSA is not a check-ride, only an

  4. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  5. Portraying Careers Awareness in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Roy A.; Amato, Vincent

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of the half-day program at Indiana State University which provides some notion of careers available in the aviation industry focusing on the professional pilot career. It utilizes the simulators and aviation teaching materials within the Aerospace Department's inventory to help orient college-bound high school students to…

  6. Overcoming Stereotypes: Women in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Beth; Lea, Luanne

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes how certain traits became associated with women in aviation. Uses media of popular culture to compare prevailing cultural misconceptions to the reality of research studies and personal experiences. Offers four recommendations to dispel myths and to encourage more women to participate in rewarding nontraditional careers in aviation. (NB)

  7. Portraying Careers Awareness in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Roy A.; Amato, Vincent

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of the half-day program at Indiana State University which provides some notion of careers available in the aviation industry focusing on the professional pilot career. It utilizes the simulators and aviation teaching materials within the Aerospace Department's inventory to help orient college-bound high school students to…

  8. Simulated 2050 aviation radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. C.; Gettelman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing from aviation is investigated by using a comprehensive general circulation model in the present (2006) and the future (2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing can increase by a factor of 7, and thus does not scale linearly with fuel emission mass. Simulations indicate negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of aviation sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds that increasesby a factor of 4 in 2050. As a result, the net 2050 aviation radiative forcing is a cooling. Aviation sulfates emitted at cruise altitude canbe transported down to the lowest troposphere, increasing the aerosolconcentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistenceof low-level clouds. Aviation black carbon aerosols produce a negligible forcing.

  9. [Heliogeophysical factors and aviation accidents].

    PubMed

    Komarov, F I; Oraevskiĭ, V N; Sizov, Iu P; Tsirul'nik, L B; Kanonidi, Kh D; Ushakov, I B; Shalimov, P M; Kimlyk, M V; Glukhov, D V

    1998-01-01

    It was shown by two independent methods that there is a certain correlation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeophysical factors. The statistical and spectral analyses of time series of heliogeomagnetic factors and the number of aviation accidents in 1989-1995 showed that, of 216 accidents, 58% are related to sudden geomagnetic storms. A similar relation was revealed for aviation catastrophes (64% out of 86 accidents) and emergencies (54% out of 130 accidents) that coincided in time with heliogeomagnetic storms. General periodicities of the series were revealed by the method of spectral analysis, namely, cycles of 30, 42, 46, 64, 74, 83, 99, 115, 143, 169, 339 days, which confirms the causative relation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeomagnetic factors. It is assumed that some aviation accidents that coincided in time with geomagnetic storms, are due to changes in professional abilities of pilots that were in the zone of storms.

  10. 75 FR 60493 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Regulations, the FAA gives notice it has renewed the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2..., Executive Director, Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  11. 78 FR 72141 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... December 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  12. 78 FR 34139 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  13. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  14. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  15. A Study to Estimate the Effectiveness of Visual Testing Training for Aviation Maintenance Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Lewis Lyle

    2007-01-01

    The Air Commerce Act of 1926 set the beginning for standards in aviation maintenance. Even after deregulation in the late l970s, maintenance standards and requirements still have not changed far from their initial criteria. After a potential candidate completes Federal Aviation Administration training prerequisites, they may test for their Airframe and Powerplant (A&P) certificate. Performing maintenance in the aviation industry for a minimum of three years, the technician may then test for their Inspection Authorization (IA). After receiving their Airframe and Powerplant certificate, a technician is said to have a license to perform. At no time within the three years to eligibility for Inspection Authorization are they required to attend higher-level inspection training. What a technician learns in the aviation maintenance industry is handed down from a seasoned technician to the new hire or is developed from lessons learned on the job. Only in Europe has the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) required higher-level training for their aviation maintenance technicians in order to control maintenance related accidents (Lu, 2005). Throughout the 1990s both the General Accounting Office (GAO) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made public that the FAA is historically understaffed (GAO, 1996). In a safety recommendation the NTSB stated "The Safety Board continues to lack confidence in the FAA's commitment to provide effective quality assurance and safety oversight of the ATC system (NTSB, 1990)." The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been known to be proactive in creating safer skies. With such reports you would suspect the FAA to also be proactive in developing more stringent inspection training for aviation maintenance technicians. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effectiveness of higher-level inspection training, such as Visual Testing (VT) for aviation maintenance technicians, to improve the safety of aircraft and to make

  16. Safety Checklists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    all rags, waste, etc., soiled by combustible or flaxmable materials kept In tightly rnosed metal containers for daily disposal? 3. Are fire plans ...To prevent cold weather injuries, does the cowmander ensure that: (TBMad 81, pars, 5) a. Safety is included in planning ? b. Suitable cold weather gear...pages 2-2 thru 2-6) 2. Are prior planning and coordination of sling load operations always accomplished between the ground crews and aviation crews

  17. PROGENS-HbA1c study: safety and effectiveness of premixed recombinant human insulin (Gensulin M30)

    PubMed Central

    Walicka, Magdalena; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Rzeszotarski, Jacek; Zarzycka-Lindner, Grażyna; Zonenberg, Anna; Bijoś, Paweł; Masierek, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insulin analogues have gained widespread popularity. However, in many countries the use of these drugs is limited by their relatively high cost, so there is still a need for more cost-effective human insulin therapies. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of the premixed recombinant human insulin (rhuI) Gensulin M30 in a real-life setting. Material and methods The study group consisted of 4257 patients (2196 female, 2061 male) with type 2 diabetes, aged 63.7 ±9.4, with body mass index (BMI) 30.3 ±4.5 kg/m2 and diabetes duration 9 ±5.5 years. All patients were treated with premixed rhuI Gensulin M30. In 91.7% of patients, insulin was used in combination with metformin. In 3.7% of patients, it was used with sulphonylureas. The patients were observed for a period of 6 months. Results The total insulin dose on visit 1 was 36.1 ±18.7 U (0.42 ±0.22 U/kg), and by the end of the study it reached 40.3 ±18.9 U (0.48 ±0.22 U/kg). A significant, continuous decrease of the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), along with fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, was observed during the study period. The frequency of hypoglycemia increased slightly during the study, although these figures remained low, especially with regard to severe hypoglycemic episodes (0.02 episodes/patient/year). The lowest number of hypoglycemic episodes occurred in patients treated with insulin and metformin, while the highest number of episodes was observed in patients treated with insulin alone. No weight changes were noted in the patients during the study. Conclusions This study shows rhuI Gensulin M30 to be effective and safe in a real-life setting. PMID:27695488

  18. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  19. Choroidal Nevi in USAF Aviators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    choroidal neovescularizs- tion. Figure 2. Distribution of choroidal nevus in the fundus. 3 None of the aviators had any defect in visual acuity, stereopsis ...I1DT IC F-1LEw COP Y USAFSAM-TP-89-1 1 CHOROIDAL NEVI IN USAF AVIATORS AD-A233 042 Daniel L. Vandivort, Second Lieutenant, USAF Thomas J. Tredici...COVERED I Dec 1990 Interim 88/06-89/06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Choroidal Nevi in USAF Aviators PE 62202F PR 7755 6. AUTHOR(S) TA 24 WU 02

  20. A feasibility study for advanced technology integration for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Matsuyama, G. T.; Hawley, K. E.; Meredith, P. T.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to identify candidate technologies and specific developments which offer greatest promise for improving safety, fuel efficiency, performance, and utility of general aviation airplanes. Interviews were conducted with general aviation airframe and systems manufacturers and NASA research centers. The following technologies were evaluated for use in airplane design tradeoff studies conducted during the study: avionics, aerodynamics, configurations, structures, flight controls, and propulsion. Based on industry interviews and design tradeoff studies, several recommendations were made for further high payoff research. The most attractive technologies for use by the general aviation industry appear to be advanced engines, composite materials, natural laminar flow airfoils, and advanced integrated avionics systems. The integration of these technologies in airplane design can yield significant increases in speeds, ranges, and payloads over present aircraft with 40 percent to 50 percent reductions in fuel used.

  1. Human-Centered Aviation Automation: Principles and Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents principles and guidelines for human-centered automation in aircraft and in the aviation system. Drawing upon operational experience with highly automated aircraft, it describes classes of problems that have occurred in these vehicles, the effects of advanced automation on the human operators of the aviation system, and ways in which these problems may be avoided in the design of future aircraft and air traffic management automation. Many incidents and a few serious accidents suggest that these problems are related to automation complexity, autonomy, coupling, and opacity, or inadequate feedback to operators. An automation philosophy that emphasizes improved communication, coordination and cooperation between the human and machine elements of this complex, distributed system is required to improve the safety and efficiency of aviation operations in the future.

  2. Summary of Aviation Safety Program Resumes. Cabin Safety.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    to eliminate highly flammable uniform items. c. Require flamabillty standards to test the self-extinguishing characteristics and heat flux resistance...TSO standard to upgrade slide material burn requirements, particuliarly in the area of heat flux . FLOTATION DEVICES a. Amend the present 50-mile limit...conditions is now a possibility. The Douglas Company should complete their contractural requirements to develop a Combined Hazard Index for materials by

  3. Aviation Safety Program Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies (AEST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Engine Icing: Characterization and Simulation Capability: Develop knowledge bases, analysis methods, and simulation tools needed to address the problem of engine icing; in particular, ice-crystal icing Airframe Icing Simulation and Engineering Tool Capability: Develop and demonstrate 3-D capability to simulate and model airframe ice accretion and related aerodynamic performance degradation for current and future aircraft configurations in an expanded icing environment that includes freezing drizzle/rain Atmospheric Hazard Sensing and Mitigation Technology Capability: Improve and expand remote sensing and mitigation of hazardous atmospheric environments and phenomena

  4. A Guide To Aviation Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Aviation Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide to aviation education resources was compiled by the National Coalition for Aviation Education (NCAE) which represents government, industry, and labor. NCAE's mission is to: (1) promote aviation education activities and resources; (2) increase public understanding of the importance of aviation; and (3) support educational initiatives at…

  5. Aviation. Career Focus, Volume 3, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    This special section on aviation careers describes the programs of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, the Metro Tech Aviation Career Campus in Oklahoma City, the Aviation Technology Center at Vincennes University in Indianapolis, and the Miami-Dade Community College's Eig-Watson School of Aviation. (JOW)

  6. Aviation. Career Focus, Volume 3, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    This special section on aviation careers describes the programs of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, the Metro Tech Aviation Career Campus in Oklahoma City, the Aviation Technology Center at Vincennes University in Indianapolis, and the Miami-Dade Community College's Eig-Watson School of Aviation. (JOW)

  7. A Hypermedia Information System for Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Karin M.

    The Hypermedia Information System (HIS) is being developed under the auspices of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine's (AAM) Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance (HFAM) research program. The goal of the hypermedia project is to create new tools and methods for aviation-related information storage and retrieval.…

  8. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe Z.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Arnold, Steve R.; Borman, Duncan J.; Mann, Graham W.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Monks, Sarah A.; Reddington, Carly L.; Benduhn, François; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine E.; Butt, Edward W.; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ˜ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by ˜ 620 [95 % CI: 230-1020] mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0 and 6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases aviation-induced mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (CAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced CAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced CAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at

  9. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White Pattern ECG in USAF Aviators.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Eddie D; Rupp, Karen A N; Palileo, Edwin; Haynes, Jared

    2017-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern is occasionally found in asymptomatic aviators during routine ECGs. Aeromedical concerns regarding WPW pattern include risk of dysrhythmia or sudden cardiac death (SCD), thus affecting the safety of flight. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and outcomes of aviators with asymptomatic WPW pattern and assess for risk factors that contribute to progression to dysrhythmia or symptoms. The U.S. Air Force (USAF) ECG library database containing over 1.2 million ECGs collected over the past 68 yr was used to identify 638 individual aviators with WPW pattern. Demographic, medical history, and outcome data were obtained by medical record review. Aviators who developed high risk features defined as symptoms, arrhythmia, or ablation of a high risk pathway, were compared to those who remained asymptomatic. Prevalence of WPW pattern was 0.30% among all USAF aviators. Of the 638 individuals, 64 (10%) progressed to the combined endpoint of SCD, arrhythmia, and/or ablation of a high risk pathway over 6868 patient years, with average follow-up of 10.5 yr. There were two sudden cardiac deaths (0.3%). Annual risk of possible sudden incapacitation was 0.95% and of SCD 0.03%. Those that progressed to high risk were significantly younger, had lower diastolic blood pressure, lower total cholesterol, and better physical fitness testing scores. WPW pattern on ECG found in asymptomatic aviators confers < 1% annual risk of arrhythmia or incapacitating events with the highest risk in the younger, healthier, and most fit populations.Davenport ED, Rupp KAN, Palileo E, Haynes J. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern ECG in USAF aviators. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):56-60.

  10. The National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS): A Documentation of the Development of a Survey Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Mauro, Robert; Statler, Irving C.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS) was a research project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program during the years from 2000 to 2005. The purpose of this project was to develop a methodology for gaining reliable information on changes over time in the rates-of-occurrence of safety-related events as a means of assessing the safety of the national airspace. The approach was a scientifically designed survey of the operators of the aviation system concerning their safety-related experiences. This report presents the results of the methodology developed and a demonstration of the NAOMS concept through a survey of nearly 20,000 randomly selected air-carrier pilots. Results give evidence that the NAOMS methodology can provide a statistically sound basis for evaluating trends of incidents that could compromise safety. The approach and results are summarized in the report and supporting documentation and complete analyses of results are presented in 14 appendices.

  11. 76 FR 17347 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 2 and 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or...

  12. 78 FR 6276 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rules. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) invites comment...

  13. 78 FR 61203 - Aviation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) amends its rules...

  14. Accelerating to New Aviation Horizons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA has a 10-year plan to accelerate aviation research that includes the design, build and flight of a series of piloted X-planes -- experimental aircraft -- which will test advanced technologies ...

  15. Dynamic Safety Cases for Through-Life Safety Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Habli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    We describe dynamic safety cases, a novel operationalization of the concept of through-life safety assurance, whose goal is to enable proactive safety management. Using an example from the aviation systems domain, we motivate our approach, its underlying principles, and a lifecycle. We then identify the key elements required to move towards a formalization of the associated framework.

  16. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  17. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-26

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  18. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  19. System for Secure Integration of Aviation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Keller, Rich; Chidester, Tom; Statler, Irving; Lynch, Bob; Patel, Hemil; Windrem, May; Lawrence, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) of Ames Research Center has been established to promote analysis of aviation data by airlines and other interested users for purposes of enhancing the quality (especially safety) of flight operations. The ADIS is a system of computer hardware and software for collecting, integrating, and disseminating aviation data pertaining to flights and specified flight events that involve one or more airline(s). The ADIS is secure in the sense that care is taken to ensure the integrity of sources of collected data and to verify the authorizations of requesters to receive data. Most importantly, the ADIS removes a disincentive to collection and exchange of useful data by providing for automatic removal of information that could be used to identify specific flights and crewmembers. Such information, denoted sensitive information, includes flight data (here signifying data collected by sensors aboard an aircraft during flight), weather data for a specified route on a specified date, date and time, and any other information traceable to a specific flight. The removal of information that could be used to perform such tracing is called "deidentification." Airlines are often reluctant to keep flight data in identifiable form because of concerns about loss of anonymity. Hence, one of the things needed to promote retention and analysis of aviation data is an automated means of de-identification of archived flight data to enable integration of flight data with non-flight aviation data while preserving anonymity. Preferably, such an automated means would enable end users of the data to continue to use pre-existing data-analysis software to identify anomalies in flight data without identifying a specific anomalous flight. It would then also be possible to perform statistical analyses of integrated data. These needs are satisfied by the ADIS, which enables an end user to request aviation data associated with de-identified flight data. The ADIS

  20. General Aviation: A Stepping Stone to a World Career in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulley, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 27 countries identified private pilot flight-hour requirements, pilot training costs, youth aviation programs, and career information about aviation occupations. The information can be used to motivate young people to enter aviation careers. (JOW)

  1. General Aviation: A Stepping Stone to a World Career in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulley, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 27 countries identified private pilot flight-hour requirements, pilot training costs, youth aviation programs, and career information about aviation occupations. The information can be used to motivate young people to enter aviation careers. (JOW)

  2. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Z. Z.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Borman, D. J.; Mann, G. W.; Pringle, K. J.; Monks, S. A.; Reddington, C. L.; Benduhn, F.; Rap, A.; Scott, C. E.; Butt, E. W.; Yoshioka, M.

    2015-07-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 μm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in 3597 (95 % CI: 1307-5888) annual mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC =15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by 624 (95 % CI: 227-1021) mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0-6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases annual mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (aCAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced aCAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced aCAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at aviation cruise altitudes

  3. The identification of factors contributing to self-reported anomalies in civil aviation.

    PubMed

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Thompson, William

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze anomalies voluntarily reported by pilots in civil aviation sector and identify factors leading to such anomalies. Experimental data were obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) database. These data contained a range of text records spanning 30 years of civilian aviation, both commercial (airline operations) and general aviation (private aircraft). Narrative data as well as categorical data were used. The associations between incident contributing factors and self-reported anomalies were investigated using data mining and correspondence analysis. The results revealed that a broadly defined human factors category and weather conditions were the main contributors to self-reported civil aviation anomalies. New associations between identified factors and reported anomaly conditions were also reported.

  4. Diffusing aviation innovations in a hospital in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Korne, Dirk F; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; Hiddema, U Frans; Bleeker, Fred G; Pronovost, Peter J; Klazinga, Niek S

    2010-08-01

    Many authors have advocated the diffusion of innovations from other high-risk industries into health care to improve safety. The aviation industry is comparable to health care because of its similarities in (a) the use of technology, (b) the requirement of highly specialized professional teams, and (c) the existence of risk and uncertainties. For almost 20 years, The Rotterdam Eye Hospital (Rotterdam, the Netherlands) has been engaged in diffusing several innovations adapted from aviation. A case-study methodology was used to assess the application of innovations in the hospital, with a focus on the context and the detailed mechanism for each innovation. Data on hospital performance outcomes were abstracted from the hospital information data management system, quality and safety reports, and the incident reporting system. Information on the innovations was obtained from a document search; observations; and semistructured, face-to-face interviews. Aviation industry-based innovations diffused into patient care processes were as follows: patient planning and booking system, taxi service/valet parking, risk analysis (as applied to wrong-site surgery), time-out procedure (also for wrong-site surgery), Crew Resource Management training, and black box. Observations indicated that the innovations had a positive effect on quality and safety in the hospital: Waiting times were reduced, work processes became more standardized, the number of wrong-site surgeries decreased, and awareness of patient safety was heightened. A near-20-year experience with aviation-based innovation suggests that hospitals start with relatively simple innovations and use a systematic approach toward the goal of improving safety.

  5. Transferring Aviation Practices into Clinical Medicine for the Promotion of High Reliability.

    PubMed

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; McPherson, Mark K; Pina, Joseph S; Gaydos, Steven J

    2017-05-01

    Aviation is a classic example of a high reliability organization (HRO)-an organization in which catastrophic events are expected to occur without control measures. As health care systems transition toward high reliability, aviation practices are increasingly transferred for clinical implementation. A PubMed search using the terms aviation, crew resource management, and patient safety was undertaken. Manuscripts authored by physician pilots and accident investigation regulations were analyzed. Subject matter experts involved in adoption of aviation practices into the medical field were interviewed. A PubMed search yielded 621 results with 22 relevant for inclusion. Improved clinical outcomes were noted in five research trials in which aviation practices were adopted, particularly with regard to checklist usage and crew resource-management training. Effectiveness of interventions was influenced by intensity of application, leadership involvement, and provision of staff training. The usefulness of incorporating mishap investigation techniques has not been established. Whereas aviation accident investigation is highly standardized, the investigation of medical error is characterized by variation. The adoption of aviation practices into clinical medicine facilitates an evolution toward high reliability. Evidence for the efficacy of the checklist and crew resource-management training is robust. Transference of aviation accident investigation practices is preliminary. A standardized, independent investigation process could facilitate the development of a safety culture commensurate with that achieved in the aviation industry.Powell-Dunford N, McPherson MK, Pina JS, Gaydos SJ. Transferring aviation practices into clinical medicine for the promotion of high reliability. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):487-491.

  6. Q-FANSTM for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worobel, R.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general aviation over the next 10 to 15 years is dependent on continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance and cost. Moreover, these advanced aircraft will need to conform to expected government regulations controlling propulsion system emissions and noise levels. An attractive compact low noise propulsor concept, the Q-FANTM when matched to piston, rotary combustion, or gas turbine engines opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general aviation aircraft which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restriction of the 1980 time period. New Q-FAN methodology which was derived to predict Q-FAN noise, weight and cost is presented. Based on this methodology Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. Then the impact of this propulsion system type on the complete aircraft is investigated for several representative aircraft size categories. Finally, example conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  7. Principles and Guidelines for Duty and Rest Scheduling in Commercial Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinges, David F.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.; Samel, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    The aviation industry requires 24-hour activities to meet operational demands. Growth in global long-haul, regional, overnight cargo, and short-haul domestic operations will continue to increase these round-the-clock requirements. Flight crews must be available to support 24-hour-a-day operations to meet these industry demands. Both domestic and international aviation can also require crossing multiple time zones. Therefore, shift work, night work, irregular work schedules, unpredictable work schedules, and dm zone changes will continue to be commonplace components of the aviation industry. These factors pose known challenges to human physiology, and because they result in performance-impairing fatigue, they pose a risk to safety. It is critical to acknowledge and, whenever possible, incorporate scientific information on fatigue, human sleep, and circadian physiology into 24-hour aviation operations. Utilization of such scientific information can help promote crew performance and alertness during flight operations and thereby maintain and improve the safety margin.

  8. Driving-while-intoxicated history as a risk marker for general aviation pilots.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2005-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration conducts background checking for driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) convictions on all pilots. This study examined the association between DWI history and crash risk in a cohort of 335,672 general aviation pilots. These pilots were followed up from 1994 to 2000 through the aviation crash surveillance system of the National Transportation Safety Board. At baseline, 3.4% of the pilots had a DWI history. DWI history was associated with a 43% increased risk of crash involvement (adjusted relative risk: 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.77). The population-attributable risk fraction for DWI history was estimated as 1.4%. In addition to DWI history, male gender, older age, and inexperience were associated with significantly increased risk of crash involvement. The results of this study support DWI history as a valid risk marker for general aviation pilots. The safety benefit of background checking for DWI history needs to be further evaluated.

  9. Effects of long and short simulated flights on the saccadic eye movement velocity of aviators.

    PubMed

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; McCamy, Michael B; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Gayles, Ellis; Hoare, Chad; Foster, Michael; Catena, Andrés; Macknik, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Aircrew fatigue is a major contributor to operational errors in civil and military aviation. Objective detection of pilot fatigue is thus critical to prevent aviation catastrophes. Previous work has linked fatigue to changes in oculomotor dynamics, but few studies have studied this relationship in critical safety environments. Here we measured the eye movements of US Marine Corps combat helicopter pilots before and after simulated flight missions of different durations.We found a decrease in saccadic velocities after long simulated flights compared to short simulated flights. These results suggest that saccadic velocity could serve as a biomarker of aviator fatigue.

  10. Low-Cost Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies for General Aviation Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Gavinsky, Bob; Semanskee, Grant

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) Program has as a goal to reduce the overall cost of producing private aviation aircraft while maintaining the safety of these aircraft. In order to successfully meet this goal, it is necessary to develop nondestructive inspection techniques which will facilitate the production of the materials used in these aircraft and assure the quality necessary to maintain airworthiness. This paper will discuss a particular class of general aviation materials and several nondestructive inspection techniques that have proven effective for making these inspections. Additionally, this paper will discuss the investigation and application of other commercially available quality control techniques applicable to these structures.

  11. [I.M. Sechenov's creative development of ideas in aviation and space medicine].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Shishov, A A

    2011-07-01

    Research carried outby the great Russian scholar I. M. Sechenov has significantly contributed to development of aviation physiology, medicine and psychology. His fundamental works consisted of discovery of the constancy of alveolar air composition theory, study of interactions of analyzers systems in solving the problem of human spatial orientation under flight conditions, development of a nervous theory of fatigue. Creative development of ideas by I. M. Sechenov allowed enhancing the efficiency of performing and safety of aviation and space flights.

  12. Flash Point and Chemical Composition of Aviation Kerosene (Jet A). Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-26

    fuel flash point. In response to these recommen- dations, the FAA (FAA, 1997) has asked the aviation industry (through the Aviation Regulatory Action...source. The petroleum industry and fuel safety analysts often rely on the measured flash point to rank the explosion hazards of different fuels. The...affect the flashpoint significantly. Our experience with storing Jet A is consistent with industry experience (Batts and Fathoni, 1991) with long term

  13. Direct and indirect cost of general aviation crashes.

    PubMed

    Scuffham, P; Chalmers, D; O'Hare, D; Wilson, E

    2002-09-01

    There have been few well-designed studies which estimate the costs inflicted on society from injuries, fatalities, and property damage caused by aviation crashes. Furthermore, indirect cost estimates from the human capital (HC) approach tend to be substantially smaller than those obtained from the willingness-to-pay (WTP) approach. To estimate the direct and indirect costs of general aviation crashes in New Zealand, and to contrast the HC and WTP approaches used to estimate indirect costs. The incidence, morbidity, and mortality from aviation crashes between 1988 and 1997 were estimated from national health and aviation records. Direct costs included medical treatment, damage to aircraft and property, and the cost of crash investigation. For the HC approach, we valued losses to society as the value of lost production from both employed work and household activity. For the WTP approach, we used the Land Transport Safety Authority's estimated values of society's willingness to pay to avoid a fatality or injury. The annual average direct cost of aviation crashes was $9.1 m (range: $8.0 m to $11.4 m). The annual average indirect cost using the HC approach was $13.6 m ($5.6 m to $32.2 m). Using the WTP approach the annual average indirect costs was $49.3 m ($20.6 m to $106.5 m). Indirect costs from premature deaths were the key cost drivers. A sensitivity analysis showed that these values were relatively robust to changes in parameters. The annual average cost of general aviation crashes in New Zealand was between $22.6 m and $58.4 m. Indirect costs using the WTP approach were 3.5 times greater than those estimated using the HC approach.

  14. SHM reliability and implementation - A personal military aviation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Eric A.

    2016-02-01

    Structural Health Monitoring has been proposed as a solution to address the needs of military aviation to reduce the time and cost to perform nondestructive inspections. While the potential to realize significant benefits exist, there are considerations that have to be addressed before such systems can be integrated into military platforms. Some considerations are pervasive to all aviation, such as how to assess the reliability and reproducible capability of these systems. However, there are other challenges unique to military aviation that must be overcome before these types of systems can be used. This presentation and paper are intended as a complement to the review of the outcome of the SAE G-11 SHM committee special workshop on SHM reliability in April of 2015. It will address challenges unique to military aviation that stem from different approaches to managing structural integrity (i.e. safety), frequency of use, design differences, various maintenance practices, and additional descriptions addressing differences in the execution of inspections. The objective of this presentation is to improve the awareness of the research and development community to the different and unique requirements found in military aviation, including the differences between countries, services, and aircraft type. This information should assist the research and development community in identifying and attacking key challenges. It is not intended to be comprehensive overview of all stakeholders' perspectives, but to serve as a launch point for additional discussion and exploration of opportunities to realize the potential of Structural Health Monitoring to assist in the management of military aviation assets. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government.

  15. Cabin Safety Issues Related to Pre-Departure and Inflight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports highlighting the human element in cabin safety issues and concerns.

  16. The Dynamic Aviation Data System (DADS).

    PubMed

    Soman, S; Strome, T; Francescutti, L H

    1997-08-01

    This paper proposes The Dynamic Aviation Data System (DADS), which integrates a variety of existing information sources regarding flight to serve as a tool to pilots in dealing with the challenges of flight. The system is composed of three main parts: a pilot's history on disk; a system that can read proposed flight plans and make suggestions based upon Geographical Information Systems, weather, aircraft, and case report databases that exist throughout North America; and a small hand-held computer that interfaces with the aircraft's instruments and that can be brought into the cockpit to aid the pilot before and during flight. The system is based upon technology that currently exists and information that is already regularly collected. While many issues regarding implementation and cost efficiency of the system need to be addressed, the system shows promise in its ability to make useful flight safety information available to all pilots in order to save lives.

  17. Cost and workforce implications of subjecting all physicians to aviation industry work-hour restrictions.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Weeks, William B

    2009-06-01

    Efforts to improve patient safety have attempted to incorporate aviation industry safety standards. We sought to evaluate the cost and workforce implications of applying aviation duty-hour restrictions to the entire practicing physician workforce. The work hours and personnel deficit for United States residents and practicing physicians that would be created by the adoption of aviation standards were calculated. Application of aviation standards to the resident workforce creates an estimated annual cost of $6.5 billion, requiring a 174% increase in the number of residents to meet the deficit. Its application to practicing physicians creates an additional annual cost of $80.4 billion, requiring a 71% increase in the physician workforce. Adding in the aviation industry's mandatory retirement age (65 years) increases annual costs by $10.5 billion. The cost per life-year saved would be $1,035,227. Application of aviation duty-hour restrictions to the United States health care system would be prohibitively costly. Alternate approaches for improving patient safety are warranted.

  18. General aviation IFR operational problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Operational problems of general aviation IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general aviation avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.

  19. Lasers in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, I. N.; Dezhin, V. N.; Kutakhov, V. P.; Petukhov, A. V.; Sidorin, V. M.; Sukhar, I. M.

    The way in which lasers are being incorporated into the military aircraft of the United States and the countries of Western Europe is discussed. Descriptions are given of laser weapons-guiding systems (including ranger finders and systems for target illumination), laser systems for navigation and flight-safety assurance (gyroscopes, velocity gauges, altimeters, systems providing meteorological data, proximity warning systems), and laser systems for air reconnaissance, communications, and control. Attention is also given to the Glissada laser guide path system, developed in the USSR. The physics of the systems is emphasized in the description and the principles underlying the operation of a laser are discussed in the introduction.

  20. Human factors in anaesthesia: lessons from aviation.

    PubMed

    Toff, N J

    2010-07-01

    Aviation safety has evolved over more than a century and has achieved remarkable results. Applying some of the lessons learned may help make healthcare safer. From the perspective of an anaesthetic background and some thousands of hours of airline flying, I offer a personal perspective, try to give a sense of the place of human factors in airline operations and some of the current problems, and make some suggestions as to what the NHS and anaesthesia might learn from this. Although many of the ingredients for safe operation are frequently already present in our hospitals, and some individual clinical areas and departments achieve high levels of reliability and safety, I will emphasize my firm belief that we cannot expect improvements in human factors training and awareness to be fully effective in the healthcare setting without the parallel development of a simple and strong safety system across organizations. In the process, we may find that the safe hospital turns out somewhat differently to the safe airline.

  1. 78 FR 41882 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... Aviation Model Falcon 2000 series airplanes. That AD currently requires repetitive operational...

  2. 77 FR 56909 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works...

  3. FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation, Calendar Year 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    Evanston Aviation Chautauqua Airlines, Inc. Executive Aviation, Inc. Choi Aviation, Inc. Far West Airlines Christman Air System Flamenco Airways, Inc...3 2 ......... Flamenco ALways 2 . ... .. .. 2 ron tier Flying Svc. 5 ---.... . -- .... 5 --- Gifford Aviation. Inc. 4 --- .... 4 ---.. Golden

  4. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  9. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  10. Aviation Warrant Officer Program and Enlisted Aviator Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Advanced Courses Hours Instructional Segement Purose 4 Enlisted Personnel Procedures for enlisted person- Management nel classification, assignment...way that will provide "aircraft qualified" aviators to operational units. The units would then conduct unit training to support whatever geographic

  11. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public Information Workshop for the Proposed ORD Airport Surveillance Radar, Model 9, West Chicago, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft...

  12. Aviation Pilot Training I and Aviation Technician I: Task Analyses. Semester I. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot and aviation technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aviation career opportunities; comprehending the history of aviation; understanding classes, categories, and types of aircraft;…

  13. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.

    This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter…

  14. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orser, N. A.; Glascoff, W. G., III

    This book, which is to be used only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and the intricacies and procedures of the use of flying. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter describes varieties of…

  15. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. Curriculum Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John, Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum implementation guide is a scope and sequence for the general section of a course in aviation maintenance technology. The course materials were prepared through a cooperative effort of airframe and powerplant mechanics, general aviation industry representatives, Federal Aviation Administration representatives, and vocational…

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  1. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...

  2. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR...

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  6. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  9. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...

  10. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  11. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  12. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  16. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. Curriculum Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John, Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum implementation guide is a scope and sequence for the general section of a course in aviation maintenance technology. The course materials were prepared through a cooperative effort of airframe and powerplant mechanics, general aviation industry representatives, Federal Aviation Administration representatives, and vocational…

  17. Alertness management in 24/7 settings: lessons from aviation.

    PubMed

    Rosekind, Mark R; Boyd, John N; Gregory, Kevin B; Glotzbach, Steven F; Blank, Reid C

    2002-01-01

    Round-the-clock operational requirements pose physiological challenges for human operators. Fatigue due to sleep loss and circadian disruption can reduce safety, performance quality, and alertness. The authors describe the physiological factors underlying fatigue and provide examples from NASA research in aviation settings that demonstrate how fatigue affects real-world operations. A comprehensive alertness management approach to address fatigue effectively includes education, alertness strategies, scheduling, policy, and healthy sleep components. There is a need for cultural change that will encourage attitudes, behaviors, and practices that will reduce fatigue-related risks and improve safety, performance, and alertness in 24/7 operational settings.

  18. Aviation combustion toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-01-01

    Aviation combustion toxicology is a subspecialty of the field of aerospace toxicology, which is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace, that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth, is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology, including combustion toxicology, are the three main branches of toxicology. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed and information related to aviation combustion toxicology collected. The overview included introduction; combustion, fire, and smoke; smoke gas toxicity; aircraft material testing; fire gases and their interactive effects; result interpretation; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion levels; pyrolytic products of aircraft engine oils, fluids, and lubricants; and references. This review is anticipated to be an informative resource for aviation combustion toxicology and fire-related casualties.

  19. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  20. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  1. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, C. Elaine, Ed.

    This document contains five papers on aviation education. "Training Considerations for Expert Pilot Decision Making" (Richard J. Adams, Ronald John Lofaro) is a report on research identifying the differences between expert and novice decision makers from a cognitive information processing perspective and correlating the development of expert pilot…

  2. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  3. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  4. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains two papers on aviation education. "Chief Pilots of Regional Airlines Perceive Basic Instrument Skills as Most Important with Respect to Need for Additional Training of Entry-Level Pilots" (William C. Herrick) reports the results of a study in which 126 (of a population of 197) randomly selected regional airlines' chief…

  5. Aviation Epidemiology Data Register: Coronary Angiography Outcomes of Civilian Aviators Flying U.S. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    All Army aviators participate in a cardiovascular disease screening program. Five percent of Army aviators are civilian. The U.S. Army Aviation...Center requested a review of cardiovascular disease screening outcomes among this subgroup of aviators. The AEDR was queried to determine the coronary...angiography outcomes of civilian aviators who failed levels 1 and 2 of cardiovascular disease screening program during the period 1988 to 1992. Among 847

  6. The age 60 rule: age discrimination in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Robin

    2002-03-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Age 60 Rule, promulgated in 1959, prohibits airline pilots from working in Part 121 operations once they have reached the age of 60. The Age 60 Rule remains a most contentious and politically sensitive topic, with challenges to the Rule currently mounted in both legislative and legal arenas. An extensive review of the medical literature was accomplished using MEDLINE. Pertinent Federal Regulations were examined. Legal proceedings and public domain documents were noted. Letters and personal communication were solicited where necessary information could not be ascertained by other means. The Age 60 Rule was not based on any scientific data showing that airline pilots aged 60 and older were any less safe than younger pilots, and there is evidence to indicate that the choice of age 60 was actually based on economic rather than safety considerations. Airline pilots consistently exceed general population norms for longevity, physical health, and mental abilities. Fear of an adverse pilot health event causing a crash in standard multi-crew operations is not justified. For decades, airline pilots under age 60 have been granted the means to demonstrate their fitness for flying by taking medical, cognitive, and performance evaluations that are denied to airline pilots when they reach age 60. Actual flight experience demonstrates that older pilots are as safe as younger pilots. International aviation experience indicates that abolishing the Age 60 Rule will not compromise aviation safety. There appears to be no medical, scientific, or safety justification for the Age 60 Rule. As such, perpetuation of the Age 60 Rule, where age alone is used as the single criterion of older pilot fitness, represents age discrimination in commercial aviation.

  7. Toxicological findings in 889 fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Botch, Sabra R; Ricaurte, Eduard M

    2012-03-01

    Prevalence of drugs in fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents has not been evaluated. Therefore, toxicological findings in such pilots (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ) were examined in a data set derived from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Scientific Information System for 1990-2005. Aeromedical histories of these aviators were retrieved from the CAMI medical certification and toxicology databases, and the cause/factors in the related accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board's database. In 311 of the 889 pilots, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs were found, and glucose and hemoglobin A(1c) were elevated. Of the 889 pilots, 107 had an obesity-related medical history. The health and/or medical condition(s) of, and/or the use of ethanol and/or drugs by, pilots were the cause/factors in 55 (18%) of the 311 accidents. Drugs found were primarily for treating obesity-related medical conditions such as depression, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  8. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    PubMed

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  9. Human Error and General Aviation Accidents: A Comprehensive, Fine-Grained Analysis Using HFACS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    from these HFACS analyses. Likewise, HFACS was cited by the Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Joint Safety Analysis Team (JSAT) and the General...errors we should focus our safety programs on? A more fi ne- grained analysis of the specifi c types of errors within each unsafe act causal category... safety program whose ultimate goal is to reduce the aviation accident rate through systematic, data-driven intervention strategies and the objective

  10. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Game changing advances come about by the introduction of new technologies at a time when societal needs create the opportunity for new market solutions. A unique opportunity exists for NASA to bring about such a mobility revolution in General Aviation, extendable to other aviation markets, to maintain leadership in aviation by the United States. This report outlines the research carried out so far under NASA's leadership towards developing a new mobility choice, called Zip Aviation1,2,3. The feasibility, technology and system gaps that need to be addressed, and pathways for successful implementation have been investigated to guide future investment. The past decade indicates exciting trends in transportation technologies, which are quickly evolving. Automobiles are embracing automation to ease driver tasks as well as to completely control the vehicle with added safety (Figure 1). Electric propulsion is providing zero tail-pipe emission vehicles with dramatically lower energy and maintenance costs. These technologies have not yet been applied to aviation, yet offer compelling potential benefits across all aviation markets, and in particular to General Aviation (GA) as an early adopter market. The benefits of such an adoption are applicable in the following areas: ?? Safety: The GA market experiences accident rates that are substantially higher than automobiles or commercial airlines, with 7.5 fatal accidents per 100 million vehicle miles compared to 1.3 for automobiles and.068 for airlines. Approximately 80% of these accidents are caused by some form of pilot error, with another 13% caused by single point propulsion system failure. ?? Emissions: Environmental constraints are pushing for the elimination of 100Low Lead (LL) fuel used in most GA aircraft, with aviation fuel the #1 source of lead emissions into the environment. Aircraft also have no emission control systems (i.e. no catalytic converters etc.), so they are gross hydrocarbon polluters compared to

  11. Alcohol Violations and Aviation Accidents: Findings from the U.S. Mandatory Alcohol Testing Program

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P.; Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; McCarthy, Melissa L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Mandatory alcohol testing has been implemented in the U.S. aviation industry since 1995. This study documents the prevalence of alcohol violations and the association between alcohol violations and aviation accidents among aviation employees with safety-sensitive functions. Methods: Data from the random alcohol testing and post-accident alcohol testing programs reported by major airlines to the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995 through 2002 were analyzed. A violation was defined as an alcohol level of ≥ 0.04% or a refusal to submit to testing. Relative and attributable risks of accident involvement associated with alcohol violations were estimated using the case-control method. Results: During the study period, random alcohol testing yielded a total of 440 violations, with an overall prevalence rate of 0.09% and a prevalence rate of 0.03% for flight crews. Alcohol violations were associated with an increased yet not statistically significant risk of accident involvement (odds ratio 2.56, 95% confidence interval 0.81–7.08) and were attributed to 0.13% of aviation accidents. Discussion: Alcohol violations among U.S. major airline employees with safety-sensitive functions are rare and play a negligible role in aviation accidents. PMID:17539446

  12. Alcohol violations and aviation accidents: findings from the U.S. mandatory alcohol testing program.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2007-05-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing has been implemented in the U.S. aviation industry since 1995. This study documents the prevalence of alcohol violations and the association between alcohol violations and aviation accidents among aviation employees with safety-sensitive functions. Data from the random alcohol testing and post-accident alcohol testing programs reported by major airlines to the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995 through 2002 were analyzed. A violation was defined as an alcohol level of > or = 0.04% or a refusal to submit to testing. Relative and attributable risks of accident involvement associated with alcohol violations were estimated using the case-control method. During the study period, random alcohol testing yielded a total of 440 violations, with an overall prevalence rate of 0.09% and a prevalence rate of 0.03% for flight crews. Alcohol violations were associated with an increased yet not statistically significant risk of accident involvement (odds ratio 2.56, 95% confidence interval 0.81-7.08) and were attributed to 0.13% of aviation accidents. Alcohol violations among U.S. major airline employees with safety-sensitive functions are rare and play a negligible role in aviation accidents.

  13. Human error and commercial aviation accidents: an analysis using the human factors analysis and classification system.

    PubMed

    Shappell, Scott; Detwiler, Cristy; Holcomb, Kali; Hackworth, Carla; Boquet, Albert; Wiegmann, Douglas A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend previous examinations of aviation accidents to include specific aircrew, environmental, supervisory, and organizational factors associated with two types of commercial aviation (air carrier and commuter/ on-demand) accidents using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). HFACS is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research has shown that HFACS can be reliably used to identify human factors trends associated with military and general aviation accidents. Using data obtained from both the National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Aviation Administration, 6 pilot-raters classified aircrew, supervisory, organizational, and environmental causal factors associated with 1020 commercial aviation accidents that occurred over a 13-year period. The majority of accident causal factors were attributed to aircrew and the environment, with decidedly fewer associated with supervisory and organizational causes. Comparisons were made between HFACS causal categories and traditional situational variables such as visual conditions, injury severity, and regional differences. These data will provide support for the continuation, modification, and/or development of interventions aimed at commercial aviation safety. HFACS provides a tool for assessing human factors associated with accidents and incidents.

  14. Common mental disorders among civil aviation pilots.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Denise; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Camara, Volney Magalhães

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suspected cases of common mental disorders (CMD) on Brazilian civil aviation pilots and to investigate associations between CMD, demographics, and labor variables. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on 807 working pilots between October 2009 and October 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic data and information about workload. CMD prevalence was estimated with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 items (SRQ-20). Multiple logistic regression was used in statistical data analyses. The overall prevalence of CMD was 6.7% with the cutoff point of 8 used in this study, i.e., scores greater than or equal to 8 in SRQ-20 define positive cases. Using alternative cutoffs, the prevalence was 9.2% (cut off point 7) or 12% (cutoff point 6). Among the individuals who did not exercise, 10.2% presented suspected CMD. Among those with a heavy workload, 23.7% presented scores indicating suspected CMD. Only variables relating to workload and the practice of physical activity were significantly correlated with the estimate of CMD after multivariate analysis. Regular physical exercise afforded a possible protective effect against suspected cases of CMD, while there was a higher prevalence of suspected cases among subjects with heavy workloads. The inclusion of the topic of mental health among the targets and priorities of civil aviation in Brazil is imperative. Addressing issues such as the regular practice of physical activity and workload can contribute to achieving a better balance between flight safety and productivity.

  15. An International Civil Aviation and Space Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakhu, R.; Sgobba, T.; Trujillo, M.

    2010-09-01

    The human adventure in space is now more than a half century old. A total of about 6000 lift-offs have taken place and some 500 people have flown into space, but in the process a number of fatalities have occurred--both in space and on the ground. Furthermore, space traffic is becoming chaotic and the orbital environment is increasingly polluted by debris. There is a need for an international body to address current and future space operations, its sustainability, safety and the adequate consideration of the potential risk for the environment and the people that populates our planet. This idea of an international regulatory body for space was first proposed some years ago by FAA-AST with the name of International Space Flight Organization(ISFO). At the time, the envisaged scope of the organization was focused on futuristic international traffic of commercial hypersonic space planes, and on the launch of space vehicles from one country which, during its return to Earth, would land in a foreign country. Clearly, potential interest in such operations, and therefore for the ISFO concept, was limited to very few countries. In 2001, Dr. Assad Kotaite, President of the International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) Council, launched the idea of extending the ICAO mandate to space. With the increase of space operations and the rapid emergence of ventures interested in commercial exploitation of space assets, the need of an international organization that will fill this gap is to be seriously considered. Within this framework, this paper will present the rationale behind the “ICAO for Space” vision within the current structure of the ICAO, it will provide an overview of emerging areas(e.g.: integration of aviation / space infrastructure, traffic management, space debris, etc) and it will propose the benefits of extending its mandate to the region of space up to and including the geostationary orbits, an area of realistic commercial interest and developments for the

  16. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  17. Binocular Camera for cockpit visibility of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barile, A. J.

    1981-04-01

    A history of cockpit visibility studies and requirements with regard to aircraft safety, human factors, collision avoidance, and accident investigations is presented. The Federal Aviation Administration's development of the Binocular Camera is reviewed, and the technical details of a new and improved camera are discussed. The Binocular Camera uses two 65 mm wide angle F6.8 lenses and covers an 88 1/2 deg field of vision. The camera produces images, representative of what the human eyes see before the brain integrates them into one, thus making it possible to analyze the effect of obstruction to vision. The improvements, applications, and uses of the camera in the research, development, and operations of general aviation aircraft are discussed.

  18. Aviation security: A system's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For many years the aviation industry and airports operated with security methods and equipment common to most other large industrial complexes. At that time, the security systems primarily provided asset and property protection. However, soon after the first aircraft hijacking the focus of security shifted to emphasize the security requirements necessary for protecting the traveling public and the one feature of the aviation industry that makes it unique---the airplane. The airplane and its operation offered attractive opportunities for the homesick refugee, the mentally unstable person and the terrorist wanting to make a political statement. The airport and its aircraft were the prime targets requiring enhanced security against this escalated threat. In response, the FAA, airport operators and air carriers began to develop plans for increasing security and assigning responsibilities for implementation.

  19. Managing human error in aviation.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L

    1997-05-01

    Crew resource management (CRM) programs were developed to address team and leadership aspects of piloting modern airplanes. The goal is to reduce errors through team work. Human factors research and social, cognitive, and organizational psychology are used to develop programs tailored for individual airlines. Flight crews study accident case histories, group dynamics, and human error. Simulators provide pilots with the opportunity to solve complex flight problems. CRM in the simulator is called line-oriented flight training (LOFT). In automated cockpits CRM promotes the idea of automation as a crew member. Cultural aspects of aviation include professional, business, and national culture. The aviation CRM model has been adapted for training surgeons and operating room staff in human factors.

  20. Technical Seminar: "Data Mining for Air Safety"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Anonymous collections of data from the aviation community can sometimes be "mined" to reveal patterns that can lead to improvements, most often in safety of operations or the aircraft itself. Two o...