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Sample records for a1 binding site

  1. Conserved Arginines at the P-Protein Stalk Binding Site and the Active Site Are Critical for Ribosome Interactions of Shiga Toxins but Do Not Contribute to Differences in the Affinity of the A1 Subunits for the Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debaleena; Kahn, Jennifer N; Li, Xiao-Ping; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2016-12-01

    The A1 subunits of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1A1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2A1) interact with the conserved C termini of ribosomal-stalk P-proteins to remove a specific adenine from the sarcin/ricin loop. We previously showed that Stx2A1 has higher affinity for the ribosome and higher catalytic activity than Stx1A1. To determine if conserved arginines at the distal face of the active site contribute to the higher affinity of Stx2A1 for the ribosome, we mutated Arg172, Arg176, and Arg179 in both toxins. We show that Arg172 and Arg176 are more important than Arg179 for the depurination activity and toxicity of Stx1A1 and Stx2A1. Mutation of a single arginine reduced the depurination activity of Stx1A1 more than that of Stx2A1. In contrast, mutation of at least two arginines was necessary to reduce depurination by Stx2A1 to a level similar to that of Stx1A1. R176A and R172A/R176A mutations eliminated interaction of Stx1A1 and Stx2A1 with ribosomes and with the stalk, while mutation of Arg170 at the active site reduced the binding affinity of Stx1A1 and Stx2A1 for the ribosome, but not for the stalk. These results demonstrate that conserved arginines at the distal face of the active site are critical for interactions of Stx1A1 and Stx2A1 with the stalk, while a conserved arginine at the active site is critical for non-stalk-specific interactions with the ribosome. Arginine mutations at either site reduced ribosome interactions of Stx1A1 and Stx2A1 similarly, indicating that conserved arginines are critical for ribosome interactions but do not contribute to the higher affinity of Stx2A1 for the ribosome. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. An alternate binding site for PPARγ ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis S.; Giri, Pankaj Kumar; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Shin, Youseung; Blayo, Anne-Laure; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    PPARγ is a target for insulin sensitizing drugs such as glitazones, which improve plasma glucose maintenance in patients with diabetes. Synthetic ligands have been designed to mimic endogenous ligand binding to a canonical ligand-binding pocket to hyperactivate PPARγ. Here we reveal that synthetic PPARγ ligands also bind to an alternate site, leading to unique receptor conformational changes that impact coregulator binding, transactivation and target gene expression. Using structure-function studies we show that alternate site binding occurs at pharmacologically relevant ligand concentrations, and is neither blocked by covalently bound synthetic antagonists nor by endogenous ligands indicating non-overlapping binding with the canonical pocket. Alternate site binding likely contributes to PPARγ hyperactivation in vivo, perhaps explaining why PPARγ full and partial or weak agonists display similar adverse effects. These findings expand our understanding of PPARγ activation by ligands and suggest that allosteric modulators could be designed to fine tune PPARγ activity without competing with endogenous ligands. PMID:24705063

  3. Analysis of the binding sites of vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and vitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) for the design of selective CYP24A1 inhibitors: Homology modelling, molecular dynamics simulations and identification of key binding requirements.

    PubMed

    Taban, Ismail M; Zhu, Jinge; DeLuca, Hector F; Simons, Claire

    2017-10-15

    A homology model of human CYP27B1 was built using MOE and was further optimised by molecular dynamics simulations of the hCYP27B1 homology model and a hCYP27B1-SDZ-88357 complex. Docking results from the hCYP27B1-SDZ-88357 complex showed amino acids Arg107, Asn387 and Asp320 have an important role in binding interaction, with Asp320 part of the important acid-alcohol pair situated in the I-helix with the conserved sequence (A/G) GX (E/D) (T/S), which assumes an essential role in the binding of an oxygen molecule for catalysis. Additional docking experiments with selective hCYP27B1 or hCYP24A1 inhibitors using both the hCYP27B1 model and a triple mutant hCYP24A1 model provided further support for the importance of H-bonding interactions with the three identified active site amino acids. To confirm the role of Arg107, Asn387 and Asp320 in the active site of hCYP27B1 compounds were designed that would form H-bonding interactions, as determined from docking experiments with the hCYP27B1 model. Subsequent synthesis and CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 enzyme assays of the designed compounds 1a and 1b showed a∼5-fold selectivity for CYP27B1 confirming the importance of Asp320 in particular and also Asn387 and Arg107 as important amino acids for CYP27B1 inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M.; Sisler, E.C.

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by applemore » tissue.« less

  5. Investigation of glucose binding sites on insulin.

    PubMed

    Zoete, Vincent; Meuwly, Markus; Karplus, Martin

    2004-05-15

    Possible insulin binding sites for D-glucose have been investigated theoretically by docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two different docking programs for small molecules were used; Multiple Copy Simultaneous Search (MCSS) and Solvation Energy for Exhaustive Docking (SEED) programs. The configurations resulting from the MCSS search were evaluated with a scoring function developed to estimate the binding free energy. SEED calculations were performed using various values for the dielectric constant of the solute. It is found that scores emphasizing non-polar interactions gave a preferential binding site in agreement with that inferred from recent fluorescence and NMR NOESY experiments. The calculated binding affinity of -1.4 to -3.5 kcal/mol is within the measured range of -2.0 +/- 0.5 kcal/mol. The validity of the binding site is suggested by the dynamical stability of the bound glucose when examined with MD simulations with explicit solvent. Alternative binding sites were found in the simulations and their relative stabilities were estimated. The motions of the bound glucose during molecular dynamics simulations are correlated with the motions of the insulin side chains that are in contact with it and with larger scale insulin motions. These results raise the question of whether glucose binding to insulin could play a role in its activity. The results establish the complementarity of molecular dynamics simulations and normal mode analyses with the search for binding sites proposed with small molecule docking programs. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Detecting cis-regulatory binding sites for cooperatively binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    van Oeffelen, Liesbeth; Cornelis, Pierre; Van Delm, Wouter; De Ridder, Fedor; De Moor, Bart; Moreau, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Several methods are available to predict cis-regulatory modules in DNA based on position weight matrices. However, the performance of these methods generally depends on a number of additional parameters that cannot be derived from sequences and are difficult to estimate because they have no physical meaning. As the best way to detect cis-regulatory modules is the way in which the proteins recognize them, we developed a new scoring method that utilizes the underlying physical binding model. This method requires no additional parameter to account for multiple binding sites; and the only necessary parameters to model homotypic cooperative interactions are the distances between adjacent protein binding sites in basepairs, and the corresponding cooperative binding constants. The heterotypic cooperative binding model requires one more parameter per cooperatively binding protein, which is the concentration multiplied by the partition function of this protein. In a case study on the bacterial ferric uptake regulator, we show that our scoring method for homotypic cooperatively binding proteins significantly outperforms other PWM-based methods where biophysical cooperativity is not taken into account. PMID:18400778

  7. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressinmore » binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.« less

  8. Binding Sites Analyser (BiSA): Software for Genomic Binding Sites Archiving and Overlap Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khushi, Matloob; Liddle, Christopher; Clarke, Christine L.; Graham, J. Dinny

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide mapping of transcription factor binding and histone modification reveals complex patterns of interactions. Identifying overlaps in binding patterns by different factors is a major objective of genomic studies, but existing methods to archive large numbers of datasets in a personalised database lack sophistication and utility. Therefore we have developed transcription factor DNA binding site analyser software (BiSA), for archiving of binding regions and easy identification of overlap with or proximity to other regions of interest. Analysis results can be restricted by chromosome or base pair overlap between regions or maximum distance between binding peaks. BiSA is capable of reporting overlapping regions that share common base pairs; regions that are nearby; regions that are not overlapping; and average region sizes. BiSA can identify genes located near binding regions of interest, genomic features near a gene or locus of interest and statistical significance of overlapping regions can also be reported. Overlapping results can be visualized as Venn diagrams. A major strength of BiSA is that it is supported by a comprehensive database of publicly available transcription factor binding sites and histone modifications, which can be directly compared to user data. The documentation and source code are available on http://bisa.sourceforge.net PMID:24533055

  9. Resolving protein structure-function-binding site relationships from a binding site similarity network perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-07-01

    Functional annotation is seldom straightforward with complexities arising due to functional divergence in protein families or functional convergence between non-homologous protein families, leading to mis-annotations. An enzyme may contain multiple domains and not all domains may be involved in a given function, adding to the complexity in function annotation. To address this, we use binding site information from bound cognate ligands and catalytic residues, since it can help in resolving fold-function relationships at a finer level and with higher confidence. A comprehensive database of 2,020 fold-function-binding site relationships has been systematically generated. A network-based approach is employed to capture the complexity in these relationships, from which different types of associations are deciphered, that identify versatile protein folds performing diverse functions, same function associated with multiple folds and one-to-one relationships. Binding site similarity networks integrated with fold, function, and ligand similarity information are generated to understand the depth of these relationships. Apart from the observed continuity in the functional site space, network properties of these revealed versatile families with topologically different or dissimilar binding sites and structural families that perform very similar functions. As a case study, subtle changes in the active site of a set of evolutionarily related superfamilies are studied using these networks. Tracing of such similarities in evolutionarily related proteins provide clues into the transition and evolution of protein functions. Insights from this study will be helpful in accurate and reliable functional annotations of uncharacterized proteins, poly-pharmacology, and designing enzymes with new functional capabilities. Proteins 2017; 85:1319-1335. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Defining the bacteroides ribosomal binding site.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Udo; Horn, Nikki; Carding, Simon R

    2013-03-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, hosts a vast number of commensal microorganisms. Representatives of the genus Bacteroides are among the most abundant bacterial species in the human colon. Bacteroidetes diverged from the common line of eubacterial descent before other eubacterial groups. As a result, they employ unique transcription initiation signals and, because of this uniqueness, they require specific genetic tools. Although some tools exist, they are not optimal for studying the roles and functions of these bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract. Focusing on translation initiation signals in Bacteroides, we created a series of expression vectors allowing for different levels of protein expression in this genus, and we describe the use of pepI from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis as a novel reporter gene for Bacteroides. Furthermore, we report the identification of the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of Bacteroides ovatus and analyze in detail its ribosomal binding site, thus defining a core region necessary for efficient translation, which we have incorporated into the design of our expression vectors. Based on the sequence logo information from the 5' untranslated region of other Bacteroidales ribosomal protein genes, we conclude that our findings are relevant to all members of this order.

  11. Autoradiographic localization of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.D.; Springall, D.R.; Wharton, J.

    Autoradiographic techniques and {sup 125}I-labeled endothelin-1 were used to study the distribution of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin. Specific endothelin-1 binding sites were localized to blood vessels (capillaries, deep cutaneous vascular plexus, arteries, and arterioles), the deep dermal and connective tissue sheath of hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands, and arrector pili muscle. Specific binding was inhibited by endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 as well as endothelin-1. Non-specific binding was found in the epidermis and the medulla of hair follicles. No binding was found in connective tissue or fat. These vascular binding sites may represent endothelin receptors, in keeping with themore » known cutaneous vasoconstrictor actions of the peptide. If all binding sites are receptors, the results suggest that endothelin could also regulate the function of sweat glands and may have trophic effects in the skin.« less

  12. Allosteric binding sites in Rab11 for potential drug candidates

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Rab11 is an important protein subfamily in the RabGTPase family. These proteins physiologically function as key regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking processes. Pathologically, Rab11 proteins are implicated in many diseases including cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes. Although they are medically important, no previous study has found Rab11 allosteric binding sites where potential drug candidates can bind to. In this study, by employing multiple clustering approaches integrating principal component analysis, independent component analysis and locally linear embedding, we performed structural analyses of Rab11 and identified eight representative structures. Using these representatives to perform binding site mapping and virtual screening, we identified two novel binding sites in Rab11 and small molecules that can preferentially bind to different conformations of these sites with high affinities. After identifying the binding sites and the residue interaction networks in the representatives, we computationally showed that these binding sites may allosterically regulate Rab11, as these sites communicate with switch 2 region that binds to GTP/GDP. These two allosteric binding sites in Rab11 are also similar to two allosteric pockets in Ras that we discovered previously. PMID:29874286

  13. Druggability of methyl-lysine binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, C.; Nguyen, K.; Schapira, M.

    2011-12-01

    Structural modules that specifically recognize—or read—methylated or acetylated lysine residues on histone peptides are important components of chromatin-mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms is associated with disease conditions, and antagonists of acetyl-lysine binding bromodomains are efficacious in animal models of cancer and inflammation, but little is known regarding the druggability of methyl-lysine binding modules. We conducted a systematic structural analysis of readers of methyl marks and derived a predictive druggability landscape of methyl-lysine binding modules. We show that these target classes are generally less druggable than bromodomains, but that some proteins stand as notable exceptions.

  14. A novel substance P binding site in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, D P; Livett, B G; Rogerson, F M; Burcher, E

    1990-05-04

    Radioligand binding techniques were used to characterize the substance P (SP) binding site on membranes prepared from bovine adrenal medullae. 125I-labelled Bolton-Hunter substance P (BHSP), which recognises the C-terminally directed, SP-preferring NK1 receptor, showed no specific binding. In contrast, binding of [3H]SP was saturable (at 6 nM) and reversible, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) 1.46 +/- 0.73 nM, Bmax 0.73 +/- 0.06 pmol/g wet weight and Hill coefficient 0.98 +/- 0.01. Specific binding of [3H]SP was displaced by SP greater than neurokinin A (NKA) greater than SP(3-11) approximately SP(1-9) greater than SP(1-7) approximately SP(1-4) approximately SP(1-6), with neurokinin B (NKB) and SP(1-3) very weak competitors and SP(5-11), SP(7-11) and SP(9-11) causing negligible inhibition (up to 10 microM). This potency order is quite distinct from that seen with binding to an NK1 site, a conclusion confirmed by the lack of BHSP binding. It appears that Lys3 and/or Pro4 are critical for binding, suggesting an anionic binding site. These data suggest the existence of an unusual binding site which may represent a novel SP receptor. This site appears to require the entire sequence of the SP molecule for full recognition.

  15. Nuclear binding of progesterone in hen oviduct. Binding to multiple sites in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pikler, G M; Webster, R A; Spelsberg, T C

    1976-01-01

    Steroid hormones, including progesterone, are known to bind with high affinity (Kd approximately 1x10(-10)M) to receptor proteins once they enter target cells. This complex (the progesterone-receptor) then undergoes a temperature-and/or salt-dependent activation which allows it to migrate to the cell nucleus and to bind to the deoxyribonucleoproteins. The present studies demonstrate that binding the hormone-receptor complex in vitro to isolated nuclei from the oviducts of laying hens required the same conditions as do other studies of bbinding in vitro reported previously, e.g. the hormone must be complexed to intact and activated receptor. The assay of the nuclear binding by using multiple concentrations of progesterone receptor reveals the presence of more than one class of binding site in the oviduct nuclei. The affinity of each of these classes of binding sites range from Kd approximately 1x10(-9)-1x10(-8)M. Assays using free steroid (not complexed with receptor) show no binding to these sites. The binding to each of the classes of sites, displays a differential stability to increasing ionic concentrations, suggesting primarily an ionic-type interaction for all classes. Only the highest-affinity class of binding site is capable of binding progesterone receptor under physioligical-saline conditions. This class represent 6000-10000 sites per cell nucleus and resembles the sites detected in vivo (Spelsberg, 1976, Biochem. J. 156, 391-398) which cause maximal transcriptional response when saturated with the progesterone receptor. The multiple binding sites for the progesterone receptor either are not present or are found in limited numbers in the nuclei of non-target organs. Differences in extent of binding to the nuclear material between a target tissue (oviduct) and other tissues (spleen or erythrocyte) are markedly dependent on the ionic conditions, and are probably due to binding to different classes of sites in the nuclei. PMID:182147

  16. Evolution of Metal(Loid) Binding Sites in Transcriptional Regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Ordonez, E.; Thiyagarajan, S.; Cook, J.D.

    2009-05-22

    Expression of the genes for resistance to heavy metals and metalloids is transcriptionally regulated by the toxic ions themselves. Members of the ArsR/SmtB family of small metalloregulatory proteins respond to transition metals, heavy metals, and metalloids, including As(III), Sb(III), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). These homodimeric repressors bind to DNA in the absence of inducing metal(loid) ion and dissociate from the DNA when inducer is bound. The regulatory sites are often three- or four-coordinate metal binding sites composed of cysteine thiolates. Surprisingly, in two different As(III)-responsive regulators, the metalloid binding sites were in different locations in the repressor, andmore » the Cd(II) binding sites were in two different locations in two Cd(II)-responsive regulators. We hypothesize that ArsR/SmtB repressors have a common backbone structure, that of a winged helix DNA-binding protein, but have considerable plasticity in the location of inducer binding sites. Here we show that an As(III)-responsive member of the family, CgArsR1 from Corynebacterium glutamicum, binds As(III) to a cysteine triad composed of Cys{sup 15}, Cys{sup 16}, and Cys{sup 55}. This binding site is clearly unrelated to the binding sites of other characterized ArsR/SmtB family members. This is consistent with our hypothesis that metal(loid) binding sites in DNA binding proteins evolve convergently in response to persistent environmental pressures.« less

  17. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  18. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  19. Uncoupling metallonuclease metal ion binding sites via nudge mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Papadakos, Grigorios A; Nastri, Horacio; Riggs, Paul; Dupureur, Cynthia M

    2007-05-01

    The hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds by nucleases is critical to nucleic acid processing. Many nucleases utilize metal ion cofactors, and for a number of these enzymes two active-site metal ions have been detected. Testing proposed mechanistic roles for individual bound metal ions has been hampered by the similarity between the sites and cooperative behavior. In the homodimeric PvuII restriction endonuclease, the metal ion dependence of DNA binding is sigmoidal and consistent with two classes of coupled metal ion binding sites. We reasoned that a conservative active-site mutation would perturb the ligand field sufficiently to observe the titration of individual metal ion binding sites without significantly disturbing enzyme function. Indeed, mutation of a Tyr residue 5.5 A from both metal ions in the enzyme-substrate crystal structure (Y94F) renders the metal ion dependence of DNA binding biphasic: two classes of metal ion binding sites become distinct in the presence of DNA. The perturbation in metal ion coordination is supported by 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectra of enzyme-Ca(II) and enzyme-Ca(II)-DNA complexes. Metal ion binding by free Y94F is basically unperturbed: through multiple experiments with different metal ions, the data are consistent with two alkaline earth metal ion binding sites per subunit of low millimolar affinity, behavior which is very similar to that of the wild type. The results presented here indicate a role for the hydroxyl group of Tyr94 in the coupling of metal ion binding sites in the presence of DNA. Its removal causes the affinities for the two metal ion binding sites to be resolved in the presence of substrate. Such tuning of metal ion affinities will be invaluable to efforts to ascertain the contributions of individual bound metal ions to metallonuclease function.

  20. Muscarinic binding sites in cultured bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aronstam, R.S.; Catravas, J.D.; Ryan, U.S.

    The authors have previously reported a) the presence of muscarinic binding sites on cultured bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (BPAE; 2,000 sites/cell) and b) that acetylcholine inhibits the release of thromboxane B/sub 2/ fro BPAE. Since the authors findings could reflect muscarinic receptors (mAChR) on BPAE, they have further investigated the nature of BPAE muscarinic binding sites and contrast them to those of known functional mAChR. Muscarinic binding sites on BPAE resembled mAChR in that a) the binding of 3 nM /sup 3/H QNB was inhibited by muscarinic agonists and antagonists; b) /sup 3/H QNB binding was 30 times moremore » sensitive to R(-)- than to S(+)-QNB; c) carbamylcholine binding was resolved into high and low affinity components (IC50's = 0.04 and 2 ..mu..M; d) 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (100 ..mu..M) shifted agonist binding curves to the right by a factor of 3; 4) the atropine-sensitive binding of /sup 3/H oxotremorine-M (/sup 3/H-OXO-M) was depressed by the guanine nucleotide (IC50 + 60 ..mu..M). However, although gallamine allosterically regulates mAChR binding in other tissues, it did not affect the rates of dissociation of /sup 3/H QNB, /sup 3/H methylscopolamine or /sup 3/H OXO-M from BPAE binding sites. Thus, BPAE muscarinic binding sites posses many but not all of the properties associated with functional mAChR.« less

  1. Characterization of nicotine binding to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation: the identification of multiple binding sites which include specific up-regulatory site(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    These studies show that nicotine binds to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation by saturable and reversible processes. Multiple binding sites were revealed by the configuration of saturation, kinetic and Scatchard plots. A least squares best fit of Scatchard data using nonlinear curve fitting programs confirmed the presence of a very high affinity site, an up-regulatory site, a high affinity site and one or two low affinity sites. Stereospecificity was demonstrated for the up-regulatory site where (+)-nicotine was more effective and for the high affinity site where (-)-nicotine had a higher affinity. Drugs which selectively up-regulate nicotine binding site(s) havemore » been identified. Further, separate very high and high affinity sites were identified for (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine, based on evidence that the site density for the (-)-isomer is 10 times greater than that for the (+)-isomer at these sites. Enhanced nicotine binding has been shown to be a statistically significant phenomenon which appears to be a consequence of drugs binding to specific site(s) which up-regulate binding at other site(s). Although Scatchard and Hill plots indicate positive cooperatively, up-regulation more adequately describes the function of these site(s). A separate up-regulatory site is suggested by the following: (1) Drugs vary markedly in their ability to up-regulate binding. (2) Both the affinity and the degree of up-regulation can be altered by structural changes in ligands. (3) Drugs with specificity for up-regulation have been identified. (4) Some drugs enhance binding in a dose-related manner. (5) Competition studies employing cold (-)- and (+)-nicotine against (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine show that the isomers bind to separate sites which up-regulate binding at the (-)- and (+)-nicotine high affinity sites and in this regard (+)-nicotine is more specific and efficacious than (-)-nicotine.« less

  2. CaMELS: In silico prediction of calmodulin binding proteins and their binding sites.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Wajid Arshad; Asif, Amina; Andleeb, Saiqa; Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar

    2017-09-01

    Due to Ca 2+ -dependent binding and the sequence diversity of Calmodulin (CaM) binding proteins, identifying CaM interactions and binding sites in the wet-lab is tedious and costly. Therefore, computational methods for this purpose are crucial to the design of such wet-lab experiments. We present an algorithm suite called CaMELS (CalModulin intEraction Learning System) for predicting proteins that interact with CaM as well as their binding sites using sequence information alone. CaMELS offers state of the art accuracy for both CaM interaction and binding site prediction and can aid biologists in studying CaM binding proteins. For CaM interaction prediction, CaMELS uses protein sequence features coupled with a large-margin classifier. CaMELS models the binding site prediction problem using multiple instance machine learning with a custom optimization algorithm which allows more effective learning over imprecisely annotated CaM-binding sites during training. CaMELS has been extensively benchmarked using a variety of data sets, mutagenic studies, proteome-wide Gene Ontology enrichment analyses and protein structures. Our experiments indicate that CaMELS outperforms simple motif-based search and other existing methods for interaction and binding site prediction. We have also found that the whole sequence of a protein, rather than just its binding site, is important for predicting its interaction with CaM. Using the machine learning model in CaMELS, we have identified important features of protein sequences for CaM interaction prediction as well as characteristic amino acid sub-sequences and their relative position for identifying CaM binding sites. Python code for training and evaluating CaMELS together with a webserver implementation is available at the URL: http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/fayyaz/software.html#camels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Influence of sulfhydryl sites on metal binding by bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nell, Ryan M.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2017-02-01

    The role of sulfhydryl sites within bacterial cell envelopes is still unknown, but the sites may control the fate and bioavailability of metals. Organic sulfhydryl compounds are important complexing ligands in aqueous systems and they can influence metal speciation in natural waters. Though representing only approximately 5-10% of the total available binding sites on bacterial surfaces, sulfhydryl sites exhibit high binding affinities for some metals. Due to the potential importance of bacterial sulfhydryl sites in natural systems, metal-bacterial sulfhydryl site binding constants must be determined in order to construct accurate models of the fate and distribution of metals in these systems. To date, only Cd-sulfhydryl binding has been quantified. In this study, the thermodynamic stabilities of Mn-, Co-, Ni-, Zn-, Sr- and Pb-sulfhydryl bacterial cell envelope complexes were determined for the bacterial species Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Metal adsorption experiments were conducted as a function of both pH, ranging from 5.0 to 7.0, and metal loading, from 0.5 to 40.0 μmol/g (wet weight) bacteria, in batch experiments in order to determine if metal-sulfhydryl binding occurs. Initially, the data were used to calculate the value of the stability constants for the important metal-sulfhydryl bacterial complexes for each metal-loading condition studied, assuming a single binding reaction for the dominant metal-binding site type under the pH conditions of the experiments. For most of the metals that we studied, these calculated stability constant values increased significantly with decreasing metal loading, strongly suggesting that our initial assumption was not valid and that more than one type of binding occurs at the assumed binding site. We then modeled each dataset with two distinct site types with identical acidity constants: one site with a high metal-site stability constant value, which we take to represent metal-sulfhydryl binding and which dominates under low

  4. Acceleration of Binding Site Comparisons by Graph Partitioning.

    PubMed

    Krotzky, Timo; Klebe, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    The comparison of protein binding sites is a prominent task in computational chemistry and has been studied in many different ways. For the automatic detection and comparison of putative binding cavities the Cavbase system has been developed which uses a coarse-grained set of pseudocenters to represent the physicochemical properties of a binding site and employs a graph-based procedure to calculate similarities between two binding sites. However, the comparison of two graphs is computationally quite demanding which makes large-scale studies such as the rapid screening of entire databases hardly feasible. In a recent work, we proposed the method Local Cliques (LC) for the efficient comparison of Cavbase binding sites. It employs a clique heuristic to detect the maximum common subgraph of two binding sites and an extended graph model to additionally compare the shape of individual surface patches. In this study, we present an alternative to further accelerate the LC method by partitioning the binding-site graphs into disjoint components prior to their comparisons. The pseudocenter sets are split with regard to their assigned phyiscochemical type, which leads to seven much smaller graphs than the original one. Applying this approach on the same test scenarios as in the former comprehensive way results in a significant speed-up without sacrificing accuracy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Discovering amino acid patterns on binding sites in protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Huang-Cheng; Ong, Ping-Lin; Lin, Jung-Chang; Huang, Jen-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Discovering amino acid (AA) patterns on protein binding sites has recently become popular. We propose a method to discover the association relationship among AAs on binding sites. Such knowledge of binding sites is very helpful in predicting protein-protein interactions. In this paper, we focus on protein complexes which have protein-protein recognition. The association rule mining technique is used to discover geographically adjacent amino acids on a binding site of a protein complex. When mining, instead of treating all AAs of binding sites as a transaction, we geographically partition AAs of binding sites in a protein complex. AAs in a partition are treated as a transaction. For the partition process, AAs on a binding site are projected from three-dimensional to two-dimensional. And then, assisted with a circular grid, AAs on the binding site are placed into grid cells. A circular grid has ten rings: a central ring, the second ring with 6 sectors, the third ring with 12 sectors, and later rings are added to four sectors in order. As for the radius of each ring, we examined the complexes and found that 10Å is a suitable range, which can be set by the user. After placing these recognition complexes on the circular grid, we obtain mining records (i.e. transactions) from each sector. A sector is regarded as a record. Finally, we use the association rule to mine these records for frequent AA patterns. If the support of an AA pattern is larger than the predetermined minimum support (i.e. threshold), it is called a frequent pattern. With these discovered patterns, we offer the biologists a novel point of view, which will improve the prediction accuracy of protein-protein recognition. In our experiments, we produced the AA patterns by data mining. As a result, we found that arginine (arg) most frequently appears on the binding sites of two proteins in the recognition protein complexes, while cysteine (cys) appears the fewest. In addition, if we discriminate the shape

  6. An additional substrate binding site in a bacterial phenylalanine hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Ronau, Judith A.; Paul, Lake N.; Fuchs, Julian E.; Corn, Isaac R.; Wagner, Kyle T.; Liedl, Klaus R.; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.; Das, Chittaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes phenylalanine oxidation to tyrosine, a reaction that must be kept under tight regulatory control. Mammalian PAH features a regulatory domain where binding of the substrate leads to allosteric activation of the enzyme. However, existence of PAH regulation in evolutionarily distant organisms, such as certain bacteria in which it occurs, has so far been underappreciated. In an attempt to crystallographically characterize substrate binding by PAH from Chromobacterium violaceum (cPAH), a single-domain monomeric enzyme, electron density for phenylalanine was observed at a distal site, 15.7Å from the active site. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments revealed a dissociation constant of 24 ± 1.1 µM for phenylalanine. Under the same conditions, no detectable binding was observed in ITC for alanine, tyrosine, or isoleucine, indicating the distal site may be selective for phenylalanine. Point mutations of residues in the distal site that contact phenylalanine (F258A, Y155A, T254A) lead to impaired binding, consistent with the presence of distal site binding in solution. Kinetic analysis reveals that the distal site mutants suffer a discernible loss in their catalytic activity. However, x-ray structures of Y155A and F258A, two of the mutants showing more noticeable defect in their activity, show no discernible change in their active site structure, suggesting that the effect of distal binding may transpire through protein dynamics in solution. PMID:23860686

  7. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key.

    PubMed

    Haupt, V Joachim; Daminelli, Simone; Schroeder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology) - a drug's ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand flexibility to have a minor

  8. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which oftenmore » takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.« less

  9. LHRH-pituitary plasma membrane binding: the presence of specific binding sites in other tissues.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J C; Shakespear, R A; Odell, W D

    1976-11-01

    Two specific binding sites for LHRH are present on plasma membranes prepared from rat and bovine anterior pituitary glands. One site is of high affinity (K = 2X108 1/MOL) and the second is of lower affinity (8-5X105 1/mol) and much greater capacity. Studies on membrane fractions prepared from other tissues showed the presence of a single specific site for LHRH. The kinetics and specificity of this site were similar to those of the lower affinity pituitary receptor. These results indicate that only pituitary membranes possess the higher affinity binding site and suggest that the low affinity site is not of physiological importance in the regulation of gonadotrophin secretion. After dissociation from membranes of non-pituitary tissues 125I-LHRH rebound to pituitary membrane preparations. Thus receptor binding per se does not result in degradation of LHRH and the function of these peripheral receptors remains obscure.

  10. Architecture of a Fur Binding Site: a Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lavrrar, Jennifer L.; McIntosh, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Fur is an iron-binding transcriptional repressor that recognizes a 19-bp consensus site of the sequence 5′-GATAATGATAATCATTATC-3′. This site can be defined as three adjacent hexamers of the sequence 5′-GATAAT-3′, with the third being slightly imperfect (an F-F-F configuration), or as two hexamers in the forward orientation separated by one base pair from a third hexamer in the reverse orientation (an F-F-x-R configuration). Although Fur can bind synthetic DNA sequences containing the F-F-F arrangement, most natural binding sites are variations of the F-F-x-R arrangement. The studies presented here compared the ability of Fur to recognize synthetic DNA sequences containing two to four adjacent hexamers with binding to sequences containing variations of the F-F-x-R arrangement (including natural operator sequences from the entS and fepB promoter regions of Escherichia coli). Gel retardation assays showed that the F-F-x-R architecture was necessary for high-affinity Fur-DNA interactions and that contiguous hexamers were not recognized as effectively. In addition, the stoichiometry of Fur at each binding site was determined, showing that Fur interacted with its minimal 19-bp binding site as two overlapping dimers. These data confirm the proposed overlapping-dimer binding model, where the unit of interaction with a single Fur dimer is two inverted hexamers separated by a C:G base pair, with two overlapping units comprising the 19-bp consensus binding site required for the high-affinity interaction with two Fur dimers. PMID:12644489

  11. Biophysical Fitness Landscapes for Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Haldane, Allan; Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic states and evolutionary trajectories available to cell populations are ultimately dictated by complex interactions among DNA, RNA, proteins, and other molecular species. Here we study how evolution of gene regulation in a single-cell eukaryote S. cerevisiae is affected by interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their cognate DNA sites. Our study is informed by a comprehensive collection of genomic binding sites and high-throughput in vitro measurements of TF-DNA binding interactions. Using an evolutionary model for monomorphic populations evolving on a fitness landscape, we infer fitness as a function of TF-DNA binding to show that the shape of the inferred fitness functions is in broad agreement with a simple functional form inspired by a thermodynamic model of two-state TF-DNA binding. However, the effective parameters of the model are not always consistent with physical values, indicating selection pressures beyond the biophysical constraints imposed by TF-DNA interactions. We find little statistical support for the fitness landscape in which each position in the binding site evolves independently, indicating that epistasis is common in the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, by correlating TF-DNA binding energies with biological properties of the sites or the genes they regulate, we are able to rule out several scenarios of site-specific selection, under which binding sites of the same TF would experience different selection pressures depending on their position in the genome. These findings support the existence of universal fitness landscapes which shape evolution of all sites for a given TF, and whose properties are determined in part by the physics of protein-DNA interactions. PMID:25010228

  12. Cryptic binding sites on proteins: definition, detection, and druggability.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Sandor; Beglov, Dmitri; Wakefield, Amanda E; Egbert, Megan; Whitty, Adrian

    2018-05-22

    Many proteins in their unbound structures lack surface pockets appropriately sized for drug binding. Hence, a variety of experimental and computational tools have been developed for the identification of cryptic sites that are not evident in the unbound protein but form upon ligand binding, and can provide tractable drug target sites. The goal of this review is to discuss the definition, detection, and druggability of such sites, and their potential value for drug discovery. Novel methods based on molecular dynamics simulations are particularly promising and yield a large number of transient pockets, but it has been shown that only a minority of such sites are generally capable of binding ligands with substantial affinity. Based on recent studies, current methodology can be improved by combining molecular dynamics with fragment docking and machine learning approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FOLLITROPIN RECEPTORS CONTAIN CRYPTIC LIGAND BINDING SITES1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Win; Bernard, Michael P.; Cao, Donghui; Myers, Rebecca V.; Kerrigan, John E.; Moyle, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Human choriogonadotropin (hCG) and follitropin (hFSH) have been shown to contact different regions of the extracellular domains of G-protein coupled lutropin (LHR) and follitropin (FSHR) receptors. We report here that hCG and hFSH analogs interact with an FSHR/LHR chimera having only two unique LHR residues similar to the manners in which they dock with LHR and FSHR, respectively. This shows that although the FSHR does not normally bind hCG, it contains a cryptic lutropin binding site that has the potential to recognize hCG in a manner similar to the LHR. The presence of this cryptic site may explain why equine lutropins bind many mammalian FSHR and why mutations in the transmembrane domain distant from the extracellular domain enable the FSHR to bind hCG. The leucine-rich repeat domain (LRD) of the FSHR also appears to contain a cryptic FSH binding site that is obscured by other parts of the extracellular domain. This will explain why contacts seen in crystals of hFSH complexed with an LRD fragment of the human FSHR are hard to reconcile with the abilities of FSH analogs to interact with membrane G-protein coupled FSHR. We speculate that cryptic lutropin binding sites in the FSHR, which are also likely to be present in thyrotropin receptors (TSHR), permit the physiological regulation of ligand binding specificity. Cryptic FSH binding sites in the LRD may enable alternate spliced forms of the FSHR to interact with FSH. PMID:17059863

  14. Probing binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites.

    PubMed

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-29

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein-RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein-RNA recognition sites with desired affinity. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. RBind: computational network method to predict RNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaili; Jian, Yiren; Wang, Huiwen; Zeng, Chen; Zhao, Yunjie

    2018-04-26

    Non-coding RNA molecules play essential roles by interacting with other molecules to perform various biological functions. However, it is difficult to determine RNA structures due to their flexibility. At present, the number of experimentally solved RNA-ligand and RNA-protein structures is still insufficient. Therefore, binding sites prediction of non-coding RNA is required to understand their functions. Current RNA binding site prediction algorithms produce many false positive nucleotides that are distance away from the binding sites. Here, we present a network approach, RBind, to predict the RNA binding sites. We benchmarked RBind in RNA-ligand and RNA-protein datasets. The average accuracy of 0.82 in RNA-ligand and 0.63 in RNA-protein testing showed that this network strategy has a reliable accuracy for binding sites prediction. The codes and datasets are available at https://zhaolab.com.cn/RBind. yjzhaowh@mail.ccnu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Penicillin-binding site on the Escherichia coli cell envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, L.; Lee, Y.; Schwarz, U.

    The binding of /sup 35/S-labeled penicillin to distinct penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of the cell envelope obtained from the sonication of Escherichia coli was studied at different pHs ranging from 4 to 11. Experiments distinguishing the effect of pH on penicillin binding by PBP 5/6 from its effect on beta-lactamase activity indicated that although substantial binding occurred at the lowest pH, the amount of binding increased with pH, reaching a maximum at pH 10. Based on earlier studies, it is proposed that the binding at high pH involves the formation of a covalent bond between the C-7 of penicillin and freemore » epsilon amino groups of the PBPs. At pHs ranging from 4 to 8, position 1 of penicillin, occupied by sulfur, is considered to be the site that establishes a covalent bond with the sulfhydryl groups of PBP 5. The use of specific blockers of free epsilon amino groups or sulfhydryl groups indicated that wherever the presence of each had little or no effect on the binding of penicillin by PBP 5, the presence of both completely prevented binding. The specific blocker of the hydroxyl group of serine did not affect the binding of penicillin.« less

  17. Two nucleotide binding sites modulate ( sup 3 H) glyburide binding to rat cortex membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Gopalakrishnan, M.; Triggle, D.J.

    1991-03-11

    The effects of nucleotides on the binding of the ATP-dependent K{sup +}-channel antagonist ({sup 3}H)glyburide (GLB) to rat cortex membranes were examined. Nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) and nucleotide diphosphate (NDPs) inhibited the binding of GLB. This effect was dependent on the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Inhibition of binding by NTPs, with the exception of ATP{gamma}S, was dependent on the presence of Mg{sup 2+}. GLB binding showed a biphasic response to ADP: up to 3 mM, ADP inhibited binding, and above this concentration GLB binding increased rapidly, and was restored to normal levels by 10 mM ADP. In the presence of Mg{supmore » 2+}, ADP did not stimulate binding. Saturation analysis in the presence of Mg{sup 2+} and increasing concentrations of ADP showed that ADP results primarily in a change of the B{sub max} for GLB binding. The differential effects of NTPS and NDPs indicate that two nucleotide binding sites regulate GLB binding.« less

  18. Searching for transcription factor binding sites in vector spaces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computational approaches to transcription factor binding site identification have been actively researched in the past decade. Learning from known binding sites, new binding sites of a transcription factor in unannotated sequences can be identified. A number of search methods have been introduced over the years. However, one can rarely find one single method that performs the best on all the transcription factors. Instead, to identify the best method for a particular transcription factor, one usually has to compare a handful of methods. Hence, it is highly desirable for a method to perform automatic optimization for individual transcription factors. Results We proposed to search for transcription factor binding sites in vector spaces. This framework allows us to identify the best method for each individual transcription factor. We further introduced two novel methods, the negative-to-positive vector (NPV) and optimal discriminating vector (ODV) methods, to construct query vectors to search for binding sites in vector spaces. Extensive cross-validation experiments showed that the proposed methods significantly outperformed the ungapped likelihood under positional background method, a state-of-the-art method, and the widely-used position-specific scoring matrix method. We further demonstrated that motif subtypes of a TF can be readily identified in this framework and two variants called the k NPV and k ODV methods benefited significantly from motif subtype identification. Finally, independent validation on ChIP-seq data showed that the ODV and NPV methods significantly outperformed the other compared methods. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed framework is highly flexible. It enables the two novel methods to automatically identify a TF-specific subspace to search for binding sites. Implementations are available as source code at: http://biogrid.engr.uconn.edu/tfbs_search/. PMID:23244338

  19. Five of Five VHHs Neutralizing Poliovirus Bind the Receptor-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Filman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nanobodies, or VHHs, that recognize poliovirus type 1 have previously been selected and characterized as candidates for antiviral agents or reagents for standardization of vaccine quality control. In this study, we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of poliovirus with five neutralizing VHHs. All VHHs bind the capsid in the canyon at sites that extensively overlap the poliovirus receptor-binding site. In contrast, the interaction involves a unique (and surprisingly extensive) surface for each of the five VHHs. Five regions of the capsid were found to participate in binding with all five VHHs. Four of these five regions are known to alter during the expansion of the capsid associated with viral entry. Interestingly, binding of one of the VHHs, PVSS21E, resulted in significant changes of the capsid structure and thus seems to trap the virus in an early stage of expansion. IMPORTANCE We describe the cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of five neutralizing VHHs with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus at resolutions ranging from 3.8 to 6.3Å. All five VHHs bind deep in the virus canyon at similar sites that overlap extensively with the binding site for the receptor (CD155). The binding surfaces on the VHHs are surprisingly extensive, but despite the use of similar binding surfaces on the virus, the binding surface on the VHHs is unique for each VHH. In four of the five complexes, the virus remains essentially unchanged, but for the fifth there are significant changes reminiscent of but smaller in magnitude than the changes associated with cell entry, suggesting that this VHH traps the virus in a previously undescribed early intermediate state. The neutralizing mechanisms of the VHHs and their potential use as quality control agents for the end game of poliovirus eradication are discussed. PMID:26764003

  20. Five of Five VHHs Neutralizing Poliovirus Bind the Receptor-Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M

    2016-01-13

    Nanobodies, or VHHs, that recognize poliovirus type 1 have previously been selected and characterized as candidates for antiviral agents or reagents for standardization of vaccine quality control. In this study, we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of poliovirus with five neutralizing VHHs. All VHHs bind the capsid in the canyon at sites that extensively overlap the poliovirus receptor-binding site. In contrast, the interaction involves a unique (and surprisingly extensive) surface for each of the five VHHs. Five regions of the capsid were found to participate in binding with all five VHHs. Four of these five regions are known to alter during the expansion of the capsid associated with viral entry. Interestingly, binding of one of the VHHs, PVSS21E, resulted in significant changes of the capsid structure and thus seems to trap the virus in an early stage of expansion. We describe the cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of five neutralizing VHHs with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus at resolutions ranging from 3.8 to 6.3Å. All five VHHs bind deep in the virus canyon at similar sites that overlap extensively with the binding site for the receptor (CD155). The binding surfaces on the VHHs are surprisingly extensive, but despite the use of similar binding surfaces on the virus, the binding surface on the VHHs is unique for each VHH. In four of the five complexes, the virus remains essentially unchanged, but for the fifth there are significant changes reminiscent of but smaller in magnitude than the changes associated with cell entry, suggesting that this VHH traps the virus in a previously undescribed early intermediate state. The neutralizing mechanisms of the VHHs and their potential use as quality control agents for the end game of poliovirus eradication are discussed. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Molecular simulations of multimodal ligand-protein binding: elucidation of binding sites and correlation with experiments.

    PubMed

    Freed, Alexander S; Garde, Shekhar; Cramer, Steven M

    2011-11-17

    Multimodal chromatography, which employs more than one mode of interaction between ligands and proteins, has been shown to have unique selectivity and high efficacy for protein purification. To test the ability of free solution molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water to identify binding regions on the protein surface and to shed light on the "pseudo affinity" nature of multimodal interactions, we performed MD simulations of a model protein ubiquitin in aqueous solution of free ligands. Comparisons of MD with NMR spectroscopy of ubiquitin mutants in solutions of free ligands show a good agreement between the two with regard to the preferred binding region on the surface of the protein and several binding sites. MD simulations also identify additional binding sites that were not observed in the NMR experiments. "Bound" ligands were found to be sufficiently flexible and to access a number of favorable conformations, suggesting only a moderate loss of ligand entropy in the "pseudo affinity" binding of these multimodal ligands. Analysis of locations of chemical subunits of the ligand on the protein surface indicated that electrostatic interaction units were located on the periphery of the preferred binding region on the protein. The analysis of the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity maps, and the binding of both acetate and benzene probes were used to further study the localization of individual ligand moieties. These results suggest that water-mediated electrostatic interactions help the localization and orientation of the MM ligand to the binding region with additional stability provided by nonspecific hydrophobic interactions.

  2. Binding-Site Assessment by Virtual Fragment Screening

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Niu; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate prediction of protein druggability (propensity to bind high-affinity drug-like small molecules) would greatly benefit the fields of chemical genomics and drug discovery. We have developed a novel approach to quantitatively assess protein druggability by computationally screening a fragment-like compound library. In analogy to NMR-based fragment screening, we dock ∼11000 fragments against a given binding site and compute a computational hit rate based on the fraction of molecules that exceed an empirically chosen score cutoff. We perform a large-scale evaluation of the approach on four datasets, totaling 152 binding sites. We demonstrate that computed hit rates correlate with hit rates measured experimentally in a previously published NMR-based screening method. Secondly, we show that the in silico fragment screening method can be used to distinguish known druggable and non-druggable targets, including both enzymes and protein-protein interaction sites. Finally, we explore the sensitivity of the results to different receptor conformations, including flexible protein-protein interaction sites. Besides its original aim to assess druggability of different protein targets, this method could be used to identifying druggable conformations of flexible binding site for lead discovery, and suggesting strategies for growing or joining initial fragment hits to obtain more potent inhibitors. PMID:20404926

  3. Caffeine inhibits glucose transport by binding at the GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Jay M.; Cura, Anthony J.; Lloyd, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is the primary glucose transport protein of the cardiovascular system and astroglia. A recent study proposes that caffeine uncompetitive inhibition of GLUT1 results from interactions at an exofacial GLUT1 site. Intracellular ATP is also an uncompetitive GLUT1 inhibitor and shares structural similarities with caffeine, suggesting that caffeine acts at the previously characterized endofacial GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site. We tested this by confirming that caffeine uncompetitively inhibits GLUT1-mediated 3-O-methylglucose uptake in human erythrocytes [Vmax and Km for transport are reduced fourfold; Ki(app) = 3.5 mM caffeine]. ATP and AMP antagonize caffeine inhibition of 3-O-methylglucose uptake in erythrocyte ghosts by increasing Ki(app) for caffeine inhibition of transport from 0.9 ± 0.3 mM in the absence of intracellular nucleotides to 2.6 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.5 mM in the presence of 5 mM intracellular ATP or AMP, respectively. Extracellular ATP has no effect on sugar uptake or its inhibition by caffeine. Caffeine and ATP displace the fluorescent ATP derivative, trinitrophenyl-ATP, from the GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site, but d-glucose and the transport inhibitor cytochalasin B do not. Caffeine, but not ATP, inhibits cytochalasin B binding to GLUT1. Like ATP, caffeine renders the GLUT1 carboxy-terminus less accessible to peptide-directed antibodies, but cytochalasin B and d-glucose do not. These results suggest that the caffeine-binding site bridges two nonoverlapping GLUT1 endofacial sites—the regulatory, nucleotide-binding site and the cytochalasin B-binding site. Caffeine binding to GLUT1 mimics the action of ATP but not cytochalasin B on sugar transport. Molecular docking studies support this hypothesis. PMID:25715702

  4. Nickel binding to NikA: an additional binding site reconciles spectroscopy, calorimetry and crystallography.

    PubMed

    Addy, Christine; Ohara, Masato; Kawai, Fumihiro; Kidera, Akinori; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Fuchigami, Sotaro; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio; Park, Sam-Yong; Tame, Jeremy R H; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2007-02-01

    Intracellular nickel is required by Escherichia coli as a cofactor for a number of enzymes and is necessary for anaerobic respiration. However, high concentrations of nickel are toxic, so both import and export systems have evolved to control the cellular level of the metal. The nik operon in E. coli encodes a nickel-uptake system that includes the periplasmic nickel-binding protein NikA. The crystal structures of wild-type NikA both bound to nickel and in the apo form have been solved previously. The liganded structure appeared to show an unusual interaction between the nickel and the protein in which no direct bonds are formed. The highly unusual nickel coordination suggested by the crystal structure contrasted strongly with earlier X-ray spectroscopic studies. The known nickel-binding site has been probed by extensive mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry and it has been found that even large numbers of disruptive mutations appear to have little effect on the nickel affinity. The crystal structure of a binding-site mutant with nickel bound has been solved and it is found that nickel is bound to two histidine residues at a position distant from the previously characterized binding site. This novel site immediately resolves the conflict between the crystal structures and other biophysical analyses. The physiological relevance of the two binding sites is discussed.

  5. Zampanolide Binding to Tubulin Indicates Cross-Talk of Taxane Site with Colchicine and Nucleotide Sites.

    PubMed

    Field, Jessica J; Pera, Benet; Gallego, Juan Estévez; Calvo, Enrique; Rodríguez-Salarichs, Javier; Sáez-Calvo, Gonzalo; Zuwerra, Didier; Jordi, Michel; Andreu, José M; Prota, Andrea E; Ménchon, Grégory; Miller, John H; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Díaz, J Fernando

    2018-03-23

    The marine natural product zampanolide and analogues thereof constitute a new chemotype of taxoid site microtubule-stabilizing agents with a covalent mechanism of action. Zampanolide-ligated tubulin has the switch-activation loop (M-loop) in the assembly prone form and, thus, represents an assembly activated state of the protein. In this study, we have characterized the biochemical properties of the covalently modified, activated tubulin dimer, and we have determined the effect of zampanolide on tubulin association and the binding of tubulin ligands at other binding sites. Tubulin activation by zampanolide does not affect its longitudinal oligomerization but does alter its lateral association properties. The covalent binding of zampanolide to β-tubulin affects both the colchicine site, causing a change of the quantum yield of the bound ligand, and the exchangeable nucleotide binding site, reducing the affinity for the nucleotide. While these global effects do not change the binding affinity of 2-methoxy-5-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one (MTC) (a reversible binder of the colchicine site), the binding affinity of a fluorescent analogue of GTP (Mant-GTP) at the nucleotide E-site is reduced from 12 ± 2 × 10 5 M -1 in the case of unmodified tubulin to 1.4 ± 0.3 × 10 5 M -1 in the case of the zampanolide tubulin adduct, indicating signal transmission between the taxane site and the colchicine and nucleotide sites of β-tubulin.

  6. Cooperativity in Monomeric Enzymes with Single Ligand-Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperativity is widespread in biology. It empowers a variety of regulatory mechanisms and impacts both the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of macromolecular systems. Traditionally, cooperativity is viewed as requiring the participation of multiple, spatially distinct binding sites that communicate via ligand-induced structural rearrangements; however, cooperativity requires neither multiple ligand binding events nor multimeric assemblies. An underappreciated manifestation of cooperativity has been observed in the non-Michaelis-Menten kinetic response of certain monomeric enzymes that possess only a single ligand-binding site. In this review, we present an overview of kinetic cooperativity in monomeric enzymes. We discuss the primary mechanisms postulated to give rise to monomeric cooperativity and highlight modern experimental methods that could offer new insights into the nature of this phenomenon. We conclude with an updated list of single subunit enzymes that are suspected of displaying cooperativity, and a discussion of the biological significance of this unique kinetic response. PMID:22137502

  7. Facilitated dissociation of transcription factors from single DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Kamar, Ramsey I.; Banigan, Edward J.; Erbas, Aykut; Giuntoli, Rebecca D.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Johnson, Reid C.; Marko, John F.

    2017-01-01

    The binding of transcription factors (TFs) to DNA controls most aspects of cellular function, making the understanding of their binding kinetics imperative. The standard description of bimolecular interactions posits that TF off rates are independent of TF concentration in solution. However, recent observations have revealed that proteins in solution can accelerate the dissociation of DNA-bound proteins. To study the molecular basis of facilitated dissociation (FD), we have used single-molecule imaging to measure dissociation kinetics of Fis, a key Escherichia coli TF and major bacterial nucleoid protein, from single dsDNA binding sites. We observe a strong FD effect characterized by an exchange rate ∼1×104 M−1s−1, establishing that FD of Fis occurs at the single-binding site level, and we find that the off rate saturates at large Fis concentrations in solution. Although spontaneous (i.e., competitor-free) dissociation shows a strong salt dependence, we find that FD depends only weakly on salt. These results are quantitatively explained by a model in which partially dissociated bound proteins are susceptible to invasion by competitor proteins in solution. We also report FD of NHP6A, a yeast TF with structure that differs significantly from Fis. We further perform molecular dynamics simulations, which indicate that FD can occur for molecules that interact far more weakly than those that we have studied. Taken together, our results indicate that FD is a general mechanism assisting in the local removal of TFs from their binding sites and does not necessarily require cooperativity, clustering, or binding site overlap. PMID:28364020

  8. Incorporating evolution of transcription factor binding sites into annotated alignments.

    PubMed

    Bais, Abha S; Grossmann, Stefen; Vingron, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) is essential to elucidate putative regulatory mechanisms. A common strategy is to combine cross-species conservation with single sequence TFBS annotation to yield "conserved TFBSs". Most current methods in this field adopt a multi-step approach that segregates the two aspects. Again, it is widely accepted that the evolutionary dynamics of binding sites differ from those of the surrounding sequence. Hence, it is desirable to have an approach that explicitly takes this factor into account. Although a plethora of approaches have been proposed for the prediction of conserved TFBSs, very few explicitly model TFBS evolutionary properties, while additionally being multi-step. Recently, we introduced a novel approach to simultaneously align and annotate conserved TFBSs in a pair of sequences. Building upon the standard Smith-Waterman algorithm for local alignments, SimAnn introduces additional states for profiles to output extended alignments or annotated alignments. That is, alignments with parts annotated as gaplessly aligned TFBSs (pair-profile hits)are generated. Moreover,the pair- profile related parameters are derived in a sound statistical framework. In this article, we extend this approach to explicitly incorporate evolution of binding sites in the SimAnn framework. We demonstrate the extension in the theoretical derivations through two position-specific evolutionary models, previously used for modelling TFBS evolution. In a simulated setting, we provide a proof of concept that the approach works given the underlying assumptions,as compared to the original work. Finally, using a real dataset of experimentally verified binding sites in human-mouse sequence pairs,we compare the new approach (eSimAnn) to an existing multi-step tool that also considers TFBS evolution. Although it is widely accepted that binding sites evolve differently from the surrounding sequences, most comparative TFBS identification methods do

  9. Multiple binding sites for transcriptional repressors can produce regular bursting and enhance noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, Iván M.; Morelli, Luis G.

    2017-04-01

    Cells may control fluctuations in protein levels by means of negative autoregulation, where transcription factors bind DNA sites to repress their own production. Theoretical studies have assumed a single binding site for the repressor, while in most species it is found that multiple binding sites are arranged in clusters. We study a stochastic description of negative autoregulation with multiple binding sites for the repressor. We find that increasing the number of binding sites induces regular bursting of gene products. By tuning the threshold for repression, we show that multiple binding sites can also suppress fluctuations. Our results highlight possible roles for the presence of multiple binding sites of negative autoregulators.

  10. [Adenylate cyclase from rabbit heart: substrate binding site].

    PubMed

    Perfil'eva, E A; Khropov, Iu V; Khachatrian, L; Bulargina, T V; Baranova, L A

    1981-08-01

    The effects of 17 ATP analogs on the solubilized rabbit heart adenylate cyclase were studied. The triphosphate chain, position 8 of the adenine base and the ribose residue of the ATP molecule were modified. Despite the presence of the alkylating groups in two former types of the analogs tested, no covalent blocking of the active site of the enzyme was observed. Most of the compounds appeared to be competitive reversible inhibitors. The kinetic data confirmed the importance of the triphosphate chain for substrate binding in the active site of adenylate cyclase. (Formula: See Text) The inhibitors with different substituents in position 8 of the adenine base had a low affinity for the enzyme. The possible orientation of the triphosphate chain and the advantages of anti-conformation of the ATP molecule for their binding in the active site of adenylate cyclase are discussed.

  11. Computational investigation of cholesterol binding sites on mitochondrial VDAC.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Brian P; Salari, Reza; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Brannigan, Grace

    2014-08-21

    The mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) allows passage of ions and metabolites across the mitochondrial outer membrane. Cholesterol binds mammalian VDAC, and we investigated the effects of binding to human VDAC1 with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that totaled 1.4 μs. We docked cholesterol to specific sites on VDAC that were previously identified with NMR, and we tested the reliability of multiple docking results in each site with simulations. The most favorable binding modes were used to build a VDAC model with cholesterol occupying five unique sites, and during multiple 100 ns simulations, cholesterol stably and reproducibly remained bound to the protein. For comparison, VDAC was simulated in systems with identical components but with cholesterol initially unbound. The dynamics of loops that connect adjacent β-strands were most affected by bound cholesterol, with the averaged root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF) of multiple residues altered by 20-30%. Cholesterol binding also stabilized charged residues inside the channel and localized the surrounding electrostatic potentials. Despite this, ion diffusion through the channel was not significantly affected by bound cholesterol, as evidenced by multi-ion potential of mean force measurements. Although we observed modest effects of cholesterol on the open channel, our model will be particularly useful in experiments that investigate how cholesterol affects VDAC function under applied electrochemical forces and also how other ligands and proteins interact with the channel.

  12. Computational Investigation of Cholesterol Binding Sites on Mitochondrial VDAC

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) allows passage of ions and metabolites across the mitochondrial outer membrane. Cholesterol binds mammalian VDAC, and we investigated the effects of binding to human VDAC1 with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that totaled 1.4 μs. We docked cholesterol to specific sites on VDAC that were previously identified with NMR, and we tested the reliability of multiple docking results in each site with simulations. The most favorable binding modes were used to build a VDAC model with cholesterol occupying five unique sites, and during multiple 100 ns simulations, cholesterol stably and reproducibly remained bound to the protein. For comparison, VDAC was simulated in systems with identical components but with cholesterol initially unbound. The dynamics of loops that connect adjacent β-strands were most affected by bound cholesterol, with the averaged root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF) of multiple residues altered by 20–30%. Cholesterol binding also stabilized charged residues inside the channel and localized the surrounding electrostatic potentials. Despite this, ion diffusion through the channel was not significantly affected by bound cholesterol, as evidenced by multi-ion potential of mean force measurements. Although we observed modest effects of cholesterol on the open channel, our model will be particularly useful in experiments that investigate how cholesterol affects VDAC function under applied electrochemical forces and also how other ligands and proteins interact with the channel. PMID:25080204

  13. Photoaffinity labeling in target- and binding-site identification

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ewan; Collins, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling (PAL) using a chemical probe to covalently bind its target in response to activation by light has become a frequently used tool in drug discovery for identifying new drug targets and molecular interactions, and for probing the location and structure of binding sites. Methods to identify the specific target proteins of hit molecules from phenotypic screens are highly valuable in early drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the principles of PAL including probe design and experimental techniques for in vitro and live cell investigations. We emphasize the need to optimize and validate probes and highlight examples of the successful application of PAL across multiple disease areas. PMID:25686004

  14. Binding of dinitrogen to an iron-sulfur-carbon site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čorić, Ilija; Mercado, Brandon Q.; Bill, Eckhard; Vinyard, David J.; Holland, Patrick L.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogenases are the enzymes by which certain microorganisms convert atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia, thereby providing essential nitrogen atoms for higher organisms. The most common nitrogenases reduce atmospheric N2 at the FeMo cofactor, a sulfur-rich iron-molybdenum cluster (FeMoco). The central iron sites that are coordinated to sulfur and carbon atoms in FeMoco have been proposed to be the substrate binding sites, on the basis of kinetic and spectroscopic studies. In the resting state, the central iron sites each have bonds to three sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Addition of electrons to the resting state causes the FeMoco to react with N2, but the geometry and bonding environment of N2-bound species remain unknown. Here we describe a synthetic complex with a sulfur-rich coordination sphere that, upon reduction, breaks an Fe-S bond and binds N2. The product is the first synthetic Fe-N2 complex in which iron has bonds to sulfur and carbon atoms, providing a model for N2 coordination in the FeMoco. Our results demonstrate that breaking an Fe-S bond is a chemically reasonable route to N2 binding in the FeMoco, and show structural and spectroscopic details for weakened N2 on a sulfur-rich iron site.

  15. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  16. Preorganization of molecular binding sites in designed diiron proteins.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Ornella; Nastri, Flavia; Pavone, Vincenzo; Lombardi, Angela; DeGrado, William F

    2003-04-01

    De novo protein design provides an attractive approach to critically test the features that are required for metalloprotein structure and function. Previously we designed and crystallographically characterized an idealized dimeric model for the four-helix bundle class of diiron and dimanganese proteins [Dueferri 1 (DF1)]. Although the protein bound metal ions in the expected manner, access to its active site was blocked by large bulky hydrophobic residues. Subsequently, a substrate-access channel was introduced proximal to the metal-binding center, resulting in a protein with properties more closely resembling those of natural enzymes. Here we delineate the energetic and structural consequences associated with the introduction of these binding sites. To determine the extent to which the binding site was preorganized in the absence of metal ions, the apo structure of DF1 in solution was solved by NMR and compared with the crystal structure of the di-Zn(II) derivative. The overall fold of the apo protein was highly similar to that of the di-Zn(II) derivative, although there was a rotation of one of the helices. We also examined the thermodynamic consequences associated with building a small molecule-binding site within the protein. The protein exists in an equilibrium between folded dimers and unfolded monomers. DF1 is a highly stable protein (K(diss) = 0.001 fM), but the dissociation constant increases to 0.6 nM (deltadeltaG = 5.4 kcalmol monomer) as the active-site cavity is increased to accommodate small molecules.

  17. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Alberts, I L; Nadassy, K; Wodak, S J

    1998-08-01

    The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.

  19. A Conserved Steroid Binding Site in Cytochrome c Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Ling; Mills, Denise A.; Buhrow, Leann

    2010-09-02

    Micromolar concentrations of the bile salt deoxycholate are shown to rescue the activity of an inactive mutant, E101A, in the K proton pathway of Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase. A crystal structure of the wild-type enzyme reveals, as predicted, deoxycholate bound with its carboxyl group at the entrance of the K path. Since cholate is a known potent inhibitor of bovine oxidase and is seen in a similar position in the bovine structure, the crystallographically defined, conserved steroid binding site could reveal a regulatory site for steroids or structurally related molecules that act on the essential K proton path.

  20. Protein-Binding RNA Aptamers Affect Molecular Interactions Distantly from Their Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Daniel M.; Thuesen, Cathrine K.; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A.; Behrens, Manja A.; Dam, Karen; Sørensen, Hans P.; Pedersen, Jan S.; Ploug, Michael; Jensen, Jan K.; Andreasen, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamer selection is a powerful strategy for the development of regulatory agents for molecular intervention. Accordingly, aptamers have proven their diligence in the intervention with serine protease activities, which play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies on the molecular basis underlying aptamer-protease interactions and the associated mechanisms of inhibition. In the present study, we use site-directed mutagenesis to delineate the binding sites of two 2´-fluoropyrimidine RNA aptamers (upanap-12 and upanap-126) with therapeutic potential, both binding to the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). We determine the subsequent impact of aptamer binding on the well-established molecular interactions (plasmin, PAI-1, uPAR, and LRP-1A) controlling uPA activities. One of the aptamers (upanap-126) binds to the area around the C-terminal α-helix in pro-uPA, while the other aptamer (upanap-12) binds to both the β-hairpin of the growth factor domain and the kringle domain of uPA. Based on the mapping studies, combined with data from small-angle X-ray scattering analysis, we construct a model for the upanap-12:pro-uPA complex. The results suggest and highlight that the size and shape of an aptamer as well as the domain organization of a multi-domain protein such as uPA, may provide the basis for extensive sterical interference with protein ligand interactions considered distant from the aptamer binding site. PMID:25793507

  1. Discovery of the ammonium substrate site on glutamine synthetase, a third cation binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, S. H.; Kuo, I.; Eisenberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to yield glutamine, ADP, and inorganic phosphate in the presence of divalent cations. Bacterial GS is an enzyme of 12 identical subunits, arranged in two rings of 6, with the active site between each pair of subunits in a ring. In earlier work, we have reported the locations within the funnel-shaped active site of the substrates glutamate and ATP and of the two divalent cations, but the site for ammonia (or ammonium) has remained elusive. Here we report the discovery by X-ray crystallography of a binding site on GS for monovalent cations, Tl+ and Cs+, which is probably the binding site for the substrate ammonium ion. Fourier difference maps show the following. (1) Tl+ and Cs+ bind at essentially the same site, with ligands being Glu 212, Tyr 179, Asp 50', Ser 53' of the adjacent subunit, and the substrate glutamate. From its position adjacent to the substrate glutamate and the cofactor ADP, we propose that this monovalent cation site is the substrate ammonium ion binding site. This proposal is supported by enzyme kinetics. Our kinetic measurements show that Tl+, Cs+, and NH4+ are competitive inhibitors to NH2OH in the gamma-glutamyl transfer reaction. (2) GS is a trimetallic enzyme containing two divalent cation sites (n1, n2) and one monovalent cation site per subunit. These three closely spaced ions are all at the active site: the distance between n1 and n2 is 6 A, between n1 and Tl+ is 4 A, and between n2 and Tl+ is 7 A. Glu 212 and the substrate glutamate are bridging ligands for the n1 ion and Tl+. (3) The presence of a monovalent cation in this site may enhance the structural stability of GS, because of its effect of balancing the negative charges of the substrate glutamate and its ligands and because of strengthening the "side-to-side" intersubunit interaction through the cation-protein bonding. (4) The presence of the cofactor ADP increases the Tl+ binding to GS

  2. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery.

  3. Cloud Computing for Protein-Ligand Binding Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery. PMID:23762824

  4. Receptor-ligand binding sites and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Davies, Matthew N; Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    Within the pharmaceutical industry, the ultimate source of continuing profitability is the unremitting process of drug discovery. To be profitable, drugs must be marketable: legally novel, safe and relatively free of side effects, efficacious, and ideally inexpensive to produce. While drug discovery was once typified by a haphazard and empirical process, it is now increasingly driven by both knowledge of the receptor-mediated basis of disease and how drug molecules interact with receptors and the wider physiome. Medicinal chemistry postulates that to understand a congeneric ligand series, or set thereof, is to understand the nature and requirements of a ligand binding site. Likewise, structural molecular biology posits that to understand a binding site is to understand the nature of ligands bound therein. Reality sits somewhere between these extremes, yet subsumes them both. Complementary to rules of ligand design, arising through decades of medicinal chemistry, structural biology and computational chemistry are able to elucidate the nature of binding site-ligand interactions, facilitating, at both pragmatic and conceptual levels, the drug discovery process.

  5. A computational model of the nicotinic acetylcholine binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez-ruano, Enrique; Iriepa-Canalda, Isabel; Morreale, Antonio; Lipkowitz, Kenny B.

    1999-01-01

    We have derived a model of the nicotinic acetylcholine binding site. This was accomplished by using three known agonists (acetylcholine, nicotine and epibatidine) as templates around which polypeptide side chains, found to be part of the receptor cavity from published molecular biology studies, are allowed to flow freely in molecular dynamics simulations and mold themselves around these templates. The resulting supramolecular complex should thus be a complement, both in terms of steric effects as well as electronic effects, to the agonists and it should be a good estimation of the true receptor cavity structure. The shapes of those minireceptor cavities equilibrated rapidly on the simulation time scale and their structural congruence is very high, implying that a satisfactory model of the nicotinic acetylcholine binding site has been achieved. The computational methodology was internally tested against two rigid and specific antagonists (dihydro-β-erytroidine and erysoidine), that are expected to give rise to a somewhat differently shaped binding site compared to that derived from the agonists. Using these antagonists as templates there were structural reorganizations of the initial receptor cavities leading to distinctly different cavities compared to agonists. This indicates that adequate times and temperatures were used in our computational protocols to achieve equilibrium structures for the agonists. Overall, both minireceptor geometries for agonists and antagonists are similar with the exception of one amino acid (ARG209).

  6. Finding the target sites of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Kazan, Hilal; Lipshitz, Howard D; Morris, Quaid D

    2014-01-01

    RNA–protein interactions differ from DNA–protein interactions because of the central role of RNA secondary structure. Some RNA-binding domains (RBDs) recognize their target sites mainly by their shape and geometry and others are sequence-specific but are sensitive to secondary structure context. A number of small- and large-scale experimental approaches have been developed to measure RNAs associated in vitro and in vivo with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Generalizing outside of the experimental conditions tested by these assays requires computational motif finding. Often RBP motif finding is done by adapting DNA motif finding methods; but modeling secondary structure context leads to better recovery of RBP-binding preferences. Genome-wide assessment of mRNA secondary structure has recently become possible, but these data must be combined with computational predictions of secondary structure before they add value in predicting in vivo binding. There are two main approaches to incorporating structural information into motif models: supplementing primary sequence motif models with preferred secondary structure contexts (e.g., MEMERIS and RNAcontext) and directly modeling secondary structure recognized by the RBP using stochastic context-free grammars (e.g., CMfinder and RNApromo). The former better reconstruct known binding preferences for sequence-specific RBPs but are not suitable for modeling RBPs that recognize shape and geometry of RNAs. Future work in RBP motif finding should incorporate interactions between multiple RBDs and multiple RBPs in binding to RNA. WIREs RNA 2014, 5:111–130. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1201 PMID:24217996

  7. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Brannigan, Grace; Economou, Nicoleta J.

    2009-10-21

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show thatmore » apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.« less

  8. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    L Vedula; G Brannigan; N Economou

    2011-12-31

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show thatmore » apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.« less

  9. A Unitary Anesthetic-Binding Site at High Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula, L.; Brannigan, G; Economou, N

    2009-01-01

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABAA receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritinmore » also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.« less

  10. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulated benzodiazepine binding sites in bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lummis, S.C.R.; Johnston, G.A.R.; Nicoletti, G.

    1991-01-01

    Benzodiazepine binding sites, which were once considered to exist only in higher vertebrates, are here demonstrated in the bacteria E. coli. The bacterial ({sup 3}H)diazepam binding sites are modulated by GABA; the modulation is dose dependent and is reduced at high concentrations. The most potent competitors of E.Coli ({sup 3}H)diazepam binding are those that are active in displacing ({sup 3}H)benzodiazepines from vertebrate peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites. These vertebrate sites are not modulated by GABA, in contrast to vertebrate neuronal benzodiazepine binding sites. The E.coli benzodiazepine binding sites therefore differ from both classes of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites; however the ligandmore » spectrum and GABA-modulatory properties of the E.coli sites are similar to those found in insects. This intermediate type of receptor in lower species suggests a precursor for at least one class of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites may have existed.« less

  11. A novel substance P binding site in rat brain regions modulates TRH receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Sharif, N A

    1990-10-01

    Binding sites for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were labelled with [3H](2-Me-His3)TRH ([3H]MeTRH) on membranes from rat brain regions at 0 degrees C for 5 h. Amygdaloid membranes bound [3H]MeTRH with high-affinity (Kd = 3.1 +/- 0.5 nM (n = 4)). Five TRH analogs competed for this binding with the same rank order and with affinities that matched the pharmacological specificity of pituitary TRH receptors. Substance P (SP) and its C-terminal fragments reduced amygdaloid TRH receptor binding in a concentration dependent manner (IC50 for SP = 65 microM). The rank order of potency of SP analogs at inhibiting TRH receptor binding was: SP greater than nonapeptide (3-11) greater than hexapeptide (6-11) greater than heptapeptide (5-11) greater than pentapeptide (7-11). However, other tachykinins were inactive in this system. SP was a potent inhibitor of [3H]MeTRH binding in hippocampus greater than spinal cord greater than retina greater than n. accumbens greater than hypothalamus greater than amygdaloid greater than olfactory bulb greater than or equal to pituitary greater than pons/medulla in parallel assays. In amygdaloid membranes SP (50 microM) reduced the apparent maximum receptor density by 39% (p less than 0.01) without altering the binding affinity, and 100 microM SP induced a biphasic dissociation of [3H]MeTRH with kinetics faster than those induced by both TRH (10 microM) and serotonin (100 microM). In contrast, other neuropeptides such as neurotensin, proctolin, angiotensin II, bombesin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone did not significantly inhibit [3H]MeTRH binding to amygdaloid membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Where's water? The many binding sites of hydantoin.

    PubMed

    Gruet, Sébastien; Pérez, Cristóbal; Steber, Amanda L; Schnell, Melanie

    2018-02-21

    Prebiotic hydantoin and its complexes with one and two water molecules are investigated using high-resolution broadband rotational spectroscopy in the 2-8 GHz frequency range. The hyperfine structure due to the nuclear quadrupole coupling of the two 14 N atoms is analysed for the monomer and the complexes. This characteristic hyperfine structure will support a definitive assignment from low frequency radioastronomy data. Experiments with H 2 18 O provide accurate experimental information on the preferred binding sites of water, which are compared with quantum-chemically calculated coordinates. In the 2-water complexes, the water molecules bind to hydantoin as a dimer instead of individually, indicating the strong water-water interactions. This information provides first insight on how hydantoin interacts with water on the molecular level.

  13. Site-specific fab fragment biotinylation at the conserved nucleotide binding site for enhanced Ebola detection.

    PubMed

    Mustafaoglu, Nur; Alves, Nathan J; Bilgicer, Basar

    2015-07-01

    The nucleotide binding site (NBS) is a highly conserved region between the variable light and heavy chains at the Fab domains of all antibodies, and a small molecule that we identified, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), binds specifically to this site. Fab fragment, with its small size and simple production methods compared to intact antibody, is good candidate for use in miniaturized diagnostic devices and targeted therapeutic applications. However, commonly used modification techniques are not well suited for Fab fragments as they are often more delicate than intact antibodies. Fab fragments are of particular interest for sensor surface functionalization but immobilization results in damage to the antigen binding site and greatly reduced activity due to their truncated size that allows only a small area that can bind to surfaces without impeding antigen binding. In this study, we describe an NBS-UV photocrosslinking functionalization method (UV-NBS(Biotin) in which a Fab fragment is site-specifically biotinylated with an IBA-EG11-Biotin linker via UV energy exposure (1 J/cm(2)) without affecting its antigen binding activity. This study demonstrates successful immobilization of biotinylated Ebola detecting Fab fragment (KZ52 Fab fragment) via the UV-NBS(Biotin) method yielding 1031-fold and 2-fold better antigen detection sensitivity compared to commonly used immobilization methods: direct physical adsorption and NHS-Biotin functionalization, respectively. Utilization of the UV-NBS(Biotin) method for site-specific conjugation to Fab fragment represents a proof of concept use of Fab fragment for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications with numerous fluorescent probes, affinity molecules and peptides. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cation binding at the node of Ranvier: I. Localization of binding sites during development.

    PubMed

    Zagoren, J C; Raine, C S; Suzuki, K

    1982-06-17

    Cations are known to bind to the node of Ranvier and the paranodal regions of myelinated fibers. The integrity of these specialized structures is essential for normal conduction. Sites of cation binding can be microscopically identified by the electrondense histochemical reaction product formed by the precipitate of copper sulfate/potassium ferrocyanide. This technique was used to study the distribution of cation binding during normal development of myelinating fibers. Sciatic nerves of C57B1 mice, at 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 16, 18, 24 and 30 days of age, were prepared for electron microscopy following fixation in phosphate-buffered 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 1% osmic acid, microdissection and incubation in phosphate-buffered 0.1 M cupric sulfate followed by 0.1 M potassium ferrocyanide. Localization of reaction product was studied by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy, no reaction product was observed prior to 9 days of age. At 13 days, a few nodes and paranodes exhibited reaction product. This increased in frequency and intensity up to 30 days when almost all nodes or paranodes exhibited reaction product. Ultrastructurally, diffuse reaction product was first observed at 3 days of age in the axoplasm of the node, in the paranodal extracellular space of the terminal loops, in the Schwann cell proper and in the terminal loops of Schwann cell cytoplasm. When myelinated axons fulfilled the criteria for mature nodes, reaction product was no longer observed in the Schwann cell cytoplasm, while the intensity of reaction product in the nodal axoplasm and paranodal extracellular space of the terminal loops increased. Reaction product in the latter site appeared to be interrupted by the transverse bands. These results suggest that cation binding accompanies nodal maturity and that the Schwann cell may play a role in production or storage of the cation binding substance during myelinogenesis and development.

  15. Cluster analysis of S. Cerevisiae nucleosome binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, Y.; Korotkov, E.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that major part of a eukaryotic genome is wrapped around histone proteins forming nucleosomes. It was also demonstrated that the DNA sequence itself is playing an important role in the nucleosome positioning process. In this work, a cluster analysis of 67 517 nucleosome binding sites from the S. Cerevisiae genome was carried out. The classification method is based on the self-adjusting dinucleotides position weight matrix. As a result, 135 significant clusters were discovered that contain 43225 sequences (which constitutes 64% of the initial set). The meaning of the found classes is discussed, as well as the possibility of the further usage.

  16. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  17. MONKEY: Identifying conserved transcription-factor binding sitesin multiple alignments using a binding site-specific evolutionarymodel

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Pollard, Daniel A.

    2004-10-28

    We introduce a method (MONKEY) to identify conserved transcription-factor binding sites in multispecies alignments. MONKEY employs probabilistic models of factor specificity and binding site evolution, on which basis we compute the likelihood that putative sites are conserved and assign statistical significance to each hit. Using genomes from the genus Saccharomyces, we illustrate how the significance of real sites increases with evolutionary distance and explore the relationship between conservation and function.

  18. Viral receptor-binding site antibodies with diverse germline origins.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Aaron G; Therkelsen, Matthew D; Stewart, Shaun; Kepler, Thomas B; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M Anthony; Haynes, Barton F; Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-21

    Vaccines for rapidly evolving pathogens will confer lasting immunity if they elicit antibodies recognizing conserved epitopes, such as a receptor-binding site (RBS). From characteristics of an influenza-virus RBS-directed antibody, we devised a signature motif to search for similar antibodies. We identified, from three vaccinees, over 100 candidates encoded by 11 different VH genes. Crystal structures show that antibodies in this class engage the hemagglutinin RBS and mimic binding of the receptor, sialic acid, by supplying a critical dipeptide on their projecting, heavy-chain third complementarity determining region. They share contacts with conserved, receptor-binding residues but contact different residues on the RBS periphery, limiting the likelihood of viral escape when several such antibodies are present. These data show that related modes of RBS recognition can arise from different germline origins and mature through diverse affinity maturation pathways. Immunogens focused on an RBS-directed response will thus have a broad range of B cell targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomy of an engineered NAD-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Mittl, P. R.; Berry, A.; Scrutton, N. S.; Perham, R. N.; Schulz, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    The coenzyme specificity of Escherichia coli glutathione reductase was switched from NADP to NAD by modifying the environment of the 2'-phosphate binding site through a set of point mutations: A179G, A183G, V197E, R198M, K199F, H200D, and R204P (Scrutton NS, Berry A, Perham RN, 1990, Nature 343:38-43). In order to analyze the structural changes involved, we have determined 4 high-resolution crystal structures, i.e., the structures of the wild-type enzyme (1.86 A resolution, R-factor of 16.8%), of the wild-type enzyme ligated with NADP (2.0 A, 20.8%), of the NAD-dependent mutant (1.74 A, 16.8%), and of the NAD-dependent mutant ligated with NAD (2.2 A, 16.9%). A comparison of these structures reveals subtle differences that explain details of the specificity change. In particular, a peptide rotation occurs close to the adenosine ribose, with a concomitant change of the ribose pucker. The mutations cause a contraction of the local chain fold. Furthermore, the engineered NAD-binding site assumes a less rigid structure than the NADP site of the wild-type enzyme. A superposition of the ligated structures shows a displacement of NAD versus NADP such that the electron pathway from the nicotinamide ring to FAD is elongated, which may explain the lower catalytic efficiency of the mutant. Because the nicotinamide is as much as 15 A from the sites of the mutations, this observation reminds us that mutations may have important long-range consequences that are difficult to anticipate. PMID:7833810

  20. Systematic prediction of control proteins and their DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Valeriy; Severinov, Konstantin; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the results of a systematic bioinformatics analysis of control (C) proteins, a class of DNA-binding regulators that control time-delayed transcription of their own genes as well as restriction endonuclease genes in many type II restriction-modification systems. More than 290 C protein homologs were identified and DNA-binding sites for ∼70% of new and previously known C proteins were predicted by a combination of phylogenetic footprinting and motif searches in DNA upstream of C protein genes. Additional analysis revealed that a large proportion of C protein genes are translated from leaderless RNA, which may contribute to time-delayed nature of genetic switches operated by these proteins. Analysis of genetic contexts of newly identified C protein genes revealed that they are not exclusively associated with restriction-modification genes; numerous instances of associations with genes originating from mobile genetic elements were observed. These instances might be vestiges of ancient horizontal transfers and indicate that during evolution ancestral restriction-modification system genes were the sites of mobile elements insertions. PMID:19056824

  1. Effects of cytosine methylation on transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation in promoters is closely linked to downstream gene repression. However, whether DNA methylation is a cause or a consequence of gene repression remains an open question. If it is a cause, then DNA methylation may affect the affinity of transcription factors (TFs) for their binding sites (TFBSs). If it is a consequence, then gene repression caused by chromatin modification may be stabilized by DNA methylation. Until now, these two possibilities have been supported only by non-systematic evidence and they have not been tested on a wide range of TFs. An average promoter methylation is usually used in studies, whereas recent results suggested that methylation of individual cytosines can also be important. Results We found that the methylation profiles of 16.6% of cytosines and the expression profiles of neighboring transcriptional start sites (TSSs) were significantly negatively correlated. We called the CpGs corresponding to such cytosines “traffic lights”. We observed a strong selection against CpG “traffic lights” within TFBSs. The negative selection was stronger for transcriptional repressors as compared with transcriptional activators or multifunctional TFs as well as for core TFBS positions as compared with flanking TFBS positions. Conclusions Our results indicate that direct and selective methylation of certain TFBS that prevents TF binding is restricted to special cases and cannot be considered as a general regulatory mechanism of transcription. PMID:24669864

  2. Oligosaccharyltransferase directly binds to ribosome at a location near the translocon-binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Y.; Li, H.; Li, Hua

    2009-04-28

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OT) transfers high mannose-type glycans to the nascent polypeptides that are translated by the membrane-bound ribosome and translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum through the Sec61 translocon complex. In this article, we show that purified ribosomes and OT can form a binary complex with a stoichiometry of {approx}1 to 1 in the presence of detergent. We present evidence that OT may bind to the large ribosomal subunit near the site where nascent polypeptides exit. We further show that OT and the Sec61 complex can simultaneously bind to ribosomes in vitro. Based on existing data and our findings,more » we propose that cotranslational translocation and N-glycosylation of nascent polypeptides are mediated by a ternary supramolecular complex consisting of OT, the Sec61 complex, and ribosomes.« less

  3. Oligosaccharyltransferase directly binds to ribosome at a location near the translocon-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Yoichiro; Li, Hua; Li, Huilin; Lennarz, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OT) transfers high mannose-type glycans to the nascent polypeptides that are translated by the membrane-bound ribosome and translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum through the Sec61 translocon complex. In this article, we show that purified ribosomes and OT can form a binary complex with a stoichiometry of ≈1 to 1 in the presence of detergent. We present evidence that OT may bind to the large ribosomal subunit near the site where nascent polypeptides exit. We further show that OT and the Sec61 complex can simultaneously bind to ribosomes in vitro. Based on existing data and our findings, we propose that cotranslational translocation and N-glycosylation of nascent polypeptides are mediated by a ternary supramolecular complex consisting of OT, the Sec61 complex, and ribosomes. PMID:19365066

  4. Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Binding Sites in the Brain: Regulation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Rochelle D.; Kellar, Kenneth J.

    1983-04-01

    Tritiated acetylcholine was used to measure binding sites with characteristics of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Regulation of the binding sites in vivo was examined by administering two drugs that stimulate nicotinic receptors directly or indirectly. After 10 days of exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex was decreased. However, after repeated administration of nicotine for 10 days, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cortex was increased. Saturation analysis of tritiated acetylcholine binding in the cortices of rats treated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate or nicotine indicated that the number of binding sites decreased and increased, respectively, while the affinity of the sites was unaltered.

  5. Comprehensive Human Transcription Factor Binding Site Map for Combinatory Binding Motifs Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Molina, Arnoldo J.; Schöler, Hans R.; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.

    2012-01-01

    To know the map between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites is essential to reverse engineer the regulation process. Only about 10%–20% of the transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) have been reported. This lack of data hinders understanding gene regulation. To address this drawback, we propose a computational method that exploits never used TF properties to discover the missing TFBMs and their sites in all human gene promoters. The method starts by predicting a dictionary of regulatory “DNA words.” From this dictionary, it distills 4098 novel predictions. To disclose the crosstalk between motifs, an additional algorithm extracts TF combinatorial binding patterns creating a collection of TF regulatory syntactic rules. Using these rules, we narrowed down a list of 504 novel motifs that appear frequently in syntax patterns. We tested the predictions against 509 known motifs confirming that our system can reliably predict ab initio motifs with an accuracy of 81%—far higher than previous approaches. We found that on average, 90% of the discovered combinatorial binding patterns target at least 10 genes, suggesting that to control in an independent manner smaller gene sets, supplementary regulatory mechanisms are required. Additionally, we discovered that the new TFBMs and their combinatorial patterns convey biological meaning, targeting TFs and genes related to developmental functions. Thus, among all the possible available targets in the genome, the TFs tend to regulate other TFs and genes involved in developmental functions. We provide a comprehensive resource for regulation analysis that includes a dictionary of “DNA words,” newly predicted motifs and their corresponding combinatorial patterns. Combinatorial patterns are a useful filter to discover TFBMs that play a major role in orchestrating other factors and thus, are likely to lock/unlock cellular functional clusters. PMID:23209563

  6. Comprehensive human transcription factor binding site map for combinatory binding motifs discovery.

    PubMed

    Müller-Molina, Arnoldo J; Schöler, Hans R; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2012-01-01

    To know the map between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites is essential to reverse engineer the regulation process. Only about 10%-20% of the transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) have been reported. This lack of data hinders understanding gene regulation. To address this drawback, we propose a computational method that exploits never used TF properties to discover the missing TFBMs and their sites in all human gene promoters. The method starts by predicting a dictionary of regulatory "DNA words." From this dictionary, it distills 4098 novel predictions. To disclose the crosstalk between motifs, an additional algorithm extracts TF combinatorial binding patterns creating a collection of TF regulatory syntactic rules. Using these rules, we narrowed down a list of 504 novel motifs that appear frequently in syntax patterns. We tested the predictions against 509 known motifs confirming that our system can reliably predict ab initio motifs with an accuracy of 81%-far higher than previous approaches. We found that on average, 90% of the discovered combinatorial binding patterns target at least 10 genes, suggesting that to control in an independent manner smaller gene sets, supplementary regulatory mechanisms are required. Additionally, we discovered that the new TFBMs and their combinatorial patterns convey biological meaning, targeting TFs and genes related to developmental functions. Thus, among all the possible available targets in the genome, the TFs tend to regulate other TFs and genes involved in developmental functions. We provide a comprehensive resource for regulation analysis that includes a dictionary of "DNA words," newly predicted motifs and their corresponding combinatorial patterns. Combinatorial patterns are a useful filter to discover TFBMs that play a major role in orchestrating other factors and thus, are likely to lock/unlock cellular functional clusters.

  7. DeepSite: protein-binding site predictor using 3D-convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Doerr, S; Martínez-Rosell, G; Rose, A S; De Fabritiis, G

    2017-10-01

    An important step in structure-based drug design consists in the prediction of druggable binding sites. Several algorithms for detecting binding cavities, those likely to bind to a small drug compound, have been developed over the years by clever exploitation of geometric, chemical and evolutionary features of the protein. Here we present a novel knowledge-based approach that uses state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks, where the algorithm is learned by examples. In total, 7622 proteins from the scPDB database of binding sites have been evaluated using both a distance and a volumetric overlap approach. Our machine-learning based method demonstrates superior performance to two other competitive algorithmic strategies. DeepSite is freely available at www.playmolecule.org. Users can submit either a PDB ID or PDB file for pocket detection to our NVIDIA GPU-equipped servers through a WebGL graphical interface. gianni.defabritiis@upf.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibitionmore » exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the

  9. Paracetamol and cytarabine binding competition in high affinity binding sites of transporting protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2006-07-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, AA) the most popular analgesic drug is commonly used in the treatment of pain in patients suffering from cancer. In our studies, we evaluated the competition in binding with serum albumin between paracetamol (AA) and cytarabine, antyleukemic drug (araC). The presence of one drug can alter the binding affinity of albumin towards the second one. Such interaction can result in changing of the free fraction of the one of these drugs in blood. Two spectroscopic methods were used to determine high affinity binding sites and the competition of the drugs. Basing on the change of the serum albumin fluorescence in the presence of either of the drugs the quenching ( KQ) constants for the araC-BSA and AA-BSA systems were calculated. Analysis of UV difference spectra allowed us to describe the changes in drug-protein complexes (araC-albumin and AA-albumin) induced by the presence of the second drug (AA and araC, respectively). The mechanism of competition between araC and AA has been proposed.

  10. Revealing multi-binding sites for taspine to VEGFR-2 by cell membrane chromatography zonal elution.

    PubMed

    Du, Hui; Wang, Sicen; Ren, Jing; Lv, Nan; He, Langchong

    2012-03-01

    A new high-expression vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method was developed to investigate the affinity of ligands for VEGFR-2. An HEK293 VEGFR-2/CMC system was applied to specifically recognize ligands acting on VEGFR-2. Sorafenib was used as a mobile phase additive to evaluate the effect of the marker's concentration on the retention of sorafenib and taspine, respectively. The relationship among the retention, the types of binding sites and the affinity of taspine binding to VEGFR-2 has also been concerned. The retention behavior indicated that sorafenib had two major binding regions on VEGFR-2, and that taspine might act as a multi-target VEGFR-2 inhibitor with similar biological activity to sorafenib. The equilibrium dissociation constants (K(D)) obtained from the model are (5.25 ± 0.31) × 10⁻⁷ and (9.88 ± 0.54) × 10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹ for sorafenib at the high- and low-affinity sites, respectively, and the corresponding values for taspine are (3.88 ± 0.31) × 10⁻⁶ and (7.04 ± 0.49)×10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹. The two types of binding sites contributed about a 1:2 ratio on the retention of taspine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigenetic priors for identifying active transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Buske, Fabian A; McLeay, Robert C; Whitington, Tom; Noble, William Stafford; Bailey, Timothy L

    2012-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the genome-wide binding of transcription factors in a particular cell type or under a particular condition is necessary for understanding transcriptional regulation. Using epigenetic data such as histone modification and DNase I, accessibility data has been shown to improve motif-based in silico methods for predicting such binding, but this approach has not yet been fully explored. We describe a probabilistic method for combining one or more tracks of epigenetic data with a standard DNA sequence motif model to improve our ability to identify active transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We convert each data type into a position-specific probabilistic prior and combine these priors with a traditional probabilistic motif model to compute a log-posterior odds score. Our experiments, using histone modifications H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K9ac and H3K27ac, as well as DNase I sensitivity, show conclusively that the log-posterior odds score consistently outperforms a simple binary filter based on the same data. We also show that our approach performs competitively with a more complex method, CENTIPEDE, and suggest that the relative simplicity of the log-posterior odds scoring method makes it an appealing and very general method for identifying functional TFBSs on the basis of DNA and epigenetic evidence. FIMO, part of the MEME Suite software toolkit, now supports log-posterior odds scoring using position-specific priors for motif search. A web server and source code are available at http://meme.nbcr.net. Utilities for creating priors are at http://research.imb.uq.edu.au/t.bailey/SD/Cuellar2011. t.bailey@uq.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Functional impact of HIV coreceptor-binding site mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Biscone, Mark J.; Miamidian, John L.; Muchiri, John M.

    2006-07-20

    The bridging sheet region of the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 Env protein interacts with the major virus coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. We examined the impact of mutations in and adjacent to the bridging sheet region of an X4 tropic HIV-1 on membrane fusion and entry inhibitor susceptibility. When the V3-loop of this Env was changed so that CCR5 was used, the effects of these same mutations on CCR5 use were assayed as well. We found that coreceptor-binding site mutations had greater effects on CXCR4-mediated fusion and infection than when CCR5 was used as a coreceptor, perhaps related to differencesmore » in coreceptor affinity. The mutations also reduced use of the alternative coreceptors CCR3 and CCR8 to varying degrees, indicating that the bridging sheet region is important for the efficient utilization of both major and minor HIV coreceptors. As seen before with a primary R5 virus strain, bridging sheet mutations increased susceptibility to the CCR5 inhibitor TAK-779, which correlated with CCR5 binding efficiency. Bridging sheet mutations also conferred increased susceptibility to the CXCR4 ligand AMD-3100 in the context of the X4 tropic Env. However, these mutations had little effect on the rate of membrane fusion and little effect on susceptibility to enfuvirtide, a membrane fusion inhibitor whose activity is dependent in part on the rate of Env-mediated membrane fusion. Thus, mutations that reduce coreceptor binding and enhance susceptibility to coreceptor inhibitors can affect fusion and enfuvirtide susceptibility in an Env context-dependent manner.« less

  13. Idiosyncrasies of hnRNP A1-RNA recognition: Can binding mode influence function.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey D; Tolbert, Blanton S

    2018-04-09

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a diverse family of RNA binding proteins that function in most stages of RNA metabolism. The prototypical member, hnRNP A1, is composed of three major domains; tandem N-terminal RNA Recognition Motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal mostly intrinsically disordered region. HnRNP A1 is broadly implicated in basic cellular RNA processing events such as splicing, stability, nuclear export and translation. Due to its ubiquity and abundance, hnRNP A1 is also frequently usurped to control viral gene expression. Deregulation of the RNA metabolism functions of hnRNP A1 in neuronal cells contributes to several neurodegenerative disorders. Because of these roles in human pathologies, the study of hnRNP A1 provides opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics, with disruption of its RNA binding capabilities being the most promising target. The functional diversity of hnRNP A1 is reflected in the complex nature by which it interacts with various RNA targets. Indeed, hnRNP A1 binds both structured and unstructured RNAs with binding affinities that span several magnitudes. Available structures of hnRNP A1-RNA complexes also suggest a degree of plasticity in molecular recognition. Given the reinvigoration in hnRNP A1, the goal of this review is to use the available structural biochemical developments as a framework to interpret its wide-range of RNA functions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Target-mediated drug disposition model for drugs with two binding sites that bind to a target with one binding site.

    PubMed

    Gibiansky, Leonid; Gibiansky, Ekaterina

    2017-10-01

    The paper extended the TMDD model to drugs with two identical binding sites (2-1 TMDD). The quasi-steady-state (2-1 QSS), quasi-equilibrium (2-1 QE), irreversible binding (2-1 IB), and Michaelis-Menten (2-1 MM) approximations of the model were derived. Using simulations, the 2-1 QSS approximation was compared with the full 2-1 TMDD model. As expected and similarly to the standard TMDD for monoclonal antibodies (mAb), 2-1 QSS predictions were nearly identical to 2-1 TMDD predictions, except for times of fast changes following initiation of dosing, when equilibrium has not yet been reached. To illustrate properties of new equations and approximations, several variations of population PK data for mAbs with soluble (slow elimination of the complex) or membrane-bound (fast elimination of the complex) targets were simulated from a full 2-1 TMDD model and fitted to 2-1 TMDD models, to its approximations, and to the standard (1-1) QSS model. For a mAb with a soluble target, it was demonstrated that the 2-1 QSS model provided nearly identical description of the observed (simulated) free drug and total target concentrations, although there was some minor bias in predictions of unobserved free target concentrations. The standard QSS approximation also provided a good description of the observed data, but was not able to distinguish between free drug concentrations (with no target attached and both binding site free) and partially bound drug concentrations (with one of the binding sites occupied by the target). For a mAb with a membrane-bound target, the 2-1 MM approximation adequately described the data. The 2-1 QSS approximation converged 10 times faster than the full 2-1 TMDD, and its run time was comparable with the standard QSS model.

  15. Discovery and information-theoretic characterization of transcription factor binding sites that act cooperatively.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Jacob; Adami, Christoph

    2015-09-02

    Transcription factor binding to the surface of DNA regulatory regions is one of the primary causes of regulating gene expression levels. A probabilistic approach to model protein-DNA interactions at the sequence level is through position weight matrices (PWMs) that estimate the joint probability of a DNA binding site sequence by assuming positional independence within the DNA sequence. Here we construct conditional PWMs that depend on the motif signatures in the flanking DNA sequence, by conditioning known binding site loci on the presence or absence of additional binding sites in the flanking sequence of each site's locus. Pooling known sites with similar flanking sequence patterns allows for the estimation of the conditional distribution function over the binding site sequences. We apply our model to the Dorsal transcription factor binding sites active in patterning the Dorsal-Ventral axis of Drosophila development. We find that those binding sites that cooperate with nearby Twist sites on average contain about 0.5 bits of information about the presence of Twist transcription factor binding sites in the flanking sequence. We also find that Dorsal binding site detectors conditioned on flanking sequence information make better predictions about what is a Dorsal site relative to background DNA than detection without information about flanking sequence features.

  16. Transcription factor target site search and gene regulation in a background of unspecific binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hettich, J; Gebhardt, J C M

    2018-06-02

    Response time and transcription level are vital parameters of gene regulation. They depend on how fast transcription factors (TFs) find and how efficient they occupy their specific target sites. It is well known that target site search is accelerated by TF binding to and sliding along unspecific DNA and that unspecific associations alter the occupation frequency of a gene. However, whether target site search time and occupation frequency can be optimized simultaneously is mostly unclear. We developed a transparent and intuitively accessible state-based formalism to calculate search times to target sites on and occupation frequencies of promoters of arbitrary state structure. Our formalism is based on dissociation rate constants experimentally accessible in live cell experiments. To demonstrate our approach, we consider promoters activated by a single TF, by two coactivators or in the presence of a competitive inhibitor. We find that target site search time and promoter occupancy differentially vary with the unspecific dissociation rate constant. Both parameters can be harmonized by adjusting the specific dissociation rate constant of the TF. However, while measured DNA residence times of various eukaryotic TFs correspond to a fast search time, the occupation frequencies of target sites are generally low. Cells might tolerate low target site occupancies as they enable timely gene regulation in response to a changing environment. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence that Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Binds to Human Serum Albumin at Fatty Acid Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    James, Joel; Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Kulshrestha, Shweta; Goel, Varun; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress elicits unfolded protein response to counteract the accumulating unfolded protein load inside a cell. The chemical chaperone, 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is a FDA approved drug that alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress by assisting protein folding. It is found efficacious to augment pathological conditions like type 2 diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. This study explores the binding nature of 4-PBA with human serum albumin (HSA) through spectroscopic and molecular dynamics approaches, and the results show that 4-PBA has high binding specificity to Sudlow Site II (Fatty acid binding site 3, subdomain IIIA). Ligand displacement studies, RMSD stabilization profiles and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation confirm the same. The binding constant as calculated from fluorescence spectroscopic studies was found to be kPBA = 2.69 x 105 M-1. Like long chain fatty acids, 4-PBA induces conformational changes on HSA as shown by circular dichroism, and it elicits stable binding at Sudlow Site II (fatty acid binding site 3) by forming strong hydrogen bonding and a salt bridge between domain II and III of HSA. This minimizes the fluctuation of HSA backbone as shown by limited conformational space occupancy in the principal component analysis. The overall hydrophobicity of W214 pocket (located at subdomain IIA), increases upon occupancy of 4-PBA at any FA site. Descriptors of this pocket formed by residues from other subdomains largely play a role in compensating the dynamic movement of W214. PMID:26181488

  18. Identification and characterization of a novel high affinity metal-binding site in the hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M R; Simorre, J P; Hanson, P; Mokler, V; Bellon, L; Beigelman, L; Pardi, A

    1999-01-01

    A novel metal-binding site has been identified in the hammerhead ribozyme by 31P NMR. The metal-binding site is associated with the A13 phosphate in the catalytic core of the hammerhead ribozyme and is distinct from any previously identified metal-binding sites. 31P NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the metal-binding affinity for this site and leads to an apparent dissociation constant of 250-570 microM at 25 degrees C for binding of a single Mg2+ ion. The NMR data also show evidence of a structural change at this site upon metal binding and these results are compared with previous data on metal-induced structural changes in the core of the hammerhead ribozyme. These NMR data were combined with the X-ray structure of the hammerhead ribozyme (Pley HW, Flaherty KM, McKay DB. 1994. Nature 372:68-74) to model RNA ligands involved in binding the metal at this A13 site. In this model, the A13 metal-binding site is structurally similar to the previously identified A(g) metal-binding site and illustrates the symmetrical nature of the tandem G x A base pairs in domain 2 of the hammerhead ribozyme. These results demonstrate that 31P NMR represents an important method for both identification and characterization of metal-binding sites in nucleic acids. PMID:10445883

  19. Substance P binding sites in the nucleus tractus solitarius of the cat

    SciTech Connect

    Maley, B.E.; Sasek, C.A.; Seybold, V.S.

    1988-11-01

    Substance P binding sites in the nucleus tractus solitarius were visualized with receptor autoradiography using Bolton-Hunter (/sup 125/I)substance P. Substance P binding sites were found to have distinct patterns within the cat nucleus tractus solitarius. The majority of substance P binding sites were present in the medial, intermediate and the peripheral rim of the parvocellular subdivisions. Lower amounts of substance P binding sites were present in the commissural, ventrolateral, interstitial and dorsolateral subdivisions. No substance P binding sites were present in the central region of the parvocellular subdivision or the solitary tract. The localization of substance P binding sites inmore » the nucleus tractus solitarius is very similar to the patterns of substance P immunoreactive fibers previously described for this region. Results of this study add further support for a functional role of substance P in synaptic circuits of the nucleus tractus solitarius.« less

  20. Rate constants for proteins binding to substrates with multiple binding sites using a generalized forward flux sampling expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaykumar, Adithya; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2018-03-01

    To predict the response of a biochemical system, knowledge of the intrinsic and effective rate constants of proteins is crucial. The experimentally accessible effective rate constant for association can be decomposed in a diffusion-limited rate at which proteins come into contact and an intrinsic association rate at which the proteins in contact truly bind. Reversely, when dissociating, bound proteins first separate into a contact pair with an intrinsic dissociation rate, before moving away by diffusion. While microscopic expressions exist that enable the calculation of the intrinsic and effective rate constants by conducting a single rare event simulation of the protein dissociation reaction, these expressions are only valid when the substrate has just one binding site. If the substrate has multiple binding sites, a bound enzyme can, besides dissociating into the bulk, also hop to another binding site. Calculating transition rate constants between multiple states with forward flux sampling requires a generalized rate expression. We present this expression here and use it to derive explicit expressions for all intrinsic and effective rate constants involving binding to multiple states, including rebinding. We illustrate our approach by computing the intrinsic and effective association, dissociation, and hopping rate constants for a system in which a patchy particle model enzyme binds to a substrate with two binding sites. We find that these rate constants increase as a function of the rotational diffusion constant of the particles. The hopping rate constant decreases as a function of the distance between the binding sites. Finally, we find that blocking one of the binding sites enhances both association and dissociation rate constants. Our approach and results are important for understanding and modeling association reactions in enzyme-substrate systems and other patchy particle systems and open the way for large multiscale simulations of such systems.

  1. Comparisons of Prostate Cancer Inhibitors Abiraterone and TOK-001 Binding with CYP17A1 through Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Maohua; Xu, Youjun; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is associated in the steroid hormone biosynthesis in human. As cell proliferation of prostate cancer in response to androgen steroid, an inhibition of CYP17A1 becomes an alternative approach to inhibit biosynthesis of androgen and support treatment of prostate cancer. However, biology-driven inhibitor development of prostate cancer is poorly elucidated. The aims of this study are to address structural differences at atomic-level between CYP17A1 and inhibitors i.e., abiraterone and TOK-001, and further investigate the effect of point mutation of CYP17A1 on the active site stability and the local interactions that are hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding throughout molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. After performing multiple comparisons among four different complexes across CYP17A1 and inhibitors, interestingly TOK-001 oriented toward the active pocket and formed larger volume with I-helix of CYP17A1 than abiraterone, whereas abiraterone showed tighter binding and more active site stability. Considering on the effect of hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding between abiraterone and CYP17A1, the key residues of Phe114, Ile371, Val482, and Asn202 were identified. This contributes into tight binding interactions; however abiraterone is effectively weakened along with the global conformation mobility increased in A105L mutation. Surprisingly, overall conformation of the CYP17A1 remained stable when bound to TOK-001. This basic knowledge can guide future experiments on design of efficient inhibitors for CYP17A1, which provides theoretical basis of androgen-dependent disease therapy.

  2. Comparisons of Prostate Cancer Inhibitors Abiraterone and TOK-001 Binding with CYP17A1 through Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Maohua; Xu, Youjun; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is associated in the steroid hormone biosynthesis in human. As cell proliferation of prostate cancer in response to androgen steroid, an inhibition of CYP17A1 becomes an alternative approach to inhibit biosynthesis of androgen and support treatment of prostate cancer. However, biology-driven inhibitor development of prostate cancer is poorly elucidated. The aims of this study are to address structural differences at atomic-level between CYP17A1 and inhibitors i.e., abiraterone and TOK-001, and further investigate the effect of point mutation of CYP17A1 on the active site stability and the local interactions that are hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding throughout molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. After performing multiple comparisons among four different complexes across CYP17A1 and inhibitors, interestingly TOK-001 oriented toward the active pocket and formed larger volume with I-helix of CYP17A1 than abiraterone, whereas abiraterone showed tighter binding and more active site stability. Considering on the effect of hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding between abiraterone and CYP17A1, the key residues of Phe114, Ile371, Val482, and Asn202 were identified. This contributes into tight binding interactions; however abiraterone is effectively weakened along with the global conformation mobility increased in A105L mutation. Surprisingly, overall conformation of the CYP17A1 remained stable when bound to TOK-001. This basic knowledge can guide future experiments on design of efficient inhibitors for CYP17A1, which provides theoretical basis of androgen-dependent disease therapy. PMID:26682016

  3. Modeling Complex Equilibria in ITC Experiments: Thermodynamic Parameters Estimation for a Three Binding Site Model

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vu H.; Buscaglia, Robert; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Lewis, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, ITC, is a powerful technique that can be used to estimate a complete set of thermodynamic parameters (e.g. Keq (or ΔG), ΔH, ΔS, and n) for a ligand binding interaction described by a thermodynamic model. Thermodynamic models are constructed by combination of equilibrium constant, mass balance, and charge balance equations for the system under study. Commercial ITC instruments are supplied with software that includes a number of simple interaction models, for example one binding site, two binding sites, sequential sites, and n-independent binding sites. More complex models for example, three or more binding sites, one site with multiple binding mechanisms, linked equilibria, or equilibria involving macromolecular conformational selection through ligand binding need to be developed on a case by case basis by the ITC user. In this paper we provide an algorithm (and a link to our MATLAB program) for the non-linear regression analysis of a multiple binding site model with up to four overlapping binding equilibria. Error analysis demonstrates that fitting ITC data for multiple parameters (e.g. up to nine parameters in the three binding site model) yields thermodynamic parameters with acceptable accuracy. PMID:23262283

  4. Characterization of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) binding sites in cultured chromaffin cells: evidence for a P2y site.

    PubMed Central

    Pintor, J.; Torres, M.; Castro, E.; Miras-Portugal, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    1. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) a dinucleotide, which is stored in secretory granules, presents two types of high affinity binding sites in chromaffin cells. A Kd value of 8 +/- 0.65 x 10(-11) M and Bmax value of 5420 +/- 450 sites per cell were obtained for the high affinity binding site. A Kd value of 5.6 +/- 0.53 x 10(-9) M and a Bmax value close to 70,000 sites per cell were obtained for the second binding site with high affinity. 2. The diadenosine polyphosphates, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A, displaced [3H]-Ap4A from the two binding sites, the Ki values being 1.0 nM, 0.013 nM, 0.013 nM and 0.013 nM for the very high affinity binding site and 0.5 microM, 0.13 microM, 0.062 microM and 0.75 microM for the second binding site. 3. The ATP analogues displaced [3H]-Ap4A with the potency order of the P2y receptors, adenosine 5'-O-(2 thiodiphosphate) (ADP-beta-S) greater than 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) greater than alpha, beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-MeATP), in both binding sites. The Ki values were respectively 0.075 nM, 0.2 nM and 0.75 nM for the very high affinity binding site and 0.125 microM, 0.5 microM and 0.9 microM for the second binding site. PMID:1912985

  5. Platelet binding sites for factor VIII in relation to fibrin and phosphatidylserine

    PubMed Central

    Novakovic, Valerie A.; Shi, Jialan; Rasmussen, Jan; Pipe, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin-stimulated platelets expose very little phosphatidylserine (PS) but express binding sites for factor VIII (fVIII), casting doubt on the role of exposed PS as the determinant of binding sites. We previously reported that fVIII binding sites are increased three- to sixfold when soluble fibrin (SF) binds the αIIbβ3 integrin. This study focuses on the hypothesis that platelet-bound SF is the major source of fVIII binding sites. Less than 10% of fVIII was displaced from thrombin-stimulated platelets by lactadherin, a PS-binding protein, and an fVIII mutant defective in PS-dependent binding retained platelet affinity. Therefore, PS is not the determinant of most binding sites. FVIII bound immobilized SF and paralleled platelet binding in affinity, dependence on separation from von Willebrand factor, and mediation by the C2 domain. SF also enhanced activity of fVIII in the factor Xase complex by two- to fourfold. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESH8, against the fVIII C2 domain, inhibited binding of fVIII to SF and platelets but not to PS-containing vesicles. Similarly, mAb ESH4 against the C2 domain, inhibited >90% of platelet-dependent fVIII activity vs 35% of vesicle-supported activity. These results imply that platelet-bound SF is a component of functional fVIII binding sites. PMID:26162408

  6. Identification of a Second Substrate-binding Site in Solute-Sodium Symporters*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Lee, Ashley S. E.; Bracher, Susanne; Jung, Heinrich; Paz, Aviv; Kumar, Jay P.; Abramson, Jeff; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT), a solute-sodium symporter (SSS) from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shares a common structural fold with LeuT of the neurotransmitter-sodium symporter family. Structural alignments between LeuT and vSGLT reveal that the crystallographically identified galactose-binding site in vSGLT is located in a more extracellular location relative to the central substrate-binding site (S1) in LeuT. Our computational analyses suggest the existence of an additional galactose-binding site in vSGLT that aligns to the S1 site of LeuT. Radiolabeled galactose saturation binding experiments indicate that, like LeuT, vSGLT can simultaneously bind two substrate molecules under equilibrium conditions. Mutating key residues in the individual substrate-binding sites reduced the molar substrate-to-protein binding stoichiometry to ∼1. In addition, the related and more experimentally tractable SSS member PutP (the Na+/proline transporter) also exhibits a binding stoichiometry of 2. Targeting residues in the proposed sites with mutations results in the reduction of the binding stoichiometry and is accompanied by severely impaired translocation of proline. Our data suggest that substrate transport by SSS members requires both substrate-binding sites, thereby implying that SSSs and neurotransmitter-sodium symporters share common mechanistic elements in substrate transport. PMID:25398883

  7. A tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins from PDB structures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Yan, Changhui

    2009-08-03

    In the research on protein functional sites, researchers often need to identify binding-site residues on a protein. A commonly used strategy is to find a complex structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that consists of the protein of interest and its interacting partner(s) and calculate binding-site residues based on the complex structure. However, since a protein may participate in multiple interactions, the binding-site residues calculated based on one complex structure usually do not reveal all binding sites on a protein. Thus, this requires researchers to find all PDB complexes that contain the protein of interest and combine the binding-site information gleaned from them. This process is very time-consuming. Especially, combing binding-site information obtained from different PDB structures requires tedious work to align protein sequences. The process becomes overwhelmingly difficult when researchers have a large set of proteins to analyze, which is usually the case in practice. In this study, we have developed a tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins, TCBRP http://yanbioinformatics.cs.usu.edu:8080/ppbindingsubmit. For an input protein, TCBRP can quickly find all binding-site residues on the protein by automatically combining the information obtained from all PDB structures that consist of the protein of interest. Additionally, TCBRP presents the binding-site residues in different categories according to the interaction type. TCBRP also allows researchers to set the definition of binding-site residues. The developed tool is very useful for the research on protein binding site analysis and prediction.

  8. Hydrolysis at One of the Two Nucleotide-binding Sites Drives the Dissociation of ATP-binding Cassette Nucleotide-binding Domain Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, M. E.; Altenberg, G. A.

    The functional unit of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters consists of two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). ATP binding elicits association of the two NBDs, forming a dimer in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides “sandwiched” at the dimer interface. Each of the two nucleotide-binding sites is formed by residues from the two NBDs. We recently found that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii dimerizes in response to ATP binding and dissociates completely following ATP hydrolysis. However, it is still unknown whether dissociation of NBD dimers follows ATP hydrolysis at one or both nucleotide-binding sites. Here, we usedmore » luminescence resonance energy transfer to study heterodimers formed by one active (donor-labeled) and one catalytically defective (acceptor-labeled) NBD. Rapid mixing experiments in a stop-flow chamber showed that NBD heterodimers with one functional and one inactive site dissociated at a rate indistinguishable from that of dimers with two hydrolysis-competent sites. Comparison of the rates of NBD dimer dissociation and ATP hydrolysis indicated that dissociation followed hydrolysis of one ATP. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dimer dissociation.« less

  9. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using ({sup 125}I)melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37{degree}C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8more » fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the ({sup 125}I)melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland.« less

  10. Rapid comparison of protein binding site surfaces with Property Encoded Shape Distributions (PESD)

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sourav; Kokardekar, Arshad

    2009-01-01

    Patterns in shape and property distributions on the surface of binding sites are often conserved across functional proteins without significant conservation of the underlying amino-acid residues. To explore similarities of these sites from the viewpoint of a ligand, a sequence and fold-independent method was created to rapidly and accurately compare binding sites of proteins represented by property-mapped triangulated Gauss-Connolly surfaces. Within this paradigm, signatures for each binding site surface are produced by calculating their property-encoded shape distributions (PESD), a measure of the probability that a particular property will be at a specific distance to another on the molecular surface. Similarity between the signatures can then be treated as a measure of similarity between binding sites. As postulated, the PESD method rapidly detected high levels of similarity in binding site surface characteristics even in cases where there was very low similarity at the sequence level. In a screening experiment involving each member of the PDBBind 2005 dataset as a query against the rest of the set, PESD was able to retrieve a binding site with identical E.C. (Enzyme Commission) numbers as the top match in 79.5% of cases. The ability of the method in detecting similarity in binding sites with low sequence conservations were compared with state-of-the-art binding site comparison methods. PMID:19919089

  11. TEMPLE: analysing population genetic variation at transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Litovchenko, Maria; Laurent, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Genetic variation occurring at the level of regulatory sequences can affect phenotypes and fitness in natural populations. This variation can be analysed in a population genetic framework to study how genetic drift and selection affect the evolution of these functional elements. However, doing this requires a good understanding of the location and nature of regulatory regions and has long been a major hurdle. The current proliferation of genomewide profiling experiments of transcription factor occupancies greatly improves our ability to identify genomic regions involved in specific DNA-protein interactions. Although software exists for predicting transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), and the effects of genetic variants on TFBS specificity, there are no tools currently available for inferring this information jointly with the genetic variation at TFBS in natural populations. We developed the software Transcription Elements Mapping at the Population LEvel (TEMPLE), which predicts TFBS, evaluates the effects of genetic variants on TFBS specificity and summarizes the genetic variation occurring at TFBS in intraspecific sequence alignments. We demonstrate that TEMPLE's TFBS prediction algorithms gives identical results to PATSER, a software distribution commonly used in the field. We also illustrate the unique features of TEMPLE by analysing TFBS diversity for the TF Senseless (SENS) in one ancestral and one cosmopolitan population of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. TEMPLE can be used to localize TFBS that are characterized by strong genetic differentiation across natural populations. This will be particularly useful for studies aiming to identify adaptive mutations. TEMPLE is a java-based cross-platform software that easily maps the genetic diversity at predicted TFBSs using a graphical interface, or from the Unix command line. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Distribution and diversity of ribosome binding sites in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Omotajo, Damilola; Tate, Travis; Cho, Hyuk; Choudhary, Madhusudan

    2015-08-14

    Prokaryotic translation initiation involves the proper docking, anchoring, and accommodation of mRNA to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, and IF3) and some ribosomal proteins mediate the assembly and activation of the translation initiation complex. Although the interaction between Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence and its complementary sequence in the 16S rRNA is important in initiation, some genes lacking an SD ribosome binding site (RBS) are still well expressed. The objective of this study is to examine the pattern of distribution and diversity of RBS in fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The following three hypotheses were tested: SD motifs are prevalent in bacterial genomes; all previously identified SD motifs are uniformly distributed across prokaryotes; and genes with specific cluster of orthologous gene (COG) functions differ in their use of SD motifs. Data for 2,458 bacterial genomes, previously generated by Prodigal (PROkaryotic DYnamic programming Gene-finding ALgorithm) and currently available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), were analyzed. Of the total genes examined, ~77.0% use an SD RBS, while ~23.0% have no RBS. Majority of the genes with the most common SD motifs are distributed in a manner that is representative of their abundance for each COG functional category, while motifs 13 (5'-GGA-3'/5'-GAG-3'/5'-AGG-3') and 27 (5'-AGGAGG-3') appear to be predominantly used by genes for information storage and processing, and translation and ribosome biogenesis, respectively. These findings suggest that an SD sequence is not obligatory for translation initiation; instead, other signals, such as the RBS spacer, may have an overarching influence on translation of mRNAs. Subsequent analyses of the 5' secondary structure of these mRNAs may provide further insight into the translation initiation mechanism.

  13. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55

    DOE PAGES

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; ...

    2015-03-09

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define themore » active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ~30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Furthermore, application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties.« less

  14. Expression and GTP sensitivity of peptide histidine isoleucine high-affinity-binding sites in rat.

    PubMed

    Debaigt, Colin; Meunier, Annie-Claire; Goursaud, Stephanie; Montoni, Alicia; Pineau, Nicolas; Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc; Muller, Jean-Marc; Janet, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    High-affinity-binding sites for the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogs peptide histidine/isoleucine-amide (PHI)/carboxyterminal methionine instead of isoleucine (PHM) are expressed in numerous tissues in the body but the nature of their receptors remains to be elucidated. The data presented indicate that PHI discriminated a high-affinity guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-insensitive-binding subtype that represented the totality of the PHI-binding sites in newborn rat tissues but was differentially expressed in adult animals. The GTP-insensitive PHI/PHM-binding sites were also observed in CHO cells over expressing the VPAC2 but not the VPAC1 VIP receptor.

  15. Statistical Profiling of One Promiscuous Protein Binding Site: Illustrated by Urokinase Catalytic Domain.

    PubMed

    Cerisier, Natacha; Regad, Leslie; Triki, Dhoha; Petitjean, Michel; Flatters, Delphine; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2017-10-01

    While recent literature focuses on drug promiscuity, the characterization of promiscuous binding sites (ability to bind several ligands) remains to be explored. Here, we present a proteochemometric modeling approach to analyze diverse ligands and corresponding multiple binding sub-pockets associated with one promiscuous binding site to characterize protein-ligand recognition. We analyze both geometrical and physicochemical profile correspondences. This approach was applied to examine the well-studied druggable urokinase catalytic domain inhibitor binding site, which results in a large number of complex structures bound to various ligands. This approach emphasizes the importance of jointly characterizing pocket and ligand spaces to explore the impact of ligand diversity on sub-pocket properties and to establish their main profile correspondences. This work supports an interest in mining available 3D holo structures associated with a promiscuous binding site to explore its main protein-ligand recognition tendency. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hb taradale [beta82(EF6)Lys-->Arg]: a novel mutation at a 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Stephen O; Sheen, Campbell; Chan, Tim; George, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    Hb Taradale [beta82(EF6)Lys-->Arg] was initially detected as a split Hb A0 peak on Hb A1c, monitoring. Red cell parameters, hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis and stability tests were normal. Mass spectrometry (ms) clearly identified a variant beta chain with a mass increase of 28 Da and peptide mapping located the mutation site to peptide betaT-9. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of a novel beta82(EF6)Lys-->Arg mutation. This conservative substitution at a 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) binding site did not, however, appear to affect the P50 for oxygen binding.

  17. The Polar and Electrical Nature of Dye Binding Sites on Human Red Blood Cell Membranes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    positive charges at the binding sites. By increasing the concentration of the anionic BPB (or by the addition of the anionic detergent sodium lauryl ... sulfate ) these positive charges appear to be successively titrated, rendering the membrane binding sites electrically neutral at this pH. The average

  18. The binding sites of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies on acetylcholinesterase. Identification of a novel regulatory site at the putative "back door".

    PubMed

    Simon, S; Le Goff, A; Frobert, Y; Grassi, J; Massoulié, J

    1999-09-24

    We investigated the target sites of three inhibitory monoclonal antibodies on Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Previous studies showed that Elec-403 and Elec-410 are directed to overlapping but distinct epitopes in the peripheral site, at the entrance of the catalytic gorge, whereas Elec-408 binds to a different region. Using Electrophorus/rat AChE chimeras, we identified surface residues that differed between sensitive and insensitive AChEs: the replacement of a single Electrophorus residue by its rat homolog was able to abolish binding and inhibition, for each antibody. Reciprocally, binding and inhibition by Elec-403 and by Elec-410 could be conferred to rat AChE by the reverse mutation. Elec-410 appears to bind to one side of the active gorge, whereas Elec-403 covers its opening, explaining why the AChE-Elec-410 complex reacts faster than the AChE-Elec-403 or AChE-fasciculin complexes with two active site inhibitors, m-(N,N, N-trimethyltammonio)trifluoro-acetophenone and echothiophate. Elec-408 binds to the region of the putative "back door," distant from the peripheral site, and does not interfere with the access of inhibitors to the active site. The binding of an antibody to this novel regulatory site may inhibit the enzyme by blocking the back door or by inducing a conformational distortion within the active site.

  19. In vivo binding of PRDM9 reveals interactions with noncanonical genomic sites

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Corinne; Clément, Julie A.J.; Buard, Jérôme; Leblanc, Benjamin; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Duret, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    In mouse and human meiosis, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiate homologous recombination and occur at specific sites called hotspots. The localization of these sites is determined by the sequence-specific DNA binding domain of the PRDM9 histone methyl transferase. Here, we performed an extensive analysis of PRDM9 binding in mouse spermatocytes. Unexpectedly, we identified a noncanonical recruitment of PRDM9 to sites that lack recombination activity and the PRDM9 binding consensus motif. These sites include gene promoters, where PRDM9 is recruited in a DSB-dependent manner. Another subset reveals DSB-independent interactions between PRDM9 and genomic sites, such as the binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF. We propose that these DSB-independent sites result from interactions between hotspot-bound PRDM9 and genomic sequences located on the chromosome axis. PMID:28336543

  20. The Binding of Silibinin, the Main Constituent of Silymarin, to Site I on Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Keishi; Sato, Hiroki; Minagoshi, Saori; Kyubun, Karin; Anraku, Makoto; Miyamura, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Seo, Hakaru; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Silibinin is the main constituent of silymarin, an extract from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Because silibinin has many pharmacological activities, extending its clinical use in the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. In this study, we report on the binding of silibinin to plasma proteins, an issue that has not previously been extensively studied. The findings indicated that silibinin mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA). Mutual displacement experiments using ligands that primarily bind to sites I and II clearly revealed that silibinin binds tightly and selectively to site I (subsites Ia and/or Ic) of HSA, which is located in subdomain IIA. Thermodynamic analyses suggested that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions are major contributors to silibinin-HSA interactions. Furthermore, the binding of silibinin to HSA was found to be decreased with increasing ionic strength and detergent concentration of the media, suggesting that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are involved in the binding. Trp214 and Arg218 were identified as being involved in the binding of silibinin to site I, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSAs. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that silibinin binds to the region close to Trp214 and Arg218 in site I of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and can displace site I drugs (e.g., warfarin or iodipamide), but not site II drugs (e.g., ibuprofen).

  1. The RNA-Binding Site of Poliovirus 3C Protein Doubles as a Phosphoinositide-Binding Domain.

    PubMed

    Shengjuler, Djoshkun; Chan, Yan Mei; Sun, Simou; Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Li, Zhen-Lu; Gohara, David W; Buck, Matthias; Cremer, Paul S; Boehr, David D; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-12-05

    Some viruses use phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) to mark membranes used for genome replication or virion assembly. PIP-binding motifs of cellular proteins do not exist in viral proteins. Molecular-docking simulations revealed a putative site of PIP binding to poliovirus (PV) 3C protein that was validated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The PIP-binding site was located on a highly dynamic α helix, which also functions in RNA binding. Broad PIP-binding activity was observed in solution using a fluorescence polarization assay or in the context of a lipid bilayer using an on-chip, fluorescence assay. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the 3C protein-membrane interface revealed PIP clustering and perhaps PIP-dependent conformations. PIP clustering was mediated by interaction with residues that interact with the RNA phosphodiester backbone. We conclude that 3C binding to membranes will be determined by PIP abundance. We suggest that the duality of function observed for 3C may extend to RNA-binding proteins of other viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Binding Site Turnover Produces Pervasive Quantitative Changes in Transcription Factor Binding between Closely Related Drosophila Species

    PubMed Central

    Trapnell, Cole; Davidson, Stuart; Pachter, Lior; Chu, Hou Cheng; Tonkin, Leath A.; Biggin, Mark D.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in gene expression play an important role in evolution, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory evolution are poorly understood. Here we compare genome-wide binding of the six transcription factors that initiate segmentation along the anterior-posterior axis in embryos of two closely related species: Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila yakuba. Where we observe binding by a factor in one species, we almost always observe binding by that factor to the orthologous sequence in the other species. Levels of binding, however, vary considerably. The magnitude and direction of the interspecies differences in binding levels of all six factors are strongly correlated, suggesting a role for chromatin or other factor-independent forces in mediating the divergence of transcription factor binding. Nonetheless, factor-specific quantitative variation in binding is common, and we show that it is driven to a large extent by the gain and loss of cognate recognition sequences for the given factor. We find only a weak correlation between binding variation and regulatory function. These data provide the first genome-wide picture of how modest levels of sequence divergence between highly morphologically similar species affect a system of coordinately acting transcription factors during animal development, and highlight the dominant role of quantitative variation in transcription factor binding over short evolutionary distances. PMID:20351773

  3. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data.

  4. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data. PMID:27504624

  5. Functional identification and characterization of sodium binding sites in Na symporters

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Donald D. F.; Jiang, Xuan; Gorraitz, Edurne; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Wright, Ernest M.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium cotransporters from several different gene families belong to the leucine transporter (LeuT) structural family. Although the identification of Na+ in binding sites is beyond the resolution of the structures, two Na+ binding sites (Na1 and Na2) have been proposed in LeuT. Na2 is conserved in the LeuT family but Na1 is not. A biophysical method has been used to measure sodium dissociation constants (Kd) of wild-type and mutant human sodium glucose cotransport (hSGLT1) proteins to identify the Na+ binding sites in hSGLT1. The Na1 site is formed by residues in the sugar binding pocket, and their mutation influences sodium binding to Na1 but not to Na2. For the canonical Na2 site formed by two –OH side chains, S392 and S393, and three backbone carbonyls, mutation of S392 to cysteine increased the sodium Kd by sixfold. This was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the apparent sugar and phlorizin affinities. We suggest that mutation of S392 in the Na2 site produces a structural rearrangement of the sugar binding pocket to disrupt both the binding of the second Na+ and the binding of sugar. In contrast, the S393 mutations produce no significant changes in sodium, sugar, and phlorizin affinities. We conclude that the Na2 site is conserved in hSGLT1, the side chain of S392 and the backbone carbonyl of S393 are important in the first Na+ binding, and that Na+ binding to Na2 promotes binding to Na1 and also sugar binding. PMID:24191006

  6. Evaluation of the Significance of Starch Surface Binding Sites on Human Pancreatic α-Amylase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Caner, Sami; Kwan, Emily; Li, Chunmin; Brayer, Gary D; Withers, Stephen G

    2016-11-01

    Starch provides the major source of caloric intake in many diets. Cleavage of starch into malto-oligosaccharides in the gut is catalyzed by pancreatic α-amylase. These oligosaccharides are then further cleaved by gut wall α-glucosidases to release glucose, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. Potential surface binding sites for starch on the pancreatic amylase, distinct from the active site of the amylase, have been identified through X-ray crystallographic analyses. The role of these sites in the degradation of both starch granules and soluble starch was probed by the generation of a series of surface variants modified at each site to disrupt binding. Kinetic analysis of the binding and/or cleavage of substrates ranging from simple maltotriosides to soluble starch and insoluble starch granules has allowed evaluation of the potential role of each such surface site. In this way, two key surface binding sites, on the same face as the active site, are identified. One site, containing a pair of aromatic residues, is responsible for attachment to starch granules, while a second site featuring a tryptophan residue around which a malto-oligosaccharide wraps is shown to heavily influence soluble starch binding and hydrolysis. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which enzymes tackle the degradation of largely insoluble polymers and also present some new approaches to the interrogation of the binding sites involved.

  7. n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside specifically competes with general anesthetics for anesthetic binding sites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longhe; Matsunaga, Felipe; Xi, Jin; Li, Min; Ma, Jingyuan; Liu, Renyu

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) specifically interacts with the anesthetic binding site in horse spleen apoferritin, a soluble protein which models anesthetic binding sites in receptors. This raises the possibility of other detergents similarly interacting with and occluding such sites from anesthetics, thereby preventing the proper identification of novel anesthetic binding sites. n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside (DDM) is a non-ionic detergent commonly used during protein-anesthetic studies because of its mild and non-denaturing properties. In this study, we demonstrate that SDS and DDM occupy anesthetic binding sites in the model proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and horse spleen apoferritin and thereby inhibit the binding of the general anesthetics propofol and isoflurane. DDM specifically interacts with HSA (Kd = 40 μM) with a lower affinity than SDS (Kd = 2 μM). DDM exerts all these effects while not perturbing the native structures of either model protein. Computational calculations corroborated the experimental results by demonstrating that the binding sites for DDM and both anesthetics on the model proteins overlapped. Collectively, our results indicate that DDM and SDS specifically interact with anesthetic binding sites and may thus prevent the identification of novel anesthetic sites. Special precaution should be taken when undertaking and interpreting results from protein-anesthetic investigations utilizing detergents like SDS and DDM.

  8. GenProBiS: web server for mapping of sequence variants to protein binding sites.

    PubMed

    Konc, Janez; Skrlj, Blaz; Erzen, Nika; Kunej, Tanja; Janezic, Dusanka

    2017-07-03

    Discovery of potentially deleterious sequence variants is important and has wide implications for research and generation of new hypotheses in human and veterinary medicine, and drug discovery. The GenProBiS web server maps sequence variants to protein structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), and further to protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-compound, and protein-metal ion binding sites. The concept of a protein-compound binding site is understood in the broadest sense, which includes glycosylation and other post-translational modification sites. Binding sites were defined by local structural comparisons of whole protein structures using the Protein Binding Sites (ProBiS) algorithm and transposition of ligands from the similar binding sites found to the query protein using the ProBiS-ligands approach with new improvements introduced in GenProBiS. Binding site surfaces were generated as three-dimensional grids encompassing the space occupied by predicted ligands. The server allows intuitive visual exploration of comprehensively mapped variants, such as human somatic mis-sense mutations related to cancer and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms from 21 species, within the predicted binding sites regions for about 80 000 PDB protein structures using fast WebGL graphics. The GenProBiS web server is open and free to all users at http://genprobis.insilab.org. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Position specific variation in the rate of evolution in transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Alan M; Chiang, Derek Y; Kellis, Manolis; Lander, Eric S; Eisen, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    Background The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational methods have been developed to characterize transcription factor binding sites, they remain difficult to identify. Comparison of non-coding DNA from related species has shown considerable promise in identifying these functional non-coding sequences, even though relatively little is known about their evolution. Results Here we analyse the genome sequences of the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, S. paradoxus and S. mikatae to study the evolution of transcription factor binding sites. As expected, we find that both experimentally characterized and computationally predicted binding sites evolve slower than surrounding sequence, consistent with the hypothesis that they are under purifying selection. We also observe position-specific variation in the rate of evolution within binding sites. We find that the position-specific rate of evolution is positively correlated with degeneracy among binding sites within S. cerevisiae. We test theoretical predictions for the rate of evolution at positions where the base frequencies deviate from background due to purifying selection and find reasonable agreement with the observed rates of evolution. Finally, we show how the evolutionary characteristics of real binding motifs can be used to distinguish them from artefacts of computational motif finding algorithms. Conclusion As has been observed for protein sequences, the rate of evolution in transcription factor binding sites varies with position, suggesting that some regions are under stronger functional constraint than others. This variation likely reflects the varying importance of different positions in the formation of the protein-DNA complex. The characterization of the pattern of evolution in known binding sites will likely contribute to the

  10. Prediction of the binding sites of huperzine A in acetylcholinesterase by docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    1994-12-01

    We have performed docking studies with the SYSDOC program on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to predict the binding sites in AChE of huperzine A (HA), which is a potent and selective, reversible inhibitor of AChE. The unique aspects of our docking studies include the following: (i) Molecular flexibility of the guest and the host is taken into account, which permits both to change their conformations upon binding. (ii) The binding energy is evaluated by a sum of energies of steric, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. In the energy calculation no grid approximation is used, and all hydrogen atoms of the system are treated explicitly. (iii) The energy of cation-π interactions between the guest and the host, which is important in the binding of AChE, is included in the calculated binding energy. (iv) Docking is performed in all regions of the host's binding cavity. Based on our docking studies and the pharmacological results reported for HA and its analogs, we predict that HA binds to the bottom of the binding cavity of AChE (the gorge) with its ammonium group interacting with Trp84, Phe330, Glu199 and Asp72 (catalytic site). At the the opening of the gorge with its ammonium group partially interacting with Trp279 (peripheral site). At the catalytic site, three partially overlapping subsites of HA were identified which might provide a dynamic view of binding of HA to the catalytic site.

  11. PDZK1 binding and serine phosphorylation regulate subcellular trafficking of organic anion transport protein 1a1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jo H.; Murray, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Although perturbation of organic anion transport protein (oatp) cell surface expression can result in drug toxicity, little is known regarding mechanisms regulating its subcellular distribution. Many members of the oatp family, including oatp1a1, have a COOH-terminal PDZ consensus binding motif that interacts with PDZK1, while serines upstream of this site (S634 and S635) can be phosphorylated. Using oatp1a1 as a prototypical member of the oatp family, we prepared plasmids in which these serines were mutated to glutamic acid [E634E635 (oatp1a1EE), phosphomimetic] or alanine [A634A635 (oatp1a1AA), nonphosphorylatable]. Distribution of oatp1a1AA and oatp1a1EE was largely intracellular in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells. Cotransfection with a plasmid encoding PDZK1 revealed that oatp1a1AA was now expressed largely on the cell surface, while oatp1a1EE remained intracellular. To quantify these changes, studies were performed in HuH7 cells stably transfected with these oatp1a1 plasmids. These cells endogenously express PDZK1. Surface biotinylation at 4°C followed by shift to 37°C showed that oatp1a1EE internalizes quickly compared with oatp1a1AA. To examine a physiological role for phosphorylation in oatp1a1 subcellular distribution, studies were performed in rat hepatocytes exposed to extracellular ATP, a condition that stimulates serine phosphorylation of oatp1a1 via activity of a purinergic receptor. Internalization of oatp1a1 under these conditions was rapid. Thus, although PDZK1 binding is required for optimal cell surface expression of oatp1a1, phosphorylation provides a mechanism for fast regulation of the distribution of oatp1a1 between the cell surface and intracellular vesicular pools. Identification of the proteins and motor molecules that mediate these trafficking events represents an important area for future study. PMID:21183661

  12. Thermodynamic compensation upon binding to exosite 1 and the active site of thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Treuheit, Nicholas A.; Beach, Muneera A.; Komives, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Several lines of experimental evidence including amide exchange and NMR suggest that ligands binding to thrombin cause reduced backbone dynamics. Binding of the covalent inhibitor dPhe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone to the active site serine, as well as non-covalent binding of a fragment of the regulatory protein, thrombomodulin, to exosite 1 on the back side of the thrombin molecule both cause reduced dynamics. However, the reduced dynamics do not appear to be accompanied by significant conformational changes. In addition, binding of ligands to the active site does not change the affinity of thrombomodulin fragments binding to exosite 1, however, the thermodynamic coupling between exosite 1 and the active site has not been fully explored. We present isothermal titration calorimetry experiments that probe changes in enthalpy and entropy upon formation of binary ligand complexes. The approach relies on stringent thrombin preparation methods and on the use of dansyl-L-arginine-(3-methyl-1,5-pantanediyl) amide and a DNA aptamer as ligands with ideal thermodynamic signatures for binding to the active site and to exosite 1. Using this approach, the binding thermodynamic signatures of each ligand alone as well as the binding signatures of each ligand when the other binding site was occupied were measured. Different exosite 1 ligands with widely varied thermodynamic signatures cause the same reduction in ΔH and a concomitantly lower entropy cost upon DAPA binding at the active site. The results suggest a general phenomenon of enthalpy-entropy compensation consistent with reduction of dynamics/increased folding of thrombin upon ligand binding to either the active site or to exosite 1. PMID:21526769

  13. Thermodynamic compensation upon binding to exosite 1 and the active site of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Treuheit, Nicholas A; Beach, Muneera A; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2011-05-31

    Several lines of experimental evidence including amide exchange and NMR suggest that ligands binding to thrombin cause reduced backbone dynamics. Binding of the covalent inhibitor dPhe-Pro-Arg chloromethyl ketone to the active site serine, as well as noncovalent binding of a fragment of the regulatory protein, thrombomodulin, to exosite 1 on the back side of the thrombin molecule both cause reduced dynamics. However, the reduced dynamics do not appear to be accompanied by significant conformational changes. In addition, binding of ligands to the active site does not change the affinity of thrombomodulin fragments binding to exosite 1; however, the thermodynamic coupling between exosite 1 and the active site has not been fully explored. We present isothermal titration calorimetry experiments that probe changes in enthalpy and entropy upon formation of binary ligand complexes. The approach relies on stringent thrombin preparation methods and on the use of dansyl-l-arginine-(3-methyl-1,5-pantanediyl)amide and a DNA aptamer as ligands with ideal thermodynamic signatures for binding to the active site and to exosite 1. Using this approach, the binding thermodynamic signatures of each ligand alone as well as the binding signatures of each ligand when the other binding site was occupied were measured. Different exosite 1 ligands with widely varied thermodynamic signatures cause a similar reduction in ΔH and a concomitantly lower entropy cost upon DAPA binding at the active site. The results suggest a general phenomenon of enthalpy-entropy compensation consistent with reduction of dynamics/increased folding of thrombin upon ligand binding to either the active site or exosite 1.

  14. Lipid A binding sites in membranes of macrophage tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, R.Y.; Golenbock, D.T.; Raetz, C.R.

    1988-10-15

    Lipopolysaccharide affects a variety of eukaryotic cells and mammalian organisms. These actions are involved in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septicemia. Many of the actions of lipopolysaccharide are believed to be caused by its active moiety, lipid A. Our laboratory has previously identified a bioactive lipid A precursor, termed lipid IVA, which can be labeled with 32P of high specific activity and purified. In this work we have used the labeled probe, 4'-32P-lipid IVA, to develop a novel assay for the specific binding of lipid IVA to whole cells. We have also demonstrated its use in a ligand blotting assay ofmore » immobilized cellular proteins. Using the whole cell assay, we show that 4'-32P-lipid IVA specifically binds to RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cultured cells. The binding is saturable, is inhibited with excess unlabeled lipid IVA, and is proteinase K-sensitive. It displays cellular and pharmacological specificity. Using the ligand blotting assay, we show that several RAW 264.7 cell proteins can bind 4'-32P-lipid IVA. The two principal binding proteins have Mr values of 31 and 95 kDa, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fractionation studies indicate that the 31-kDa protein is enriched in the nuclear fraction and may be a histone, whereas the 95-kDa protein is enriched in the membrane fraction. The binding assays that we have developed should lead to a clearer understanding of lipid A/animal cell interactions.« less

  15. Sugar-binding sites on the surface of the carbohydrate-binding module of CBH I from Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Mason, Philip E; Schnupf, Udo; Pitici, Felicia; Zhong, Linghao; Himmel, Michael E; Crowley, Michael; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W

    2011-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for a system consisting of the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of the cellulase CBH I from Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) in a concentrated solution of β-D-glucopyranose, to determine whether there is any tendency for the sugar molecules to bind to the CBM. In spite of the general tendency of glucose to behave as an osmolyte, a marked tendency for the sugar molecules to bind to the protein was observed. However, the glucose molecules tended to bind only to specific sites on the protein. As expected, the hydrophobic face of the sugar molecules, comprising the axial H1, H3, and H5 aliphatic protons, tended to adhere to the flat faces of the three tyrosine side chains on the planar binding surface of the CBM. However, a significant tendency to bind to a groove-like feature on the upper surface of the CBM was also observed. These results would not be inconsistent with a model of the mechanism for this globular domain in which the cellodextrin chain being removed from the surface of crystalline cellulose passes over the upper surface of the CBM, presumably then available for hydrolysis in the active site tunnel of this processive cellulase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Druggable pockets and binding site centric chemical space: a paradigm shift in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Pérot, Stéphanie; Sperandio, Olivier; Miteva, Maria A; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Villoutreix, Bruno O

    2010-08-01

    Detection, comparison and analyses of binding pockets are pivotal to structure-based drug design endeavors, from hit identification, screening of exosites and de-orphanization of protein functions to the anticipation of specific and non-specific binding to off- and anti-targets. Here, we analyze protein-ligand complexes and discuss methods that assist binding site identification, prediction of druggability and binding site comparison. The full potential of pockets is yet to be harnessed, and we envision that better understanding of the pocket space will have far-reaching implications in the field of drug discovery, such as the design of pocket-specific compound libraries and scoring functions.

  17. The α-galactomannan Davanat binds galectin-1 at a site different from the conventional galectin carbohydrate binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michelle C; Klyosov, Anatole; Mayo, Kevin H

    2009-01-01

    Galectins are a sub-family of lectins, defined by their highly conserved β-sandwich structures and ability to bind to β-galactosides, like Gal β1-4 Glc (lactose). Here, we used 15N-1H HSQC and pulse field gradient (PFG) NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate that galectin-1 (gal-1) binds to the relatively large galactomannan Davanat, whose backbone is composed of β1-4-linked d-mannopyranosyl units to which single d-galactopyranosyl residues are periodically attached via α1-6 linkage (weight-average MW of 59 kDa). The Davanat binding domain covers a relatively large area on the surface of gal-1 that runs across the dimer interface primarily on that side of the protein opposite to the lactose binding site. Our data show that gal-1 binds Davanat with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 10 × 10−6 M, compared to 260 × 10−6 M for lactose, and a stiochiometry of about 3 to 6 gal-1 molecules per Davanat molecule. Mannan also interacts at the same galactomannan binding domain on gal-1, but with at least 10-fold lower avidity, supporting the role of galactose units in Davanat for relatively strong binding to gal-1. We also found that the β-galactoside binding domain remains accessible in the gal-1/Davanat complex, as lactose can still bind with no apparent loss in affinity. In addition, gal-1 binding to Davanat also modifies the supermolecular structure of the galactomannan and appears to reduce its hydrodynamic radius and disrupt inter-glycan interactions thereby reducing glycan-mediated solution viscosity. Overall, our findings contribute to understanding gal-1–carbohydrate interactions and provide insight into gal-1 function with potentially significant biological consequences. PMID:19541770

  18. Fold independent structural comparisons of protein-ligand binding sites for exploring functional relationships.

    PubMed

    Gold, Nicola D; Jackson, Richard M

    2006-02-03

    The rapid growth in protein structural data and the emergence of structural genomics projects have increased the need for automatic structure analysis and tools for function prediction. Small molecule recognition is critical to the function of many proteins; therefore, determination of ligand binding site similarity is important for understanding ligand interactions and may allow their functional classification. Here, we present a binding sites database (SitesBase) that given a known protein-ligand binding site allows rapid retrieval of other binding sites with similar structure independent of overall sequence or fold similarity. However, each match is also annotated with sequence similarity and fold information to aid interpretation of structure and functional similarity. Similarity in ligand binding sites can indicate common binding modes and recognition of similar molecules, allowing potential inference of function for an uncharacterised protein or providing additional evidence of common function where sequence or fold similarity is already known. Alternatively, the resource can provide valuable information for detailed studies of molecular recognition including structure-based ligand design and in understanding ligand cross-reactivity. Here, we show examples of atomic similarity between superfamily or more distant fold relatives as well as between seemingly unrelated proteins. Assignment of unclassified proteins to structural superfamiles is also undertaken and in most cases substantiates assignments made using sequence similarity. Correct assignment is also possible where sequence similarity fails to find significant matches, illustrating the potential use of binding site comparisons for newly determined proteins.

  19. Arabidopsis Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 binding sites contain putative GAGA factor binding motifs within coding regions of genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is an essential regulator of gene expression that maintains genes in a repressed state by marking chromatin with trimethylated Histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). In Arabidopsis, loss of PRC2 function leads to pleiotropic effects on growth and development thought to be due to ectopic expression of seed and embryo-specific genes. While there is some understanding of the mechanisms by which specific genes are targeted by PRC2 in animal systems, it is still not clear how PRC2 is recruited to specific regions of plant genomes. Results We used ChIP-seq to determine the genome-wide distribution of hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged FERTLIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE-HA), the Extra Sex Combs homolog protein present in all Arabidopsis PRC2 complexes. We found that the FIE-HA binding sites co-locate with a subset of the H3K27me3 sites in the genome and that the associated genes were more likely to be de-repressed in mutants of PRC2 components. The FIE-HA binding sites are enriched for three sequence motifs including a putative GAGA factor binding site that is also found in Drosophila Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). Conclusions Our results suggest that PRC2 binding sites in plant genomes share some sequence features with Drosophila PREs. However, unlike Drosophila PREs which are located in promoters and devoid of H3K27me3, Arabidopsis FIE binding sites tend to be in gene coding regions and co-localize with H3K27me3. PMID:24001316

  20. Analysis of LexA binding sites and transcriptomics in response to genotoxic stress in Leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Schons-Fonseca, Luciane; da Silva, Josefa B; Milanez, Juliana S; Domingos, Renan H; Smith, Janet L; Nakaya, Helder I; Grossman, Alan D; Ho, Paulo L; da Costa, Renata M A

    2016-02-18

    We determined the effects of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation on gene expression in Leptospira interrogans using DNA microarrays. These data were integrated with DNA binding in vivo of LexA1, a regulator of the DNA damage response, assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq). In response to DNA damage, Leptospira induced expression of genes involved in DNA metabolism, in mobile genetic elements and defective prophages. The DNA repair genes involved in removal of photo-damage (e.g. nucleotide excision repair uvrABC, recombinases recBCD and resolvases ruvABC) were not induced. Genes involved in various metabolic pathways were down regulated, including genes involved in cell growth, RNA metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. From ChIP-seq data, we observed 24 LexA1 binding sites located throughout chromosome 1 and one binding site in chromosome 2. Expression of many, but not all, genes near those sites was increased following DNA damage. Binding sites were found as far as 550 bp upstream from the start codon, or 1 kb into the coding sequence. Our findings indicate that there is a shift in gene expression following DNA damage that represses genes involved in cell growth and virulence, and induces genes involved in mutagenesis and recombination. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. DNA breathing dynamics distinguish binding from nonbinding consensus sites for transcription factor YY1 in cells.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Boian S; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Lange, Martin; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Gelev, Vladimir; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Bishop, Alan R; Usheva, Anny

    2012-11-01

    The genome-wide mapping of the major gene expression regulators, the transcription factors (TFs) and their DNA binding sites, is of great importance for describing cellular behavior and phenotypic diversity. Presently, the methods for prediction of genomic TF binding produce a large number of false positives, most likely due to insufficient description of the physiochemical mechanisms of protein-DNA binding. Growing evidence suggests that, in the cell, the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is subject to local transient strands separations (breathing) that contribute to genomic functions. By using site-specific chromatin immunopecipitations, gel shifts, BIOBASE data, and our model that accurately describes the melting behavior and breathing dynamics of dsDNA we report a specific DNA breathing profile found at YY1 binding sites in cells. We find that the genomic flanking sequence variations and SNPs, may exert long-range effects on DNA dynamics and predetermine YY1 binding. The ubiquitous TF YY1 has a fundamental role in essential biological processes by activating, initiating or repressing transcription depending upon the sequence context it binds. We anticipate that consensus binding sequences together with the related DNA dynamics profile may significantly improve the accuracy of genomic TF binding sites and TF binding-related functional SNPs.

  2. Two classes of cholesterol binding sites for the β2AR revealed by thermostability and NMR.

    PubMed

    Gater, Deborah L; Saurel, Olivier; Iordanov, Iordan; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim; Milon, Alain

    2014-11-18

    Cholesterol binding to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and modulation of their activities in membranes is a fundamental issue for understanding their function. Despite the identification of cholesterol binding sites in high-resolution x-ray structures of the ?2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and other GPCRs, the binding affinity of cholesterol for this receptor and exchange rates between the free and bound cholesterol remain unknown. In this study we report the existence of two classes of cholesterol binding sites in β2AR. By analyzing the β2AR unfolding temperature in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) as a function of cholesterol concentration we observed high-affinity cooperative binding of cholesterol with sub-nM affinity constant. In contrast, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments revealed the existence of a second class of cholesterol binding sites, in fast exchange on the STD NMR timescale. Titration of the STD signal as a function of cholesterol concentration provided a lower limit of 100 mM for their dissociation constant. However, these binding sites are specific for both cholesterol and β2AR, as shown with control experiments using ergosterol and a control membrane protein (KpOmpA). We postulate that this specificity is mediated by the high-affinity bound cholesterol molecules and propose the formation of transient cholesterol clusters around the high-affinity binding sites.

  3. Impact of germline and somatic missense variations on drug binding sites.

    PubMed

    Yan, C; Pattabiraman, N; Goecks, J; Lam, P; Nayak, A; Pan, Y; Torcivia-Rodriguez, J; Voskanian, A; Wan, Q; Mazumder, R

    2017-03-01

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are generating a vast amount of data. This exacerbates the current challenge of translating NGS data into actionable clinical interpretations. We have comprehensively combined germline and somatic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs) that affect drug binding sites in order to investigate their prevalence. The integrated data thus generated in conjunction with exome or whole-genome sequencing can be used to identify patients who may not respond to a specific drug because of alterations in drug binding efficacy due to nsSNVs in the target protein's gene. To identify the nsSNVs that may affect drug binding, protein-drug complex structures were retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB) followed by identification of amino acids in the protein-drug binding sites using an occluded surface method. Then, the germline and somatic mutations were mapped to these amino acids to identify which of these alter protein-drug binding sites. Using this method we identified 12 993 amino acid-drug binding sites across 253 unique proteins bound to 235 unique drugs. The integration of amino acid-drug binding sites data with both germline and somatic nsSNVs data sets revealed 3133 nsSNVs affecting amino acid-drug binding sites. In addition, a comprehensive drug target discovery was conducted based on protein structure similarity and conservation of amino acid-drug binding sites. Using this method, 81 paralogs were identified that could serve as alternative drug targets. In addition, non-human mammalian proteins bound to drugs were used to identify 142 homologs in humans that can potentially bind to drugs. In the current protein-drug pairs that contain somatic mutations within their binding site, we identified 85 proteins with significant differential gene expression changes associated with specific cancer types. Information on protein-drug binding predicted drug target proteins and prevalence of both somatic and

  4. Current Understanding of the Binding Sites, Capacity, Affinity, and Biological Significance of Metals in Melanin

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Metal chelation is often invoked as one of the main biological functions of melanin. In order to understand the interaction between metals and melanin, extensive studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the metal binding sites, binding capacity and affinity. These data are central to efforts aimed at elucidating the role metal binding plays in determining the physical, structural, biological, and photochemical properties of melanin. This article examines the current state of understanding of this field. PMID:17580858

  5. Polar bear hemoglobin and human Hb A0: same 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site but asymmetry of the binding?

    PubMed

    Pomponi, Massimo; Bertonati, Claudia; Patamia, Maria; Marta, Maurizio; Derocher, Andrew E; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M; Wiig, Oystein; Bårdgard, Astrid J

    2002-11-01

    Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hemoglobin (Hb) shows a low response to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), compared to human Hb A0, even though these proteins have the same 2,3-DPG-binding site. In addition, polar bear Hb shows a high response to chloride and an alkaline Bohr effect (deltalog P50/deltapH) that is significantly greater than that of human Hb A0. The difference in sequence Pro (Hb A0)-->Gly (polar bear Hb) at position A2 in the A helix seems to be critical for reduced binding of 2,3-DPG. Our results also show that the A2 position may influence not only the flexibility of the A helix, but that differences in flexibility of the first turn of the A helix may affect the unloading of oxygen for the intrinsic ligand affinities of the alpha and beta chains. However, preferential binding to either chain can only take place if there is appreciable asymmetric binding of the phosphoric effector. Regarding this point, 31P NMR data suggest a loss of symmetry of the 2,3-DPG-binding site in the deoxyHb-2,3-DPG complex.

  6. Computational design of trimeric influenza-neutralizing proteins targeting the hemagglutinin receptor binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bernard, Steffen M.; La, David

    Many viral surface glycoproteins and cell surface receptors are homo-oligomers1, 2, 3, 4, and thus can potentially be targeted by geometrically matched homo-oligomers that engage all subunits simultaneously to attain high avidity and/or lock subunits together. The adaptive immune system cannot generally employ this strategy since the individual antibody binding sites are not arranged with appropriate geometry to simultaneously engage multiple sites in a single target homo-oligomer. We describe a general strategy for the computational design of homo-oligomeric protein assemblies with binding functionality precisely matched to homo-oligomeric target sites5, 6, 7, 8. In the first step, a small protein ismore » designed that binds a single site on the target. In the second step, the designed protein is assembled into a homo-oligomer such that the designed binding sites are aligned with the target sites. We use this approach to design high-avidity trimeric proteins that bind influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) at its conserved receptor binding site. The designed trimers can both capture and detect HA in a paper-based diagnostic format, neutralizes influenza in cell culture, and completely protects mice when given as a single dose 24 h before or after challenge with influenza.« less

  7. Mathematical description of drug-target interactions: application to biologics that bind to targets with two binding sites.

    PubMed

    Gibiansky, Leonid; Gibiansky, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    The emerging discipline of mathematical pharmacology occupies the space between advanced pharmacometrics and systems biology. A characteristic feature of the approach is application of advance mathematical methods to study the behavior of biological systems as described by mathematical (most often differential) equations. One of the early application of mathematical pharmacology (that was not called this name at the time) was formulation and investigation of the target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model and its approximations. The model was shown to be remarkably successful, not only in describing the observed data for drug-target interactions, but also in advancing the qualitative and quantitative understanding of those interactions and their role in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of biologics. The TMDD model in its original formulation describes the interaction of the drug that has one binding site with the target that also has only one binding site. Following the framework developed earlier for drugs with one-to-one binding, this work aims to describe a rigorous approach for working with similar systems and to apply it to drugs that bind to targets with two binding sites. The quasi-steady-state, quasi-equilibrium, irreversible binding, and Michaelis-Menten approximations of the model are also derived. These equations can be used, in particular, to predict concentrations of the partially bound target (RC). This could be clinically important if RC remains active and has slow internalization rate. In this case, introduction of the drug aimed to suppress target activity may lead to the opposite effect due to RC accumulation.

  8. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases.

  9. Nucleotide Interdependency in Transcription Factor Binding Sites in the Drosophila Genome.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Jacqueline M; Zellers, Rowan G; Bork, Daniel K; Drewell, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing objective in modern biology is to characterize the molecular components that drive the development of an organism. At the heart of eukaryotic development lies gene regulation. On the molecular level, much of the research in this field has focused on the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to regulatory regions in the genome known as cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). However, relatively little is known about the sequence-specific binding preferences of many TFs, especially with respect to the possible interdependencies between the nucleotides that make up binding sites. A particular limitation of many existing algorithms that aim to predict binding site sequences is that they do not allow for dependencies between nonadjacent nucleotides. In this study, we use a recently developed computational algorithm, MARZ, to compare binding site sequences using 32 distinct models in a systematic and unbiased approach to explore nucleotide dependencies within binding sites for 15 distinct TFs known to be critical to Drosophila development. Our results indicate that many of these proteins have varying levels of nucleotide interdependencies within their DNA recognition sequences, and that, in some cases, models that account for these dependencies greatly outperform traditional models that are used to predict binding sites. We also directly compare the ability of different models to identify the known KRUPPEL TF binding sites in CRMs and demonstrate that a more complex model that accounts for nucleotide interdependencies performs better when compared with simple models. This ability to identify TFs with critical nucleotide interdependencies in their binding sites will lead to a deeper understanding of how these molecular characteristics contribute to the architecture of CRMs and the precise regulation of transcription during organismal development.

  10. Nucleotide Interdependency in Transcription Factor Binding Sites in the Drosophila Genome

    PubMed Central

    Dresch, Jacqueline M.; Zellers, Rowan G.; Bork, Daniel K.; Drewell, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing objective in modern biology is to characterize the molecular components that drive the development of an organism. At the heart of eukaryotic development lies gene regulation. On the molecular level, much of the research in this field has focused on the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to regulatory regions in the genome known as cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). However, relatively little is known about the sequence-specific binding preferences of many TFs, especially with respect to the possible interdependencies between the nucleotides that make up binding sites. A particular limitation of many existing algorithms that aim to predict binding site sequences is that they do not allow for dependencies between nonadjacent nucleotides. In this study, we use a recently developed computational algorithm, MARZ, to compare binding site sequences using 32 distinct models in a systematic and unbiased approach to explore nucleotide dependencies within binding sites for 15 distinct TFs known to be critical to Drosophila development. Our results indicate that many of these proteins have varying levels of nucleotide interdependencies within their DNA recognition sequences, and that, in some cases, models that account for these dependencies greatly outperform traditional models that are used to predict binding sites. We also directly compare the ability of different models to identify the known KRUPPEL TF binding sites in CRMs and demonstrate that a more complex model that accounts for nucleotide interdependencies performs better when compared with simple models. This ability to identify TFs with critical nucleotide interdependencies in their binding sites will lead to a deeper understanding of how these molecular characteristics contribute to the architecture of CRMs and the precise regulation of transcription during organismal development. PMID:27330274

  11. [3H]MK-801 binding sites in post-mortem human frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, J; Mack-Burkhardt, F; Kornhuber, M E; Riederer, P

    1989-03-29

    The binding of [3H]MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate) was investigated in extensively washed homogenates of post-mortem human frontal cortex. The association of [3H]MK-801 proceeded slowly (t1/2 = 553 min) and reached equilibrium only after a prolonged incubation (greater than 24 h). The dissociation of [3H]MK-801 from the binding site was also slow (t1/2 = 244 min). Glutamate, glycine and magnesium markedly increased the rate of association (t1/2 = 14.8 min) and dissociation (t1/2 = 36.5 min). At equilibrium, the binding was not altered by these substances. Specific binding was linear with protein concentration, was saturable, reversible, stereoselective, heat-labile and was nearly absent in the white matter. Scatchard analysis of the saturation curves obtained at equilibrium indicated that there was a high-affinity (Kd1 1.39 +/- 0.21 nM, Bmax1 0.483 +/- 0.084 pmol/mg protein) and a low-affinity (Kd2 116.25 +/- 50.79 nM, Bmax2 3.251 +/- 0.991 pmol/mg protein) binding site. All competition curves obtained with (+)-MK-801, (-)-MK-801, phencyclidine and ketamine had Hill coefficients of less than unity and were best explained by a two-site model. Thus, our results demonstrate the presence of binding sites for MK-801 in post-mortem human brains and provide evidence for binding site heterogeneity. Furthermore, glutamate, glycine and magnesium accelerate the association and dissociation of [3H]MK-801 to and from its binding sites. The results add support to the hypothesis that MK-801, glutamate, glycine and magnesium all bind to different sites on the NMDA receptor-ion channel complex.

  12. Characterization of the Artemisinin Binding Site for Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) by Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Li, Weichao; Zhou, Yiqing; Tang, Guanghui; Xiao, Youli

    2016-12-21

    Despite the fact that multiple artemisinin-alkylated proteins in Plasmodium falciparum have been identified in recent studies, the alkylation mechanism and accurate binding site of artemisinin-protein interaction have remained elusive. Here, we report the chemical-probe-based enrichment of the artemisinin-binding peptide and characterization of the artemisinin-binding site of P. falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). A peptide fragment within the N-terminal region of TCTP was enriched and found to be alkylated by an artemisinin-derived probe. MS2 fragments showed that artemisinin could alkylate multiple amino acids from Phe12 to Tyr22 of TCTP, which was supported by labeling experiments upon site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling studies. Taken together, the "capture-and-release" strategy affords consolidated advantages previously unavailable in artemisinin-protein binding site studies, and our results deepened the understanding of the mechanism of protein alkylation via heme-activated artemisinin.

  13. DNA binding site characterization by means of Rényi entropy measures on nucleotide transitions.

    PubMed

    Perera, A; Vallverdu, M; Claria, F; Soria, J M; Caminal, P

    2008-06-01

    In this work, parametric information-theory measures for the characterization of binding sites in DNA are extended with the use of transitional probabilities on the sequence. We propose the use of parametric uncertainty measures such as Rényi entropies obtained from the transition probabilities for the study of the binding sites, in addition to nucleotide frequency-based Rényi measures. Results are reported in this work comparing transition frequencies (i.e., dinucleotides) and base frequencies for Shannon and parametric Rényi entropies for a number of binding sites found in E. Coli, lambda and T7 organisms. We observe that the information provided by both approaches is not redundant. Furthermore, under the presence of noise in the binding site matrix we observe overall improved robustness of nucleotide transition-based algorithms when compared with nucleotide frequency-based method.

  14. Cone arrestin binding to JNK3 and Mdm2: conformational preference and localization of interaction sites

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiufeng; Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2008-01-01

    Arrestins are multi-functional regulators of G protein-coupled receptors. Receptor-bound arrestins interact with >30 remarkably diverse proteins and redirect the signaling to G protein-independent pathways. The functions of free arrestins are poorly understood, and the interaction sites of the non-receptor arrestin partners are largely unknown. In this study, we show that cone arrestin, the least studied member of the family, binds c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK3) and Mdm2 and regulates their subcellular distribution. Using arrestin mutants with increased or reduced structural flexibility, we demonstrate that arrestin in all conformations binds JNK3 comparably, whereas Mdm2 preferentially binds cone arrestin ‘frozen’ in the basal state. To localize the interaction sites, we expressed separate N- and C-domains of cone and rod arrestins and found that individual domains bind JNK3 and remove it from the nucleus as efficiently as full-length proteins. Thus, the arrestin binding site for JNK3 includes elements in both domains with the affinity of partial sites on individual domains sufficient for JNK3 relocalization. N-domain of rod arrestin binds Mdm2, which localizes its main interaction site to this region. Comparable binding of JNK3 and Mdm2 to four arrestin subtypes allowed us to identify conserved residues likely involved in these interactions. PMID:17680991

  15. Discovery and validation of information theory-based transcription factor and cofactor binding site motifs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruipeng; Mucaki, Eliseos J; Rogan, Peter K

    2017-03-17

    Data from ChIP-seq experiments can derive the genome-wide binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs) and other regulatory proteins. We analyzed 765 ENCODE ChIP-seq peak datasets of 207 human TFs with a novel motif discovery pipeline based on recursive, thresholded entropy minimization. This approach, while obviating the need to compensate for skewed nucleotide composition, distinguishes true binding motifs from noise, quantifies the strengths of individual binding sites based on computed affinity and detects adjacent cofactor binding sites that coordinate with the targets of primary, immunoprecipitated TFs. We obtained contiguous and bipartite information theory-based position weight matrices (iPWMs) for 93 sequence-specific TFs, discovered 23 cofactor motifs for 127 TFs and revealed six high-confidence novel motifs. The reliability and accuracy of these iPWMs were determined via four independent validation methods, including the detection of experimentally proven binding sites, explanation of effects of characterized SNPs, comparison with previously published motifs and statistical analyses. We also predict previously unreported TF coregulatory interactions (e.g. TF complexes). These iPWMs constitute a powerful tool for predicting the effects of sequence variants in known binding sites, performing mutation analysis on regulatory SNPs and predicting previously unrecognized binding sites and target genes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Six independent fucose-binding sites in the crystal structure of Aspergillus oryzae lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Makyio, Hisayoshi; Shimabukuro, Junpei; Suzuki, Tatsuya

    The crystal structure of AOL (a fucose-specific lectin of Aspergillus oryzae) has been solved by SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) and MAD (multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing of seleno-fucosides. The overall structure is a six-bladed β-propeller similar to that of other fucose-specific lectins. The fucose moieties of the seleno-fucosides are located in six fucose-binding sites. Although the Arg and Glu/Gln residues bound to the fucose moiety are common to all fucose-binding sites, the amino-acid residues involved in fucose binding at each site are not identical. The varying peak heights of the seleniums in the electron density map suggest that each fucose-binding sitemore » has a different carbohydrate binding affinity. - Highlights: • The six-bladed β-propeller structure of AOL was solved by seleno-sugar phasing. • The mode of fucose binding is essentially conserved at all six binding sites. • The seleno-fucosides exhibit slightly different interactions and electron densities. • These findings suggest that the affinity for fucose is not identical at each site.« less

  17. sc-PDB: a 3D-database of ligandable binding sites--10 years on.

    PubMed

    Desaphy, Jérémy; Bret, Guillaume; Rognan, Didier; Kellenberger, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The sc-PDB database (available at http://bioinfo-pharma.u-strasbg.fr/scPDB/) is a comprehensive and up-to-date selection of ligandable binding sites of the Protein Data Bank. Sites are defined from complexes between a protein and a pharmacological ligand. The database provides the all-atom description of the protein, its ligand, their binding site and their binding mode. Currently, the sc-PDB archive registers 9283 binding sites from 3678 unique proteins and 5608 unique ligands. The sc-PDB database was publicly launched in 2004 with the aim of providing structure files suitable for computational approaches to drug design, such as docking. During the last 10 years we have improved and standardized the processes for (i) identifying binding sites, (ii) correcting structures, (iii) annotating protein function and ligand properties and (iv) characterizing their binding mode. This paper presents the latest enhancements in the database, specifically pertaining to the representation of molecular interaction and to the similarity between ligand/protein binding patterns. The new website puts emphasis in pictorial analysis of data. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Identification of Nucleic Acid Binding Sites on Translin-Associated Factor X (TRAX) Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gagan Deep; Kumar, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Translin and TRAX proteins play roles in very important cellular processes such as DNA recombination, spatial and temporal expression of mRNA, and in siRNA processing. Translin forms a homomeric nucleic acid binding complex and binds to ssDNA and RNA. However, a mutant translin construct that forms homomeric complex lacking nucleic acid binding activity is able to form fully active heteromeric translin-TRAX complex when co-expressed with TRAX. A substantial progress has been made in identifying translin sites that mediate its binding activity, while TRAX was thought not to bind DNA or RNA on its own. We here for the first time demonstrate nucleic acid binding to TRAX by crosslinking radiolabeled ssDNA to heteromeric translin-TRAX complex using UV-laser. The TRAX and translin, photochemically crosslinked with ssDNA, were individually detected on SDS-PAGE. We mutated two motifs in TRAX and translin, designated B2 and B3, to help define the nucleic acid binding sites in the TRAX sequence. The most pronounced effect was observed in the mutants of B3 motif that impaired nucleic acid binding activity of the heteromeric complexes. We suggest that both translin and TRAX are binding competent and contribute to the nucleic acid binding activity. PMID:22427937

  19. Self-Assembly of Coordinative Supramolecular Polygons with Open Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yao-Rong; Wang, Ming; Kobayashi, Shiho; Stang, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The design and synthesis of coordinative supramolecular polygons with open binding sites is described. Coordination-driven self-assembly of 2,6-bis(pyridin-4-ylethynyl)pyridine with 60° and 120° organoplatinum acceptors results in quantitative formation of a supramolecular rhomboid and hexagon, respectively, both bearing open pyridyl binding sites. The structures were determined by multinuclear (31P and 1H) NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, along with a computational study. PMID:21516167

  20. Self-Assembly of Coordinative Supramolecular Polygons with Open Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yao-Rong; Wang, Ming; Kobayashi, Shiho; Stang, Peter J

    2011-04-27

    The design and synthesis of coordinative supramolecular polygons with open binding sites is described. Coordination-driven self-assembly of 2,6-bis(pyridin-4-ylethynyl)pyridine with 60° and 120° organoplatinum acceptors results in quantitative formation of a supramolecular rhomboid and hexagon, respectively, both bearing open pyridyl binding sites. The structures were determined by multinuclear ((31)P and (1)H) NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, along with a computational study.

  1. Mutation Induced Conformational Change In CaMKII Peptide Alters Binding Affinity to CaM Through Alternate Binding Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezerski, Jacob; Cheung, Margaret

    CaM forms distinct conformation states through modifications in its charge distribution upon binding to Ca2+ ions. The occurrence of protein structural change resulting from an altered charge distribution is paramount in the scheme of cellular signaling. Not only is charge induced structural change observed in CaM, it is also seen in an essential binding target: calmodulin-depended protein kinase II (CaMKII). In order to investigate the mechanism of selectivity in relation to changes in secondary structure, the CaM binding domain of CaMKII is isolated. Experimentally, charged residues of the CaMKII peptide are systematically mutated to alanine, resulting in altered binding kinetics between the peptide and the Ca2+ saturated state of CaM. We perform an all atom simulation of the wildtype (RRK) and mutated (AAA) CaMKII peptides and generate structures from the trajectory. We analyze RRK and AAA using DSSP and find significant structural differences due to the mutation. Structures from the RRK and AAA ensembles are then selected and docked onto the crystal structure of Ca2+ saturated CaM. We observe that RRK binds to CaM at the C-terminus, whereas the 3-residue mutation, AAA, shows increased patterns of binding to the N-terminus and linker regions of CaM. Due to the conformational change of the peptide ensemble from charged residue mutation, a distinct change in the binding site can be seen, which offers an explanation to experimentally observed changes in kinetic binding rates

  2. Characterizing multiple metal ion binding sites within a ribozyme by cadmium-induced EPR silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kisseleva, Natalia; Kraut, Stefanie; Jäschke, Andres; Schiemann, Olav

    2007-01-01

    In ribozyme catalysis, metal ions are generally known to make structural and∕or mechanistic contributions. The catalytic activity of a previously described Diels-Alderase ribozyme was found to depend on the concentration of divalent metal ions, and crystallographic data revealed multiple binding sites. Here, we elucidate the interactions of this ribozyme with divalent metal ions in solution using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Manganese ion titrations revealed five high-affinity Mn2+ binding sites with an upper Kd of 0.6±0.2 μM. In order to characterize each binding site individually, EPR-silent Cd2+ ions were used to saturate the other binding sites. This cadmium-induced EPR silencing showed that the Mn2+ binding sites possess different affinities. In addition, these binding sites could be assigned to three different types, including innersphere, outersphere, and a Mn2+ dimer. Based on simulations, the Mn2+-Mn2+ distance within the dimer was found to be ∼6 Å, which is in good agreement with crystallographic data. The EPR-spectroscopic characterization reveals no structural changes upon addition of a Diels-Alder product, supporting the concept of a preorganized catalytic pocket in the Diels-Alder ribozyme and the structural role of these ions. PMID:19404418

  3. Substance P receptor binding sites are expressed by glia in vivo after neuronal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Johnson, D.J.; Boehmer, C.G.

    1989-07-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that glia can express functional receptors for a variety of neurotransmitters. To determine whether similar neurotransmitter receptors are also expressed by glia in vivo, the authors examined the glial scar in the transected optic nerve of the albino rabbit by quantitative receptor autoradiography. Receptor binding sites for radiolabeled calcitonin gene-related peptide, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were examined. Specific receptor binding sites for each of these neurotransmitters were identified in the rabbit forebrain but were not detected in the normal optic nerve or tract. In the transected optic nerve andmore » tract, only receptor binding sites for substance P were expressed at detectable levels. The density of substance P receptor binding sites observed in this glial scar is among the highest observed in the rabbit forebrain. Ligand displacement and saturation experiments indicate that the substance P receptor binding site expressed by the glial scar has pharmacological characteristics similar to those of substance P receptors in the rabbit striatum, rat brain, and rat and canine gut. The present study demonstrates that glial cells in vivo express high concentrations of substance P receptor binding sites after transection of retinal ganglion cell axons. Because substance P has been shown to regulate inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues, substance P may also, by analogy, be involved in regulating the glial response to injury in the central nervous system.« less

  4. Cellulase enzyme: Homology modeling, binding site identification and molecular docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, K.; Senbagam, D.; Selvankumar, T.; Sudhakar, C.; Kamala-Kannan, S.; Senthilkumar, B.; Govarthanan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cellulase is an enzyme that degrades the linear polysaccharide like cellulose into glucose by breaking the β-1,4- glycosidic bonds. These enzymes are the third largest enzymes with a great potential towards the ethanol production and play a vital role in degrading the biomass. The production of ethanol depends upon the ability of the cellulose to utilize the wide range of substrates. In this study, the 3D structure of cellulase from Acinetobacter sp. was modeled by using Modeler 9v9 and validated by Ramachandran plot. The accuracy of the predicted 3D structure was checked using Ramachandran plot analysis showed that 81.1% in the favored region, compatibility of an atomic model (3D) with amino acid sequence (1D) for the model was observed as 78.21% and 49.395% for Verify 3D and ERRAT at SAVES server. As the binding efficacy with the substrate might suggests the choice of the substrate as carbon and nitrogen sources, the cellobiose, cellotetraose, cellotetriose and laminaribiose were employed in the docking studies. The docking of cellobiose, cellotetraose, cellotetriose and laminaribiose with cellulase exhibited the binding energy of -6.1523 kJ/mol, -7.8759 kJ/mol,-6.1590 kJ/mol and -6.7185 kJ/mol, respectively. These docking studies revealed that cellulase has the greater potential towards the cellotetraose as a substrate for the high yield of ethanol.

  5. Twin hydroxymethyluracil-A base pair steps define the binding site for the DNA-binding protein TF1.

    PubMed

    Grove, A; Figueiredo, M L; Galeone, A; Mayol, L; Geiduschek, E P

    1997-05-16

    The DNA-bending protein TF1 is the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1-encoded homolog of the bacterial HU proteins and the Escherichia coli integration host factor. We recently proposed that TF1, which binds with high affinity (Kd was approximately 3 nM) to preferred sites within the hydroxymethyluracil (hmU)-containing phage genome, identifies its binding sites based on sequence-dependent DNA flexibility. Here, we show that two hmU-A base pair steps coinciding with two previously proposed sites of DNA distortion are critical for complex formation. The affinity of TF1 is reduced 10-fold when both of these hmU-A base pair steps are replaced with A-hmU, G-C, or C-G steps; only modest changes in affinity result when substitutions are made at other base pairs of the TF1 binding site. Replacement of all hmU residues with thymine decreases the affinity of TF1 greatly; remarkably, the high affinity is restored when the two hmU-A base pair steps corresponding to previously suggested sites of distortion are reintroduced into otherwise T-containing DNA. T-DNA constructs with 3-base bulges spaced apart by 9 base pairs of duplex also generate nM affinity of TF1. We suggest that twin hmU-A base pair steps located at the proposed sites of distortion are key to target site selection by TF1 and that recognition is based largely, if not entirely, on sequence-dependent DNA flexibility.

  6. Searching for putative binding sites of the bispyridinium compound MB327 in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Wein, Thomas; Höfner, Georg; Rappenglück, Sebastian; Sichler, Sonja; Niessen, Karin V; Seeger, Thomas; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wanner, Klaus T

    2018-09-01

    Irreversible inhibition of the acetylcholine esterase upon intoxication with organophosphorus compounds leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and a subsequent desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which may ultimately result in respiratory failure. The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been found to restore functional activity of nAChR thus representing a promising starting point for the development of new drugs for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. In order to optimize the resensitizing effect of MB327 on nAChR, it would be very helpful to know the MB327 specific binding site to apply structure based molecular modeling. The binding site for MB327 at the nAChR is not known and so far goal of speculations, but it has been shown that MB327 does not bind to the orthosteric acetylcholine binding site. We have used docking calculations to screen the surface of nAChR for possible binding sites of MB327. The results indicate that at least two potential binding sites for MB327 at nAChR are present inside the channel pore. In these binding sites, MB327 intercalates between the γ-α and β-δ subunits of nAChR, respectively. Both putative MB327 binding sites show an unsymmetrical distribution of surrounding hydrophilic and lipophilic amino acids. This suggests that substitution of MB327-related bispyridinium compounds on one of the two pyridinium rings with polar substituents should have a favorable effect on the pharmacological function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SITEHOUND-web: a server for ligand binding site identification in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Marylens; Ghersi, Dario; Sanchez, Roberto

    2009-07-01

    SITEHOUND-web (http://sitehound.sanchezlab.org) is a binding-site identification server powered by the SITEHOUND program. Given a protein structure in PDB format SITEHOUND-web will identify regions of the protein characterized by favorable interactions with a probe molecule. These regions correspond to putative ligand binding sites. Depending on the probe used in the calculation, sites with preference for different ligands will be identified. Currently, a carbon probe for identification of binding sites for drug-like molecules, and a phosphate probe for phosphorylated ligands (ATP, phoshopeptides, etc.) have been implemented. SITEHOUND-web will display the results in HTML pages including an interactive 3D representation of the protein structure and the putative sites using the Jmol java applet. Various downloadable data files are also provided for offline data analysis.

  8. Rac1 GTPase activates the WAVE regulatory complex through two distinct binding sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baoyu; Chou, Hui-Ting; Brautigam, Chad A; Xing, Wenmin; Yang, Sheng; Henry, Lisa; Doolittle, Lynda K; Walz, Thomas; Rosen, Michael K

    2017-09-26

    The Rho GTPase Rac1 activates the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) to drive Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization, which underpins diverse cellular processes. Here we report the structure of a WRC-Rac1 complex determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Surprisingly, Rac1 is not located at the binding site on the Sra1 subunit of the WRC previously identified by mutagenesis and biochemical data. Rather, it binds to a distinct, conserved site on the opposite end of Sra1. Biophysical and biochemical data on WRC mutants confirm that Rac1 binds to both sites, with the newly identified site having higher affinity and both sites required for WRC activation. Our data reveal that the WRC is activated by simultaneous engagement of two Rac1 molecules, suggesting a mechanism by which cells may sense the density of active Rac1 at membranes to precisely control actin assembly.

  9. Evaluation of a novel virtual screening strategy using receptor decoy binding sites.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hershna; Kukol, Andreas

    2016-08-23

    Virtual screening is used in biomedical research to predict the binding affinity of a large set of small organic molecules to protein receptor targets. This report shows the development and evaluation of a novel yet straightforward attempt to improve this ranking in receptor-based molecular docking using a receptor-decoy strategy. This strategy includes defining a decoy binding site on the receptor and adjusting the ranking of the true binding-site virtual screen based on the decoy-site screen. The results show that by docking against a receptor-decoy site with Autodock Vina, improved Receiver Operator Characteristic Enrichment (ROCE) was achieved for 5 out of fifteen receptor targets investigated, when up to 15 % of a decoy site rank list was considered. No improved enrichment was seen for 7 targets, while for 3 targets the ROCE was reduced. The extent to which this strategy can effectively improve ligand prediction is dependent on the target receptor investigated.

  10. Directed evolution of glutathione transferases towards a selective glutathione-binding site and improved oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Axarli, Irine; Muleta, Abdi W; Chronopoulou, Evangelia G; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2017-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a family of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) to electrophilic compounds. A library of alpha class GSTs was constructed by DNA shuffling using the DNA encoding the human glutathione transferase A1-1 (hGSTA1-1) and the rat glutathione transferase A1-1 (rGSTA1-1). Activity screening of the library allowed the selection of a chimeric enzyme variant (GSTD4) that displayed high affinity towards GSH and GSH-Sepharose affinity adsorbent, higher k cat /K m and improved thermal stability, compared to the parent enzymes. The crystal structures of the GSTD4 enzyme in free form and in complex with GSH were determined to 1.6Šand 2.3Šresolution, respectively. Analysis of the GSTD4 structure showed subtle conformational changes in the GSH-binding site and in electron-sharing network that may contribute to the increased GSH affinity. The shuffled variant GSTD4 was further optimized for improved oxidative stability employing site-saturation mutagenesis. The Cys112Ser mutation confers optimal oxidative stability and kinetic properties in the GSTD4 enzyme. DNA shuffling allowed the creation of a chimeric enzyme variant with improved properties, compared to the parent enzymes. X-ray crystallography shed light on how recombination of a specific segment from homologous GSTA1-1 together with point mutations gives rise to a new functionally competent enzyme with improved binding, catalytic properties and stability. Such an engineered GST would be useful in biotechnology as affinity tool in affinity chromatography as well as a biocatalytic matrix for the construction of biochips or enzyme biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strong Ligand-Protein Interactions Derived from Diffuse Ligand Interactions with Loose Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Many systems in biology rely on binding of ligands to target proteins in a single high-affinity conformation with a favorable ΔG. Alternatively, interactions of ligands with protein regions that allow diffuse binding, distributed over multiple sites and conformations, can exhibit favorable ΔG because of their higher entropy. Diffuse binding may be biologically important for multidrug transporters and carrier proteins. A fine-grained computational method for numerical integration of total binding ΔG arising from diffuse regional interaction of a ligand in multiple conformations using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is presented. This method yields a metric that quantifies the influence on overall ligand affinity of ligand binding to multiple, distinct sites within a protein binding region. This metric is essentially a measure of dispersion in equilibrium ligand binding and depends on both the number of potential sites of interaction and the distribution of their individual predicted affinities. Analysis of test cases indicates that, for some ligand/protein pairs involving transporters and carrier proteins, diffuse binding contributes greatly to total affinity, whereas in other cases the influence is modest. This approach may be useful for studying situations where "nonspecific" interactions contribute to biological function.

  12. Specific strychnine binding sites on acrosome-associated membranes of golden hamster spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Miguel N; Ronco, Ana M; Aguirre, María C

    2003-06-27

    This study demonstrates for the first time, that membrane vesicles originated from the hamster sperm head after the occurrence of the acrosome reaction, possess specific strychnine binding sites. [3H]Strychnine binding was saturable and reversible, being displaced by unlabeled strychnine (IC(50)=26.7+/-2.3 microM). Kinetic analysis revealed one binding site with K(d)=120nM and B(max)=142fmol/10(6) spermatozoa. Glycine receptor agonists beta-alanine and taurine inhibited strychnine binding by 20-30%. Surprisingly, glycine stimulated binding by about 40-50%. Results obtained in this study strongly suggest the presence of glycine receptors-with distinctive kinetic properties on the periacrosomal plasma membrane of hamster spermatozoa. Localization of this receptor fits well with its previously proposed role in acrosomal exocytosis during mammalian fertilization.

  13. Binding site and affinity prediction of general anesthetics to protein targets using docking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renyu; Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; Liang, David; Saven, Jeffery G

    2012-05-01

    The protein targets for general anesthetics remain unclear. A tool to predict anesthetic binding for potential binding targets is needed. In this study, we explored whether a computational method, AutoDock, could serve as such a tool. High-resolution crystal data of water-soluble proteins (cytochrome C, apoferritin, and human serum albumin), and a membrane protein (a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus [GLIC]) were used. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments were performed to determine anesthetic affinity in solution conditions for apoferritin. Docking calculations were performed using DockingServer with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm and the Solis and Wets local search method (http://www.dockingserver.com/web). Twenty general anesthetics were docked into apoferritin. The predicted binding constants were compared with those obtained from ITC experiments for potential correlations. In the case of apoferritin, details of the binding site and their interactions were compared with recent cocrystallization data. Docking calculations for 6 general anesthetics currently used in clinical settings (isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, halothane, propofol, and etomidate) with known 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) values were also performed in all tested proteins. The binding constants derived from docking experiments were compared with known EC(50) values and octanol/water partition coefficients for the 6 general anesthetics. All 20 general anesthetics docked unambiguously into the anesthetic binding site identified in the crystal structure of apoferritin. The binding constants for 20 anesthetics obtained from the docking calculations correlate significantly with those obtained from ITC experiments (P = 0.04). In the case of GLIC, the identified anesthetic binding sites in the crystal structure are among the docking predicted binding sites, but not the top ranked site. Docking calculations suggest a most probable binding site

  14. Binding Site and Affinity Prediction of General Anesthetics to Protein Targets Using Docking

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renyu; Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; Liang, David; Saven, Jeffery G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The protein targets for general anesthetics remain unclear. A tool to predict anesthetic binding for potential binding targets is needed. In this study, we explore whether a computational method, AutoDock, could serve as such a tool. Methods High-resolution crystal data of water soluble proteins (cytochrome C, apoferritin and human serum albumin), and a membrane protein (a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus, GLIC) were used. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments were performed to determine anesthetic affinity in solution conditions for apoferritin. Docking calculations were performed using DockingServer with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm and the Solis and Wets local search method (https://www.dockingserver.com/web). Twenty general anesthetics were docked into apoferritin. The predicted binding constants are compared with those obtained from ITC experiments for potential correlations. In the case of apoferritin, details of the binding site and their interactions were compared with recent co-crystallization data. Docking calculations for six general anesthetics currently used in clinical settings (isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, halothane, propofol, and etomidate) with known EC50 were also performed in all tested proteins. The binding constants derived from docking experiments were compared with known EC50s and octanol/water partition coefficients for the six general anesthetics. Results All 20 general anesthetics docked unambiguously into the anesthetic binding site identified in the crystal structure of apoferritin. The binding constants for 20 anesthetics obtained from the docking calculations correlate significantly with those obtained from ITC experiments (p=0.04). In the case of GLIC, the identified anesthetic binding sites in the crystal structure are among the docking predicted binding sites, but not the top ranked site. Docking calculations suggest a most probable binding site located in the

  15. sc-PDB: a database for identifying variations and multiplicity of 'druggable' binding sites in proteins.

    PubMed

    Meslamani, Jamel; Rognan, Didier; Kellenberger, Esther

    2011-05-01

    The sc-PDB database is an annotated archive of druggable binding sites extracted from the Protein Data Bank. It contains all-atoms coordinates for 8166 protein-ligand complexes, chosen for their geometrical and physico-chemical properties. The sc-PDB provides a functional annotation for proteins, a chemical description for ligands and the detailed intermolecular interactions for complexes. The sc-PDB now includes a hierarchical classification of all the binding sites within a functional class. The sc-PDB entries were first clustered according to the protein name indifferent of the species. For each cluster, we identified dissimilar sites (e.g. catalytic and allosteric sites of an enzyme). SCOPE AND APPLICATIONS: The classification of sc-PDB targets by binding site diversity was intended to facilitate chemogenomics approaches to drug design. In ligand-based approaches, it avoids comparing ligands that do not share the same binding site. In structure-based approaches, it permits to quantitatively evaluate the diversity of the binding site definition (variations in size, sequence and/or structure). The sc-PDB database is freely available at: http://bioinfo-pharma.u-strasbg.fr/scPDB.

  16. Exploration of gated ligand binding recognizes an allosteric site for blocking FABP4-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Xiang; Dong, Zigang

    2015-12-28

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), reversibly binding to fatty acids and other lipids with high affinities, is a potential target for treatment of cancers. The binding site of FABP4 is buried in an interior cavity and thereby ligand binding/unbinding is coupled with opening/closing of FABP4. It is a difficult task both experimentally and computationally to illuminate the entry or exit pathway, especially with the conformational gating. In this report we combine extensive computer simulations, clustering analysis, and the Markov state model to investigate the binding mechanism of FABP4 and troglitazone. Our simulations capture spontaneous binding and unbinding events as well as the conformational transition of FABP4 between the open and closed states. An allosteric binding site on the protein surface is recognized for the development of novel FABP4 inhibitors. The binding affinity is calculated and compared with the experimental value. The kinetic analysis suggests that ligand residence on the protein surface may delay the binding process. Overall, our results provide a comprehensive picture of ligand diffusion on the protein surface, ligand migration into the buried cavity, and the conformational change of FABP4 at an atomic level.

  17. Analysis of functional importance of binding sites in the Drosophila gap gene network model.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Konstantin; Gursky, Vitaly V; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Dymova, Arina; Samsonova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamics based approach provides a promising framework for construction of the genotype-phenotype map in many biological systems. Among important aspects of a good model connecting the DNA sequence information with that of a molecular phenotype (gene expression) is the selection of regulatory interactions and relevant transcription factor bindings sites. As the model may predict different levels of the functional importance of specific binding sites in different genomic and regulatory contexts, it is essential to formulate and study such models under different modeling assumptions. We elaborate a two-layer model for the Drosophila gap gene network and include in the model a combined set of transcription factor binding sites and concentration dependent regulatory interaction between gap genes hunchback and Kruppel. We show that the new variants of the model are more consistent in terms of gene expression predictions for various genetic constructs in comparison to previous work. We quantify the functional importance of binding sites by calculating their impact on gene expression in the model and calculate how these impacts correlate across all sites under different modeling assumptions. The assumption about the dual interaction between hb and Kr leads to the most consistent modeling results, but, on the other hand, may obscure existence of indirect interactions between binding sites in regulatory regions of distinct genes. The analysis confirms the previously formulated regulation concept of many weak binding sites working in concert. The model predicts a more or less uniform distribution of functionally important binding sites over the sets of experimentally characterized regulatory modules and other open chromatin domains.

  18. Active-site monovalent cations revealed in a 1.55-Å-resolution hammerhead ribozyme structure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael; Schultz, Eric P; Martick, Monika; Scott, William G

    2013-10-23

    We have obtained a 1.55-Å crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme derived from Schistosoma mansoni under conditions that permit detailed observations of Na(+) ion binding in the ribozyme's active site. At least two such Na(+) ions are observed. The first Na(+) ion binds to the N7 of G10.1 and the adjacent A9 phosphate in a manner identical with that previously observed for divalent cations. A second Na(+) ion binds to the Hoogsteen face of G12, the general base in the hammerhead cleavage reaction, thereby potentially dissipating the negative charge of the catalytically active enolate form of the nucleotide base. A potential but more ambiguous third site bridges the A9 and scissile phosphates in a manner consistent with that of previous predictions. Hammerhead ribozymes have been observed to be active in the presence of high concentrations of monovalent cations, including Na(+), but the mechanism by which monovalent cations substitute for divalent cations in hammerhead catalysis remains unclear. Our results enable us to suggest that Na(+) directly and specifically substitutes for divalent cations in the hammerhead active site. The detailed geometry of the pre-catalytic active-site complex is also revealed with a new level of precision, thanks to the quality of the electron density maps obtained from what is currently the highest-resolution ribozyme structure in the Protein Data Bank. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ubiquinol-binding site in the alternative oxidase: mutagenesis reveals features important for substrate binding and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Albury, Mary S; Elliott, Catherine; Moore, Anthony L

    2010-12-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-protonmotive ubiquinol oxidase that is found in all plants, some fungi, green algae, bacteria and pathogenic protozoa. The lack of AOX in the mammalian host renders this protein an important potential therapeutic target in the treatment of pathogenic protozoan infections. Bioinformatic searches revealed that, within a putative ubiquinol-binding crevice in AOX, Gln242, Asn247, Tyr253, Ser256, His261 and Arg262 were highly conserved. To confirm that these amino-acid residues are important for ubiquinol-binding and hence activity substitution mutations were generated and characterised. Assessment of AOX activity in isolated Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitochondria revealed that mutation of either Gln242, Ser256, His261 and Arg262 resulted in >90% inhibition of antimycin A-insensitive respiration suggesting that hydroxyl, guanidino, imidazole groups, polar and charged residues in addition to the size of the amino-acid chain are important for ubiquinone-binding. Substitution of Asn247 with glutamine or Tyr253 with phenylalanine had little effect upon the respiratory rate indicating that these residues are not critical for AOX activity. However replacement of Tyr253 by alanine resulted in a 72% loss of activity suggesting that the benzoquinone group and not hydroxyl group is important for quinol binding. These results provide important new insights into the ubiquinol-binding site of the alternative oxidase, the identity of which maybe important for future rational drug design. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculation of Relative Binding Free Energy in the Water-Filled Active Site of Oligopeptide-Binding Protein A.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Manuela; de Beer, Stephanie B A; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2016-04-15

    The periplasmic oligopeptide binding protein A (OppA) represents a well-known example of water-mediated protein-ligand interactions. Here, we perform free-energy calculations for three different ligands binding to OppA, using a thermodynamic integration approach. The tripeptide ligands share a high structural similarity (all have the sequence KXK), but their experimentally-determined binding free energies differ remarkably. Thermodynamic cycles were constructed for the ligands, and simulations conducted in the bound and (freely solvated) unbound states. In the unbound state, it was observed that the difference in conformational freedom between alanine and glycine leads to a surprisingly slow convergence, despite their chemical similarity. This could be overcome by increasing the softness parameter during alchemical transformations. Discrepancies remained in the bound state however, when comparing independent simulations of the three ligands. These difficulties could be traced to a slow relaxation of the water network within the active site. Fluctuations in the number of water molecules residing in the binding cavity occur mostly on a timescale larger than the simulation time along the alchemical path. After extensive simulations, relative binding free energies that were converged to within thermal noise could be obtained, which agree well with available experimental data.

  1. Calculation of Relative Binding Free Energy in the Water-Filled Active Site of Oligopeptide-Binding Protein A

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Manuela; de Beer, Stephanie B. A.; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The periplasmic oligopeptide binding protein A (OppA) represents a well-known example of water-mediated protein-ligand interactions. Here, we perform free-energy calculations for three different ligands binding to OppA, using a thermodynamic integration approach. The tripeptide ligands share a high structural similarity (all have the sequence KXK), but their experimentally-determined binding free energies differ remarkably. Thermodynamic cycles were constructed for the ligands, and simulations conducted in the bound and (freely solvated) unbound states. In the unbound state, it was observed that the difference in conformational freedom between alanine and glycine leads to a surprisingly slow convergence, despite their chemical similarity. This could be overcome by increasing the softness parameter during alchemical transformations. Discrepancies remained in the bound state however, when comparing independent simulations of the three ligands. These difficulties could be traced to a slow relaxation of the water network within the active site. Fluctuations in the number of water molecules residing in the binding cavity occur mostly on a timescale larger than the simulation time along the alchemical path. After extensive simulations, relative binding free energies that were converged to within thermal noise could be obtained, which agree well with available experimental data. PMID:27092480

  2. Biochemical study of prolactin binding sites in Xenopus laevis brain and choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Muccioli, G.; Guardabassi, A.; Pattono, P.

    1990-03-01

    The occurrence of prolactin binding sites in some brain structures (telencephalon, ventral hypothalamus, myelencephalon, hypophysis, and choroid plexus) from Xenopus laevis (anuran amphibian) was studied by the in vitro biochemical technique. The higher binding values were obtained at the level of the choroid plexus and above all of the hypothalamus. On the bases of hormonal specificity and high affinity, these binding sites are very similar to those of prolactin receptors of classical target tissues as well as of those described by us in other structures from Xenopus. To our knowledge, the present results provide the first demonstration of the occurrencemore » of prolactin specific binding sites in Xenopus laevis choroid plexus cells.« less

  3. Study of DNA binding sites using the Rényi parametric entropy measure.

    PubMed

    Krishnamachari, A; moy Mandal, Vijnan; Karmeshu

    2004-04-07

    Shannon's definition of uncertainty or surprisal has been applied extensively to measure the information content of aligned DNA sequences and characterizing DNA binding sites. In contrast to Shannon's uncertainty, this study investigates the applicability and suitability of a parametric uncertainty measure due to Rényi. It is observed that this measure also provides results in agreement with Shannon's measure, pointing to its utility in analysing DNA binding site region. For facilitating the comparison between these uncertainty measures, a dimensionless quantity called "redundancy" has been employed. It is found that Rényi's measure at low parameter values possess a better delineating feature of binding sites (of binding regions) than Shannon's measure. The critical value of the parameter is chosen with an outlier criterion.

  4. Distinct roles of beta1 metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS), and ligand-associated metal-binding site (LIMBS) cation-binding sites in ligand recognition by integrin alpha2beta1.

    PubMed

    Valdramidou, Dimitra; Humphries, Martin J; Mould, A Paul

    2008-11-21

    Integrin-ligand interactions are regulated in a complex manner by divalent cations, and previous studies have identified ligand-competent, stimulatory, and inhibitory cation-binding sites. In collagen-binding integrins, such as alpha2beta1, ligand recognition takes place exclusively at the alpha subunit I domain. However, activation of the alphaI domain depends on its interaction with a structurally similar domain in the beta subunit known as the I-like or betaI domain. The top face of the betaI domain contains three cation-binding sites: the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), the ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS), and LIMBS (ligand-associated metal-binding site). The role of these sites in controlling ligand binding to the alphaI domain has yet to be elucidated. Mutation of the MIDAS or LIMBS completely blocked collagen binding to alpha2beta1; in contrast mutation of the ADMIDAS reduced ligand recognition but this effect could be overcome by the activating monoclonal antibody TS2/16. Hence, the MIDAS and LIMBS appear to be essential for the interaction between alphaI and betaI, whereas occupancy of the ADMIDAS has an allosteric effect on the conformation of betaI. An activating mutation in the alpha2 I domain partially restored ligand binding to the MIDAS and LIMBS mutants. Analysis of the effects of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) on ligand binding to these mutants showed that the MIDAS is a ligand-competent site through which Mn(2+) stimulates ligand binding, whereas the LIMBS is a stimulatory Ca(2+)-binding site, occupancy of which increases the affinity of Mg(2+) for the MIDAS.

  5. Localization of basic fibroblast growth factor binding sites in the chick embryonic neural retina.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, A; Arruti, C; Courtois, Y; Jeanny, J C

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated the localization of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) binding sites during the development of the neural retina in the chick embryo. The specificity of the affinity of bFGF for its receptors was assessed by competition experiments with unlabelled growth factor or with heparin, as well as by heparitinase treatment of the samples. Two different types of binding sites were observed in the neural retina by light-microscopic autoradiography. The first type, localized mainly to basement membranes, was highly sensitive to heparitinase digestion and to competition with heparin. It was not developmentally regulated. The second type of binding site, resistant to heparin competition, appeared to be associated with retinal cells from the earliest stages studied (3-day-old embryo, stages 21-22 of Hamburger and Hamilton). Its distribution was found to vary during embryonic development, paralleling layering of the neural retina. Binding of bFGF to the latter sites was observed throughout the retinal neuroepithelium at early stages but displayed a distinct pattern at the time when the inner and outer plexiform layers were formed. During the development of the inner plexiform layer, a banded pattern of bFGF binding was observed. These bands, lying parallel to the vitreal surface, seemed to codistribute with the synaptic bands existing in the inner plexiform layer. The presence of intra-retinal bFGF binding sites whose distribution varies with embryonic development suggests a regulatory mechanism involving differential actions of bFGF on neural retinal cells.

  6. Oligomycin frames a common drug-binding site in the ATP synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Symersky, Jindrich; Osowski, Daniel; Walters, D. Eric

    We report the high-resolution (1.9 {angstrom}) crystal structure of oligomycin bound to the subunit c10 ring of the yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase. Oligomycin binds to the surface of the c10 ring making contact with two neighboring molecules at a position that explains the inhibitory effect on ATP synthesis. The carboxyl side chain of Glu59, which is essential for proton translocation, forms an H-bond with oligomycin via a bridging water molecule but is otherwise shielded from the aqueous environment. The remaining contacts between oligomycin and subunit c are primarily hydrophobic. The amino acid residues that form the oligomycin-binding site are 100%more » conserved between human and yeast but are widely different from those in bacterial homologs, thus explaining the differential sensitivity to oligomycin. Prior genetics studies suggest that the oligomycin-binding site overlaps with the binding site of other antibiotics, including those effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and thereby frames a common 'drug-binding site.' We anticipate that this drug-binding site will serve as an effective target for new antibiotics developed by rational design.« less

  7. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine binding sites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Horton, R W; Lowther, S; Chivers, J; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D; Testa, B

    1988-08-01

    1. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine (BDZ) binding sites was examined by their ability to displace [3H]-flunitrazepam ([3H]-FNM) from specific binding sites in bovine cortical membranes in vitro. 2. Clebopride, Delagrange 2674, Delagrange 2335 and BRL 20627 displayed concentration-dependent displacement of [3H]-FNM with IC50 values of 73 nM, 132 nM, 7.7 microM and 5.9 microM, respectively. Other substituted benzamides including metoclopramide, sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and cisapride were inactive at 10(-5) M. 3. Inhibition by clebopride and Delagrange 2674 of [3H]-FNM binding was apparently competitive and readily reversible. 4. In the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the ability of diazepam and Delagrange 2674 to displace [3H]-Ro 15-1788 binding was increased 3.6 and 1.6 fold respectively, compared to the absence of GABA, while ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta CCE) and clebopride were less potent in the presence of GABA. 5. Diazepam was 30 fold less potent at displacing [3H]-Ro 15-1788 in membranes that had been photoaffinity labelled with FNM than in control membranes, whereas the potency of beta CCE did not differ. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 showed a less than two fold loss of potency in photoaffinity labelled membranes. 6. The pattern of binding of clebopride and Delagrange 2674 in these in vitro tests is similar to that found previously with partial agonists or antagonists at BDZ binding sites. 7. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 inhibited [3H]-FNM binding with similar potency in rat cerebellar and hippocampal membranes, suggesting they have no selectivity for BDZ1 and BDZ2 binding sites. 8. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 are structurally dissimilar to other BDZ ligands and represent another chemical structure to probe brain BDZ binding sites.

  8. Amyloid tracers detect multiple binding sites in Alzheimer's disease brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ruiqing; Gillberg, Per-Göran; Bergfors, Assar; Marutle, Amelia; Nordberg, Agneta

    2013-07-01

    Imaging fibrillar amyloid-β deposition in the human brain in vivo by positron emission tomography has improved our understanding of the time course of amyloid-β pathology in Alzheimer's disease. The most widely used amyloid-β imaging tracer so far is (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B, a thioflavin derivative but other (11)C- and (18)F-labelled amyloid-β tracers have been studied in patients with Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal control subjects. However, it has not yet been established whether different amyloid tracers bind to identical sites on amyloid-β fibrils, offering the same ability to detect the regional amyloid-β burden in the brains. In this study, we characterized (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B binding in autopsied brain regions from 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 20 control subjects (aged 50 to 88 years). The binding properties of the amyloid tracers FDDNP, AV-45, AV-1 and BF-227 were also compared with those of (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B in the frontal cortices of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Saturation binding studies revealed the presence of high- and low-affinity (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B binding sites in the frontal cortex (K(d1): 3.5 ± 1.6 nM; K(d2): 133 ± 30 nM) and hippocampus (K(d1):5.6 ± 2.2 nM; K(d2): 181 ± 132 nM) of Alzheimer's disease brains. The relative proportion of high-affinity to low-affinity sites was 6:1 in the frontal cortex and 3:1 in the hippocampus. One control showed both high- and low-affinity (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B binding sites (K(d1): 1.6 nM; K(d2): 330 nM) in the cortex while the others only had a low-affinity site (K(d2): 191 ± 70 nM). (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B binding in Alzheimer's disease brains was higher in the frontal and parietal cortices than in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus, and negligible in the cerebellum. Competitive binding studies with (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B in the frontal cortices of Alzheimer's disease brains revealed high- and low-affinity binding sites for BTA

  9. The amphiphilic peptide adenoregulin enhances agonist binding to A1-adenosine receptors and [35S]GTP gamma S to brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Moni, R W; Romero, F S; Daly, J W

    1995-08-01

    1. Adenoregulin is an amphilic peptide isolated from skin mucus of the tree frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor. Synthetic adenoregulin enhanced the binding of agonists to several G-protein-coupled receptors in rat brain membranes. 2. The maximal enhancement of agonist binding, and in parentheses, the concentration of adenoregulin affording maximal enhancement were as follows: 60% (20 microM) for A1-adenosine receptors, 30% (100 microM) for A2a-adenosine receptors, 20% (2 microM) for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, and 30% (10 microM) for 5HT1A receptors. High affinity agonist binding for A1-, alpha 2-, and 5HT1A-receptors was virtually abolished by GTP gamma S in the presence of adenoregulin, but was only partially abolished in its absence. Magnesium ions increased the binding of agonists to receptors and reduced the enhancement elicited by adenoregulin. 3. The effect of adenoregulin on binding of N6-cyclohexyladenosine ([3H]CHA) to A1-receptors was relatively slow and was irreversible. Adenoregulin increased the Bmax value for [3H]CHA binding sites, and the proportion of high affinity states, and slowed the rate of [3H]CHA dissociation. Binding of the A1-selective antagonist, [3H]DPCPX, was maximally enhanced by only 13% at 2 microM adenoregulin. Basal and A1-adenosine receptor-stimulated binding of [35S]GTP gamma S were maximally enhanced 45% and 23%, respectively, by 50 microM adenoregulin. In CHAPS-solubilized membranes from rat cortex, the binding of both [3H]CHA and [3H]DPCPX were enhanced by adenoregulin. Binding of [3H]CHA to membranes from DDT1 MF-2 cells was maximally enhanced 17% at 20 microM adenoregulin. In intact DDT1 MF-2 cells, 20 microM adenoregulin did not potentiate the inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation mediated via the adenosine A1 receptor. 4. It is proposed that adenoregulin enhances agonist binding through a mechanism involving enhancement of guanyl nucleotide exchange at G-proteins, resulting in a conversion of receptors into a high affinity state

  10. Common Anesthetic-binding Site for Inhibition of Pentameric Ligand-gated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Kinde, Monica N; Bu, Weiming; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Yan; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Tang, Pei

    2016-03-01

    Identifying functionally relevant anesthetic-binding sites in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) is an important step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying anesthetic action. The anesthetic propofol is known to inhibit cation-conducting pLGICs, including a prokaryotic pLGIC from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC), but the sites responsible for functional inhibition remain undetermined. We photolabeled ELIC with a light-activated derivative of propofol (AziPm) and performed fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to support propofol binding to a transmembrane domain (TMD) intrasubunit pocket. To differentiate sites responsible for propofol inhibition from those that are functionally irrelevant, we made an ELIC-γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) chimera that replaced the ELIC-TMD with the α1β3GABAAR-TMD and compared functional responses of ELIC-GABAAR and ELIC with propofol modulations. Photolabeling showed multiple AziPm-binding sites in the extracellular domain (ECD) but only one site in the TMD with labeled residues M265 and F308 in the resting state of ELIC. Notably, this TMD site is an intrasubunit pocket that overlaps with binding sites for anesthetics, including propofol, found previously in other pLGICs. Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance experiments supported propofol binding to this TMD intrasubunit pocket only in the absence of agonist. Functional measurements of ELIC-GABAAR showed propofol potentiation of the agonist-elicited current instead of inhibition observed on ELIC. The distinctly different responses of ELIC and ELIC-GABAAR to propofol support the functional relevance of propofol binding to the TMD. Combining the newly identified TMD intrasubunit pocket in ELIC with equivalent TMD anesthetic sites found previously in other cationic pLGICs, we propose this TMD pocket as a common site for anesthetic inhibition of pLGICs.

  11. Histochemistry of lectin-binding sites in Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida).

    PubMed

    Busch, A; Schumacher, U; Storch, V

    2001-02-01

    Priapulida represent one of the phylogenetically oldest multicellular animal groups. In multicellular animals (Metazoa) cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions are often mediated by carbohydrate residues of glycoconjugates. To analyze the carbohydrate composition of a phylogenetically old species, lectin histochemistry was employed on 5 specimens of the priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus. Many lectins bound to the chitin-containing cuticle, including those specific for carbohydrates other than N-acetylglucosamine, the principle building block of chitin. The connective tissue of the animals contained both N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Mannose residues were widely distributed with the exception of the cuticle, but complex type carbohydrates were not present in the entire animal. Sialic acid residues were only detected in the cuticle and brush border of the intestinal epithelium, while fucose was limited to the cuticle. Thus, the lectin-binding pattern indicated that sugars typical for the linking region of both N- and O-glycoproteins in mammals are also present in H. spinulosus. Carbohydrate residues that are typical for the complex type of N-linked glycans in vertebrates are not present as are carbohydrate residues typical for the termination of O-linked carbohydrate chains. Hence, a truncated form of both N- and O-linked glycosylation is present in H. spinulosus indicating that more complex patterns of glycosylation developed later during evolution.

  12. Identification of candidate transcription factor binding sites in the cattle genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A resource that provides candidate transcription factor binding sites does not currently exist for cattle. Such data is necessary, as predicted sites may serve as excellent starting locations for future 'omics studies to develop transcriptional regulation hypotheses. In order to generate this resour...

  13. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Callum F.; Margetts, Mai B.; Menting, John G.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Smith, Brian J.; Ward, Colin W.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe701 and Phe705. The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. PMID:27281820

  14. Phyloscan: locating transcription-regulating binding sites in mixed aligned and unaligned sequence data.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Michael J; Newberg, Lee A

    2010-07-01

    The transcription of a gene from its DNA template into an mRNA molecule is the first, and most heavily regulated, step in gene expression. Especially in bacteria, regulation is typically achieved via the binding of a transcription factor (protein) or small RNA molecule to the chromosomal region upstream of a regulated gene. The protein or RNA molecule recognizes a short, approximately conserved sequence within a gene's promoter region and, by binding to it, either enhances or represses expression of the nearby gene. Since the sought-for motif (pattern) is short and accommodating to variation, computational approaches that scan for binding sites have trouble distinguishing functional sites from look-alikes. Many computational approaches are unable to find the majority of experimentally verified binding sites without also finding many false positives. Phyloscan overcomes this difficulty by exploiting two key features of functional binding sites: (i) these sites are typically more conserved evolutionarily than are non-functional DNA sequences; and (ii) these sites often occur two or more times in the promoter region of a regulated gene. The website is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement. Address: (http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/phyloscan/).

  15. Characterization of angiotensin-binding sites in the bovine adrenal and the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rogulja, I.

    1989-01-01

    The first study was designed to determine whether systemically administered MSG affects neurons in the CVOs that are potentially important in mediating angiotensin-dependent responses. Rats were pretreated with MSG and the receptors for angiotensin II were assayed by radioligand binding in brain homogenates from the septum anteroventral third ventricular region (AV3V) and the thalamus/hypothalamus region using {sup 125}I-angiotensin II as the radioligand. The results of this experiment indicate that systematically administered MSG in the rat significantly reduced the number (Bmax) of Ang II receptors in a tissue sample which contained both extra blood-brain barrier organs as well as tissue withinmore » the blood-brain barrier with no change in the affinity (Kd) of the binding sites. The second chapter reports the successful solubilization of bovine adrenal {sup 125}I Ang II and {sup 125}I Sar{sup 1},Ile{sup 8}-Ang II binding sites with the detergent CHAPS. The results of our studies indicate the presence of two angiotensin binding sites. The one site is specific for naturally occurring angiotensins as well as sarcosine-1 substituted angiotensin analogues. The other site which can be optimally stabilized be re-addition of 0.3% CHAPS into the incubation assay binds sarcosine-1 substituted angiotensins exclusively. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography experiments suggest that these sites, possibly, represent distinct proteins. The third chapter discusses the successful solubilization and partial characterization of the rat brain angiotensin receptor.« less

  16. Endogenously Generated Plasmin at the Vascular Wall Injury Site Amplifies Lysine Binding Site-Dependent Plasminogen Accumulation in Microthrombi

    PubMed Central

    Brzoska, Tomasz; Tanaka-Murakami, Aki; Suzuki, Yuko; Sano, Hideto; Kanayama, Naohiro; Urano, Tetsumei

    2015-01-01

    The fibrinolytic system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of hemostasis; however, it remains unclear how and when the system is triggered to induce thrombolysis. Using intra-vital confocal fluorescence microscopy, we investigated the process of plasminogen binding to laser-induced platelet-rich microthrombi generated in the mesenteric vein of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). The accumulation of GFP-expressing platelets as well as exogenously infused Alexa Fluor 568-labeled Glu-plasminogen (Glu-plg) on the injured vessel wall was assessed by measuring the increase in the corresponding fluorescence intensities. Glu-plg accumulated in a time-dependent manner in the center of the microthrombus, where phosphatidylserine is exposed on platelet surfaces and fibrin formation takes place. The rates of binding of Glu-plg in the presence of ε-aminocaproic acid and carboxypeptidase B, as well as the rates of binding of mini-plasminogen lacking kringle domains 1-4 and lysine binding sites, were significantly lower than that of Glu-plg alone, suggesting that the binding was dependent on lysine binding sites. Furthermore, aprotinin significantly suppressed the accumulation of Glu-plg, suggesting that endogenously generated plasmin activity is a prerequisite for the accumulation. In spite of the endogenous generation of plasmin and accumulation of Glu-plg in the center of microthrombi, the microthrombi did not change in size during the 2-hour observation period. When human tissue plasminogen activator was administered intravenously, Glu-plg further accumulated and the microthrombi were lysed. Glu-plg appeared to accumulate in the center of microthrombi in the early phase of microthrombus formation, and plasmin activity and lysine binding sites were required for this accumulation. PMID:25806939

  17. Footprinting reveals that nogalamycin and actinomycin shuffle between DNA binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K R; Waring, M J

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that sequence-selective DNA-binding antibiotics locate their preferred binding sites by a process involving migration from nonspecific sites has been tested by footprinting with DNAase I. Footprinting patterns on the tyrT DNA fragment produced by nogalamycin and actinomycin change with time after mixing the antibiotic with the DNA. Sites of protection as well as enhanced cleavage are seen to develop in a fashion which is both temperature and concentration-dependent. At certain sites cutting is transiently enhanced, then blocked. Limited evidence for slow reaction with echinomycin and mithramycin is presented, but the kinetics of footprinting with daunomycin and distamycin appear instantaneous. The feasibility of adducing direct evidence for shuffling by footprinting seems to be governed by slow dissociation of the antibiotic-DNA complex. It may also be dependent upon the mode of binding, be it intercalative or non-intercalative in character. Images PMID:2421246

  18. Elucidation of the Hsp90 C-terminal Inhibitor Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Matts, Robert L.; Dixit, Anshuman; Peterson, Laura B.; Sun, Liang; Voruganti, Sudhakar; Kalyanaraman, Palgunan; Hartson, Steve D.; Verkhivker, Gennady M.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone machine is required for the folding, activation and/or stabilization of more than 50 proteins directly related to malignant progression. Hsp90 contains small molecule binding sites at both its N- and C-terminal domains, however, limited structural and biochemical data regarding the C-terminal binding site is available. In this report, the small molecule binding site in the Hsp90 C-terminal domain was revealed by protease fingerprinting and photoaffinity labeling utilizing LC-MS/MS. The identified site was characterized by generation of a homology model for hHsp90α using the SAXS open structure of HtpG and docking the bioactive conformation of NB into the generated model. The resulting model for the bioactive conformation of NB bound to Hsp90α is presented herein. PMID:21548602

  19. Receptor binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor are expressed by brown adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bacay, A.C.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    To explore the possibility that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is involved in thermoregulation we used quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate receptor binding assays to identify ANF bindings sites in neonatal rat and sheep brown adipose tissue, respectively. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography were were able to localize high levels of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-rat ANF in neonatal rat brown adipose tissue. Homogenate binding assays on sheep brown fat demonstrated that the radioligand was binding to the membrane fraction and that the specific binding was not due to a lipophilic interaction between {sup 125}I-rat ANF and brown fat. Specific bindingmore » of {sup 125}I-rat ANF to the membranes of brown fat cells was inhibited by unlabeled rat ANF with a Ki of 8.0 x 10(-9) M, but not by unrelated peptides. These studies demonstrate that brown fat cells express high levels of ANF receptor binding sites in neonatal rat and sheep and suggest that ANF may play a role in thermoregulation.« less

  20. Characterization and autoradiographic localization of neurotensin binding sites in human sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Azriel, Y; Burcher, E

    2001-06-01

    Radioiodinated neurotensin ((125)I-NT) was used to characterize and localize NT binding sites in normal human sigmoid colon. Specimens were obtained from patients (30-77 years old) undergoing resection for colon carcinoma. Specific binding of (125)I-NT to sigmoid circular muscle membranes was enhanced by o-phenanthroline (1 mM) but other peptidase inhibitors were ineffective. (125)I-NT bound to a high-affinity site of K(d) = 0.88 +/- 0.09 nM and B(max) = 4.03 +/- 0.66 fmol/mg of wet weight tissue (n = 14), although in the majority of patients another site, of low but variable affinity, could also be detected. Specific binding of 50 pM (125)I-NT was inhibited by NT(8-13) > NT > SR142948A > or = neuromedin N > or = SR48692, consistent with binding to the NT1 receptor. In autoradiographic studies, dense specific binding of (125)I-NT was seen over myenteric and submucosal ganglia, moderate binding over circular muscle, and sparse binding over longitudinal muscle and taenia coli. Levocabastine, which has affinity for the NT2 receptor, did not inhibit specific binding of (125)I-NT in membrane competition or autoradiographic studies. NT contracted sigmoid colon circular muscle strips with a pD(2) value of 6.8 +/- 0.2 nM (n = 25). The contractile responses to NT were significantly potentiated in the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 microM), indicating a neural component. Results from functional studies support actions for NT on both muscle and enteric neurons, consistent with the presence of NT receptors on circular muscle and ganglia of human sigmoid colon. The lack of inhibition by levocabastine suggests that the second binding site detected does not correspond to the NT2 receptor.

  1. Crystal structures of the transpeptidase domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis penicillin-binding protein PonA1 reveal potential mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Filippova, Ekaterina V; Kieser, Karen J; Luan, Chi-Hao; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Kiryukhina, Olga; Rubin, Eric J; Anderson, Wayne F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes the deadly disease tuberculosis. The rapid global spread of antibiotic-resistant M. tuberculosis makes tuberculosis infections difficult to treat. To overcome this problem new effective antimicrobial strategies are urgently needed. One promising target for new therapeutic approaches is PonA1, a class A penicillin-binding protein, which is required for maintaining physiological cell wall synthesis and cell shape during growth in mycobacteria. Here, crystal structures of the transpeptidase domain, the enzymatic domain responsible for penicillin binding, of PonA1 from M. tuberculosis in the inhibitor-free form and in complex with penicillin V are reported. We used site-directed mutagenesis, antibiotic profiling experiments, and fluorescence thermal shift assays to measure PonA1's sensitivity to different classes of β-lactams. Structural comparison of the PonA1 apo-form and the antibiotic-bound form shows that binding of penicillin V induces conformational changes in the position of the loop β4'-α3 surrounding the penicillin-binding site. We have also found that binding of different antibiotics including penicillin V positively impacts protein stability, while other tested β-lactams such as clavulanate or meropenem resulted in destabilization of PonA1. Our antibiotic profiling experiments indicate that the transpeptidase activity of PonA1 in both M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis mediates tolerance to specific cell wall-targeting antibiotics, particularly to penicillin V and meropenem. Because M. tuberculosis is an important human pathogen, these structural data provide a template to design novel transpeptidase inhibitors to treat tuberculosis infections. Structural data are available in the PDB database under the accession numbers 5CRF and 5CXW. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Autoradiographic demonstration of oxytocin-binding sites in the macula densa

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckel, M.E.; Freund-Mercier, M.J.

    1989-08-01

    Specific oxytocin (OT)-binding sites were localized in the rat kidney with use of a selective {sup 125}I-labeled OT antagonist ({sup 125}I-OTA). High concentrations of OT binding sites were detected on the juxtaglomerular apparatus with use of the conventional film autoradiographic technique. No labeling occurred on other renal structures. The cellular localization of the OT binding sites within the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied in light microscope autoradiography, on semithin sections from paraformaldehyde-fixed kidney slices incubated in the presence of {sup 125}I-OTA. These preparations revealed selective labeling of the macula densa, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. Control experimentsmore » showed first that {sup 125}I-OTA binding characteristics were not noticeably altered by prior paraformaldehyde fixation of the kidneys and second that autoradiographic detection of the binding sites was not impaired by histological treatments following binding procedures. In view of the role of the macula densa in the tubuloglomerular feedback, the putative OT receptors of this structure might mediate the stimulatory effect of OT on glomerular filtration.« less

  3. High-affinity cannabinoid binding site in brain: A possible marijuana receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, J.S.

    The mechanism by which delta{sup 9} tetrahydrocannabinol (delta{sup 9}THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana or hashish, produces its potent psychological and physiological effects is unknown. To find receptor binding sites for THC, we designed a water-soluble analog for use as a radioligand. 5{prime}-Trimethylammonium-delta{sup 8}THC (TMA) is a positively charged analog of delta-{sup 8}THC modified on the 5{prime} carbon, a portion of the molecule not important for its psychoactivity. We have studied the binding of ({sup 3}H)-5{prime}-trimethylammonium-delta-{sup 8}THC (({sup 3}H)TMA) to rat neuronal membranes. ({sup 3}H)TMA binds saturably and reversibly to brain membranes with high affinity to apparently one classmore » of sites. Highest binding site density occurs in brain, but several peripheral organs also display specific binding. Detergent solubilizes the sites without affecting their pharmacologial properties. Molecular sieve chromatography reveals a bimodal peak of ({sup 3}H)TMA binding activity of approximately 60,000 daltons apparent molecular weight.« less

  4. An NMR-Based Structural Rationale for Contrasting Stoichiometry and Ligand Binding Site(s) in Fatty Acid-binding Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Estephan, Rima; Yang, Xiaomin; Vela, Adriana; Wang, Hsin; Bernard, Cédric; Stark, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) is a 14-kDa cytosolic polypeptide, differing from other family members in number of ligand binding sites, diversity of bound ligands, and transfer of fatty acid(s) to membranes primarily via aqueous diffusion rather than direct collisional interactions. Distinct two-dimensional 1H-15N NMR signals indicative of slowly exchanging LFABP assemblies formed during stepwise ligand titration were exploited, without solving the protein-ligand complex structures, to yield the stoichiometries for the bound ligands, their locations within the protein binding cavity, the sequence of ligand occupation, and the corresponding protein structural accommodations. Chemical shifts were monitored for wild-type LFABP and a R122L/S124A mutant in which electrostatic interactions viewed as essential to fatty acid binding were removed. For wild-type LFABP the results compared favorably with previous tertiary structures of oleate-bound wild-type LFABP in crystals and in solution: there are two oleates, one U-shaped ligand that positions the long hydrophobic chain deep within the cavity and another extended structure with the hydrophobic chain facing the cavity and the carboxylate group lying close to the protein surface. The NMR titration validated a prior hypothesis that the first oleate to enter the cavity occupies the internal protein site. In contrast, 1H/15N chemical shift changes supported only one liganded oleate for R122L/S124A LFABP, at an intermediate location within the protein cavity. A rationale based on protein sequence and electrostatics was developed to explain the stoichiometry and binding site trends for LFABPs and to put these findings into context within the larger protein family. PMID:21226535

  5. Sequences Flanking the Gephyrin-Binding Site of GlyRβ Tune Receptor Stabilization at Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Grünewald, Nora; Salvatico, Charlotte; Kress, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The efficacy of synaptic transmission is determined by the number of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses. Their recruitment depends upon the availability of postsynaptic scaffolding molecules that interact with specific binding sequences of the receptor. At inhibitory synapses, gephyrin is the major scaffold protein that mediates the accumulation of heteromeric glycine receptors (GlyRs) via the cytoplasmic loop in the β-subunit (β-loop). This binding involves high- and low-affinity interactions, but the molecular mechanism of this bimodal binding and its implication in GlyR stabilization at synapses remain unknown. We have approached this question using a combination of quantitative biochemical tools and high-density single molecule tracking in cultured rat spinal cord neurons. The high-affinity binding site could be identified and was shown to rely on the formation of a 310-helix C-terminal to the β-loop core gephyrin-binding motif. This site plays a structural role in shaping the core motif and represents the major contributor to the synaptic confinement of GlyRs by gephyrin. The N-terminal flanking sequence promotes lower affinity interactions by occupying newly identified binding sites on gephyrin. Despite its low affinity, this binding site plays a modulatory role in tuning the mobility of the receptor. Together, the GlyR β-loop sequences flanking the core-binding site differentially regulate the affinity of the receptor for gephyrin and its trapping at synapses. Our experimental approach thus bridges the gap between thermodynamic aspects of receptor-scaffold interactions and functional receptor stabilization at synapses in living cells. PMID:29464196

  6. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  7. Activation of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase by Phenylalanine Does Not Require Binding in the Active Site

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein’s regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The kcat/Kphe value is down 104 for the mutant enzyme, and the Km value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain. PMID:25453233

  8. Impact of disruption of secondary binding site S2 on dopamine transporter function.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Juan; Reith, Maarten E A

    2016-09-01

    The structures of the leucine transporter, drosophila dopamine transporter, and human serotonin transporter show a secondary binding site (designated S2 ) for drugs and substrate in the extracellular vestibule toward the membrane exterior in relation to the primary substrate recognition site (S1 ). The present experiments are aimed at disrupting S2 by mutating Asp476 and Ile159 to Ala. Both mutants displayed a profound decrease in [(3) H]DA uptake compared with wild-type associated with a reduced turnover rate kcat . This was not caused by a conformational bias as the mutants responded to Zn(2+) (10 μM) similarly as WT. The dopamine transporters with either the D476A or I159A mutation both displayed a higher Ki for dopamine for the inhibition of [3H](-)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane binding than did the WT transporter, in accordance with an allosteric interaction between the S1 and S2 sites. The results provide evidence in favor of a general applicability of the two-site allosteric model of the Javitch/Weinstein group from LeuT to dopamine transporter and possibly other monoamine transporters. X-ray structures of transporters closely related to the dopamine (DA) transporter show a secondary binding site S2 in the extracellular vestibule proximal to the primary binding site S1 which is closely linked to one of the Na(+) binding sites. This work examines the relationship between S2 and S1 sites. We found that S2 site impairment severely reduced DA transport and allosterically reduced S1 site affinity for the cocaine analog [(3) H]CFT. Our results are the first to lend direct support for the application of the two-site allosteric model, advanced for bacterial LeuT, to the human DA transporter. The model states that, after binding of the first DA molecule (DA1 ) to the primary S1 site (along with Na(+) ), binding of a second DA (DA2 ) to the S2 site triggers, through an allosteric interaction, the release of DA1 and Na(+) into the cytoplasm. © 2016

  9. Concentration-Dependent Multiple Binding Sites on Saliva-Treated Hydroxyapatite for Streptococcus sanguis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, R. J.; Moreno, E. C.; Etherden, I.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of bacterial cell concentration on estimates of the number of binding sites and the affinity for the adsorption of a strain of Streptococcus sanguis to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite was determined, and the possible presence of multiple binding sites for this organism was tested. The range of concentrations of available bacteria varied from 4.7 × 106 to 5,960 × 106 cells per ml. The numbers of adsorbed bacteria increased over the entire range tested, but a suggestion of a break in an otherwise smooth adsorption isotherm was evident. Values for the number of binding sites and the affinity varied considerably depending upon the range of available bacterial concentrations used to estimate them; high correlation coefficients were obtained in all cases. The use of low bacterial cell concentrations yielded lower values for the number of sites and much higher values for the affinity constant than did the use of high bacterial cell concentrations. When data covering the entire range of bacterial concentrations were employed, values for the number of sites and the affinity were similar to those obtained by using only high bacterial cell concentrations. The simplest explanation for these results is that there are multiple binding sites for S. sanguis on saliva-treated hydroxyapatite surfaces. When present in low concentration, the streptococci evidently attach to more specific high-affinity sites which become saturated when higher bacterial concentrations are employed. The possibility of multiple binding sites was substantiated by comparing estimates of the adsorption parameters from a computer-simulated isotherm with those derived from the experimentally generated isotherm. A mathematical model describing bacterial adsorption to binary binding sites was further evidence for the existence of at least two classes of binding sites for S. sanguis. Far fewer streptococci adsorbed to experimental pellicles prepared from saliva depleted of bacterial aggregating

  10. Computational Analysis of the Ligand Binding Site of the Extracellular ATP Receptor, DORN1

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Cuong The; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Cao, Yangrong; ...

    2016-09-01

    DORN1 (also known as P2K1) is a plant receptor for extracellular ATP, which belongs to a large gene family of legume-type (L-type) lectin receptor kinases. Extracellular ATP binds to DORN1 with strong affinity through its lectin domain, and the binding triggers a variety of intracellular activities in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information on the tertiary structure of the ligand binding site of DORN1is lacking, which hampers efforts to fully elucidate the mechanism of receptor action. Available data of the crystal structures from more than 50 L-type lectins enable us to perform an in silico study of molecularmore » interaction between DORN1 and ATP. In this study, we employed a computational approach to develop a tertiary structure model of the DORN1 lectin domain. A blind docking analysis demonstrated that ATP binds to a cavity made by four loops (defined as loops A B, C and D) of the DORN1 lectin domain with high affinity. In silico target docking of ATP to the DORN1 binding site predicted interaction with 12 residues, located on the four loops, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The ATP binding pocket is structurally similar in location to the carbohydrate binding pocket of the canonical L-type lectins. However, four of the residues predicted to interact with ATP are not conserved between DORN1 and the other carbohydrate-binding lectins, suggesting that diversifying selection acting on these key residues may have led to the ATP binding activity of DORN1. Finally, the in silico model was validated by in vitro ATP binding assays using the purified extracellular lectin domain of wild-type DORN1, as well as mutated DORN1 lacking key ATP binding residues.« less

  11. Computational Analysis of the Ligand Binding Site of the Extracellular ATP Receptor, DORN1

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Cuong The; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Cao, Yangrong

    DORN1 (also known as P2K1) is a plant receptor for extracellular ATP, which belongs to a large gene family of legume-type (L-type) lectin receptor kinases. Extracellular ATP binds to DORN1 with strong affinity through its lectin domain, and the binding triggers a variety of intracellular activities in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information on the tertiary structure of the ligand binding site of DORN1is lacking, which hampers efforts to fully elucidate the mechanism of receptor action. Available data of the crystal structures from more than 50 L-type lectins enable us to perform an in silico study of molecularmore » interaction between DORN1 and ATP. In this study, we employed a computational approach to develop a tertiary structure model of the DORN1 lectin domain. A blind docking analysis demonstrated that ATP binds to a cavity made by four loops (defined as loops A B, C and D) of the DORN1 lectin domain with high affinity. In silico target docking of ATP to the DORN1 binding site predicted interaction with 12 residues, located on the four loops, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The ATP binding pocket is structurally similar in location to the carbohydrate binding pocket of the canonical L-type lectins. However, four of the residues predicted to interact with ATP are not conserved between DORN1 and the other carbohydrate-binding lectins, suggesting that diversifying selection acting on these key residues may have led to the ATP binding activity of DORN1. Finally, the in silico model was validated by in vitro ATP binding assays using the purified extracellular lectin domain of wild-type DORN1, as well as mutated DORN1 lacking key ATP binding residues.« less

  12. Identification and functional characterization of an Src homology domain 3 domain-binding site on Cbl.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Archana; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Itzstein, Cecile; Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Horne, William C; Baron, Roland

    2006-12-01

    Cbl is an adaptor protein and ubiquitin ligase that binds and is phosphorylated by the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src. We previously showed that the primary interaction between Src and Cbl is mediated by the Src homology domain 3 (SH3) of Src binding to proline-rich sequences of Cbl. The peptide Cbl RDLPPPPPPDRP(540-551), which corresponds to residues 540-551 of Cbl, inhibited the binding of a GST-Src SH3 fusion protein to Cbl, whereas RDLAPPAPPPDR(540-551) did not, suggesting that Src binds to this site on Cbl in a class I orientation. Mutating prolines 543-548 reduced Src binding to the Cbl 479-636 fragment significantly more than mutating the prolines in the PPVPPR(494-499) motif, which was previously reported to bind Src SH3. Mutating Cbl prolines 543-548 to alanines substantially reduced Src binding to Cbl, Src-induced phosphorylation of Cbl, and the inhibition of Src kinase activity by Cbl. Expressing the mutated Cbl in osteoclasts induced a moderate reduction in bone-resorbing activity and increased amounts of Src protein. In contrast, disabling the tyrosine kinase-binding domain of full-length Cbl by mutating glycine 306 to glutamic acid, and thereby preventing the previously described binding of the tyrosine kinase-binding domain to the Src phosphotyrosine 416, had no effect on Cbl phosphorylation, the inhibition of Src activity by full-length Cbl, or bone resorption. These data indicate that the Cbl RDLPPPP(540-546) sequence is a functionally important binding site for Src.

  13. Two classes of binding sites for [3H]substance P in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, D P; Burcher, E

    1993-01-22

    The binding characteristics of [3H]substance P ([3H]SP) were investigated in membranes prepared from rat cerebral cortex. Binding of [3H]SP reached equilibrium after 50 min at 25 degrees C and was saturable at 8 nM. Saturation data could be resolved into high affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd, 0.22 nM) and low affinity sites (Kd, 2.65 nM). The low affinity sites were more numerous than the high affinity sites, with a ratio of 4:1. The non-hydrolyzable GTP analogue GppNHp had no effect on binding, indicating that the high and low affinity sites are not guanine nucleotide-regulated states of the same (NK-1) receptor. The low affinity sites are unlikely to represent NK-3 receptors since coincubation with the selective NK-3 receptor agonist senktide did not alter the biphasic nature of [3H]SP binding. The rank order of potency for inhibition of [3H]SP (2 nM) binding was SP > or = [Sar9, Met(O2)11]-SP > or = physalaemin > SP(3-11) > NP gamma = [Ala3]-SP > or = SP(4-11) > or = NPK > or = SP(5-11) > or = NKB approximately NKA > SP(1-9), compatible with binding to an NK-1 site. N-terminal fragments and non-amidated analogues were ineffective competitors for [3H]SP binding. However, competition data for several peptides including substance P (SP) and the NK-1 selective agonist [Sar9, Met(O2)11]-SP could be resolved into two components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Small Molecule Interactome Mapping by Photoaffinity Labeling Reveals Binding Site Hotspots for the NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinxu; Mfuh, Adelphe; Amako, Yuka; Woo, Christina M

    2018-03-28

    Many therapeutics elicit cell-type specific polypharmacology that is executed by a network of molecular recognition events between a small molecule and the whole proteome. However, measurement of the structures that underpin the molecular associations between the proteome and even common therapeutics, such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is limited by the inability to map the small molecule interactome. To address this gap, we developed a platform termed small molecule interactome mapping by photoaffinity labeling (SIM-PAL) and applied it to the in cellulo direct characterization of specific NSAID binding sites. SIM-PAL uses (1) photochemical conjugation of NSAID derivatives in the whole proteome and (2) enrichment and isotope-recoding of the conjugated peptides for (3) targeted mass spectrometry-based assignment. Using SIM-PAL, we identified the NSAID interactome consisting of over 1000 significantly enriched proteins and directly characterized nearly 200 conjugated peptides representing direct binding sites of the photo-NSAIDs with proteins from Jurkat and K562 cells. The enriched proteins were often identified as parts of complexes, including known targets of NSAID activity (e.g., NF-κB) and novel interactions (e.g., AP-2, proteasome). The conjugated peptides revealed direct NSAID binding sites from the cell surface to the nucleus and a specific binding site hotspot for the three photo-NSAIDs on histones H2A and H2B. NSAID binding stabilized COX-2 and histone H2A by cellular thermal shift assay. Since small molecule stabilization of protein complexes is a gain of function regulatory mechanism, it is conceivable that NSAIDs affect biological processes through these broader proteomic interactions. SIM-PAL enabled characterization of NSAID binding site hotspots and is amenable to map global binding sites for virtually any molecule of interest.

  15. A web server for analysis, comparison and prediction of protein ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harinder; Srivastava, Hemant Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-03-25

    One of the major challenges in the field of system biology is to understand the interaction between a wide range of proteins and ligands. In the past, methods have been developed for predicting binding sites in a protein for a limited number of ligands. In order to address this problem, we developed a web server named 'LPIcom' to facilitate users in understanding protein-ligand interaction. Analysis, comparison and prediction modules are available in the "LPIcom' server to predict protein-ligand interacting residues for 824 ligands. Each ligand must have at least 30 protein binding sites in PDB. Analysis module of the server can identify residues preferred in interaction and binding motif for a given ligand; for example residues glycine, lysine and arginine are preferred in ATP binding sites. Comparison module of the server allows comparing protein-binding sites of multiple ligands to understand the similarity between ligands based on their binding site. This module indicates that ATP, ADP and GTP ligands are in the same cluster and thus their binding sites or interacting residues exhibit a high level of similarity. Propensity-based prediction module has been developed for predicting ligand-interacting residues in a protein for more than 800 ligands. In addition, a number of web-based tools have been integrated to facilitate users in creating web logo and two-sample between ligand interacting and non-interacting residues. In summary, this manuscript presents a web-server for analysis of ligand interacting residue. This server is available for public use from URL http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/lpicom .

  16. Identification and characterization of the sodium-binding site of activated protein C.

    PubMed

    He, X; Rezaie, A R

    1999-02-19

    Activated protein C (APC) requires both Ca2+ and Na+ for its optimal catalytic function. In contrast to the Ca2+-binding sites, the Na+-binding site(s) of APC has not been identified. Based on a recent study with thrombin, the 221-225 loop is predicted to be a potential Na+-binding site in APC. The sequence of this loop is not conserved in trypsin. We engineered a Gla domainless form of protein C (GDPC) in which the 221-225 loop was replaced with the corresponding loop of trypsin. We found that activated GDPC (aGDPC) required Na+ (or other alkali cations) for its amidolytic activity with dissociation constant (Kd(app)) = 44.1 +/- 8.6 mM. In the presence of Ca2+, however, the requirement for Na+ by aGDPC was eliminated, and Na+ stimulated the cleavage rate 5-6-fold with Kd(app) = 2.3 +/- 0.3 mM. Both cations were required for efficient factor Va inactivation by aGDPC. In the presence of Ca2+, the catalytic function of the mutant was independent of Na+. Unlike aGDPC, the mutant did not discriminate among monovalent cations. We conclude that the 221-225 loop is a Na+-binding site in APC and that an allosteric link between the Na+ and Ca2+ binding loops modulates the structure and function of this anticoagulant enzyme.

  17. Pharmacophore screening of the protein data bank for specific binding site chemistry.

    PubMed

    Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Arrowsmith, Andrew G; Zhao, Yong; Schapira, Matthieu

    2010-03-22

    A simple computational approach was developed to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for putative pockets possessing a specific binding site chemistry and geometry. The method employs two commonly used 3D screening technologies, namely identification of cavities in protein structures and pharmacophore screening of chemical libraries. For each protein structure, a pocket finding algorithm is used to extract potential binding sites containing the correct types of residues, which are then stored in a large SDF-formatted virtual library; pharmacophore filters describing the desired binding site chemistry and geometry are then applied to screen this virtual library and identify pockets matching the specified structural chemistry. As an example, this approach was used to screen all human protein structures in the PDB and identify sites having chemistry similar to that of known methyl-lysine binding domains that recognize chromatin methylation marks. The selected genes include known readers of the histone code as well as novel binding pockets that may be involved in epigenetic signaling. Putative allosteric sites were identified on the structures of TP53BP1, L3MBTL3, CHEK1, KDM4A, and CREBBP.

  18. OnTheFly: a database of Drosophila melanogaster transcription factors and their binding sites.

    PubMed

    Shazman, Shula; Lee, Hunjoong; Socol, Yakov; Mann, Richard S; Honig, Barry

    2014-01-01

    We present OnTheFly (http://bhapp.c2b2.columbia.edu/OnTheFly/index.php), a database comprising a systematic collection of transcription factors (TFs) of Drosophila melanogaster and their DNA-binding sites. TFs predicted in the Drosophila melanogaster genome are annotated and classified and their structures, obtained via experiment or homology models, are provided. All known preferred TF DNA-binding sites obtained from the B1H, DNase I and SELEX methodologies are presented. DNA shape parameters predicted for these sites are obtained from a high throughput server or from crystal structures of protein-DNA complexes where available. An important feature of the database is that all DNA-binding domains and their binding sites are fully annotated in a eukaryote using structural criteria and evolutionary homology. OnTheFly thus provides a comprehensive view of TFs and their binding sites that will be a valuable resource for deciphering non-coding regulatory DNA.

  19. Validating metal binding sites in macromolecule structures using the CheckMyMetal web server

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Heping; Chordia, Mahendra D.; Cooper, David R.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Müller, Peter; Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Metals play vital roles in both the mechanism and architecture of biological macromolecules. Yet structures of metal-containing macromolecules where metals are misidentified and/or suboptimally modeled are abundant in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). This shows the need for a diagnostic tool to identify and correct such modeling problems with metal binding environments. The "CheckMyMetal" (CMM) web server (http://csgid.org/csgid/metal_sites/) is a sophisticated, user-friendly web-based method to evaluate metal binding sites in macromolecular structures in respect to 7350 metal binding sites observed in a benchmark dataset of 2304 high resolution crystal structures. The protocol outlines how the CMM server can be used to detect geometric and other irregularities in the structures of metal binding sites and alert researchers to potential errors in metal assignment. The protocol also gives practical guidelines for correcting problematic sites by modifying the metal binding environment and/or redefining metal identity in the PDB file. Several examples where this has led to meaningful results are described in the anticipated results section. CMM was designed for a broad audience—biomedical researchers studying metal-containing proteins and nucleic acids—but is equally well suited for structural biologists to validate new structures during modeling or refinement. The CMM server takes the coordinates of a metal-containing macromolecule structure in the PDB format as input and responds within a few seconds for a typical protein structure modeled with a few hundred amino acids. PMID:24356774

  20. Active sites prediction and binding analysis E1-E2 protein human papillomavirus with biphenylsulfonacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iryani, I.; Amelia, F.; Iswendi, I.

    2018-04-01

    Cervix cancer triggered by Human papillomavirus infection is the second cause to woman death in worldwide. The binding site of E1-E2 protein of HPV 16 is not known from a 3-D structure yet, so in this study we address this issue to study the structure of E1-E2 protein from Human papillomavirus type 16 and to find its potential binding sites using biphenylsulfonacetic acid as inhibitor. Swiss model was used for 3D structure prediction and PDB: 2V9P (E1 protein) and 2NNU (E2 protein) having 52.32% and 100% identity respectively was selected as a template. The 3D model structure developed of E1 and E2 in the core and allowed regions were 99.2% and 99.5%. The ligand binding sites were predicted using online server meta pocket 2.0 and MOE 2009.10 was used for docking. E1-and E2 protein of HPV-16 has three potential binding site that can interact with the inhibitors. The Docking biphenylsulfonacetic acid using these binding sites shows that ligand interact with the protein through hydrogen bonds on Lys 403, Arg 410, His 551 in the first pocket, on Tyr 32, Leu 99 in the second pocket, and Lys 558m Lys 517 in the third pocket.

  1. Survey of phosphorylation near drug binding sites in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and their effects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle P; Gifford, Kathleen M; Waitzman, Joshua S; Rice, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    While it is currently estimated that 40 to 50% of eukaryotic proteins are phosphorylated, little is known about the frequency and local effects of phosphorylation near pharmaceutical inhibitor binding sites. In this study, we investigated how frequently phosphorylation may affect the binding of drug inhibitors to target proteins. We examined the 453 non-redundant structures of soluble mammalian drug target proteins bound to inhibitors currently available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We cross-referenced these structures with phosphorylation data available from the PhosphoSitePlus database. Three hundred twenty-two of 453 (71%) of drug targets have evidence of phosphorylation that has been validated by multiple methods or labs. For 132 of 453 (29%) of those, the phosphorylation site is within 12 Å of the small molecule-binding site, where it would likely alter small molecule binding affinity. We propose a framework for distinguishing between drug-phosphorylation site interactions that are likely to alter the efficacy of drugs versus those that are not. In addition we highlight examples of well-established drug targets, such as estrogen receptor alpha, for which phosphorylation may affect drug affinity and clinical efficacy. Our data suggest that phosphorylation may affect drug binding and efficacy for a significant fraction of drug target proteins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Elcock, Adrian H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5′-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

  3. A pseudoreceptor modelling study of the varicella-zoster virus and human thymidine kinase binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenidge, Paulette A.; Merz, Alfred; Folkers, Gerd

    1995-12-01

    A representative range of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues that are known to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication have been used to construct receptor binding site models for the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), thymidine kinase (TK) and human TK1. Given a set of interacting ligands, superimposed in such a manner as to define a pharmacophore, the pseudoreceptor modelling technique Yak provides a means of building binding site models of macromolecules for which no three-dimensional experimental structures are available. Once the models have been evaluated by their ability to reproduce experimental binding data [Vedani et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 117 (1995) 4987], they can be used for predictive purposes. Calculated and experimental values of relative binding affinity are compared. Our models suggest that the substitution of one residue may be sufficient to determine ligand subtype affinity.

  4. Crystallographic characterization of the ribosomal binding site and molecular mechanism of action of Hygromycin A

    PubMed Central

    Kaminishi, Tatsuya; Schedlbauer, Andreas; Fabbretti, Attilio; Brandi, Letizia; Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja; He, Cheng-Guang; Milón, Pohl; Connell, Sean R.; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Fucini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Hygromycin A (HygA) binds to the large ribosomal subunit and inhibits its peptidyl transferase (PT) activity. The presented structural and biochemical data indicate that HygA does not interfere with the initial binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site, but prevents its subsequent adjustment such that it fails to act as a substrate in the PT reaction. Structurally we demonstrate that HygA binds within the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) and induces a unique conformation. Specifically in its ribosomal binding site HygA would overlap and clash with aminoacyl-A76 ribose moiety and, therefore, its primary mode of action involves sterically restricting access of the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA to the PTC. PMID:26464437

  5. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S.; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G.; Moses, John E.; Oldham, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  6. Sugar-binding sites of the HA1 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshio; Tonozuka, Takashi; Ide, Azusa; Yuzawa, Takayuki; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2008-02-22

    Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a hemagglutinin (HA) subcomponent, designated HA1, which appears to play an important role in the effective internalization of the toxin in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and in creating a broad specificity for the oligosaccharide structure that corresponds to various targets. In this study, using the recombinant protein fused to glutathione S-transferase, we investigated the binding specificity of the HA1 subcomponent to sugars and estimated the binding sites of HA1 based on X-ray crystallography and soaking experiments using various sugars. N-Acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose effectively inhibited the binding that occurs between glutathione S-transferase-HA1 and mucins, whereas N-acetylglucosamine and glucose did not inhibit it. The crystal structures of HA1 complex with N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose were also determined. There are two sugar-binding sites, sites I and II. Site I corresponds to the electron densities noted for all sugars and is located at the C-terminal beta-trefoil domain, while site II corresponds to the electron densities noted only for galactose. An aromatic amino acid residue, Trp176, at site I has a stacking interaction with the hexose ring of the sugars. On the other hand, there is no aromatic residue at site II; thus, the interaction with galactose seems to be poor. The double mutant W176A at site I and D271F at site II has no avidity for N-acetylneuraminic acid but has avidity for galactose. In this report, the binding specificity of botulinum C16S toxin HA1 to various sugars is demonstrated based on its structural features.

  7. The Binding Sites of miR-619-5p in the mRNAs of Human and Orthologous Genes.

    PubMed

    Atambayeva, Shara; Niyazova, Raigul; Ivashchenko, Anatoliy; Pyrkova, Anna; Pinsky, Ilya; Akimniyazova, Aigul; Labeit, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    Normally, one miRNA interacts with the mRNA of one gene. However, there are miRNAs that can bind to many mRNAs, and one mRNA can be the target of many miRNAs. This significantly complicates the study of the properties of miRNAs and their diagnostic and medical applications. The search of 2,750 human microRNAs (miRNAs) binding sites in 12,175 mRNAs of human genes using the MirTarget program has been completed. For the binding sites of the miR-619-5p the hybridization free energy of the bonds was equal to 100% of the maximum potential free energy. The mRNAs of 201 human genes have complete complementary binding sites of miR-619-5p in the 3'UTR (214 sites), CDS (3 sites), and 5'UTR (4 sites). The mRNAs of CATAD1, ICA1L, GK5, POLH, and PRR11 genes have six miR-619-5p binding sites, and the mRNAs of OPA3 and CYP20A1 genes have eight and ten binding sites, respectively. All of these miR-619-5p binding sites are located in the 3'UTRs. The miR-619-5p binding site in the 5'UTR of mRNA of human USP29 gene is found in the mRNAs of orthologous genes of primates. Binding sites of miR-619-5p in the coding regions of mRNAs of C8H8orf44, C8orf44, and ISY1 genes encode the WLMPVIP oligopeptide, which is present in the orthologous proteins. Binding sites of miR-619-5p in the mRNAs of transcription factor genes ZNF429 and ZNF429 encode the AHACNP oligopeptide in another reading frame. Binding sites of miR-619-5p in the 3'UTRs of all human target genes are also present in the 3'UTRs of orthologous genes of mammals. The completely complementary binding sites for miR-619-5p are conservative in the orthologous mammalian genes. The majority of miR-619-5p binding sites are located in the 3'UTRs but some genes have miRNA binding sites in the 5'UTRs of mRNAs. Several genes have binding sites for miRNAs in the CDSs that are read in different open reading frames. Identical nucleotide sequences of binding sites encode different amino acids in different proteins. The binding sites of miR-619-5p

  8. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine binding sites in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, R. W.; Lowther, S.; Chivers, J.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.; Testa, B.

    1988-01-01

    1. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine (BDZ) binding sites was examined by their ability to displace [3H]-flunitrazepam ([3H]-FNM) from specific binding sites in bovine cortical membranes in vitro. 2. Clebopride, Delagrange 2674, Delagrange 2335 and BRL 20627 displayed concentration-dependent displacement of [3H]-FNM with IC50 values of 73 nM, 132 nM, 7.7 microM and 5.9 microM, respectively. Other substituted benzamides including metoclopramide, sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and cisapride were inactive at 10(-5) M. 3. Inhibition by clebopride and Delagrange 2674 of [3H]-FNM binding was apparently competitive and readily reversible. 4. In the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the ability of diazepam and Delagrange 2674 to displace [3H]-Ro 15-1788 binding was increased 3.6 and 1.6 fold respectively, compared to the absence of GABA, while ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta CCE) and clebopride were less potent in the presence of GABA. 5. Diazepam was 30 fold less potent at displacing [3H]-Ro 15-1788 in membranes that had been photoaffinity labelled with FNM than in control membranes, whereas the potency of beta CCE did not differ. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 showed a less than two fold loss of potency in photoaffinity labelled membranes. 6. The pattern of binding of clebopride and Delagrange 2674 in these in vitro tests is similar to that found previously with partial agonists or antagonists at BDZ binding sites. 7. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 inhibited [3H]-FNM binding with similar potency in rat cerebellar and hippocampal membranes, suggesting they have no selectivity for BDZ1 and BDZ2 binding sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2850059

  9. Mutation of the C/EBP binding sites in the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and gag enhancers.

    PubMed Central

    Ryden, T A; de Mars, M; Beemon, K

    1993-01-01

    Several C/EBP binding sites within the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) long terminal repeat (LTR) and gag enhancers were mutated, and the effect of these mutations on viral gene expression was assessed. Minimal site-specific mutations in each of three adjacent C/EBP binding sites in the LTR reduced steady-state viral RNA levels. Double mutation of the two 5' proximal LTR binding sites resulted in production of 30% of wild-type levels of virus. DNase I footprinting analysis of mutant DNAs indicated that the mutations blocked C/EBP binding at the affected sites. Additional C/EBP binding sites were identified upstream of the 3' LTR and within the 5' end of the LTRs. Point mutations in the RSV gag intragenic enhancer region, which blocked binding of C/EBP at two of three adjacent C/EBP sites, also reduced virus production significantly. Nuclear extracts prepared from both chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chicken muscle contained proteins binding to the same RSV DNA sites as did C/EBP, and mutations that prevented C/EBP binding also blocked binding of these chicken proteins. It appears that CEFs and chicken muscle contain distinct proteins binding to these RSV DNA sites; the CEF binding protein was heat stable, as is C/EBP, while the chicken muscle protein was heat sensitive. Images PMID:8386280

  10. Control of Ion Selectivity in LeuT: Two Na+ Binding Sites with two different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Noskov, Sergei Y.; Roux, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    The x-ray structure of LeuT, a bacterial homologue of Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporter, provides a great opportunity to better understand the molecular basis of monovalent cation selectivity in ion-coupled transporters. LeuT possesses two ion-binding sites, NA1 and NA2, which are highly selective for Na+. Extensive all-atom free energy molecular dynamics simulations of LeuT embedded in an explicit membrane are performed at different temperatures and various occupancy states of the binding sites to dissect the molecular mechanism of ion selectivity. The results show that the two binding sites display robust selectivity for Na+ over K+ or Li+, the competing ions of most similar radii. Of particular interest, the mechanism primarily responsible for selectivity for each of the two binding sites appears to be different. In site NA1, selectivity for Na+ over K+ arises predominantly from the strong electrostatic field arising from the negatively charged carboxylate group of the leucine substrate coordinating the ion directly. In site NA2, which comprises only neutral ligands, selectivity for Na+ is enforced by the local structural restraints arising from the hydrogen-bonding network and the covalent connectivity of the poly-peptide chain surrounding the ion according to a snug-fit mechanism. PMID:18280500

  11. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3more » beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.« less

  12. Marked reduction in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites in geriatric depression

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeroff, C.B.; Knight, D.L.; Krishnan, R.R.

    The number (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites was determined in young and middle-aged controls 50 years of age and younger (n = 25), elderly normal controls over 60 years of age (n = 18), patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression who were under 50 years of age (n = 29), patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression who were 60 years of age and older (n = 19), and patients who fulfilled both DSM-III criteria for primary degenerative dementia and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disordersmore » Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 13). Both groups of depressed patients (under 50 and over 60 years of age) exhibited significant reductions (decreases 42%) in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites with no change in affinity, when compared with their age-matched controls. There was little overlap in Bmax values between the elderly depressed patients and their controls. The patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed no alteration in platelet-tritiated imipramine binding. There was no statistically significant relationship between postdexamethasone plasma cortisol concentrations and tritiated imipramine binding. These results indicate that platelet-tritiated imipramine binding may have potential utility as a diagnostic adjunct in geriatric depression, and moreover that the reduction in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites is not due to hypercortisolemia.« less

  13. Locating the Binding Sites of Pb(II) Ion with Human and Bovine Serum Albumins

    PubMed Central

    Belatik, Ahmed; Hotchandani, Surat; Carpentier, Robert; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Lead is a potent environmental toxin that has accumulated above its natural level as a result of human activity. Pb cation shows major affinity towards protein complexation and it has been used as modulator of protein-membrane interactions. We located the binding sites of Pb(II) with human serum (HSA) and bovine serum albumins (BSA) at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various Pb contents. FTIR, UV-visible, CD, fluorescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) methods were used to analyse Pb binding sites, the binding constant and the effect of metal ion complexation on HSA and BSA stability and conformations. Structural analysis showed that Pb binds strongly to HSA and BSA via hydrophilic contacts with overall binding constants of KPb-HSA = 8.2 (±0.8)×104 M−1 and KPb-BSA = 7.5 (±0.7)×104 M−1. The number of bound Pb cation per protein is 0.7 per HSA and BSA complexes. XPS located the binding sites of Pb cation with protein N and O atoms. Pb complexation alters protein conformation by a major reduction of α-helix from 57% (free HSA) to 48% (metal-complex) and 63% (free BSA) to 52% (metal-complex) inducing a partial protein destabilization. PMID:22574219

  14. Calcitonin: regional distribution of the hormone and its binding sites in the human brain and pituitary.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J A; Tobler, P H; Kaufmann, M; Born, W; Henke, H; Cooper, P E; Sagar, S M; Martin, J B

    1981-12-01

    Immunoreactive calcitonin (CT), indistinguishable from human CT-(1-32) and its sulfoxide, has been identified in extracts of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the thyroid obtained from human subjects at autopsy. DCT concentrations were highest in a region encompassing the posterior hypothalamus, the median eminence, and the pituitary; intermediate in the substantia nigra, the anterior hypothalamus, the globus pallidus, and the inferior colliculus; and low in the caudate nucleus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Specific CT binding measured with 125I-labeled salmon CT was highest in homogenates of the posterior hypothalamus and the median eminence, shown to contain the highest concentrations of endogenous CT in the brain; CT binding was less than 12% of hypothalamic binding in all of the other regions of the brain examined and was negligible in the pituitary. Half-maximal binding was achieved with 0.1 nM nonradioactive salmon CT-(1-32), and the binding was directed to structural or conformational sites, or both, in the COOH-terminal half of salmon CT. The rank order of the inhibition of the binding by CT from different species and analogues of the human hormone was the same as in receptors on a human lymphoid cell line (Moran, J., Hunziker, W. & Fischer, J. A. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3984-3988). The functional role of CT and of its binding sites in the brain remains to be elucidated.

  15. DNA binding sites characterization by means of Rényi entropy measures on nucleotide transitions.

    PubMed

    Perera, Alexandre; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Claria, Francesc; Soria, José Manuel; Caminal, Pere

    2006-01-01

    In this work, parametric information-theory measures for the characterization of binding sites in DNA are extended with the use of transitional probabilities on the sequence. We propose the use of parametric uncertainty measure such as Renyi entropies obtained from the transition probabilities for the study of the binding sites, in addition to nucleotide frequency based Renyi measures. Results are reported in this manuscript comparing transition frequencies (i.e. dinucelotides) and base frequencies for Shannon and parametric Renyi for a number of binding sites found in E. Coli, lambda and T7 organisms. We observe that, for the evaluated datasets, the information provided by both approaches is not redundant, as they evolve differently under increasing Renyi orders.

  16. A sarcoidosis clinician's perspective of MHC functional elements outside the antigen binding site.

    PubMed

    Judson, Marc A

    2018-05-30

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause. Evidence supports an integral role for interactions at the MHC binding site in the development of sarcoidosis. However, despite this evidence, there are clinical data that suggest that additional mechanisms are involved in the immunopathogenesis of this disease. This manuscript provides a brief clinical description of sarcoidosis, and a clinician's perspective of the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis in terms of the MHC binding site, MHC functional elements beyond the binding site, and other possible alternative mechanisms. Input from clinicians will be essential in establishing the immunologic cause of sarcoidosis as a detailed phenotypic characterization of disease will be required. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Synthesis and binding properties of new selective ligands for the nucleobase opposite the AP site.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yukiko; Nakagawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Rie; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2012-06-01

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidative stress or DNA alkylating agents. These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and form apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) as intermediates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. AP sites are also representative DNA damages formed by spontaneous hydrolysis. The AP sites block DNA polymerase and a mismatch nucleobase is inserted opposite the AP sites by polymerization to cause acute toxicities and mutations. Thus, AP site specific compounds have attracted much attention for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we have developed nucleobase-polyamine conjugates as the AP site binding ligand by expecting that the nucleobase part would play a role in the specific recognition of the nucleobase opposite the AP site by the Watson-Crick base pair formation and that the polyamine part should contribute to the access of the ligand to the AP site by a non-specific interaction to the DNA phosphate backbone. The nucleobase conjugated with 3,3'-diaminodipropylamine (A-ligand, G-ligand, C-ligand, T-ligand and U-ligand) showed a specific stabilization of the duplex containing the AP site depending on the complementary combination with the nucleobase opposite the AP site; that is A-ligand to T, G-ligand to C, C-ligand to G, T- and U-ligand to A. The thermodynamic binding parameters clearly indicated that the specific stabilization is due to specific binding of the ligands to the complementary AP site. These results have suggested that the complementary base pairs of the Watson-Crick type are formed at the AP site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substrate binding interferes with active site conformational dynamics in endoglucanase Cel5A from Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xukai; Wang, Yuying; Xu, Limei; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2017-09-09

    The role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis is one of the most active areas in current enzymological research. Here, using endoglucanase Cel5A from Thermobifida fusca (TfCel5A) as a model, we applied molecular dynamics simulations to explore the dynamic behavior of the enzyme upon substrate binding. The collective motions of the active site revealed that the mechanism of TfCel5A substrate binding can likely be described by the conformational-selection model; however, we observed that the conformations of active site residues changed differently along with substrate binding. Although most active site residues retained their native conformational ensemble, some (Tyr163 and Glu355) generated newly induced conformations, whereas others (Phe162 and Tyr189) exhibited shifts in the equilibration of their conformational distributions. These results showed that TfCel5A substrate binding relied on a hybrid mechanism involving induced fit and conformational selection. Interestingly, we found that TfCel5A active site could only partly rebalance its conformational dynamics upon substrate dissociation within the same simulation time, which implies that the conformational rebalance upon substrate dissociation is likely more difficult than the conformational selection upon substrate binding at least in the view of the time required. Our findings offer new insight into enzyme catalysis and potential applications for future protein engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Photoactivable antibody binding protein: site-selective and covalent coupling of antibody.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yongwon; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Jung-won; Yoon, Jeongwon; Cho, Hyunmin; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2009-02-01

    Here we report new photoactivable antibody binding proteins, which site-selectively capture antibodies and form covalent conjugates with captured antibodies upon irradiation. The proteins allow the site-selective tagging and/or immobilization of antibodies with a highly preferred orientation and omit the need for prior antibody modifications. The minimal Fc-binding domain of protein G, a widely used antibody binding protein, was genetically and chemically engineered to contain a site-specific photo cross-linker, benzophenone. In addition, the domain was further mutated to have an enhanced Fc-targeting ability. This small engineered protein was successfully cross-linked only to the Fc region of the antibody without any nonspecific reactivity. SPR analysis indicated that antibodies can be site-selectively biotinylated through the present photoactivable protein. Furthermore, the system enabled light-induced covalent immobilization of antibodies directly on various solid surfaces, such as those of glass slides, gold chips, and small particles. Antibody coupling via photoactivable antibody binding proteins overcomes several limitations of conventional approaches, such as random chemical reactions or reversible protein binding, and offers a versatile tool for the field of immunosensors.

  20. DNA-binding regulates site-specific ubiquitination of IRF-1.

    PubMed

    Landré, Vivien; Pion, Emmanuelle; Narayan, Vikram; Xirodimas, Dimitris P; Ball, Kathryn L

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the determinants for site-specific ubiquitination by E3 ligase components of the ubiquitin machinery is proving to be a challenge. In the present study we investigate the role of an E3 ligase docking site (Mf2 domain) in an intrinsically disordered domain of IRF-1 [IFN (interferon) regulatory factor-1], a short-lived IFNγ-regulated transcription factor, in ubiquitination of the protein. Ubiquitin modification of full-length IRF-1 by E3 ligases such as CHIP [C-terminus of the Hsc (heat-shock cognate) 70-interacting protein] and MDM2 (murine double minute 2), which dock to the Mf2 domain, was specific for lysine residues found predominantly in loop structures that extend from the DNA-binding domain, whereas no modification was detected in the more conformationally flexible C-terminal half of the protein. The E3 docking site was not available when IRF-1 was in its DNA-bound conformation and cognate DNA-binding sequences strongly suppressed ubiquitination, highlighting a strict relationship between ligase binding and site-specific modification at residues in the DNA-binding domain. Hyperubiquitination of a non-DNA-binding mutant supports a mechanism where an active DNA-bound pool of IRF-1 is protected from polyubiquitination and degradation.

  1. Use of 2-(/sup 125/I)iodomelatonin to characterize melatonin binding sites in chicken retina

    SciTech Connect

    Dubocovich, M.L.; Takahashi, J.S.

    2-(/sup 125/I)Iodomelatonin binds with high affinity to a site possessing the pharmacological characteristics of a melatonin receptor in chicken retinal membranes. The specific binding of 2-(/sup 125/I)iodomelatonin is stable, saturable, and reversible. Saturation experiments indicated that 2-(/sup 125/I)iodomelatonin labeled a single class of sites with an affinity constant (Kd) of 434 +/- 56 pM and a total number of binding sites (Bmax) of 74.0 +/- 13.6 fmol/mg of protein. The affinity constant obtained from kinetic analysis was in close agreement with that obtained in saturation experiments. Competition experiments showed a monophasic reduction of 2-(/sup 125/I)iodomelatonin binding with a pharmacological ordermore » of indole amine affinities characteristic of a melatonin receptor: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-dichloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin much greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine (inactive). The affinities of these melatonin analogs in competing for 2-(/sup 125/I)iodomelatonin binding sites were correlated closely with their potencies for inhibition of the calcium-dependent release of (3H)dopamine from chicken and rabbit retinas, indicating association of the binding site with a functional response regulated by melatonin. The results indicate that 2-(/sup 125/I)iodomelatonin is a selective, high-affinity radioligand for the identification and characterization of melatonin receptor sites.« less

  2. Calorimetric studies of the interactions of metalloenzyme active site mimetics with zinc-binding inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sophia G; Burns, Philip T; Miceli, Amanda M; Grice, Kyle A; Karver, Caitlin E; Jin, Lihua

    2016-07-19

    The binding of drugs to metalloenzymes is an intricate process that involves several interactions, including binding of the drug to the enzyme active site metal, as well as multiple interactions between the drug and the enzyme residues. In order to determine the free energy contribution of Zn(2+) binding by known metalloenzyme inhibitors without the other interactions, valid active site zinc structural mimetics must be formed and binding studies need to be performed in biologically relevant conditions. The potential of each of five ligands to form a structural mimetic with Zn(2+) was investigated in buffer using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). All five ligands formed strong 1 : 1 (ligand : Zn(2+)) binary complexes. The complexes were used in further ITC experiments to study their interaction with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) and/or acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), two bidentate anionic zinc-chelating enzyme inhibitors. It was found that tetradentate ligands were not suitable for creating zinc structural mimetics for inhibitor binding in solution due to insufficient coordination sites remaining on Zn(2+). A stable binary complex, [Zn(BPA)](2+), which was formed by a tridentate ligand, bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (BPA), was found to bind one AHA in buffer or a methanol : buffer mixture (60 : 40 by volume) at pH 7.25 or one 8-HQ in the methanol : buffer mixture at pH 6.80, making it an effective structural mimetic for the active site of zinc metalloenzymes. These results are consistent with the observation that metalloenzyme active site zinc ions have three residues coordinated to them, leaving one or two sites open for inhibitors to bind. Our findings indicate that Zn(BPA)X2 can be used as an active site structural mimetic for zinc metalloenzymes for estimating the free energy contribution of zinc binding to the overall inhibitor active site interactions. Such use will help aid in the rational design of inhibitors to a variety of zinc metalloenzymes.

  3. Binding site size limit of the 2:1 pyrrole-imidazole polyamide-DNA motif.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J J; Baird, E E; Dervan, P B

    1996-01-01

    Polyamides containing N-methylimidazole (Im) and N-methylpyrrole (Py) amino acids can be combined in antiparallel side-by-side dimeric complexes for sequence-specific recognition in the minor groove of DNA. Six polyamides containing three to eight rings bind DNA sites 5-10 bp in length, respectively. Quantitative DNase I footprint titration experiments demonstrate that affinity maximizes and is similar at ring sizes of five, six, and seven. Sequence specificity decreases as the length of the polyamides increases beyond five rings. These results provide useful guidelines for the design of new polyamides that bind longer DNA sites with enhanced affinity and specificity. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8692930

  4. Identification of the quinolinedione inhibitor binding site in Cdc25 phosphatase B through docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yushu; van der Kamp, Marc; Malaisree, Maturos; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yi; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2017-11-01

    Cdc25 phosphatase B, a potential target for cancer therapy, is inhibited by a series of quinones. The binding site and mode of quinone inhibitors to Cdc25B remains unclear, whereas this information is important for structure-based drug design. We investigated the potential binding site of NSC663284 [DA3003-1 or 6-chloro-7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethylamino)-quinoline-5, 8-dione] through docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Of the two main binding sites suggested by docking, the molecular dynamics simulations only support one site for stable binding of the inhibitor. Binding sites in and near the Cdc25B catalytic site that have been suggested previously do not lead to stable binding in 50 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In contrast, a shallow pocket between the C-terminal helix and the catalytic site provides a favourable binding site that shows high stability. Two similar binding modes featuring protein-inhibitor interactions involving Tyr428, Arg482, Thr547 and Ser549 are identified by clustering analysis of all stable MD trajectories. The relatively flexible C-terminal region of Cdc25B contributes to inhibitor binding. The binding mode of NSC663284, identified through MD simulation, likely prevents the binding of protein substrates to Cdc25B. The present results provide useful information for the design of quinone inhibitors and their mechanism of inhibition.

  5. Identification of the quinolinedione inhibitor binding site in Cdc25 phosphatase B through docking and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yushu; van der Kamp, Marc; Malaisree, Maturos; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yi; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2017-11-01

    Cdc25 phosphatase B, a potential target for cancer therapy, is inhibited by a series of quinones. The binding site and mode of quinone inhibitors to Cdc25B remains unclear, whereas this information is important for structure-based drug design. We investigated the potential binding site of NSC663284 [DA3003-1 or 6-chloro-7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethylamino)-quinoline-5, 8-dione] through docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Of the two main binding sites suggested by docking, the molecular dynamics simulations only support one site for stable binding of the inhibitor. Binding sites in and near the Cdc25B catalytic site that have been suggested previously do not lead to stable binding in 50 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In contrast, a shallow pocket between the C-terminal helix and the catalytic site provides a favourable binding site that shows high stability. Two similar binding modes featuring protein-inhibitor interactions involving Tyr428, Arg482, Thr547 and Ser549 are identified by clustering analysis of all stable MD trajectories. The relatively flexible C-terminal region of Cdc25B contributes to inhibitor binding. The binding mode of NSC663284, identified through MD simulation, likely prevents the binding of protein substrates to Cdc25B. The present results provide useful information for the design of quinone inhibitors and their mechanism of inhibition.

  6. Comparison of S. cerevisiae F-BAR domain structures reveals a conserved inositol phosphate binding site

    PubMed Central

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Alvarado, Diego; Schmitz, Karl R.; Kenniston, Jon A.; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY F-BAR domains control membrane interactions in endocytosis, cytokinesis, and cell signaling. Although generally thought to bind curved membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids, numerous functional studies argue that differences in lipid-binding selectivities of F-BAR domains are functionally important. Here, we compare membrane-binding properties of the S. cerevisiae F-BAR domains in vitro and in vivo. Whereas some F-BAR domains (such as Bzz1p and Hof1p F-BARs) bind equally well to all phospholipids, the F-BAR domain from the RhoGAP Rgd1p preferentially binds phosphoinositides. We determined X-ray crystal structures of F-BAR domains from Hof1p and Rgd1p, the latter bound to an inositol phosphate. The structures explain phospholipid-binding selectivity differences, and reveal an F-BAR phosphoinositide binding site that is fully conserved in a mammalian RhoGAP called Gmip, and is partly retained in certain other F-BAR domains. Our findings reveal previously unappreciated determinants of F-BAR domain lipid-binding specificity, and provide a basis for its prediction from sequence. PMID:25620000

  7. Comparison of Saccharomyces cerevisiae F-BAR domain structures reveals a conserved inositol phosphate binding site.

    PubMed

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Alvarado, Diego; Schmitz, Karl R; Kenniston, Jon A; Mendrola, Jeannine M; Ferguson, Kathryn M; Lemmon, Mark A

    2015-02-03

    F-BAR domains control membrane interactions in endocytosis, cytokinesis, and cell signaling. Although they are generally thought to bind curved membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids, numerous functional studies argue that differences in lipid-binding selectivities of F-BAR domains are functionally important. Here, we compare membrane-binding properties of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae F-BAR domains in vitro and in vivo. Whereas some F-BAR domains (such as Bzz1p and Hof1p F-BARs) bind equally well to all phospholipids, the F-BAR domain from the RhoGAP Rgd1p preferentially binds phosphoinositides. We determined X-ray crystal structures of F-BAR domains from Hof1p and Rgd1p, the latter bound to an inositol phosphate. The structures explain phospholipid-binding selectivity differences and reveal an F-BAR phosphoinositide binding site that is fully conserved in a mammalian RhoGAP called Gmip and is partly retained in certain other F-BAR domains. Our findings reveal previously unappreciated determinants of F-BAR domain lipid-binding specificity and provide a basis for its prediction from sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Saccharomyces cerevisiae F-BAR Domain Structures Reveals a Conserved Inositol Phosphate Binding Site

    DOE PAGES

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Alvarado, Diego; Schmitz, Karl R.; ...

    2015-01-22

    F-BAR domains control membrane interactions in endocytosis, cytokinesis, and cell signaling. Although they are generally thought to bind curved membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids, numerous functional studies argue that differences in lipid-binding selectivities of F-BAR domains are functionally important. Here in this paper, we compare membrane-binding properties of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae F-BAR domains in vitro and in vivo. Whereas some F-BAR domains (such as Bzz1p and Hof1p F-BARs) bind equally well to all phospholipids, the F-BAR domain from the RhoGAP Rgd1p preferentially binds phosphoinositides. We determined X-ray crystal structures of F-BAR domains from Hof1p and Rgd1p, the latter bound tomore » an inositol phosphate. The structures explain phospholipid-binding selectivity differences and reveal an F-BAR phosphoinositide binding site that is fully conserved in a mammalian RhoGAP called Gmip and is partly retained in certain other F-BAR domains. In conclusion, our findings reveal previously unappreciated determinants of F-BAR domain lipid-binding specificity and provide a basis for its prediction from sequence.« less

  9. Solubilization of phencyclidine receptors from rat cerebral cortex in an active ligand binding site

    SciTech Connect

    McVittie, L.D.; Sibley, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A phencyclidine (PCP) receptor binding site has been solubilized in an active ligand-binding state from rat cerebral cortical membranes with sodium deoxycholate. Optimal receptor solubilization occurs at a detergent/protein ratio of 0.5 (w/w); for 5 mg protein/ml solubilized with 0.25% sodium deoxycholate, about 60% of the protein and 25% of the receptor is solubilized. Specific binding of either (/sup 3/H)-N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine ((/sup 3/H)TCP) or (/sup 3/H)MK-801 is measurable by filtration through Sephadex G-50 columns or glass fiber filters; more than 60% of the binding activity is stable after 48 h at 4/degrees/C. In the presence of detergent, (/sup 3/H)TCP binding exhibitsmore » a K/sub d/ of 250 nM, a B/sub max/ of 0.56 pmol/mg protein, and a pharmacological profile consistent with that of the membrane-bound PCP receptor, although most drugs bind with affinities 2 to 8 fold lower than in membranes. Upon reduction of detergent concentration, binding parameters approximate those for the membrane-bound receptor (/sup 3/H)TCP binding: K/sub d/ = 48 nM, M/sub max/ = 1.13 pmol/mg protein.« less

  10. Localizing Carbohydrate Binding Sites in Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Kitova, Elena N.; Li, Jun; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth; Klassen, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. Proteins from three bacterial toxins, the B subunit homopentamers of Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin type 1 and a fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin A, and their interactions with native carbohydrate receptors, GM1 pentasaccharides (β-Gal-(1→3)-β-GalNAc-(1→4)[α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc), Pk trisaccharide (α-Gal-(1→4)-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc) and CD-grease (α-Gal-(1→3)-β-Gal-(1→4)-β-GlcNAcO(CH2)8CO2CH3), respectively, served as model systems for this study. Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. Notably, protected regions generally coincide with the carbohydrate binding sites identified by X-ray crystallography. However, ligand binding can also result in increased deuterium exchange in other parts of the protein, presumably through allosteric effects. Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. However, a detailed interpretation of the changes in deuterium exchange upon ligand binding can be challenging because of the presence of ligand-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics.

  11. [3H]aniracetam binds to specific recognition sites in brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Fallarino, F; Genazzani, A A; Silla, S; L'Episcopo, M R; Camici, O; Corazzi, L; Nicoletti, F; Fioretti, M C

    1995-08-01

    [3H]Aniracetam bound to specific and saturable recognition sites in membranes prepared from discrete regions of rat brain. In crude membrane preparation from rat cerebral cortex, specific binding was Na+ independent, was still largely detectable at low temperature (4 degrees C), and underwent rapid dissociation. Scatchard analysis of [3H]aniracetam binding revealed a single population of sites with an apparent KD value of approximately 70 nM and a maximal density of 3.5 pmol/mg of protein. Specifically bound [3H]aniracetam was not displaced by various metabolites of aniracetam, nor by other pyrrolidinone-containing nootropic drugs such as piracetam or oxiracetam. Subcellular distribution studies showed that a high percentage of specific [3H]aniracetam binding was present in purified synaptosomes or mitochondria, whereas specific binding was low in the myelin fraction. The possibility that at least some [3H]aniracetam binding sites are associated with glutamate receptors is supported by the evidence that specific binding was abolished when membranes were preincubated at 37 degrees C under fast shaking (a procedure that substantially reduced the amount of glutamate trapped in the membranes) and could be restored after addition of either glutamate or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) but not kainate. The action of AMPA was antagonized by DNQX, which also reduced specific [3H]aniracetam binding in unwashed membranes. High levels of [3H]aniracetam binding were detected in hippocampal, cortical, or cerebellar membranes, which contain a high density of excitatory amino acid receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The binding sites for benztropines and dopamine in the dopamine transporter overlap

    PubMed Central

    Bisgaard, Heidi; Larsen, M. Andreas B.; Mazier, Sonia; Beuming, Thijs; Newman, Amy Hauck; Weinstein, Harel; Shi, Lei; Loland, Claus J.; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Analogues of benztropines (BZTs) are potent inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT) but are less effective than cocaine as behavioral stimulants. As a result, there have been efforts to evaluate these compounds as leads for potential medication for cocaine addiction. Here we use computational modeling together with site-directed mutagenesis to characterize the binding site for BZTs in DAT. Docking into molecular models based on the structure of the bacterial homologue LeuT supported a BZT binding site that overlaps with the substrate binding pocket. In agreement, mutations of residues within the pocket, including Val1523.46* to Ala or Ile, Ser4228.60 to Ala and Asn1573.51 to Cys or Ala, resulted in decreased affinity for BZT and the analog JHW007, as assessed in [3H]dopamine uptake inhibition assays and/or [3H]CFT competition binding assay. A putative polar interaction of one of the phenyl ring fluorine substituents in JHW007 with Asn1573.51 was used as a criterion for determining likely binding poses and establish a structural context for the mutagenesis findings. The analysis positioned the other fluorine substituted phenyl ring of JHW007 in close proximity to Ala47910.51/Ala48010.52 in transmembrane segment (TM) 10. The lack of such an interaction for BZT led to a more tilted orientation, as compared to JHW007, bringing one of the phenyl rings even closer to Ala47910.51/Ala48010.52. Mutation of Ala47910.51 and Ala48010.52 to valines supported these predictions with a larger decrease in the affinity for BZT than for JHW007. Summarized, our data suggest that BZTs display a classical competitive binding mode with binding sites overlapping those of cocaine and dopamine. PMID:20816875

  13. Identification of the Catalytic Ubiquinone-binding Site of Vibrio cholerae Sodium-dependent NADH Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Tuz, Karina; Li, Chen; Fang, Xuan; Raba, Daniel A.; Liang, Pingdong; Minh, David D. L.; Juárez, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The sodium-dependent NADH dehydrogenase (Na+-NQR) is a key component of the respiratory chain of diverse prokaryotic species, including pathogenic bacteria. Na+-NQR uses the energy released by electron transfer between NADH and ubiquinone (UQ) to pump sodium, producing a gradient that sustains many essential homeostatic processes as well as virulence factor secretion and the elimination of drugs. The location of the UQ binding site has been controversial, with two main hypotheses that suggest that this site could be located in the cytosolic subunit A or in the membrane-bound subunit B. In this work, we performed alanine scanning mutagenesis of aromatic residues located in transmembrane helices II, IV, and V of subunit B, near glycine residues 140 and 141. These two critical glycine residues form part of the structures that regulate the site's accessibility. Our results indicate that the elimination of phenylalanine residue 211 or 213 abolishes the UQ-dependent activity, produces a leak of electrons to oxygen, and completely blocks the binding of UQ and the inhibitor HQNO. Molecular docking calculations predict that UQ interacts with phenylalanine 211 and pinpoints the location of the binding site in the interface of subunits B and D. The mutagenesis and structural analysis allow us to propose a novel UQ-binding motif, which is completely different compared with the sites of other respiratory photosynthetic complexes. These results are essential to understanding the electron transfer pathways and mechanism of Na+-NQR catalysis. PMID:28053088

  14. Bilirubin Decreases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongdong; Tosevska, Anela; Heiß, Elke H; Ladurner, Angela; Mölzer, Christine; Wallner, Marlies; Bulmer, Andrew; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-04-28

    Mild but chronically elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin is associated with reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, which is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate whether unconjugated bilirubin influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, as a potential mechanism for the altered circulating lipoprotein concentrations observed in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages was assessed using plasma obtained from normo- and hyperbilirubinemic (Gilbert syndrome) humans (n=60 per group) or (heterozygote/homozygote Gunn) rats (n=20 per group) as an acceptor. Hyperbilirubinemic plasma from patients with Gilbert syndrome and Gunn rats induced significantly reduced cholesterol efflux compared with normobilirubinemic plasma. Unconjugated bilirubin (3-17.1 μmol/L) exogenously added to plasma- or apolipoprotein A1-supplemented media also decreased macrophage cholesterol efflux in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also showed reduced protein expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transmembrane cholesterol transporter involved in apolipoprotein A1-mediated cholesterol efflux, in THP-1 macrophages treated with unconjugated bilirubin and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Furthermore, we demonstrated that bilirubin accelerates the degradation rate of the ABCA1 protein in THP-1 macrophages. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is decreased in the presence of plasma obtained from humans and rats with mild hyperbilirubinemia. A direct effect of unconjugated bilirubin on cholesterol efflux was demonstrated and is associated with decreased ABCA1 protein expression. These data improve our knowledge concerning bilirubin's impact on cholesterol transport and represent an important advancement in our understanding of bilirubin's role in cardiovascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  15. Distribution of cyclophilin B-binding sites in the subsets of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Denys, A; Allain, F; Foxwell, B; Spik, G

    1997-08-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein, mainly associated with the secretory pathway and released in biological fluids. We have recently demonstrated that both free CyPB and CyPB-CsA complex specifically bind to peripheral blood T lymphocytes and are internalized. These results suggest that CyPB might promote the targeting of the drug into sensitive cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are subdivided in several populations according to their biological functions and sensitivity to CsA. We have investigated the binding of CyPB to these different subsets using a CyPB derivatized by fluorescein through its single cysteine which retains its binding properties. We have confirmed that only T cells were involved in the interaction with CyPB. The ligand binding was found to be heterogeneously distributed on the different T-cell subsets and surface-bound CyPB was mainly associated with the CD4-positive cells. No significant difference was noted between the CD45RA and CD45RO subsets, demonstrating that CyPB-binding sites were equally distributed between native and memory T cells. CD3 stimulation of T lymphocytes led to a decrease in the CyPB-binding capacity, that may be explained by a down-regulation of the CyPB-receptor expression upon T-cell activation. Finally, we demonstrated that CyPB-receptor-positive cells, isolated on CyPB sulphydryl-coupled affinity matrices, are more sensitive to CyPB-complexed CsA than mixed peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that CyPB potentiates CsA activity through the binding of the complex. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CyPB-binding sites are mainly associated with resting cells of the helper T lymphocyte, and that CyPB might modulate the distribution of CsA through the drug targeting to sensitive cells.

  16. Vaccine-elicited antibody that neutralizes H5N1 influenza and variants binds the receptor site and polymorphic sites

    DOE PAGES

    Winarski, Katie L.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Yu, Yingchun; ...

    2015-07-13

    Antigenic drift of circulating seasonal influenza viruses necessitates an international vaccine effort to reduce the impact on human health. A critical feature of the seasonal vaccine is that it stimulates an already primed immune system to diversify memory B cells to recognize closely related, but antigenically distinct, influenza glycoproteins (hemagglutinins). Influenza pandemics arise when hemagglutinins to which no preexisting adaptive immunity exists acquire the capacity to infect humans. Hemagglutinin 5 is one subtype to which little preexisting immunity exists and is only a few acquired mutations away from the ability to transmit efficiently between ferrets, and possibly humans. In thismore » paper, we describe the structure and molecular mechanism of neutralization by H5.3, a vaccine-elicited antibody that neutralizes hemagglutinin 5 viruses and variants with expanded host range. H5.3 binds in the receptor-binding site, forming contacts that recapitulate many of the sialic acid interactions, as well as multiple peripheral interactions, yet is not sensitive to mutations that alter sialic acid binding. H5.3 is highly specific for a subset of H5 strains, and this specificity arises from interactions to the periphery of the receptor-binding site. Finally, H5.3 is also extremely potent, despite retaining germ line-like conformational flexibility.« less

  17. Vaccine-elicited antibody that neutralizes H5N1 influenza and variants binds the receptor site and polymorphic sites

    SciTech Connect

    Winarski, Katie L.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Yu, Yingchun

    Antigenic drift of circulating seasonal influenza viruses necessitates an international vaccine effort to reduce the impact on human health. A critical feature of the seasonal vaccine is that it stimulates an already primed immune system to diversify memory B cells to recognize closely related, but antigenically distinct, influenza glycoproteins (hemagglutinins). Influenza pandemics arise when hemagglutinins to which no preexisting adaptive immunity exists acquire the capacity to infect humans. Hemagglutinin 5 is one subtype to which little preexisting immunity exists and is only a few acquired mutations away from the ability to transmit efficiently between ferrets, and possibly humans. In thismore » paper, we describe the structure and molecular mechanism of neutralization by H5.3, a vaccine-elicited antibody that neutralizes hemagglutinin 5 viruses and variants with expanded host range. H5.3 binds in the receptor-binding site, forming contacts that recapitulate many of the sialic acid interactions, as well as multiple peripheral interactions, yet is not sensitive to mutations that alter sialic acid binding. H5.3 is highly specific for a subset of H5 strains, and this specificity arises from interactions to the periphery of the receptor-binding site. Finally, H5.3 is also extremely potent, despite retaining germ line-like conformational flexibility.« less

  18. Inactivation by Phenylglyoxal of the Specific Binding of 1-Naphthyl Acetic Acid with Membrane-Bound Auxin Binding Sites from Maize Coleoptiles

    PubMed Central

    Navé, Jean-François; Benveniste, Pierre

    1984-01-01

    The specific binding of 1-[3H]naphthyl acetic acid (NAA) to membrane-bound binding sites from maize (Zea mays cv INRA 258) coleoptiles is inactivated by phenylglyoxal. The inactivation obeys pseudo first-order kinetics. The rate of inactivation is proportional to phenylglyoxal concentration. Under conditions at which significant binding occurs, NAA, R and S-1-naphthyl 2-propionic acids protect the auxin binding site against inactivation by phenylglyoxal. Scatchard analysis shows that the inhibition of binding corresponds to a decrease in the concentration of sites but not in the affinity. The results of the present chemical modification study indicate that at least one arginyl residue is involved in the positively charged recognition site of the carboxylate anion of NAA. PMID:16663499

  19. Glycine Hinges with Opposing Actions at the Acetylcholine Receptor-Channel Transmitter Binding SiteS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which agonists activate synaptic receptor-channels depends on both the intrinsic tendency of the unliganded receptor to open and the amount of agonist binding energy realized in the channel-opening process. We examined mutations of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmitter binding site (α subunit loop B) with regard to both of these parameters. αGly147 is an “activation” hinge where backbone flexibility maintains high values for intrinsic gating, the affinity of the resting conformation for agonists and net ligand binding energy. αGly153 is a “deactivation” hinge that maintains low values for these parameters. αTrp149 (between these two glycines) serves mainly to provide ligand binding energy for gating. We propose that a concerted motion of the two glycine hinges (plus other structural elements at the binding site) positions αTrp149 so that it provides physiologically optimal binding and gating function at the nerve-muscle synapse. PMID:21115636

  20. A rigorous multiple independent binding site model for determining cell-based equilibrium dissociation constants.

    PubMed

    Drake, Andrew W; Klakamp, Scott L

    2007-01-10

    A new 4-parameter nonlinear equation based on the standard multiple independent binding site model (MIBS) is presented for fitting cell-based ligand titration data in order to calculate the ligand/cell receptor equilibrium dissociation constant and the number of receptors/cell. The most commonly used linear (Scatchard Plot) or nonlinear 2-parameter model (a single binding site model found in commercial programs like Prism(R)) used for analysis of ligand/receptor binding data assumes only the K(D) influences the shape of the titration curve. We demonstrate using simulated data sets that, depending upon the cell surface receptor expression level, the number of cells titrated, and the magnitude of the K(D) being measured, this assumption of always being under K(D)-controlled conditions can be erroneous and can lead to unreliable estimates for the binding parameters. We also compare and contrast the fitting of simulated data sets to the commonly used cell-based binding equation versus our more rigorous 4-parameter nonlinear MIBS model. It is shown through these simulations that the new 4-parameter MIBS model, when used for cell-based titrations under optimal conditions, yields highly accurate estimates of all binding parameters and hence should be the preferred model to fit cell-based experimental nonlinear titration data.

  1. Evaluation of water displacement energetics in protein binding sites with grid cell theory.

    PubMed

    Gerogiokas, G; Southey, M W Y; Mazanetz, M P; Heifetz, A; Hefeitz, A; Bodkin, M; Law, R J; Michel, J

    2015-04-07

    Excess free energies, enthalpies and entropies of water in protein binding sites were computed via classical simulations and Grid Cell Theory (GCT) analyses for three pairs of congeneric ligands in complex with the proteins scytalone dehydratase, p38α MAP kinase and EGFR kinase respectively. Comparative analysis is of interest since the binding modes for each ligand pair differ in the displacement of one binding site water molecule, but significant variations in relative binding affinities are observed. Protocols that vary in their use of restraints on protein and ligand atoms were compared to determine the influence of protein-ligand flexibility on computed water structure and energetics, and to assess protocols for routine analyses of protein-ligand complexes. The GCT-derived binding affinities correctly reproduce experimental trends, but the magnitude of the predicted changes in binding affinities is exaggerated with respect to results from a previous Monte Carlo Free Energy Perturbation study. Breakdown of the GCT water free energies into enthalpic and entropic components indicates that enthalpy changes dominate the observed variations in energetics. In EGFR kinase GCT analyses revealed that replacement of a pyrimidine by a cyanopyridine perturbs water energetics up three hydration shells away from the ligand.

  2. Multiple sup 3 H-oxytocin binding sites in rat myometrial plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Crankshaw, D.; Gaspar, V.; Pliska, V.

    1990-01-01

    The affinity spectrum method has been used to analyse binding isotherms for {sup 3}H-oxytocin to rat myometrial plasma membranes. Three populations of binding sites with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.6-1.5 x 10(-9), 0.4-1.0 x 10(-7) and 7 x 10(-6) mol/l were identified and their existence verified by cluster analysis based on similarities between Kd, binding capacity and Hill coefficient. When experimental values were compared to theoretical curves constructed using the estimated binding parameters, good fits were obtained. Binding parameters obtained by this method were not influenced by the presence of GTP gamma S (guanosine-5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate) in the incubation medium. The bindingmore » parameters agree reasonably well with those found in uterine cells, they support the existence of a medium affinity site and may allow for an explanation of some of the discrepancies between binding and response in this system.« less

  3. Pathogenesis of Shigella diarrhea: rabbit intestinal cell microvillus membrane binding site for Shigella toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, G.; Mobassaleh, M.; Donohue-Rolfe, A.

    This study examined the binding of purified /sup 125/I-labeled shigella toxin to rabbit jejunal microvillus membranes (MVMs). Toxin binding was concentration dependent, saturable, reversible, and specifically inhibited by unlabeled toxin. The calculated number of toxin molecules bound at 4/sup 0/C was 7.9 X 10(10) (3 X 10(10) to 2 X 10(11))/micrograms of MVM protein or 1.2 X 10(6) per enterocyte. Scatchard analysis showed the binding site to be of a single class with an equilibrium association constant, K, of 4.7 X 10(9) M-1 at 4/sup 0/C. Binding was inversely related to the temperature of incubation. A total of 80% ofmore » the labeled toxin binding at 4/sup 0/C dissociated from MVM when the temperature was raised to 37/sup 0/C, but reassociated when the temperature was again brought to 4/sup 0/C. There was no structural or functional change of MVM due to toxin as monitored by electron microscopy or assay of MVM sucrase activity. These studies demonstrate a specific binding site for shigella toxin on rabbit MVMs. The physiological relevance of this receptor remains to be determined.« less

  4. Deconstructing the DGAT1 enzyme: membrane interactions at substrate binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Jose L S; Beltramini, Leila M; Wallace, Bonnie A; Araujo, Ana P U

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a key enzyme in the triacylglyceride synthesis pathway. Bovine DGAT1 is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound protein associated with the regulation of fat content in milk and meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of DGAT1 peptides corresponding to putative substrate binding sites with different types of model membranes. Whilst these peptides are predicted to be located in an extramembranous loop of the membrane-bound protein, their hydrophobic substrates are membrane-bound molecules. In this study, peptides corresponding to the binding sites of the two substrates involved in the reaction were examined in the presence of model membranes in order to probe potential interactions between them that might influence the subsequent binding of the substrates. Whilst the conformation of one of the peptides changed upon binding several types of micelles regardless of their surface charge, suggesting binding to hydrophobic domains, the other peptide bound strongly to negatively-charged model membranes. This binding was accompanied by a change in conformation, and produced leakage of the liposome-entrapped dye calcein. The different hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions observed suggest the peptides may be involved in the interactions of the enzyme with membrane surfaces, facilitating access of the catalytic histidine to the triacylglycerol substrates.

  5. Mass Spectrometric Determination of ILPR G-quadruplex Binding Sites in Insulin and IGF-2

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, JunFeng

    2009-01-01

    The insulin-linked polymorphic region (ILPR) of the human insulin gene promoter region forms G-quadruplex structures in vitro. Previous studies show that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) exhibit high affinity binding in vitro to 2-repeat sequences of ILPR variants a and h, but negligible binding to variant i. Two-repeat sequences of variants a and h form intramolecular G-quadruplex structures that are not evidenced for variant i. Here we report on the use of protein digestion combined with affinity capture and MALDI-MS detection to pinpoint ILPR binding sites in insulin and IGF-2. Peptides captured by ILPR variants a and h were sequenced by MALDI-MS/MS, LC-MS and in silico digestion. On-bead digestion of insulin-ILPR variant a complexes supported the conclusions. The results indicate that the sequence VCG(N)RGF is generally present in the captured peptides and is likely involved in the affinity binding interactions of the proteins with the ILPR G-quadruplexes. The significance of arginine in the interactions was studied by comparing the affinities of synthesized peptides VCGERGF and VCGEAGF with ILPR variant a. Peptides from other regions of the proteins that are connected through disulfide linkages were also detected in some capture experiments. Identification of binding sites could facilitate design of DNA binding ligands for capture and detection of insulin and IGF-2. The interactions may have biological significance as well. PMID:19747845

  6. A Large-Scale Assessment of Nucleic Acids Binding Site Prediction Programs

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Computational prediction of nucleic acid binding sites in proteins are necessary to disentangle functional mechanisms in most biological processes and to explore the binding mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed, but the state-of-the-art approaches display a great diversity in i) the definition of nucleic acid binding sites; ii) the training and test datasets; iii) the algorithmic methods for the prediction strategies; iv) the performance measures and v) the distribution and availability of the prediction programs. Here we report a large-scale assessment of 19 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets including more than 5000 proteins derived from 3D structures of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Well-defined binary assessment criteria (specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy…) are applied. We found that i) the tools have been greatly improved over the years; ii) some of the approaches suffer from theoretical defects and there is still room for sorting out the essential mechanisms of binding; iii) RNA binding and DNA binding appear to follow similar driving forces and iv) dataset bias may exist in some methods. PMID:26681179

  7. Recognition of AT-Rich DNA Binding Sites by the MogR Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Aimee; Higgins, Darren E.; Panne, Daniel

    2009-07-22

    The MogR transcriptional repressor of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes recognizes AT-rich binding sites in promoters of flagellar genes to downregulate flagellar gene expression during infection. We describe here the 1.8 A resolution crystal structure of MogR bound to the recognition sequence 5' ATTTTTTAAAAAAAT 3' present within the flaA promoter region. Our structure shows that MogR binds as a dimer. Each half-site is recognized in the major groove by a helix-turn-helix motif and in the minor groove by a loop from the symmetry-related molecule, resulting in a 'crossover' binding mode. This oversampling through minor groove interactions is important for specificity.more » The MogR binding site has structural features of A-tract DNA and is bent by approximately 52 degrees away from the dimer. The structure explains how MogR achieves binding specificity in the AT-rich genome of L. monocytogenes and explains the evolutionary conservation of A-tract sequence elements within promoter regions of MogR-regulated flagellar genes.« less

  8. Inhibition of ferric ion to oxalate oxidase shed light on the substrate binding site.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Lan, Wanjun; Huang, Xuelei; Zuo, Guanke; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Jingyan

    2015-10-01

    Oxalate oxidase (OxOx), a well known enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of oxalate to carbon dioxide with reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide, however its catalytic process is not well understood. To define the substrate binding site, interaction of Fe(3+) ions with OxOx was systemically investigated using biochemical method, circular dichrosim spectroscopy, microscale thermophoresis, and computer modeling. We demonstrated that Fe(3+) is a non-competitive inhibitor with a milder binding affinity to OxOx, and the secondary structure of the OxOx was slightly altered upon its binding. On the basis of the structural properties of the OxOx and its interaction with Fe(3+) ions, two residue clusters of OxOx were assigned as potential Fe(3+) binding sites, the mechanism of the inhibition of Fe(3+) was delineated. Importantly, the residues that interact with Fe(3+) ions are involved in the substrate orienting based on computer docking. Consequently, the interaction of OxOx with Fe(3+) highlights insight into substrate binding site in OxOx.

  9. Pyrene maleimide as a probe of microenvironmental and dynamics properties of protein binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benci, S.; Vaccari, S.; Schianchi, G.; Locatelli, Donata; Vaghi, P.; Bottiroli, Giovanni F.

    1995-01-01

    N-(1-Pyrene)maleimide is highly fluorescent upon covalent binding with sulfhydryl and amino groups of the proteins. Multiexponential fluorescence decays were observed for the dye bound to different proteins even when a single binding site is involved. The lack of information about the fluorescence decay of free dye does not allow to define the variations of fluorescence parameter following the conjugation and their correlation with the binding properties of the fluorophore. In this work, a study of the fluorescence of the probe, free in solution, bound to different antibodies and to the antigen-antibody complex both in solution and in cell, has been performed. The experimental results showed that chemico-physical properties of the medium influence the fluorescence decay of the probe in both the free and bound forms, although to a different extent. The variations of fluorescence decay and anisotropy of the bound probe are related to the electronic characteristics of microenvironment and show an increased stabilization of the probe binding site with the increasing complexity of the substrate. The sensitivity of the fluorescence properties of the probe to the binding site environment opens interesting perspectives concerning the application of Py- maleimide fluorochromization to assess the degree of specificity of immunocytochemical labelling.

  10. How Force Might Activate Talin's Vinculin Binding Sites: SMD Reveals a Structural Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hytönen, Vesa P; Vogel, Viola

    2008-01-01

    Upon cell adhesion, talin physically couples the cytoskeleton via integrins to the extracellular matrix, and subsequent vinculin recruitment is enhanced by locally applied tensile force. Since the vinculin binding (VB) sites are buried in the talin rod under equilibrium conditions, the structural mechanism of how vinculin binding to talin is force-activated remains unknown. Taken together with experimental data, a biphasic vinculin binding model, as derived from steered molecular dynamics, provides high resolution structural insights how tensile mechanical force applied to the talin rod fragment (residues 486–889 constituting helices H1–H12) might activate the VB sites. Fragmentation of the rod into three helix subbundles is prerequisite to the sequential exposure of VB helices to water. Finally, unfolding of a VB helix into a completely stretched polypeptide might inhibit further binding of vinculin. The first events in fracturing the H1–H12 rods of talin1 and talin2 in subbundles are similar. The proposed force-activated α-helix swapping mechanism by which vinculin binding sites in talin rods are exposed works distinctly different from that of other force-activated bonds, including catch bonds. PMID:18282082

  11. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference.

    PubMed

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2011-02-10

    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  12. Noncompetitive blocking of human GLUT1 hexose transporter by methylxanthines reveals an exofacial regulatory binding site.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Paola; Pérez, Alejandra; Ojeda, Lorena; Vargas-Uribe, Mauricio; Rivas, Coralia I; Salas, Monica; Vera, Juan Carlos; Reyes, Alejandro M

    2012-09-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT)1 has become an attractive target to block glucose uptake in malignant cells since most cancer cells overexpress GLUT1 and are sensitive to glucose deprivation. Methylxanthines are natural compounds that inhibit glucose uptake; however, the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. Here, we used a combination of binding and glucose transport kinetic assays to analyze in detail the effects of caffeine, pentoxifylline, and theophylline on hexose transport in human erythrocytes. The displacement of previously bound cytochalasin B revealed a direct interaction between the methylxanthines and GLUT1. Methylxanthines behave as noncompetitive blockers (inhibition constant values of 2-3 mM) in exchange and zero-trans efflux assays, whereas mixed inhibition with a notable uncompetitive component is observed in zero-trans influx assays (inhibition constant values of 5-12 mM). These results indicate that methylxanthines do not bind to either exofacial or endofacial d-glucose-binding sites but instead interact at a different site accessible by the external face of the transporter. Additionally, infinite-cis exit assays (Sen-Widdas assays) showed that only pentoxifylline disturbed d-glucose for binding to the exofacial substrate site. Interestingly, coinhibition assays showed that methylxanthines bind to a common site on the transporter. We concluded that there is a methylxanthine regulatory site on the external surface of the transporter, which is close but distinguishable from the d-glucose external site. Therefore, the methylxanthine moiety may become an attractive framework for the design of novel specific noncompetitive facilitative GLUT inhibitors.

  13. Mefloquine inhibits voltage dependent Nav1.4 channel by overlapping the local anaesthetic binding site.

    PubMed

    Paiz-Candia, Bertin; Islas, Angel A; Sánchez-Solano, Alfredo; Mancilla-Simbro, Claudia; Scior, Thomas; Millan-PerezPeña, Lourdes; Salinas-Stefanon, Eduardo M

    2017-02-05

    Mefloquine constitutes a multitarget antimalaric that inhibits cation currents. However, the effect and the binding site of this compound on Na + channels is unknown. To address the mechanism of action of mefloquine, we employed two-electrode voltage clamp recordings on Xenopus laevis oocytes, site-directed mutagenesis of the rat Na + channel, and a combined in silico approach using Molecular Dynamics and docking protocols. We found that mefloquine: i) inhibited Na v 1.4 currents (IC 50 =60μM), ii) significantly delayed fast inactivation but did not affect recovery from inactivation, iii) markedly the shifted steady-state inactivation curve to more hyperpolarized potentials. The presence of the β1 subunit significantly reduced mefloquine potency, but the drug induced a significant frequency-independent rundown upon repetitive depolarisations. Computational and experimental results indicate that mefloquine overlaps the local anaesthetic binding site by docking at a hydrophobic cavity between domains DIII and DIV that communicates the local anaesthetic binding site with the selectivity filter. This is supported by the fact that mefloquine potency significantly decreased on mutant Na v 1.4 channel F1579A and significantly increased on K1237S channels. In silico this compound docked above F1579 forming stable π-π interactions with this residue. We provide structure-activity insights into how cationic amphiphilic compounds may exert inhibitory effects by docking between the local anaesthetic binding site and the selectivity filter of a mammalian Na + channel. Our proposed synergistic cycle of experimental and computational studies may be useful for elucidating binding sites of other drugs, thereby saving in vitro and in silico resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Specific phospholipid binding to Na,K-ATPase at two distinct sites.

    PubMed

    Habeck, Michael; Kapri-Pardes, Einat; Sharon, Michal; Karlish, Steven J D

    2017-03-14

    Membrane protein function can be affected by the physical state of the lipid bilayer and specific lipid-protein interactions. For Na,K-ATPase, bilayer properties can modulate pump activity, and, as observed in crystal structures, several lipids are bound within the transmembrane domain. Furthermore, Na,K-ATPase activity depends on phosphatidylserine (PS) and cholesterol, which stabilize the protein, and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), known to stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity. Based on lipid structural specificity and kinetic mechanisms, specific interactions of both PS and PC/PE have been inferred. Nevertheless, specific binding sites have not been identified definitively. We address this question with native mass spectrometry (MS) and site-directed mutagenesis. Native MS shows directly that one molecule each of 18:0/18:1 PS and 18:0/20:4 PC can bind specifically to purified human Na,K-ATPase (α 1 β 1 ). By replacing lysine residues at proposed phospholipid-binding sites with glutamines, the two sites have been identified. Mutations in the cytoplasmic αL8-9 loop destabilize the protein but do not affect Na,K-ATPase activity, whereas mutations in transmembrane helices (TM), αTM2 and αTM4, abolish the stimulation of activity by 18:0/20:4 PC but do not affect stability. When these data are linked to crystal structures, the underlying mechanism of PS and PC/PE effects emerges. PS (and cholesterol) bind between αTM 8, 9, 10, near the FXYD subunit, and maintain topological integrity of the labile C terminus of the α subunit (site A). PC/PE binds between αTM2, 4, 6, and 9 and accelerates the rate-limiting E 1 P-E 2 P conformational transition (site B). We discuss the potential physiological implications.

  15. The influence of repressor DNA binding site architecture on transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Kiley, Patricia J

    2014-08-26

    How the architecture of DNA binding sites dictates the extent of repression of promoters is not well understood. Here, we addressed the importance of the number and information content of the three direct repeats (DRs) in the binding and repression of the icdA promoter by the phosphorylated form of the global Escherichia coli repressor ArcA (ArcA-P). We show that decreasing the information content of the two sites with the highest information (DR1 and DR2) eliminated ArcA binding to all three DRs and ArcA repression of icdA. Unexpectedly, we also found that DR3 occupancy functions principally in repression, since mutation of this low-information-content site both eliminated DNA binding to DR3 and significantly weakened icdA repression, despite the fact that binding to DR1 and DR2 was intact. In addition, increasing the information content of any one of the three DRs or addition of a fourth DR increased ArcA-dependent repression but perturbed signal-dependent regulation of repression. Thus, our data show that the information content and number of DR elements are critical architectural features for maintaining a balance between high-affinity binding and signal-dependent regulation of icdA promoter function in response to changes in ArcA-P levels. Optimization of such architectural features may be a common strategy to either dampen or enhance the sensitivity of DNA binding among the members of the large OmpR/PhoB family of regulators as well as other transcription factors. In Escherichia coli, the response regulator ArcA maintains homeostasis of redox carriers under O2-limiting conditions through a comprehensive repression of carbon oxidation pathways that require aerobic respiration to recycle redox carriers. Although a binding site architecture comprised of a variable number of sequence recognition elements has been identified within the promoter regions of ArcA-repressed operons, it is unclear how this variable architecture dictates transcriptional regulation. By

  16. Parkin-phosphoubiquitin complex reveals a cryptic ubiquitin binding site required for RBR ligase activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Atul; Chaugule, Viduth K; Condos, Tara E C; Barber, Kathryn R; Johnson, Clare; Toth, Rachel; Sundaramoorthy, Ramasubramanian; Knebel, Axel; Shaw, Gary S; Walden, Helen

    2017-01-01

    RING-BETWEENRING-RING (RBR) E3 ligases are a class of ubiquitin ligases distinct from RING or HECT E3 ligases. An important RBR is Parkin, mutations in which lead to early onset hereditary Parkinsonism. Parkin and other RBRs share a catalytic RBR module, but are usually autoinhibited and activated via distinct mechanisms. Recent insights into Parkin regulation predict large, unknown conformational changes during activation of Parkin. However, current data on active RBRs are in the absence of regulatory domains. Therefore, how individual RBRs are activated, and whether they share a common mechanism remains unclear. We now report the crystal structure of a human Parkin-phosphoubiquitin complex, which shows that phosphoubiquitin binding induces a movement in the IBR domain to reveal a cryptic ubiquitin binding site. Mutation of this site negatively impacts on Parkin’s activity. Furthermore, ubiquitin binding promotes cooperation between Parkin molecules, suggesting a role for interdomain association in RBR ligase mechanism. PMID:28414322

  17. Binding site stoichiometry and the effects of phosphorylation on human α1 homomeric glycine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gentet, Luc J; Clements, John D

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic properties of the human α1 homomeric glycine receptor were investigated. Receptors were expressed in HEK 293 cells, and glycine was applied to outside-out membrane patches with sub-millisecond solution exchange. The activation time course of the glycine response was used to investigate receptor stoichiometry. The unbinding of three strychnine molecules and the cooperative binding of two glycine molecules were required to activate the channel. The effects of phosphorylation on glycine receptor kinetics were investigated by pretreating cells with phosphorylators or with phosphatases. Phosphorylation accelerated desensitisation, but slowed deactivation and recovery from desensitisation. A chemical-kinetic model was developed that reproduced the experimental observations. The model suggests that only three binding sites on the glycine channel are functional, while the remaining two binding sites are ‘silent’, possibly due to strong negative cooperativity. PMID:12356883

  18. Identification and characterization of Hoxa9 binding sites in hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongsheng; Sitwala, Kajal; Bronstein, Joel; Sanders, Daniel; Dandekar, Monisha; Collins, Cailin; Robertson, Gordon; MacDonald, James; Cezard, Timothee; Bilenky, Misha; Thiessen, Nina; Zhao, Yongjun; Zeng, Thomas; Hirst, Martin; Hero, Alfred; Jones, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The clustered homeobox proteins play crucial roles in development, hematopoiesis, and leukemia, yet the targets they regulate and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here, we identified the binding sites for Hoxa9 and the Hox cofactor Meis1 on a genome-wide level and profiled their associated epigenetic modifications and transcriptional targets. Hoxa9 and the Hox cofactor Meis1 cobind at hundreds of highly evolutionarily conserved sites, most of which are distant from transcription start sites. These sites show high levels of histone H3K4 monomethylation and CBP/P300 binding characteristic of enhancers. Furthermore, a subset of these sites shows enhancer activity in transient transfection assays. Many Hoxa9 and Meis1 binding sites are also bound by PU.1 and other lineage-restricted transcription factors previously implicated in establishment of myeloid enhancers. Conditional Hoxa9 activation is associated with CBP/P300 recruitment, histone acetylation, and transcriptional activation of a network of proto-oncogenes, including Erg, Flt3, Lmo2, Myb, and Sox4. Collectively, this work suggests that Hoxa9 regulates transcription by interacting with enhancers of genes important for hematopoiesis and leukemia. PMID:22072553

  19. Tuning the ion selectivity of tetrameric cation channels by changing the number of ion binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Derebe, Mehabaw G.; Sauer, David B.; Zeng, Weizhong

    2015-11-30

    Selective ion conduction across ion channel pores is central to cellular physiology. To understand the underlying principles of ion selectivity in tetrameric cation channels, we engineered a set of cation channel pores based on the nonselective NaK channel and determined their structures to high resolution. These structures showcase an ensemble of selectivity filters with a various number of contiguous ion binding sites ranging from 2 to 4, with each individual site maintaining a geometry and ligand environment virtually identical to that of equivalent sites in K{sup +} channel selectivity filters. Combined with single channel electrophysiology, we show that only themore » channel with four ion binding sites is K{sup +} selective, whereas those with two or three are nonselective and permeate Na{sup +} and K{sup +} equally well. These observations strongly suggest that the number of contiguous ion binding sites in a single file is the key determinant of the channel's selectivity properties and the presence of four sites in K{sup +} channels is essential for highly selective and efficient permeation of K{sup +} ions.« less

  20. TFBSshape: a motif database for DNA shape features of transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Zhou, Tianyin; Dror, Iris; Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Gordân, Raluca; Rohs, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are most commonly characterized by the nucleotide preferences at each position of the DNA target. Whereas these sequence motifs are quite accurate descriptions of DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs), proteins recognize DNA as a three-dimensional object. DNA structural features refine the description of TF binding specificities and provide mechanistic insights into protein-DNA recognition. Existing motif databases contain extensive nucleotide sequences identified in binding experiments based on their selection by a TF. To utilize DNA shape information when analysing the DNA binding specificities of TFs, we developed a new tool, the TFBSshape database (available at http://rohslab.cmb.usc.edu/TFBSshape/), for calculating DNA structural features from nucleotide sequences provided by motif databases. The TFBSshape database can be used to generate heat maps and quantitative data for DNA structural features (i.e., minor groove width, roll, propeller twist and helix twist) for 739 TF datasets from 23 different species derived from the motif databases JASPAR and UniPROBE. As demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix and homeodomain TF families, our TFBSshape database can be used to compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, the DNA binding specificities of closely related TFs and, thus, uncover differential DNA binding specificities that are not apparent from nucleotide sequence alone.

  1. TFBSshape: a motif database for DNA shape features of transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Zhou, Tianyin; Dror, Iris; Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Gordân, Raluca; Rohs, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are most commonly characterized by the nucleotide preferences at each position of the DNA target. Whereas these sequence motifs are quite accurate descriptions of DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs), proteins recognize DNA as a three-dimensional object. DNA structural features refine the description of TF binding specificities and provide mechanistic insights into protein–DNA recognition. Existing motif databases contain extensive nucleotide sequences identified in binding experiments based on their selection by a TF. To utilize DNA shape information when analysing the DNA binding specificities of TFs, we developed a new tool, the TFBSshape database (available at http://rohslab.cmb.usc.edu/TFBSshape/), for calculating DNA structural features from nucleotide sequences provided by motif databases. The TFBSshape database can be used to generate heat maps and quantitative data for DNA structural features (i.e., minor groove width, roll, propeller twist and helix twist) for 739 TF datasets from 23 different species derived from the motif databases JASPAR and UniPROBE. As demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix and homeodomain TF families, our TFBSshape database can be used to compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, the DNA binding specificities of closely related TFs and, thus, uncover differential DNA binding specificities that are not apparent from nucleotide sequence alone. PMID:24214955

  2. The Binding Site of Human Adenosine Deaminase for Cd26/Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Eva; Arredondo-Vega, Francisco X.; Santisteban, Ines; Kelly, Susan J.; Patel, Dhavalkumar D.; Hershfield, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Human, but not murine, adenosine deaminase (ADA) forms a complex with the cell membrane protein CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV. CD26-bound ADA has been postulated to regulate extracellular adenosine levels and to modulate the costimulatory function of CD26 on T lymphocytes. Absence of ADA–CD26 binding has been implicated in causing severe combined immunodeficiency due to ADA deficiency. Using human–mouse ADA hybrids and ADA point mutants, we have localized the amino acids critical for CD26 binding to the helical segment 126–143. Arg142 in human ADA and Gln142 in mouse ADA largely determine the capacity to bind CD26. Recombinant human ADA bearing the R142Q mutation had normal catalytic activity per molecule, but markedly impaired binding to a CD26+ ADA-deficient human T cell line. Reduced CD26 binding was also found with ADA from red cells and T cells of a healthy individual whose only expressed ADA has the R142Q mutation. Conversely, ADA with the E217K active site mutation, the only ADA expressed by a severely immunodeficient patient, showed normal CD26 binding. These findings argue that ADA binding to CD26 is not essential for immune function in humans. PMID:11067872

  3. Localization and characterization of an alpha-thrombin-binding site on platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha.

    PubMed

    De Marco, L; Mazzucato, M; Masotti, A; Ruggeri, Z M

    1994-03-04

    Glycoprotein (GP) Ib alpha is required for expression of the highest affinity alpha-thrombin-binding site on platelets, possibly contributing to platelet activation through a pathway involving cleavage of a specific receptor. This function may be important for the initiation of hemostasis and may also play a role in the development of pathological vascular occlusion. We have now identified a discrete sequence in the extracytoplasmic domain of GP Ib alpha, including residues 271-284 of the mature protein, which appears to be part of the high affinity alpha-thrombin-binding site. Synthetic peptidyl mimetics of this sequence inhibit alpha-thrombin binding to GP Ib as well as platelet activation and aggregation induced by subnanomolar concentrations of the agonist; they also inhibit alpha-thrombin binding to purified glycocalicin, the isolated extracytoplasmic portion of GP Ib alpha. The inhibitory peptides interfere with the clotting of fibrinogen by alpha-thrombin but not with the amidolytic activity of the enzyme on a small synthetic substrate, a finding compatible with the concept that the identified GP Ib alpha sequence interacts with the anion-binding exosite of alpha-thrombin but not with its active proteolytic site. The crucial structural elements of this sequence necessary for thrombin binding appear to be a cluster of negatively charged residues as well as three tyrosine residues that, in the native protein, may be sulfated. GP Ib alpha has no significant overall sequence homology with the thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, nor with the specific thrombin receptor on platelets; all three molecules, however, possess a distinct region rich in negatively charged residues that appear to be involved in thrombin binding. This may represent a case of convergent evolution of unrelated proteins for high affinity interaction with the same ligand.

  4. Locating the binding sites of folic acid with milk α- and β-caseins.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2012-01-12

    We located the binding sites of folic acid with milk α- and β-caseins at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various folic acid contents. FTIR, UV-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyze folic acid binding sites, the binding constant, and the effect of folic acid interaction on the stability and conformation of caseins. Structural analysis showed that folic acid binds caseins via both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts with overall binding constants of K(folic acid-α-caseins) = 4.8 (±0.6) × 10(4) M(-1) and K(folic acid-β-caseins) = 7.0 (±0.9) × 10(4) M(-1). The number of bound acid molecules per protein was 1.5 (±0.4) for α-casein and 1.4 (±0.3) for β-casein complexes. Molecular modeling showed different binding sites for folic acid on α- and β-caseins. The participation of several amino acids in folic acid-protein complexes was observed, which was stabilized by hydrogen bonding network and the free binding energy of -7.7 kcal/mol (acid-α-casein) and -8.1 kcal/mol (acid-β-casein). Folic acid complexation altered protein secondary structure by the reduction of α-helix from 35% (free α-casein) to 33% (acid-complex) and 32% (free β-casein) to 26% (acid-complex) indicating a partial protein destabilization. Caseins might act as carriers for transportation of folic acid to target molecules.

  5. Cholesterol-Binding Sites in GIRK Channels: The Devil is in the Details.

    PubMed

    Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that cholesterol plays a direct role in the modulation of a variety of ion channels. In most cases, cholesterol downregulates channel activity. In contrast, our earlier studies have demonstrated that atrial G protein inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are upregulated by cholesterol. Recently, we have shown that hippocampal GIRK currents are also upregulated by cholesterol. A combined computational-experimental approach pointed to putative cholesterol-binding sites in the transmembrane domain of the GIRK2 channel, the primary subunit in hippocampal GIRK channels. In particular, the principal cholesterol-binding site was located in the center of the transmembrane domain in between the inner and outer α-helices of 2 adjacent subunits. Further studies pointed to a similar cholesterol-binding site in GIRK4, a major subunit in atrial GIRK channels. However, a close look at a sequence alignment of the transmembrane helices of the 2 channels reveals surprising differences among the residues that interact with the cholesterol molecule in these 2 channels. Here, we compare the residues that form putative cholesterol-binding sites in GIRK2 and GIRK4 and discuss the similarities and differences among them.

  6. External location of sites on pig erythrocyte membranes that bind nitrobenzylthioinosine

    SciTech Connect

    Agbanyo, F.R.; Cass, C.E.; Paterson, A.R.

    1988-03-01

    Nucleoside transport in erythrocytes of various species is inhibited by the binding of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) to high affinity sites associated with nucleoside transport elements of the plasma membrane. The present study examined binding of (/sup 3/H)NBMPR to unsealed ghosts and to sealed right-side-out vesicles (ROVs) and inside-out vesicles (IOVs) prepared from pig erythrocytes. Kd values for NBMPR dissociation from the ligand-site complex in unsealed ghosts, ROVs and IOVs were similar (1.6-2.4 nM), and Bmax values (mean +/- SD) were, respectively, 22.2 +/- 5.5, 25.8 +/- 6.4, and 37.3 +/- 4.0 molecules/fg of protein, reflecting differences in the protein content ofmore » the membrane preparations. When temperatures were decreased from 22 degrees to 4 degrees, NBMPR binding to erythrocyte membrane preparations was reduced in IOVs relative to that in unsealed ghosts and ROVs. At 22 degrees, the association of NBMPR molecules with IOVs was slower than with ROVs and unsealed ghosts, differences that were virtually eliminated by permeabilization of the membrane preparations with saponin. Thus, the binding sites were more accessible to external NBMPR in sealed ROVs and unsealed ghosts than in sealed IOVs, indicating that the NBMPR sites are located on the extracellular aspect of the membrane.« less

  7. Histochemical study of lectin binding sites in fourth and fifth instar gypsy moth larval midgut epithelium

    Treesearch

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, midgut epithelial brush border membrane has membrane-bound glycoconjugates, such as BTR-270 and aminopeptidase N (APN), which function as high affinity binding sites (receptors) for the insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). As gypsy...

  8. ProMateus—an open research approach to protein-binding sites analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neuvirth, Hani; Heinemann, Uri; Birnbaum, David; Tishby, Naftali; Schreiber, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    The development of bioinformatic tools by individual labs results in the abundance of parallel programs for the same task. For example, identification of binding site regions between interacting proteins is done using: ProMate, WHISCY, PPI-Pred, PINUP and others. All servers first identify unique properties of binding sites and then incorporate them into a predictor. Obviously, the resulting prediction would improve if the most suitable parameters from each of those predictors would be incorporated into one server. However, because of the variation in methods and databases, this is currently not feasible. Here, the protein-binding site prediction server is extended into a general protein-binding sites research tool, ProMateus. This web tool, based on ProMate's infrastructure enables the easy exploration and incorporation of new features and databases by the user, providing an evaluation of the benefit of individual features and their combination within a set framework. This transforms the individual research into a community exercise, bringing out the best from all users for optimized predictions. The analysis is demonstrated on a database of protein protein and protein-DNA interactions. This approach is basically different from that used in generating meta-servers. The implications of the open-research approach are discussed. ProMateus is available at http://bip.weizmann.ac.il/promate. PMID:17488838

  9. PDNAsite: Identification of DNA-binding Site from Protein Sequence by Incorporating Spatial and Sequence Context

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiyun; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Lu, Qin; Wang, Hongpeng; Kong, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions are involved in many fundamental biological processes essential for cellular function. Most of the existing computational approaches employed only the sequence context of the target residue for its prediction. In the present study, for each target residue, we applied both the spatial context and the sequence context to construct the feature space. Subsequently, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) was applied to remove the redundancies in the feature space. Finally, a predictor (PDNAsite) was developed through the integration of the support vector machines (SVM) classifier and ensemble learning. Results on the PDNA-62 and the PDNA-224 datasets demonstrate that features extracted from spatial context provide more information than those from sequence context and the combination of them gives more performance gain. An analysis of the number of binding sites in the spatial context of the target site indicates that the interactions between binding sites next to each other are important for protein-DNA recognition and their binding ability. The comparison between our proposed PDNAsite method and the existing methods indicate that PDNAsite outperforms most of the existing methods and is a useful tool for DNA-binding site identification. A web-server of our predictor (http://hlt.hitsz.edu.cn:8080/PDNAsite/) is made available for free public accessible to the biological research community. PMID:27282833

  10. Alcohol-Binding Sites in Distinct Brain Proteins: The Quest for Atomic Level Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Slesinger, Paul A.; Davies, Daryl L.; Das, Joydip; Trudell, James R.; Harris, R. Adron

    2011-01-01

    Defining the sites of action of ethanol on brain proteins is a major prerequisite to understanding the molecular pharmacology of this drug. The main barrier to reaching an atomic-level understanding of alcohol action is the low potency of alcohols, ethanol in particular, which is a reflection of transient, low-affinity interactions with their targets. These mechanisms are difficult or impossible to study with traditional techniques such as radioligand binding or spectroscopy. However, there has been considerable recent progress in combining X-ray crystallography, structural modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis to define the sites and mechanisms of action of ethanol and related alcohols on key brain proteins. We review such insights for several diverse classes of proteins including inwardly rectifying potassium, transient receptor potential, and neurotransmit-ter-gated ion channels, as well as protein kinase C epsilon. Some common themes are beginning to emerge from these proteins, including hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl group and van der Waals interactions of the methylene groups of ethanol with specific amino acid residues. The resulting binding energy is proposed to facilitate or stabilize low-energy state transitions in the bound proteins, allowing ethanol to act as a “molecular lubricant” for protein function. We discuss evidence for characteristic, discrete alcohol-binding sites on protein targets, as well as evidence that binding to some proteins is better characterized by an interaction region that can accommodate multiple molecules of ethanol. PMID:21676006

  11. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-07-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency.

  12. Differential alterations of cortical glutamatergic binding sites in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, D.T.; Dewar, D.; Graham, D.I.

    1990-02-01

    Involvement of cortical glutamatergic mechanisms in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) has been investigated with quantitative ligand-binding autoradiography. The distribution and density of Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake sites and glutamate receptor subtypes--kainate, quisqualate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate--were measured in adjacent sections of frontal cortex obtained postmortem from six patients with SDAT and six age-matched controls. The number of senile plaques was determined in the same brain region. Binding of D-(3H)aspartate to Na(+)-dependent uptake sites was reduced by approximately 40% throughout SDAT frontal cortex relative to controls, indicating a general loss of glutamatergic presynaptic terminals. (3H)Kainate receptor binding was significantly increased bymore » approximately 70% in deep layers of SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls, whereas this binding was unaltered in superficial laminae. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.914) between kainate binding and senile plaque number in deep cortical layers. Quisqualate receptors, as assessed by 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-(3H)methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid binding, were unaltered in SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls. There was a small reduction (25%) in N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive (3H)glutamate binding only in superficial cortical layers of SDAT brains relative to control subjects. (3H)Glutamate binding in SDAT subjects was unrelated to senile plaque number in superficial cortical layers (r = 0.104). These results indicate that in the presence of cortical glutamatergic terminal loss in SDAT plastic alterations occur in some glutamate receptor subtypes but not in others.« less

  13. Identification of a 3rd Na+ Binding Site of the Glycine Transporter, GlyT2.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Scopelitti, Amanda J; Carland, Jane E; Ryan, Renae M; O'Mara, Megan L; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The Na+/Cl- dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 regulate synaptic glycine concentrations. Glycine transport by GlyT2 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions, whereas transport by GlyT1 is coupled to the co-transport of only two Na+ ions. These differences in ion-flux coupling determine their respective concentrating capacities and have a direct bearing on their functional roles in synaptic transmission. The crystal structures of the closely related bacterial Na+-dependent leucine transporter, LeuTAa, and the Drosophila dopamine transporter, dDAT, have allowed prediction of two Na+ binding sites in GlyT2, but the physical location of the third Na+ site in GlyT2 is unknown. A bacterial betaine transporter, BetP, has also been crystallized and shows structural similarity to LeuTAa. Although betaine transport by BetP is coupled to the co-transport of two Na+ ions, the first Na+ site is not conserved between BetP and LeuTAa, the so called Na1' site. We hypothesized that the third Na+ binding site (Na3 site) of GlyT2 corresponds to the BetP Na1' binding site. To identify the Na3 binding site of GlyT2, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Surprisingly, a Na+ placed at the location consistent with the Na1' site of BetP spontaneously dissociated from its initial location and bound instead to a novel Na3 site. Using a combination of MD simulations of a comparative model of GlyT2 together with an analysis of the functional properties of wild type and mutant GlyTs we have identified an electrostatically favorable novel third Na+ binding site in GlyT2 formed by Trp263 and Met276 in TM3, Ala481 in TM6 and Glu648 in TM10.

  14. Identification of a 3rd Na+ Binding Site of the Glycine Transporter, GlyT2

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Scopelitti, Amanda J.; Carland, Jane E.; Ryan, Renae M.; O’Mara, Megan L.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Na+/Cl- dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 regulate synaptic glycine concentrations. Glycine transport by GlyT2 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions, whereas transport by GlyT1 is coupled to the co-transport of only two Na+ ions. These differences in ion-flux coupling determine their respective concentrating capacities and have a direct bearing on their functional roles in synaptic transmission. The crystal structures of the closely related bacterial Na+-dependent leucine transporter, LeuTAa, and the Drosophila dopamine transporter, dDAT, have allowed prediction of two Na+ binding sites in GlyT2, but the physical location of the third Na+ site in GlyT2 is unknown. A bacterial betaine transporter, BetP, has also been crystallized and shows structural similarity to LeuTAa. Although betaine transport by BetP is coupled to the co-transport of two Na+ ions, the first Na+ site is not conserved between BetP and LeuTAa, the so called Na1' site. We hypothesized that the third Na+ binding site (Na3 site) of GlyT2 corresponds to the BetP Na1' binding site. To identify the Na3 binding site of GlyT2, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Surprisingly, a Na+ placed at the location consistent with the Na1' site of BetP spontaneously dissociated from its initial location and bound instead to a novel Na3 site. Using a combination of MD simulations of a comparative model of GlyT2 together with an analysis of the functional properties of wild type and mutant GlyTs we have identified an electrostatically favorable novel third Na+ binding site in GlyT2 formed by Trp263 and Met276 in TM3, Ala481 in TM6 and Glu648 in TM10. PMID:27337045

  15. Analysis of the Binding Sites of Porcine Sialoadhesin Receptor with PRRSV

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yibo; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Kadariya, Ishwari; Cheng, Zhangrui; Ren, Yuwei; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Ao; Yang, Liguo; Kong, Dexin; Zhang, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can infect pigs and cause enormous economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Porcine sialoadhesin (pSN) and CD163 have been identified as key viral receptors on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM), a main target cell infected by PRRSV. In this study, the protein structures of amino acids 1–119 from the pSN and cSN (cattle sialoadhesin) N-termini (excluding the 19-amino acid signal peptide) were modeled via homology modeling based on mSN (mouse sialoadhesin) template structures using bioinformatics tools. Subsequently, pSN and cSN homology structures were superposed onto the mSN protein structure to predict the binding sites of pSN. As a validation experiment, the SN N-terminus (including the wild-type and site-directed-mutant-types of pSN and cSN) was cloned and expressed as a SN-GFP chimera protein. The binding activity between SN and PRRSV was confirmed by WB (Western blotting), FAR-WB (far Western blotting), ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and immunofluorescence assay. We found that the S107 amino acid residue in the pSN N-terminal played a crucial role in forming a special cavity, as well as a hydrogen bond for enhancing PRRSV binding during PRRSV infection. S107 may be glycosylated during PRRSV infection and may also be involved in forming the cavity for binding PRRSV along with other sites, including W2, Y44, S45, R97, R105, W106 and V109. Additionally, S107 might also be important for pSN binding with PRRSV. However, the function of these binding sites must be confirmed by further studies. PMID:24351868

  16. Conformational Sampling and Binding Site Assessment of Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 Ectodomain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Yie; Delproposto, James; Chinnaswamy, Krishnapriya; Brown, William Clay; Wang, Shuying; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), a member of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family, activates type 2 immune responses to pathogens and tissue damage via binding to IL-33. Dysregulated responses contribute to asthma, graft-versus-host and autoinflammatory diseases and disorders. To study ST2 structure for inhibitor development, we performed the principal component (PC) analysis on the crystal structures of IL1-1R1, IL1-1R2, ST2 and the refined ST2 ectodomain (ST2ECD) models, constructed from previously reported small-angle X-ray scattering data. The analysis facilitates mapping of the ST2ECD conformations to PC subspace for characterizing structural changes. Extensive coverage of ST2ECD conformations was then obtained using the accelerated molecular dynamics simulations started with the IL-33 bound ST2ECD structure as instructed by their projected locations on the PC subspace. Cluster analysis of all conformations further determined representative conformations of ST2ECD ensemble in solution. Alignment of the representative conformations with the ST2/IL-33 structure showed that the D3 domain of ST2ECD (containing D1-D3 domains) in most conformations exhibits no clashes with IL-33 in the crystal structure. Our experimental binding data informed that the D1-D2 domain of ST2ECD contributes predominantly to the interaction between ST2ECD and IL-33 underscoring the importance of the D1-D2 domain in binding. Computational binding site assessment revealed one third of the total detected binding sites in the representative conformations may be suitable for binding to potent small molecules. Locations of these sites include the D1-D2 domain ST2ECD and modulation sites conformed to ST2ECD conformations. Our study provides structural models and analyses of ST2ECD that could be useful for inhibitor discovery. PMID:26735493

  17. Variola Virus IL-18 Binding Protein Interacts with Three Human IL-18 Residues That Are Part of a Binding Site for Human IL-18 Receptor Alpha Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Leman, Michael; Xiang, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens. Many poxviruses encode homologous IL-18 binding proteins (IL-18BP) that neutralize IL-18 activity. Here, we examined whether IL-18BP neutralizes IL-18 activity by binding to the same region of IL-18 where IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) binds. We introduced alanine substitutions to known receptor binding sites of human IL18, and found that only the substitution of Leu5 reduced the binding affinity of IL-18 with IL-18BP of variola virus (varvIL-18BP) by more than 4-fold. The substitutions of Lys53 and Ser55, which were not previously known to be part of the receptor binding site but that are spatially adjacent to Leu5, reduced the binding affinity to varvIL-18BP by approximately 100- and 7-fold, respectively. These two substitutions also reduced the binding affinity with human IL-18R alpha subunit (hIL-18Rα) by 4- and 2-fold, respectively. Altogether, our data shows that varvIL-18BP prevents IL-18 from binding to IL-18R by interacting with three residues that are part of the binding site for hIL-18Rα. PMID:16979683

  18. Activation of erythropoietin receptor in the absence of hormone by a peptide that binds to a domain different from the hormone binding site

    PubMed Central

    Naranda, Tatjana; Wong, Kenneth; Kaufman, R. Ilene; Goldstein, Avram; Olsson, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    Applying a homology search method previously described, we identified a sequence in the extracellular dimerization site of the erythropoietin receptor, distant from the hormone binding site. A peptide identical to that sequence was synthesized. Remarkably, it activated receptor signaling in the absence of erythropoietin. Neither the peptide nor the hormone altered the affinity of the other for the receptor; thus, the peptide does not bind to the hormone binding site. The combined activation of signal transduction by hormone and peptide was strongly synergistic. In mice, the peptide acted like the hormone, protecting against the decrease in hematocrit caused by carboplatin. PMID:10377456

  19. Determination of DNA Binding Behavior of FoxA1 Constructs Using a Gold Nanoparticle-Based High Throughput Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aung, Khin Moh Moh; Lim, Michelle Gek Liang; Hong, Shuzhen; Cheung, Edwin; Su, Xiaodi

    Forkhead box protein 1 (FoxA1) is a member of the forkhead family of winged-helix transcription factors. It plays crucial roles in the development and differentiation of multiple organs and in the regulation of estrogen-stimulated genes. In this study, in order to determine the regions of FoxA1 necessary for efficient Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) binding, we cloned, expressed and purified a series of FoxA1 constructs that contain either the DNA Binding Domain (DBD), the Transcription Activation Domain (TAD), or both. We determined the DNA binding behavior of these constructs using traditional electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a recently developed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based fast screening method. We conclude that just the DBD region alone is not sufficient for protein-DNA binding activity. Amino acids flanking the upstream of the DBD region are required for maximal DNA binding activity. Through this study, we have also further validated the AuNPs assay for its generality and expanded the existing protocol for comparing the DNA binding behavior of multiple proteins of different charge properties and molecular weights.

  20. Understanding the physical and chemical nature of the warfarin drug binding site in human serum albumin: experimental and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zied, Osama K

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the major carrier proteins in the body and constitutes approximately half of the protein found in blood plasma. It plays an important role in lipid metabolism, and its ability to reversibly bind a large variety of pharmaceutical compounds makes it a crucial determinant of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This review deals with one of the protein's major binding sites "Sudlow I" which includes a binding pocket for the drug warfarin (WAR). The binding nature of this important site can be characterized by measuring the spectroscopic changes when a ligand is bound. Using several drugs, including WAR, and other drug-like molecules as ligands, the results emphasize the nature of Sudlow I as a flexible binding site, capable of binding a variety of ligands by adapting its binding pockets. The high affinity of the WAR pocket for binding versatile molecular structures stems from the flexibility of the amino acids forming the pocket. The binding site is shown to have an ionization ability which is important to consider when using drugs that are known to bind in Sudlow I. Several studies point to the important role of water molecules trapped inside the binding site in molecular recognition and ligand binding. Water inside the protein's cavity is crucial in maintaining the balance between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of the binding site. Upon the unfolding and refolding of HSA, more water molecules are trapped inside the binding site which cause some swelling that prevents a full recovery from the denatured state. Better understanding of the mechanism of binding in macromolecules such as HSA and other proteins can be achieved by combining experimental and theoretical studies which produce significant synergies in studying complex biochemical phenomena.

  1. The good, the bad and the dubious: VHELIBS, a validation helper for ligands and binding sites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many Protein Data Bank (PDB) users assume that the deposited structural models are of high quality but forget that these models are derived from the interpretation of experimental data. The accuracy of atom coordinates is not homogeneous between models or throughout the same model. To avoid basing a research project on a flawed model, we present a tool for assessing the quality of ligands and binding sites in crystallographic models from the PDB. Results The Validation HElper for LIgands and Binding Sites (VHELIBS) is software that aims to ease the validation of binding site and ligand coordinates for non-crystallographers (i.e., users with little or no crystallography knowledge). Using a convenient graphical user interface, it allows one to check how ligand and binding site coordinates fit to the electron density map. VHELIBS can use models from either the PDB or the PDB_REDO databank of re-refined and re-built crystallographic models. The user can specify threshold values for a series of properties related to the fit of coordinates to electron density (Real Space R, Real Space Correlation Coefficient and average occupancy are used by default). VHELIBS will automatically classify residues and ligands as Good, Dubious or Bad based on the specified limits. The user is also able to visually check the quality of the fit of residues and ligands to the electron density map and reclassify them if needed. Conclusions VHELIBS allows inexperienced users to examine the binding site and the ligand coordinates in relation to the experimental data. This is an important step to evaluate models for their fitness for drug discovery purposes such as structure-based pharmacophore development and protein-ligand docking experiments. PMID:23895374

  2. Apigenin shows synergistic anticancer activity with curcumin by binding at different sites of tubulin.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Diptiman; Ganguli, Arnab; Dastidar, Debabrata Ghosh; Acharya, Bipul R; Das, Amlan; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2013-06-01

    Apigenin, a natural flavone, present in many plants sources, induced apoptosis and cell death in lung epithelium cancer (A549) cells with an IC50 value of 93.7 ± 3.7 μM for 48 h treatment. Target identification investigations using A549 cells and also in cell-free system demonstrated that apigenin depolymerized microtubules and inhibited reassembly of cold depolymerized microtubules of A549 cells. Again apigenin inhibited polymerization of purified tubulin with an IC50 value of 79.8 ± 2.4 μM. It bounds to tubulin in cell-free system and quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of tubulin in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The interaction was temperature-dependent and kinetics of binding was biphasic in nature with binding rate constants of 11.5 × 10(-7) M(-1) s(-1) and 4.0 × 10(-9) M(-1) s(-1) for fast and slow phases at 37 °C, respectively. The stoichiometry of tubulin-apigenin binding was 1:1 and binding the binding constant (Kd) was 6.08 ± 0.096 μM. Interestingly, apigenin showed synergistic anti-cancer effect with another natural anti-tubulin agent curcumin. Apigenin and curcumin synergistically induced cell death and apoptosis and also blocked cell cycle progression at G2/M phase of A549 cells. The synergistic activity of apigenin and curcumin was also apparent from their strong depolymerizing effects on interphase microtubules and inhibitory effect of reassembly of cold depolymerized microtubules when used in combinations, indicating that these ligands bind to tubulin at different sites. In silico modeling suggested apigenin bounds at the interphase of α-β-subunit of tubulin. The binding site is 19 Å in distance from the previously predicted curcumin binding site. Binding studies with purified protein also showed both apigenin and curcumin can simultaneously bind to purified tubulin. Understanding the mechanism of synergistic effect of apigenin and curcumin could be helped to develop anti-cancer combination drugs from cheap and readily

  3. Laminar and regional distribution of galanin binding sites in cat and monkey visual cortex determined by in vitro receptor autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosier, A.M.; Vandesande, F.; Orban, G.A.

    1991-03-08

    The distribution of galanin (GAL) binding sites in the visual cortex of cat and monkey was determined by autoradiographic visualization of ({sup 125}I)-GAL binding to tissue sections. Binding conditions were optimized and, as a result, the binding was saturable and specific. In cat visual cortex, GAL binding sites were concentrated in layers I, IVc, V, and VI. Areas 17, 18, and 19 exhibited a similar distribution pattern. In monkey primary visual cortex, the highest density of GAL binding sites was observed in layers II/III, lower IVc, and upper V. Layers IVA and VI contained moderate numbers of GAL binding sites,more » while layer I and the remaining parts of layer IV displayed the lowest density. In monkey secondary visual cortex, GAL binding sites were mainly concentrated in layers V-VI. Layer IV exhibited a moderate density, while the supragranular layers contained the lowest proportion of GAL binding sites. In both cat and monkey, we found little difference between regions subserving central and those subserving peripheral vision. Similarities in the distribution of GAL and acetylcholine binding sites are discussed.« less

  4. Benzodiazepine and kainate receptor binding sites in the RCS rat retina.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Kalliopi; Naskar, Rita; Thanos, Solon; Kouvelas, Elias D; Mitsacos, Ada

    2003-02-01

    The effect of age and photoreceptor degeneration on the kainate subtype of glutamate receptors and on the benzodiazepine-sensitive gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors (GABA(A)) in normal and RCS (Royal College of Surgeons) rats were investigated. [(3)H]Kainate and [(3)H]flunitrazepam were used as radioligands for kainate and GABA(A)/benzodiazepine()receptors, respectively, using the quantitative receptor autoradiography technique. In both normal and RCS rat retina we observed that [(3)Eta]flunitrazepam and [(3)Eta]kainate binding levels were several times higher in inner plexiform layer (IPL) than in outer plexiform layer (OPL) at all four ages studied (P17, P35, P60 and P180). Age-related changes in receptor binding were observed in normal rat retina: [(3)Eta]flunitrazepam binding showed a significant decrease of 25% between P17 and P60 in IPL,and [(3)Eta]kainate binding showed significant decreases between P17 and P35 in both synaptic layers (71% in IPL and 63% in OPL). Degeneration-related changes in benzodiazepine and kainate receptor binding were observed in RCS rat retina. In IPL, [(3)Eta]flunitrazepam and [(3)Eta]kainate binding levels were higher than in normal retina at P35 (by 24% and 86%, respectively). In OPL, [(3)Eta]flunitrazepam binding was higher in RCS than in normal retina on P35 (74%) and also on P60 (62%). The results indicate that postnatal changes occur in kainate and benzodiazepine receptor binding sites in OPL and IPL of the rat retina up to 6 months of age. The data also suggest that the receptor binding changes observed in the RCS retina could be a consequence of the primary photoreceptor degeneration.

  5. Solubilization and characterization of haloperidol-sensitive (+)-( sup 3 H)SKF-10,047 binding sites (sigma sites) from rat liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, D.J.; Su, T.P.

    1991-05-01

    The zwitterionic detergent 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylamino)-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) produced optimal solubilization of (+)-({sup 3}H)SKF-10,047 binding sites from rat liver membranes at a concentration of 0.2%, well below the critical micellular concentration of the detergent. The pharmacological selectivity of the liver (+)-({sup 3}H)SKF-10,047 binding sites corresponds to that of sigma sites from rat and guinea pig brain. When the affinities of 18 different drugs at (+)-({sup 3}H)SKF-10,047 binding sites in membranes and solubilized preparations were compared, a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a slope of 1.03 were obtained, indicating that the pharmacological selectivity of rat liver sigma sites is retained after solubilization. In addition,more » the binding of 20 nM ({sup 3}H)progesterone to solubilized rat liver preparations was found to exhibit a pharmacological selectivity appropriate for sigma sites. A stimulatory effect of phenytoin on (+)-({sup 3}H)SKF-10,047 binding to sigma sites persisted after solubilization. When the solubilized preparation was subjected to molecular sizing chromatography, a single peak exhibiting specific (+)-({sup 3}H)SKF-10,047 binding was obtained. The binding activity of this peak was stimulated symmetrically when assays were performed in the presence of 300 microM phenytoin. The molecular weight of the CHAPS-solubilized sigma site complex was estimated to be 450,000 daltons. After solubilization with CHAPS, rat liver sigma sites were enriched to 12 pmol/mg of protein. The present results demonstrate a successful solubilization of sigma sites from rat liver membranes and provide direct evidence that the gonadal steroid progesterone binds to sigma sites. The results also suggest that the anticonvulsant phenytoin binds to an associated allosteric site on the sigma site complex.« less

  6. Identification of cation-binding sites on actin that drive polymerization and modulate bending stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeran; Bradley, Michael J.; McCullough, Brannon R.; Pierre, Anaëlle; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Reisler, Emil; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of actin monomers into filaments and networks plays vital roles throughout eukaryotic biology, including intracellular transport, cell motility, cell division, determining cellular shape, and providing cells with mechanical strength. The regulation of actin assembly and modulation of filament mechanical properties are critical for proper actin function. It is well established that physiological salt concentrations promote actin assembly and alter the overall bending mechanics of assembled filaments and networks. However, the molecular origins of these salt-dependent effects, particularly if they involve nonspecific ionic strength effects or specific ion-binding interactions, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that specific cation binding at two discrete sites situated between adjacent subunits along the long-pitch helix drive actin polymerization and determine the filament bending rigidity. We classify the two sites as “polymerization” and “stiffness” sites based on the effects that mutations at the sites have on salt-dependent filament assembly and bending mechanics, respectively. These results establish the existence and location of the cation-binding sites that confer salt dependence to the assembly and mechanics of actin filaments. PMID:23027950

  7. Photoaffinity labelling and solubilization on the central 5-HT1A receptor binding site.

    PubMed

    Gozlan, H; Emerit, M B; el Mestikawy, S; Cossery, J M; Marquet, A; Besselievre, R; Hamon, M

    1987-01-01

    Two complementary approaches, covalent labelling and solubilization, have been used to study the biochemical properties of the central 5-HT1A receptor binding site. We have first designed a photoaffinity ligand containing the structure of 8-OH-DPAT, a potent and specific agonist of 5-HT1A sites. Thus, 8-methoxy-2[N-n-propyl,N-3-(2-nitro-4-azido-phenyl)- aminopropyl]aminotetralin or 8-methoxy-3'-NAP-amino-PAT, was found to displace, in the dark, [3H]8-OH-DPAT from 5-HT1A sites in rat hippocampal membranes with an IC50 of 6.6 nM. Under two cumulative UV irradiations (366 nm, for 20 min at 4 degrees C), 8-methoxy-3-'-NAP-amino-PAT (30 nM) blocked irreversibly 55-60% of 5-HT1A binding sites. This blockade was specific of 5-HT1A sites since the other serotoninergic sites, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2 and also the presynaptic 5-HT3 sites were not affected by the treatment. In addition, the binding of [3H]Spiperone and [3H]7-OH-DPAT to striatal dopamine sites remained unchanged under similar photolysis conditions. The tritiated derivative of the photoaffinity ligand (92 Ci/mmol) was then synthesized for the identification of the covalently bound protein(s). SDS-PAGE of solubilized membranes irradiated in the presence of 20 nM 3H-8-methoxy-3'-NAP-amino-PAT allowed the detection of a 63 kD protein whose labelling appeared specific. Thus, 3H-incorporation into the 63 kD band could be prevented by microM concentrations of 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT and other selective 5-HT1A ligands such as isapirone. In contrast, the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin, norepinephrine and dopamine-related ligands (including 7-OH-DPAT) were ineffective. Direct solubilization of 5-HT1A receptor binding sites was also attempted from rat hippocampal membranes. The best results were obtained using CHAPS (10 mM) plus NaCl (0.2 M), which led to 50% recovery of 5-HT1A sites in the 100,000 g supernatant. The pharmacological properties and sensitivity to N-ethyl-maleimide and GppNHp of soluble sites appeared near identical to those of

  8. Using RSAT to scan genome sequences for transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules.

    PubMed

    Turatsinze, Jean-Valery; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Defrance, Matthieu; van Helden, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    This protocol shows how to detect putative cis-regulatory elements and regions enriched in such elements with the regulatory sequence analysis tools (RSAT) web server (http://rsat.ulb.ac.be/rsat/). The approach applies to known transcription factors, whose binding specificity is represented by position-specific scoring matrices, using the program matrix-scan. The detection of individual binding sites is known to return many false predictions. However, results can be strongly improved by estimating P value, and by searching for combinations of sites (homotypic and heterotypic models). We illustrate the detection of sites and enriched regions with a study case, the upstream sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster gene even-skipped. This protocol is also tested on random control sequences to evaluate the reliability of the predictions. Each task requires a few minutes of computation time on the server. The complete protocol can be executed in about one hour.

  9. One Crystal, Two Temperatures: Cryocooling Penalties Alter Ligand Binding to Transient Protein Sites

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, Marcus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-05-28

    Interrogating fragment libraries by X-ray crystallography is a powerful strategy for discovering allosteric ligands for protein targets. Cryocooling of crystals should theoretically increase the fraction of occupied binding sites and decrease radiation damage. However, it might also perturb protein conformations that can be accessed at room temperature. Using data from crystals measured consecutively at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature, we found that transient binding sites could be abolished at the cryogenic temperatures employed by standard approaches. Finally, changing the temperature at which the crystallographic data was collected could provide a deliberate perturbation to the equilibrium of protein conformations andmore » help to visualize hidden sites with great potential to allosterically modulate protein function.« less

  10. Agonist trapped in ATP-binding sites of the P2X2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ruotian; Lemoine, Damien; Martz, Adeline; Taly, Antoine; Gonin, Sophie; Prado de Carvalho, Lia; Specht, Alexandre; Grutter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    ATP-gated P2X receptors are trimeric ion channels, as recently confirmed by X-ray crystallography. However, the structure was solved without ATP and even though extracellular intersubunit cavities surrounded by conserved amino acid residues previously shown to be important for ATP function were proposed to house ATP, the localization of the ATP sites remains elusive. Here we localize the ATP-binding sites by creating, through a proximity-dependent “tethering” reaction, covalent bonds between a synthesized ATP-derived thiol-reactive P2X2 agonist (NCS-ATP) and single cysteine mutants engineered in the putative binding cavities of the P2X2 receptor. By combining whole-cell and single-channel recordings, we report that NCS-ATP covalently and specifically labels two previously unidentified positions N140 and L186 from two adjacent subunits separated by about 18 Å in a P2X2 closed state homology model, suggesting the existence of at least two binding modes. Tethering reaction at both positions primes subsequent agonist binding, yet with distinct functional consequences. Labeling of one position impedes subsequent ATP function, which results in inefficient gating, whereas tethering of the other position, although failing to produce gating by itself, enhances subsequent ATP function. Our results thus define a large and dynamic intersubunit ATP-binding pocket and suggest that receptors trapped in covalently agonist-bound states differ in their ability to gate the ion channel. PMID:21576497

  11. Identification of an allosteric binding site for RORγt inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Scheepstra, Marcel; Leysen, Seppe; van Almen, Geert C.; Miller, J. Richard; Piesvaux, Jennifer; Kutilek, Victoria; van Eenennaam, Hans; Zhang, Hongjun; Barr, Kenneth; Nagpal, Sunil; Soisson, Stephen M.; Kornienko, Maria; Wiley, Kristen; Elsen, Nathaniel; Sharma, Sujata; Correll, Craig C.; Trotter, B. Wesley; van der Stelt, Mario; Oubrie, Arthur; Ottmann, Christian; Parthasarathy, Gopal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2015-01-01

    RORγt is critical for the differentiation and proliferation of Th17 cells associated with several chronic autoimmune diseases. We report the discovery of a novel allosteric binding site on the nuclear receptor RORγt. Co-crystallization of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of RORγt with a series of small-molecule antagonists demonstrates occupancy of a previously unreported allosteric binding pocket. Binding at this non-canonical site induces an unprecedented conformational reorientation of helix 12 in the RORγt LBD, which blocks cofactor binding. The functional consequence of this allosteric ligand-mediated conformation is inhibition of function as evidenced by both biochemical and cellular studies. RORγt function is thus antagonized in a manner molecularly distinct from that of previously described orthosteric RORγt ligands. This brings forward an approach to target RORγt for the treatment of Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. The elucidation of an unprecedented modality of pharmacological antagonism establishes a mechanism for modulation of nuclear receptors. PMID:26640126

  12. The investigation of the binding of 6-mercaptopurine to site I on human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sochacka, Jolanta; Baran, Wojciech

    2012-12-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is one of a large series of purine analogues which has been found active against human leukemias. The equilibrium dialysis, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking were employed to study the binding of 6-MP to human serum albumin (HSA). The binding of 6-MP to HSA in the equilibrium dialysis experiment was detected by measuring the displacement of 6-MP by specific markers for site I on HSA, warfarin (RWF), phenylbutazone (PhB) and n-butyl p-aminobenzoate (ABE). It was shown, according to CD data, that binding of 6-MP to HSA leads to alteration of HSA secondary structure. Based on the findings from displacement experiment and molecular docking simulation it was found that 6-MP was located within binding cavity of subdomain IIA and the space occupied by site markers overlapped with that of 6-MP. Displacement of 6-MP by the RWF or PhB was not up the level expected for a competitive mechanism, therefore displacement of 6-MP was rather by non-cooperative than that the direct competition. Instead, in case of the interaction between ABE and 6-MP, when the little enhancement of the binding of ABE by 6-MP was found, the interaction could be via a positively cooperative mechanism.

  13. Agonist trapped in ATP-binding sites of the P2X2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruotian; Lemoine, Damien; Martz, Adeline; Taly, Antoine; Gonin, Sophie; Prado de Carvalho, Lia; Specht, Alexandre; Grutter, Thomas

    2011-05-31

    ATP-gated P2X receptors are trimeric ion channels, as recently confirmed by X-ray crystallography. However, the structure was solved without ATP and even though extracellular intersubunit cavities surrounded by conserved amino acid residues previously shown to be important for ATP function were proposed to house ATP, the localization of the ATP sites remains elusive. Here we localize the ATP-binding sites by creating, through a proximity-dependent "tethering" reaction, covalent bonds between a synthesized ATP-derived thiol-reactive P2X2 agonist (NCS-ATP) and single cysteine mutants engineered in the putative binding cavities of the P2X2 receptor. By combining whole-cell and single-channel recordings, we report that NCS-ATP covalently and specifically labels two previously unidentified positions N140 and L186 from two adjacent subunits separated by about 18 Å in a P2X2 closed state homology model, suggesting the existence of at least two binding modes. Tethering reaction at both positions primes subsequent agonist binding, yet with distinct functional consequences. Labeling of one position impedes subsequent ATP function, which results in inefficient gating, whereas tethering of the other position, although failing to produce gating by itself, enhances subsequent ATP function. Our results thus define a large and dynamic intersubunit ATP-binding pocket and suggest that receptors trapped in covalently agonist-bound states differ in their ability to gate the ion channel.

  14. 226. Early construction on section 2A1. This was the site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    226. Early construction on section 2-A-1. This was the site of the first construction on the Blue Ride Parkway. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. Kinetics and binding sites for interaction of the prefoldin with a group II chaperonin: contiguous non-native substrate and chaperonin binding sites in the archaeal prefoldin.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Tomoko; Zako, Tamotsu; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Iizuka, Ryo; Ueda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Takashi; Leroux, Michel; Yohda, Masafumi

    2004-07-23

    Prefoldin is a jellyfish-shaped hexameric co-chaperone of the group II chaperonins. It captures a protein folding intermediate and transfers it to a group II chaperonin for completion of folding. The manner in which prefoldin interacts with its substrates and cooperates with the chaperonin is poorly understood. In this study, we have examined the interaction between a prefoldin and a chaperonin from hyperthermophilic archaea by immunoprecipitation, single molecule observation, and surface plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that Pyrococcus prefoldin interacts most tightly with its cognate chaperonin, and vice versa, suggesting species specificity in the interaction. Using truncation mutants, we uncovered by kinetic analyses that this interaction is multivalent in nature, consistent with multiple binding sites between the two chaperones. We present evidence that both N- and C-terminal regions of the prefoldin beta sub-unit are important for molecular chaperone activity and for the interaction with a chaperonin. Our data are consistent with substrate and chaperonin binding sites on prefoldin that are different but in close proximity, which suggests a possible handover mechanism of prefoldin substrates to the chaperonin.

  16. Binding and Signaling Studies Disclose a Potential Allosteric Site for Cannabidiol in Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Varani, Katia; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Angelats, Edgar; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Oyarzabal, Julen; Canela, Enric I; Lanciego, José L; Nadal, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Borea, Pier Andrea; Franco, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa L., is not completely understood. First assumed that the compound was acting via cannabinoid CB 2 receptors (CB 2 Rs) it is now suggested that it interacts with non-cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); however, CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of any GPCR. To search for alternative explanations, we tested CBD as a potential allosteric ligand of CB 2 R. Radioligand and non-radioactive homogeneous binding, intracellular cAMP determination and ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays were undertaken in heterologous systems expressing the human version of CB 2 R. Using membrane preparations from CB 2 R-expressing HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney 293T) cells, we confirmed that CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of the human CB 2 R where the synthetic cannabinoid, [ 3 H]-WIN 55,212-2, binds. CBD was, however, able to produce minor but consistent reduction in the homogeneous binding assays in living cells using the fluorophore-conjugated CB 2 R-selective compound, CM-157. The effect on binding to CB 2 R-expressing living cells was different to that exerted by the orthosteric antagonist, SR144528, which decreased the maximum binding without changing the K D . CBD at nanomolar concentrations was also able to significantly reduce the effect of the selective CB 2 R agonist, JWH133, on forskolin-induced intracellular cAMP levels and on activation of the MAP kinase pathway. These results may help to understand CBD mode of action and may serve to revisit its therapeutic possibilities.

  17. Binding and Signaling Studies Disclose a Potential Allosteric Site for Cannabidiol in Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Varani, Katia; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Angelats, Edgar; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Oyarzabal, Julen; Canela, Enric I.; Lanciego, José L.; Nadal, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Borea, Pier Andrea; Franco, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa L., is not completely understood. First assumed that the compound was acting via cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) it is now suggested that it interacts with non-cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); however, CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of any GPCR. To search for alternative explanations, we tested CBD as a potential allosteric ligand of CB2R. Radioligand and non-radioactive homogeneous binding, intracellular cAMP determination and ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays were undertaken in heterologous systems expressing the human version of CB2R. Using membrane preparations from CB2R-expressing HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney 293T) cells, we confirmed that CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of the human CB2R where the synthetic cannabinoid, [3H]-WIN 55,212-2, binds. CBD was, however, able to produce minor but consistent reduction in the homogeneous binding assays in living cells using the fluorophore-conjugated CB2R-selective compound, CM-157. The effect on binding to CB2R-expressing living cells was different to that exerted by the orthosteric antagonist, SR144528, which decreased the maximum binding without changing the KD. CBD at nanomolar concentrations was also able to significantly reduce the effect of the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133, on forskolin-induced intracellular cAMP levels and on activation of the MAP kinase pathway. These results may help to understand CBD mode of action and may serve to revisit its therapeutic possibilities. PMID:29109685

  18. Rpn1 provides adjacent receptor sites for substrate binding and deubiquitination by the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Chen, Xiang; Elsasser, Suzanne; Stocks, Bradley B.; Tian, Geng; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Naixia; de Poot, Stefanie A. H.; Tuebing, Fabian; Sun, Shuangwu; Vannoy, Jacob; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Engen, John R.; Finley, Daniel; Walters, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    Structured Abstract INTRODUCTION The ubiquitin-proteasome system comprises hundreds of distinct pathways of degradation, which converge at the step of ubiquitin recognition by the proteasome. Five proteasomal ubiquitin receptors have been identified, two that are intrinsic to the proteasome (Rpn10 and Rpn13) and three reversibly associated proteasomal ubiquitin receptors (Rad23, Dsk2, and Ddi1). RATIONALE We found that the five known proteasomal ubiquitin receptors of yeast are collectively nonessential for ubiquitin recognition by the proteasome. We therefore screened for additional ubiquitin receptors in the proteasome and identified subunit Rpn1 as a candidate. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize the structure of the binding site within Rpn1, which we term the T1 site. Mutational analysis of this site showed its functional importance within the context of intact proteasomes. T1 binds both ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (UBL) proteins, in particular the substrate-delivering shuttle factor Rad23. A second site within the Rpn1 toroid, T2, recognizes the UBL domain of deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp6, as determined by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis and validated by amino acid substitution and functional assays. The Rpn1 toroid thus serves a critical scaffolding role within the proteasome, helping to assemble multiple proteasome cofactors as well as substrates. RESULTS Our results indicate that proteasome subunit Rpn1 can recognize both ubiquitin and UBL domains of substrate shuttling factors that themselves bind ubiquitin and function as reversibly-associated proteasomal ubiquitin receptors. Recognition is mediated by the T1 site within the Rpn1 toroid, which supports proteasome function in vivo. We found that the capacity of T1 to recognize both ubiquitin and UBL proteins was shared with Rpn10 and Rpn13. The surprising multiplicity of ubiquitin-recognition domains within the proteasome may promote enhanced

  19. Identification of metal ion binding sites based on amino acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Xiaojin; Gao, Sujuan; Ding, Changjiang; Feng, Yonge; Bao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The identification of metal ion binding sites is important for protein function annotation and the design of new drug molecules. This study presents an effective method of analyzing and identifying the binding residues of metal ions based solely on sequence information. Ten metal ions were extracted from the BioLip database: Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+, K+ and Co2+. The analysis showed that Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, and Co2+ were sensitive to the conservation of amino acids at binding sites, and promising results can be achieved using the Position Weight Scoring Matrix algorithm, with an accuracy of over 79.9% and a Matthews correlation coefficient of over 0.6. The binding sites of other metals can also be accurately identified using the Support Vector Machine algorithm with multifeature parameters as input. In addition, we found that Ca2+ was insensitive to hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity information and Mn2+ was insensitive to polarization charge information. An online server was constructed based on the framework of the proposed method and is freely available at http://60.31.198.140:8081/metal/HomePage/HomePage.html. PMID:28854211

  20. Identification of metal ion binding sites based on amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyong; Hu, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Xiaojin; Gao, Sujuan; Ding, Changjiang; Feng, Yonge; Bao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The identification of metal ion binding sites is important for protein function annotation and the design of new drug molecules. This study presents an effective method of analyzing and identifying the binding residues of metal ions based solely on sequence information. Ten metal ions were extracted from the BioLip database: Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+, K+ and Co2+. The analysis showed that Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, and Co2+ were sensitive to the conservation of amino acids at binding sites, and promising results can be achieved using the Position Weight Scoring Matrix algorithm, with an accuracy of over 79.9% and a Matthews correlation coefficient of over 0.6. The binding sites of other metals can also be accurately identified using the Support Vector Machine algorithm with multifeature parameters as input. In addition, we found that Ca2+ was insensitive to hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity information and Mn2+ was insensitive to polarization charge information. An online server was constructed based on the framework of the proposed method and is freely available at http://60.31.198.140:8081/metal/HomePage/HomePage.html.

  1. Bioinformatic and experimental survey of 14-3-3-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Catherine; Crowther, Sandra; Stafford, Margaret J.; Campbell, David G.; Toth, Rachel; MacKintosh, Carol

    2010-01-01

    More than 200 phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding sites in the literature were analysed to define 14-3-3 specificities, identify relevant protein kinases, and give insights into how cellular 14-3-3/phosphoprotein networks work. Mode I RXX(pS/pT)XP motifs dominate, although the +2 proline residue occurs in less than half, and LX(R/K)SX(pS/pT)XP is prominent in plant 14-3-3-binding sites. Proline at +1 is rarely reported, and such motifs did not stand up to experimental reanalysis of human Ndel1. Instead, we discovered that 14-3-3 interacts with two residues that are phosphorylated by basophilic kinases and located in the DISC1 (disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1)-interacting region of Ndel1 that is implicated in cognitive disorders. These data conform with the general findings that there are different subtypes of 14-3-3-binding sites that overlap with the specificities of different basophilic AGC (protein kinase A/protein kinase G/protein kinase C family) and CaMK (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase) protein kinases, and a 14-3-3 dimer often engages with two tandem phosphorylated sites, which is a configuration with special signalling, mechanical and evolutionary properties. Thus 14-3-3 dimers can be digital logic gates that integrate more than one input to generate an action, and coincidence detectors when the two binding sites are phosphorylated by different protein kinases. Paired sites are generally located within disordered regions and/or straddle either side of functional domains, indicating how 14-3-3 dimers modulate the conformations and/or interactions of their targets. Finally, 14-3-3 proteins bind to members of several multi-protein families. Two 14-3-3-binding sites are conserved across the class IIa histone deacetylases, whereas other protein families display differential regulation by 14-3-3s. We speculate that 14-3-3 dimers may have contributed to the evolution of such families, tailoring regulatory inputs to different physiological demands. PMID:20141511

  2. Molecular modeling studies of novel retro-binding tripeptide active-site inhibitors of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Lau, W F; Tabernero, L; Sack, J S; Iwanowicz, E J

    1995-08-01

    A novel series of retro-binding tripeptide thrombin active-site inhibitors was recently developed (Iwanowicz, E. I. et al. J. Med. Chem. 1994, 37, 2111(1)). It was hypothesized that the binding mode for these inhibitors is similar to that of the first three N-terminal residues of hirudin. This binding hypothesis was subsequently verified when the crystal structure of a member of this series, BMS-183,507 (N-[N-[N-[4-(Aminoiminomethyl)amino[-1-oxobutyl]-L- phenylalanyl]-L-allo-threonyl]-L-phenylalanine, methyl ester), was determined (Taberno, L.J. Mol. Biol. 1995, 246, 14). The methodology for developing the binding models of these inhibitors, the structure-activity relationships (SAR) and modeling studies that led to the elucidation of the proposed binding mode is described. The crystal structure of BMS-183,507/human alpha-thrombin is compared with the crystal structure of hirudin/human alpha-thrombin (Rydel, T.J. et al. Science 1990, 249,227; Rydel, T.J. et al. J. Mol Biol. 1991, 221, 583; Grutter, M.G. et al. EMBO J. 1990, 9, 2361) and with the computational binding model of BMS-183,507.

  3. Manipulation of a DNA aptamer-protein binding site through arylation of internal guanine residues.

    PubMed

    Van Riesen, Abigail J; Fadock, Kaila L; Deore, Prashant S; Desoky, Ahmed; Manderville, Richard A; Sowlati-Hashjin, Shahin; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2018-05-23

    Chemically modified aptamers have the opportunity to increase aptamer target binding affinity and provide structure-activity relationships to enhance our understanding of molecular target recognition by the aptamer fold. In the current study, 8-aryl-2'-deoxyguanosine nucleobases have been inserted into the G-tetrad and central TGT loop of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) to determine their impact on antiparallel G-quadruplex (GQ) folding and thrombin binding affinity. The aryl groups attached to the dG nucleobase vary greatly in aryl ring size and impact on GQ stability (∼20 °C change in GQ thermal melting (Tm) values) and thrombin binding affinity (17-fold variation in dissociation constant (Kd)). At G8 of the central TGT loop that is distal from the aptamer recognition site, the probes producing the most stable GQ structure exhibited the strongest thrombin binding affinity. However, within the G-tetrad, changes to the electron density of the dG component within the modified nucleobase can diminish thrombin binding affinity. Detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the modified TBA (mTBA) and mTBA-protein complexes demonstrate how the internal 8-aryl-dG modification can manipulate the interactions between the DNA nucleobases and the amino acid residues of thrombin. These results highlight the potential of internal fluorescent nuclobase analogs (FBAs) to broaden design options for aptasensor development.

  4. Antigen Binding and Site-Directed Labeling of Biosilica-Immobilized Fusion Proteins Expressed in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nicole R; Hecht, Karen A; Hu, DeHong; Orr, Galya; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas C; Rorrer, Gregory L; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2016-03-18

    The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was genetically modified to express biosilica-targeted fusion proteins comprising either enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or single chain antibodies engineered with a tetracysteine tagging sequence. Of interest were the site-specific binding of (1) the fluorescent biarsenical probe AsCy3 and AsCy3e to the tetracysteine tagged fusion proteins and (2) high and low molecular mass antigens, the Bacillus anthracis surface layer protein EA1 or small molecule explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT), to biosilica-immobilized single chain antibodies. Analysis of biarsenical probe binding using fluorescence and structured illumination microscopy indicated differential colocalization with EGFP in nascent and mature biosilica, supporting the use of either EGFP or bound AsCy3 and AsCy3e in studying biosilica maturation. Large increases in the lifetime of a fluorescent analogue of TNT upon binding single chain antibodies provided a robust signal capable of discriminating binding to immobilized antibodies in the transformed frustule from nonspecific binding to the biosilica matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an ability to engineer diatoms to create antibody-functionalized mesoporous silica able to selectively bind chemical and biological agents for the development of sensing platforms.

  5. The elusive permeability barriers and binding sites for proflavine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, M J; Mehta, B M; Kushner, D J

    1972-06-01

    Cells of proflavine-sensitive and -resistant Escherichia coli strains were altered in different ways, and the proflavine binding of the changed material was studied. Spheroplasts prepared from sensitive and resistant cells bound similar amounts of proflavine at saturation, whether or not they were osmotically protected by 10% sucrose. Intact cells bound approximately the same amounts of proflavine as spheroplasts. On addition of glucose, osmotically protected resistant but not sensitive spheroplasts released proflavine; unprotected spheroplasts did not release bound proflavine. Thus, osmotically protected membranes are not required for proflavine binding (a passive process) but are required for proflavine release (an active process). The presence of sucrose reduced proflavine binding by resistant cells. Adding glucose to cells in 20% sucrose did not cause a release of residual proflavine, though glucose caused a release of proflavine from cells suspended in 0 or 10% sucrose. On treatment of heated cells or ruptured spheroplasts with nucleases and Pronase, practically all nucleic acids were removed. Proflavine-binding ability of such preparations fell by only 30 to 50%. Washing heated cells with ethanol did not reduce their proflavine-binding ability. There appear to be important binding sites in cells aside from nucleic acids.

  6. The Elusive Permeability Barriers and Binding Sites for Proflavine in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gravelle, M. Joan; Mehta, B. M.; Kushner, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Cells of proflavine-sensitive and -resistant Escherichia coli strains were altered in different ways, and the proflavine binding of the changed material was studied. Spheroplasts prepared from sensitive and resistant cells bound similar amounts of proflavine at saturation, whether or not they were osmotically protected by 10% sucrose. Intact cells bound approximately the same amounts of proflavine as spheroplasts. On addition of glucose, osmotically protected resistant but not sensitive spheroplasts released proflavine; unprotected spheroplasts did not release bound proflavine. Thus, osmotically protected membranes are not required for proflavine binding (a passive process) but are required for proflavine release (an active process). The presence of sucrose reduced proflavine binding by resistant cells. Adding glucose to cells in 20% sucrose did not cause a release of residual proflavine, though glucose caused a release of proflavine from cells suspended in 0 or 10% sucrose. On treatment of heated cells or ruptured spheroplasts with nucleases and Pronase, practically all nucleic acids were removed. Proflavine-binding ability of such preparations fell by only 30 to 50%. Washing heated cells with ethanol did not reduce their proflavine-binding ability. There appear to be important binding sites in cells aside from nucleic acids. PMID:4618456

  7. Detecting Local Ligand-Binding Site Similarity in Non-Homologous Proteins by Surface Patch Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. PMID:22275074

  8. Detecting local ligand-binding site similarity in nonhomologous proteins by surface patch comparison.

    PubMed

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Autoradiographic evidence for two classes of mu opioid binding sites in rat brain using (/sup 125/I)FK33824

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.B.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that pretreatment of brain membranes with the irreversible mu antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA), partially eliminated mu binding sites (25,35), consistent with the existence of two mu binding sites distinguished by beta-FNA. This paper tests the hypothesis that the FNA-sensitive and FNA-insensitive mu binding sites have different anatomical distributions in rat brain. Prior to autoradiographic visualization of mu binding sites, (/sup 3/H)oxymorphone, (/sup 3/H)D-ala2-MePhe4, Gly-ol5-enkephalin (DAGO), and (/sup 125/I)D-ala2-Me-Phe4-met(o)-ol)enkephalin (FK33824) were shown to selectively label mu binding sites using slide mounted sections of molded minced rat brain. As found using membranes, beta-FNA eliminated only a portion of mu bindingmore » sites. Autoradiographic visualization of mu binding sites using the mu-selective ligand (/sup 125/I)FK33824 in control and FNA-treated sections of rat brain demonstrated that the proportion of mu binding sites sensitive to beta-FNA varied across regions of the brain, particularly the dorsal thalamus, ventrobasal complex and the hypothalamus, providing anatomical data supporting the existence of two classes of mu binding sites in rat brain.« less

  10. Structural investigation of C4b-binding protein by molecular modeling: localization of putative binding sites.

    PubMed

    Villoutreix, B O; Härdig, Y; Wallqvist, A; Covell, D G; García de Frutos, P; Dahlbäck, B

    1998-06-01

    C4b-binding protein (C4BP) contributes to the regulation of the classical pathway of the complement system and plays an important role in blood coagulation. The main human C4BP isoform is composed of one beta-chain and seven alpha-chains essentially built from three and eight complement control protein (CCP) modules, respectively, followed by a nonrepeat carboxy-terminal region involved in polymerization of the chains. C4BP is known to interact with heparin, C4b, complement factor I, serum amyloid P component, streptococcal Arp and Sir proteins, and factor VIII/VIIIa via its alpha-chains and with protein S through its beta-chain. The principal aim of the present study was to localize regions of C4BP involved in the interaction with C4b, Arp, and heparin. For this purpose, a computer model of the 8 CCP modules of C4BP alpha-chain was constructed, taking into account data from previous electron microscopy (EM) studies. This structure was investigated in the context of known and/or new experimental data. Analysis of the alpha-chain model, together with monoclonal antibody studies and heparin binding experiments, suggests that a patch of positively charged residues, at the interface between the first and second CCP modules, plays an important role in the interaction between C4BP and C4b/Arp/Sir/heparin. Putative binding sites, secondary-structure prediction for the central core, and an overall reevaluation of the size of the C4BP molecule are also presented. An understanding of these intermolecular interactions should contribute to the rational design of potential therapeutic agents aiming at interfering specifically some of these protein-protein interactions.

  11. Interference between Triplex and Protein Binding to Distal Sites on Supercoiled DNA.

    PubMed

    Noy, Agnes; Maxwell, Anthony; Harris, Sarah A

    2017-02-07

    We have explored the interdependence of the binding of a DNA triplex and a repressor protein to distal recognition sites on supercoiled DNA minicircles using MD simulations. We observe that the interaction between the two ligands through their influence on their DNA template is determined by a subtle interplay of DNA mechanics and electrostatics, that the changes in flexibility induced by ligand binding play an important role and that supercoiling can instigate additional ligand-DNA contacts that would not be possible in simple linear DNA sequences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Computational study of pH-dependent oligomerization and ligand binding in Alt a 1, a highly allergenic protein with a unique fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Bretones, Jorge; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Cubells, Nuria; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Pacios, Luis F.

    2016-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a highly allergenic protein from Alternaria fungi responsible for several respiratory diseases. Its crystal structure revealed a unique β-barrel fold that defines a new family exclusive to fungi and forms a symmetrical dimer in a butterfly-like shape as well as tetramers. Its biological function is as yet unknown but its localization in cell wall of Alternaria spores and its interactions in the onset of allergy reactions point to a function to transport ligands. However, at odds with binding features in β-barrel proteins, monomeric Alt a 1 seems unable to harbor ligands because the barrel is too narrow. Tetrameric Alt a 1 is able to bind the flavonoid quercetin, yet the stability of the aggregate and the own ligand binding are pH-dependent. At pH 6.5, which Alt a 1 would meet when secreted by spores in bronchial epithelium, tetramer-quercetin complex is stable. At pH 5.5, which Alt a 1 would meet in apoplast when infecting plants, the complex breaks down. By means of a combined computational study that includes docking calculations, empirical p Ka estimates, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and Molecular Dynamics simulations, we identified a putative binding site at the dimeric interface between subunits in tetramer. We propose an explanation on the pH-dependence of both oligomerization states and protein-ligand affinity of Alt a 1 in terms of electrostatic variations associated to distinct protonation states at different pHs. The uniqueness of this singular protein can thus be tracked in the combination of all these features.

  13. Computational study of pH-dependent oligomerization and ligand binding in Alt a 1, a highly allergenic protein with a unique fold.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Bretones, Jorge; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Cubells, Nuria; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Pacios, Luis F

    2016-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a highly allergenic protein from Alternaria fungi responsible for several respiratory diseases. Its crystal structure revealed a unique β-barrel fold that defines a new family exclusive to fungi and forms a symmetrical dimer in a butterfly-like shape as well as tetramers. Its biological function is as yet unknown but its localization in cell wall of Alternaria spores and its interactions in the onset of allergy reactions point to a function to transport ligands. However, at odds with binding features in β-barrel proteins, monomeric Alt a 1 seems unable to harbor ligands because the barrel is too narrow. Tetrameric Alt a 1 is able to bind the flavonoid quercetin, yet the stability of the aggregate and the own ligand binding are pH-dependent. At pH 6.5, which Alt a 1 would meet when secreted by spores in bronchial epithelium, tetramer-quercetin complex is stable. At pH 5.5, which Alt a 1 would meet in apoplast when infecting plants, the complex breaks down. By means of a combined computational study that includes docking calculations, empirical pKa estimates, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and Molecular Dynamics simulations, we identified a putative binding site at the dimeric interface between subunits in tetramer. We propose an explanation on the pH-dependence of both oligomerization states and protein-ligand affinity of Alt a 1 in terms of electrostatic variations associated to distinct protonation states at different pHs. The uniqueness of this singular protein can thus be tracked in the combination of all these features.

  14. Combining fragment homology modeling with molecular dynamics aims at prediction of Ca2+ binding sites in CaBPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, ChunLi; Cao, TianGuang; Li, JunWei; Jia, MengWen; Zhang, SuHua; Ren, ShuXi; An, HaiLong; Zhan, Yong

    2013-08-01

    The family of calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) consists of dozens of members and contributes to all aspects of the cell's function, from homeostasis to learning and memory. However, the Ca2+-binding mechanism is still unclear for most of CaBPs. To identify the Ca2+-binding sites of CaBPs, this study presented a computational approach which combined the fragment homology modeling with molecular dynamics simulation. For validation, we performed a two-step strategy as follows: first, the approach is used to identify the Ca2+-binding sites of CaBPs, which have the EF-hand Ca2+-binding site and the detailed binding mechanism. To accomplish this, eighteen crystal structures of CaBPs with 49 Ca2+-binding sites are selected to be analyzed including calmodulin. The computational method identified 43 from 49 Ca2+-binding sites. Second, we performed the approach to large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels which don't have clear Ca2+-binding mechanism. The simulated results are consistent with the experimental data. The computational approach may shed some light on the identification of Ca2+-binding sites in CaBPs.

  15. Molecular blueprint of allosteric binding sites in a homologue of the agonist-binding domain of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Spurny, Radovan; Debaveye, Sarah; Farinha, Ana; Veys, Ken; Vos, Ann M.; Gossas, Thomas; Atack, John; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Danielson, U. Helena; Tresadern, Gary; Ulens, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) belongs to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and is involved in fast synaptic signaling. In this study, we take advantage of a recently identified chimera of the extracellular domain of the native α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine binding protein, termed α7-AChBP. This chimeric receptor was used to conduct an innovative fragment-library screening in combination with X-ray crystallography to identify allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site is surface-exposed and is located near the N-terminal α-helix of the extracellular domain. Ligand binding at this site causes a conformational change of the α-helix as the fragment wedges between the α-helix and a loop homologous to the main immunogenic region of the muscle α1 subunit. A second site is located in the vestibule of the receptor, in a preexisting intrasubunit pocket opposite the agonist binding site and corresponds to a previously identified site involved in positive allosteric modulation of the bacterial homolog ELIC. A third site is located at a pocket right below the agonist binding site. Using electrophysiological recordings on the human α7 nAChR we demonstrate that the identified fragments, which bind at these sites, can modulate receptor activation. This work presents a structural framework for different allosteric binding sites in the α7 nAChR and paves the way for future development of novel allosteric modulators with therapeutic potential. PMID:25918415

  16. Oriented Immobilization of Fab Fragments by Site-Specific Biotinylation at the Conserved Nucleotide Binding Site for Enhanced Antigen Detection.

    PubMed

    Mustafaoglu, Nur; Alves, Nathan J; Bilgicer, Basar

    2015-09-08

    Oriented immobilization of antibodies and antibody fragments has become increasingly important as a result of the efforts to reduce the size of diagnostic and sensor devices to miniaturized dimensions for improved accessibility to the end-user. Reduced dimensions of sensor devices necessitate the immobilized antibodies to conserve their antigen binding activity for proper operation. Fab fragments are becoming more commonly used in small-scaled diagnostic devices due to their small size and ease of manufacture. In this study, we used the previously described UV-NBS(Biotin) method to functionalize Fab fragments with IBA-EG11-Biotin linker utilizing UV energy to initiate a photo-cross-linking reaction between the nucleotide binding site (NBS) on the Fab fragment and IBA-Biotin molecule. Our results demonstrate that immobilization of biotinylated Fab fragments via UV-NBS(Biotin) method generated the highest level of immobilized Fab on surfaces when compared to other typical immobilization methods while preserving antigen binding activity. UV-NBS(Biotin) method provided 432-fold, 114-fold, and 29-fold improved antigen detection sensitivity than physical adsorption, NHS-Biotin, and ε-NH3(+), methods, respectively. Additionally, the limit of detection (LOD) for PSA utilizing Fab fragments immobilized via UV-NBS(Biotin) method was significantly lower than that of the other immobilization methods, with an LOD of 0.4 pM PSA. In summary, site-specific biotinylation of Fab fragments without structural damage or loss in antigen binding activity provides a wide range of application potential for UV-NBS immobilization technique across numerous diagnostic devices and nanotechnologies.

  17. Active-site copper reduction promotes substrate binding of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and reduces stability.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Andlar, Martina; Furtmüller, Paul G; Ludwig, Roland

    2018-02-02

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of copper-containing enzymes that oxidatively degrade insoluble plant polysaccharides and soluble oligosaccharides. Upon reductive activation, they cleave the substrate and promote biomass degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, we employed LPMO9C from Neurospora crassa , which is active toward cellulose and soluble β-glucans, to study the enzyme-substrate interaction and thermal stability. Binding studies showed that the reduction of the mononuclear active-site copper by ascorbic acid increased the affinity and the maximum binding capacity of LPMO for cellulose. The reduced redox state of the active-site copper and not the subsequent formation of the activated oxygen species increased the affinity toward cellulose. The lower affinity of oxidized LPMO could support its desorption after catalysis and allow hydrolases to access the cleavage site. It also suggests that the copper reduction is not necessarily performed in the substrate-bound state of LPMO. Differential scanning fluorimetry showed a stabilizing effect of the substrates cellulose and xyloglucan on the apparent transition midpoint temperature of the reduced, catalytically active enzyme. Oxidative auto-inactivation and destabilization were observed in the absence of a suitable substrate. Our data reveal the determinants of LPMO stability under turnover and non-turnover conditions and indicate that the reduction of the active-site copper initiates substrate binding. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Identification of Candidate Transcription Factor Binding Sites in the Cattle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Bickhart, Derek M.; Liu, George E.

    2013-01-01

    A resource that provides candidate transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) does not currently exist for cattle. Such data is necessary, as predicted sites may serve as excellent starting locations for future omics studies to develop transcriptional regulation hypotheses. In order to generate this resource, we employed a phylogenetic footprinting approach—using sequence conservation across cattle, human and dog—and position-specific scoring matrices to identify 379,333 putative TFBSs upstream of nearly 8000 Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) annotated genes within the cattle genome. Comparisons of our predictions to known binding site loci within the PCK1, ACTA1 and G6PC promoter regions revealed 75% sensitivity for our method of discovery. Additionally, we intersected our predictions with known cattle SNP variants in dbSNP and on the Illumina BovineHD 770k and Bos 1 SNP chips, finding 7534, 444 and 346 overlaps, respectively. Due to our stringent filtering criteria, these results represent high quality predictions of putative TFBSs within the cattle genome. All binding site predictions are freely available at http://bfgl.anri.barc.usda.gov/BovineTFBS/ or http://199.133.54.77/BovineTFBS. PMID:23433959

  19. sc-PDB: an annotated database of druggable binding sites from the Protein Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Kellenberger, Esther; Muller, Pascal; Schalon, Claire; Bret, Guillaume; Foata, Nicolas; Rognan, Didier

    2006-01-01

    The sc-PDB is a collection of 6 415 three-dimensional structures of binding sites found in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Binding sites were extracted from all high-resolution crystal structures in which a complex between a protein cavity and a small-molecular-weight ligand could be identified. Importantly, ligands are considered from a pharmacological and not a structural point of view. Therefore, solvents, detergents, and most metal ions are not stored in the sc-PDB. Ligands are classified into four main categories: nucleotides (< 4-mer), peptides (< 9-mer), cofactors, and organic compounds. The corresponding binding site is formed by all protein residues (including amino acids, cofactors, and important metal ions) with at least one atom within 6.5 angstroms of any ligand atom. The database was carefully annotated by browsing several protein databases (PDB, UniProt, and GO) and storing, for every sc-PDB entry, the following features: protein name, function, source, domain and mutations, ligand name, and structure. The repository of ligands has also been archived by diversity analysis of molecular scaffolds, and several chemoinformatics descriptors were computed to better understand the chemical space covered by stored ligands. The sc-PDB may be used for several purposes: (i) screening a collection of binding sites for predicting the most likely target(s) of any ligand, (ii) analyzing the molecular similarity between different cavities, and (iii) deriving rules that describe the relationship between ligand pharmacophoric points and active-site properties. The database is periodically updated and accessible on the web at http://bioinfo-pharma.u-strasbg.fr/scPDB/.

  20. Analysis of Binding Site Hot Spots on the Surface of Ras GTPase

    SciTech Connect

    Buhrman, Greg; O; #8242

    2012-09-17

    We have recently discovered an allosteric switch in Ras, bringing an additional level of complexity to this GTPase whose mutants are involved in nearly 30% of cancers. Upon activation of the allosteric switch, there is a shift in helix 3/loop 7 associated with a disorder to order transition in the active site. Here, we use a combination of multiple solvent crystal structures and computational solvent mapping (FTMap) to determine binding site hot spots in the 'off' and 'on' allosteric states of the GTP-bound form of H-Ras. Thirteen sites are revealed, expanding possible target sites for ligand binding well beyond themore » active site. Comparison of FTMaps for the H and K isoforms reveals essentially identical hot spots. Furthermore, using NMR measurements of spin relaxation, we determined that K-Ras exhibits global conformational dynamics very similar to those we previously reported for H-Ras. We thus hypothesize that the global conformational rearrangement serves as a mechanism for allosteric coupling between the effector interface and remote hot spots in all Ras isoforms. At least with respect to the binding sites involving the G domain, H-Ras is an excellent model for K-Ras and probably N-Ras as well. Ras has so far been elusive as a target for drug design. The present work identifies various unexplored hot spots throughout the entire surface of Ras, extending the focus from the disordered active site to well-ordered locations that should be easier to target.« less

  1. Discovery of a small-molecule HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-binding site | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The lowest energy-binding conformation of an inhibitor bound to the dimeric interface of HIV-1 integrase core domain. The yellow region represents a unique allosteric binding site identified by affinity labeling and mass spectrometry and validated through mutagenesis. This site can provide a potential platform for the rational design of inhibitors selective for disruption of

  2. Structural insights into substrate and inhibitor binding sites in human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Pham, Khoa N.; Batabyal, Dipanwita

    Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (hIDO1) is an attractive cancer immunotherapeutic target owing to its role in promoting tumoral immune escape. However, drug development has been hindered by limited structural information. Here, we report the crystal structures of hIDO1 in complex with its substrate, Trp, an inhibitor, epacadostat, and/or an effector, indole ethanol (IDE). The data reveal structural features of the active site (Sa) critical for substrate activation; in addition, they disclose a new inhibitor-binding mode and a distinct small molecule binding site (Si). Structure-guided mutation of a critical residue, F270, to glycine perturbs the Si site, allowing structural determination ofmore » an inhibitory complex, where both the Sa and Si sites are occupied by Trp. The Si site offers a novel target site for allosteric inhibitors and a molecular explanation for the previously baffling substrate-inhibition behavior of the enzyme. Taken together, the data open exciting new avenues for structure-based drug design.« less

  3. Deciphering Cryptic Binding Sites on Proteins by Mixed-Solvent Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S Roy; Hu, Hai Peng; Ruvinsky, Anatoly M; Sherman, Woody; Favia, Angelo D

    2017-06-26

    In recent years, molecular dynamics simulations of proteins in explicit mixed solvents have been applied to various problems in protein biophysics and drug discovery, including protein folding, protein surface characterization, fragment screening, allostery, and druggability assessment. In this study, we perform a systematic study on how mixtures of organic solvent probes in water can reveal cryptic ligand binding pockets that are not evident in crystal structures of apo proteins. We examine a diverse set of eight PDB proteins that show pocket opening induced by ligand binding and investigate whether solvent MD simulations on the apo structures can induce the binding site observed in the holo structures. The cosolvent simulations were found to induce conformational changes on the protein surface, which were characterized and compared with the holo structures. Analyses of the biological systems, choice of probes and concentrations, druggability of the resulting induced pockets, and application to drug discovery are discussed here.

  4. Assessment of ligand binding at a site relevant to SOD1 oxidation and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Manjula, Ramu; Wright, Gareth S A; Strange, Richard W; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram

    2018-05-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutations are causative for a subset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. These mutations lead to structural instability, aggregation and ultimately motor neuron death. We have determined crystal structures of SOD1 in complex with a naphthalene-catechol-linked compound which binds with low micro-molar affinity to a site important for oxidative damage-induced aggregation. SOD1 Trp32 oxidation is indeed significantly inhibited by ligand binding. Our work shows how compound linking can be applied successfully to ligand interactions on the SOD1 surface to generate relatively good binding strength. The ligand, positioned in a region important for SOD1 fibrillation, offers the possibility that it, or a similar compound, could prevent the abnormal self-association that drives SOD1 toxicity in ALS. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Specific minor groove solvation is a crucial determinant of DNA binding site recognition

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lydia-Ann; Williams, Loren Dean; Koudelka, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA sequence preferences of nearly all sequence specific DNA binding proteins are influenced by the identities of bases that are not directly contacted by protein. Discrimination between non-contacted base sequences is commonly based on the differential abilities of DNA sequences to allow narrowing of the DNA minor groove. However, the factors that govern the propensity of minor groove narrowing are not completely understood. Here we show that the differential abilities of various DNA sequences to support formation of a highly ordered and stable minor groove solvation network are a key determinant of non-contacted base recognition by a sequence-specific binding protein. In addition, disrupting the solvent network in the non-contacted region of the binding site alters the protein's ability to recognize contacted base sequences at positions 5–6 bases away. This observation suggests that DNA solvent interactions link contacted and non-contacted base recognition by the protein. PMID:25429976

  6. Developmental changes in the distribution of cecal lectin-binding sites of Balb-c mice.

    PubMed

    Doehrn, S; Breipohl, W; Lierse, W; Romaniuk, K; Young, W

    1992-01-01

    The existence of lectin-binding sites was investigated in the cecum of Balb-c mice at seven developmental stages ranging from 18 days post conception (p.c.) to 8 weeks after birth. Nine horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated lectins (concanavalin A, Triticum vulgaris, Dolichus biflorus, Helix pomatia, Arachis hypogaea, Glycine maximus, Lotus tetragonolobus, Ulex europaeus, Limulus polyphemus) were applied to 5- to 7-microns thin paraffin sections of Bouin-fixed tissue. After DAB staining the sections were evaluated by light microscopy. It was shown that each lectin exhibits a unique developmental pattern. The adult binding patterns were established at the age of 3-4 weeks with only minor changes occurring thereafter. Considerable differences in binding patterns occurred not only between lectins of different groups but also between lectins with the same nominal monosaccharide specificity.

  7. Binding sites of resveratrol, genistein, and curcumin with milk α- and β-caseins.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Bariyanga, J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2013-02-07

    The binding sites of antioxidant polyphenols resveratrol, genistein, and curcumin are located with milk α- and β-caseins in aqueous solution. FTIR, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling were used to analyze polyphenol binding sites, the binding constant, and the effects of complexation on casein stability and conformation. Structural analysis showed that polyphenols bind casein via hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions with the number of bound polyphenol molecules (n) 1.20 for resveratrol, 1.42 for genistein, and 1.43 for curcumin with α-casein and 1.14 for resveratrol, 1.27 for genistein, and 1.27 for curcumin with β-casein. The overall binding constants of the complexes formed are K(res-α-casein) = 1.9 (±0.6) × 10(4) M(-1), K(gen-α-casein) = 1.8 (±0.4) × 10(4) M(-1), and K(cur-α-casein) = 2.8 (±0.8) × 10(4) M(-1) with α-casein and K(res-β-casein) = 2.3 (±0.3) × 10(4) M(-1), K(gen-β-casein) = 3.0 (±0.5) × 10(4) M(-1), and K(cur-β-casein) = 3.1 (±0.5) × 10(4) M(-1) for β-casein. Molecular modeling showed the participation of several amino acids in polyphenol-protein complexes, which were stabilized by the hydrogen bonding network with the free binding energy of -11.56 (resveratrol-α-casein), -12.35 (resveratrol-β-casein), -9.68 (genistein-α-casein), -9.97 (genistein-β-casein), -8.89 (curcumin-α-casein), and -10.70 kcal/mol (curcumin-β-casein). The binding sites of polyphenols are different with α- and β-caseins. Polyphenol binding altered casein conformation with reduction of α-helix, indicating a partial protein destabilization. Caseins might act as carriers to transport polyphenol in vitro.

  8. A Graphical Modelling Approach to the Dissection of Highly Correlated Transcription Factor Binding Site Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Stojnic, Robert; Fu, Audrey Qiuyan; Adryan, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Inferring the combinatorial regulatory code of transcription factors (TFs) from genome-wide TF binding profiles is challenging. A major reason is that TF binding profiles significantly overlap and are therefore highly correlated. Clustered occurrence of multiple TFs at genomic sites may arise from chromatin accessibility and local cooperation between TFs, or binding sites may simply appear clustered if the profiles are generated from diverse cell populations. Overlaps in TF binding profiles may also result from measurements taken at closely related time intervals. It is thus of great interest to distinguish TFs that directly regulate gene expression from those that are indirectly associated with gene expression. Graphical models, in particular Bayesian networks, provide a powerful mathematical framework to infer different types of dependencies. However, existing methods do not perform well when the features (here: TF binding profiles) are highly correlated, when their association with the biological outcome is weak, and when the sample size is small. Here, we develop a novel computational method, the Neighbourhood Consistent PC (NCPC) algorithms, which deal with these scenarios much more effectively than existing methods do. We further present a novel graphical representation, the Direct Dependence Graph (DDGraph), to better display the complex interactions among variables. NCPC and DDGraph can also be applied to other problems involving highly correlated biological features. Both methods are implemented in the R package ddgraph, available as part of Bioconductor (http://bioconductor.org/packages/2.11/bioc/html/ddgraph.html). Applied to real data, our method identified TFs that specify different classes of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in Drosophila mesoderm differentiation. Our analysis also found depletion of the early transcription factor Twist binding at the CRMs regulating expression in visceral and somatic muscle cells at later stages, which suggests a CRM

  9. Benzodiazepines: rat pinealocyte binding sites and augmentation of norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew, E.; Parfitt, A.G.; Sugden, D.

    1984-02-01

    Studies of (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding to intact rat pineal cells were carried out in tissue culture preparations. The binding was saturable, reversible and proportional to the number of cells used. Scatchard analysis resulted in a linear plot (Kd . 23 nM, maximum binding sites (Bmax) . 1.56 pmol/mg of protein for cells in monolayer culture; Kd . 7 nM, Bmax . 1.3 pmol/mg of protein for cells in suspension culture). Inhibition constants (Ki) for clonazepam (500 nM), flunitrazepam (38 nM) and Ro-5-4864 (5 nM) indicated that the binding sites were probably of the ''peripheral'' type. In addition, the effects ofmore » diazepam on norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were studied in organ culture and dissociated cell culture. Diazepam (10-50 microM) both prolonged and increased the magnitude of the norepinephrine-induced increase in NAT activity but did not affect the initial rate of rise of enzyme activity. The effect was dose-dependent and was also seen with clonazepam, flunitrazepam and Ro-5-4864, but not with Ro-15-1788. Diazepam, by itself, at these concentrations, had no effect on NAT, but enzyme activity was increased by higher concentrations (0.1-1 mM). Although a relationship between the (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding sites described here and the effect of benzodiazepines on NAT cannot be established from these studies, the data suggest that the benzodiazepines may alter melatonin levels through their action on NAT.« less

  10. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    DOE PAGES

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; ...

    2016-02-09

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. Thismore » “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies.« less

  11. A principal component analysis of the dynamics of subdomains and binding sites in human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Paris, Guillaume; Ramseyer, Christophe; Enescu, Mironel

    2014-05-01

    The conformational dynamics of human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) applied to three molecular dynamics trajectories of 200 ns each. The overlap of the essential subspaces spanned by the first 10 principal components (PC) of different trajectories was about 0.3 showing that the PCA based on a trajectory length of 200 ns is not completely convergent for this protein. The contributions of the relative motion of subdomains and of the subdomains (internal) distortion to the first 10 PCs were found to be comparable. Based on the distribution of the first 3 PC, 10 protein conformers are identified showing relative root mean square deviations (RMSD) between 2.3 and 4.6 Å. The main PCs are found to be delocalized over the whole protein structure indicating that the motions of different protein subdomains are coupled. This coupling is considered as being related to the allosteric effects observed upon ligand binding to HSA. On the other hand, the first PC of one of the three trajectories describes a conformational transition of the protein domain I that is close to that experimentally observed upon myristate binding. This is a theoretical support for the older hypothesis stating that changes of the protein onformation favorable to binding can precede the ligand complexation. A detailed all atoms PCA performed on the primary Sites 1 and 2 confirms the multiconformational character of the HSA binding sites as well as the significant coupling of their motions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nature and function of insulator protein binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Yuri B.; Linder-Basso, Daniela; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Tolstorukov, Michael Y.; Kim, Maria; Li, Hua-Bing; Gorchakov, Andrey A.; Minoda, Aki; Shanower, Gregory; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Riddle, Nicole C.; Jung, Youngsook L.; Gu, Tingting; Plachetka, Annette; Elgin, Sarah C.R.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.; Park, Peter J.; Savitsky, Mikhail; Karpen, Gary H.; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin insulator elements and associated proteins have been proposed to partition eukaryotic genomes into sets of independently regulated domains. Here we test this hypothesis by quantitative genome-wide analysis of insulator protein binding to Drosophila chromatin. We find distinct combinatorial binding of insulator proteins to different classes of sites and uncover a novel type of insulator element that binds CP190 but not any other known insulator proteins. Functional characterization of different classes of binding sites indicates that only a small fraction act as robust insulators in standard enhancer-blocking assays. We show that insulators restrict the spreading of the H3K27me3 mark but only at a small number of Polycomb target regions and only to prevent repressive histone methylation within adjacent genes that are already transcriptionally inactive. RNAi knockdown of insulator proteins in cultured cells does not lead to major alterations in genome expression. Taken together, these observations argue against the concept of a genome partitioned by specialized boundary elements and suggest that insulators are reserved for specific regulation of selected genes. PMID:22767387

  13. SNP2TFBS - a database of regulatory SNPs affecting predicted transcription factor binding site affinity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2017-01-04

    SNP2TFBS is a computational resource intended to support researchers investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory variation in the human genome. The database essentially consists of a collection of text files providing specific annotations for human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely whether they are predicted to abolish, create or change the affinity of one or several transcription factor (TF) binding sites. A SNP's effect on TF binding is estimated based on a position weight matrix (PWM) model for the binding specificity of the corresponding factor. These data files are regenerated at regular intervals by an automatic procedure that takes as input a reference genome, a comprehensive SNP catalogue and a collection of PWMs. SNP2TFBS is also accessible over a web interface, enabling users to view the information provided for an individual SNP, to extract SNPs based on various search criteria, to annotate uploaded sets of SNPs or to display statistics about the frequencies of binding sites affected by selected SNPs. Homepage: http://ccg.vital-it.ch/snp2tfbs/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Searching for protein binding sites from Molecular Dynamics simulations and paramagnetic fragment-based NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Bernini, Andrea; Henrici De Angelis, Lucia; Morandi, Edoardo; Spiga, Ottavia; Santucci, Annalisa; Assfalg, Michael; Molinari, Henriette; Pillozzi, Serena; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Niccolai, Neri

    2014-03-01

    Hotspot delineation on protein surfaces represents a fundamental step for targeting protein-protein interfaces. Disruptors of protein-protein interactions can be designed provided that the sterical features of binding pockets, including the transient ones, can be defined. Molecular Dynamics, MD, simulations have been used as a reliable framework for identifying transient pocket openings on the protein surface. Accessible surface area and intramolecular H-bond involvement of protein backbone amides are proposed as descriptors for characterizing binding pocket occurrence and evolution along MD trajectories. TEMPOL induced paramagnetic perturbations on (1)H-(15)N HSQC signals of protein backbone amides have been analyzed as a fragment-based search for surface hotspots, in order to validate MD predicted pockets. This procedure has been applied to CXCL12, a small chemokine responsible for tumor progression and proliferation. From combined analysis of MD data and paramagnetic profiles, two CXCL12 sites suitable for the binding of small molecules were identified. One of these sites is the already well characterized CXCL12 region involved in the binding to CXCR4 receptor. The other one is a transient pocket predicted by Molecular Dynamics simulations, which could not be observed from static analysis of CXCL12 PDB structures. The present results indicate how TEMPOL, instrumental in identifying this transient pocket, can be a powerful tool to delineate minor conformations which can be highly relevant in dynamic discovery of antitumoral drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. Thismore » “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies.« less

  16. Fluconazole Binding and Sterol Demethylation in Three CYP51 Isoforms Indicate Differences in Active Site Topology

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamine, A.; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Waterman, Mike

    2010-11-16

    14{alpha}-Demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in all sterol biosynthetic pathways (animals, fungi, plants, protists, and some bacteria), catalyzing the removal of the C-14 methyl group following cyclization of squalene. Based on mutations found in CYP51 genes from Candida albicans azole-resistant isolates obtained after fluconazole treatment of fungal infections, and using site-directed mutagenesis, we have found that fluconazole binding and substrate metabolism vary among three different CYP51 isoforms: human, fungal, and mycobacterial. In C. albicans, the Y132H mutant from isolates shows no effect on fluconazole binding, whereas the F145L mutant results in a 5-fold increase in its IC{sub 50} formore » fluconazole, suggesting that F145 (conserved only in fungal 14{alpha}-demethylases) interacts with this azole. In C. albicans, F145L accounts, in part, for the difference in fluconazole sensitivity reported between mammals and fungi, providing a basis for treatment of fungal infections. The C. albicans Y132H and human Y145H CYP51 mutants show essentially no effect on substrate metabolism, but the Mycobacterium tuberculosis F89H CYP51 mutant loses both its substrate binding and metabolism. Because these three residues align in the three isoforms, the results indicate that their active sites contain important structural differences, and further emphasize that fluconazole and substrate binding are uncoupled properties.« less

  17. Global Analysis of Transcription Factor-Binding Sites in Yeast Using ChIP-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Lefrançois, Philippe; Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Snyder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors influence gene expression through their ability to bind DNA at specific regulatory elements. Specific DNA-protein interactions can be isolated through the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) procedure, in which DNA fragments bound by the protein of interest are recovered. ChIP is followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (Seq) to determine the genomic provenance of ChIP DNA fragments and their relative abundance in the sample. This chapter describes a ChIP-Seq strategy adapted for budding yeast to enable the genome-wide characterization of binding sites of transcription factors (TFs) and other DNA-binding proteins in an efficient and cost-effective way. Yeast strains with epitope-tagged TFs are most commonly used for ChIP-Seq, along with their matching untagged control strains. The initial step of ChIP involves the cross-linking of DNA and proteins. Next, yeast cells are lysed and sonicated to shear chromatin into smaller fragments. An antibody against an epitope-tagged TF is used to pull down chromatin complexes containing DNA and the TF of interest. DNA is then purified and proteins degraded. Specific barcoded adapters for multiplex DNA sequencing are ligated to ChIP DNA. Short DNA sequence reads (28–36 base pairs) are parsed according to the barcode and aligned against the yeast reference genome, thus generating a nucleotide-resolution map of transcription factor-binding sites and their occupancy. PMID:25213249

  18. LTRs of Endogenous Retroviruses as a Source of Tbx6 Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Ono, Ryuichi

    2017-01-01

    Retrotransposons are abundant in mammalian genomes and can modulate the gene expression of surrounding genes by disrupting endogenous binding sites for transcription factors (TFs) or providing novel TFs binding sites within retrotransposon sequences. Here, we show that a (C/T)CACACCT sequence motif in ORR1A, ORR1B, ORR1C, and ORR1D, Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) of MaLR endogenous retrovirus (ERV), is the direct target of Tbx6, an evolutionary conserved family of T-box TFs. Moreover, by comparing gene expression between control mice (Tbx6 +/−) and Tbx6-deficient mice (Tbx6 −/−), we demonstrate that at least four genes, Twist2, Pitx2, Oscp1, and Nfxl1, are down-regulated with Tbx6 deficiency. These results suggest that ORR1A, ORR1B, ORR1C and ORR1D may contribute to the evolution of mammalian embryogenesis. PMID:28664156

  19. LTRs of Endogenous Retroviruses as a Source of Tbx6 Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Ono, Ryuichi

    2017-01-01

    Retrotransposons are abundant in mammalian genomes and can modulate the gene expression of surrounding genes by disrupting endogenous binding sites for transcription factors (TFs) or providing novel TFs binding sites within retrotransposon sequences. Here, we show that a (C/T)CACACCT sequence motif in ORR1A, ORR1B, ORR1C, and ORR1D, Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) of MaLR endogenous retrovirus (ERV), is the direct target of Tbx6, an evolutionary conserved family of T-box TFs. Moreover, by comparing gene expression between control mice (Tbx6 +/-) and Tbx6-deficient mice (Tbx6 -/-), we demonstrate that at least four genes, Twist2, Pitx2, Oscp1 , and Nfxl1 , are down-regulated with Tbx6 deficiency. These results suggest that ORR1A, ORR1B, ORR1C and ORR1D may contribute to the evolution of mammalian embryogenesis.

  20. A Surface Energy Transfer Nanoruler for Measuring Binding Site Distances on Live Cell Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; O’Donoghue, Meghan B.; Huang, Yu-Fen; Kang, Huaizhi; Phillips, Joseph A.; Chen, Xiaolan; Estevez, M.-Carmen; Tan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Measuring distances at molecular length scales in living systems is a significant challenge. Methods like FRET have limitations due to short detection distances and strict orientations. Recently, surface energy transfer (SET) has been used in bulk solutions; however, it cannot be applied to living systems. Here, we have developed an SET nanoruler, using aptamer-gold-nanoparticle conjugates with different diameters, to monitor the distance between binding sites of a receptor on living cells. The nanoruler can measure separation distances well beyond the detection limit of FRET. Thus, for the first time, we have developed an effective SET nanoruler for live cells with long distance, easy construction, fast detection and low background. This is also the first time that the distance between the aptamer and antibody binding sites in the membrane protein PTK7 was measured accurately. The SET nanoruler represents the next leap forward to monitor structural components within living cell membranes. PMID:21038856

  1. LTRs of endogenous retroviruses as a source of Tbx6 binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Ono, Ryuichi

    2017-06-01

    Retrotransposons are abundant in mammalian genomes and can modulate the gene expression of surrounding genes by disrupting endogenous binding sites for transcription factors (TFs) or providing novel TFs binding sites within retrotransposon sequences. Here, we show that a (C/T)CACACCT sequence motif in ORR1A, ORR1B, ORR1C and ORR1D, Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) of MaLR endogenous retrovirus (ERV), is the direct target of Tbx6, an evolutionary conserved family of T-box transcription factors. Moreover, by comparing gene expression between control mice (Tbx6 +/-) and Tbx6-deficient mice (Tbx6 -/-), we demonstrate that at least four genes, Twist2, Pitx2, Oscp1, and Nfxl1, are down-regulated with Tbx6 deficiency. These results suggest that ORR1A, ORR1B, ORR1C and ORR1D may contribute to the evolution of mammalian embryogenesis.

  2. Regulation of E2s: A Role for Additional Ubiquitin Binding Sites?

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Wright, Joshua D; Day, Catherine L

    2017-11-10

    Attachment of ubiquitin to proteins relies on a sophisticated enzyme cascade that is tightly regulated. The machinery of ubiquitylation responds to a range of signals, which remarkably includes ubiquitin itself. Thus, ubiquitin is not only the central player in the ubiquitylation cascade but also a key regulator. The ubiquitin E3 ligases provide specificity to the cascade and often bind the substrate, while the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) have a pivotal role in determining chain linkage and length. Interaction of ubiquitin with the E2 is important for activity, but the weak nature of these contacts has made them hard to identify and study. By reviewing available crystal structures, we identify putative ubiquitin binding sites on E2s, which may enhance E2 processivity and the assembly of chains of a defined linkage. The implications of these new sites are discussed in the context of known E2-ubiquitin interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Denosumab mimics the natural decoy receptor osteoprotegerin by interacting with its major binding site on RANKL.

    PubMed

    Schieferdecker, Aneta; Voigt, Mareike; Riecken, Kristoffer; Braig, Friederike; Schinke, Thorsten; Loges, Sonja; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Fehse, Boris; Binder, Mascha

    2014-08-30

    Bone homeostasis critically relies on the RANKL-RANK-OPG axis which can be targeted by the fully human monoclonal antibody denosumab in conditions with increased bone resporption such as bone metastases. The binding site and therefore the molecular mechanism by which this antibody inhibits RANKL has not been characterized so far. Here, we used random peptide phage display library screenings to identify the denosumab epitope on RANKL. Alignments of phage derived peptide sequences with RANKL suggested that this antibody recognized a linear epitope between position T233 and Y241. Mutational analysis confirmed the core residues as critical for this interaction. The spatial localization of this epitope on a 3-dimensional model of RANKL showed that it overlapped with the major binding sites of OPG and RANK on RANKL. We conclude that denosumab inhibits RANKL by both functional and molecular mimicry of the natural decoy receptor OPG.

  4. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maillet, Emeline L.; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2’s VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. PMID:26377607

  5. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Probing the Allosteric Modulator Binding Site of GluR2 with Thiazide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Christopher P.; Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Oswald, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of vertebrate excitatory synaptic transmission and are therapeutic targets for cognitive enhancement and treatment of schizophrenia. The binding domains of these tetrameric receptors consist of two dimers, and the dissociation of the dimer interface of the ligand-binding domain leads to desensitization in the continued presence of agonist. Positive allosteric modulators act by strengthening the dimer interface and reducing desensitization, thereby increasing steady-state activation. Removing the desensitized state for simplified analysis of receptor activation is commonly achieved using cyclothiazide (CTZ), the most potent modulator of the benzothiadiazide class, with the flip form of the AMPA receptor subtype. IDRA-21, the first benzothiadiazide to have an effect in behavioral tests, is an important lead compound in clinical trials for cognitive enhancement as it can cross the blood-brain barrier. Intermediate structures between CTZ and IDRA-21 show reduced potency suggesting that these two compounds have different contact points associated with binding. To understand how benzothiadiazides bind to the pocket bridging the dimer interface, we generated a series of crystal structures of the GluR2 ligand-binding domain complexed with benzothiadiazide derivatives (IDRA-21, hydroflumethiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide, trichlormethiazide, and althiazide) for comparison with an existing structure for cyclothiazide. The structures detail how changes in the substituents in the 3- and 7-positions of the hydrobenzothiadiazide ring shift the orientation of the drug in the binding site and, in some cases, change the stoichiometry of binding. All derivatives maintain a hydrogen bond with the Ser754 hydroxyl, affirming the partial selectivity of the benzothiadiazides for the flip form of AMPA receptors. PMID:19673491

  7. Volatile anesthetics compete for common binding sites on bovine serum albumin: a 19F-NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, B W; Cherian, S F; Evers, A S

    1993-01-01

    There is controversy as to the molecular nature of volatile anesthetic target sites. One proposal is that volatile anesthetics bind directly to hydrophobic binding sites on certain sensitive target proteins. Consistent with this hypothesis, we have previously shown that a fluorinated volatile anesthetic, isoflurane, binds saturably [Kd (dissociation constant) = 1.4 +/- 0.2 mM, Bmax = 4.2 +/- 0.3 sites] to fatty acid-displaceable domains on serum albumin. In the current study, we used 19F-NMR T2 relaxation to examine whether other volatile anesthetics bind to the same sites on albumin and, if so, whether they vary in their affinity for these sites. We show that three other fluorinated volatile anesthetics bind with varying affinity to fatty acid-displaceable domains on serum albumin: halothane, Kd = 1.3 +/- 0.2 mM; methoxyflurane, Kd = 2.6 +/- 0.3 mM; and sevoflurane, Kd = 4.5 +/- 0.6 mM. These three anesthetics inhibit isoflurane binding in a competitive manner: halothane, K(i) (inhibition constant) = 1.3 +/- 0.2 mM; methoxyflurane, K(i) = 2.5 +/- 0.4 mM; and sevoflurane, K(i) = 5.4 +/- 0.7 mM--similar to each anesthetic's respective Kd of binding to fatty acid displaceable sites. These results illustrate that a variety of volatile anesthetics can compete for binding to specific sites on a protein. PMID:8341659

  8. Antagonism of human CC-chemokine receptor 4 can be achieved through three distinct binding sites on the receptor

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Robert J; Russell, Linda J; Barton, Nick P; Weston, Cathryn; Nalesso, Giovanna; Thompson, Sally-Anne; Allen, Morven; Chen, Yu Hua; Barnes, Ashley; Hodgson, Simon T; Hall, David A

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine receptor antagonists appear to access two distinct binding sites on different members of this receptor family. One class of CCR4 antagonists has been suggested to bind to a site accessible from the cytoplasm while a second class did not bind to this site. In this report, we demonstrate that antagonists representing a variety of structural classes bind to two distinct allosteric sites on CCR4. The effects of pairs of low-molecular weight and/or chemokine CCR4 antagonists were evaluated on CCL17- and CCL22-induced responses of human CCR4+ T cells. This provided an initial grouping of the antagonists into sets which appeared to bind to distinct binding sites. Binding studies were then performed with radioligands from each set to confirm these groupings. Some novel receptor theory was developed to allow the interpretation of the effects of the antagonist combinations. The theory indicates that, generally, the concentration-ratio of a pair of competing allosteric modulators is maximally the sum of their individual effects while that of two modulators acting at different sites is likely to be greater than their sum. The low-molecular weight antagonists could be grouped into two sets on the basis of the functional and binding experiments. The antagonistic chemokines formed a third set whose behaviour was consistent with that of simple competitive antagonists. These studies indicate that there are two allosteric regulatory sites on CCR4. PMID:25505571

  9. WZB117 (2-Fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) Phenyl m-Hydroxybenzoate) Inhibits GLUT1-mediated Sugar Transport by Binding Reversibly at the Exofacial Sugar Binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Ojelabi, Ogooluwa A.; Lloyd, Kenneth P.; Simon, Andrew H.; De Zutter, Julie K.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    WZB117 (2-fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) phenyl m-hydroxybenzoate) inhibits passive sugar transport in human erythrocytes and cancer cell lines and, by limiting glycolysis, inhibits tumor growth in mice. This study explores how WZB117 inhibits the erythrocyte sugar transporter glucose transport protein 1 (GLUT1) and examines the transporter isoform specificity of inhibition. WZB117 reversibly and competitively inhibits erythrocyte 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) uptake with Ki(app) = 6 μm but is a noncompetitive inhibitor of sugar exit. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor of 3MG uptake with Ki(app) = 0.3 μm but is a competitive inhibitor of sugar exit indicating that WZB117 and CB bind at exofacial and endofacial sugar binding sites, respectively. WZB117 inhibition of GLUTs expressed in HEK293 cells follows the order of potency: insulin-regulated GLUT4 ≫ GLUT1 ≈ neuronal GLUT3. This may explain WZB117-induced murine lipodystrophy. Molecular docking suggests the following. 1) The WZB117 binding envelopes of exofacial GLUT1 and GLUT4 conformers differ significantly. 2) GLUT1 and GLUT4 exofacial conformers present multiple, adjacent glucose binding sites that overlap with WZB117 binding envelopes. 3) The GLUT1 exofacial conformer lacks a CB binding site. 4) The inward GLUT1 conformer presents overlapping endofacial WZB117, d-glucose, and CB binding envelopes. Interrogating the GLUT1 mechanism using WZB117 reveals that subsaturating WZB117 and CB stimulate erythrocyte 3MG uptake. Extracellular WZB117 does not affect CB binding to GLUT1, but intracellular WZB117 inhibits CB binding. These findings are incompatible with the alternating conformer carrier for glucose transport but are consistent with either a multisubunit, allosteric transporter, or a transporter in which each subunit presents multiple, interacting ligand binding sites. PMID:27836974

  10. WZB117 (2-Fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) Phenyl m-Hydroxybenzoate) Inhibits GLUT1-mediated Sugar Transport by Binding Reversibly at the Exofacial Sugar Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Ojelabi, Ogooluwa A; Lloyd, Kenneth P; Simon, Andrew H; De Zutter, Julie K; Carruthers, Anthony

    2016-12-23

    WZB117 (2-fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) phenyl m-hydroxybenzoate) inhibits passive sugar transport in human erythrocytes and cancer cell lines and, by limiting glycolysis, inhibits tumor growth in mice. This study explores how WZB117 inhibits the erythrocyte sugar transporter glucose transport protein 1 (GLUT1) and examines the transporter isoform specificity of inhibition. WZB117 reversibly and competitively inhibits erythrocyte 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) uptake with K i (app) = 6 μm but is a noncompetitive inhibitor of sugar exit. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor of 3MG uptake with K i (app) = 0.3 μm but is a competitive inhibitor of sugar exit indicating that WZB117 and CB bind at exofacial and endofacial sugar binding sites, respectively. WZB117 inhibition of GLUTs expressed in HEK293 cells follows the order of potency: insulin-regulated GLUT4 ≫ GLUT1 ≈ neuronal GLUT3. This may explain WZB117-induced murine lipodystrophy. Molecular docking suggests the following. 1) The WZB117 binding envelopes of exofacial GLUT1 and GLUT4 conformers differ significantly. 2) GLUT1 and GLUT4 exofacial conformers present multiple, adjacent glucose binding sites that overlap with WZB117 binding envelopes. 3) The GLUT1 exofacial conformer lacks a CB binding site. 4) The inward GLUT1 conformer presents overlapping endofacial WZB117, d-glucose, and CB binding envelopes. Interrogating the GLUT1 mechanism using WZB117 reveals that subsaturating WZB117 and CB stimulate erythrocyte 3MG uptake. Extracellular WZB117 does not affect CB binding to GLUT1, but intracellular WZB117 inhibits CB binding. These findings are incompatible with the alternating conformer carrier for glucose transport but are consistent with either a multisubunit, allosteric transporter, or a transporter in which each subunit presents multiple, interacting ligand binding sites. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Regulation of CCL2 expression by an upstream TALE homeodomain protein-binding site that synergizes with the site created by the A-2578G SNP.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephen H; Wright, Edward K; Gama, Lucio; Clements, Janice E

    2011-01-01

    CC Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) is a potent chemoattractant produced by macrophages and activated astrocytes during periods of inflammation within the central nervous system. Increased CCL2 expression is correlated with disease progression and severity, as observed in pulmonary tuberculosis, HCV-related liver disease, and HIV-associated dementia. The CCL2 distal promoter contains an A/G polymorphism at position -2578 and the homozygous -2578 G/G genotype is associated with increased CCL2 production and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that contribute to the phenotypic differences in CCL2 expression are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that the -2578 G polymorphism creates a TALE homeodomain protein binding site (TALE binding site) for PREP1/PBX2 transcription factors. In this study, we identified the presence of an additional TALE binding site 22 bp upstream of the site created by the -2578 G polymorphism and demonstrated the synergistic effects of the two sites on the activation of the CCL2 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we demonstrated increased binding of the TALE proteins PREP1 and PBX2 to the -2578 G allele, and binding of IRF1 to both the A and G alleles. The presence of TALE binding sites that form inverted repeats within the -2578 G allele results in increased transcriptional activation of the CCL2 distal promoter while the presence of only the upstream TALE binding site within the -2578 A allele exerts repression of promoter activity.

  12. Reversibly bound chloride in the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor hormone-binding domain: possible allosteric regulation and a conserved structural motif for the chloride-binding site.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruo; Qiu, Yue; Philo, John S; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Ogata, Craig M; Misono, Kunio S

    2010-03-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(-)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(-) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(-) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis.

  13. Reversibly Bound Chloride in the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Hormone Binding Domain: Possible Allosteric Regulation and a Conserved Structural Motif for the Chloride-binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, H.; Qiu, Y; Philo, J

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(-)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. Amore » new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(-) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(-) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis.« less

  14. Reversibly bound chloride in the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor hormone-binding domain: Possible allosteric regulation and a conserved structural motif for the chloride-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Haruo; Qiu, Yue; Philo, John S; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Ogata, Craig M; Misono, Kunio S

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(−)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(−) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(−) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis. PMID:20066666

  15. Tannic acid and chromic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells: a preliminary study of possible binding sites and reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A F; Reed, M I

    1990-07-01

    The binding mechanisms and binding sites involved in the tannic acid and chromic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells were investigated using the binding of IgA paraprotein to red cells as model systems. Inhibition studies of these model systems using amino acid homopolymers and compounds (common as red cell membrane constituents) suggest that the mechanisms involved are similar to those proposed for the conversion of hide or skin collagen to leather, as in commercial tanning. These studies also suggest that tannic acid-induced binding of IgA paraprotein to red cells involves the amino acid residues of L-arginine, L-lysine, L-histidine, and L-proline analogous to tanning with phenolic plant extracts. The amino acid residues of L-aspartate, L-glutamate and L-asparagine are involved in a similar manner in chronic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells.

  16. A ternary metal binding site in the C2 domain of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-delta1.

    PubMed

    Essen, L O; Perisic, O; Lynch, D E; Katan, M; Williams, R L

    1997-03-11

    We have determined the crystal structures of complexes of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-delta1 from rat with calcium, barium, and lanthanum at 2.5-2.6 A resolution. Binding of these metal ions is observed in the active site of the catalytic TIM barrel and in the calcium binding region (CBR) of the C2 domain. The C2 domain of PLC-delta1 is a circularly permuted topological variant (P-variant) of the synaptotagmin I C2A domain (S-variant). On the basis of sequence analysis, we propose that both the S-variant and P-variant topologies are present among other C2 domains. Multiple adjacent binding sites in the C2 domain were observed for calcium and the other metal/enzyme complexes. The maximum number of binding sites observed was for the calcium analogue lanthanum. This complex shows an array-like binding of three lanthanum ions (sites I-III) in a crevice on one end of the C2 beta-sandwich. Residues involved in metal binding are contained in three loops, CBR1, CBR2, and CBR3. Sites I and II are maintained in the calcium and barium complexes, whereas sites II and III coincide with a binary calcium binding site in the C2A domain of synaptotagmin I. Several conformers for CBR1 are observed. The conformation of CBR1 does not appear to be strictly dependent on metal binding; however, metal binding may stabilize certain conformers. No significant structural changes are observed for CBR2 or CBR3. The surface of this ternary binding site provides a cluster of freely accessible liganding positions for putative phospholipid ligands of the C2 domain. It may be that the ternary metal binding site is also a feature of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding in solution. A ternary metal binding site might be a conserved feature among C2 domains that contain the critical calcium ligands in their CBR's. The high cooperativity of calcium-mediated lipid binding by C2 domains described previously is explained by this novel type of calcium binding site.

  17. Deposition of chemically reactive and repellent sites on biosensor chips for reduced non-specific binding.

    PubMed

    Gandhiraman, R P; Gubala, V; Le, N C H; Nam, Le Cao Hoai; Volcke, C; Doyle, C; James, B; Daniels, S; Williams, D E

    2010-08-01

    The performances of new polymeric materials with excellent optical properties and good machinability have led the biomedical diagnostics industry to develop cheap disposable biosensor platforms appropriate for point of care applications. Zeonor, a type of cycloolefin polymer (COP), is one such polymer that presents an excellent platform for biosensor chips. These polymer substrates have to be modified to have suitable physico-chemical properties for immobilizing proteins. In this work, we have demonstrated the amine functionalization of COP substrates, by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), through codeposition of ethylene diamine and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane precursors, for building chemistries on the plastic chip. The elemental composition, adhesion, ageing and reactivity of the plasma polymerized film were examined. The Si-O functionality present in amino silane contributed for a good interfacial adhesion of the coating to COP substrates and also acted as a network building layer for plasma polymerization. Wet chemical modification was then carried out on the amine functionalized chips to create chemically reactive isothiocyanate sites and protein repellent fluorinated sites on the same chip. The density of the reactive and repellent sites was altered by choosing appropriate mixtures of homofunctional phenyldiisothiocyanate (PDITC), pentafluoroisothiocyanate (5FITC) and phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) compounds. By tailoring the density of reactive binding sites and protein repellent sites, the non-specific binding of ssDNA has been decreased to a significant extent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Triazole-Quinoline Derivatives as Selective Dual Binding Site Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mantoani, Susimaire P; Chierrito, Talita P C; Vilela, Adriana F L; Cardoso, Carmen L; Martínez, Ana; Carvalho, Ivone

    2016-02-05

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Currently, the only strategy for palliative treatment of AD is to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in order to increase the concentration of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. Evidence indicates that AChE also interacts with the β-amyloid (Aβ) protein, acting as a chaperone and increasing the number and neurotoxicity of Aβ fibrils. It is known that AChE has two binding sites: the peripheral site, responsible for the interactions with Aβ, and the catalytic site, related with acetylcholine hydrolysis. In this work, we reported the synthesis and biological evaluation of a library of new tacrine-donepezil hybrids, as a potential dual binding site AChE inhibitor, containing a triazole-quinoline system. The synthesis of hybrids was performed in four steps using the click chemistry strategy. These compounds were evaluated as hAChE and hBChE inhibitors, and some derivatives showed IC50 values in the micro-molar range and were remarkably selective towards hAChE. Kinetic assays and molecular modeling studies confirm that these compounds block both catalytic and peripheral AChE sites. These results are quite interesting since the triazole-quinoline system is a new structural scaffold for AChE inhibitors. Furthermore, the synthetic approach is very efficient for the preparation of target compounds, allowing a further fruitful new chemical library optimization.

  19. LIBRA-WA: a web application for ligand binding site detection and protein function recognition.

    PubMed

    Toti, Daniele; Viet Hung, Le; Tortosa, Valentina; Brandi, Valentina; Polticelli, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Recently, LIBRA, a tool for active/ligand binding site prediction, was described. LIBRA's effectiveness was comparable to similar state-of-the-art tools; however, its scoring scheme, output presentation, dependence on local resources and overall convenience were amenable to improvements. To solve these issues, LIBRA-WA, a web application based on an improved LIBRA engine, has been developed, featuring a novel scoring scheme consistently improving LIBRA's performance, and a refined algorithm that can identify binding sites hosted at the interface between different subunits. LIBRA-WA also sports additional functionalities like ligand clustering and a completely redesigned interface for an easier analysis of the output. Extensive tests on 373 apoprotein structures indicate that LIBRA-WA is able to identify the biologically relevant ligand/ligand binding site in 357 cases (∼96%), with the correct prediction ranking first in 349 cases (∼98% of the latter, ∼94% of the total). The earlier stand-alone tool has also been updated and dubbed LIBRA+, by integrating LIBRA-WA's improved engine for cross-compatibility purposes. LIBRA-WA and LIBRA+ are available at: http://www.computationalbiology.it/software.html. polticel@uniroma3.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Predicting Ligand Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces by 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Jhih-Wei; Elumalai, Pavadai; Pitti, Thejkiran; Wu, Chih Yuan; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Predicting ligand binding sites (LBSs) on protein structures, which are obtained either from experimental or computational methods, is a useful first step in functional annotation or structure-based drug design for the protein structures. In this work, the structure-based machine learning algorithm ISMBLab-LIG was developed to predict LBSs on protein surfaces with input attributes derived from the three-dimensional probability density maps of interacting atoms, which were reconstructed on the query protein surfaces and were relatively insensitive to local conformational variations of the tentative ligand binding sites. The prediction accuracy of the ISMBLab-LIG predictors is comparable to that of the best LBS predictors benchmarked on several well-established testing datasets. More importantly, the ISMBLab-LIG algorithm has substantial tolerance to the prediction uncertainties of computationally derived protein structure models. As such, the method is particularly useful for predicting LBSs not only on experimental protein structures without known LBS templates in the database but also on computationally predicted model protein structures with structural uncertainties in the tentative ligand binding sites. PMID:27513851

  1. Predicting conformational ensembles and genome-wide transcription factor binding sites from DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Munazah; Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Kono, Hidetoshi; Nussinov, Ruth; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Ahmad, Shandar

    2017-06-22

    DNA shape is emerging as an important determinant of transcription factor binding beyond just the DNA sequence. The only tool for large scale DNA shape estimates, DNAshape was derived from Monte-Carlo simulations and predicts four broad and static DNA shape features, Propeller twist, Helical twist, Minor groove width and Roll. The contributions of other shape features e.g. Shift, Slide and Opening cannot be evaluated using DNAshape. Here, we report a novel method DynaSeq, which predicts molecular dynamics-derived ensembles of a more exhaustive set of DNA shape features. We compared the DNAshape and DynaSeq predictions for the common features and applied both to predict the genome-wide binding sites of 1312 TFs available from protein interaction quantification (PIQ) data. The results indicate a good agreement between the two methods for the common shape features and point to advantages in using DynaSeq. Predictive models employing ensembles from individual conformational parameters revealed that base-pair opening - known to be important in strand separation - was the best predictor of transcription factor-binding sites (TFBS) followed by features employed by DNAshape. Of note, TFBS could be predicted not only from the features at the target motif sites, but also from those as far as 200 nucleotides away from the motif.

  2. Proteins and Their Interacting Partners: An Introduction to Protein-Ligand Binding Site Prediction Methods.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel Barry; Brackenridge, Danielle Allison; McGuffin, Liam James

    2015-12-15

    Elucidating the biological and biochemical roles of proteins, and subsequently determining their interacting partners, can be difficult and time consuming using in vitro and/or in vivo methods, and consequently the majority of newly sequenced proteins will have unknown structures and functions. However, in silico methods for predicting protein-ligand binding sites and protein biochemical functions offer an alternative practical solution. The characterisation of protein-ligand binding sites is essential for investigating new functional roles, which can impact the major biological research spheres of health, food, and energy security. In this review we discuss the role in silico methods play in 3D modelling of protein-ligand binding sites, along with their role in predicting biochemical functionality. In addition, we describe in detail some of the key alternative in silico prediction approaches that are available, as well as discussing the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) and the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) projects, and their impact on developments in the field. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of protein function prediction methods for tackling 21st century problems.

  3. Exploration of N-arylpiperazine Binding Sites of D2 Dopaminergic Receptor.

    PubMed

    Soskic, Vukic; Sukalovic, Vladimir; Kostic-Rajacic, Sladjana

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of the D3 dopamine receptor and several other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) were published in recent times. Those 3D structures are used by us and other scientists as a template for the homology modeling and ligand docking analysis of related GPCRs. Our main scientific interest lies in the field of pharmacologically active N-arylpiperazines that exhibit antipsychotic and/or antidepressant properties, and as such are dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor ligands. In this short review article we are presenting synthesis and biological data on the new N-arylpipereazine as well our results on molecular modeling of the interactions of those N-arylpiperazines with the model of D2 dopamine receptors. To obtain that model the crystal structure of the D3 dopamine receptor was used. Our results show that the N-arylpiperazines binding site consists of two pockets: one is the orthosteric binding site where the N-arylpiperazine part of the ligand is docked and the second is a non-canonical accessory binding site for N-arylpipereazine that is formed by a second extracellular loop (ecl2) of the receptor. Until now, the structure of this receptor region was unresolved in crystal structure analyses of the D3 dopamine receptor. To get a more complete picture of the ligand - receptor interaction, DFT quantum mechanical calculations on N-arylpiperazine were performed and the obtained models were used to examine those interactions.

  4. Discovery of HDAC Inhibitors That Lack an Active Site Zn(2+)-Binding Functional Group.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Chris J; Olsen, Christian A; Leman, Luke J; Ghadiri, M Reza

    2012-06-14

    Natural and synthetic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors generally derive their strong binding affinity and high potency from a key functional group that binds to the Zn(2+) ion within the enzyme active site. However, this feature is also thought to carry the potential liability of undesirable off-target interactions with other metalloenzymes. As a step toward mitigating this issue, here, we describe the design, synthesis, and structure-activity characterizations of cyclic α3β-tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors that lack the presumed indispensable Zn(2+)-binding group. The lead compounds (e.g., 15 and 26) display good potency against class 1 HDACs and are active in tissue culture against various human cancer cell lines. Importantly, enzymological analysis of 26 indicates that the cyclic α3β-tetrapeptide is a fast-on/off competitive inhibitor of HDACs 1-3 with K i values of 49, 33, and 37 nM, respectively. Our proof of principle study supports the idea that novel classes of HDAC inhibitors, which interact at the active-site opening, but not with the active site Zn(2+), can have potential in drug design.

  5. Composite Structural Motifs of Binding Sites for Delineating Biological Functions of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Akira R.; Nakamura, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes are described as a series of interactions between proteins and other molecules, and interactions are in turn described in terms of atomic structures. To annotate protein functions as sets of interaction states at atomic resolution, and thereby to better understand the relation between protein interactions and biological functions, we conducted exhaustive all-against-all atomic structure comparisons of all known binding sites for ligands including small molecules, proteins and nucleic acids, and identified recurring elementary motifs. By integrating the elementary motifs associated with each subunit, we defined composite motifs that represent context-dependent combinations of elementary motifs. It is demonstrated that function similarity can be better inferred from composite motif similarity compared to the similarity of protein sequences or of individual binding sites. By integrating the composite motifs associated with each protein function, we define meta-composite motifs each of which is regarded as a time-independent diagrammatic representation of a biological process. It is shown that meta-composite motifs provide richer annotations of biological processes than sequence clusters. The present results serve as a basis for bridging atomic structures to higher-order biological phenomena by classification and integration of binding site structures. PMID:22347478

  6. Involvement of two classes of binding sites in the interactions of cyclophilin B with peripheral blood T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Denys, A; Allain, F; Carpentier, M; Spik, G

    1998-12-15

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein, mainly associated with the secretory pathway, and is released in biological fluids. We recently reported that CyPB specifically binds to T-lymphocytes and promotes enhanced incorporation of CsA. The interactions with cellular binding sites involved, at least in part, the specific N-terminal extension of the protein. In this study, we intended to specify further the nature of the CyPB-binding sites on peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. We first provide evidence that the CyPB binding to heparin-Sepharose is prevented by soluble sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAG), raising the interesting possibility that such interactions may occur on the T-cell surface. We then characterized CyPB binding to T-cell surface GAG and found that these interactions involved the N-terminal extension of CyPB, but not its conserved CsA-binding domain. In addition, we determined the presence of a second CyPB binding site, which we termed a type I site, in contrast with type II for GAG interactions. The two binding sites exhibit a similar affinity but the expression of the type I site was 3-fold lower. The conclusion that CyPB binding to the type I site is distinct from the interactions with GAG was based on the findings that it was (1) resistant to NaCl wash and GAG-degrading enzyme treatments, (2) reduced in the presence of CsA or cyclophilin C, and (3) unmodified in the presence of either the N-terminal peptide of CyPB or protamine. Finally, we showed that the type I binding sites were involved in an endocytosis process, supporting the hypothesis that they may correspond to a functional receptor for CyPB.

  7. Leishmania replication protein A-1 binds in vivo single-stranded telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.L. Siqueira; Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP; Lira, C.B.B.

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in different events of DNA metabolism. In yeast, subunits 1 (RPA-1) and 2 (RPA-2) work also as telomerase recruiters and, in humans, the complex unfolds G-quartet structures formed by the 3' G-rich telomeric strand. In most eukaryotes, RPA-1 and RPA-2 bind DNA using multiple OB fold domains. In trypanosomatids, including Leishmania, RPA-1 has a canonical OB fold and a truncated RFA-1 structural domain. In Leishmania amazonensis, RPA-1 alone can form a complex in vitro with the telomeric G-rich strand. In this work, we show that LaRPA-1 ismore » a nuclear protein that associates in vivo with Leishmania telomeres. We mapped the boundaries of the OB fold DNA-binding domain using deletion mutants. Since Leishmania and other trypanosomatids lack homologues of known telomere end binding proteins, our results raise questions about the function of RPA-1 in parasite telomeres.« less

  8. Transcription Factor Information System (TFIS): A Tool for Detection of Transcription Factor Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Narad, Priyanka; Kumar, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Amlan; Patni, Pranav; Sengupta, Abhishek; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Upadhyaya, K C

    2017-09-01

    Transcription factors are trans-acting proteins that interact with specific nucleotide sequences known as transcription factor binding site (TFBS), and these interactions are implicated in regulation of the gene expression. Regulation of transcriptional activation of a gene often involves multiple interactions of transcription factors with various sequence elements. Identification of these sequence elements is the first step in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism(s) that regulate the gene expression. For in silico identification of these sequence elements, we have developed an online computational tool named transcription factor information system (TFIS) for detecting TFBS for the first time using a collection of JAVA programs and is mainly based on TFBS detection using position weight matrix (PWM). The database used for obtaining position frequency matrices (PFM) is JASPAR and HOCOMOCO, which is an open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles. Pseudo-counts are used while converting PFM to PWM, and TFBS detection is carried out on the basis of percent score taken as threshold value. TFIS is equipped with advanced features such as direct sequence retrieving from NCBI database using gene identification number and accession number, detecting binding site for common TF in a batch of gene sequences, and TFBS detection after generating PWM from known raw binding sequences in addition to general detection methods. TFIS can detect the presence of potential TFBSs in both the directions at the same time. This feature increases its efficiency. And the results for this dual detection are presented in different colors specific to the orientation of the binding site. Results obtained by the TFIS are more detailed and specific to the detected TFs as integration of more informative links from various related web servers are added in the result pages like Gene Ontology, PAZAR database and Transcription Factor Encyclopedia in addition to NCBI and Uni

  9. High-Affinity Quasi-Specific Sites in the Genome: How the DNA-Binding Proteins Cope with Them

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, J.; Chandra, Navin; Raha, Paromita; Roy, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    Many prokaryotic transcription factors home in on one or a few target sites in the presence of a huge number of nonspecific sites. Our analysis of λ-repressor in the Escherichia coli genome based on single basepair substitution experiments shows the presence of hundreds of sites having binding energy within 3 Kcal/mole of the OR1 binding energy, and thousands of sites with binding energy above the nonspecific binding energy. The effect of such sites on DNA-based processes has not been fully explored. The presence of such sites dramatically lowers the occupation probability of the specific site far more than if the genome were composed of nonspecific sites only. Our Brownian dynamics studies show that the presence of quasi-specific sites results in very significant kinetic effects as well. In contrast to λ-repressor, the E. coli genome has orders of magnitude lower quasi-specific sites for GalR, an integral transcription factor, thus causing little competition for the specific site. We propose that GalR and perhaps repressors of the same family have evolved binding modes that lead to much smaller numbers of quasi-specific sites to remove the untoward effects of genomic DNA. PMID:21889449

  10. Stereoselective L-(3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, T.F.; Mpitsos, G.J.; Siebenaller, J.F.

    The muscarinic antagonist L-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-(/sup 3/H)QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably lessmore » effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution.« less

  11. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis desaturase DesA1 (Rv0824c) is a Ca{sup 2+} binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yeruva, Veena C., E-mail: veenachaitanya@ccmb.res.in; Savanagouder, Mamata; Khandelwal, Radhika

    The hallmark feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is its complex lipid rich cell wall comprised primarily of mycolic acids, long chain fatty acids that play a key role in structural stability and permeability of the cell wall. In addition, they are involved in inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion and aid in granuloma formation during the pathogenic process. M.tb DesA1 is an essential acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase predicted to catalyze the introduction of position specific double bonds during the biosynthesis of mycolic acids. This protein is one among three annotated desaturases (DesA1-3) in the M.tb genome butmore » is unique in containing a βγ-crystallin Greek key signature motif, a well-characterized fold known to mediate Ca{sup 2+} binding in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and {sup 45}CaCl{sub 2} overlay, we demonstrate that Ca{sup 2+} binds to DesA1. Spectroscopic measurements suggested that this binding induces changes in protein conformation but does not lead to significant alterations in the secondary structure of the protein, a feature common to several βγ-crystallins. An M. smegmatis strain over-expressing M.tb desA1 showed a Ca{sup 2+} dependent variation in surface phenotype, revealing a functional role for Ca{sup 2+}in DesA1 activity. This study represents the first identification of a Ca{sup 2+} binding βγ-crystallin in M.tb, emphasizing the implicit role of Ca{sup 2+} in the pathogenesis of M.tb. - Highlights: • Mycobacterium tuberculosis DesA1 is an essential acyl-ACP desaturase. • DesA1 was identified to contain a βγ-crystallin Greek key signature motif. • Ca{sup 2+} binds to DesA1 with an affinity of 53 μM and induces changes in its conformation. • M. smegmatis overexpressing M.tb DesA1 shows a Ca{sup 2+} dependent phenotype. • Targetting the Ca{sup 2+} dependent function of DesA1 could be of therapeutic value.« less

  12. Human 15-LOX-1 active site mutations alter inhibitor binding and decrease potency.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Michelle; van Hoorebeke, Christopher; Horn, Thomas; Deschamps, Joshua; Freedman, J Cody; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Jacobson, Matthew P; Holman, Theodore

    2016-11-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h15-LOX-1 or h12/15-LOX) reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids and produces bioactive lipid derivatives that are implicated in many important human diseases. One such disease is stroke, which is the fifth leading cause of death and the first leading cause of disability in America. The discovery of h15-LOX-1 inhibitors could potentially lead to novel therapeutics in the treatment of stroke, however, little is known about the inhibitor/active site interaction. This study utilizes site-directed mutagenesis, guided in part by molecular modeling, to gain a better structural understanding of inhibitor interactions within the active site. We have generated eight mutants (R402L, R404L, F414I, F414W, E356Q, Q547L, L407A, I417A) of h15-LOX-1 to determine whether these active site residues interact with two h15-LOX-1 inhibitors, ML351 and an ML094 derivative, compound 18. IC 50 values and steady-state inhibition kinetics were determined for the eight mutants, with four of the mutants affecting inhibitor potency relative to wild type h15-LOX-1 (F414I, F414W, E356Q and L407A). The data indicate that ML351 and compound 18, bind in a similar manner in the active site to an aromatic pocket close to F414 but have subtle differences in their specific binding modes. This information establishes the binding mode for ML094 and ML351 and will be leveraged to develop next-generation inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Features of the Copper Binding Sites in the Octarepeat Domain of the Prion Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Colin S.; Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah; Dunham, Christine M.; Lario, Paula; Avdievich, Nikolai I.; Antholine, William E.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Vrielink, Alice; Gerfen, Gary J.; Peisach, Jack; Scott, William G.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP) is a copper binding protein. The N-terminal region of human PrP contains four sequential copies of the highly conserved octarepeat sequence PHGGGWGQ spanning residues 60–91. This region selectively binds Cu2+ in vivo. In a previous study using peptide design, EPR, and CD spectroscopy, we showed that the HGGGW segment within each octarepeat comprises the fundamental Cu2+ binding unit [Aronoff-Spencer et al. (2000) Biochemistry 40, 13760–13771]. Here we present the first atomic resolution view of the copper binding site within an octarepeat. The crystal structure of HGGGW in a complex with Cu2+ reveals equatorial coordination by the histidine imidazole, two deprotonated glycine amides, and a glycine carbonyl, along with an axial water bridging to the Trp indole. Companion S-band EPR, X-band ESEEM, and HYSCORE experiments performed on a library of 15N-labeled peptides indicate that the structure of the copper binding site in HGGGW and PHGGGWGQ in solution is consistent with that of the crystal structure. Moreover, EPR performed on PrP(23–28, 57–91) and an 15N-labeled analogue demonstrates that the identified structure is maintained in the full PrP octarepeat domain. It has been shown that copper stimulates PrP endocytosis. The identified Gly–Cu linkage is unstable below pH ≈6.5 and thus suggests a pH-dependent molecular mechanism by which PrP detects Cu2+ in the extracellular matrix or releases PrP-bound Cu2+ within the endosome. The structure also reveals an unusual complementary interaction between copper-structured HGGGW units that may facilitate molecular recognition between prion proteins, thereby suggesting a mechanism for transmembrane signaling and perhaps conversion to the pathogenic form. PMID:11900542

  14. Modes of caldesmon binding to actin: sites of caldesmon contact and modulation of interactions by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Foster, D Brian; Huang, Renjian; Hatch, Victoria; Craig, Roger; Graceffa, Philip; Lehman, William; Wang, C-L Albert

    2004-12-17

    Smooth muscle caldesmon binds actin and inhibits actomyosin ATPase activity. Phosphorylation of caldesmon by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) reverses this inhibitory effect and weakens actin binding. To better understand this function, we have examined the phosphorylation-dependent contact sites of caldesmon on actin by low dose electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of actin filaments decorated with a C-terminal fragment, hH32K, of human caldesmon containing the principal actin-binding domains. Helical reconstruction of negatively stained filaments demonstrated that hH32K is located on the inner portion of actin subdomain 1, traversing its upper surface toward the C-terminal segment of actin, and forms a bridge to the neighboring actin monomer of the adjacent long pitch helical strand by connecting to its subdomain 3. Such lateral binding was supported by cross-linking experiments using a mutant isoform, which was capable of cross-linking actin subunits. Upon ERK phosphorylation, however, the mutant no longer cross-linked actin to polymers. Three-dimensional reconstruction of ERK-phosphorylated hH32K indeed indicated loss of the interstrand connectivity. These results, together with fluorescence quenching data, are consistent with a phosphorylation-dependent conformational change that moves the C-terminal end segment of caldesmon near the phosphorylation site but not the upstream region around Cys(595), away from F-actin, thus neutralizing its inhibitory effect on actomyosin interactions. The binding pattern of hH32K suggests a mechanism by which unphosphorylated, but not ERK-phosphorylated, caldesmon could stabilize actin filaments and resist F-actin severing or depolymerization in both smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells.

  15. Identification of Propofol Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with a Photoreactive Propofol Analog*

    PubMed Central

    Jayakar, Selwyn S.; Dailey, William P.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Propofol, a widely used intravenous general anesthetic, acts at anesthetic concentrations as a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and at higher concentration as an inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we characterize propofol binding sites in a muscle-type nAChR by use of a photoreactive analog of propofol, 2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol (AziPm). Based upon radioligand binding assays, AziPm stabilized the Torpedo nAChR in the resting state, whereas propofol stabilized the desensitized state. nAChR-rich membranes were photolabeled with [3H]AziPm, and labeled amino acids were identified by Edman degradation. [3H]AziPm binds at three sites within the nAChR transmembrane domain: (i) an intrasubunit site in the δ subunit helix bundle, photolabeling in the nAChR desensitized state (+agonist) δM2-18′ and two residues in δM1 (δPhe-232 and δCys-236); (ii) in the ion channel, photolabeling in the nAChR resting, closed channel state (−agonist) amino acids in the M2 helices (αM2-6′, βM2-6′ and -13′, and δM2-13′) that line the channel lumen (with photolabeling reduced by >90% in the desensitized state); and (iii) at the γ-α interface, photolabeling αM2-10′. Propofol enhanced [3H]AziPm photolabeling at αM2-10′. Propofol inhibited [3H]AziPm photolabeling within the δ subunit helix bundle at lower concentrations (IC50 = 40 μm) than it inhibited ion channel photolabeling (IC50 = 125 μm). These results identify for the first time a single intrasubunit propofol binding site in the nAChR transmembrane domain and suggest that this is the functionally relevant inhibitory binding site. PMID:23300078

  16. Spatial Analysis and Quantification of the Thermodynamic Driving Forces in Protein-Ligand Binding: Binding Site Variability

    PubMed Central

    Raman, E. Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic driving forces behind small molecule-protein binding are still not well understood, including the variability of those forces associated with different types of ligands in different binding pockets. To better understand these phenomena we calculate spatially resolved thermodynamic contributions of the different molecular degrees of freedom for the binding of propane and methanol to multiple pockets on the proteins Factor Xa and p38 MAP kinase. Binding thermodynamics are computed using a statistical thermodynamics based end-point method applied on a canonical ensemble comprising the protein-ligand complexes and the corresponding free states in an explicit solvent environment. Energetic and entropic contributions of water and ligand degrees of freedom computed from the configurational ensemble provides an unprecedented level of detail into the mechanisms of binding. Direct protein-ligand interaction energies play a significant role in both non-polar and polar binding, which is comparable to water reorganization energy. Loss of interactions with water upon binding strongly compensates these contributions leading to relatively small binding enthalpies. For both solutes, the entropy of water reorganization is found to favor binding in agreement with the classical view of the “hydrophobic effect”. Depending on the specifics of the binding pocket, both energy-entropy compensation and reinforcement mechanisms are observed. Notable is the ability to visualize the spatial distribution of the thermodynamic contributions to binding at atomic resolution showing significant differences in the thermodynamic contributions of water to the binding of propane versus methanol. PMID:25625202

  17. Chromatin-Specific Regulation of Mammalian rDNA Transcription by Clustered TTF-I Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Diermeier, Sarah D.; Németh, Attila; Rehli, Michael; Grummt, Ingrid; Längst, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Enhancers and promoters often contain multiple binding sites for the same transcription factor, suggesting that homotypic clustering of binding sites may serve a role in transcription regulation. Here we show that clustering of binding sites for the transcription termination factor TTF-I downstream of the pre-rRNA coding region specifies transcription termination, increases the efficiency of transcription initiation and affects the three-dimensional structure of rRNA genes. On chromatin templates, but not on free rDNA, clustered binding sites promote cooperative binding of TTF-I, loading TTF-I to the downstream terminators before it binds to the rDNA promoter. Interaction of TTF-I with target sites upstream and downstream of the rDNA transcription unit connects these distal DNA elements by forming a chromatin loop between the rDNA promoter and the terminators. The results imply that clustered binding sites increase the binding affinity of transcription factors in chromatin, thus influencing the timing and strength of DNA-dependent processes. PMID:24068958

  18. Clotrimazole and efaroxan inhibit red cell Gardos channel independently of imidazoline I1 and I2 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Coupry, I; Armsby, C C; Alper, S L; Brugnara, C; Parini, A

    1996-01-04

    In the present report, we investigated the potential involvement of imidazoline I1 and I2 binding sites in the inhibition of the Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel (Gardos channel) by clotrimazole in human red cells. Ca(2+)-activated 86Rb influx was inhibited by clotrimazole and efaroxan but not by the imidazoline binding site ligands clonidine, moxonidine, cirazoline and idazoxan (100 microM). Binding studies with [3H]idazoxan and [3H]p-aminoclonidine did not reveal the expression of I1 and I2 binding sites in erythrocytes. These data indicate that the effects of clotrimazole and efaroxan on the erythrocyte Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel may be mediated by a 'non-I1/non-I2' binding site.

  19. Localization and characterization of (/sup 3/H)desmethylimipramine binding sites in rat brain by quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Rainbow, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    The high affinity binding sites for the antidepressant desmethlyimipramine (DMI) have been localized in rat brain by quantitative autoradiography. There are high concentrations of binding sites in the locus ceruleus, the anterior ventral thalamus, the ventral portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and the dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. The distribution of DMI binding sites is in striking accord with the distribution of norepinephrine terminals. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine, which causes a selective degeneration of catecholamine terminals, results in 60 to 90% decrease in DMI binding. These data support the idea thatmore » high affinity binding sites for DMI are located on presynaptic noradrenergic terminals.« less

  20. Deciphering common recognition principles of nucleoside mono/di and tri-phosphates binding in diverse proteins via structural matching of their binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bhagavat, Raghu; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-09-01

    Nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) ligands are of high biological importance and are essential for all life forms. A pre-requisite for them to participate in diverse biochemical processes is their recognition by diverse proteins. It is thus of great interest to understand the basis for such recognition in different proteins. Towards this, we have used a structural bioinformatics approach and analyze structures of 4677 NTP complexes available in Protein Data Bank (PDB). Binding sites were extracted and compared exhaustively using PocketMatch, a sensitive in-house site comparison algorithm, which resulted in grouping the entire dataset into 27 site-types. Each of these site-types represent a structural motif comprised of two or more residue conservations, derived using another in-house tool for superposing binding sites, PocketAlign. The 27 site-types could be grouped further into 9 super-types by considering partial similarities in the sites, which indicated that the individual site-types comprise different combinations of one or more site features. A scan across PDB using the 27 structural motifs determined the motifs to be specific to NTP binding sites, and a computational alanine mutagenesis indicated that residues identified to be highly conserved in the motifs are also most contributing to binding. Alternate orientations of the ligand in several site-types were observed and rationalized, indicating the possibility of some residues serving as anchors for NTP recognition. The presence of multiple site-types and the grouping of multiple folds into each site-type is strongly suggestive of convergent evolution. Knowledge of determinants obtained from this study will be useful for detecting function in unknown proteins. Proteins 2017; 85:1699-1712. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The D-galactose specific lectin of field bean (Dolichos lablab) seed binds sugars with extreme negative cooperativity and half-of-the-sites binding.

    PubMed

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2012-08-15

    The field bean (Dolichos lablab) lectin designated as PPO-haemagglutinin (DLL-II) is bifunctional, exhibiting both polyphenol oxidase and haemagglutinating activity. The lectin is unusual in that it binds galactose (Gal), lactose (Lac) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) only in the presence of (NH₄)₂SO₄ and exhibits negative cooperativity and half-of-the-sites binding. Circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence quenching were used to assess the sugar binding in the presence of (NH₄)₂O₄. Comparison of the near-UV CD spectra with and without bound sugar revealed ligand induced conformational changes. The intrinsic fluorescence quenching data indicate that DLL-II exhibits weak binding to Gal in the presence of (NH₄)₂SO₄ with a stoichiometry of one bound ligand per dimer. ITC data fitted using a two sets of sites binding model presented a similar picture. The K(a)'s for Gal, Lac and GalNAc in the presence of (NH₄)₂SO₄ were 0.16±0.002, 0.21±0.004 and 8.45±0.78 (×10⁻³) M⁻¹ respectively. The Hill plot for the binding of these sugars to DLL-II was curvilinear with a tangent slope <1.0 indicating negative cooperativity. DLL-II thus exhibits half-of-the-site binding, an extreme form of negative cooperativity in which the second ligand does not bind at all. This is the first report of a legume lectin, exhibiting half-of-the-sites binding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Probing the binding sites and the effect of berbamine on the structure of bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Lui, Yi; Zhou, Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He; Liu, Yi

    2009-06-01

    Berbamine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Berberis sp., is the active constituent of some Chinese herbal medicines and exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities. The effects of berbamine on the structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by circular dichroism, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy under physiological conditions. Berbamine caused a static quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA, and the quenching data were analyzed by application of the Stern-Volmer equation. There was a single primary berbamine-binding site on BSA with a binding constant of 2.577 × 10 4 L mol -1 at 298 K. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ H0) and entropy change (Δ S0) for the reaction were -76.5 kJ mol -1 and -173.4 J mol -1 K -1 according to the van't Hoff equation. The results showed that the hydrogen bond and van der Waals interaction were the predominant forces in the binding process. Competitive experiments revealed a displacement of warfarin by berbamine, indicating that the binding site was located at Drug sites I. The distance r between the donor (BSA) and the acceptor (berbamine) was obtained according to the Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The results of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption difference spectra and circular dichroism of BSA in the presence of berbamine showed that the conformation of BSA was changed. The results provide a quantitative understanding of the effect of berbamine on the structure of bovine serum albumin, providing a useful guideline for further drug design.

  3. Probing the binding sites and the effect of berbamine on the structure of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Lui, Yi; Zhou, Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He; Liu, Yi

    2009-06-01

    Berbamine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Berberis sp., is the active constituent of some Chinese herbal medicines and exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities. The effects of berbamine on the structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by circular dichroism, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy under physiological conditions. Berbamine caused a static quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA, and the quenching data were analyzed by application of the Stern-Volmer equation. There was a single primary berbamine-binding site on BSA with a binding constant of 2.577x10(4)Lmol(-1) at 298K. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (DeltaH(0)) and entropy change (DeltaS(0)) for the reaction were -76.5kJmol(-1) and -173.4Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to the van't Hoff equation. The results showed that the hydrogen bond and van der Waals interaction were the predominant forces in the binding process. Competitive experiments revealed a displacement of warfarin by berbamine, indicating that the binding site was located at Drug sites I. The distance r between the donor (BSA) and the acceptor (berbamine) was obtained according to the Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The results of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption difference spectra and circular dichroism of BSA in the presence of berbamine showed that the conformation of BSA was changed. The results provide a quantitative understanding of the effect of berbamine on the structure of bovine serum albumin, providing a useful guideline for further drug design.

  4. Structural changes at the metal ion binding site during the phosphoglucomutase reaction.

    PubMed

    Ray, W J; Post, C B; Liu, Y; Rhyu, G I

    1993-01-12

    An electron density map of the reactive, Cd2+ form of crystalline phosphoglucomutase from X-ray diffraction studies shows that the enzymic phosphate donates a nonbridging oxygen to the ligand sphere of the bound metal ion, which appears to be tetracoordinate. 31P and 113Cd NMR spectroscopy are used to assess changes in the properties of bound Cd2+ produced by substrate/product and by substrate/product analog inhibitors. The approximately 50 ppm downfield shift of the 113Cd resonance on formation of the complex of dephosphoenzyme and glucose 1,6-bisphosphate is associated with the initial sugar-phosphate binding step and likely involves a change in the geometry of the coordinating ligands. This interpretation is supported by spectral studies involving various complexes of the active Co2+ and Ni(2+)-enzyme. In addition, there is a loss of the 31P-113Cd J coupling that characterizes the monophosphate complexes of the Cd2+ enzyme either during or immediately after the PO3- transfer step that produces the bisphosphate complex, indicating a further change at the metal binding site. The implications of these observations with respect to the PO3- transfer process in the phosphoglucomutase reaction are considered. The apparent plasticity of the ligand sphere of the active site metal ion in this system may allow a single metal ion to act as a chaperone for a nonbridging oxygen during PO3- transfer or to allow a change in metal ion coordination during catalysis. A general NMR line shape/chemical-exchange analysis for evaluating binding in protein-ligand systems when exchange is intermediate to fast on the NMR time scale is described. Its application to the present system involves multiple exchange sites that depend on a single binding rate, thereby adding further constraints to the analysis.

  5. Validation of binding of SE-75 labeled sucralfate to sites of gastrointestinal ulceration

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, A.H.; Knight, L.C.; Kollman, M.

    1985-05-01

    This study was performed to determine if and for how long sucralfate (SU) binds selectively to sites of gastro-intestinal (GI) ulceration. Se-Su was prepared by sulfating sucrose with tracer Se-75 and precipitating it as the basic Al salt. All patients (pts) had endoscopy to confirm the presence of either: esophagitis (n=5), gastritis (GA) (n=5), gastric ulcers (GU) (n=5), duodenal ulcers (DU) (n=5), or no ulceration (NU) (n=5). Following an overnight fast the pts swallowed 1 gm with 100 ..mu..Ci of Se-SU and were imaged continuously over 24 hours or until no activity remained in the upper GI tract. Pts withmore » GU visually demonstrated focal SU binding at the ulcers for an average of 3.9 +- 1.1 hrs. with a mean GET of 68 +- 25 min. Mean GET for pts with DU was prolonged, 171 +- 63 min, however focal binding at duodenal ulcers was not seen. All pts with GA had diffuse retention of SU in the stomach with a mean GET of 118 +- 34 min. Focal binding of SU at all sites of esophagitis was seen with a T-1/2 of 65 +- 32 min at the ulcerations. In conclusion these data support the theory that the mechanism of ulcer healing with SU is related to its ability to adhere to the ulcer site forming a protective barrier. In addition Se-SU is a potential ulcer imaging agent which can be used to noninvasively assess healing.« less

  6. Tb3+-cleavage assays reveal specific Mg2+ binding sites necessary to pre-fold the btuB riboswitch for AdoCbl binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Pallavi K.; Gallo, Sofia; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2017-03-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements that bind specific metabolites in order to regulate the gene expression involved in controlling the cellular concentration of the respective molecule or ion. Ligand recognition is mostly facilitated by Mg2+ mediated pre-organization of the riboswitch to an active tertiary fold. To predict these specific Mg2+ induced tertiary interactions of the btuB riboswitch from E. coli, we here report Mg2+ binding pockets in its aptameric part in both, the ligand-free and the ligand-bound form. An ensemble of weak and strong metal ion binding sites distributed over the entire aptamer was detected by terbium(III) cleavage assays, Tb3+ being an established Mg2+ mimic. Interestingly many of the Mn+ (n = 2 or 3) binding sites involve conserved bases within the class of coenzyme B12-binding riboswitches. Comparison with the published crystal structure of the coenzyme B12 riboswitch of S. thermophilum aided in identifying a common set of Mn+ binding sites that might be crucial for tertiary interactions involved in the organization of the aptamer. Our results suggest that Mn+ binding at strategic locations of the btuB riboswitch indeed facilitates the assembly of the binding pocket needed for ligand recognition. Binding of the specific ligand, coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl), to the btuB aptamer does however not lead to drastic alterations of these Mn+ binding cores, indicating the lack of a major rearrangement within the three-dimensional structure of the RNA. This finding is strengthened by Tb3+ mediated footprints of the riboswitch's structure in its ligand-free and ligand-bound state indicating that AdoCbl indeed induces local changes rather than a global structural rearrangement.

  7. Engineered Single-Chain, Antiparallel, Coiled Coil Mimics the MerR Metal Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lingyun; Caguiat, Jonathan; Li, Zhongrui; Shokes, Jacob; Scott, Robert A.; Olliff, Lynda; Summers, Anne O.

    2004-01-01

    The repressor-activator MerR that controls transcription of the mercury resistance (mer) operon is unusual for its high sensitivity and specificity for Hg(II) in in vivo and in vitro transcriptional assays. The metal-recognition domain of MerR resides at the homodimer interface in a novel antiparallel arrangement of α-helix 5 that forms a coiled-coil motif. To facilitate the study of this novel metal binding motif, we assembled this antiparallel coiled coil into a single chain by directly fusing two copies of the 48-residue α-helix 5 of MerR. The resulting 107-residue polypeptide, called the metal binding domain (MBD), and wild-type MerR were overproduced and purified, and their metal-binding properties were determined in vivo and in vitro. In vitro MBD bound ca. 1.0 equivalent of Hg(II) per pair of binding sites, just as MerR does, and it showed only a slightly lower affinity for Hg(II) than did MerR. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data showed that MBD has essentially the same Hg(II) coordination environment as MerR. In vivo, cells overexpressing MBD accumulated 70 to 100% more 203Hg(II) than cells bearing the vector alone, without deleterious effects on cell growth. Both MerR and MBD variously bound other thiophilic metal ions, including Cd(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), and As(III), in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that (i) it is possible to simulate in a single polypeptide chain the in vitro and in vivo metal-binding ability of dimeric, full-length MerR and (ii) MerR's specificity in transcriptional activation does not reside solely in the metal-binding step. PMID:14996817

  8. Relationship between helix stability and binding affinities: molecular dynamics simulations of Bfl-1/A1-binding pro-apoptotic BH3 peptide helices in explicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Modi, Vivek; Lama, Dilraj; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein Bfl-1, also known as A1, belongs to the Bcl-2 family of proteins and interacts with pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 counterparts to regulate programmed cell death. As demonstrated for other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, Bfl-1/A1 has also been shown to be overexpressed in various human cancers and hence they are attractive targets for anticancer drugs. Peptides derived from the BH3 region of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins have been shown to elicit similar biological response as that of parent proteins. BH3 peptides from different pro-apoptotic proteins have wide range of affinities for Bfl-1/A1. Experimentally determined complex structures show that the hydrophobic side of amphipathic BH3 peptides binds to the hydrophobic groove formed by the α-helical bundle of Bfl-1/A1 protein. Apart from the length and amino acid composition, a BH3 peptide's ability to form a stable helical structure has been suggested to be important for its high binding affinity. Molecular dynamics simulations of three BH3 peptides derived from the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak, Bid, and Bmf were carried out each for a period of at least 100 ns after 2 ns equilibration run. The length of simulated BH3 peptides varied from 22 to 24 residues and their binding affinities for Bfl-1/A1 varied from 1 to 180 nM. Our results show that the hydrophobic residues from the hydrophobic face of BH3 peptides tend to cluster together quickly to avoid being exposed to the solvent. This resulted in either reduction of helix length or complete loss of helical character. Bak and Bid BH3 peptides with high affinities for Bf1-1/A1 have stable helical segments in the N-terminal region. The highly conserved Leu residue lies just outside the helical region at the C-terminal end. Capping interactions arising out of N-cap residues seem to be extremely important to maintain the helical stability. Favorable hydrophilic interactions between residues also give further stability to the helix fragment and at least

  9. Probing the dynamic nature of water molecules and their influences on ligand binding in a model binding site.

    PubMed

    Cappel, Daniel; Wahlström, Rickard; Brenk, Ruth; Sotriffer, Christoph A

    2011-10-24

    The model binding site of the cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) W191G mutant is used to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of the water network at the buried cavity using computational methods supported by crystallographic analysis. In particular, the differences of the hydration pattern between the uncomplexed state and various complexed forms are analyzed as well as the differences between five complexes of CCP W191G with structurally closely related ligands. The ability of docking programs to correctly handle the water molecules in these systems is studied in detail. It is found that fully automated prediction of water replacement or retention upon docking works well if some additional preselection is carried out but not necessarily if the entire water network in the cavity is used as input. On the other hand, molecular interaction fields for water calculated from static crystal structures and hydration density maps obtained from molecular dynamics simulations agree very well with crystallographically observed water positions. For one complex, the docking and MD results sensitively depend on the quality of the starting structure, and agreement is obtained only after redetermination of the crystal structure and refinement at higher resolution.

  10. Delineation of the peptide binding site of the human galanin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kask, K; Berthold, M; Kahl, U; Nordvall, G; Bartfai, T

    1996-01-01

    Galanin, a neuroendocrine peptide of 29 amino acids, binds to Gi/Go-coupled receptors to trigger cellular responses. To determine which amino acids of the recently cloned seven-transmembrane domain-type human galanin receptor are involved in the high-affinity binding of the endogenous peptide ligand, we performed a mutagenesis study. Mutation of the His264 or His267 of transmembrane domain VI to alanine, or of Phe282 of transmembrane domain VII to glycine, results in an apparent loss of galanin binding. The substitution of Glu271 to serine in the extracellular loop III of the receptor causes a 12-fold loss in affinity for galanin. We combined the mutagenesis results with data on the pharmacophores (Trp2, Tyr9) of galanin and with molecular modelling of the receptor using bacteriorhodopsin as a model. Based on these studies, we propose a binding site model for the endogenous peptide ligand in the galanin receptor where the N-terminus of galanin hydrogen bonds with Glu271 of the receptor, Trp2 of galanin interacts with the Zn2+ sensitive pair of His264 and His267 of transmembrane domain VI, and Tyr9 of galanin interacts with Phe282 of transmembrane domain VII, while the C-terminus of galanin is pointing towards the N-terminus of th Images PMID:8617199

  11. Biocompatible medical implant materials with binding sites for a biodegradable drug-delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Haifa; Pittner, Gisela; Pittner, Fritz; Gabor, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility studies have been carried out for development of a biocompatible coating of medical implant materials allowing the binding of biodegradable drug-delivery systems in a way that their reloading might be possible. These novel coatings, able to bind biodegradable nanoparticles, may serve in the long run as drug carriers to mediate local pharmacological activity. After biodegradation of the nanoparticles, the binding sites could be reloaded with fresh drug-delivering particles. As a suitable receptor system for the nanoparticles, antibodies are anchored. The design of the receptor is of great importance as any bio- or chemorecognitive interaction with other components circulating in the blood has to be avoided. Furthermore, the binding between receptor and the particles has to be strong enough to keep them tightly bound during their lifetime, but on the other hand allow reloading after final degradation of the particles. The nanoparticles suggested as a drug-delivery system for medical implants can be loaded with different pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, growth factors, or immunosuppressives. This concept may enable the changing of medication, even after implantation of the medical device, if afforded by patients’ needs. PMID:24198488

  12. SELMAP - SELEX affinity landscape MAPping of transcription factor binding sites using integrated microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dana; Orenstein, Yaron; Golodnitsky, Rada; Pellach, Michal; Avrahami, Dorit; Wachtel, Chaim; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Shir-Shapira, Hila; Kedmi, Adi; Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) alter gene expression in response to changes in the environment through sequence-specific interactions with the DNA. These interactions are best portrayed as a landscape of TF binding affinities. Current methods to study sequence-specific binding preferences suffer from limited dynamic range, sequence bias, lack of specificity and limited throughput. We have developed a microfluidic-based device for SELEX Affinity Landscape MAPping (SELMAP) of TF binding, which allows high-throughput measurement of 16 proteins in parallel. We used it to measure the relative affinities of Pho4, AtERF2 and Btd full-length proteins to millions of different DNA binding sites, and detected both high and low-affinity interactions in equilibrium conditions, generating a comprehensive landscape of the relative TF affinities to all possible DNA 6-mers, and even DNA10-mers with increased sequencing depth. Low quantities of both the TFs and DNA oligomers were sufficient for obtaining high-quality results, significantly reducing experimental costs. SELMAP allows in-depth screening of hundreds of TFs, and provides a means for better understanding of the regulatory processes that govern gene expression. PMID:27628341

  13. Ropizine concurrently enhances and inhibits ( sup 3 H) dextromethorpan binding to different structures of the guinea pig brain: Autoradiographic evidence for multiple binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Canoll, P.D.; Smith, P.R.; and Musacchio, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Ropizine produces a simultaneous enhancement and inhibition of ({sup 3}H) dextromethorphan (DM) high-affinity binding to different areas of the guinea pig brain. These results imply that there are two distinct types of high-affinity ({sup 3}H)DM binding sites, which are present in variable proportions in different brain structures. The ropizine-enhances ({sup 3}H)DM binding type was preferentially inhibited by (+)-pentazocine. This is consistent with the presumption that the (+)-pentazocine-sensitive site is identical with the common site for DM and 3-(-3-Hydroxphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine ((+)-3-PPP). The second binding type, which is inhibited by ropizine and is not so sensitive to (+){minus} pentazocine, has not been fullymore » characterized. This study demonstrates that the biphasic effects to ropizine are due, at least in part, to the effects of ropizine on two different types of ({sup 3}H)DM binding sites. However, this study does not rule out that the common DM/(+)-3-PPP site also might be inhibited by higher concentrations of ropizine.« less

  14. Norovirus Genome Circularization and Efficient Replication Are Facilitated by Binding of PCBP2 and hnRNP A1

    PubMed Central

    López-Manríquez, Eduardo; Vashist, Surender; Ureña, Luis; Goodfellow, Ian; Chavez, Pedro; Mora-Heredia, José Eduardo; Cancio-Lonches, Clotilde; Garrido, Efraín

    2013-01-01

    Sequences and structures within the terminal genomic regions of plus-strand RNA viruses are targets for the binding of host proteins that modulate functions such as translation, RNA replication, and encapsidation. Using murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), we describe the presence of long-range RNA-RNA interactions that were stabilized by cellular proteins. The proteins potentially responsible for the stabilization were selected based on their ability to bind the MNV-1 genome and/or having been reported to be involved in the stabilization of RNA-RNA interactions. Cell extracts were preincubated with antibodies against the selected proteins and used for coprecipitation reactions. Extracts treated with antibodies to poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 significantly reduced the 5′-3′ interaction. Both PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 recombinant proteins stabilized the 5′-3′ interactions and formed ribonucleoprotein complexes with the 5′ and 3′ ends of the MNV-1 genomic RNA. Mutations within the 3′ complementary sequences (CS) that disrupt the 5′-3′-end interactions resulted in a significant reduction of the viral titer, suggesting that the integrity of the 3′-end sequence and/or the lack of complementarity with the 5′ end is important for efficient virus replication. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PCBP2 or hnRNP A1 resulted in a reduction in virus yield, confirming a role for the observed interactions in efficient viral replication. PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 induced the circularization of MNV-1 RNA, as revealed by electron microscopy. This study provides evidence that PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 bind to the 5′ and 3′ ends of the MNV-1 viral RNA and contribute to RNA circularization, playing a role in the virus life cycle. PMID:23946460

  15. Cross-neutralizing human anti-poliovirus antibodies bind the recognition site for cellular receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaochun; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Hansen, Bryan T.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Bidzhieva, Bella; Makiya, Michelle; Agulto, Liane; Purcell, Robert H.; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Most structural information about poliovirus interaction with neutralizing antibodies was obtained in the 1980s in studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Recently we have isolated a number of human/chimpanzee anti-poliovirus antibodies and demonstrated that one of them, MAb A12, could neutralize polioviruses of both serotypes 1 and 2. This communication presents data on isolation of an additional cross-neutralizing antibody (F12) and identification of a previously unknown epitope on the surface of poliovirus virions. Epitope mapping was performed by sequencing of antibody-resistant mutants and by cryo-EM of complexes of virions with Fab fragments. The results have demonstrated that both cross-neutralizing antibodies bind the site located at the bottom of the canyon surrounding the fivefold axis of symmetry that was previously shown to interact with cellular poliovirus receptor CD155. However, the same antibody binds to serotypes 1 and 2 through different specific interactions. It was also shown to interact with type 3 poliovirus, albeit with about 10-fold lower affinity, insufficient for effective neutralization. Antibody interaction with the binding site of the cellular receptor may explain its broad reactivity and suggest that further screening or antibody engineering could lead to a universal antibody capable of neutralizing all three serotypes of poliovirus. PMID:24277851

  16. Computational approaches for de novo design and redesign of metal-binding sites on proteins.

    PubMed

    Akcapinar, Gunseli Bayram; Sezerman, Osman Ugur

    2017-04-28

    Metal ions play pivotal roles in protein structure, function and stability. The functional and structural diversity of proteins in nature expanded with the incorporation of metal ions or clusters in proteins. Approximately one-third of these proteins in the databases contain metal ions. Many biological and chemical processes in nature involve metal ion-binding proteins, aka metalloproteins. Many cellular reactions that underpin life require metalloproteins. Most of the remarkable, complex chemical transformations are catalysed by metalloenzymes. Realization of the importance of metal-binding sites in a variety of cellular events led to the advancement of various computational methods for their prediction and characterization. Furthermore, as structural and functional knowledgebase about metalloproteins is expanding with advances in computational and experimental fields, the focus of the research is now shifting towards de novo design and redesign of metalloproteins to extend nature's own diversity beyond its limits. In this review, we will focus on the computational toolbox for prediction of metal ion-binding sites, de novo metalloprotein design and redesign. We will also give examples of tailor-made artificial metalloproteins designed with the computational toolbox. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid binds to the G-protein site on light activated rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Lobysheva, E; Taylor, C M; Marshall, G R; Kisselev, O G

    2018-05-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein binding site on G-protein coupled receptors remains relatively unexplored regarding its potential as a new target of therapeutic intervention or as a secondary site of action by the existing drugs. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid bears structural resemblance to several compounds that were previously identified to specifically bind to the light-activated form of the visual receptor rhodopsin and to inhibit its activation of transducin. We show that TUDCA stabilizes the active form of rhodopsin, metarhodopsin II, and does not display the detergent-like effects of common amphiphilic compounds that share the cholesterol scaffold structure, such as deoxycholic acid. Computer docking of TUDCA to the model of light-activated rhodopsin revealed that it interacts using similar mode of binding to the C-terminal domain of transducin alpha subunit. The ring regions of TUDCA made hydrophobic contacts with loop 3 region of rhodopsin, while the tail of TUDCA is exposed to solvent. The results show that TUDCA interacts specifically with rhodopsin, which may contribute to its wide-ranging effects on retina physiology and as a potential therapeutic compound for retina degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of metal binding sites onto biochar using rare earth elements as a fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Houben, David

    2018-02-01

    The ability of biochar to immobilize metals relies on the amount of functional groups at its surface but the contribution of each functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic) to metal bonding is poorly known. Using a new approach based on previous works on rare earth element (REE) interactions with humic substances, we aim at elucidating the relative contribution of these binding sites to metal sorption under various conditions (i.e. pH and ionic strengths, IS). Using batch experiments, REE sorption onto biochar was analyzed from pH 3 to 9 and IS 10 -1 mol/L to 10 -3 mol/L. Rare earth element patterns show a Middle REE (MREE) downward concavity at acidic pH and low ionic strength. These patterns are in good agreement with existing datasets quantifying REE binding with humic substances. Indeed, the MREE downward concavity displayed by REE-biochar complexation pattern compares well with REE patterns with various organic compounds. This similarity in the REE complexation pattern shapes suggests that carboxylic groups are the main binding sites of REE in biochar. Overall, our results indicate that the strength of the metal bonding with biochar increases when pH and IS increase, suggesting that biochar is more efficient for long-term metal immobilization at near neutral pH and high ionic strength.

  19. Parkin-phosphoubiquitin complex reveals cryptic ubiqui