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Sample records for a1 heterogeneous nuclear

  1. Chemical Proteomics Identifies Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 as the Molecular Target of Quercetin in Its Anti-cancer Effects in PC-3 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Chia-Chen; Chen, Yun-Ju; Chen, Chih-Ta; Liu, Yu-Chih; Cheng, Fong-Chi; Hsu, Kai-Chao; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid abundantly present in plants, is widely used as a phytotherapy in prostatitis and prostate cancer. Although quercetin has been reported to have a number of therapeutic effects, the cellular target(s) responsible for its anti-cancer action has not yet been clearly elucidated. Here, employing affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) as a direct target of quercetin. A specific interaction between quercetin and hnRNPA1 was validated by immunoblotting and in vitro binding experiments. We found that quercetin bound the C-terminal region of hnRNPA1, impairing the ability of hnRNPA1 to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm and ultimately resulting in its cytoplasmic retention. In addition, hnRNPA1 was recruited to stress granules after treatment of cells with quercetin for up to 48 h, and the levels of cIAP1 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis), an internal ribosome entry site translation-dependent protein, were reduced by hnRNPA1 regulation. This is the first report that anti-cancer effects of quercetin are mediated, in part, by impairing functions of hnRNPA1, insights that were obtained using a chemical proteomics strategy. PMID:24962584

  2. Novel Pathological Role of hnRNPA1 (Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1) in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function and Neointima Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qishan; An, Weiwei; Yang, Feng; Maguire, Eithne Margaret; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Cheng; Wen, Guanmei; Yang, Mei; Dai, Bin; Luong, Le Anh; Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Qingbo

    2017-01-01

    Objective— hnRNPA1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1) plays a variety of roles in gene expression. However, little is known about the functional involvement of hnRNPA1 in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function and neointima hyperplasia. In this study, we have attempted to investigate the functional roles of hnRNPA1 in the contexts of VSMC function, injury-induced vessel remodeling, and human atherosclerotic lesions, as well as discern the molecular mechanisms involved. Approach and Results— hnRNPA1 expression levels were consistently modulated during VSMC phenotype switching and neointimal lesion formation induced by wire injury. Functional studies showed that VSMC-specific gene expression, proliferation, and migration were regulated by hnRNPA1. Our data show that hnRNPA1 exerts its effects on VSMC functions through modulation of IQGAP1 (IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1). Mechanistically, hnRNPA1 regulates IQGAP1 mRNA degradation through 2 mechanisms: upregulating microRNA-124 (miR-124) and binding to AU-rich element of IQGAP1 gene. Further evidence suggests that hnRNPA1 upregulates miR-124 by modulating miR-124 biogenesis and that IQGAP1 is the authentic target gene of miR-124. Importantly, ectopic overexpression of hnRNPA1 greatly reduced VSMC proliferation and inhibited neointima formation in wire-injured carotid arteries. Finally, lower expression levels of hnRNPA1 and miR-124, while higher expression levels of IQGAP1, were observed in human atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions— Our data show that hnRNPA1 is a critical regulator of VSMC function and behavior in the context of neointima hyperplasia, and the hnRNPA1/miR-124/IQGAP1 regulatory axis represents a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28912364

  3. HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH POWER HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Wykoff, W.R.; Busey, H.M.

    1960-06-14

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor is designed comprising a stationary housing and a rotatable annular core being supported for rotation about a vertical axis in the housing, the core containing a plurality of radial fuel- element supporting channels, the cylindrical empty space along the axis of the core providing a central plenum for the disposal of spent fuel elements, the core cross section outer periphery being vertically gradated in radius one end from the other to provide a coolant duct between the core and the housing, and means for inserting fresh fuel elements in the supporting channels under pressure and while the reactor is in operation.

  4. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein M Facilitates Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jagdeo, Julienne M.; Dufour, Antoine; Fung, Gabriel; Luo, Honglin; Kleifeld, Oded; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Picornavirus infection involves a dynamic interplay of host and viral protein interactions that modulates cellular processes to facilitate virus infection and evade host antiviral defenses. Here, using a proteomics-based approach known as TAILS to identify protease-generated neo-N-terminal peptides, we identify a novel target of the poliovirus 3C proteinase, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP M), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein that is primarily known for its role in pre-mRNA splicing. hnRNP M is cleaved in vitro by poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C proteinases and is targeted in poliovirus- and CVB3-infected HeLa cells and in the hearts of CVB3-infected mice. hnRNP M relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during poliovirus infection. Finally, depletion of hnRNP M using small interfering RNA knockdown approaches decreases poliovirus and CVB3 infections in HeLa cells and does not affect poliovirus internal ribosome entry site translation and viral RNA stability. We propose that cleavage of and subverting the function of hnRNP M is a general strategy utilized by picornaviruses to facilitate viral infection. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses, a member of the picornavirus family, are RNA viruses that cause a range of diseases, including respiratory ailments, dilated cardiomyopathy, and paralysis. Although enteroviruses have been studied for several decades, the molecular basis of infection and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to disease are still poorly understood. Here, we identify hnRNP M as a novel target of a viral proteinase. We demonstrate that the virus subverts the function of hnRNP M and redirects it to a step in the viral life cycle. We propose that cleavage of hnRNP M is a general strategy that picornaviruses use to facilitate infection. PMID:25926642

  5. Serine/Arginine-Rich Splicing Factor 3 and Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1 Regulate Alternative RNA Splicing and Gene Expression of Human Papillomavirus 18 through Two Functionally Distinguishable cis Elements.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Tang, Shuang; Doorbar, John; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2016-10-15

    Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) is the second most common oncogenic HPV type associated with cervical, anogenital, and oropharyngeal cancers. Like other oncogenic HPVs, HPV18 encodes two major (one early and one late) polycistronic pre-mRNAs that are regulated by alternative RNA splicing to produce a repertoire of viral transcripts for the expression of individual viral genes. However, RNA cis-regulatory elements and trans-acting factors contributing to HPV18 alternative RNA splicing remain unknown. In this study, an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in the nucleotide (nt) 3520 to 3550 region in the HPV18 genome was identified and characterized for promotion of HPV18 929^3434 splicing and E1^E4 production through interaction with SRSF3, a host oncogenic splicing factor differentially expressed in epithelial cells and keratinocytes. Introduction of point mutations in the SRSF3-binding site or knockdown of SRSF3 expression in cells reduces 929^3434 splicing and E1^E4 production but activates other, minor 929^3465 and 929^3506 splicing. Knockdown of SRSF3 expression also enhances the expression of E2 and L1 mRNAs. An exonic splicing silencer (ESS) in the HPV18 nt 612 to 639 region was identified as being inhibitory to the 233^416 splicing of HPV18 E6E7 pre-mRNAs via binding to hnRNP A1, a well-characterized, abundantly and ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein. Introduction of point mutations into the hnRNP A1-binding site or knockdown of hnRNP A1 expression promoted 233^416 splicing and reduced E6 expression. These data provide the first evidence that the alternative RNA splicing of HPV18 pre-mRNAs is subject to regulation by viral RNA cis elements and host trans-acting splicing factors. Expression of HPV18 genes is regulated by alternative RNA splicing of viral polycistronic pre-mRNAs to produce a repertoire of viral early and late transcripts. RNA cis elements and trans-acting factors contributing to HPV18 alternative RNA splicing have been discovered in this

  6. Serine/Arginine-Rich Splicing Factor 3 and Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1 Regulate Alternative RNA Splicing and Gene Expression of Human Papillomavirus 18 through Two Functionally Distinguishable cis Elements

    PubMed Central

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Tang, Shuang; Doorbar, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) is the second most common oncogenic HPV type associated with cervical, anogenital, and oropharyngeal cancers. Like other oncogenic HPVs, HPV18 encodes two major (one early and one late) polycistronic pre-mRNAs that are regulated by alternative RNA splicing to produce a repertoire of viral transcripts for the expression of individual viral genes. However, RNA cis-regulatory elements and trans-acting factors contributing to HPV18 alternative RNA splicing remain unknown. In this study, an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in the nucleotide (nt) 3520 to 3550 region in the HPV18 genome was identified and characterized for promotion of HPV18 929^3434 splicing and E1^E4 production through interaction with SRSF3, a host oncogenic splicing factor differentially expressed in epithelial cells and keratinocytes. Introduction of point mutations in the SRSF3-binding site or knockdown of SRSF3 expression in cells reduces 929^3434 splicing and E1^E4 production but activates other, minor 929^3465 and 929^3506 splicing. Knockdown of SRSF3 expression also enhances the expression of E2 and L1 mRNAs. An exonic splicing silencer (ESS) in the HPV18 nt 612 to 639 region was identified as being inhibitory to the 233^416 splicing of HPV18 E6E7 pre-mRNAs via binding to hnRNP A1, a well-characterized, abundantly and ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein. Introduction of point mutations into the hnRNP A1-binding site or knockdown of hnRNP A1 expression promoted 233^416 splicing and reduced E6 expression. These data provide the first evidence that the alternative RNA splicing of HPV18 pre-mRNAs is subject to regulation by viral RNA cis elements and host trans-acting splicing factors. IMPORTANCE Expression of HPV18 genes is regulated by alternative RNA splicing of viral polycistronic pre-mRNAs to produce a repertoire of viral early and late transcripts. RNA cis elements and trans-acting factors contributing to HPV18 alternative RNA splicing have been

  7. Small nuclear RNA U2 is base-paired to heterogeneous nuclear RNA.

    PubMed

    Calvet, J P; Meyer, L M; Pederson, T

    1982-07-30

    Eukaryotic cells contain a set of low molecular weight nuclear RNA's. One of the more abundant of these is termed U2 RNA. The possibility that U2 RNA is hydrogen-bonded to complementary sequences in other nuclear RNA's was investigated. Cultured human (HeLa) cells were treated with a psoralen derivative that cross-links RNA chains that are base-paired with one another. High molecular weight heterogeneous nuclear RNA was isolated under denaturing conditions, and the psoralen cross-links were reversed. Electrophoresis of the released RNA and hybridization with a human cloned U2 DNA probe revealed that U2 is hydrogen-bonded to complementary sequences in heterogeneous nuclear RNA in vivo. In contrast, U2 RNA is not base-paired with nucleolar RNA, which contains the precursors of ribosomal RNA. The results suggest that U2 RNA participates in messenger RNA processing in the nucleus.

  8. Saw palmetto extract induces nuclear heterogeneity in mice.

    PubMed

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Francis, Bettina M; Rayburn, A Lane

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto (SW), a phytotherapeutic compound used in the treatment of prostate disease, was examined for potential nuclear effects. SW extract was incorporated into a complete casein-based semisynthetic rodent chow at 0%, 0.1% and 1% SW. SW was fed to mice for 6 weeks, after which the mice received a single i/p injection of either the known genotoxic agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in saline or just saline. Forty-eight hours after injection, blood and bone marrow were collected for flow cytometric analysis. A significant effect of MMS was observed in both male and female mice with respect to: an increase in nuclear heterogeneity in bone marrow cells as measured by the coefficient of variation of the G1 peak in a flow histogram (6.32 versus 4.8 in male mice, 7.0 versus 4.9 in female mice) and an increase in the number of micronucleated blood cells (3.4% versus 0.56% male mice, 3.1% versus 0.6 in female mice) indicating a positive genotoxic response. SW also appears to increase the heterogeneity of bone marrow nuclei in a dose dependent manner (0-5.1%, 0.1-5.5% and 1-5.7% in male mice, 0-5.7%, 0.1-6.0% and 1-6.2% in female mice) without a concomitant increase in blood cell micronuclei. These results indicate that SW is not genotoxic with respect to physical DNA damage and that the changes observed in the bone marrow are due to chromatin conformation modifications in the nuclei of in vivo treated mouse cells. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mast cell heterogeneity and anti-inflammatory annexin A1 expression in leprosy skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maurício B; Mimura, Kallyne K O; Freitas, Aline A; Hungria, Emerith M; Sousa, Ana Lúcia O M; Oliani, Sonia M; Stefani, Mariane M A

    2018-03-29

    Mast cells (MCs) have important immunoregulatory roles in skin inflammation. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory protein that can be expressed by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, epithelial and T cells. This study investigated MCs heterogeneity and ANXA1 expression in human dermatoses with special emphasis in leprosy. Sixty one skin biopsies from 2 groups were investigated: 40 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy patients (18 reaction-free, 11 type 1 reaction/T1R, 11 type 2 reaction/T2R); 21 patients with other dermatoses. Tryptase/try+ and chymase/chy + phenotypic markers and toluidine blue stained intact/degranulated MC counts/mm 2 were evaluated. Try + /chy + MCs and ANXA1 were identified by streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunostaining and density was reported. In leprosy, degranulated MCs outnumbered intact ones regardless of the leprosy form (from tuberculoid/TT to lepromatous/LL), leprosy reactions (reactional/reaction-free) and type of reaction (T1R/T2R). Compared to other dermatoses, leprosy skin lesions showed lower numbers of degranulated and intact MCs. Try + MCs outnumbered chy + in leprosy lesions (reaction-free/reactional, particularly in T2R), but not in other dermatoses. Compared to other dermatoses, ANXA1 expression, which is also expressed in mast cells, was higher in the epidermis of leprosy skin lesions, independently of reactional episode. In leprosy, higher MC degranulation and differential expression of try + /chy + subsets independent of leprosy type and reaction suggest that the Mycobacterium leprae infection itself dictates the inflammatory MCs activation in skin lesions. Higher expression of ANXA1 in leprosy suggests its potential anti-inflammatory role to maintain homeostasis preventing tissue and nerve damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inferring Diffusion Dynamics from FCS in Heterogeneous Nuclear Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Siegel, Amanda P.; Day, Richard N.; Pressé, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a noninvasive technique that probes the diffusion dynamics of proteins down to single-molecule sensitivity in living cells. Critical mechanistic insight is often drawn from FCS experiments by fitting the resulting time-intensity correlation function, G(t), to known diffusion models. When simple models fail, the complex diffusion dynamics of proteins within heterogeneous cellular environments can be fit to anomalous diffusion models with adjustable anomalous exponents. Here, we take a different approach. We use the maximum entropy method to show—first using synthetic data—that a model for proteins diffusing while stochastically binding/unbinding to various affinity sites in living cells gives rise to a G(t) that could otherwise be equally well fit using anomalous diffusion models. We explain the mechanistic insight derived from our method. In particular, using real FCS data, we describe how the effects of cell crowding and binding to affinity sites manifest themselves in the behavior of G(t). Our focus is on the diffusive behavior of an engineered protein in 1) the heterochromatin region of the cell’s nucleus as well as 2) in the cell’s cytoplasm and 3) in solution. The protein consists of the basic region-leucine zipper (BZip) domain of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) fused to fluorescent proteins. PMID:26153697

  11. Inferring diffusion dynamics from FCS in heterogeneous nuclear environments.

    PubMed

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Siegel, Amanda P; Day, Richard N; Pressé, Steve

    2015-07-07

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a noninvasive technique that probes the diffusion dynamics of proteins down to single-molecule sensitivity in living cells. Critical mechanistic insight is often drawn from FCS experiments by fitting the resulting time-intensity correlation function, G(t), to known diffusion models. When simple models fail, the complex diffusion dynamics of proteins within heterogeneous cellular environments can be fit to anomalous diffusion models with adjustable anomalous exponents. Here, we take a different approach. We use the maximum entropy method to show-first using synthetic data-that a model for proteins diffusing while stochastically binding/unbinding to various affinity sites in living cells gives rise to a G(t) that could otherwise be equally well fit using anomalous diffusion models. We explain the mechanistic insight derived from our method. In particular, using real FCS data, we describe how the effects of cell crowding and binding to affinity sites manifest themselves in the behavior of G(t). Our focus is on the diffusive behavior of an engineered protein in 1) the heterochromatin region of the cell's nucleus as well as 2) in the cell's cytoplasm and 3) in solution. The protein consists of the basic region-leucine zipper (BZip) domain of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) fused to fluorescent proteins. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Communication: Heterogeneous water dynamics on a clathrate hydrate lattice detected by multidimensional oxygen nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei-Acheamfour, Mischa; Storek, Michael; Böhmer, Roland

    2017-05-01

    Previous deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed conflicting evidence regarding the possible motional heterogeneity of the water dynamics on the hydrate lattice of an ice-like crystal. Using oxygen-17 nuclei as a sensitive quadrupolar probe, the reorientational two-time correlation function displays a clear nonexponentiality. To check whether this dispersive behavior is a consequence of dynamic heterogeneity or rather of an intrinsic nonexponentiality, a multidimensional, four-time magnetic resonance experiment was devised that is generally applicable to strongly quadrupolarly perturbed half-integer nuclei such as oxygen-17. Measurements of an appropriate four-time function demonstrate that it is possible to select a subensemble of slow water molecules. Its mean time scale is compared to theoretical predictions and evidence for significant motional heterogeneity is found.

  13. SNM-DAT: Simulation of a heterogeneous network for nuclear border security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemzek, R.; Kenyon, G.; Koehler, A.; Lee, D. M.; Priedhorsky, W.; Raby, E. Y.

    2007-08-01

    We approach the problem of detecting Special Nuclear Material (SNM) smuggling across open borders by modeling a heterogeneous sensor network using an agent-based simulation. Our simulation SNM Data Analysis Tool (SNM-DAT) combines fixed seismic, metal, and radiation detectors with a mobile gamma spectrometer. Decision making within the simulation determines threat levels by combined signatures. The spectrometer is a limited-availability asset, and is only deployed for substantial threats. "Crossers" can be benign or carrying shielded SNM. Signatures and sensors are physics based, allowing us to model realistic sensor networks. The heterogeneous network provides great gains in detection efficiency compared to a radiation-only system. We can improve the simulation through better sensor and terrain models, additional signatures, and crossers that mimic actual trans-border traffic. We expect further gains in our ability to design sensor networks as we learn the emergent properties of heterogeneous detection, and potential adversary responses.

  14. Applicability of a 1D Analytical Model for Pulse Thermography of Laterally Heterogeneous Semitransparent Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernegger, R.; Altenburg, S. J.; Röllig, M.; Maierhofer, C.

    2018-03-01

    Pulse thermography (PT) has proven to be a valuable non-destructive testing method to identify and quantify defects in fiber-reinforced polymers. To perform a quantitative defect characterization, the heat diffusion within the material as well as the material parameters must be known. The heterogeneous material structure of glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) as well as the semitransparency of the material for optical excitation sources of PT is still challenging. For homogeneous semitransparent materials, 1D analytical models describing the temperature distribution are available. Here, we present an analytical approach to model PT for laterally inhomogeneous semitransparent materials. We show the validity of the model by considering different configurations of the optical heating source, the IR camera, and the differently coated GFRP sample. The model considers the lateral inhomogeneity of the semitransparency by an additional absorption coefficient. It includes additional effects such as thermal losses at the samples surfaces, multilayer systems with thermal contact resistance, and a finite duration of the heating pulse. By using a sufficient complexity of the analytical model, similar values of the material parameters were found for all six investigated configurations by numerical fitting.

  15. Improving Prompt Temperature Feedback by Stimulating Doppler Broadening in Heterogeneous Composite Nuclear Fuel Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Christopher

    Nuclear fuels with similar aggregate material composition, but with different millimeter and micrometer spatial configurations of the component materials can have very different safety and performance characteristics. This research focuses on modeling and attempting to engineer heterogeneous combinations of nuclear fuels to improve negative prompt temperature feedback in response to reactivity insertion accidents. Improvements in negative prompt temperature feedback are proposed by developing a tailored thermal resistance in the nuclear fuel. In the event of a large reactivity insertion, the thermal resistance allows for a faster negative Doppler feedback by temporarily trapping heat in material zones with strong absorption resonances. A multi-physics simulation framework was created that could model large reactivity insertions. The framework was then used to model a comparison of a heterogeneous fuel with a tailored thermal resistance and a homogeneous fuel without the tailored thermal resistance. The results from the analysis confirmed the fundamental premise of prompt temperature feedback and provide insights into the neutron spectrum dynamics throughout the transient process. A trade study was conducted on infinite lattice fuels to help map a design space to study and improve prompt temperature feedback with many results. A multi-scale fuel pin analysis was also completed to study more realistic geometries. The results of this research could someday allow for novel nuclear fuels that would behave differently than current fuels. The idea of having a thermal barrier coating in the fuel is contrary to most current thinking. Inherent resistance to reactivity insertion accidents could enable certain reactor types once considered vulnerable to reactivity insertion accidents to be reevaluated in light of improved negative prompt temperature feedback.

  16. Myeloid leukemia factor 1 associates with a novel heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like molecule.

    PubMed

    Winteringham, Louise N; Endersby, Raelene; Kobelke, Simon; McCulloch, Ross K; Williams, James H; Stillitano, Justin; Cornwall, Scott M; Ingley, Evan; Klinken, S Peter

    2006-12-15

    Myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) is an oncoprotein associated with hemopoietic lineage commitment and acute myeloid leukemia. Here we show that Mlf1 associated with a novel binding partner, Mlf1-associated nuclear protein (Manp), a new heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family member, related to hnRNP-U. Manp localized exclusively in the nucleus and could redirect Mlf1 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. The nuclear content of Mlf1 was also regulated by 14-3-3 binding to a canonical 14-3-3 binding motif within the N terminus of Mlf1. Significantly Mlf1 contains a functional nuclear export signal and localized primarily to the nuclei of hemopoietic cells. Mlf1 was capable of binding DNA, and microarray analysis revealed that it affected the expression of several genes, including transcription factors. In summary, this study reveals that Mlf1 translocates between nucleus and cytoplasm, associates with a novel hnRNP, and influences gene expression.

  17. Molecular dynamic heterogeneity of confined lipid films by 1H magnetization-exchange nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buda, A.; Demco, D. E.; Jagadeesh, B.; Blümich, B.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular dynamic heterogeneity of monolayer to submonolayer thin lecithin films confined to submicron cylindrical pores were investigated by 1H magnetization exchange nuclear magnetic resonance. In this experiment a z-magnetization gradient was generated by a double-quantum dipolar filter. The magnetization-exchange decay and buildup curves were interpreted with the help of a theoretical model based on the approximation of a one-dimensional spin-diffusion process in a three-domain morphology. The dynamic heterogeneity of the fatty acid chains and the effects of the surface area per molecule, the diameter of the pores, and the temperature were characterized with the help of local spin-diffusion coefficients. The effect of various parameters on the molecular dynamics of the mobile region of the fatty acid chains was quantified by introducing an ad hoc Gaussian distribution function of the 1H residual dipolar couplings. For the lipid films investigated in this study, the surface induced order and the geometrical confinement affect the chain dynamics of the entire molecule. Therefore, each part of the chain independently reflects the effect of surface coverage, pore size, and temperature.

  18. Insulin Inhibits Nrf2 Gene Expression via Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F/K in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anindya; Abdo, Shaaban; Zhao, Shuiling; Wu, Chin-Han; Shi, Yixuan; Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chenier, Isabelle; Alquier, Thierry; Filep, Janos G.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress induces endogenous antioxidants via nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2), potentially preventing tissue injury. We investigated whether insulin affects renal Nrf2 expression in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and studied its underlying mechanism. Insulin normalized hyperglycemia, hypertension, oxidative stress, and renal injury; inhibited renal Nrf2 and angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression; and upregulated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F and K (hnRNP F and hnRNP K) expression in Akita mice with T1D. In immortalized rat renal proximal tubular cells, insulin suppressed Nrf2 and Agt but stimulated hnRNP F and hnRNP K gene transcription in high glucose via p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Transfection with small interfering RNAs of p44/42 MAPK, hnRNP F, or hnRNP K blocked insulin inhibition of Nrf2 gene transcription. Insulin curbed Nrf2 promoter activity via a specific DNA-responsive element that binds hnRNP F/K, and hnRNP F/K overexpression curtailed Nrf2 promoter activity. In hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic mice, renal Nrf2 and Agt expression was downregulated, whereas hnRNP F/K expression was upregulated. Thus, the beneficial actions of insulin in diabetic nephropathy appear to be mediated, in part, by suppressing renal Nrf2 and Agt gene transcription and preventing Nrf2 stimulation of Agt expression via hnRNP F/K. These findings identify hnRNP F/K and Nrf2 as potential therapeutic targets in diabetes. PMID:28324005

  19. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K inhibits heat shock-induced transcriptional activity of heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jae-Jin; Cho, Jin-Hwan; Jeong, Jaeho; Park, A Young; Kang, Wonmo; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2017-08-04

    When cells are exposed to heat shock and various other stresses, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is activated, and the heat shock response (HSR) is elicited. To better understand the molecular regulation of the HSR, we used 2D-PAGE-based proteome analysis to screen for heat shock-induced post-translationally modified cellular proteins. Our analysis revealed that two protein spots typically present on 2D-PAGE gels and containing heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) with trioxidized Cys 132 disappeared after the heat shock treatment and reappeared during recovery, but the total amount of hnRNP K protein remained unchanged. We next tested whether hnRNP K plays a role in HSR by regulating HSF1 and found that hnRNP K inhibits HSF1 activity, resulting in reduced expression of hsp70 and hsp27 mRNAs. hnRNP K also reduced binding affinity of HSF1 to the heat shock element by directly interacting with HSF1 but did not affect HSF1 phosphorylation-dependent activation or nuclear localization. hnRNP K lost its ability to induce these effects when its Cys 132 was substituted with Ser, Asp, or Glu. These findings suggest that hnRNP K inhibits transcriptional activity of HSF1 by inhibiting its binding to heat shock element and that the oxidation status of Cys 132 in hnRNP K is critical for this inhibition. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Phosphorylation of rat liver heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2 and C can be modulated by calmodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Bosser, R; Faura, M; Serratosa, J; Renau-Piqueras, J; Pruschy, M; Bachs, O

    1995-01-01

    It was previously reported that the phosphorylation of three proteins of 36, 40 to 42, and 50 kDa by casein kinase 2 is inhibited by calmodulin in nuclear extracts from rat liver cells (R. Bosser, R. Aligué, D. Guerini, N. Agell, E. Carafoli, and O. Bachs, J. Biol. Chem. 268:15477-15483, 1993). By immunoblotting, peptide mapping, and endogenous phosphorylation experiments, the 36- and 40- to 42-kDa proteins have been identified as the A2 and C proteins, respectively, of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. To better understand the mechanism by which calmodulin inhibits the phosphorylation of these proteins, they were purified by using single-stranded DNA chromatography, and the effect of calmodulin on their phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 was analyzed. Results revealed that whereas calmodulin inhibited the phosphorylation of purified A2 and C proteins in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, it did not affect the casein kinase 2 phosphorylation of a different protein substrate, i.e., beta-casein. These results indicate that the effect of calmodulin was not on casein kinase 2 activity but on specific protein substrates. The finding that the A2 and C proteins can bind to a calmodulin-Sepharose column in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner suggests that this association could prevent the phosphorylation of the proteins by casein kinase 2. Immunoelectron microscopy studies have revealed that such interactions could also occur in vivo, since calmodulin and A2 and C proteins colocalize on the ribonucleoprotein particles in rat liver cell nuclei. PMID:7823935

  1. Human APOBEC3B interacts with the heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nawneet; Reddy, K Sony; Timilsina, Uddhav; Gaur, Deepak; Gaur, Ritu

    2018-04-25

    Human APOBEC3B (A3B), like other APOBEC3 members, is a cytosine deaminase which causes hypermutation of single stranded genome. Recent studies have shown that A3B is predominantly elevated in multiple cancer tissues and cell lines such as the bladder, cervix, lung, head and neck, and breast. Upregulation and activation of A3B in developing tumors can cause an unexpected cluster of mutations which promote cancer development and progression. The cellular proteins which facilitate A3B function through direct or indirect interactions remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed LC-MS-based proteomics to identify cellular proteins which coimmunoprecipitated with A3B. Our results indicated a specific interaction of A3B with hnRNP A3 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein). This interaction was verified by co-immunoprecipitation and was found to be RNA-dependent. Furthermore, A3B and hnRNP A3 colocalized as evident from immunofluorescence analysis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An association between RBMX, a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and ARTS-1 regulates extracellular TNFR1 release

    SciTech Connect

    Adamik, Barbara; Islam, Aminul; Rouhani, Farshid N.

    The type I, 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) is released to the extracellular space by two mechanisms, the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains. Both pathways appear to be regulated by an interaction between TNFR1 and ARTS-1 (aminopeptidase regulator of TNFR1 shedding). Here, we sought to identify ARTS-1-interacting proteins that modulate TNFR1 release. Co-immunoprecipitation identified an association between ARTS-1 and RBMX (RNA-binding motif gene, X chromosome), a 43-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein. RNA interference attenuated RBMX expression, which reduced both the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the IL-1{beta}-mediated inducible proteolyticmore » cleavage of soluble TNFR1 ectodomains. Reciprocally, over-expression of RBMX increased TNFR1 exosome-like vesicle release and the IL-1{beta}-mediated inducible shedding of TNFR1 ectodomains. This identifies RBMX as an ARTS-1-associated protein that regulates both the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains.« less

  3. Carbon pools and productivity in a 1-km2 heterogeneous forest and peatland mosaic in Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Peter Weishampel; Randall Kolka; Jennifer Y. King

    2009-01-01

    Determining the magnitude of carbon (C) storage in forests and peatlands is an important step towards predicting how regional carbon balance will respond to climate change. However, spatial heterogeneity of dominant forest and peatland cover types can inhibit accurate C storage estimates. We evaluated ecosystem C pools and productivity in the Marcell Experimental...

  4. Heterogeneity Between Ducts of the Same Nuclear Grade Involved by Duct Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Naomi A.; Chapman, Judith-Anne W.; Qian, Jin; Christens-Barry, William A.; Fu, Yuejiao; Yuan, Yan; Lickley, H. Lavina A.; Axelrod, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Nuclear grade of breast DCIS is considered during patient management decision-making although it may have only a modest prognostic association with therapeutic outcome. We hypothesized that visual inspection may miss substantive differences in nuclei classified as having the same nuclear grade. To test this hypothesis, we measured subvisual nuclear features by quantitative image cytometry for nuclei with the same grade, and tested for statistical differences in these features. Experimental design and statistical analysis Thirty-nine nuclear digital image features of about 100 nuclei were measured in digital images of H&E stained slides of 81 breast biopsy specimens. One field with at least 5 ducts was evaluated for each patient. We compared features of nuclei with the same grade in multiple ducts of the same patient with ANOVA (or Welch test), and compared features of nuclei with the same grade in two ducts of different patients using 2-sided t-tests (P ≤ 0.05). Also, we compared image features for nuclei in patients with single grade to those with the same grade in patients with multiple grades using t-tests. Results Statistically significant differences were detected in nuclear features between ducts with the same nuclear grade, both in different ducts of the same patient, and between ducts in different patients with DCIS of more than one grade. Conclusion Nuclei in ducts visually described as having the same nuclear grade had significantly different subvisual digital image features. These subvisual differences may be considered additional manifestations of heterogeneity over and above differences that can be observed microscopically. This heterogeneity may explain the inconsistency of nuclear grading as a prognostic factor. PMID:20981137

  5. Homogenized moment tensor and the effect of near-field heterogeneities on nonisotropic radiation in nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Gaël.; Capdeville, Yann; Guillot, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of small-scale heterogeneities close to a seismic explosive source, at intermediate periods (20-50 s), with an emphasis on the resulting nonisotropic far-field radiation. First, using a direct numerical approach, we show that small-scale elastic heterogeneities located in the near-field of an explosive source, generate unexpected phases (i.e., long period S waves). We then demonstrate that the nonperiodic homogenization theory applied to 2-D and 3-D elastic models, with various pattern of small-scale heterogeneities near the source, leads to accurate waveforms at a reduced computational cost compared to direct modeling. Further, it gives an interpretation of how nearby small-scale features interact with the source at low frequencies, through an explicit correction to the seismic moment tensor. In 2-D simulations, we find a deviatoric contribution to the moment tensor, as high as 21% for near-source heterogeneities showing a 25% contrast of elastic values (relative to a homogeneous background medium). In 3-D this nonisotropic contribution reaches 27%. Second, we analyze intermediate-periods regional seismic waveforms associated with some underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Nevada National Security Site and invert for the full moment tensor, in order to quantify the relative contribution of the isotropic and deviatoric components of the tensor. The average value of the deviatoric part is about 35%. We conclude that the interactions between an explosive source and small-scale local heterogeneities of moderate amplitude may lead to a deviatoric contribution to the seismic moment, close to what is observed using regional data from nuclear test explosions.

  6. Differential effect of acute and persistent Junin virus infections on the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking and expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins type A and B.

    PubMed

    Maeto, Cynthia A; Knott, María E; Linero, Florencia N; Ellenberg, Paula C; Scolaro, Luis A; Castilla, Viviana

    2011-09-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A and B (hnRNPs A/B), cellular RNA-binding proteins that participate in splicing, trafficking, translation and turnover of mRNAs, have been implicated in the life cycles of several cytoplasmic RNA viruses. Here, we demonstrate that silencing of hnRNPs A1 and A2 significantly reduces the replication of the arenavirus Junín virus (JUNV), the aetiological agent of Argentine haemorrhagic fever. While acute JUNV infection did not modify total levels of expression of hnRNPs A/B in comparison with uninfected cells, non-cytopathic persistent infection exhibited low levels of these cell proteins. Furthermore, acutely infected cells showed a cytoplasmic relocalization of overexpressed hnRNP A1, probably related to the involvement of this protein in virus replicative cycle. This cytoplasmic accumulation was also observed in cells expressing viral nucleoprotein (N), and co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed the interaction between hnRNP A1 and N protein. By contrast, a predominantly nuclear distribution of overexpressed hnRNP A1 was found during persistent infection, even in the presence of endogenous or overexpressed N protein, indicating a differential modulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking in acute and persistent JUNV infections.

  7. HYBRIDIZATION PROPERTIES OF DNA SEQUENCES DIRECTING THE SYNTHESIS OF MESSENGER RNA AND HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jay R.; Perry, Robert P.

    1971-01-01

    The relationship of the DNA sequences from which polyribosomal messenger RNA (mRNA) and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (NRNA) of mouse L cells are transcribed was investigated by means of hybridization kinetics and thermal denaturation of the hybrids. Hybridization was performed in formamide solutions at DNA excess. Under these conditions most of the hybridizing mRNA and NRNA react at values of Dot (DNA concentration multiplied by time) expected for RNA transcribed from the nonrepeated or rarely repeated fraction of the genome. However, a fraction of both mRNA and NRNA hybridize at values of Dot about 10,000 times lower, and therefore must be transcribed from highly redundant DNA sequences. The fraction of NRNA hybridizing to highly repeated sequences is about 1.7 times greater than the corresponding fraction of mRNA. The hybrids formed by the rapidly reacting fractions of both NRNA and mRNA melt over a narrow temperature range with a midpoint about 11°C below that of native L cell DNA. This indicates that these hybrids consist of partially complementary sequences with approximately 11% mismatching of bases. Hybrids formed by the slowly reacting fraction of NRNA melt within 4°–6°C of native DNA, indicating very little, if any, mismatching of bases. Hybrids of the slowly reacting components of mRNA, formed under conditions of sufficiently low RNA input, have a high thermal stability, similar to that observed for hybrids of the slowly reacting NRNA component. However, when higher inputs of mRNA are used, hybrids are formed which have a strikingly lower thermal stability. This observation can be explained by assuming that there is sufficient similarity among the relatively rare DNA sequences coding for mRNA so that under hybridization conditions, in which these DNA sequences are not truly in excess, reversible hybrids exhibiting a considerable amount of mispairing are formed. The fact that a comparable phenomenon has not been observed for NRNA may mean that there is

  8. Purification and partial sequencing of the nuclear autoantigen RA33 shows that it is indistinguishable from the A2 protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex.

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, G; Hartmuth, K; Skriner, K; Maurer-Fogy, I; Sinski, A; Thalmann, E; Hassfeld, W; Barta, A; Smolen, J S

    1992-01-01

    RA33 is a nuclear autoantigen with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kD. Autoantibodies against RA33 are found in about 30% of sera from RA patients, but only occasionally in sera from patients with other connective tissue diseases. To characterize RA33, the antigen was purified from HeLa cell nuclear extracts to more than 90% homogeneity by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose and by chromatofocusing. Sequence analysis of five tryptic peptides revealed that their sequences matched corresponding sequences of the A2 protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complex. Furthermore, RA33 was shown to be present in the 40S hnRNP complex and to behave indistinguishably from A2 in binding to single stranded DNA. In summary, these data strongly indicate that RA33 and A2 are the same protein, and thus identify on a molecular level a new autoantigen. Images PMID:1522214

  9. MacroH2A1.1 regulates mitochondrial respiration by limiting nuclear NAD+ consumption.

    PubMed

    Posavec Marjanović, Melanija; Hurtado-Bagès, Sarah; Lassi, Maximilian; Valero, Vanesa; Malinverni, Roberto; Delage, Hélène; Navarro, Miriam; Corujo, David; Guberovic, Iva; Douet, Julien; Gama-Perez, Pau; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Ahel, Ivan; Ladurner, Andreas G; Yanes, Oscar; Bouvet, Philippe; Suelves, Mònica; Teperino, Raffaele; Pospisilik, J Andrew; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    Histone variants are structural components of eukaryotic chromatin that can replace replication-coupled histones in the nucleosome. The histone variant macroH2A1.1 contains a macrodomain capable of binding NAD + -derived metabolites. Here we report that macroH2A1.1 is rapidly induced during myogenic differentiation through a switch in alternative splicing, and that myotubes that lack macroH2A1.1 have a defect in mitochondrial respiratory capacity. We found that the metabolite-binding macrodomain was essential for sustained optimal mitochondrial function but dispensable for gene regulation. Through direct binding, macroH2A1.1 inhibits basal poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity and thus reduces nuclear NAD + consumption. The resultant accumulation of the NAD + precursor NMN allows for maintenance of mitochondrial NAD + pools that are critical for respiration. Our data indicate that macroH2A1.1-containing chromatin regulates mitochondrial respiration by limiting nuclear NAD + consumption and establishing a buffer of NAD + precursors in differentiated cells.

  10. Direct 17O dynamic nuclear polarization of single-site heterogeneous catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Boteju, Kasuni C.; Slowing, Igor I.; ...

    2018-03-13

    In this work, we utilize direct 17O DNP for the characterization of non-protonated oxygens in heterogeneous catalysts. The optimal sample preparation and population transfer approach for 17O direct DNP experiments performed on silica surfaces is determined and applied to the characterization of Zr- and Y-based mesoporous silica-supported single-site catalysts.

  11. New Drug Candidate Targeting the 4A1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor for Medullary Thyroid Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wen; Wang, Qun; Li, Qinpei; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Jun; Teng, Tieshan; Chen, Mingliang; Ji, Ailing; Li, Yanzhang

    2018-03-02

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a relatively rare thyroid cancer responsible for a substantial fraction of thyroid cancer mortality. More effective therapeutic drugs with low toxicity for MTC are urgently needed. Orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) plays a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of tumor cells. Based on the NR4A1 protein structure, 2-imino-6-methoxy-2H-chromene-3-carbothioamide (IMCA) was identified from the Specs compounds database using the protein structure-guided virtual screening approach. Computationally-based molecular modeling studies suggested that IMCA has a high affinity for the ligand binding pocket of NR4A1. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] and apoptosis assays demonstrated that IMCA resulted in significant thyroid cancer cell death. Immunofluorescence assays showed that IMCA induced NR4A1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in thyroid cancer cell lines, which may be involved in the cell apoptotic process. In this study, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the IMCA-induced upregulation of sestrin1 and sestrin2 was dose-dependent in thyroid cancer cell lines. Western blot showed that IMCA increased phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which is the key enzyme in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The experimental results suggest that IMCA is a drug candidate for MTC therapy and may work by increasing the nuclear export of NR4A1 to the cytoplasm and the tumor protein 53 (p53)-sestrins-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.

  12. Osteogenesis imperfecta type I: Molecular heterogeneity for COL1A1 null alleles of type I collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Willing, M.C.; Deschenes, S.P.; Pitts, S.H.

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I is the mildest form of inherited brittle-bone disease. Dermal fibroblasts from most affected individuals produce about half the usual amount of type I procollagen, as a result of a COL1A1 {open_quotes}null{close_quotes} allele. Using PCR amplification of genomic DNA from affected individuals, followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and SSCP, we identified seven different COL1A1 gene mutations in eight unrelated families with OI type I. Three families have single nucleotide substitutions that alter 5{prime} donor splice sites; two of these unrelated families have the same mutation. One family has a point mutation, in an exon,more » that creates a premature termination codon, and four have small deletions or insertions, within exons, that create translational frameshifts and new termination codons downstream of the mutation sites. Each mutation leads to both marked reduction in steady-state levels of mRNA from the mutant allele and a quantitative decrease in type I procollagen production. Our data demonstrate that different molecular mechanisms that have the same effect on type I collagen production result in the same clinical phenotype. 58 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  13. Dynamic nuclear polarization solid-state NMR in heterogeneous catalysis research

    DOE PAGES

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Perras, Frédéric A.; Slowing, Igor I.; ...

    2015-10-20

    In this study, a revolution in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy is taking place, attributable to the rapid development of high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), a technique yielding sensitivity improvements of 2–3 orders of magnitude. This higher sensitivity in SSNMR has already impacted materials research, and the implications of new methods on catalytic sciences are expected to be profound.

  14. Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) may cluster in type 1 diabetes, analogously to the metabolic syndrome described in type 2 diabetes. The threshold of HbA1c above which lipid variables start changing behavior is unclear. This study aims to 1) assess the behavior of dyslipidemia according to HbA1c values; 2) detect a threshold of HbA1c beyond which lipids start to change and 3) compare the clustering of lipids and other non-lipid CVRF among strata of HbA1c individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods Effects of HbA1c quintiles (1st: ≤7.4%; 2nd: 7.5-8.5%; 3rd: 8.6-9.6%; 4th: 9.7-11.3%; and 5th: >11.5%) and covariates (gender, BMI, blood pressure, insulin daily dose, lipids, statin use, diabetes duration) on dyslipidemia were studied in 1275 individuals from the Brazilian multi-centre type 1 diabetes study and 171 normal controls. Results Body size and blood pressure were not correlated to lipids and glycemic control. OR (99% CI) for high-LDL were 2.07 (1.21-3.54) and 2.51 (1.46-4.31), in the 4th and 5th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia increased in the 5th quintile of HbA1c, OR 2.76 (1.20-6.37). OR of low-HDL-cholesterol were 0.48 (0.24-0.98) and 0.41 (0.19-0.85) in the 3rd and 4th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. HDL-cholesterol correlated positively (0.437) with HbA1c in the 3rd quintile. HDL-cholesterol and insulin dose correlated inversely in all levels of glycemic control. Conclusions Correlation of serum lipids with HbA1c is heterogeneous across the spectrum of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes individuals. LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides worsened alongside HbA1c with distinct thresholds. Association of lower HDL-cholesterol with higher daily insulin dose is consistent and it points out to a role of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in the pathophysiology of the CVRF clustering. These data suggest diverse pathophysiological processes depending on HbA1c, refuting a unified explanation for cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes. PMID

  15. Identification of the methylation preference region in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 and its implication in regulating nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yuan-I; Hsu, Sheng-Chieh; Chau, Gar-Yang

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Verifying by direct methylation assay the substrate sites of PRMT1 in the hnRNP K protein. {yields} Identifying the preferred PMRT1 methylation regions in hnRNP K by kinetic analysis. {yields} Linking methylation in regulating nuclear localization of hnRNP K. -- Abstract: Protein arginine methylation plays crucial roles in numerous cellular processes. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein participating in a variety of cellular functions including transcription and RNA processing. HnRNP K is methylated at multiple sites in the glycine- and arginine-rich (RGG) motif. Using various RGG domain deletion mutants of hnRNP K as substrates,more » here we show by direct methylation assay that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) methylated preferentially in a.a. 280-307 of the RGG motif. Kinetic analysis revealed that deletion of a.a. 280-307, but not a.a. 308-327, significantly inhibited rate of methylation. Importantly, nuclear localization of hnRNP K was significantly impaired in mutant hnRNP K lacking the PRMT1 methylation region or upon pharmacological inhibition of methylation. Together our results identify preferred PRMT1 methylation sequences of hnRNP K by direct methylation assay and implicate a role of arginine methylation in regulating intracellular distribution of hnRNP K.« less

  16. Concerted effects of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 to control vitamin D-directed gene transcription and RNA splicing in human bone cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Park, Juw Won; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Garcia, Alejandro J; Zavala, Kathryn; Sea, Jessica L; Lu, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Jianzhong; Adams, John S; Xing, Yi; Hewison, Martin

    2017-01-25

    Traditionally recognized as an RNA splicing regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 (hnRNPC1/C2) can also bind to double-stranded DNA and function in trans as a vitamin D response element (VDRE)-binding protein. As such, hnRNPC1/C2 may couple transcription induced by the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) with subsequent RNA splicing. In MG63 osteoblastic cells, increased expression of the 1,25(OH) 2 D target gene CYP24A1 involved immunoprecipitation of hnRNPC1/C2 with CYP24A1 chromatin and RNA. Knockdown of hnRNPC1/C2 suppressed expression of CYP24A1, but also increased expression of an exon 10-skipped CYP24A1 splice variant; in a minigene model the latter was attenuated by a functional VDRE in the CYP24A1 promoter. In genome-wide analyses, knockdown of hnRNPC1/C2 resulted in 3500 differentially expressed genes and 2232 differentially spliced genes, with significant commonality between groups. 1,25(OH) 2 D induced 324 differentially expressed genes, with 187 also observed following hnRNPC1/C2 knockdown, and a further 168 unique to hnRNPC1/C2 knockdown. However, 1,25(OH) 2 D induced only 10 differentially spliced genes, with no overlap with differentially expressed genes. These data indicate that hnRNPC1/C2 binds to both DNA and RNA and influences both gene expression and RNA splicing, but these actions do not appear to be linked through 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated induction of transcription. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Targeted Identification of Short Interspersed Nuclear Element Families Shows Their Widespread Existence and Extreme Heterogeneity in Plant Genomes[W

    PubMed Central

    Wenke, Torsten; Döbel, Thomas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Junghans, Holger; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons that are highly abundant, heterogeneous, and mostly not annotated in eukaryotic genomes. We developed a tool designated SINE-Finder for the targeted discovery of tRNA-derived SINEs. We analyzed sequence data of 16 plant genomes, including 13 angiosperms and three gymnosperms and identified 17,829 full-length and truncated SINEs falling into 31 families showing the widespread occurrence of SINEs in higher plants. The investigation focused on potato (Solanum tuberosum), resulting in the detection of seven different SolS SINE families consisting of 1489 full-length and 870 5′ truncated copies. Consensus sequences of full-length members range in size from 106 to 244 bp depending on the SINE family. SolS SINEs populated related species and evolved separately, which led to some distinct subfamilies. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed along chromosomes and distributed without clustering but with preferred integration into short A-rich motifs. They emerged more than 23 million years ago and were species specifically amplified during the radiation of potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). We show that tobacco TS retrotransposons are composite SINEs consisting of the 3′ end of a long interspersed nuclear element integrated downstream of a nonhomologous SINE family followed by successfully colonization of the genome. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the formation of TS as a spontaneous event, which could be typical for the emergence of SINE families. PMID:21908723

  18. Targeted identification of short interspersed nuclear element families shows their widespread existence and extreme heterogeneity in plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Wenke, Torsten; Döbel, Thomas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Junghans, Holger; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons that are highly abundant, heterogeneous, and mostly not annotated in eukaryotic genomes. We developed a tool designated SINE-Finder for the targeted discovery of tRNA-derived SINEs. We analyzed sequence data of 16 plant genomes, including 13 angiosperms and three gymnosperms and identified 17,829 full-length and truncated SINEs falling into 31 families showing the widespread occurrence of SINEs in higher plants. The investigation focused on potato (Solanum tuberosum), resulting in the detection of seven different SolS SINE families consisting of 1489 full-length and 870 5' truncated copies. Consensus sequences of full-length members range in size from 106 to 244 bp depending on the SINE family. SolS SINEs populated related species and evolved separately, which led to some distinct subfamilies. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed along chromosomes and distributed without clustering but with preferred integration into short A-rich motifs. They emerged more than 23 million years ago and were species specifically amplified during the radiation of potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). We show that tobacco TS retrotransposons are composite SINEs consisting of the 3' end of a long interspersed nuclear element integrated downstream of a nonhomologous SINE family followed by successfully colonization of the genome. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the formation of TS as a spontaneous event, which could be typical for the emergence of SINE families.

  19. 26 CFR 1.468A-1T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax... accrual method of accounting that do not elect the application of section 468A are not allowed a deduction... nuclear power plant means any nuclear power reactor that is used predominantly in the trade or business of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In general...

  1. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In general...

  2. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In general...

  3. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In general...

  4. Organization and management of heterogeneous, dispersed data bases in nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Large, complex, multiperson engineering projects in many areas, nuclear, aerospace, electronics, and manufacturing, have inherent needs for coordination, control, and management of the related engineering data. Taken in the abstract, the notion of an integrated engineering data base (IED) for such projects is attractive. The potential capabilities of an (IED) are that all data are managed in a coordinated way, are made accessible to all users who need it, allow relations between all parts of the data to be tracked and managed, provide backup, recovery, audit trails, security and access control, and allow overall project status to be monitored andmore » managed. Common data accessing schemes and user interfaces to applications are also part of an IED. This paper describes a new software product that allows incremental realization of many of the capabilities of an IED, without the massive disruption and risk.« less

  5. An investigation into heterogeneity in a single vein-type uranium ore deposit: Implications for nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Keatley, A C; Scott, T B; Davis, S; Jones, C P; Turner, P

    2015-12-01

    Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations in nuclear materials are important as they are used within the field of nuclear forensics as an indicator of sample origin. However recent studies into uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) have shown significant elemental and isotopic heterogeneity from a single mine site such that some sites have shown higher variation within the mine site than that seen between multiple sites. The elemental composition of both uranium and gangue minerals within ore samples taken along a single mineral vein in South West England have been measured and reported here. The analysis of the samples was undertaken to determine the extent of the localised variation in key elements. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyse the gangue mineralogy and measure major element composition. Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA). The results confirm that a number of key elements, REE concentrations and patterns used for origin location do show significant variation within mine. Furthermore significant variation is also visible on a meter scale. In addition three separate uranium phases were identified within the vein which indicates multiple uranium mineralisation events. In light of these localised elemental variations it is recommended that representative sampling for an area is undertaken prior to establishing the REE pattern that may be used to identify the originating mine for an unknown ore sample and prior to investigating impact of ore processing on any arising REE patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F Suppresses Angiotensinogen Gene Expression and Attenuates Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Zhang, Shao Ling; Chan, John S.D.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) overexpression on angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression, hypertension, and renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) injury in high-glucose milieu both in vivo and in vitro. Diabetic Akita transgenic (Tg) mice specifically overexpressing hnRNP F in their RPTCs were created, and the effects on systemic hypertension, Agt gene expression, renal hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were studied. We also examined immortalized rat RPTCs stably transfected with control plasmid or plasmid containing hnRNP F cDNA in vitro. The results showed that hnRNP F overexpression attenuated systemic hypertension, suppressed Agt and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene expression, and reduced urinary Agt and angiotensin II levels, renal hypertrophy, and glomerulotubular fibrosis in Akita hnRNP F-Tg mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression prevented the high-glucose stimulation of Agt and TGF-β1 mRNA expression and cellular hypertrophy in RPTCs. These data suggest that hnRNP F plays a modulatory role and can ameliorate hypertension, renal hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis in diabetes. The underlying mechanism is mediated, at least in part, via the suppression of intrarenal Agt gene expression in vivo. hnRNP F may be a potential target in the treatment of hypertension and kidney injury in diabetes. PMID:22664958

  7. Structure of thin diamond films: A 1H and 13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruski, M.; Lang, D. P.; Hwang, Son-Jong; Jia, H.; Shinar, J.

    1994-04-01

    The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of thin diamond films deposited from naturally abundant (1.1 at. %) as well as 50% and 100% 13enriched CH4 heavily diluted in H2 is described and discussed. Less than 0.6 at. % of hydrogen is found in the films which contain crystallites up to ~15 μm across. The 1H NMR consists of a broad 50-65-kHz-wide Gaussian line attributed to H atoms bonded to carbon and covering the crystallite surfaces. A narrow Lorentzian line was only occasionally observed and is found not to be intrinsic to the diamond structure. The 13C NMR demonstrates that >99.5% of the C atoms reside in a quaternary diamondlike configuration. 1-13C cross-polarization measurement indicates that, at the very least, the majority of 13C nuclei cross polarized by 1H, i.e., within three bond distances from a 1H at a crystallite surface, reside in sp3 diamondlike coordinated sites. The 13C relaxation rates of the films are four orders of magnitude faster than that of natural diamond and believed to be due to 13C spin diffusion to paramagnetic centers, presumably carbon dangling bonds. Analysis of the measured relaxation rates indicates that within the 13C spin-diffusion length of √DTc1 ~0.05 μm, these centers are uniformly distributed in the diamond crystallites. The possibility that the dangling bonds are located at internal nanovoid surfaces is discussed.

  8. Additional support for Afrotheria and Paenungulata, the performance of mitochondrial versus nuclear genes, and the impact of data partitions with heterogeneous base composition.

    PubMed

    Springer, M S; Amrine, H M; Burk, A; Stanhope, M J

    1999-03-01

    We concatenated sequences for four mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, tRNA valine, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b) and four nuclear genes [aquaporin, alpha 2B adrenergic receptor (A2AB), interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), von Willebrand factor (vWF)] into a multigene data set representing 11 eutherian orders (Artiodactyla, Hyracoidea, Insectivora, Lagomorpha, Macroscelidea, Perissodactyla, Primates, Proboscidea, Rodentia, Sirenia, Tubulidentata). Within this data set, we recognized nine mitochondrial partitions (both stems and loops, for each of 12S rRNA, tRNA valine, and 16S rRNA; and first, second, and third codon positions of cytochrome b) and 12 nuclear partitions (first, second, and third codon positions, respectively, of each of the four nuclear genes). Four of the 21 partitions (third positions of cytochrome b, A2AB, IRBP, and vWF) showed significant heterogeneity in base composition across taxa. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, minimum evolution, maximum likelihood) based on sequences for all 21 partitions provide 99-100% bootstrap support for Afrotheria and Paenungulata. With the elimination of the four partitions exhibiting heterogeneity in base composition, there is also high bootstrap support (89-100%) for cow + horse. Statistical tests reject Altungulata, Anagalida, and Ungulata. Data set heterogeneity between mitochondrial and nuclear genes is most evident when all partitions are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Mitochondrial-gene trees associate cow with horse, whereas nuclear-gene trees associate cow with hedgehog and these two with horse. However, after eliminating third positions of A2AB, IRBP, and vWF, nuclear data agree with mitochondrial data in supporting cow + horse. Nuclear genes provide stronger support for both Afrotheria and Paenungulata. Removal of third positions of cytochrome b results in improved performance for the mitochondrial genes in recovering these clades.

  9. Evolutionarily conserved heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A/B proteins functionally interact with human and Drosophila TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43).

    PubMed

    Romano, Maurizio; Buratti, Emanuele; Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Del Bel Belluz, Lisa; Stuani, Cristiana; Baralle, Francisco; Feiguin, Fabian

    2014-03-07

    Human TDP-43 represents the main component of neuronal inclusions found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) Drosophila ortholog (TBPH) can biochemically and functionally overlap the properties of the human factor. The recent direct implication of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A2B1 and A1, known TDP-43 partners, in the pathogenesis of multisystem proteinopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis supports the hypothesis that the physical and functional interplay between TDP-43 and hnRNP A/B orthologs might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. To test this hypothesis and further validate the fly system as a useful model to study this type of diseases, we have now characterized human TDP-43 and Drosophila TBPH similarity in terms of protein-protein interaction pathways. In this work we show that TDP-43 and TBPH share the ability to associate in vitro with Hrp38/Hrb98DE/CG9983, the fruit fly ortholog of the human hnRNP A1/A2 factors. Interestingly, the protein regions of TDP-43 and Hrp38 responsible for reciprocal interactions are conserved through evolution. Functionally, experiments in HeLa cells demonstrate that TDP-43 is necessary for the inhibitory activity of Hrp38 on splicing. Finally, Drosophila in vivo studies show that Hrp38 deficiency produces locomotive defects and life span shortening in TDP-43 with and without animals. These results suggest that hnRNP protein levels can play a modulatory role on TDP-43 functions.

  10. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K Supports Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication by Regulating Cell Survival and Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Phat X.; Das, Anshuman; Franco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a member of the family of hnRNPs and was recently shown in a genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen to support vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) growth. To decipher the role of hnRNP K in VSV infection, we conducted studies which suggest that the protein is required for VSV spreading. Virus binding to cells, entry, and nucleocapsid uncoating steps were not adversely affected in the absence of hnRNP K, whereas viral genome transcription and replication were reduced slightly. These results indicate that hnRNP K is likely involved in virus assembly and/or release from infected cells. Further studies showed that hnRNP K suppresses apoptosis of virus-infected cells, resulting in increased cell survival during VSV infection. The increased survival of the infected cells was found to be due to the suppression of proapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-XS and Bik in a cell-type-dependent manner. Additionally, depletion of hnRNP K resulted in not only significantly increased levels of T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) but also switching of the expression of the two isoforms of the protein (TIA1a and TIA1b), both of which inhibited VSV replication. hnRNP K was also found to support expression of several cellular proteins known to be required for VSV infection. Overall, our studies demonstrate hnRNP K to be a multifunctional protein that supports VSV infection via its role(s) in suppressing apoptosis of infected cells, inhibiting the expression of antiviral proteins, and maintaining the expression of proteins required for the virus. PMID:23843646

  11. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K upregulates the kinetochore complex component NUF2 and promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimasa, Hironobu; Taniue, Kenzui; Kurimoto, Akiko

    2015-03-27

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein involved in transcription, mRNA splicing, mRNA stabilization and translation. Although hnRNP K has been suggested to play a role in the development of many cancers, its molecular function in colorectal cancer has remained elusive. Here we show that hnRNP K plays an important role in the mitotic process in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hnRNP K directly transactivates the NUF2 gene, the product of which is a component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex and which is known to be critical for a stable spindle microtubule-kinetochore attachment. Inmore » addition, knockdown of both hnRNP K and NUF2 caused failure in metaphase chromosome alignment and drastic decrease in the growth of colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the mitotic process and proliferation of colon cancer cells and that this axis could be a target for the therapy of colon cancer. - Highlights: • hnRNP K is required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. • hnRNP K binds to the promoter region of NUF2 and activates its transcription. • NUF2 expression is correlated with hnRNP K expression in colorectal cancer tissue. • hnRNP K and NUF2 are required for metaphase chromosome alignment. • The hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the proliferation of colon cancer cells.« less

  12. Non-genomic effects of the NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB orphan nuclear receptor.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Alicja; Strzadala, Leon; Kalas, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB acts primarily as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of multiple genes. However, increasing research attention has recently been given to non-genomic activities of NR4A1. The first description of a non-genomic action of NR4A1 referred to the conversion of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 into a pro-apoptotic protein by direct interaction with NR4A1. In response to certain apoptotic stimuli, NR4A1 translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) where it associates with Bcl-2 and thereby causes apoptosis. Afterwards, it appeared that NR4A1 could also bind and convert other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The latest studies indicate a significant role of NR4A1 in the process of autophagy. For example, a new NR4A1-mediated pathway specific for melanoma cells has been described where NR4A1 interacts with the adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) on the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM) leading to induction of the autophagy pathway. Moreover, NR4A1 interaction with cytoplasmic p53 may also contribute to the induction of autophagy. In addition to mitochondria, NR4A1 could be translocated to the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associate with Bcl-2 or translocon-associated protein subunit γ (TRAPγ) causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. NR4A1 also contributes to the proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as to the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) under non-hypoxic conditions. This review summarizes research findings on non-genomic effects of NR4A1 in normal and cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative Effects of SRD5A1 on Nuclear Activity of Progesterone Receptor Isoform B in JEG3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhuo; Sun, Min; Jiang, Feng; Yao, Yuanqing; Li, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Progesterone withdrawal signals labor in mammals. Elevated intracellular metabolism contributes to progesterone functional withdrawal through unknown mechanism, which is thought to act via progesterone receptor (PR). This study aims to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone withdrawal during pregnancy and labor. We investigated the role of 5α-reductase type I (SRD5A1) in enzymatic catalysis of progesterone and loss of PR function in a human trophoblast choriocarcinoma cell line JEG3. The PR isoform B (PR-B) was robustly expressed in JEG3 cells. The SRD5A1 small-interfering RNA knockdown led to significant increase in PR-B nuclear import, ectopic, whereas SRD5A1 overexpression resulted in remarkable inhibition of nuclear PR-B in P4-treated cells. Repression of SRD5A1 activated PR-B responsive gene, whereas overexpression of SRD5A1 possessed an inhibitory effect. JEG3 cell line is a valuable tool to study mechanisms responsible for loss of PR function and screening of drugs for preterm birth treatment. Our study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone withdrawal during pregnancy and labor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Esophageal cancer alters the expression of nuclear pore complex binding protein Hsc70 and eIF5A-1.

    PubMed

    Moghanibashi, Mehdi; Rastgar Jazii, Ferdous; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Zare, Maryam; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Parivar, Kazem; Mohamadynejad, Parisa

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the only corridor for macromolecules exchange between nucleus and cytoplasm. NPC and its components, nucleoporins, play important role in the diverse physiological processes including macromolecule exchange, chromosome segregation, apoptosis and gene expression. Recent reports also suggest involvement of nucleoporins in carcinogenesis. Applying proteomics, we analyzed expression pattern of the NPC components in a newly established esophageal cancer cell line from Persia (Iran), the high-risk region for esophageal cancer. Our results indicate overexpression of Hsc70 and downregulation of subunit alpha type-3 of proteasome, calpain small subunit 1, and eIF5A-1. Among these proteins, Hsc70 and eIF5A-1 are in direct interaction with NPC and involved in the nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Hsc70 plays a critical role as a chaperone in the formation of a cargo-receptor complex in nucleocytoplasmic transport. On the other hand, it is an NPC-associated protein that binds to nucleoporins and contributes in recycling of the nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors in mammals and affects transport of proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm. The other nuclear pore interacting protein: eIF5A-1 binds to the several nucleoporins and participates in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Altered expression of Hsc70 and eIF5A-1 may cause defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport and play a role in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  15. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1 may control miR-30d levels in endometrial exosomes affecting early embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, N; Moreno, I; Herrero, M; González, M; Simón, C; Vilella, F

    2018-05-29

    Is there a specific mechanism to load the microRNA, hsa-miR-30d, into exosomes to facilitate maternal communication with pre-implantation embryos? The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1 (hnRNPC1) is involved in the internalization of endometrial miR-30d into exosomes to prepare for its subsequent incorporation into trophectoderm cells. Our group previously described a novel cell-to-cell communication mechanism involving the delivery of endometrial microRNAs (miRNAs) from the maternal endometrium to the trophectoderm cells of preimplantation embryos. Specifically, human endometrial miR-30d is taken up by murine blastocysts causing the overexpression of certain genes involved in embryonic adhesion (Itb3, Itga7 and Cdh5) increasing embryo adhesion rates. Transfer of maternal miR-30d to preimplantation embryos was confirmed by co-culture of Wild-type (WT) and miR-30d knockout (KO) murine embryos with primary cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells (hEECs) in which mir-30d was labelled with specific Molecular Beacon or SmartFlare probes. Potential molecules responsible for the miR-30d loading into exosomes were purified by pull-down analysis with a biotinylated form of miR-30d on protein lysates from human endometrial exosomes, identified using mass spectrometry and assessed by flow cytometry, western blotting and co-localization studies. The role of hnRNPC1 in the miR-30d loading and transportation was interrogated by quantification of this miRNA in exosomes isolated from endometrial cells in which hnRNPC1 was transiently silenced using small interference RNA. Finally, the transfer of miR-30d to WT and KO embryos was assessed upon co-culture with sihnRNPC1 transfected cells. Murine embryos from miR-30d WT and KO mice, (strain MirC26tm1Mtm/Mmjax), were obtained by oviduct flushing of superovulated females. Endometrial Exosomes were purified by ultracentrifugation of supernatants from primary cultures of hEECs or Ishikawa cells. Molecular beacon and

  16. A heterogeneous population of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs is present in the axons of primary sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed

    Aschrafi, Armaz; Kar, Amar N; Gale, Jenna R; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Vargas, Jose Noberto S; Sales, Naomi; Wilson, Gabriel; Tompkins, Miranda; Gioio, Anthony E; Kaplan, Barry B

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are enriched in subcellular regions of high energy consumption, such as axons and pre-synaptic nerve endings. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial maintenance in these distal structural/functional domains of the neuron depends on the "in-situ" translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs. In support of this notion, we recently provided evidence for the axonal targeting of several nuclear-encoded mRNAs, such as cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 4 (COXIV) and ATP synthase, H+ transporting and mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (ATP5G1). Furthermore, we showed that axonal trafficking and local translation of these mRNAs plays a critical role in the generation of axonal ATP. Using a global gene expression analysis, this study identified a highly diverse population of nuclear-encoded mRNAs that were enriched in the axon and presynaptic nerve terminals. Among this population of mRNAs, fifty seven were found to be at least two-fold more abundant in distal axons, as compared with the parental cell bodies. Gene ontology analysis of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs suggested functions for these gene products in molecular and biological processes, including but not limited to oxidoreductase and electron carrier activity and proton transport. Based on these results, we postulate that local translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs present in the axons may play an essential role in local energy production and maintenance of mitochondrial function. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A statistical image analysis framework for pore-free islands derived from heterogeneity distribution of nuclear pore complexes.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Yasuhiro; Takemoto, Satoko; Tachibana, Taro; Ogawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Masaomi; Yokota, Hideo; Imamoto, Naoko

    2017-11-24

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) maintain cellular homeostasis by mediating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Although cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate NPC assembly in interphase, the location of NPC assembly on the nuclear envelope is not clear. CDKs also regulate the disappearance of pore-free islands, which are nuclear envelope subdomains; this subdomain gradually disappears with increase in homogeneity of the NPC in response to CDK activity. However, a causal relationship between pore-free islands and NPC assembly remains unclear. Here, we elucidated mechanisms underlying NPC assembly from a new perspective by focusing on pore-free islands. We proposed a novel framework for image-based analysis to automatically determine the detailed 'landscape' of pore-free islands from a large quantity of images, leading to the identification of NPC intermediates that appear in pore-free islands with increased frequency in response to CDK activity. Comparison of the spatial distribution between simulated and the observed NPC intermediates within pore-free islands showed that their distribution was spatially biased. These results suggested that the disappearance of pore-free islands is highly related to de novo NPC assembly and indicated the existence of specific regulatory mechanisms for the spatial arrangement of NPC assembly on nuclear envelopes.

  18. Centromere Protein (CENP)-W Interacts with Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) U and May Contribute to Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachment in Mitotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Younghwa; Kim, Raehyung; Lee, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), a component of the hnRNP complex, contributes to stabilize the kinetochore-microtubule interaction during mitosis. CENP-W was identified as an inner centromere component that plays crucial roles in the formation of a functional kinetochore complex. Results We report that hnRNP U interacts with CENP-W, and the interaction between hnRNP U and CENP-W mutually increased each other’s protein stability by inhibiting the proteasome-mediated degradation. Further, their co-localization was observed chiefly in the nuclear matrix region and at the microtubule-kinetochore interface during interphase and mitosis, respectively. Both microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing agents significantly decreased the protein stability of CENP-W. Furthermore, loss of microtubules and defects in microtubule organization were observed in CENP-W-depleted cells. Conclusion Our data imply that CENP-W plays an important role in the attachment and interaction between microtubules and kinetochore during mitosis. PMID:26881882

  19. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina; Petrini, Stefania

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify amore » new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.« less

  20. Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 level is not correlated with glomerular IgA deposition based upon heterogeneity in the composition of immune complexes in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Satake, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshio; Sasaki, Yohei; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Honda, Shinichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko; Shibuya, Akira; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-06-13

    Although serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients may deposit more preferentially in glomeruli than heavily-O-glycosylated IgA1, the relationship between the glomerular IgA deposition level and the O-glycan profiles of serum IgA1 remains obscure. Serum total under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels were quantified in 32 IgAN patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with Helix aspersa (HAA) lectin. Serum under-O-glycosylated polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1) was selectively measured by an original method using mouse Fcα/μ receptor (mFcα/μR) transfectant and flow cytometry (pIgA1 trap). The percentage area of IgA deposition in the whole glomeruli (Area-IgA) was quantified by image analysis on the immunofluorescence of biopsy specimens. Correlations were assessed between the Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap. The relationships between clinical parameters and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap were analyzed by data mining approach. While the under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels in IgAN patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls when measured (p<0.05), there was no significant difference in under-O-glycosylated pIgA1. There was neither a correlation observed between the data from HAA-ELISA and pIgA1 trap (r2=0.09) in the IgAN patients (r2=0.005) nor was there a linear correlation between Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or the pIgA1 trap (r2=0.005, 0.03, respectively). Contour plots of clinical parameters versus data from HAA-ELISA and the pIgA1 trap revealed that patients with a high score in each clinical parameter concentrated in specific areas, showing that patients with specific O-glycan profiles of IgA1 have similar clinical parameters. A decision tree analysis suggested that dominant immune complexes in glomeruli were consisted of: 1) IgA1-IgG and complements, 2) pIgA1 and complements, and 3) monomeric IgA1-IgA or aggregated monomeric IgA1. Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels are not correlated with

  1. Surface expression of heterogeneous nuclear RNA binding protein M4 on Kupffer cell relates to its function as a carcinoembryonic antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Bajenova, Olga; Stolper, Eugenia; Gapon, Svetlana; Sundina, Natalia; Zimmer, Regis; Thomas, Peter

    2003-11-15

    Elevated concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the blood are associated with the development of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancers. Clearance of circulating CEA occurs through endocytosis by liver macrophages, Kupffer cells. Previously we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins M4 (hnRNP M4) as a receptor (CEAR) for CEA. HnRNP M4 has two isoform proteins (p80, p76), the full-length hnRNP M4 (CEARL) and a truncated form (CEARS) with a deletion of 39 amino acids between RNA binding domains 1 and 2, generated by alternative splicing. The present study was undertaken to clarify any isoform-specific differences in terms of their function as CEA receptor and localization. We develop anti-CEAR isoform-specific antibodies and show that both CEAR splicing isoforms are expressed on the surface of Kupffer cells and can function as CEA receptor. Alternatively, in P388D1 macrophages CEARS protein has nuclear and CEARL has cytoplasmic localization. In MIP101 colon cancer and HeLa cells the CEARS protein is localized to the nucleus and CEARL to the cytoplasm. These findings imply that different functions are assigned to CEAR isoforms depending on the cell type. The search of 39 amino acids deleted region against the Prosite data base revealed the presence of N-myristylation signal PGGPGMITIP that may be involved in protein targeting to the plasma membrane. Overall, this report demonstrates that the cellular distribution, level of expression, and relative amount of CEARL and CEARS isoforms determine specificity for CEA binding and the expression of alternative spliced forms of CEAR is regulated in a tissue-specific manner.

  2. Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, R.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a heterogeneous catalysis course which has elements of materials processing embedded in the classical format of catalytic mechanisms and surface chemistry. A course outline and list of examples of recent review papers written by students are provided. (MVL)

  3. Asymmetric arginine dimethylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K by protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 inhibits its interaction with c-Src.

    PubMed

    Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Ostareck, Dirk H; Rucknagel, Karl P; Schierhorn, Angelika; Moritz, Bodo; Huttelmaier, Stefan; Flach, Nadine; Handoko, Lusy; Wahle, Elmar

    2006-04-21

    Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification found in many RNA-binding proteins. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) from HeLa cells was shown, by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation, to contain asymmetric N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine at five positions in its amino acid sequence (Arg256, Arg258, Arg268, Arg296, and Arg299). Whereas these five residues were quantitatively modified, Arg303 was asymmetrically dimethylated in <33% of hnRNP K and Arg287 was monomethylated in <10% of the protein. All other arginine residues were unmethylated. Protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 was identified as the only enzyme methylating hnRNP K in vitro and in vivo. An hnRNP K variant in which the five quantitatively modified arginine residues had been substituted was not methylated. Methylation of arginine residues by protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 did not influence the RNA-binding activity, the translation inhibitory function, or the cellular localization of hnRNP K but reduced the interaction of hnRNP K with the tyrosine kinase c-Src. This led to an inhibition of c-Src activation and hnRNP K phosphorylation. These findings support the role of arginine methylation in the regulation of protein-protein interactions.

  4. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a host factor required for dengue virus and Junín virus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Jesús E; Scolaro, Luis A; Castilla, Viviana

    2015-05-04

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are cellular factors involved in the replication of several viruses. In this study we analyzed the expression and intracellular localization of hnRNP A2 and hnRNP K in cell cultures infected with two viruses that cause human hemorrhagic fevers: dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and Junín virus (JUNV). We determined that DENV-2 promoted the cytoplasmic translocation of hnRNP K and to a lesser extent of hnRNP A2, meanwhile, JUNV infection induced an increase in hnRNP K cytoplasmic localization whereas hnRNP A2 remained mainly in the nucleus of infected cells. Both hnRNP K and hnRNP A2 were localized predominantly in the nucleus of JUNV persistently-infected cells even after superinfection with JUNV indicating that persistent infection does not alter nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of these hnRNPs. Total levels of hnRNP K expression were unaffected by DENV-2 or JUNV infection. In addition we determined, using small interfering RNAs, that hnRNP K knockout inhibits DENV-2 and JUNV multiplication. Our results indicate that DENV-2 and JUNV induce hnRNP K cytoplasmic translocation to favor viral multiplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com; Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be; Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studiesmore » revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.« less

  6. β-Cell deletion of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 nuclear receptors impedes mitochondrial respiration and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Merrick S; Hancock, Chad R; Ray, Jason D; Kener, Kyle B; Draney, Carrie; Garland, Kevin; Hardman, Jeremy; Bikman, Benjamin T; Tessem, Jeffery S

    2016-07-01

    β-Cell insulin secretion is dependent on proper mitochondrial function. Various studies have clearly shown that the Nr4a family of orphan nuclear receptors is essential for fuel utilization and mitochondrial function in liver, muscle, and adipose. Previously, we have demonstrated that overexpression of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 is sufficient to induce proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined whether Nr4a expression impacts pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial function. Here, we show that β-cell mitochondrial respiration is dependent on the nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cells was significantly decreased in β-cells lacking Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Furthermore, respiration rates of intact cells deficient for Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 in the presence of 16 mM glucose resulted in decreased glucose mediated oxygen consumption. Consistent with this reduction in respiration, a significant decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rates is observed with deletion of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Interestingly, the changes in respiration and insulin secretion occur without a reduction in mitochondrial content, suggesting decreased mitochondrial function. We establish that knockdown of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 results in decreased expression of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase subunits Idh3g and Sdhb. We demonstrate that loss of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 impedes production of ATP and ultimately inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that the orphan nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 are critical for β-cell mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Abnormal levels of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1) in tumour tissue and blood samples from patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Paul; Pollard, Damian; Larkin, AnneMarie; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Gately, Kathy; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Barr, Martin P; Lynch, Vincent; Ballot, Jo; Crown, John; Moriarty, Michael; O'Brien, Emmet; Morgan, Ross; Clynes, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Research into causes, prevention and treatment of lung cancer is ongoing and much progress has been made recently in these areas, however survival rates have not significantly improved. Therefore, it is essential to develop biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer, prediction of metastasis and evaluation of treatment efficiency, as well as using these molecules to provide some understanding about tumour biology and translate highly promising findings in basic science research to clinical application. In this investigation, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were initially used to analyse conditioned media from a panel of lung cancer and normal bronchial epithelial cell lines. Significant proteins were identified with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), Hsc-70 interacting protein and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) selected for analysis in serum from healthy individuals and lung cancer patients. hnRNPA2B1, PKM2 and LDHA were found to be statistically significant in all comparisons. Tissue analysis and knockdown of hnRNPA2B1 using siRNA subsequently demonstrated both the overexpression and potential role for this molecule in lung tumorigenesis. The data presented highlights a number of in vitro derived candidate biomarkers subsequently verified in patient samples and also provides some insight into their roles in the complex intracellular mechanisms associated with tumour progression.

  8. Involvement of Hu and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in neuronal differentiation through p21 mRNA post-transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Yano, Masato; Okano, Hirotaka J; Okano, Hideyuki

    2005-04-01

    The Hu family is a group of neuronal RNA-binding proteins required for neuronal differentiation in the developing nervous system. Previously, Hu proteins have been shown to enhance the stabilization and/or translation of target mRNAs, such as p21 (CIP1), by binding to AU-rich elements in untranslated regions (UTRs). In this study, we show that Hu induces p21 expression, cell cycle arrest, and neuronal differentiation in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. p21 expression is also up-regulated during Me2SO-induced differentiation in N1E-115 cells and is controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms through its 3'-UTR. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Hu functions, we used a proteomics strategy to isolate Hu-interacting proteins and identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K. hnRNP K also specifically binds to CU-rich sequences in p21 mRNA 3'-UTR and represses its translation in both nonneuronal and neuronal cells. Further, using RNA interference experiments, we show that the Hu-p21 pathway contributes to the regulation of neurite outgrowth and proliferation in N1E-115 cells, and this pathway is antagonized by hnRNP K. Our results suggest a model in which the mutually antagonistic action of two RNA-binding proteins, Hu and hnRNP K, control the timing of the switch from proliferation to neuronal differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of p21 mRNA.

  9. Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F stimulates renal Ace-2 gene expression and prevents TGF-β1-induced kidney injury in a mouse model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chao-Sheng; Shi, Yixuan; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Abdo, Shaaban; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Chan, John S D

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) stimulates renal ACE-2 expression and prevents TGF-β1 signalling, TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression and induction of tubulo-fibrosis in an Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Adult male Akita transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing specifically hnRNP F in their renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) were studied. Non-Akita littermates and Akita mice served as controls. Immortalised rat RPTCs stably transfected with plasmid containing either rat Hnrnpf cDNA or rat Ace-2 gene promoter were also studied. Overexpression of hnRNP F attenuated systemic hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, albumin/creatinine ratio, urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin (Ang) II levels, renal fibrosis and profibrotic gene (Agt, Tgf-β1, TGF-β receptor II [Tgf-βrII]) expression, stimulated anti-profibrotic gene (Ace-2 and Ang 1-7 receptor [MasR]) expression, and normalised urinary Ang 1-7 level in Akita Hnrnpf-Tg mice as compared with Akita mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression stimulated Ace-2 gene promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and attenuated Agt, Tgf-β1 and Tgf-βrII gene expression. Furthermore, hnRNP F overexpression prevented TGF-β1 signalling and TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression. These data demonstrate that hnRNP F stimulates Ace-2 gene transcription, prevents TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene transcription and induction of kidney injury in diabetes. HnRNP F may be a potential target for treating hypertension and renal fibrosis in diabetes.

  10. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) E1 Binds to hnRNP A2 and Inhibits Translation of A2 Response Element mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kosturko, Linda D.; Maggipinto, Michael J.; Korza, George; Lee, Joo Won; Carson, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2 is a trans-acting RNA-binding protein that mediates trafficking of RNAs containing the cis-acting A2 response element (A2RE). Previous work has shown that A2RE RNAs are transported to myelin in oligodendrocytes and to dendrites in neurons. hnRNP E1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of specific mRNAs. Here, we show by yeast two-hybrid analysis, in vivo and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation, in vitro cross-linking, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy that hnRNP E1 binds to hnRNP A2 and is recruited to A2RE RNA in an hnRNP A2-dependent manner. hnRNP E1 is colocalized with hnRNP A2 and A2RE mRNA in granules in dendrites of oligodendrocytes. Overexpression of hnRNP E1 or microinjection of exogenous hnRNP E1 in neural cells inhibits translation of A2RE mRNA, but not of non-A2RE RNA. Excess hnRNP E1 added to an in vitro translation system reduces translation efficiency of A2RE mRNA, but not of nonA2RE RNA, in an hnRNP A2-dependent manner. These results are consistent with a model where hnRNP E1 recruited to A2RE RNA granules by binding to hnRNP A2 inhibits translation of A2RE RNA during granule transport. PMID:16775011

  11. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  12. Heterogeneous Gossip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Koldehofe, Boris; Mogensen, Martin; Monod, Maxime; Quéma, Vivien

    Gossip-based information dissemination protocols are considered easy to deploy, scalable and resilient to network dynamics. Load-balancing is inherent in these protocols as the dissemination work is evenly spread among all nodes. Yet, large-scale distributed systems are usually heterogeneous with respect to network capabilities such as bandwidth. In practice, a blind load-balancing strategy might significantly hamper the performance of the gossip dissemination.

  13. Interferon regulatory factor 1 and a variant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L coordinately silence the gene for adhesion protein CEACAM1.

    PubMed

    Dery, Kenneth J; Silver, Craig; Yang, Lu; Shively, John E

    2018-06-15

    The adhesion protein carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is widely expressed in epithelial cells as a short cytoplasmic isoform (S-iso) and in leukocytes as a long cytoplasmic isoform (L-iso) and is frequently silenced in cancer by unknown mechanisms. Previously, we reported that interferon response factor 1 (IRF1) biases alternative splicing (AS) to include the variable exon 7 (E7) in CEACAM1, generating long cytoplasmic isoforms. We now show that IRF1 and a variant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (Lv1) coordinately silence the CEACAM1 gene. RNAi-mediated Lv1 depletion in IRF1-treated HeLa and melanoma cells induced significant CEACAM1 protein expression, reversed by ectopic Lv1 expression. The Lv1-mediated CEACAM1 repression resided in residues Gly 71 -Gly 89 and Ala 38 -Gly 89 in Lv1's N-terminal extension. ChIP analysis of IRF1- and FLAG-tagged Lv1-treated HeLa cells and global treatment with the global epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A indicated that IRF1 and Lv1 together induce chromatin remodeling, restricting IRF1 access to the CEACAM1 promoter. In interferon γ-treated HeLa cells, the transcription factor SP1 did not associate with the CEACAM1 promoter, but binding by upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1), a known CEACAM1 regulator, was greatly enhanced. ChIP-sequencing revealed that Lv1 overexpression in IRF1-treated cells induces transcriptional silencing across many genes, including DCC ( d eleted in c olorectal c arcinoma), associated with CEACAM5 in colon cancer. Notably, IRF1, but not IRF3 and IRF7, affected CEACAM1 expression via translational repression. We conclude that IRF1 and Lv1 coordinately regulate CEACAM1 transcription, alternative splicing, and translation and may significantly contribute to CEACAM1 silencing in cancer. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The heterodimeric structure of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 dictates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-directed transcriptional events in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Lisse, Thomas S; Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Bajaj, S Paul; Chun, Rene F; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C plays a key role in RNA processing. More recently hnRNP C has also been shown to function as a DNA binding protein exerting a dominant-negative effect on transcriptional responses to the vitamin D hormone,1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D), via interaction in cis with vitamin D response elements (VDREs). The physiologically active form of human hnRNPC is a tetramer of hnRNPC1 (huC1) and C2 (huC2) subunits known to be critical for specific RNA binding activity in vivo , yet the requirement for heterodimerization of huC1 and C2 in DNA binding and downstream action is not well understood. While over-expression of either huC1 or huC2 alone in mouse osteoblastic cells did not suppress 1,25(OH) 2 D-induced transcription, over-expression of huC1 and huC2 in combination using a bone-specific polycistronic vector successfully suppressed 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated induction of osteoblast target gene expression. Over-expression of either huC1 or huC2 in human osteoblasts was sufficient to confer suppression of 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated transcription, indicating the ability of transfected huC1 and huC2 to successfully engage as heterodimerization partners with endogenously expressed huC1 and huC2. The failure of the chimeric combination of mouse and human hnRNPCs to impair 1,25(OH) 2 D-driven gene expression in mouse cells was structurally predicted, owing to the absence of the last helix in the leucine zipper (LZ) heterodimerization domain of hnRNPC gene product in lower species, including the mouse. These results confirm that species-specific heterodimerization of hnRNPC1 and hnRNPC2 is a necessary prerequisite for DNA binding and down-regulation of 1,25(OH) 2 D-VDR-VDRE-directed gene transactivation in osteoblasts.

  15. Genetic disruption of the nuclear receptor Nur77 (Nr4a1) in rat reduces dopamine cell loss and l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia in experimental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rouillard, Claude; Baillargeon, Joanie; Paquet, Brigitte; St-Hilaire, Michel; Maheux, Jérôme; Lévesque, Catherine; Darlix, Noémie; Majeur, Simon; Lévesque, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an idiopathic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. Levodopa (l-dopa) is the main pharmacological approach to relieve PD motor symptoms. However, chronic treatment with l-Dopa is inevitably associated with the generation of abnormal involuntary movements (l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia). We have previously shown that Nr4a1 (Nur77), a transcription factor of the nuclear receptor family, is closely associated with dopamine neurotransmission in the mature brain. However, the role of Nr4a1 in the etiology of PD and its treatment remain elusive. We report here that the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine in rat lead to a rapid up-regulation of Nr4a1 in the substantia nigra. Genetic disruption of Nr4a1 in rat reduced neurotoxin-induced dopamine cell loss and l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia, whereas virally-driven striatal overexpression of Nr4a1 enhanced or partially restored involuntary movements induced by chronic l-Dopa in wild type and Nr4a1-deficient rats, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that Nr4a1 is involved in dopamine cell loss and l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia in experimental PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear sequestration of COL1A1 mRNA transcript associated with type I osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)

    SciTech Connect

    Primorac, D.; Stover, M.L.; McKinstry, M.B.

    Previously we identified an OI type I patient with a splice donor mutation that resulted in intron 26 retention instead of exon skipping and sequestration of normal levels of the mutant transcript in the nuclear compartment. Intron retention was consistent with the exon definition hypothesis for splice site selection since the size of the exon-intron-exon unit was less than 300 bp. Furthermore, the retained intron contained in-frame stop codons which is thought to cause the mutant RNA to remain within the nucleus rather than appearing in the cytoplasm. To test these hypotheses, genomic fragments containing the normal sequence or themore » donor mutation were cloned into a collagen minigene and expressed in stably tansfected NIH 3T3 cells. None of the modifications to the normal intron altered the level of RNA that accumulated in the cytoplasm, as expected. However none of the modifications to the mutant intron allowed accumulation of normal levels of mRNA in the cytoplasm. Moreover, in contrast to our findings in the patient`s cells only low levels of mutant transcript were found in the nucleus; a fraction of the transcript did appear in the cytoplasm which had spliced the mutant donor site correctly. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated equal levels of transcription from each transgene. Expression of another donor mutation known to cause in-frame exon skipping in OI type IV was accurately reproduced in the minigene in transfected 3T3 cells. Our experience suggests that either mechanism can lead to formation of a null allele possibly related to the type of splicing events surrounding the potential stop codons. Understanding the rules governing inactivation of a collagen RNA transcript may be important in designing a strategy to inactivate a dominate negative mutation associated with the more severe forms of OI.« less

  17. MacroH2A1 associates with nuclear lamina and maintains chromatin architecture in mouse liver cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuhua; Lv, Pin; Yan, Guoquan; Fan, Hui; Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Feng; Dang, Yongjun; Wu, Hao; Wen, Bo

    2015-11-25

    In the interphase nucleus, chromatin is organized into three-dimensional conformation to coordinate genome functions. The lamina-chromatin association is important to facilitate higher-order chromatin in mammalian cells, but its biological significances and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. One obstacle is that the list of lamina-associated proteins remains limited, presumably due to the inherent insolubility of lamina proteins. In this report, we identified 182 proteins associated with lamin B1 (a constitutive component of lamina) in mouse hepatocytes, by adopting virus-based proximity-dependent biotin identification. These proteins are functionally related to biological processes such as chromatin organization. As an example, we validated the association between lamin B1 and core histone macroH2A1, a histone associated with repressive chromatin. Furthermore, we mapped Lamina-associated domains (LADs) in mouse liver cells and found that boundaries of LADs are enriched for macroH2A. More interestingly, knocking-down of macroH2A1 resulted in the release of heterochromatin foci marked by histone lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and the decondensation of global chromatin structure. However, down-regulation of lamin B1 led to redistribution of macroH2A1. Taken together, our data indicated that macroH2A1 is associated with lamina and is required to maintain chromatin architecture in mouse liver cells.

  18. The Role of Nuclear Receptor Coactivator A1B1 in Growth Factor-Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    study display dwarfism and the retardation of mammary gland growth [9]. At the 4-month time point, I similarly observed an overall decrease in mammary...Coactivator A1B1 in Growth Factor- Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mark P Fereshteh (BS) CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION

  19. S100A11 protects against neuronal cell apoptosis induced by cerebral ischemia via inhibiting the nuclear translocation of annexin A1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qian; Li, Xing; Zhou, Huijuan; Zheng, Lu; Shi, Jing

    2018-05-29

    The subcellular location of annexin A1 (ANXA1) determines the ultimate fate of neurons after ischemic stroke. ANXA1 nuclear translocation is involved in neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia, and extracellular ANXA1 is also associated with regulation of inflammatory responses. As the factors and mechanism that influence ANXA1 subcellular translocation remain unclear, studies aiming to determine and clarify the role of ANXA1 as a cell fate 'regulator' within cells are critically needed. In this study, we found that intracerebroventricular injection of the recombinant adenovirus vector Ad-S100A11 (carrying S100A11) strongly improved cognitive function and induced robust neuroprotective effects after ischemic stroke in vivo. Furthermore, upregulation of S100A11 protected against neuronal apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro. Surprisingly, S100A11 overexpression markedly decreased ANXA1 nuclear translocation and subsequently alleviated OGD/R-induced neuronal apoptosis. Notably, S100A11 exerted its neuroprotective effect by directly binding ANXA1. Importantly, S100A11 directly interacted with ANXA1 through the nuclear translocation signal (NTS) of ANXA1, which is essential for ANXA1 to import into the nucleus. Consistent with our previous studies, ANXA1 nuclear translocation after OGD/R promoted p53 transcriptional activity, induced mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic Bid gene, and activated the caspase-3 apoptotic pathway, which was almost completely reversed by S100A11 overexpression. Thus, S100A11 protects against cell apoptosis by inhibiting OGD/R-induced ANXA1 nuclear translocation. This study provides a novel mechanism whereby S100A11 protects against neuronal cells apoptosis, suggesting the potential for a previously unidentified treatment strategy in minimizing apoptosis after ischemic stroke.

  20. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR4A1 is Involved in the Apoptotic Pathway Induced by LPS and Simvastatin in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Chan; Song, Seok Bean; Lee, Sang Kyu; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Young Sang

    2014-04-01

    Macrophage death plays a role in several physiological and inflammatory pathologies such as sepsis and arthritis. In our previous work, we showed that simvastatin triggers cell death in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells through both caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways. Here, we show that the nuclear orphan receptor NR4A1 is involved in a caspase-independent apoptotic process induced by LPS and simvastatin. Simvastatin-induced NR4A1 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages and ectopic expression of a dominant-negative mutant form of NR4A1 effectively suppressed both DNA fragmentation and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) during LPS- and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis was accompanied by Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) translocation to the mitochondria. Our findings suggest that NR4A1 expression and mitochondrial translocation of Bax are related to simvastatin-induced apoptosis in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Up-Regulates the Expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 via Promoting Nuclear Translocation of PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Xiong, Qinghui; Peng, Jin; Hu, Bin; Li, Wanzhen; Zhu, Yizhun; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a key role in atherogenesis. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter, has been reported to play an anti-atherosclerotic role. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we examined whether and how H2S regulates ABCA1 expression. The effect of H2S on ABCA1 expression and lipid metabolism were assessed in vitro by cultured human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and in vivo by ApoE−/− mice with a high-cholesterol diet. NaHS (an exogenous H2S donor) treatment significantly increased the expression of ABCA1, ApoA1, and ApoA2 and ameliorated intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Depletion of the endogenous H2S generator cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) by small RNA interference (siRNA) significantly decreased the expression of ABCA1 and resulted in the accumulation of lipids in HepG2 cells. In vivo NaHS treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), diminished atherosclerotic plaque size, and increased hepatic ABCA1 expression in fat-fed ApoE−/− mice. Further study revealed that NaHS upregulated ABCA1 expression by promoting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) nuclear translocation. H2S up-regulates the expression of ABCA1 by promoting the nuclear translocation of PPARα, providing a fundamental mechanism for the anti-atherogenic activity of H2S. H2S may be a promising potential drug candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27136542

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Up-Regulates the Expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 via Promoting Nuclear Translocation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Xiong, Qinghui; Peng, Jin; Hu, Bin; Li, Wanzhen; Zhu, Yizhun; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-29

    ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a key role in atherogenesis. Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S), a gasotransmitter, has been reported to play an anti-atherosclerotic role. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we examined whether and how H₂S regulates ABCA1 expression. The effect of H₂S on ABCA1 expression and lipid metabolism were assessed in vitro by cultured human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and in vivo by ApoE(-/-) mice with a high-cholesterol diet. NaHS (an exogenous H₂S donor) treatment significantly increased the expression of ABCA1, ApoA1, and ApoA2 and ameliorated intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Depletion of the endogenous H₂S generator cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) by small RNA interference (siRNA) significantly decreased the expression of ABCA1 and resulted in the accumulation of lipids in HepG2 cells. In vivo NaHS treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), diminished atherosclerotic plaque size, and increased hepatic ABCA1 expression in fat-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. Further study revealed that NaHS upregulated ABCA1 expression by promoting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) nuclear translocation. H₂S up-regulates the expression of ABCA1 by promoting the nuclear translocation of PPARα, providing a fundamental mechanism for the anti-atherogenic activity of H₂S. H₂S may be a promising potential drug candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  3. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme.

  4. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  5. HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-24

    provide a structure for this review. The history and the current status of integration technologies in each category are examined and product examples are...NEED HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION?............................................. 6 5. IMPACT OF HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION ON PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT ... 8 6...58 12. SUMMARY OF HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNIQUES........................... 63 13. HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION PRODUCT EXAMPLES

  6. Phenotypic Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cátia; Pires-Luís, Ana S; Rocha, Eduardo; Bartosch, Carla; Lopes, José M

    2018-03-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity has been shown to play an important role in diagnostic accuracy, development of treatment resistance, and prognosis of cancer patients. Recent studies have proposed quantitative measurement of phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity, but no study is yet available in endometrial carcinomas. In our study we evaluated the phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity of a consecutive series of 10 endometrial carcinomas using measures of dispersion and diversity. Morphometric architectural (%tumor cells, %solid tumor, %differentiated tumor, and %lumens) and nuclear [volume-weighted mean nuclear volume ((Equation is included in full-text article.))] parameters, as well as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, vimentin, and beta-catenin immunoexpression (H-score) were digitally analyzed in 20 microscopic fields per carcinoma. Quantitative measures of intratumoral heterogeneity included coefficient of variation (CV) and relative quadratic entropy (rQE). In each endometrial carcinoma there was slight variation of architecture from field to field, resulting in globally low levels of heterogeneity measures (mean CV %tumor cells: 0.10, %solid tumor: 0.73, %differentiated tumor: 0.19, %lumens: 0.61 and mean rQE %tumor cells: 18.5, %solid tumor: 20.3, %differentiated tumor: 25.6, %lumens: 21.8). Nuclear intratumoral heterogeneity was also globally low (mean (Equation is included in full-text article.)CV: 0.23 and rQE: 27.3), but significantly higher than the heterogeneity of architectural parameters within most carcinomas. In general, there was low to moderate variability of immunoexpression markers within each carcinoma, but estrogen receptor (mean CV: 0.56 and rQE: 46.2) and progesterone receptor (mean CV: 0.60 and rQE: 39.3) displayed the highest values of heterogeneity measures. Intratumoral heterogeneity of immunoexpression was significantly higher than that observed for morphometric parameters. In conclusion, our study indicates that endometrial

  7. Fractal heterogeneity in minimal matrix models of scars modulates stiff-niche stem-cell responses via nuclear exit of a mechanorepressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Bradshaw, Andrew M.; Cho, Sangkyun; Raab, Matthew; Buxboim, Amnon; Swift, Joe; Discher, Dennis E.

    2015-09-01

    Scarring is a long-lasting problem in higher animals, and reductionist approaches could aid in developing treatments. Here, we show that copolymerization of collagen I with polyacrylamide produces minimal matrix models of scars (MMMS), in which fractal-fibre bundles segregate heterogeneously to the hydrogel subsurface. Matrix stiffens locally--as in scars--while allowing separate control over adhesive-ligand density. The MMMS elicits scar-like phenotypes from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): cells spread and polarize quickly, increasing nucleoskeletal lamin-A yet expressing the `scar marker' smooth muscle actin (SMA) more slowly. Surprisingly, expression responses to MMMS exhibit less cell-to-cell noise than homogeneously stiff gels. Such differences from bulk-average responses arise because a strong SMA repressor, NKX2.5, slowly exits the nucleus on rigid matrices. NKX2.5 overexpression overrides rigid phenotypes, inhibiting SMA and cell spreading, whereas cytoplasm-localized NKX2.5 mutants degrade in well-spread cells. MSCs thus form a `mechanical memory' of rigidity by progressively suppressing NKX2.5, thereby elevating SMA in a scar-like state.

  8. Adenosine-Induced Atrial Fibrillation: Localized Reentrant Drivers in Lateral Right Atria due to Heterogeneous Expression of Adenosine A1 Receptors and GIRK4 Subunits in the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Csepe, Thomas A.; Hansen, Brian J.; Sul, Lidiya V.; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Zakharkin, Stanislav O.; Zhao, Jichao; Guha, Avirup; Van Wagoner, David R.; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul ML; Biesiadecki, Brandon; Hummel, John D; Weiss, Raul; Fedorov, Vadim V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenosine provokes atrial fibrillation (AF) with a higher activation frequency in right atria (RA) versus left atria (LA) in patients, but the underlying molecular and functional substrates are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine-induced AF is driven by localized reentry in RA areas with highest expression of adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) and its downstream GIRK channels (IK,Ado). Methods We applied bi-atrial optical mapping and immunoblot mapping of various atrial regions to reveal the mechanism of adenosine-induced AF in explanted failing and non-failing human hearts (n=37). Results Optical mapping of coronary-perfused atria (n=24) revealed that adenosine perfusion (10–100μM) produced more significant shortening of action potential durations (APD80) in RA (from 290±45ms to 239±41ms, 17.3±10.4%; p<0.01) than LA (from 307±24ms to 286±23ms, 6.7±6.6%; p<0.01). In ten hearts, adenosine induced AF (317±116 sec) that, when sustained (≥2 min), was primarily maintained by one/two localized reentrant drivers in lateral RA. Tertiapin (10–100nM), a selective GIRK channel blocker, counteracted adenosine-induced APD shortening and prevented AF induction. Immunoblotting showed that the superior/middle lateral RA had significantly higher A1R (2.7±1.7 fold; p<0.01) and GIRK4 (1.7±0.8 fold; p<0.05) protein expression than lateral/posterior LA. Conclusions This study revealed a three-fold RA-to-LA A1R protein expression gradient in the human heart, leading to significantly greater RA vs. LA repolarization sensitivity in response to adenosine. Sustained adenosine-induced AF is maintained by reentrant drivers localized in lateral RA regions with the highest A1R/GIRK4 expression. Selective atrial GIRK channel blockade may effectively treat AF during conditions with increased endogenous adenosine. PMID:27462069

  9. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Manhardt, Teresa; Kállay, Enikö; Peterlik, Meinrad; Cross, Heide S

    2012-07-26

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1a-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression.

  10. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Manhardt, Teresa; Kállay, Enikö; Peterlik, Meinrad; Cross, Heide S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression. PMID:24213465

  11. Adenosine-Induced Atrial Fibrillation: Localized Reentrant Drivers in Lateral Right Atria due to Heterogeneous Expression of Adenosine A1 Receptors and GIRK4 Subunits in the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Csepe, Thomas A; Hansen, Brian J; Sul, Lidiya V; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Zakharkin, Stanislav O; Zhao, Jichao; Guha, Avirup; Van Wagoner, David R; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Hummel, John D; Weiss, Raul; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2016-08-09

    Adenosine provokes atrial fibrillation (AF) with a higher activation frequency in right atria (RA) versus left atria (LA) in patients, but the underlying molecular and functional substrates are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine-induced AF is driven by localized reentry in RA areas with highest expression of adenosine A1 receptor and its downstream GIRK (G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels) channels (IK,Ado). We applied biatrial optical mapping and immunoblot mapping of various atrial regions to reveal the mechanism of adenosine-induced AF in explanted failing and nonfailing human hearts (n=37). Optical mapping of coronary-perfused atria (n=24) revealed that adenosine perfusion (10-100 µmol/L) produced more significant shortening of action potential durations in RA (from 290±45 to 239±41 ms, 17.3±10.4%; P<0.01) than LA (from 307±24 to 286±23 ms, 6.7±6.6%; P<0.01). In 10 hearts, adenosine induced AF (317±116 s) that, when sustained (≥2 minutes), was primarily maintained by 1 to 2 localized reentrant drivers in lateral RA. Tertiapin (10-100 nmol/L), a selective GIRK channel blocker, counteracted adenosine-induced action potential duration shortening and prevented AF induction. Immunoblotting showed that the superior/middle lateral RA had significantly higher adenosine A1 receptor (2.7±1.7-fold; P<0.01) and GIRK4 (1.7±0.8-fold; P<0.05) protein expression than lateral/posterior LA. This study revealed a 3-fold RA-to-LA adenosine A1 receptor protein expression gradient in the human heart, leading to significantly greater RA versus LA repolarization sensitivity in response to adenosine. Sustained adenosine-induced AF is maintained by reentrant drivers localized in lateral RA regions with the highest adenosine A1 receptor/GIRK4 expression. Selective atrial GIRK channel blockade may effectively treat AF during conditions with increased endogenous adenosine. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. A Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A/B-Related Protein Binds to Single-Stranded DNA near the 5′ End or within the Genome of Feline Parvovirus and Can Modify Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dai; Parrish, Colin R.

    1999-01-01

    Phage display of cDNA clones prepared from feline cells was used to identify host cell proteins that bound to DNA-containing feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) capsids but not to empty capsids. One gene found in several clones encoded a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-related protein (DBP40) that was very similar in sequence to the A/B-type hnRNP proteins. DBP40 bound specifically to oligonucleotides representing a sequence near the 5′ end of the genome which is exposed on the outside of the full capsid but did not bind most other terminal sequences. Adding purified DBP40 to an in vitro fill-in reaction using viral DNA as a template inhibited the production of the second strand after nucleotide (nt) 289 but prior to nt 469. DBP40 bound to various regions of the viral genome, including a region between nt 295 and 330 of the viral genome which has been associated with transcriptional attenuation of the parvovirus minute virus of mice, which is mediated by a stem-loop structure of the DNA and cellular proteins. Overexpression of the protein in feline cells from a plasmid vector made them largely resistant to FPV infection. Mutagenesis of the protein binding site within the 5′ end viral genome did not affect replication of the virus. PMID:10438866

  13. Comparative Expression Analysis of Cytochrome P450 1A1, Cytochrome P450 1B1 and Nuclear Receptors in the Female Genital and Colorectal Tissues of Human and Pigtailed Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Minlu; Zhou, Tian; Pearlman, Andrew P; Paton, Dorothy L; Rohan, Lisa C

    2017-01-01

    Summary This manuscript summarizes our recent progress in examine the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 as well as a number of nuclear receptors in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaque. Understanding the nuclear receptor mediated regulation of CYP1A1 and 1B1 expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. However, there is a lack of systematic and comparative analysis of the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and clinically relevant animal models. The current study aims to fill this gap. We found CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and a number of nuclear receptors were expressed in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and macaque. However, the mRNA level and protein localization of these CYP enzymes and NRs depended on the type of tissue examined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 activate hormonal and environmental procarcinogens, and are associated with carcinogenesis in female genital and colorectal tissues. Understanding the nuclear receptor (NR) mediated regulation of CYP expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. The study aims to analyze the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaques. We found that compared to the liver, human CYP1A1 mRNA level in the genital and colorectal tissues was significantly lower, while the CYP1B1 level was significantly higher. CYP1A1 protein was mainly localized in the plasma membrane of the uterine and endocervical epithelial cells. The CYP1B1 protein was concentrated in the nucleus of genital and colorectal tissues. Fourteen NRs in the genital tract and 12 NRs in colorectal tissue were expressed at levels similar to or higher than the liver. The expression and localization of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and

  14. Comparative Expression Analysis of Cytochrome P450 1A1, Cytochrome P450 1B1 and Nuclear Receptors in the Female Genital and Colorectal Tissues of Human and Pigtailed Macaque.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minlu; Zhou, Tian; Pearlman, Andrew P; Paton, Dorothy L; Rohan, Lisa C

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes our recent progress in examine the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 as well as a number of nuclear receptors in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaque. Understanding the nuclear receptor mediated regulation of CYP1A1 and 1B1 expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. However, there is a lack of systematic and comparative analysis of the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and clinically relevant animal models. The current study aims to fill this gap. We found CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and a number of nuclear receptors were expressed in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and macaque. However, the mRNA level and protein localization of these CYP enzymes and NRs depended on the type of tissue examined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 activate hormonal and environmental procarcinogens, and are associated with carcinogenesis in female genital and colorectal tissues. Understanding the nuclear receptor (NR) mediated regulation of CYP expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. The study aims to analyze the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaques. We found that compared to the liver, human CYP1A1 mRNA level in the genital and colorectal tissues was significantly lower, while the CYP1B1 level was significantly higher. CYP1A1 protein was mainly localized in the plasma membrane of the uterine and endocervical epithelial cells. The CYP1B1 protein was concentrated in the nucleus of genital and colorectal tissues. Fourteen NRs in the genital tract and 12 NRs in colorectal tissue were expressed at levels similar to or higher than the liver. The expression and localization of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and NRs in

  15. Phenotypically heterogeneous populations in spatially heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The spatial expansion of a population in a nonuniform environment may benefit from phenotypic heterogeneity with interconverting subpopulations using different survival strategies. We analyze the crossing of an antibiotic-containing environment by a bacterial population consisting of rapidly growing normal cells and slow-growing, but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. The dynamics of crossing is characterized by mean first arrival times and is found to be surprisingly complex. It displays three distinct regimes with different scaling behavior that can be understood based on an analytical approximation. Our results suggest that a phenotypically heterogeneous population has a fitness advantage in nonuniform environments and can spread more rapidly than a homogeneous population.

  16. Patterns of Emphysema Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Valipour, Arschang; Shah, Pallav L.; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Ralf; Snell, Greg; Strange, Charlie; Barry, Robert; Gupta, Avina; Henne, Erik; Bandyopadhyay, Sourish; Raffy, Philippe; Yin, Youbing; Tschirren, Juerg; Herth, Felix J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although lobar patterns of emphysema heterogeneity are indicative of optimal target sites for lung volume reduction (LVR) strategies, the presence of segmental, or sublobar, heterogeneity is often underappreciated. Objective The aim of this study was to understand lobar and segmental patterns of emphysema heterogeneity, which may more precisely indicate optimal target sites for LVR procedures. Methods Patterns of emphysema heterogeneity were evaluated in a representative cohort of 150 severe (GOLD stage III/IV) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from the COPDGene study. High-resolution computerized tomography analysis software was used to measure tissue destruction throughout the lungs to compute heterogeneity (≥ 15% difference in tissue destruction) between (inter-) and within (intra-) lobes for each patient. Emphysema tissue destruction was characterized segmentally to define patterns of heterogeneity. Results Segmental tissue destruction revealed interlobar heterogeneity in the left lung (57%) and right lung (52%). Intralobar heterogeneity was observed in at least one lobe of all patients. No patient presented true homogeneity at a segmental level. There was true homogeneity across both lungs in 3% of the cohort when defining heterogeneity as ≥ 30% difference in tissue destruction. Conclusion Many LVR technologies for treatment of emphysema have focused on interlobar heterogeneity and target an entire lobe per procedure. Our observations suggest that a high proportion of patients with emphysema are affected by interlobar as well as intralobar heterogeneity. These findings prompt the need for a segmental approach to LVR in the majority of patients to treat only the most diseased segments and preserve healthier ones. PMID:26430783

  17. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  18. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors

  19. The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 attenuates oxidative stress-induced β cells apoptosis via up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingfeng; Xie, Fangyu; Qin, Dandan; Zong, Chen; Han, Feng; Pu, Zeqing; Liu, Dong; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yuchao; Liu, Yuantao; Wang, Xiangdong

    2018-06-15

    Our previous study showed that NR4A1 protects against oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis. However, the targets downstream of NR4A1 are incompletely known. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is the most common antioxidant enzyme in the glutathione peroxidase class. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether GPX1 is a mediator of the protective effects of NR4A1 in pancreatic β cells. A pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, was used to generate NR4A1 over-expression cell line. GPX1 expression and GPX1 promoter trans-activation in these cells was determined. These cells were then treated with H 2 O 2 , and the active caspase3 level was determined. NR4A1 over-expression in MIN6 cells resulted in increased GPX1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Dual luciferase assay showed that NR4A1 over-expression was able to enhance the trans-activation of GPX1 promoter, and the critical regulatory elements were narrowed down between 0 to -2000 bp in GPX1 promoter with a putative NR4A1 binding site (-273 to -268). ChIP assays demonstrated that NR4A1 physically associates with the GPX1 promoter. Over-expression of GPX1 reduced the active level of Caspase3 after H 2 O 2 treatment. NR4A1 increases the expression of GPX1 by enhancing the trans-activation of GPX1 promoter through binding to the putative binding site on GPX1 promoter. NR4A1 potentially protects pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by increasing GPX1 expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  1. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  2. Beta-hairpin formation in aqueous solution and in the presence of trifluoroethanol: a (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance conformational study of designed peptides.

    PubMed

    Santiveri, Clara M; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Rico, Manuel; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2005-10-15

    In order to check our current knowledge on the principles involved in beta-hairpin formation, we have modified the sequence of a 3:5 beta-hairpin forming peptide with two different purposes, first to increase the stability of the formed 3:5 beta-hairpin, and second to convert the 3:5 beta-hairpin into a 2:2 beta-hairpin. The conformational behavior of the designed peptides was investigated in aqueous solution and in 30% trifluoroethanol (TFE) by analysis of the following nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters: nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data, and C(alpha)H, (13)C(alpha), and (13)C(beta) conformational shifts. From the differences in the ability to adopt beta-hairpin structures in these peptides, we have arrived to the following conclusions: (i) beta-Hairpin population increases with the statistical propensity of residues to occupy each turn position. (ii) The loop length, and in turn, the beta-hairpin type, can be modified as a function of the type of turn favored by the loop sequence. These two conclusions reinforce previous results about the importance of beta-turn sequence in beta-hairpin folding. (iii) Side-chain packing on each face of the beta-sheet may play a major role in beta-hairpin stability; hence simplified analysis in terms of isolated pair interactions and intrinsic beta-sheet propensities is insufficient. (iv) Contributions to beta-hairpin stability of turn and strand sequences are not completely independent. (v) The burial of hydrophobic surface upon beta-hairpin formation that, in turn, depends on side-chain packing also contributes to beta-hairpin stability. (vi) As previously observed, TFE stabilizes beta-hairpin structures, but the extent of the contribution of different factors to beta-hairpin formation is sometimes different in aqueous solution and in 30% TFE. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 79: 150-162, 2005.

  3. Managing Power Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruhs, Kirk

    A particularly important emergent technology is heterogeneous processors (or cores), which many computer architects believe will be the dominant architectural design in the future. The main advantage of a heterogeneous architecture, relative to an architecture of identical processors, is that it allows for the inclusion of processors whose design is specialized for particular types of jobs, and for jobs to be assigned to a processor best suited for that job. Most notably, it is envisioned that these heterogeneous architectures will consist of a small number of high-power high-performance processors for critical jobs, and a larger number of lower-power lower-performance processors for less critical jobs. Naturally, the lower-power processors would be more energy efficient in terms of the computation performed per unit of energy expended, and would generate less heat per unit of computation. For a given area and power budget, heterogeneous designs can give significantly better performance for standard workloads. Moreover, even processors that were designed to be homogeneous, are increasingly likely to be heterogeneous at run time: the dominant underlying cause is the increasing variability in the fabrication process as the feature size is scaled down (although run time faults will also play a role). Since manufacturing yields would be unacceptably low if every processor/core was required to be perfect, and since there would be significant performance loss from derating the entire chip to the functioning of the least functional processor (which is what would be required in order to attain processor homogeneity), some processor heterogeneity seems inevitable in chips with many processors/cores.

  4. Cancer heterogeneity and imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, James P B

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in identifying and quantifying tumor heterogeneity at the genomic, tissue pathology and clinical imaging scales, as this may help better understand tumor biology and may yield useful biomarkers for guiding therapy-based decision making. This review focuses on the role and value of using x-ray, CT, MRI and PET based imaging methods that identify, measure and map tumor heterogeneity. In particular we highlight the potential value of these techniques and the key challenges required to validate and qualify these biomarkers for clinical use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Why does heterogeneity matter?

    Treesearch

    K.B. Pierce

    2007-01-01

    This is a review of the book "Ecosystem function in heterogeneous landscapes" published in 2005. The authors are G. Lovett, C. Jones, M.G. Turner, and K.C. Weathers. It was published by Springer, New York. The book is a synthesis of the 10th Gary conference held at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, in 2003.

  6. Heterogeneous Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-19

    Distribution A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. (APRS-RY-17-0383) Heterogeneous Integration Technology Dr. Burhan...2013 and 2015 [4]. ...................................... 9 Figure 3: 3D integration of similar or diverse technology components follows More Moore and...10 Figure 4: Many different technologies are used in the implementation of modern microelectronics systems can benefit from

  7. Determination of the nuclear incompressibility from the rapidity-dependent elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies 0.4A-1.0A GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjia; Guo, Chenchen; Li, Qingfeng; Le Fèvre, Arnaud; Leifels, Yvonne; Trautmann, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    Background: The nuclear incompressibility (K0) plays a crucial role in understanding diverse phenomena in nuclear structure and reactions, as well as in astrophysics. Heavy-ion-collision measurements in combination with transport model simulations serve as important tools for extracting the nuclear incompressibility. However, uncertainties in transport models (or model dependence) partly affect the reliability of the extracted result. Purpose: In the present work, by using the recently measured data of rapidity-dependent flows, we constrain the incompressibility of nuclear matter and analyze the impact of model uncertainties on the obtained value. Method: The method is based on the newly updated version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model in which the Skyrme potential energy-density functional is introduced. Three different Skyrme interactions which give different incompressibilities varying from K0 = 201 to 271 MeV are adopted. The incompressibility is deduced from the comparison of the UrQMD model simulations and the FOPI data for rapidity-dependent elliptic flow in Au + Au collisions at beam energies 0.4A-1.0A GeV. Results: The elliptic flow v2 as a function of rapidity y0 can be well described by a quadratic fit v2 =v20 +v22 ṡ y02 . It is found that the quantity v2n defined by v2n = |v20 | + |v22 | is quite sensitive to the incompressibility K0 and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section, but not sensitive to the slope parameter L of the nuclear symmetry energy. Conclusions: With the FU3FP4 parametrization of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section, an averaged K0 = 220 ± 40 MeV is extracted from the v2n of free protons and deuterons. However, remaining systematic uncertainties, partly related to the choice of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, are of the same magnitude (± 40 MeV). Overall, the rapidity dependent elliptic flow supports a soft symmetric-matter equation-of-state.

  8. Heterogeneous voter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Gibert, N.; Redner, S.

    2010-07-01

    We introduce the heterogeneous voter model (HVM), in which each agent has its own intrinsic rate to change state, reflective of the heterogeneity of real people, and the partisan voter model (PVM), in which each agent has an innate and fixed preference for one of two possible opinion states. For the HVM, the time until consensus is reached is much longer than in the classic voter model. For the PVM in the mean-field limit, a population evolves to a preference-based state, where each agent tends to be aligned with its internal preference. For finite populations, discrete fluctuations ultimately lead to consensus being reached in a time that scales exponentially with population size.

  9. Heterogeneous Spacecraft Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Yosuke (Inventor); Faber, Nicolas T. (Inventor); Frost, Chad R. (Inventor); Alena, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention provides a heterogeneous spacecraft network including a network management architecture to facilitate communication between a plurality of operations centers and a plurality of data user communities. The network management architecture includes a plurality of network nodes in communication with the plurality of operations centers. The present invention also provides a method of communication for a heterogeneous spacecraft network. The method includes: transmitting data from a first space segment to a first ground segment; transmitting the data from the first ground segment to a network management architecture; transmitting data from a second space segment to a second ground segment, the second space and ground segments having incompatible communication systems with the first space and ground segments; transmitting the data from the second ground station to the network management architecture; and, transmitting data from the network management architecture to a plurality of data user communities.

  10. Tumor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Turashvili, Gulisa; Brogi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and differs greatly among different patients (intertumor heterogeneity) and even within each individual tumor (intratumor heterogeneity). Clinical and morphologic intertumor heterogeneity is reflected by staging systems and histopathologic classification of breast cancer. Heterogeneity in the expression of established prognostic and predictive biomarkers, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncoprotein is the basis for targeted treatment. Molecular classifications are indicators of genetic tumor heterogeneity, which is probed with multigene assays and can lead to improved stratification into low- and high-risk groups for personalized therapy. Intratumor heterogeneity occurs at the morphologic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor heterogeneity that are relevant to the development of treatment resistance is a major area of research. Despite the improved knowledge of the complex genetic and phenotypic features underpinning tumor heterogeneity, there has been only limited advancement in diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive strategies for breast cancer. The current guidelines for reporting of biomarkers aim to maximize patient eligibility for targeted therapy, but do not take into account intratumor heterogeneity. The molecular classification of breast cancer is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Additional studies and in-depth analysis are required to understand the clinical significance of rapidly accumulating data. This review highlights inter- and intratumor heterogeneity of breast carcinoma with special emphasis on pathologic findings, and provides insights into the clinical significance of molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterogeneity. PMID:29276709

  11. Systems heterogeneity: An integrative way to understand cancer heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Diane Catherine; Wang, Xiangdong

    2017-04-01

    The concept of systems heterogeneity was firstly coined and explained in the Special Issue, as a new alternative to understand the importance and complexity of heterogeneity in cancer. Systems heterogeneity can offer a full image of heterogeneity at multi-dimensional functions and multi-omics by integrating gene or protein expression, epigenetics, sequencing, phosphorylation, transcription, pathway, or interaction. The Special Issue starts with the roles of epigenetics in the initiation and development of cancer heterogeneity through the interaction between permanent genetic mutations and dynamic epigenetic alterations. Cell heterogeneity was defined as the difference in biological function and phenotypes between cells in the same organ/tissue or in different organs, as well as various challenges, as exampled in telocytes. The single cell heterogeneity has the value of identifying diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets and clinical potential of single cell systems heterogeneity in clinical oncology. A number of signaling pathways and factors contribute to the development of systems heterogeneity. Proteomic heterogeneity can change the strategy and thinking of drug discovery and development by understanding the interactions between proteins or proteins with drugs in order to optimize drug efficacy and safety. The association of cancer heterogeneity with cancer cell evolution and metastasis was also overviewed as a new alternative for diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Idiosyncrasies of hnRNP A1-RNA recognition: Can binding mode influence function.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey D; Tolbert, Blanton S

    2018-04-09

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a diverse family of RNA binding proteins that function in most stages of RNA metabolism. The prototypical member, hnRNP A1, is composed of three major domains; tandem N-terminal RNA Recognition Motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal mostly intrinsically disordered region. HnRNP A1 is broadly implicated in basic cellular RNA processing events such as splicing, stability, nuclear export and translation. Due to its ubiquity and abundance, hnRNP A1 is also frequently usurped to control viral gene expression. Deregulation of the RNA metabolism functions of hnRNP A1 in neuronal cells contributes to several neurodegenerative disorders. Because of these roles in human pathologies, the study of hnRNP A1 provides opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics, with disruption of its RNA binding capabilities being the most promising target. The functional diversity of hnRNP A1 is reflected in the complex nature by which it interacts with various RNA targets. Indeed, hnRNP A1 binds both structured and unstructured RNAs with binding affinities that span several magnitudes. Available structures of hnRNP A1-RNA complexes also suggest a degree of plasticity in molecular recognition. Given the reinvigoration in hnRNP A1, the goal of this review is to use the available structural biochemical developments as a framework to interpret its wide-range of RNA functions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-01

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  14. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-21

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  15. Heterogeneity in Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, M J; Delleman, J W

    1977-01-01

    Heterogeneity of Waardenburg syndrome is demonstrated in a review of 1,285 patients from the literature and 34 previously unreported patients in five families in the Netherlands. The syndrome seems to consist of two genetically distinct entities that can be differentiated clinically: type I, Waardenburg syndrome with dystopia canthorum; and type II, Waardenburg syndrome without dystopia canthorum. Both types have an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The incidence of bilateral deafness in the two types of the syndrome was found in one-fourth with type I and about half of the patients with type II. This difference has important consequences for genetic counseling. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:331943

  16. Heterogeneous belief and asset returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei-Sun, Wen-Zou, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on DSSW model, this paper introduces the noise traders with heterogeneous belief. With an equilibrium analysis, this paper examines the return of risky asset. The results show that the belief biases, the probability of economy state, the degree of the heterogeneous noise trader's aversion risk, the coefficient between heterogeneous noise traders are all the factors that have effects on the risky asset pricing and the return of risky asset.

  17. Interconnecting heterogeneous database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gligor, V. D.; Luckenbaugh, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is still a great need for the development of improved communication between remote, heterogeneous database management systems (DBMS). Problems regarding the effective communication between distributed DBMSs are primarily related to significant differences between local data managers, local data models and representations, and local transaction managers. A system of interconnected DBMSs which exhibit such differences is called a network of distributed, heterogeneous DBMSs. In order to achieve effective interconnection of remote, heterogeneous DBMSs, the users must have uniform, integrated access to the different DBMs. The present investigation is mainly concerned with an analysis of the existing approaches to interconnecting heterogeneous DBMSs, taking into account four experimental DBMS projects.

  18. A nanoparticle catalyst for heterogeneous phase para-hydrogen-induced polarization in water.

    PubMed

    Glöggler, Stefan; Grunfeld, Alexander M; Ertas, Yavuz N; McCormick, Jeffrey; Wagner, Shawn; Schleker, P Philipp M; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2015-02-16

    Para-hydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) is a technique capable of producing spin polarization at a magnitude far greater than state-of-the-art magnets. A significant application of PHIP is to generate contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Clinically viable and effective contrast agents not only require high levels of polarization but heterogeneous catalysts that can be used in water to eliminate the toxicity impact. Herein, we demonstrate the use of Pt nanoparticles capped with glutathione to induce heterogeneous PHIP in water. The ligand-inhibited surface diffusion on the nanoparticles resulted in a (1) H polarization of P=0.25% for hydroxyethyl propionate, a known contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography. Transferring the (1) H polarization to a (13) C nucleus using a para-hydrogen polarizer yielded a polarization of 0.013%. The nuclear-spin polarizations achieved in these experiments are the first reported to date involving heterogeneous reactions in water. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Heterogeneous catalysis with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. F.

    1986-06-01

    Theoretical techniques have been developed to describe a variety of laser-induced molecular rate processes occurring at solid surfaces which are involved in heterogeneous catalysis. Such processes include adsorption, migration, chemical reactions and desorption. The role of surface phonons in laser-selective processes and laser heating has been analyzed. The importance of electronic degrees of freedom has been considered for semiconductor and metal substrates, with special emphasis on the laser excitation of surface states. Surface-modified photochemistry has also been investigated, where the effect of a metal surface on the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a laser-driven atom/molecule has been assessed by means of surface-dressed optical Bloch equations. It is seen that the spectrum can be significantly different from the gas-phase case. Two related gas-surface collision processes have also been studied. First, the feasibility of the formation of the electron-hole pairs in a semiconductor by vibrationally excited molecules has been explored. Second, charge transfer in ion-surface collisions has been examined for both one-electron and two-electron transfer processes. Work has been initiated on microstructures and rough structures, including clusters and surface gratings.

  20. Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alesina, Alberto; Baqir, Reza; Hoxby, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    We investigate whether political jurisdictions form in response to the trade-off between economies of scale and the costs of a heterogeneous population. We consider heterogeneity in income, race, ethnicity, and religion, and we test the model using American school districts, school attendance areas, municipalities, and special districts. We find…

  1. Heterogeneity of reward mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lajtha, A; Sershen, H

    2010-06-01

    The finding that many drugs that have abuse potential and other natural stimuli such as food or sexual activity cause similar chemical changes in the brain, an increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAccS), indicated some time ago that the reward mechanism is at least very similar for all stimuli and that the mechanism is relatively simple. The presently available information shows that the mechanisms involved are more complex and have multiple elements. Multiple brain regions, multiple receptors, multiple distinct neurons, multiple transmitters, multiple transporters, circuits, peptides, proteins, metabolism of transmitters, and phosphorylation, all participate in reward mechanisms. The system is variable, is changed during development, is sex-dependent, and is influenced by genetic differences. Not all of the elements participate in the reward of all stimuli. Different set of mechanisms are involved in the reward of different drugs of abuse, yet different mechanisms in the reward of natural stimuli such as food or sexual activity; thus there are different systems that distinguish different stimuli. Separate functions of the reward system such as anticipation, evaluation, consummation and identification; all contain function-specific elements. The level of the stimulus also influences the participation of the elements of the reward system, there are possible reactions to even below threshold stimuli, and excessive stimuli can change reward to aversion involving parts of the system. Learning and memory of past reward is an important integral element of reward and addictive behavior. Many of the reward elements are altered by repeated or chronic stimuli, and chronic exposure to one drug is likely to alter the response to another stimulus. To evaluate and identify the reward stimulus thus requires heterogeneity of the reward components in the brain.

  2. Heterogeneous dissipative composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris; Parshina, Ludmila

    2018-05-01

    The paper suggests mathematical models of decaying vibrations in layered anisotropic plates and orthotropic rods based on Hamilton variation principle, first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory (FSDT), as well as on the viscous-elastic correspondence principle of the linear viscoelasticity theory. In the description of the physical relationships between the materials of the layers forming stiff polymeric composites, the effect of vibration frequency and ambient temperature is assumed as negligible, whereas for the viscous-elastic polymer layer, temperature-frequency relationship of elastic dissipation and stiffness properties is considered by means of the experimentally determined generalized curves. Mitigation of Hamilton functional makes it possible to describe decaying vibration of anisotropic structures by an algebraic problem of complex eigenvalues. The system of algebraic equation is generated through Ritz method using Legendre polynomials as coordinate functions. First, real solutions are found. To find complex natural frequencies of the system, the obtained real natural frequencies are taken as input values, and then, by means of the 3rd order iteration method, complex natural frequencies are calculated. The paper provides convergence estimates for the numerical procedures. Reliability of the obtained results is confirmed by a good correlation between analytical and experimental values of natural frequencies and loss factors in the lower vibration tones for the two series of unsupported orthotropic rods formed by stiff GRP and CRP layers and a viscoelastic polymer layer. Analysis of the numerical test data has shown the dissipation & stiffness properties of heterogeneous composite plates and rods to considerably depend on relative thickness of the viscoelastic polymer layer, orientation of stiff composite layers, vibration frequency and ambient temperature.

  3. Imaging metabolic heterogeneity in cancer.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debanti; Pratx, Guillem

    2016-01-06

    As our knowledge of cancer metabolism has increased, it has become apparent that cancer metabolic processes are extremely heterogeneous. The reasons behind this heterogeneity include genetic diversity, the existence of multiple and redundant metabolic pathways, altered microenvironmental conditions, and so on. As a result, methods in the clinic and beyond have been developed in order to image and study tumor metabolism in the in vivo and in vitro regimes. Both regimes provide unique advantages and challenges, and may be used to provide a picture of tumor metabolic heterogeneity that is spatially and temporally comprehensive. Taken together, these methods may hold the key to appropriate cancer diagnoses and treatments in the future.

  4. Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Enzymatic Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyama, S. Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three areas of catalysis: homegeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic. Explains fundamentals and economic impact of catalysis. Lists and discusses common industrial catalysts. Provides a list of 107 references. (MVL)

  5. Heterogeneous database integration in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Sujansky, W

    2001-08-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical knowledge, reduction in computing costs, and spread of internet access have created an ocean of electronic data. The decentralized nature of our scientific community and healthcare system, however, has resulted in a patchwork of diverse, or heterogeneous, database implementations, making access to and aggregation of data across databases very difficult. The database heterogeneity problem applies equally to clinical data describing individual patients and biological data characterizing our genome. Specifically, databases are highly heterogeneous with respect to the data models they employ, the data schemas they specify, the query languages they support, and the terminologies they recognize. Heterogeneous database systems attempt to unify disparate databases by providing uniform conceptual schemas that resolve representational heterogeneities, and by providing querying capabilities that aggregate and integrate distributed data. Research in this area has applied a variety of database and knowledge-based techniques, including semantic data modeling, ontology definition, query translation, query optimization, and terminology mapping. Existing systems have addressed heterogeneous database integration in the realms of molecular biology, hospital information systems, and application portability.

  6. Statistical Physics of Rupture in Heterogeneous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    The damage and fracture of materials are technologically of enormous interest due to their economic and human cost. They cover a wide range of phenomena like cracking of glass, aging of concrete, the failure of fiber networks in the formation of paper and the breaking of a metal bar subject to an external load. Failure of composite systems is of utmost importance in naval, aeronautics and space industry [1]. By the term composite, we refer to materials with heterogeneous microscopic structures and also to assemblages of macroscopic elements forming a super-structure. Chemical and nuclear plants suffer from cracking due to corrosion either of chemical or radioactive origin, aided by thermal and/or mechanical stress.

  7. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  8. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  9. Resource heterogeneity can facilitate cooperation.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ádám; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although social structure is known to promote cooperation, by locally exposing selfish agents to their own deeds, studies to date assumed that all agents have access to the same level of resources. This is clearly unrealistic. Here we find that cooperation can be maintained when some agents have access to more resources than others. Cooperation can then emerge even in populations in which the temptation to defect is so strong that players would act fully selfishly if their resources were distributed uniformly. Resource heterogeneity can thus be crucial for the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. We also show that resource heterogeneity can hinder cooperation once the temptation to defect is significantly lowered. In all cases, the level of cooperation can be maximized by managing resource heterogeneity.

  10. Static heterogeneities in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of water seems to be closely related to static heterogeneities. These static heterogeneities are related to the local structure of water molecules, and when properly characterized, may offer an economical explanation of thermodynamic data. The key feature of liquid water is not so much that the existence of hydrogen bonds, first pointed out by Linus Pauling, but rather the local geometry of the liquid molecules is not spherical or oblong but tetrahedral. In the consideration of static heterogeneities, this local geometry is critical. Recent experiments suggested more than one phase of amorphous solid water, while simulations suggest that one of these phases is metastable with respect to another, so that in fact there are only two stable phases.

  11. Simulator for heterogeneous dataflow architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    1993-01-01

    A new simulator is developed to simulate the execution of an algorithm graph in accordance with the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) rules. ATAMM is a Petri Net model which describes the periodic execution of large-grained, data-independent dataflow graphs and which provides predictable steady state time-optimized performance. This simulator extends the ATAMM simulation capability from a heterogenous set of resources, or functional units, to a more general heterogenous architecture. Simulation test cases show that the simulator accurately executes the ATAMM rules for both a heterogenous architecture and a homogenous architecture, which is the special case for only one processor type. The simulator forms one tool in an ATAMM Integrated Environment which contains other tools for graph entry, graph modification for performance optimization, and playback of simulations for analysis.

  12. Spatial localization in heterogeneous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Hsien-Ching; Beaume, Cédric; Knobloch, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    We study spatial localization in the generalized Swift-Hohenberg equation with either quadratic-cubic or cubic-quintic nonlinearity subject to spatially heterogeneous forcing. Different types of forcing (sinusoidal or Gaussian) with different spatial scales are considered and the corresponding localized snaking structures are computed. The results indicate that spatial heterogeneity exerts a significant influence on the location of spatially localized structures in both parameter space and physical space, and on their stability properties. The results are expected to assist in the interpretation of experiments on localized structures where departures from spatial homogeneity are generally unavoidable.

  13. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  14. Teaching about Heterogeneous Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals vary in their responses to incentives and opportunities. For example, additional education will affect one person differently than another. In recent years, econometricians have given increased attention to such heterogeneous responses and to the consequences of such responses for interpreting regression estimates, especially…

  15. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  16. Debye potentials for heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panamarev, N. S.; Donchenko, V. A.; Zemlyanov, Al. A.; Samokhvalov, I. V.; Apeksimov, D. V.; Panamaryova, A. N.; Trifonova, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of the Helmholtz equation solution by the method of perturbation theory in the spherical coordinate system for the Debye potentials for weakly heterogeneous media based on metal nanoparticles and the dielectric matrix. In that case, the dielectric function of a composite changes in space in the radial direction.

  17. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  18. Hydrological heterogeneity in agricultural riparian buffer strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Larocque, Marie; Perron, Rachel; Wiseman, Natalie; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Riparian buffer strips (RBS) may protect surface water and groundwater in agricultural settings, although their effectiveness, observed in field-scale studies, may not extend to a watershed scale. Hydrologically-controlled leaching plots have often shown RBS to be effective at buffering nutrients and pesticides, but uncontrolled field studies have sometimes suggested limited effectiveness. The limited RBS effectiveness may be explained by the spatiotemporal hydrological heterogeneity near non-irrigated fields. This hypothesis was tested in conventional corn and soy fields in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of southern Quebec (Canada), where spring melt brings heavy and rapid runoff, while summer months are hot and dry. One field with a mineral soil (Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan) and another with an organic-rich soil (Boisbriand) were equipped with passive runoff collectors, suction cup lysimeters, and piezometers placed before and after a 3 m-wide RBS, and monitored from 2011 to 2014. Soil topography of the RBS was mapped to a 1 cm vertical precision and a 50 cm sampling grid. On average, surface runoff intersects the RBS perpendicularly, but is subject to substantial local heterogeneity. Groundwater saturates the root zones, but flows little at the time of snowmelt. Groundwater flow is not consistently perpendicular to the RBS, and may reverse, flowing from stream to field under low water flow regimes with stream-aquifer connectivity, thus affecting RBS effectiveness calculations. Groundwater flow direction can be influenced by stratigraphy, local soil hydraulic properties, and historical modification of the agricultural stream beds. Understanding the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of surface and groundwater flows is essential to correctly assess the effectiveness of RBS in intercepting agro-chemical pollution. The implicit assumption that water flows across vegetated RBS, from the field to the stream, should always be verified.

  19. The effect of O-GlcNAcylation on hnRNP A1 translocation and interaction with transportin1.

    PubMed

    Roth, Shira; Khalaila, Isam

    2017-01-01

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a major pre-mRNA binding protein involved in transcription and translation. Although predominantly nuclear, hnRNP A1 shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and the cytosol, delivering its anchored pre-mRNA for further processing. Translocation is important for hnRNP A1 to accomplish its transcriptional and translational roles. Transportin1 (Trn1), a translocation protein, facilitates the translocation of hnRNP A1 back to the nucleus. Moreover, phosphorylation of serine residues at hnRNP A1 C-terminal domain affects its translocation. In this study, we found that phosphorylation is not the only modification that hnRNP A1 undergoes, but also O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) could occur. Several putative novel O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation sites in hnRNP A1 were mapped. Whereas enhanced O-GlcNAcylation increased hnRNP A1 interaction with Trn1, enhanced phosphorylation reduced the interaction between the proteins. In addition, elevated O-GlcNAcylation resulted in hnRNP A1 seclusion in the nucleus, whereas elevated phosphorylation resulted in its accumulation in the cytosol. These findings suggest that a new player, i.e., O-GlcNAcylation, regulates hnRNP A1 translocation and interaction with Trn1, possibly affecting its function. There is a need for further study, to elucidate the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the regulation of the specific activities of hnRNP A1 in transcription and translation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heterogeneity, histological features and DNA ploidy in oral carcinoma by image-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, N; Sperandio, M; Sherriff, M; Brown, A; Odell, E W

    2005-04-01

    Oral squamous carcinomas appear heterogeneous on DNA ploidy analysis. However, this may be partly a result of sample dilution or the detection limit of techniques. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral squamous carcinomas are heterogeneous for ploidy status using image-based ploidy analysis and to determine whether ploidy status correlates with histological parameters. Multiple samples from 42 oral squamous carcinomas were analysed for DNA ploidy using an image-based system and scored for histological parameters. 22 were uniformly aneuploid, 1 uniformly tetraploid and 3 uniformly diploid. 16 appeared heterogeneous but only 8 appeared to be genuinely heterogeneous when minor ploidy histogram peaks were taken into account. Ploidy was closely related to nuclear pleomorphism but not differentiation. Sample variation, detection limits and diagnostic criteria account for much of the ploidy heterogeneity observed. Confident diagnosis of diploid status in an oral squamous cell carcinoma requires a minimum of 5 samples.

  1. Clonal cooperativity in heterogenous cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hengbo; Neelakantan, Deepika; Ford, Heide L.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneity is a major obstacle to the development of effective therapies and is thus an important focus of cancer research. Genetic and epigenetic alterations, as well as altered tumor microenvironments, result in tumors made up of diverse subclones with different genetic and phenotypic characteristics. Intratumor heterogeneity enables competition, but also supports clonal cooperation via cell-cell contact or secretion of factors, resulting in enhanced tumor progression. Here, we summarize recent findings related to interclonal interactions within a tumor and the therapeutic implications of such interactions, with an emphasis on how different subclones collaborate with each other to promote proliferation, metastasis and therapy-resistance. Furthermore, we propose that disruption of clonal cooperation by targeting key factors (such as Wnt and Hedgehog, amongst others) can be an alternative approach to improving clinical outcomes. PMID:27582427

  2. Translational Implications of Tumor Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Quezada, Sergio A.; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics have led to an unprecedented view of the cancer genome and its evolution. Genomic studies have demonstrated the complex and heterogeneous clonal landscape of tumors of different origins, and the potential impact of intratumor heterogeneity on treatment response and resistance, cancer progression and the risk of disease relapse. However, the significance of subclonal mutations, in particular mutations in driver genes, and their evolution through time and their dynamics in response to cancer therapies, is yet to be determined. The necessary tools are now available to prospectively determine whether clonal heterogeneity can be used as a biomarker of clinical outcome, and to what extent subclonal somatic alterations might influence clinical outcome. Studies that employ longitudinal tissue sampling, integrating both genomic and clinical data, have the potential to reveal the subclonal composition and track the evolution of tumors in order to address these questions, and to begin to define the breadth of genetic diversity in different tumor types, and its relevance to patient outcome. Such studies may provide further evidence for novel drug resistance mechanisms informing novel combinatorial, adaptive and tumour immune-therapies placed within the context of tumor evolution. PMID:25770293

  3. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  4. NASA GSFC Perspective on Heterogeneous Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Wesley A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of NASA GSFC, our onboard processing applications, the applicability heterogeneous processing to these applications, and necessary developments to enable heterogeneous processing to be infused into our missions.

  5. Ethnic heterogeneity, social capital and psychological distress in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Singh, Charisse M; Rostila, Mikael; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Forsell, Yvonne; Engström, Karin

    2018-05-25

    Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born. This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances. Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual

  6. Molecular Heterogeneity in Glioblastoma: Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Nicole Renee; Khong, Peter; Parkinson, Jonathon Fergus; Howell, Viive Maarika; Wheeler, Helen Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas, (grade 4 astrocytomas), are aggressive primary brain tumors characterized by histopathological heterogeneity. High-resolution sequencing technologies have shown that these tumors also feature significant inter-tumoral molecular heterogeneity. Molecular subtyping of these tumors has revealed several predictive and prognostic biomarkers. However, intra-tumoral heterogeneity may undermine the use of single biopsy analysis for determining tumor genotype and has implications for potential targeted therapies. The clinical relevance and theories of tumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma are discussed. PMID:25785247

  7. Modulators of heterogeneous protein surface water dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songi

    The hydration water that solvates proteins is a major factor in driving or enabling biological events, including protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. We investigate the role of the protein surface in modulating the hydration water fluctuations on both the picosecond and nanosecond timescale with an emerging experimental NMR technique known as Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP). We carry out site-specific ODNP measurements of the hydration water fluctuations along the surface of Chemotaxis Y (CheY), and correlate the measured fluctuations to hydropathic and topological properties of the CheY surface as derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Furthermore, we compare hydration water fluctuations measured on the CheY surface to that of other globular proteins, as well as intrinsically disordered proteins, peptides, and liposome surfaces to systematically test characteristic effects of the biomolecular surface on the hydration water dynamics. Our results suggest that the labile (ps) hydration water fluctuations are modulated by the chemical nature of the surface, while the bound (ns) water fluctuations are present on surfaces that feature a rough topology and chemical heterogeneity such as the surface of a folded and structured protein. In collaboration with: Ryan Barnes, Dept of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Barbara

  8. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  9. Mechanical heterogeneity in ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldhorst, Arno A.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of five ionic liquids based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, [CnC1im]+, have been performed in order to calculate high-frequency elastic moduli and to evaluate heterogeneity of local elastic moduli. The MD simulations of [CnC1im][NO3], n = 2, 4, 6, and 8, assessed the effect of domain segregation when the alkyl chain length increases, and [C8C1im][PF6] assessed the effect of strength of anion-cation interaction. Dispersion curves of excitation energies of longitudinal and transverse acoustic, LA and TA, modes were obtained from time correlation functions of mass currents at different wavevectors. High-frequency sound velocity of LA modes depends on the alkyl chain length, but sound velocity for TA modes does not. High-frequency bulk and shear moduli, K∞ and G∞, depend on the alkyl chain length because of a density effect. Both K∞ and G∞ are strongly dependent on the anion. The calculation of local bulk and shear moduli was accomplished by performing bulk and shear deformations of the systems cooled to 0 K. The simulations showed a clear connection between structural and elastic modulus heterogeneities. The development of nano-heterogeneous structure with increasing length of the alkyl chain in [CnC1im][NO3] implies lower values for local bulk and shear moduli in the non-polar domains. The mean value and the standard deviations of distributions of local elastic moduli decrease when [NO3]- is replaced by the less coordinating [PF6]- anion.

  10. Heterogeneity in magnetic complex oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenholz, Elke

    Heterogeneity of quantum materials on the nanoscale can result from the spontaneous formation of regions with distinct atomic, electronic and/or magnetic order, and indicates coexistence of competing quantum phases. In complex oxides, the subtle interplay of lattice, charge, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom gives rise to especially rich phase diagrams. For example, coexisting conducting and insulating phases can occur near metal-insulator transitions, colossal magnetoresistance can emerge where ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic domains compete, and charge-ordered and superconducting regions are present simultaneously in materials exhibiting high-temperature superconductivity. Additionally, externally applied fields (electric, magnetic, or strain) or other external excitations (light or heat) can tip the energy balance towards one phase, or support heterogeneity and phase coexistence and provide the means to perturb and tailor quantum heterogeneity at the nanoscale. Engineering nanomaterials, with structural, electronic and magnetic characteristics beyond what is found in bulk materials, is possible today through the technique of thin film epitaxy, effectively a method of `spray painting' atoms on single crystalline substrates to create precisely customized layered structures with atomic arrangements defined by the underlying substrate. Charge transfer and spin polarization across interfaces as well as imprinting nanoscale heterogeneity between adjacent layers lead to intriguing and important new phenomena testing our understanding of basic physics and creating new functionalities. Moreover, the abrupt change of orientation of an order parameter between nanoscale domains can lead to unique phases that are localized at domain walls, including conducting domain walls in insulating ferroelectrics, and ferromagnetic domain walls in antiferromagnets. Here we present our recent results on tailoring the electronic anisotropy of multiferroic heterostructures by

  11. Intratumoral heterogeneity of the epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jun S.; Costello, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation into intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the epigenome is in a formative stage. The patterns of tumor evolution inferred from epigenetic ITH and genetic ITH are remarkably similar, suggesting widespread co-dependency of these disparate mechanisms. The biological and clinical relevance of epigenetic ITH are becoming more apparent. Rare tumor cells with unique and reversible epigenetic states may drive drug resistance, and the degree of epigenetic ITH at diagnosis may predict patient outcome. This perspective presents these current concepts and clinical implications of epigenetic ITH, and the experimental and computational techniques at the forefront of ITH exploration. PMID:27070699

  12. Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous LWR MOX fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicu, D.; Barker, M.

    2013-11-01

    view of the location where the thermograms are recorded: the temperature transients on the rear face of the samples are measured with a pyrometer and the system is provided with a lens assembly which enables a 1 mm diameter spot of the sample surface to be focused onto the signal collecting fibre. The thermograms are therefore averaged over a 1 mm diameter surface, which is much larger than the size of the heterogeneities (Pu rich agglomerates with a size of less than 200 μm).The impact of sample thickness on the measured thermal diffusivity was experimentally investigated for the MIMAS MOX with 7.0 wt.% Pu. For this purpose, discs of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm thickness were cut and the thermal diffusivity was measured. The same investigation was done for standard UO2, in order to verify the accuracy of the inverse technique used for the identification of the thermal diffusivity from the thermograms. The inverse technique [39] explicitly takes into account the sample thickness in the calculation of the heat losses. The results for UO2 (Fig. 6) show that the measured thermal diffusivity does not depend on sample thickness, and is in good agreement with the recommendation of Fink [16]. The results for the heterogeneous MOX (Fig. 7) also show no dependence on sample thickness.

  13. On evolutionary spatial heterogeneous games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, H.

    2008-03-01

    How cooperation between self-interested individuals evolve is a crucial problem, both in biology and in social sciences, that is far from being well understood. Evolutionary game theory is a useful approach to this issue. The simplest model to take into account the spatial dimension in evolutionary games is in terms of cellular automata with just a one-parameter payoff matrix. Here, the effects of spatial heterogeneities of the environment and/or asymmetries in the interactions among the individuals are analysed through different extensions of this model. Instead of using the same universal payoff matrix, bimatrix games in which each cell at site ( i, j) has its own different ‘temptation to defect’ parameter T(i,j) are considered. First, the case in which these individual payoffs are constant in time is studied. Second, an evolving evolutionary spatial game such that T=T(i,j;t), i.e. besides depending on the position evolves (by natural selection), is used to explore the combination of spatial heterogeneity and natural selection of payoff matrices.

  14. Groundwater pumping by heterogeneous users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saak, Alexander E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-08-01

    Farm size is a significant determinant of both groundwater-irrigated farm acreage and groundwater-irrigation-application rates per unit land area. This paper analyzes the patterns of groundwater exploitation when resource users in the area overlying a common aquifer are heterogeneous. In the presence of user heterogeneity, the common resource problem consists of inefficient dynamic and spatial allocation of groundwater because it impacts income distribution not only across periods but also across farmers. Under competitive allocation, smaller farmers pump groundwater faster if farmers have a constant marginal periodic utility of income. However, it is possible that larger farmers pump faster if the Arrow-Pratt coefficient of relative risk-aversion is sufficiently decreasing in income. A greater farm-size inequality may either moderate or amplify income inequality among farmers. Its effect on welfare depends on the curvature properties of the agricultural output function and the farmer utility of income. Also, it is shown that a flat-rate quota policy that limits the quantity of groundwater extraction per unit land area may have unintended consequences for the income distribution among farmers.

  15. Simulating Heterogeneous Tumor Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Mishra, Bud

    2016-01-01

    Certain tumor phenomena, like metabolic heterogeneity and local stable regions of chronic hypoxia, signify a tumor’s resistance to therapy. Although recent research has shed light on the intracellular mechanisms of cancer metabolic reprogramming, little is known about how tumors become metabolically heterogeneous or chronically hypoxic, namely the initial conditions and spatiotemporal dynamics that drive these cell population conditions. To study these aspects, we developed a minimal, spatially-resolved simulation framework for modeling tissue-scale mixed populations of cells based on diffusible particles the cells consume and release, the concentrations of which determine their behavior in arbitrarily complex ways, and on stochastic reproduction. We simulate cell populations that self-sort to facilitate metabolic symbiosis, that grow according to tumor-stroma signaling patterns, and that give rise to stable local regions of chronic hypoxia near blood vessels. We raise two novel questions in the context of these results: (1) How will two metabolically symbiotic cell subpopulations self-sort in the presence of glucose, oxygen, and lactate gradients? We observe a robust pattern of alternating striations. (2) What is the proper time scale to observe stable local regions of chronic hypoxia? We observe the stability is a function of the balance of three factors related to O2—diffusion rate, local vessel release rate, and viable and hypoxic tumor cell consumption rate. We anticipate our simulation framework will help researchers design better experiments and generate novel hypotheses to better understand dynamic, emergent whole-tumor behavior. PMID:28030620

  16. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers’ efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users’ locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  17. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    ... every 3 or 6 months is recommended. Normal Results The following are the results when A1C is ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means that you have ...

  18. Data Integration for Heterogenous Datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract More and more, the needs of data analysts are requiring the use of data outside the control of their own organizations. The increasing amount of data available on the Web, the new technologies for linking data across datasets, and the increasing need to integrate structured and unstructured data are all driving this trend. In this article, we provide a technical overview of the emerging “broad data” area, in which the variety of heterogeneous data being used, rather than the scale of the data being analyzed, is the limiting factor in data analysis efforts. The article explores some of the emerging themes in data discovery, data integration, linked data, and the combination of structured and unstructured data. PMID:25553272

  19. Intertumoral Heterogeneity within Medulloblastoma Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Florence M G; Remke, Marc; Rampasek, Ladislav; Peacock, John; Shih, David J H; Luu, Betty; Garzia, Livia; Torchia, Jonathon; Nor, Carolina; Morrissy, A Sorana; Agnihotri, Sameer; Thompson, Yuan Yao; Kuzan-Fischer, Claudia M; Farooq, Hamza; Isaev, Keren; Daniels, Craig; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Faure-Conter, Cecile; Jouvet, Anne; Giannini, Caterina; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A; Li, Kay Ka Wai; Ng, Ho-Keung; Eberhart, Charles G; Pollack, Ian F; Hamilton, Ronald L; Gillespie, G Yancey; Olson, James M; Leary, Sarah; Weiss, William A; Lach, Boleslaw; Chambless, Lola B; Thompson, Reid C; Cooper, Michael K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Hauser, Peter; van Veelen, Marie-Lise C; Kros, Johan M; French, Pim J; Ra, Young Shin; Kumabe, Toshihiro; López-Aguilar, Enrique; Zitterbart, Karel; Sterba, Jaroslav; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Massimino, Maura; Van Meir, Erwin G; Osuka, Satoru; Shofuda, Tomoko; Klekner, Almos; Zollo, Massimo; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Rubin, Joshua B; Jabado, Nada; Albrecht, Steffen; Mora, Jaume; Van Meter, Timothy E; Jung, Shin; Moore, Andrew S; Hallahan, Andrew R; Chan, Jennifer A; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Carlotti, Carlos G; Fouladi, Maryam; Pimentel, José; Faria, Claudia C; Saad, Ali G; Massimi, Luca; Liau, Linda M; Wheeler, Helen; Nakamura, Hideo; Elbabaa, Samer K; Perezpeña-Diazconti, Mario; Chico Ponce de León, Fernando; Robinson, Shenandoah; Zapotocky, Michal; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Huang, Annie; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Tabori, Uri; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Dirks, Peter B; Rutka, James T; Bader, Gary D; Reimand, Jüri; Goldenberg, Anna; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2017-06-12

    While molecular subgrouping has revolutionized medulloblastoma classification, the extent of heterogeneity within subgroups is unknown. Similarity network fusion (SNF) applied to genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression data across 763 primary samples identifies very homogeneous clusters of patients, supporting the presence of medulloblastoma subtypes. After integration of somatic copy-number alterations, and clinical features specific to each cluster, we identify 12 different subtypes of medulloblastoma. Integrative analysis using SNF further delineates group 3 from group 4 medulloblastoma, which is not as readily apparent through analyses of individual data types. Two clear subtypes of infants with Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma with disparate outcomes and biology are identified. Medulloblastoma subtypes identified through integrative clustering have important implications for stratification of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermoelectricity in Heterogeneous Nanofluidic Channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Wang, Qinggong

    2018-05-01

    Ionic fluids are essential to energy conversion, water desalination, drug delivery, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Ionic transport in nanoscale confinements and complex physical fields still remain elusive. Here, a nanofluidic system is developed using nanochannels of heterogeneous surface properties to investigate transport properties of ions under different temperatures. Steady ionic currents are observed under symmetric temperature gradients, which is equivalent to generating electricity using waste heat (e.g., electronic chips and solar panels). The currents increase linearly with temperature gradient and nonlinearly with channel size. Contributions to ion motion from temperatures and channel properties are evaluated for this phenomenon. The findings provide insights into the study of confined ionic fluids in multiphysical fields, and suggest applications in thermal energy conversion, temperature sensors, and chip-level thermal management. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Heterogeneous fuel for hybrid rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Heterogeneous fuel compositions suitable for use in hybrid rocket engines and solid-fuel ramjet engines, The compositions include mixtures of a continuous phase, which forms a solid matrix, and a dispersed phase permanently distributed therein. The dispersed phase or the matrix vaporizes (or melts) and disperses into the gas flow much more rapidly than the other, creating depressions, voids and bumps within and on the surface of the remaining bulk material that continuously roughen its surface, This effect substantially enhances heat transfer from the combusting gas flow to the fuel surface, producing a correspondingly high burning rate, The dispersed phase may include solid particles, entrained liquid droplets, or gas-phase voids having dimensions roughly similar to the displacement scale height of the gas-flow boundary layer generated during combustion.

  2. Y-12 PLANT NUCLEAR SAFETY HANDBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.W. ed.; Bailey, M.L.; Cagle, T.J.

    1963-03-27

    Information needed to solve nuclear safety problems is condensed into a reference book for use by persons familiar with the field. Included are a glossary of terms; useful tables; nuclear constants; criticality calculations; basic nuclear safety limits; solution geometries and critical values; metal critical values; criticality values for intermediate, heterogeneous, and interacting systems; miscellaneous and related information; and report number, author, and subject indexes. (C.H.)

  3. Toward understanding and exploiting tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ash A; Aranda, Victoria; Bardelli, Alberto; Blanpain, Cedric; Bock, Christoph; Borowski, Christine; Caldas, Carlos; Califano, Andrea; Doherty, Michael; Elsner, Markus; Esteller, Manel; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Korbel, Jan O; Lichter, Peter; Mason, Christopher E; Navin, Nicholas; Pe’er, Dana; Polyak, Kornelia; Roberts, Charles W M; Siu, Lillian; Snyder, Alexandra; Stower, Hannah; Swanton, Charles; Verhaak, Roel G W; Zenklusen, Jean C; Zuber, Johannes; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The extent of tumor heterogeneity is an emerging theme that researchers are only beginning to understand. How genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity affects tumor evolution and clinical progression is unknown. The precise nature of the environmental factors that influence this heterogeneity is also yet to be characterized. Nature Medicine, Nature Biotechnology and the Volkswagen Foundation organized a meeting focused on identifying the obstacles that need to be overcome to advance translational research in and tumor heterogeneity. Once these key questions were established, the attendees devised potential solutions. Their ideas are presented here. PMID:26248267

  4. Toward understanding and exploiting tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Ash A; Aranda, Victoria; Bardelli, Alberto; Blanpain, Cedric; Bock, Christoph; Borowski, Christine; Caldas, Carlos; Califano, Andrea; Doherty, Michael; Elsner, Markus; Esteller, Manel; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Korbel, Jan O; Lichter, Peter; Mason, Christopher E; Navin, Nicholas; Pe'er, Dana; Polyak, Kornelia; Roberts, Charles W M; Siu, Lillian; Snyder, Alexandra; Stower, Hannah; Swanton, Charles; Verhaak, Roel G W; Zenklusen, Jean C; Zuber, Johannes; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    The extent of tumor heterogeneity is an emerging theme that researchers are only beginning to understand. How genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity affects tumor evolution and clinical progression is unknown. The precise nature of the environmental factors that influence this heterogeneity is also yet to be characterized. Nature Medicine, Nature Biotechnology and the Volkswagen Foundation organized a meeting focused on identifying the obstacles that need to be overcome to advance translational research in and tumor heterogeneity. Once these key questions were established, the attendees devised potential solutions. Their ideas are presented here.

  5. Quantification of type I error probabilities for heterogeneity LOD scores.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paula C; Hodge, Susan E; Greenberg, David A

    2002-02-01

    Locus heterogeneity is a major confounding factor in linkage analysis. When no prior knowledge of linkage exists, and one aims to detect linkage and heterogeneity simultaneously, classical distribution theory of log-likelihood ratios does not hold. Despite some theoretical work on this problem, no generally accepted practical guidelines exist. Nor has anyone rigorously examined the combined effect of testing for linkage and heterogeneity and simultaneously maximizing over two genetic models (dominant, recessive). The effect of linkage phase represents another uninvestigated issue. Using computer simulation, we investigated type I error (P value) of the "admixture" heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) score, i.e., the LOD score maximized over both recombination fraction theta and admixture parameter alpha and we compared this with the P values when one maximizes only with respect to theta (i.e., the standard LOD score). We generated datasets of phase-known and -unknown nuclear families, sizes k = 2, 4, and 6 children, under fully penetrant autosomal dominant inheritance. We analyzed these datasets (1) assuming a single genetic model, and maximizing the HLOD over theta and alpha; and (2) maximizing the HLOD additionally over two dominance models (dominant vs. recessive), then subtracting a 0.3 correction. For both (1) and (2), P values increased with family size k; rose less for phase-unknown families than for phase-known ones, with the former approaching the latter as k increased; and did not exceed the one-sided mixture distribution xi = (1/2) chi1(2) + (1/2) chi2(2). Thus, maximizing the HLOD over theta and alpha appears to add considerably less than an additional degree of freedom to the associated chi1(2) distribution. We conclude with practical guidelines for linkage investigators. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  7. Heterogeneity of the tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Janice A; Chang, Sung-Hee; Shih, Shou-Ching; Dvorak, Ann M; Dvorak, Harold F

    2010-04-01

    The blood vessels supplying tumors are strikingly heterogeneous and differ from their normal counterparts with respect to organization, structure, and function. Six distinctly different tumor vessel types have been identified, and much has been learned about the steps and mechanisms by which they form. Four of the six vessel types (mother vessels, capillaries, glomeruloid microvascular proliferations, and vascular malformations) develop from preexisting normal venules and capillaries by angiogenesis. The two remaining vessel types (feeder arteries and draining veins) develop from arterio-venogenesis, a parallel, poorly understood process that involves the remodeling of preexisting arteries and veins. All six of these tumor vessel types can be induced to form sequentially in normal mouse tissues by an adenoviral vector expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A164. Current antiangiogenic cancer therapies directed at VEGF-A or its receptors have been of only limited benefit to cancer patients, perhaps because they target only the endothelial cells of the tumor blood vessel subset that requires exogenous VEGF-A for maintenance. A goal of future work is to identify therapeutic targets on tumor blood vessel endothelial cells that have lost this requirement. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. Heterogeneity of the Tumor Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Janice A.; Chang, Sung-Hee; Shih, Shou-Ching; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.

    2012-01-01

    The blood vessels supplying tumors are strikingly heterogeneous and differ from their normal counterparts with respect to organization, structure, and function. Six distinctly different tumor vessel types have been identified, and much has been learned about the steps and mechanisms by which they form. Four of the six vessel types (mother vessels, capillaries, glomeruloid microvascular proliferations, and vascular malformations) develop from preexisting normal venules and capillaries by angiogenesis. The two remaining vessel types (feeder arteries and draining veins) develop from arterio-venogenesis, a parallel, poorly understood process that involves the remodeling of preexisting arteries and veins. All six of these tumor vessel types can be induced to form sequentially in normal mouse tissues by an adenoviral vector expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A164. Current antiangiogenic cancer therapies directed at VEGF-A or its receptors have been of only limited benefit to cancer patients, perhaps because they target only the endothelial cells of the tumor blood vessel subset that requires exogenous VEGF-A for maintenance. A goal of future work is to identify therapeutic targets on tumor blood vessel endothelial cells that have lost this requirement. PMID:20490982

  9. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  10. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  11. Heterogeneity in Health Care Computing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Soumitra

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of heterogeneity in computer systems, networks, databases, and presentation techniques, and the problems it creates in developing integrated medical information systems. The need for institutional, comprehensive goals are emphasized. Using the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center's computing environment as the case study, various steps to solve the heterogeneity problem are presented.

  12. The composition of heterogeneous control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin; Astrom, Karl

    1991-01-01

    The fuzzy control literature and industrial practice provide certain nonlinear methods for combining heterogeneous control laws, but these methods have been very difficult to analyze theoretically. An alternate formulation and extension of this approach is presented that has several practical and theoretical benefits. An example of heterogeneous control is given and two alternate analysis methods are presented.

  13. Chemical and seismological constraints on mantle heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Helffrich, George

    2002-11-15

    Recent seismological studies that use scattered waves to detect heterogeneities in the mantle reveal the presence of a small, distributed elastic heterogeneity in the lower mantle which does not appear to be thermal in nature. The characteristic size of these heterogeneities appears to be ca. 8 km, suggesting that they represent subducted recycled oceanic crust. With this stimulus, old ideas that the mantle is heterogeneous in structure, rather than stratified, are reinterpreted and a simple, end-member model for the heterogeneity structure is proposed. The volumetrically largest components in the model are recycled oceanic crust, which contains the heat-producing elements, and mantle depleted of these and other incompatible trace elements. About 10% of the mantle's mass is made up of recycled oceanic crust, which is associated with the observed small-scale seismic heterogeneity. The way this heterogeneity is distributed is in convectively stretched and thinned bodies ranging downwards in size from 8 km. With the present techniques to detect small bodies through scattering, only ca. 55% of the mantle's small-scale heterogeneities are detectable seismically.

  14. Functional Heterogeneity and Senior Management Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been an increasing trend toward the creation of senior management teams (SMTs) which are characterized by a high degree of functional heterogeneity. Although such teams may create better linkages to information, along with the benefits of functional heterogeneity comes the potential for conflicts that stem from the value…

  15. Biologically Relevant Heterogeneity: Metrics and Practical Insights

    PubMed Central

    Gough, A; Stern, AM; Maier, J; Lezon, T; Shun, T-Y; Chennubhotla, C; Schurdak, ME; Haney, SA; Taylor, DL

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity is a fundamental property of biological systems at all scales that must be addressed in a wide range of biomedical applications including basic biomedical research, drug discovery, diagnostics and the implementation of precision medicine. There are a number of published approaches to characterizing heterogeneity in cells in vitro and in tissue sections. However, there are no generally accepted approaches for the detection and quantitation of heterogeneity that can be applied in a relatively high throughput workflow. This review and perspective emphasizes the experimental methods that capture multiplexed cell level data, as well as the need for standard metrics of the spatial, temporal and population components of heterogeneity. A recommendation is made for the adoption of a set of three heterogeneity indices that can be implemented in any high throughput workflow to optimize the decision-making process. In addition, a pairwise mutual information method is suggested as an approach to characterizing the spatial features of heterogeneity, especially in tissue-based imaging. Furthermore, metrics for temporal heterogeneity are in the early stages of development. Example studies indicate that the analysis of functional phenotypic heterogeneity can be exploited to guide decisions in the interpretation of biomedical experiments, drug discovery, diagnostics and the design of optimal therapeutic strategies for individual patients. PMID:28231035

  16. Biologically Relevant Heterogeneity: Metrics and Practical Insights.

    PubMed

    Gough, Albert; Stern, Andrew M; Maier, John; Lezon, Timothy; Shun, Tong-Ying; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Schurdak, Mark E; Haney, Steven A; Taylor, D Lansing

    2017-03-01

    Heterogeneity is a fundamental property of biological systems at all scales that must be addressed in a wide range of biomedical applications, including basic biomedical research, drug discovery, diagnostics, and the implementation of precision medicine. There are a number of published approaches to characterizing heterogeneity in cells in vitro and in tissue sections. However, there are no generally accepted approaches for the detection and quantitation of heterogeneity that can be applied in a relatively high-throughput workflow. This review and perspective emphasizes the experimental methods that capture multiplexed cell-level data, as well as the need for standard metrics of the spatial, temporal, and population components of heterogeneity. A recommendation is made for the adoption of a set of three heterogeneity indices that can be implemented in any high-throughput workflow to optimize the decision-making process. In addition, a pairwise mutual information method is suggested as an approach to characterizing the spatial features of heterogeneity, especially in tissue-based imaging. Furthermore, metrics for temporal heterogeneity are in the early stages of development. Example studies indicate that the analysis of functional phenotypic heterogeneity can be exploited to guide decisions in the interpretation of biomedical experiments, drug discovery, diagnostics, and the design of optimal therapeutic strategies for individual patients.

  17. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  18. Characterizing heterogeneous cellular responses to perturbations.

    PubMed

    Slack, Michael D; Martinez, Elisabeth D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2008-12-09

    Cellular populations have been widely observed to respond heterogeneously to perturbation. However, interpreting the observed heterogeneity is an extremely challenging problem because of the complexity of possible cellular phenotypes, the large dimension of potential perturbations, and the lack of methods for separating meaningful biological information from noise. Here, we develop an image-based approach to characterize cellular phenotypes based on patterns of signaling marker colocalization. Heterogeneous cellular populations are characterized as mixtures of phenotypically distinct subpopulations, and responses to perturbations are summarized succinctly as probabilistic redistributions of these mixtures. We apply our method to characterize the heterogeneous responses of cancer cells to a panel of drugs. We find that cells treated with drugs of (dis-)similar mechanism exhibit (dis-)similar patterns of heterogeneity. Despite the observed phenotypic diversity of cells observed within our data, low-complexity models of heterogeneity were sufficient to distinguish most classes of drug mechanism. Our approach offers a computational framework for assessing the complexity of cellular heterogeneity, investigating the degree to which perturbations induce redistributions of a limited, but nontrivial, repertoire of underlying states and revealing functional significance contained within distinct patterns of heterogeneous responses.

  19. PRMT5 regulates IRES-dependent translation via methylation of hnRNP A1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guozhen; Dhar, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The type II arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 is responsible for the symmetric dimethylation of histone to generate the H3R8me2s and H4R3me2s marks, which correlate with the repression of transcription. However, the protein level of a number of genes (MEP50, CCND1, MYC, HIF1a, MTIF and CDKN1B) are reported to be downregulated by the loss of PRMT5, while their mRNA levels remain unchanged, which is counterintuitive for PRMT5's proposed role as a transcription repressor. We noticed that the majority of the genes regulated by PRMT5, at the posttranscriptional level, express mRNA containing an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Using an IRES-dependent reporter system, we established that PRMT5 facilitates the translation of a subset of IRES-containing genes. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, hnRNP A1, is an IRES transacting factor (ITAF) that regulates the IRES-dependent translation of Cyclin D1 and c-Myc. We showed that hnRNP A1 is methylated by PRMT5 on two residues, R218 and R225, and that this methylation facilitates the interaction of hnRNP A1 with IRES RNA to promote IRES-dependent translation. This study defines a new role for PRMT5 regulation of cellular protein levels, which goes beyond the known functions of PRMT5 as a transcription and splicing regulator. PMID:28115626

  20. Fiber Bundle Model Under Heterogeneous Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subhadeep; Goswami, Sanchari

    2018-03-01

    The present work deals with the behavior of fiber bundle model under heterogeneous loading condition. The model is explored both in the mean-field limit as well as with local stress concentration. In the mean field limit, the failure abruptness decreases with increasing order k of heterogeneous loading. In this limit, a brittle to quasi-brittle transition is observed at a particular strength of disorder which changes with k. On the other hand, the model is hardly affected by such heterogeneity in the limit where local stress concentration plays a crucial role. The continuous limit of the heterogeneous loading is also studied and discussed in this paper. Some of the important results related to fiber bundle model are reviewed and their responses to our new scheme of heterogeneous loading are studied in details. Our findings are universal with respect to the nature of the threshold distribution adopted to assign strength to an individual fiber.

  1. Quantification of heterogeneity observed in medical images.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Frank J; Grigsby, Perry W

    2013-03-02

    There has been much recent interest in the quantification of visually evident heterogeneity within functional grayscale medical images, such as those obtained via magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography. In the case of images of cancerous tumors, variations in grayscale intensity imply variations in crucial tumor biology. Despite these considerable clinical implications, there is as yet no standardized method for measuring the heterogeneity observed via these imaging modalities. In this work, we motivate and derive a statistical measure of image heterogeneity. This statistic measures the distance-dependent average deviation from the smoothest intensity gradation feasible. We show how this statistic may be used to automatically rank images of in vivo human tumors in order of increasing heterogeneity. We test this method against the current practice of ranking images via expert visual inspection. We find that this statistic provides a means of heterogeneity quantification beyond that given by other statistics traditionally used for the same purpose. We demonstrate the effect of tumor shape upon our ranking method and find the method applicable to a wide variety of clinically relevant tumor images. We find that the automated heterogeneity rankings agree very closely with those performed visually by experts. These results indicate that our automated method may be used reliably to rank, in order of increasing heterogeneity, tumor images whether or not object shape is considered to contribute to that heterogeneity. Automated heterogeneity ranking yields objective results which are more consistent than visual rankings. Reducing variability in image interpretation will enable more researchers to better study potential clinical implications of observed tumor heterogeneity.

  2. DNA-PKcs phosphorylates hnRNP-A1 to facilitate the RPA-to-POT1 switch and telomere capping after replication.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jiangdong; Lin, Yu-Fen; Xu, Kangling; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Wang, Dong; Chen, Benjamin P C

    2015-07-13

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP-A1) has been implicated in telomere protection and telomerase activation. Recent evidence has further demonstrated that hnRNP-A1 plays a crucial role in maintaining newly replicated telomeric 3' overhangs and facilitating the switch from replication protein A (RPA) to protection of telomeres 1 (POT1). The role of hnRNP-A1 in telomere protection also involves DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), although the detailed regulation mechanism has not been clear. Here we report that hnRNP-A1 is phosphorylated by DNA-PKcs during the G2 and M phases and that DNA-PK-dependent hnRNP-A1 phosphorylation promotes the RPA-to-POT1 switch on telomeric single-stranded 3' overhangs. Consequently, in cells lacking hnRNP-A1 or DNA-PKcs-dependent hnRNP-A1 phosphorylation, impairment of the RPA-to-POT1 switch results in DNA damage response at telomeres during mitosis as well as induction of fragile telomeres. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA-PKcs-dependent hnRNP-A1 phosphorylation is critical for capping of the newly replicated telomeres and prevention of telomeric aberrations. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Graphene-Si heterogeneous nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinwande, Deji; Tao, Li

    2013-05-01

    It is widely envisioned that graphene, an atomic sheet of carbon that has generated very broad interest has the largest prospects for flexible smart systems and for integrated graphene-silicon (G-Si) heterogeneous very large-scale integrated (VLSI) nanoelectronics. In this work, we focus on the latter and elucidate the research progress that has been achieved for integration of graphene with Si-CMOS including: wafer-scale graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on Cu/SiO2/Si substrates, wafer-scale graphene transfer that afforded the fabrication of over 10,000 devices, wafer-scalable mitigation strategies to restore graphene's device characteristics via fluoropolymer interaction, and demonstrations of graphene integrated with commercial Si- CMOS chips for hybrid nanoelectronics and sensors. Metrology at the wafer-scale has led to the development of custom Raman processing software (GRISP) now available on the nanohub portal. The metrology reveals that graphene grown on 4-in substrates have monolayer quality comparable to exfoliated flakes. At room temperature, the high-performance passivated graphene devices on SiO2/Si can afford average mobilities 3000cm2/V-s and gate modulation that exceeds an order of magnitude. The latest growth research has yielded graphene with high mobilities greater than 10,000cm2/V-s on oxidized silicon. Further progress requires track compatible graphene-Si integration via wafer bonding in order to translate graphene research from basic to applied research in commercial R and D laboratories to ultimately yield a viable nanotechnology.

  4. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  5. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  6. Heterogeneous Chemistry Involving Methanol in Tropospheric Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Yokelson, R. J.; Singh, H. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Crawford, J. H.; Iraci, L. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this report we analyze airborne measurements to suggest that methanol in biomass burning smoke is lost heterogeneously in clouds. When a smoke plume intersected a cumulus cloud during the SAFARI 2000 field project, the observed methanol gas phase concentration rapidly declined. Current understanding of gas and aqueous phase chemistry cannot explain the loss of methanol documented by these measurements. Two plausible heterogeneous reactions are proposed to explain the observed simultaneous loss and production of methanol and formaldehyde, respectively. If the rapid heterogeneous processing of methanol, seen in a cloud impacted by smoke, occurs in more pristine clouds, it could affect the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere on a global scale.

  7. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25-30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians.

  8. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images

    PubMed Central

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D. DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K. Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25–30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians. PMID:27736888

  9. Methodologies and systems for heterogeneous concurrent computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderam, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    Heterogeneous concurrent computing is gaining increasing acceptance as an alternative or complementary paradigm to multiprocessor-based parallel processing as well as to conventional supercomputing. While algorithmic and programming aspects of heterogeneous concurrent computing are similar to their parallel processing counterparts, system issues, partitioning and scheduling, and performance aspects are significantly different. In this paper, we discuss critical design and implementation issues in heterogeneous concurrent computing, and describe techniques for enhancing its effectiveness. In particular, we highlight the system level infrastructures that are required, aspects of parallel algorithm development that most affect performance, system capabilities and limitations, and tools and methodologies for effective computing in heterogeneous networked environments. We also present recent developments and experiences in the context of the PVM system and comment on ongoing and future work.

  10. NMR analysis of compositional heterogeneity in polysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many copolysaccharides are compositionally heterogeneous, and the composition determined by the usual analytical or spectroscopic methods provides only an average value. For some polysaccharides, the NMR data contain copolymer sequence information, such as diad, triad, and tetrad sequence intensiti...

  11. Flavivirus structural heterogeneity: implications for cell entry.

    PubMed

    Rey, Félix A; Stiasny, Karin; Heinz, Franz X

    2017-06-01

    The explosive spread of Zika virus is the most recent example of the threat imposed to human health by flaviviruses. High-resolution structures are available for several of these arthropod-borne viruses, revealing alternative icosahedral organizations of immature and mature virions. Incomplete proteolytic maturation, however, results in a cloud of highly heterogeneous mosaic particles. This heterogeneity is further expanded by a dynamic behavior of the viral envelope glycoproteins. The ensemble of heterogeneous and dynamic infectious particles circulating in infected hosts offers a range of alternative possible receptor interaction sites at their surfaces, potentially contributing to the broad flavivirus host-range and variation in tissue tropism. The potential synergy between heterogeneous particles in the circulating cloud thus provides an additional dimension to understand the unanticipated properties of Zika virus in its recent outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterogeneous Clustering: Operational and User Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salm, Saita Wood

    1999-01-01

    Heterogeneous clustering can improve overall utilization of multiple hosts and can provide better turnaround to users by balancing workloads across hosts. Building a cluster requires both operational changes and revisions in user scripts.

  13. Heterogeneous continuous-time random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Tupikina, Liubov

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a heterogeneous continuous-time random walk (HCTRW) model as a versatile analytical formalism for studying and modeling diffusion processes in heterogeneous structures, such as porous or disordered media, multiscale or crowded environments, weighted graphs or networks. We derive the exact form of the propagator and investigate the effects of spatiotemporal heterogeneities onto the diffusive dynamics via the spectral properties of the generalized transition matrix. In particular, we show how the distribution of first-passage times changes due to local and global heterogeneities of the medium. The HCTRW formalism offers a unified mathematical language to address various diffusion-reaction problems, with numerous applications in material sciences, physics, chemistry, biology, and social sciences.

  14. Individual heterogeneity generating explosive system network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F

    2018-03-01

    Individual heterogeneity is a key characteristic of many real-world systems, from organisms to humans. However, its role in determining the system's collective dynamics is not well understood. Here we study how individual heterogeneity impacts the system network dynamics by comparing linking mechanisms that favor similar or dissimilar individuals. We find that this heterogeneity-based evolution drives an unconventional form of explosive network behavior, and it dictates how a polarized population moves toward consensus. Our model shows good agreement with data from both biological and social science domains. We conclude that individual heterogeneity likely plays a key role in the collective development of real-world networks and communities, and it cannot be ignored.

  15. Platelet response heterogeneity in thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Munnix, Imke C A; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Auger, Jocelyn M; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2009-12-01

    Vascular injury leads to formation of a structured thrombus as a consequence of platelet activation and aggregation, thrombin and fibrin formation, and trapping of leukocytes and red cells. This review summarises current evidence for heterogeneity of platelet responses and functions in the thrombus-forming process. Environmental factors contribute to response heterogeneity, as the platelets in a thrombus adhere to different substrates, and sense specific (ant)agonists and rheological conditions. Contraction of platelets and interaction with fibrin and other blood cells cause further response variation. On the other hand, response heterogeneity can also be due to intrinsic differences between platelets in age and in receptor and signalling proteins. As a result, at least three subpopulations of platelets are formed in a thrombus: aggregating platelets with (reversible) integrin activation, procoagulant (coated) platelets exposing phosphatidylserine and binding coagulation factors, and contracting platelets with cell-cell contacts. This recognition of thrombus heterogeneity has implications for the use and development of antiplatelet medication.

  16. A model for cancer tissue heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Anwoy Kumar; Datta, Aniruddha; Venkatraj, Vijayanagaram

    2014-03-01

    An important problem in the study of cancer is the understanding of the heterogeneous nature of the cell population. The clonal evolution of the tumor cells results in the tumors being composed of multiple subpopulations. Each subpopulation reacts differently to any given therapy. This calls for the development of novel (regulatory network) models, which can accommodate heterogeneity in cancerous tissues. In this paper, we present a new approach to model heterogeneity in cancer. We model heterogeneity as an ensemble of deterministic Boolean networks based on prior pathway knowledge. We develop the model considering the use of qPCR data. By observing gene expressions when the tissue is subjected to various stimuli, the compositional breakup of the tissue under study can be determined. We demonstrate the viability of this approach by using our model on synthetic data, and real-world data collected from fibroblasts.

  17. Exploring heterogeneous market hypothesis using realized volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Wen Cheong; Isa, Zaidi; Mohd Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the heterogeneous market hypothesis using high frequency data. The cascaded heterogeneous trading activities with different time durations are modelled by the heterogeneous autoregressive framework. The empirical study indicated the presence of long memory behaviour and predictability elements in the financial time series which supported heterogeneous market hypothesis. Besides the common sum-of-square intraday realized volatility, we also advocated two power variation realized volatilities in forecast evaluation and risk measurement in order to overcome the possible abrupt jumps during the credit crisis. Finally, the empirical results are used in determining the market risk using the value-at-risk approach. The findings of this study have implications for informationally market efficiency analysis, portfolio strategies and risk managements.

  18. HETEROGENOUS PHOTOREACTION OF FORMALDEHYDE WITH HYDROXYL RADICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric heterogeneous photoreactions occur between formaldehyde and hydroxyl radicals to produce formic acid. hese photoreactions not only occur in clouds, but also in other tropospheric hydrometeors such as precipitation and dew droplets. xperiments were performed by irradia...

  19. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  20. Individual heterogeneity generating explosive system network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2018-03-01

    Individual heterogeneity is a key characteristic of many real-world systems, from organisms to humans. However, its role in determining the system's collective dynamics is not well understood. Here we study how individual heterogeneity impacts the system network dynamics by comparing linking mechanisms that favor similar or dissimilar individuals. We find that this heterogeneity-based evolution drives an unconventional form of explosive network behavior, and it dictates how a polarized population moves toward consensus. Our model shows good agreement with data from both biological and social science domains. We conclude that individual heterogeneity likely plays a key role in the collective development of real-world networks and communities, and it cannot be ignored.

  1. Heterogeneity and Risk Sharing in Village Economies*

    PubMed Central

    Chiappori, Pierre-André; Samphantharak, Krislert; Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam; Townsend, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    We show how to use panel data on household consumption to directly estimate households’ risk preferences. Specifically, we measure heterogeneity in risk aversion among households in Thai villages using a full risk-sharing model, which we then test allowing for this heterogeneity. There is substantial, statistically significant heterogeneity in estimated risk preferences. Full insurance cannot be rejected. As the risk sharing, as-if-complete-markets theory might predict, estimated risk preferences are unrelated to wealth or other characteristics. The heterogeneity matters for policy: Although the average household would benefit from eliminating village-level risk, less-risk-averse households who are paid to absorb that risk would be worse off by several percent of household consumption. PMID:24932226

  2. Increasing selection response by Bayesian modeling of heterogeneous environmental variances

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterogeneity of environmental variance among genotypes reduces selection response because genotypes with higher variance are more likely to be selected than low-variance genotypes. Modeling heterogeneous variances to obtain weighted means corrected for heterogeneous variances is difficult in likel...

  3. The heterogeneity of schizophrenia in disease states.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Penny E; Cheng, C Michael; Claxton, Karl; Conley, Robert R; Feldman, Jacob J; Hargreaves, William A; Lehman, Anthony F; Lenert, Leslie A; Mahmoud, Ramy; Marder, Stephen R; Neumann, Peter J

    2004-11-01

    Some of the contents of this paper have been previously presented at the 16th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care June 20, 2000 in the Hague, Netherlands and at the 21st Annual Meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making as a poster on October 3, 1999 in Reno, NV. Studies of schizophrenia treatment often oversimplify the array of health outcomes among patients. Our objective was to derive a set of disease states for schizophrenia using the Positive and Negative Symptom Assessment Scale (PANSS) that captured the heterogeneity of symptom responses. Using data from a 1-year clinical trial that collected PANSS scores and costs on schizophrenic patients (N=663), we conducted a k-means cluster analyses on PANSS scores for items in five factor domains. Results of the cluster analysis were compared with a conceptual framework of disease states developed by an expert panel. Final disease states were defined by combining our conceptual framework with the empirical results. We tested its utility by examining the influence of disease state on treatment costs and prognosis. Analyses led to an eight-state framework with varying levels of positive, negative, and cognitive impairment. The extent of hostile/aggressive symptoms and mood disorders correlated with severity of disease states. Direct treatment costs for schizophrenia vary significantly across disease states (F=27.47, df=7, p<0.0001), and disease state at baseline was among the most important predictors of treatment outcomes. The disease states we describe offer a useful paradigm for understanding the links between symptom profiles and outcomes.

  4. Heterogeneity of human adipose blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David G

    2007-01-01

    Background The long time pharmacokinetics of highly lipid soluble compounds is dominated by blood-adipose tissue exchange and depends on the magnitude and heterogeneity of adipose blood flow. Because the adipose tissue is an infinite sink at short times (hours), the kinetics must be followed for days in order to determine if the adipose perfusion is heterogeneous. The purpose of this paper is to quantitate human adipose blood flow heterogeneity and determine its importance for human pharmacokinetics. Methods The heterogeneity was determined using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) to describe the 6 day volatile anesthetic data previously published by Yasuda et. al. The analysis uses the freely available software PKQuest and incorporates perfusion-ventilation mismatch and time dependent parameters that varied from the anesthetized to the ambulatory period. This heterogeneous adipose perfusion PBPK model was then tested by applying it to the previously published cannabidiol data of Ohlsson et. al. and the cannabinol data of Johansson et. al. Results The volatile anesthetic kinetics at early times have only a weak dependence on adipose blood flow while at long times the pharmacokinetics are dominated by the adipose flow and are independent of muscle blood flow. At least 2 adipose compartments with different perfusion rates (0.074 and 0.014 l/kg/min) were needed to describe the anesthetic data. This heterogeneous adipose PBPK model also provided a good fit to the cannabinol data. Conclusion Human adipose blood flow is markedly heterogeneous, varying by at least 5 fold. This heterogeneity significantly influences the long time pharmacokinetics of the volatile anesthetics and tetrahydrocannabinol. In contrast, using this same PBPK model it can be shown that the long time pharmacokinetics of the persistent lipophilic compounds (dioxins, PCBs) do not depend on adipose blood flow. The ability of the same PBPK model to describe both the anesthetic and

  5. Heterogeneous reactions in aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Lukachko, S. P.; Waitz, I. A.

    2002-05-01

    One-dimensional flow models and unity probability heterogeneous rate parameters are used to estimate the maximum effect of heterogeneous reactions on trace species evolution in aircraft gas turbines. The analysis includes reactions on soot particulates and turbine/nozzle material surfaces. Results for a representative advanced subsonic engine indicate the net change in reactant mixing ratios due to heterogeneous reactions is <10-6 for O2, CO2, and H2O, and <10-10 for minor combustion products such as SO2 and NO2. The change in the mixing ratios relative to the initial values is <0.01%. Since these estimates are based on heterogeneous reaction probabilities of unity, the actual changes will be even lower. Thus, heterogeneous chemistry within the engine cannot explain the high conversion of SO2 to SO3 which some wake models require to explain the observed levels of volatile aerosols. Furthermore, turbine heterogeneous processes will not effect exhaust NOx or NOy levels.

  6. Genomic and epigenomic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, De-Chen; Mayakonda, Anand; Dinh, Huy Q.; Huang, Pinbo; Lin, Lehang; Liu, Xiaoping; Ding, Ling-wen; Wang, Jie; Berman, Benjamin P.; Song, Er-Wei; Yin, Dong; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the intratumoral heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is instructive for developing personalized therapy and identifying molecular biomarkers. Here we applied whole-exome sequencing to 69 samples from 11 patients to resolve the genetic architecture of subclonal diversification. Spatial genomic diversity was found in all 11 HCC cases, with 29% of driver mutations being heterogeneous, including TERT, ARID1A, NOTCH2, and STAG2. Similar with other cancer types, TP53 mutations were always shared between all tumor regions i.e. located on the “trunk” of the evolutionary tree. In addition, we found that variants within several drug targets such as KIT, SYK and PIK3CA were mutated in a fully clonal manner, indicating their therapeutic potentials for HCC. Temporal dissection of mutational signatures suggested that mutagenic processes associated with exposure to aristolochic acid and aflatoxin might play a more important role in early, as opposed to late, stages of HCC development. Moreover, we observed extensive intratumoral epigenetic heterogeneity in HCC based on multiple independent analytical methods and showed that intratumoral methylation heterogeneity might play important roles in the biology of HCC cells. Our results also demonstrated prominent heterogeneity of intratumoral methylation even in a stable HCC genome. Together, these findings highlight widespread intratumoral heterogeneity at both the genomic and epigenomic levels in HCC and provide an important molecular foundation for better understanding the pathogenesis of this malignancy. PMID:28302680

  7. Engineering Microbial Metabolite Dynamics and Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Alexander C; Hartline, Christopher J; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2017-10-01

    As yields for biological chemical production in microorganisms approach their theoretical maximum, metabolic engineering requires new tools, and approaches for improvements beyond what traditional strategies can achieve. Engineering metabolite dynamics and metabolite heterogeneity is necessary to achieve further improvements in product titers, productivities, and yields. Metabolite dynamics, the ensemble change in metabolite concentration over time, arise from the need for microbes to adapt their metabolism in response to the extracellular environment and are important for controlling growth and productivity in industrial fermentations. Metabolite heterogeneity, the cell-to-cell variation in a metabolite concentration in an isoclonal population, has a significant impact on ensemble productivity. Recent advances in single cell analysis enable a more complete understanding of the processes driving metabolite heterogeneity and reveal metabolic engineering targets. The authors present an overview of the mechanistic origins of metabolite dynamics and heterogeneity, why they are important, their potential effects in chemical production processes, and tools and strategies for engineering metabolite dynamics and heterogeneity. The authors emphasize that the ability to control metabolite dynamics and heterogeneity will bring new avenues of engineering to increase productivity of microbial strains. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Toughening by crack bridging in heterogeneous ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, W.A.

    1995-05-01

    The toughening of a ceramic by crack bridging is considered, including the heterogeneity caused simply by spatial randomness in the bridge locations. The growth of a single planar crack is investigated numerically by representing the microstructure as an array of discrete springs with heterogeneity in the mechanical properties of each spring. The stresses on each microstructural element are determined, for arbitrary configurations of spring properties and heterogeneity, using a lattice Green function technique. For toughening by (heterogeneous) crack bridging for both elastic and Dugdale bridging mechanisms, the following key physical results are found: (1) growing cracks avoid regions which aremore » efficiently bridged, and do not propagate as self-similar penny cracks; (2) crack growth thus proceeds at lower applied stresses in a heterogeneous material than in an ordered material; (3) very little toughening is evident for moderate amounts of crack growth in many cases; and (4) a different R-curve is found for every particular spatial distribution of bridging elements. These results show that material reliability is determined by both the flaw distribution and the ``toughness`` distribution, or local environment, around each flaw. These results also demonstrate that the ``microstructural`` parameters derived from fitting an R-curve to a continuum model may not have an immediate relationship to the actual microstructure; the parameters are ``effective`` parameters that absorb the effects of the heterogeneity. The conceptual issues illuminated by these conclusions must be fully understood and appreciated to further develop microstructure-property relationships in ceramic materials.« less

  9. Intratumor and Intertumor Heterogeneity in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Grzywa, Tomasz M; Paskal, Wiktor; Włodarski, Paweł K

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma is a cancer that exhibits one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous features. The incidence rate escalates. A high number of clones harboring various mutations contribute to an exceptional level of intratumor heterogeneity of melanoma. It also refers to metastases which may originate from different subclones of primary lesion. Such component of the neoplasm biology is termed intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity. These levels of tumor heterogeneity hinder accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. The increasing number of research on the topic reflects the need for understanding limitation or failure of contemporary therapies. Majority of analyses concentrate on mutations in cancer-related genes. Novel high-throughput techniques reveal even higher degree of variations within a lesion. Consolidation of theories and researches indicates new routes for treatment options such as targets for immunotherapy. The demand for personalized approach in melanoma treatment requires extensive knowledge on intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity on the level of genome, transcriptome/proteome, and epigenome. Thus, achievements in exploration of melanoma variety are described in details. Particularly, the issue of tumor heterogeneity or homogeneity given BRAF mutations is discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear choices

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, R.

    This book contains part of the series New Liberal Arts, which is intended to make science and technology more accessible to students of the liberal arts. Volume in hand provides a comprehensive, multifaceted examination of nuclear energy, in nontechnical terms. Wolfson explains the basics of nuclear energy and radiation, nuclear power..., and nuclear weapons..., and he invites readers to make their own judgments on controversial nuclear issues. Illustrated with photos and diagrams. Each chapter contains suggestions for additional reading and a glossary. For policy, science, and general collections in all libraries. (ES) Topics contained include Atoms and nuclei. Effects andmore » uses of radiation. Energy and People. Reactor safety. Nuclear strategy. Defense in the nuclear age. Nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and nuclear futures.« less

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR COMPENENT CLADDING MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Draley, J.E.; Ruther, W.E.

    1959-01-27

    Fuel elements and coolant tubes used in nuclear reactors of the heterogeneous, water-cooled type are described, wherein the coolant tubes extend through the moderator and are adapted to contain the fuel elements. The invention comprises forming the coolant tubes and the fuel element cladding material from an alloy of aluminum and nickel, or an alloy of aluminum, nickel, alloys are selected to prevent intergranular corrosion of these components by water at temperatures up to 35O deg C.

  12. Intratumoral histologic heterogeneity of gliomas. A quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Paulus, W; Peiffer, J

    1989-07-15

    Quantitative data for intratumoral histologic heterogeneity were obtained by investigating ten small and ten large punched samples from 50 unembedded supratentorial gliomas. The 1000 samples were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and six histopathologic features associated with malignancy were evaluated (cellular density, nuclear pleomorphism, necroses, histologic architecture, vessels, and mitoses), each with defined gradations. The slides were read independently by two observers. The initially high interobserver variability (grade, 22.2%; type, 10.3%; and tumor presence/absence, 7.1%) was for the most part due to intermediate grades and types and was reduced to 1.7% after mutual review. Small samples showed lower mean grade than large samples and more often absence of tumor (7.6% versus 2.4%). Of all gliomas, 48% showed differently typed samples, 82% differently graded samples, and 62% benign and malignant grades. Intratumoral heterogeneity was higher for the necroses than for the other histopathologic features. Our results underscore the importance of extensive tissue sampling.

  13. Intratumoral heterogeneity on dedicated breast positron emission tomography predicts malignancy grade of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Norio; Kadoya, Takayuki; Sasada, Shinsuke; Emi, Akiko; Arihiro, Koji; Okada, Morihito

    2018-05-19

    Dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) provides detailed high-resolution images and can detect intratumoral heterogeneity using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). We aimed to evaluate the correlation between FDG uptake on DbPET and the clinicopathological features of breast cancer, particularly those with an intratumoral heterogeneous distribution of FDG on DbPET. We evaluated 195 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent preoperative whole-body PET (WBPET) and DbPET concurrently between January 2016 and March 2017. The relationships between clinicopathological factors and the maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) of DbPET and WBPET, including clinical stage, nuclear grade, Ki67 proliferation index, estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) statuses, and the intratumoral heterogeneous distribution of FDG on DbPET, were evaluated. The SUVmax of DbPET was significantly correlated with clinical T stage, N stage, nuclear grade, and Ki67 proliferation index (all p < 0.001) as well as the ER (p = 0.006) and HER2 (p = 0.040) statuses. Intratumoral heterogeneous distribution of FDG on DbPET was significantly related with high nuclear grade (p = 0.016) and high Ki67 proliferation index (p = 0.015) but not with clinical T stage, N stage, and ER and HER2 statuses. The SUVmax of DbPET correlates with clinicopathological factors and also WBPET does. In addition, intratumoral heterogeneity on DbPET provides predictive value for malignancy grade and could inform therapeutic decisions.

  14. Probing Mantle Heterogeneity Across Spatial Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, A.; Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Inferences of mantle heterogeneity in terms of temperature, composition, grain size, melt and crystal structure may vary across local, regional and global scales. Probing these scale-dependent effects require quantitative comparisons and reconciliation of tomographic models that vary in their regional scope, parameterization, regularization and observational constraints. While a range of techniques like radial correlation functions and spherical harmonic analyses have revealed global features like the dominance of long-wavelength variations in mantle heterogeneity, they have limited applicability for specific regions of interest like subduction zones and continental cratons. Moreover, issues like discrepant 1-D reference Earth models and related baseline corrections have impeded the reconciliation of heterogeneity between various regional and global models. We implement a new wavelet-based approach that allows for structure to be filtered simultaneously in both the spectral and spatial domain, allowing us to characterize heterogeneity on a range of scales and in different geographical regions. Our algorithm extends a recent method that expanded lateral variations into the wavelet domain constructed on a cubed sphere. The isolation of reference velocities in the wavelet scaling function facilitates comparisons between models constructed with arbitrary 1-D reference Earth models. The wavelet transformation allows us to quantify the scale-dependent consistency between tomographic models in a region of interest and investigate the fits to data afforded by heterogeneity at various dominant wavelengths. We find substantial and spatially varying differences in the spectrum of heterogeneity between two representative global Vp models constructed using different data and methodologies. Applying the orthonormality of the wavelet expansion, we isolate detailed variations in velocity from models and evaluate additional fits to data afforded by adding such complexities to long

  15. Nuclear Forensics

    DOE PAGES

    Glaser, Alexander; Mayer, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Whenever nuclear material is found out of regulatory control, questions on the origin of the material, on its intended use, and on hazards associated with the material need to be answered. Analytical and interpretational methodologies have been developed in order to exploit measurable material properties for gaining information on the history of the nuclear material. This area of research is referred to as nuclear forensic science or, in short, nuclear forensics.This chapter reviews the origins, types, and state-of-the-art of nuclear forensics; discusses the potential roles of nuclear forensics in supporting nuclear security; and examines what nuclear forensics can realistically achieve.more » It also charts a path forward, pointing at potential applications of nuclear forensic methodologies in other areas.« less

  16. Stretching and smearing of chemical heterogeneity by melting and melt migration beneath mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Liang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The size of mantle source heterogeneity is important to the interpretation of isotopic signals observed in residual peridotites and basalts. During concurrent melting and melt migration beneath a mid-ocean ridge, both porosity and melt velocity increase upward, resulting in an upward increase in the effective transport velocity for a trace element. Hence a chemical heterogeneity of finite size will be stretched during its transport in the upwelling mantle. This melt migration induced chemical deformation can be quantified by a simple stretching factor. During equilibrium melting, the isotope signals of Sr, Nd and Hf in a 1 km size enriched mantle will be stretched to 2 6 km at the top of the melting column, depending on the style of melt migration. A finite rate of diffusive exchange between residual minerals and partial melt will result in smearing of chemical heterogeneity during its transport in the upwelling melting column. A Gaussian-shaped enriched source in depleted background mantle would be gradually deformed its transit through the melting column. The width of the enriched signal spreads out between the fronts of melt and solid while its amplitude decreases. This melt migration induced smearing also cause mixing of nearby heterogeneities or absorption of enriched heterogeneity by the ambient mantle. Smaller heterogeneities in the solid is more efficiently mixed or aborted by the background mantle than larger ones. Mixing of heterogeneities in the melt depends on the size in the same sense although the erupted melt is more homogenized due to melt accumulation and magma chamber process. The mapping of chemical heterogeneities observed in residual peridotites and basalts into their source region is therefore highly nonlinear. We will show that the observed variations in Nd and Hf isotopes in the global MORB and abyssal peridotites are consistent with kilometer-scale enriched heterogeneities embedded in depleted MORB mantle.

  17. Heterogonous Nanofluids for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alammar, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear reactions can be associated with high heat energy release. Extracting such energy efficiently requires the use of high-rate heat exchangers. Conventional heat transfer fluids, such as water and oils are limited in their thermal conductivity, and hence nanofluids have been introduced lately to overcome such limitation. By suspending metal nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity in conventional heat transfer fluids, thermal conductivity of the resulting homogeneous nanofluid is increased. Heterogeneous nanofluids offer yet more potential for heat transfer enhancement. By stratifying nanoparticles within the boundary layer, thermal conductivity is increased where temperature gradients are highest, thereby increasing overall heat transfer of a flowing fluid. In order to test the merit of this novel technique, a numerical study of a laminar pipe flow of a heterogeneous nanofluid was conducted. Effect of Iron-Oxide distribution on flow and heat transfer characteristics was investigated. With Iron-Oxide volume concentration of 0.009 in water, up to 50% local heat transfer enhancement was predicted for the heterogeneous compared to homogeneous nanofluids. Increasing the Reynolds number is shown to increase enhancement while having negligible effect on pressure drop. Using permanent magnets attached externally to the pipe, an experimental investigation conducted at MIT nuclear reactor laboratory for similar flow characteristics of a heterogeneous nanofluid have shown upto 160% enhancement in heat transfer. Such results show that heterogeneous nanofluids are promising for augmenting heat transfer rates in nuclear power heat exchanger systems.

  18. Phylogenetic Quantification of Intra-tumour Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Roland F.; Trinh, Anne; Sipos, Botond; Brenton, James D.; Goldman, Nick; Markowetz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity is the result of ongoing evolutionary change within each cancer. The expansion of genetically distinct sub-clonal populations may explain the emergence of drug resistance, and if so, would have prognostic and predictive utility. However, methods for objectively quantifying tumour heterogeneity have been missing and are particularly difficult to establish in cancers where predominant copy number variation prevents accurate phylogenetic reconstruction owing to horizontal dependencies caused by long and cascading genomic rearrangements. To address these challenges, we present MEDICC, a method for phylogenetic reconstruction and heterogeneity quantification based on a Minimum Event Distance for Intra-tumour Copy-number Comparisons. Using a transducer-based pairwise comparison function, we determine optimal phasing of major and minor alleles, as well as evolutionary distances between samples, and are able to reconstruct ancestral genomes. Rigorous simulations and an extensive clinical study show the power of our method, which outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in reconstruction accuracy, and additionally allows unbiased numerical quantification of tumour heterogeneity. Accurate quantification and evolutionary inference are essential to understand the functional consequences of tumour heterogeneity. The MEDICC algorithms are independent of the experimental techniques used and are applicable to both next-generation sequencing and array CGH data. PMID:24743184

  19. Maintenance of ventricular fibrillation in heterogeneous ventricle.

    PubMed

    Arevalo, Hamenegild J; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2006-01-01

    Although ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the prevalent cause of sudden cardiac death, the mechanisms that underlie VF remain elusive. One possible explanation is that VF is driven by a single robust rotor that is the source of wavefronts that break-up due to functional heterogeneities. Previous 2D computer simulations have proposed that a heterogeneity in background potassium current (IK1) can serve as the substrate for the formation of mother rotor activity. This study incorporates IK1 heterogeneity between the left and right ventricle in a realistic 3D rabbit ventricle model to examine its effects on the organization of VF. Computer simulations show that the IK1 heterogeneity contributes to the initiation and maintenance of VF by providing regions of different refractoriness which serves as sites of wave break and rotor formation. A single rotor that drives the fibrillatory activity in the ventricle is not found in this study. Instead, multiple sites of reentry are recorded throughout the ventricle. Calculation of dominant frequencies for each myocardial node yields no significant difference between the dominant frequency of the LV and the RV. The 3D computer simulations suggest that IK1 spatial heterogeneity alone can not lead to the formation of a stable rotor.

  20. Emergence of Persistent Infection due to Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vidit; Moitra, Promit; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2017-02-01

    We explore the emergence of persistent infection in a closed region where the disease progression of the individuals is given by the SIRS model, with an individual becoming infected on contact with another infected individual. We investigate the persistence of contagion qualitatively and quantitatively, under increasing heterogeneity in the partitioning of the population into different disease compartments, as well as increasing heterogeneity in the phases of the disease among individuals within a compartment. We observe that when the initial population is uniform, consisting of individuals at the same stage of disease progression, infection arising from a contagious seed does not persist. However when the initial population consists of randomly distributed refractory and susceptible individuals, a single source of infection can lead to sustained infection in the population, as heterogeneity facilitates the de-synchronization of the phases in the disease cycle of the individuals. We also show how the average size of the window of persistence of infection depends on the degree of heterogeneity in the initial composition of the population. In particular, we show that the infection eventually dies out when the entire initial population is susceptible, while even a few susceptibles among an heterogeneous refractory population gives rise to a large persistent infected set.

  1. Functional Conservation of the Transportin Nuclear Import Pathway in Divergent Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Siomi, Mikiko C.; Fromont, Micheline; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Wan, Lili; Wang, Fan; Legrain, Pierre; Dreyfuss, Gideon

    1998-01-01

    Human transportin1 (hTRN1) is the nuclear import receptor for a group of pre-mRNA/mRNA-binding proteins (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins [hnRNP]) represented by hnRNP A1, which shuttle continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. hTRN1 interacts with the M9 region of hnRNP A1, a 38-amino-acid domain rich in Gly, Ser, and Asn, and mediates the nuclear import of M9-bearing proteins in vitro. Saccharomyces cerevisiae transportin (yTRN; also known as YBR017c or Kap104p) has been identified and cloned. To understanding the nuclear import mediated by yTRN, we searched with a yeast two-hybrid system for proteins that interact with it. In an exhaustive screen of the S. cerevisiae genome, the most frequently selected open reading frame was the nuclear mRNA-binding protein, Nab2p. We delineated a ca.-50-amino-acid region in Nab2p, termed NAB35, which specifically binds yTRN and is similar to the M9 motif. NAB35 also interacts with hTRN1 and functions as a nuclear localization signal in mammalian cells. Interestingly, yTRN can also mediate the import of NAB35-bearing proteins into mammalian nuclei in vitro. We also report on additional substrates for TRN as well as sequences of Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe TRNs. Together, these findings demonstrate that both the M9 signal and the nuclear import machinery utilized by the transportin pathway are conserved in evolution. PMID:9632798

  2. Characterizing heterogeneous dynamics at hydrated electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Willard, Adam P; Limmer, David T; Madden, Paul A; Chandler, David

    2013-05-14

    In models of Pt 111 and Pt 100 surfaces in water, motions of molecules in the first hydration layer are spatially and temporally correlated. To interpret these collective motions, we apply quantitative measures of dynamic heterogeneity that are standard tools for considering glassy systems. Specifically, we carry out an analysis in terms of mobility fields and distributions of persistence times and exchange times. In so doing, we show that dynamics in these systems is facilitated by transient disorder in frustrated two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks. The frustration is the result of unfavorable geometry imposed by strong metal-water bonding. The geometry depends upon the structure of the underlying metal surface. Dynamic heterogeneity of water on the Pt 111 surface is therefore qualitatively different than that for water on the Pt 100 surface. In both cases, statistics of this ad-layer dynamic heterogeneity responds asymmetrically to applied voltage.

  3. Characterizing heterogeneous dynamics at hydrated electrode surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, Adam P.; Limmer, David T.; Madden, Paul A.; Chandler, David

    2013-05-01

    In models of Pt 111 and Pt 100 surfaces in water, motions of molecules in the first hydration layer are spatially and temporally correlated. To interpret these collective motions, we apply quantitative measures of dynamic heterogeneity that are standard tools for considering glassy systems. Specifically, we carry out an analysis in terms of mobility fields and distributions of persistence times and exchange times. In so doing, we show that dynamics in these systems is facilitated by transient disorder in frustrated two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks. The frustration is the result of unfavorable geometry imposed by strong metal-water bonding. The geometry depends upon the structure of the underlying metal surface. Dynamic heterogeneity of water on the Pt 111 surface is therefore qualitatively different than that for water on the Pt 100 surface. In both cases, statistics of this ad-layer dynamic heterogeneity responds asymmetrically to applied voltage.

  4. Self-attracting walk on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kanghun; Kyoung, Jaegu; Lee, D.-S.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding human mobility in cyberspace becomes increasingly important in this information era. While human mobility, memory-dependent and subdiffusive, is well understood in Euclidean space, it remains elusive in random heterogeneous networks like the World Wide Web. Here we study the diffusion characteristics of self-attracting walks, in which a walker is more likely to move to the locations visited previously than to unvisited ones, on scale-free networks. Under strong attraction, the number of distinct visited nodes grows linearly in time with larger coefficients in more heterogeneous networks. More interestingly, crossovers to sublinear growths occur in strongly heterogeneous networks. To understand these phenomena, we investigate the characteristic volumes and topology of the cluster of visited nodes and find that the reinforced attraction to hubs results in expediting exploration first but delaying later, as characterized by the scaling exponents that we derive. Our findings and analysis method can be useful for understanding various diffusion processes mediated by human.

  5. Seismoelectric effects due to mesoscopic heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jougnot, Damien; Rubino, J. GermáN.; Carbajal, Marina Rosas; Linde, Niklas; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    While the seismic effects of wave-induced fluid flow due to mesoscopic heterogeneities have been studied for several decades, the role played by these types of heterogeneities on seismoelectric phenomena is largely unexplored. To address this issue, we have developed a novel methodological framework which allows for the coupling of wave-induced fluid flow, as inferred through numerical oscillatory compressibility tests, with the pertinent seismoelectric conversion mechanisms. Simulating the corresponding response of a water-saturated sandstone sample containing mesoscopic fractures, we demonstrate for the first time that these kinds of heterogeneities can produce measurable seismoelectric signals under typical laboratory conditions. Given that this phenomenon is sensitive to key hydraulic and mechanical properties, we expect that the results of this pilot study will stimulate further exploration on this topic in several domains of the Earth, environmental, and engineering sciences.

  6. Impact of Aquifer Heterogeneities on Autotrophic Denitrification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, A.; Roques, C.; Selker, J. S.; Istok, J. D.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in groundwater is a big challenge that will need to be addressed by hydrogeologists throughout the world. With a drinking water standard of 10mg/L of NO3-, innovative techniques will need to be pursued to ensure a decrease in drinking water nitrate concentration. At the pumping site scale, the influence and relationship between heterogeneous flow, mixing, and reactivity is not well understood. The purpose of this project is to incorporate both physical and chemical modeling techniques to better understand the effect of aquifer heterogeneities on autotrophic denitrification. We will investigate the link between heterogeneous hydraulic properties, transport, and the rate of autotrophic denitrification. Data collected in previous studies in laboratory experiments and pumping site scale experiments will be used to validate the models. The ultimate objective of this project is to develop a model in which such coupled processes are better understood resulting in best management practices of groundwater.

  7. Heterogeneous Distributed Computing for Computational Aerosciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderam, Vaidy S.

    1998-01-01

    The research supported under this award focuses on heterogeneous distributed computing for high-performance applications, with particular emphasis on computational aerosciences. The overall goal of this project was to and investigate issues in, and develop solutions to, efficient execution of computational aeroscience codes in heterogeneous concurrent computing environments. In particular, we worked in the context of the PVM[1] system and, subsequent to detailed conversion efforts and performance benchmarking, devising novel techniques to increase the efficacy of heterogeneous networked environments for computational aerosciences. Our work has been based upon the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite, but has also recently expanded in scope to include the NAS I/O benchmarks as specified in the NHT-1 document. In this report we summarize our research accomplishments under the auspices of the grant.

  8. A physical mechanism of cancer heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cong; Wang, Jin

    2016-02-01

    We studied a core cancer gene regulatory network motif to uncover possible source of cancer heterogeneity from epigenetic sources. When the time scale of the protein regulation to the gene is faster compared to the protein synthesis and degradation (adiabatic regime), normal state, cancer state and an intermediate premalignant state emerge. Due to the epigenetics such as DNA methylation and histone remodification, the time scale of the protein regulation to the gene can be slower or comparable to the protein synthesis and degradation (non-adiabatic regime). In this case, many more states emerge as possible phenotype alternations. This gives the origin of the heterogeneity. The cancer heterogeneity is reflected from the emergence of more phenotypic states, larger protein concentration fluctuations, wider kinetic distributions and multiplicity of kinetic paths from normal to cancer state, higher energy cost per gene switching, and weaker stability.

  9. Nonclassical Kinetics of Clonal yet Heterogeneous Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Jun; Song, Sanggeun; Jeong, In-Chun; Koh, Hye Ran; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Sung, Jaeyoung

    2017-07-06

    Enzyme-to-enzyme variation in the catalytic rate is ubiquitous among single enzymes created from the same genetic information, which persists over the lifetimes of living cells. Despite advances in single-enzyme technologies, the lack of an enzyme reaction model accounting for the heterogeneous activity of single enzymes has hindered a quantitative understanding of the nonclassical stochastic outcome of single enzyme systems. Here we present a new statistical kinetics and exactly solvable models for clonal yet heterogeneous enzymes with possibly nonergodic state dynamics and state-dependent reactivity, which enable a quantitative understanding of modern single-enzyme experimental results for the mean and fluctuation in the number of product molecules created by single enzymes. We also propose a new experimental measure of the heterogeneity and nonergodicity for a system of enzymes.

  10. Deconstructing transcriptional heterogeneity in pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Shalek, Alex K.; Satija, Rahul; DaleyKeyser, AJay; Li, Hu; Zhang, Jin; Pardee, Keith; Gennert, David; Trombetta, John J.; Ferrante, Thomas C.; Regev, Aviv; Daley, George Q.; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are capable of dynamic interconversion between distinct substates, but the regulatory circuits specifying these states and enabling transitions between them are not well understood. We set out to characterize transcriptional heterogeneity in PSCs by single-cell expression profiling under different chemical and genetic perturbations. Signaling factors and developmental regulators show highly variable expression, with expression states for some variable genes heritable through multiple cell divisions. Expression variability and population heterogeneity can be influenced by perturbation of signaling pathways and chromatin regulators. Strikingly, either removal of mature miRNAs or pharmacologic blockage of signaling pathways drives PSCs into a low-noise ground state characterized by a reconfigured pluripotency network, enhanced self-renewal, and a distinct chromatin state, an effect mediated by opposing miRNA families acting on the c-myc / Lin28 / let-7 axis. These data illuminate the nature of transcriptional heterogeneity in PSCs. PMID:25471879

  11. Dispersion Analysis Using Particle Tracking Simulations Through Heterogeneity Based on Outcrop Lidar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, K. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; McKenna, S. A.; Tidwell, V. C.; Frechette, J. D.; Wawrzyniec, T. F.

    2007-12-01

    Solute plumes are believed to disperse in a non-Fickian manner due to small-scale heterogeneity and variable velocities that create preferential pathways. In order to accurately predict dispersion in naturally complex geologic media, the connection between heterogeneity and dispersion must be better understood. Since aquifer properties can not be measured at every location, it is common to simulate small-scale heterogeneity with random field generators based on a two-point covariance (e.g., through use of sequential simulation algorithms). While these random fields can produce preferential flow pathways, it is unknown how well the results simulate solute dispersion through natural heterogeneous media. To evaluate the influence that complex heterogeneity has on dispersion, we utilize high-resolution terrestrial lidar to identify and model lithofacies from outcrop for application in particle tracking solute transport simulations using RWHet. The lidar scan data are used to produce a lab (meter) scale two-dimensional model that captures 2-8 mm scale natural heterogeneity. Numerical simulations utilize various methods to populate the outcrop structure captured by the lidar-based image with reasonable hydraulic conductivity values. The particle tracking simulations result in residence time distributions used to evaluate the nature of dispersion through complex media. Particle tracking simulations through conductivity fields produced from the lidar images are then compared to particle tracking simulations through hydraulic conductivity fields produced from sequential simulation algorithms. Based on this comparison, the study aims to quantify the difference in dispersion when using realistic and simplified representations of aquifer heterogeneity. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Thermal inertia and surface heterogeneity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.

    Thermal inertia derived from temperature observations is critical for understanding surface geology and assessing potential landing sites on Mars. Derivation methods generally assume uniform surface properties for any given observation. Consequently, horizontal heterogeneity and near-surface layering may yield apparent thermal inertia that varies with time of day and season. To evaluate the effects of horizontal heterogeneity, I modeled the thermal behavior of surfaces containing idealized material mixtures (dust, sand, duricrust, and rocks) and differing slope facets. These surfaces exhibit diurnal and seasonal variability in apparent thermal inertia of several 100 tiu, 1 even for components with moderately contrasting thermal properties. To isolate surface effects on the derived thermal inertia of Mars, I mapped inter- annual and seasonal changes in albedo and atmospheric dust opacity, accounting for their effects in a modified derivation algorithm. Global analysis of three Mars years of MGS-TES 2 data reveals diurnal and seasonal variations of ~200 tiu in the mid-latitudes and 600 tiu or greater in the polar regions. Correlation of TES results and modeled apparent thermal inertia of heterogeneous surfaces indicates pervasive surface heterogeneity on Mars. At TES resolution, the near-surface thermal response is broadly dominated by layering and is consistent with the presence of duricrusts over fines in the mid-latitudes and dry soils over ground ice in the polar regions. Horizontal surface mixtures also play a role and may dominate at higher resolution. In general, thermal inertia obtained from single observations or annually averaged maps may misrepresent surface properties. In lieu of a robust heterogeneous- surface derivation technique, repeat coverage can be used together with forward-modeling results to constrain the near-surface heterogeneity of Mars. 1 tiu == J m -2 K -1 s - 2 Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

  13. Heterogeneity and anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain

    2015-10-01

    The lithospheric mantle is intrinsically heterogeneous and anisotropic. These two properties govern the repartition of deformation, controlling intraplate strain localization and development of new plate boundaries. Geophysical and geological observations provide clues on the types, ranges, and characteristic length scales of heterogeneity and anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle. Seismic tomography points to variations in geothermal gradient and hence in rheological behavior at scales of hundreds of km. Seismic anisotropy data substantiate anisotropic physical properties consistent at scales of tens to hundreds of km. Receiver functions imply lateral and vertical heterogeneity at scales < 10 km, which might record gradients in composition or anisotropy. Observations on naturally deformed peridotites establish that compositional heterogeneity and Crystal Preferred Orientations (CPOs) are ubiquitous from the mm to the km scales. These data allow discussing the processes that produce/destroy heterogeneity and anisotropy and constraining the time scales over which they are active. This analysis highlights: (i) the role of deformation and reactive percolation of melts and fluids in producing compositional and structural heterogeneity and the feedbacks between these processes, (ii) the weak mechanical effect of mineralogical variations, and (iii) the low volumes of fine-grained microstructures and difficulty to preserve them. In contrast, olivine CPO and the resulting anisotropy of mechanical and thermal properties are only modified by deformation. Based on this analysis, we propose that strain localization at the plate scale is, at first order, controlled by large-scale variations in thermal structure and in CPO-induced anisotropy. In cold parts of the lithospheric mantle, grain size reduction may contribute to strain localization, but the low volume of fine-grained domains limits this effect.

  14. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  15. Micro- and nanorobots swimming in heterogeneous liquids.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bradley J; Peyer, Kathrin E

    2014-09-23

    Essentially all experimental investigations of swimming micro- and nanorobots have focused on swimming in homogeneous Newtonian liquids. In this issue of ACS Nano, Schamel et al. investigate the actuation of "nanopropellers" in a viscoelastic biological gel that illustrates the importance of the size of the nanostructure relative to the gel mesh size. In this Perspective, we shed further light on the swimming performance of larger microrobots swimming in heterogeneous liquids. One of the interesting results of our work is that earlier findings on the swimming performance of motile bacteria in heterogeneous liquids agree, in principle, with our results. We also discuss future research directions that should be pursued in this fascinating interdisciplinary field.

  16. Pervasive Sensing: Addressing the Heterogeneity Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, Michael J.; Murdoch, Olga; Kroon, Barnard; Lillis, David; Carr, Dominic; Collier, Rem W.; O'Hare, Gregory M. P.

    2013-06-01

    Pervasive sensing is characterized by heterogeneity across a number of dimensions. This raises significant problems for those designing, implementing and deploying sensor networks, irrespective of application domain. Such problems include for example, issues of data provenance and integrity, security, and privacy amongst others. Thus engineering a network that is fit-for-purpose represents a significant challenge. In this paper, the issue of heterogeneity is explored from the perspective of those who seek to harness a pervasive sensing element in their applications. A initial solution is proposed based on the middleware construct.

  17. Random sphere packing model of heterogeneous propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochevets, Sergei Victorovich

    It is well recognized that combustion of heterogeneous propellants is strongly dependent on the propellant morphology. Recent developments in computing systems make it possible to start three-dimensional modeling of heterogeneous propellant combustion. A key component of such large scale computations is a realistic model of industrial propellants which retains the true morphology---a goal never achieved before. The research presented develops the Random Sphere Packing Model of heterogeneous propellants and generates numerical samples of actual industrial propellants. This is done by developing a sphere packing algorithm which randomly packs a large number of spheres with a polydisperse size distribution within a rectangular domain. First, the packing code is developed, optimized for performance, and parallelized using the OpenMP shared memory architecture. Second, the morphology and packing fraction of two simple cases of unimodal and bimodal packs are investigated computationally and analytically. It is shown that both the Loose Random Packing and Dense Random Packing limits are not well defined and the growth rate of the spheres is identified as the key parameter controlling the efficiency of the packing. For a properly chosen growth rate, computational results are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data. Third, two strategies are developed to define numerical samples of polydisperse heterogeneous propellants: the Deterministic Strategy and the Random Selection Strategy. Using these strategies, numerical samples of industrial propellants are generated. The packing fraction is investigated and it is shown that the experimental values of the packing fraction can be achieved computationally. It is strongly believed that this Random Sphere Packing Model of propellants is a major step forward in the realistic computational modeling of heterogeneous propellant of combustion. In addition, a method of analysis of the morphology of heterogeneous

  18. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  19. A Note on the Heterogeneous Choice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    The heterogeneous choice model (HCM) has been proposed as an extension of the standard logit and probit models, which allows taking into account different error variances of explanatory variables. In this note, I show that in an important special case, this model is just another way to specify an interaction effect.

  20. Accelerating Mathematics Achievement Using Heterogeneous Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Carol Corbett; Heubert, Jay P.; Levin, Henry M.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of providing an accelerated mathematics curriculum in heterogeneously grouped middle school classes in a diverse suburban school district. A quasi-experimental cohort design was used to evaluate subsequent completion of advanced high school math courses as well as academic achievement. Results showed…

  1. Heterogeneous Production of Sulfate Aerosol over China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, J.; Alexander, B.; Chen, Q.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Y.; Xie, Z.; He, P.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is thought to be the main contributor to the growth of PM2.5 during the severe haze pollution over China, but most studies have shown that traditional gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry cannot explain the rapid sulfate production during haze events, suggesting a missing heterogeneous oxidation mechanism. In this work, we implement heterogeneous sulfate formation into a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to evaluate the different pathways for global and regional sulfate production, including SO2 oxidation by NO2, O3, H2O2, and TMI+O2. Heterogeneous sulfate production rates and the dominant heterogeneous sulfate formation mechanism depends on calculations of aerosol pH, which is in turn is dependent upon thermodynamic state assumptions. We evaluate the influence of aerosol pH and potential impacts of aerosol ionic strength on sulfate production rates and mechanisms in the model, and its implications for PM2.5 in Chinese haze events.

  2. Heterogeneity: The key to failure forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Elastic waves are generated when brittle materials are subjected to increasing strain. Their number and energy increase non-linearly, ending in a system-sized catastrophic failure event. Accelerating rates of geophysical signals (e.g., seismicity and deformation) preceding large-scale dynamic failure can serve as proxies for damage accumulation in the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). Here we test the hypothesis that the style and mechanisms of deformation, and the accuracy of the FFM, are both tightly controlled by the degree of microstructural heterogeneity of the material under stress. We generate a suite of synthetic samples with variable heterogeneity, controlled by the gas volume fraction. We experimentally demonstrate that the accuracy of failure prediction increases drastically with the degree of material heterogeneity. These results have significant implications in a broad range of material-based disciplines for which failure forecasting is of central importance. In particular, the FFM has been used with only variable success to forecast failure scenarios both in the field (volcanic eruptions and landslides) and in the laboratory (rock and magma failure). Our results show that this variability may be explained, and the reliability and accuracy of forecast quantified significantly improved, by accounting for material heterogeneity as a first-order control on forecasting power. PMID:26307196

  3. Heterogeneous Distribution of Chromium on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittler, L. R.; Boujibar, A.; Crapster-Pregont, E.; Frank, E. A.; McCoy, T. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Starr, R. D.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Vorburger, A.; Weider, S. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Mercury's surface has an average Cr/Si ratio of 0.003 (Cr 800 ppm), with at least a factor of 2 systematic uncertainty. Cr is heterogeneously distributed and correlated with Mg, Ca, S, and Fe and anti-correlated with Al.

  4. Conjugated Microporous Polymers for Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun-Bing; Zhan, Zhuang-Ping

    2018-01-04

    Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a class of crosslinked polymers that combine permanent micropores with π-conjugated skeletons and possess three-dimensional (3D) networks. Compared with conventional materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), CMPs usually have superior chemical and thermal stability. CMPs have made significant progress in heterogeneous catalysis in the past seven years. With a bottom-up strategy, catalytic moieties can be directly introduced into in the framework to produce heterogeneous CMP catalysts. Higher activity, stability, and selectivity can be obtained with heterogeneous CMP catalysts in comparison with their homogeneous analogs. In addition, CMP catalysts can be easily isolated and recycled. In this review, we focus on CMPs as an intriguing platform for developing various highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts in organic reactions. The design, synthesis, and structure of these CMP catalysts are also discussed in this focus review. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fibroblast heterogeneity: implications for human disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Magnus D; Watt, Fiona M

    2018-01-02

    Fibroblasts synthesize the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and play an essential role in maintaining the structural integrity of most tissues. Researchers have long suspected that fibroblasts exhibit functional specialization according to their organ of origin, body site, and spatial location. In recent years, a number of approaches have revealed the existence of fibroblast subtypes in mice. Here, we discuss fibroblast heterogeneity with a focus on the mammalian dermis, which has proven an accessible and tractable system for the dissection of these relationships. We begin by considering differences in fibroblast identity according to anatomical site of origin. Subsequently, we discuss new results relating to the existence of multiple fibroblast subtypes within the mouse dermis. We consider the developmental origin of fibroblasts and how this influences heterogeneity and lineage restriction. We discuss the mechanisms by which fibroblast heterogeneity arises, including intrinsic specification by transcriptional regulatory networks and epigenetic factors in combination with extrinsic effects of the spatial context within tissue. Finally, we discuss how fibroblast heterogeneity may provide insights into pathological states including wound healing, fibrotic diseases, and aging. Our evolving understanding suggests that ex vivo expansion or in vivo inhibition of specific fibroblast subtypes may have important therapeutic applications.

  6. Heterogeneity: The key to failure forecasting.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Lavallée, Yan; Bell, Andrew F; Main, Ian G; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-08-26

    Elastic waves are generated when brittle materials are subjected to increasing strain. Their number and energy increase non-linearly, ending in a system-sized catastrophic failure event. Accelerating rates of geophysical signals (e.g., seismicity and deformation) preceding large-scale dynamic failure can serve as proxies for damage accumulation in the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). Here we test the hypothesis that the style and mechanisms of deformation, and the accuracy of the FFM, are both tightly controlled by the degree of microstructural heterogeneity of the material under stress. We generate a suite of synthetic samples with variable heterogeneity, controlled by the gas volume fraction. We experimentally demonstrate that the accuracy of failure prediction increases drastically with the degree of material heterogeneity. These results have significant implications in a broad range of material-based disciplines for which failure forecasting is of central importance. In particular, the FFM has been used with only variable success to forecast failure scenarios both in the field (volcanic eruptions and landslides) and in the laboratory (rock and magma failure). Our results show that this variability may be explained, and the reliability and accuracy of forecast quantified significantly improved, by accounting for material heterogeneity as a first-order control on forecasting power.

  7. Heterogeneity: The key to failure forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-08-01

    Elastic waves are generated when brittle materials are subjected to increasing strain. Their number and energy increase non-linearly, ending in a system-sized catastrophic failure event. Accelerating rates of geophysical signals (e.g., seismicity and deformation) preceding large-scale dynamic failure can serve as proxies for damage accumulation in the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). Here we test the hypothesis that the style and mechanisms of deformation, and the accuracy of the FFM, are both tightly controlled by the degree of microstructural heterogeneity of the material under stress. We generate a suite of synthetic samples with variable heterogeneity, controlled by the gas volume fraction. We experimentally demonstrate that the accuracy of failure prediction increases drastically with the degree of material heterogeneity. These results have significant implications in a broad range of material-based disciplines for which failure forecasting is of central importance. In particular, the FFM has been used with only variable success to forecast failure scenarios both in the field (volcanic eruptions and landslides) and in the laboratory (rock and magma failure). Our results show that this variability may be explained, and the reliability and accuracy of forecast quantified significantly improved, by accounting for material heterogeneity as a first-order control on forecasting power.

  8. Scale Reliability Evaluation with Heterogeneous Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A latent variable modeling approach for scale reliability evaluation in heterogeneous populations is discussed. The method can be used for point and interval estimation of reliability of multicomponent measuring instruments in populations representing mixtures of an unknown number of latent classes or subpopulations. The procedure is helpful also…

  9. Synthesis of RNA oligomers on heterogeneous templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertem, G.; Ferris, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of an RNA world in the chemical origin of life is appealing, as nucleic acids are capable of both information storage and acting as templates that catalyse the synthesis of complementary molecules. Template-directed synthesis has been demonstrated for homogeneous oligonucleotides that, like natural nucleic acids, have 3',5' linkages between the nucleotide monomers. But it seems likely that prebiotic routes to RNA-like molecules would have produced heterogeneous molecules with various kinds of phosphodiester linkages and both linear and cyclic nucleotide chains. Here we show that such heterogeneity need be no obstacle to the templating of complementary molecules. Specifically, we show that heterogeneous oligocytidylates, formed by the montmorillonite clay-catalysed condensation of actuated monomers, can serve as templates for the synthesis of oligoguanylates. Furthermore, we show that oligocytidylates that are exclusively 2',5'-linked can also direct synthesis of oligoguanylates. Such heterogeneous templating reactions could have increased the diversity of the pool of protonucleic acids from which life ultimately emerged.

  10. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice on carbon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-02-26

    Atmospheric aerosols can promote the heterogeneous nucleation of ice, impacting the radiative properties of clouds and Earth's climate. The experimental investigation of heterogeneous freezing of water droplets by carbonaceous particles reveals widespread ice freezing temperatures. It is not known which structural and chemical characteristics of soot account for the variability in ice nucleation efficiency. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the nucleation of ice from liquid water in contact with graphitic surfaces. We find that atomically flat carbon surfaces promote heterogeneous nucleation of ice, while molecularly rough surfaces with the same hydrophobicity do not. Graphitic surfaces and other surfaces that promote ice nucleation induce layering in the interfacial water, suggesting that the order imposed by the surface on liquid water may play an important role in the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. We investigate a large set of graphitic surfaces of various dimensions and radii of curvature and find that variations in nanostructures alone could account for the spread in the freezing temperatures of ice on soot in experiments. We conclude that a characterization of the nanostructure of soot is needed to predict its ice nucleation efficiency.

  11. Diffusion and Surface Reaction in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiker, A.; Richarz, W.

    1978-01-01

    Ethylene hydrogenation on a platinum catalyst, electrolytically applied to a tube wall, is a good system for the study of the interactions between diffusion and surface reaction in heterogeneous catalysis. Theoretical background, apparatus, procedure, and student performance of this experiment are discussed. (BB)

  12. Interpretable Categorization of Heterogeneous Time Series Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Silbermann, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    We analyze data from simulated aircraft encounters to validate and inform the development of a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system. The high-dimensional and heterogeneous time series dataset is analyzed to discover properties of near mid-air collisions (NMACs) and categorize the NMAC encounters. Domain experts use these properties to better organize and understand NMAC occurrences. Existing solutions either are not capable of handling high-dimensional and heterogeneous time series datasets or do not provide explanations that are interpretable by a domain expert. The latter is critical to the acceptance and deployment of safety-critical systems. To address this gap, we propose grammar-based decision trees along with a learning algorithm. Our approach extends decision trees with a grammar framework for classifying heterogeneous time series data. A context-free grammar is used to derive decision expressions that are interpretable, application-specific, and support heterogeneous data types. In addition to classification, we show how grammar-based decision trees can also be used for categorization, which is a combination of clustering and generating interpretable explanations for each cluster. We apply grammar-based decision trees to a simulated aircraft encounter dataset and evaluate the performance of four variants of our learning algorithm. The best algorithm is used to analyze and categorize near mid-air collisions in the aircraft encounter dataset. We describe each discovered category in detail and discuss its relevance to aircraft collision avoidance.

  13. Physical Heterogeneity and Aquatic Community Function in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The geomorphological character of a river network provides the template upon which evolution acts to create unique biological communities. Deciphering commonly observed patterns and processes within riverine landscapes resulting from the interplay between physical and biological components is a central tenet for the interdisciplinary field of river science. Relationships between the physical heterogeneity and food web character of functional process zones (FPZs) – large tracts of river with a similar geomorphic character - in the Kanawha River (West Virginia, USA) are examined in this study. Food web character was measured as food chain length (FCL), which reflects ecological community structure and ecosystem function. Our results show the same basal resources were present throughout the Kanawha River but their assimilation into the aquatic food web by primary consumers differed between FPZs. Differences in the trophic position of secondary consumers – fish - were also recorded between FPZs. Overall, both the morphological heterogeneity and heterogeneity of the river bed sediment of FPZs were significantly correlated with FCL. Specifically, FCL increases with greater FPZ physical heterogeneity, supporting tenet 8 of the river ecosystem synthesis. In previous research efforts, we delineated the functional process zones (FPZs) of the Kanawha River. In this study, we examined the relationship between the hydrogeomorphically-derived zones with food webs.

  14. Characterizing Drainage Multiphase Flow in Heterogeneous Sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Samuel J.; Agada, Simeon; Reynolds, Catriona A.; Krevor, Samuel

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we analyze the characterization of drainage multiphase flow properties on heterogeneous rock cores using a rich experimental data set and mm-m scale numerical simulations. Along with routine multiphase flow properties, 3-D submeter scale capillary pressure heterogeneity is characterized by combining experimental observations and numerical calibration, resulting in a 3-D numerical model of the rock core. The uniqueness and predictive capability of the numerical models are evaluated by accurately predicting the experimentally measured relative permeability of N2—DI water and CO2—brine systems in two distinct sandstone rock cores across multiple fractional flow regimes and total flow rates. The numerical models are used to derive equivalent relative permeabilities, which are upscaled functions incorporating the effects of submeter scale capillary pressure. The functions are obtained across capillary numbers which span four orders of magnitude, representative of the range of flow regimes that occur in subsurface CO2 injection. Removal of experimental boundary artifacts allows the derivation of equivalent functions which are characteristic of the continuous subsurface. We also demonstrate how heterogeneities can be reorientated and restructured to efficiently estimate flow properties in rock orientations differing from the original core sample. This analysis shows how combined experimental and numerical characterization of rock samples can be used to derive equivalent flow properties from heterogeneous rocks.

  15. Nuclear networking.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  16. Seismic imaging of gas hydrate reservoir heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun-Wei

    Natural gas hydrate, a type of inclusion compound or clathrate, are composed of gas molecules trapped within a cage of water molecules. The presence of gas hydrate has been confirmed by core samples recovered from boreholes. Interests in the distribution of natural gas hydrate stem from its potential as a future energy source, geohazard to drilling activities and their possible impact on climate change. However the current geophysical investigations of gas hydrate reservoirs are still too limited to fully resolve the location and the total amount of gas hydrate due to its complex nature of distribution. The goal of this thesis is twofold, i.e., to model (1) the heterogeneous gas hydrate reservoirs and (2) seismic wave propagation in the presence of heterogeneities in order to address the fundamental questions: where are the location and occurrence of gas hydrate and how much is stored in the sediments. Seismic scattering studies predict that certain heterogeneity scales and velocity contrasts will generate strong scattering and wave mode conversion. Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) techniques can be used to calibrate seismic characterization of gas hydrate expressions on surface seismograms. To further explore the potential of VSP in detecting the heterogeneities, a wave equation based approach for P- and S-wave separation is developed. Tests on synthetic data as well as applications to field data suggest alternative acquisition geometries for VSP to enable wave mode separation. A new reservoir modeling technique based on random medium theory is developed to construct heterogeneous multi-variable models that mimic heterogeneities of hydrate-bearing sediments at the level of detail provided by borehole logging data. Using this new technique, I modeled the density, and P- and S-wave velocities in combination with a modified Biot-Gassmann theory and provided a first order estimate of the in situ volume of gas hydrate near the Mallik 5L-38 borehole. Our results suggest a

  17. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    DOE PAGES

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2015-04-24

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. As a result, this advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  18. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Visual Analytics for Heterogeneous Geoscience Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Yu, L.; Zhu, F.; Rilee, M. L.; Kuo, K. S.; Jiang, H.; Yu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience data obtained from diverse sources have been routinely leveraged by scientists to study various phenomena. The principal data sources include observations and model simulation outputs. These data are characterized by spatiotemporal heterogeneity originated from different instrument design specifications and/or computational model requirements used in data generation processes. Such inherent heterogeneity poses several challenges in exploring and analyzing geoscience data. First, scientists often wish to identify features or patterns co-located among multiple data sources to derive and validate certain hypotheses. Heterogeneous data make it a tedious task to search such features in dissimilar datasets. Second, features of geoscience data are typically multivariate. It is challenging to tackle the high dimensionality of geoscience data and explore the relations among multiple variables in a scalable fashion. Third, there is a lack of transparency in traditional automated approaches, such as feature detection or clustering, in that scientists cannot intuitively interact with their analysis processes and interpret results. To address these issues, we present a new scalable approach that can assist scientists in analyzing voluminous and diverse geoscience data. We expose a high-level query interface that allows users to easily express their customized queries to search features of interest across multiple heterogeneous datasets. For identified features, we develop a visualization interface that enables interactive exploration and analytics in a linked-view manner. Specific visualization techniques such as scatter plots to parallel coordinates are employed in each view to allow users to explore various aspects of features. Different views are linked and refreshed according to user interactions in any individual view. In such a manner, a user can interactively and iteratively gain understanding into the data through a variety of visual analytics operations. We

  20. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The finite-difference technique is used for the vertical flow component only. The aquifer is discretized in the vertical dimension and the heterogeneous aquifer is considered to be a layered (stratified) formation with a finite number of homogeneous sublayers, where each sublayer may have different properties. The transient part of the differential equation is solved with Stehfest's algorithm, a numerical inversion technique of the Laplace transform. The well is of constant discharge and penetrates one or more of the sublayers. The effect of wellbore storage on early drawdown data is taken into account. In this way drawdowns are found for a finite number of sublayers as a continuous function of radial distance to the well and of time since the pumping started. The model is verified by comparing results with published analytical and numerical solutions for well flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous, confined and unconfined aquifers. Instantaneous and delayed drainage of water from above the water table are considered, combined with the effects of partially penetrating and finite-diameter wells. The model is applied to demonstrate that the transient effects of wellbore storage in unconfined aquifers are less pronounced than previous numerical experiments suggest. Other applications of the presented solution technique are given for partially penetrating wells in heterogeneous formations, including a demonstration of the effect of decreasing specific storage values with depth in an otherwise homogeneous aquifer. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for the analysis of drawdown from pumping tests, because hydraulic properties of layered heterogeneous aquifer systems with

  1. Collective Motion in Behaviorally Heterogeneous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine

    Collective motion is a widespread phenomenon in nature where individuals actively propel themselves, gather together and move as a group. Some examples of collective motion are bird flocks, fish schools, bacteria swarms, cell clusters, and crowds of people. Many models seek to understand the effects of activity in collective systems including things such as environmental disorder, density, and interaction details primarily at infinite size limits and with uniform populations. In this dissertation I investigate the effects of finite sizes and behavioral heterogeneity as it exists in nature. Behavioral heterogeneity can originate from several different sources. Mixed populations of individuals can have inherently different behaviors such as mutant bacteria, injured fish, or agents that prefer individualistic behavior over coordinated motion. Alternatively, agents may modify their own behavior based on some local environmental dependency, such as local substrate, or density. In cases such as mutant cheaters in bacteria or malfunctioning drones in swarms, mixed populations of behaviorally heterogeneous agents can be modelled as arising in the form of aligning and non-aligning agents. When this kind of heterogeneity is introduced, there is a critical carrying capacity of non-aligners above which the system is unable to form a cohesive ordered group. However, if the cohesion of the group is relaxed to allow for fracture, the system will actively sort out non-aligning agents the system will exist at a critical non-aligner fraction. A similar heterogeneity could result in a mixture of high and low noise individuals. In this case there is also a critical carry capacity beyond which the system is unable to reach an ordered state, however the nature of this transition depends on the model details. Agents which are part of an ordered collective may vary their behavior as the group changes environments such as a flock of birds flying into a cloud. Using a unique model of a

  2. Genetic heterogeneity in patients with Bartter syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingran; Ning, Jing; Xu, Weihong; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Kaishu; Li, Wenfu; Li, Guiying; Li, Shibo

    2017-01-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) type 1 is an autosomal recessive kidney disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the solute carrier family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene. To date, 72 BS type 1 patients harboring SLC12A1 mutations have been documented. Of these 144 alleles studied, 68 different disease-causing mutations have been detected in 129 alleles, and no mutation was detected in the remaining 15 alleles. The mutation types included missense/nonsense mutations, splicing mutations and small insertions and deletions ranging from 1 to 4 nucleotides. A large deletion encompassing a whole exon in the SLC12A1 gene has not yet been reported. The current study initially identified an undocumented homozygous frameshift mutation (c.1833delT) by Sanger sequencing analysis of a single infant with BS type 1. However, in a subsequent analysis, the mutation was detected only in the father's DNA. Upon further investigation using a next-generation sequencing approach, a deletion in exons 14 and 15 in both the patient and patient's mother was detected. The deletion was subsequently confirmed by use of a long-range polymerase chain reaction and was determined to be 3.16 kb in size based on sequencing of the junction fragment. The results of the present study demonstrated that pathogenic variants of SLC12A1 are heterogeneous. Large deletions appear to serve an etiological role in BS type 1, and may be more prevalent than previously thought. PMID:28000888

  3. Numerical Model Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Satellite Derived Vegetation Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael; Eastman, Joseph; Borak, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of a mesoscale weather prediction model to a 1 km satellite-based vegetation roughness initialization is investigated for a domain within the south central United States. Three different roughness databases are employed: i) a control or standard lookup table roughness that is a function only of land cover type, ii) a spatially heterogeneous roughness database, specific to the domain, that was previously derived using a physically based procedure and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, and iii) a MODIS climatologic roughness database that like (i) is a function only of land cover type, but possesses domain specific mean values from (ii). The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) coupled to the Community Land Model within the Land Information System (LIS). For each simulation, a statistical comparison is made between modeled results and ground observations within a domain including Oklahoma, Eastern Arkansas, and Northwest Louisiana during a 4-day period within IHOP 2002. Sensitivity analysis compares the impact the three roughness initializations on time-series temperature, precipitation probability of detection (POD), average wind speed, boundary layer height, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Overall, the results indicate that, for the current investigation, replacement of the standard look-up table values with the satellite-derived values statistically improves model performance for most observed variables. Such natural roughness heterogeneity enhances the surface wind speed, PBL height and TKE production up to 10 percent, with a lesser effect over grassland, and greater effect over mixed land cover domains.

  4. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in tropical calcific pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Sumit; Bhaskar, Seema; Chandak, Giriraj R

    2014-12-14

    Tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) is a form of chronic non-alcoholic pancreatitis initially reported in the developing parts of the tropical world. The clinical phenotype of TCP has undergone marked changes since its first description in 1968. The disease is now seen in relatively older people with less severe symptoms. In addition, there are varying reports on the proportion of cases presenting with imaging abnormalities like calcification, ductal dilation, and glandular atrophy. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the etiopathology of TCP. The role of malnutrition and cassava toxicity in its pathogenesis is disproven and few studies have focused on the role of micronutrient deficiency and oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of TCP. Emerging evidence support an important role for genetic risk factors in TCP. Several studies have shown that, rather than mutations in trypsinogens, variants in serine protease inhibitor kazal type 1, cathepsin B, chymotrypsin C, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, and carboxypeptidase A1, predict risk of TCP. These studies also provided evidence of mutational heterogeneity between TCP and chronic pancreatitis in Western populations. The current review summarizes recent advances that have implications in the understanding of the pathophysiology and thus, heterogeneity in genotype-phenotype correlations in TCP.

  5. Multiscale characteristics of mechanical and mineralogical heterogeneity using nanoindentation and Maps Mineralogy in Mancos Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Mook, W. M.; Dewers, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Multiscale characteristics of textural and compositional (e.g., clay, cement, organics, etc.) heterogeneity profoundly influence the mechanical properties of shale. In particular, strongly anisotropic (i.e., laminated) heterogeneities are often observed to have a significant influence on hydrological and mechanical properties. In this work, we investigate a sample of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale to explore the importance of lamination, cements, organic content, and the spatial distribution of these characteristics. For compositional and structural characterization, the mineralogical distribution of thin core sample polished by ion-milling is analyzed using QEMSCAN® with MAPS MineralogyTM (developed by FEI Corporoation). Based on mineralogy and organic matter distribution, multi-scale nanoindentation testing was performed to directly link compositional heterogeneity to mechanical properties. With FIB-SEM (3D) and high-magnitude SEM (2D) images, key nanoindentation patterns are analyzed to evaluate elastic and plastic responses. Combined with MAPs Mineralogy data and fine-resolution BSE images, nanoindentation results are explained as a function of compositional and structural heterogeneity. Finite element modeling is used to quantitatively evaluate the link between the heterogeneity and mechanical behavior during nanoindentation. In addition, the spatial distribution of compositional heterogeneity, anisotropic bedding patterns, and mechanical anisotropy are employed as inputs for multiscale brittle fracture simulations using a phase field model. Comparison of experimental and numerical simulations reveal that proper incorporation of additional material information, such as bedding layer thickness and other geometrical attributes of the microstructures, may yield improvements on the numerical predictions of the mesoscale fracture patterns and hence the macroscopic effective toughness. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by

  6. Nuclear Lamins

    PubMed Central

    Dechat, Thomas; Adam, Stephen A.; Taimen, Pekka; Shimi, Takeshi; Goldman, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins that are critically important for the structural properties of the nucleus. In addition, they are involved in the regulation of numerous nuclear processes, including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin organization. The developmentally regulated expression of lamins suggests that they are involved in cellular differentiation. Their assembly dynamic properties throughout the cell cycle, particularly in mitosis, are influenced by posttranslational modifications. Lamins may regulate nuclear functions by direct interactions with chromatin and determining the spatial organization of chromosomes within the nuclear space. They may also regulate chromatin functions by interacting with factors that epigenetically modify the chromatin or directly regulate replication or transcription. PMID:20826548

  7. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  8. Nuclear Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedorezov, V. G.; Savel'ev-Trofimov, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    A review of works performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at the International Laser Center of the Moscow State University in the context of the new research area called "nuclear photonics" is presented. Nuclear photonics is based on creation of the new-generation gamma-ray sources which make it possible to solve a number of fundamental and applied problems, including research of low-energy photonuclear reactions, namely, investigation of collective excitations of nuclei near the threshold (pygmy resonances); nuclear safety assurance; production of low-energy positron beams; and phase-contrast X-ray imaging.

  9. Modelling heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Ping, Yuan; Galli, Giulia

    2017-01-09

    The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight others a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon-free energy. The key of a successful solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photoelectrochemical cells, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving water splitting reactions. To this end, a detailed understanding and control of heterogeneous interfaces between photoabsorbers, electrolytes and catalysts present in photoelectrochemical cells is essential. Here we review recent progress and open challenges in predicting physicochemical properties of heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting applications using first-principles-based approaches, and highlights the key role of these calculationsmore » in interpreting increasingly complex experiments.« less

  10. Implications of Tumor Heterogeneity for Precision Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeraj, Robert

    Medical physics is intimately connected with medicine, and is progressing along a similar path. General trend of medicine, particularly oncology, towards personalized treatment gave rise to precision medicine, which addresses the highly complex nature of disease. However, there are severe obstacles to overcome. For example, cancers evolve in time to become harder targets to treat. Understanding treatment resistance, and its development, often connected with the highly heterogeneous nature of the disease, is another key obstacle. Use of multi-modality imaging techniques such as molecular imaging is one of the solutions that medical physics can offer. Examples from clinical trials utilizing advanced molecular imaging, highlighting intra-tumor and inter-tumor heterogeneity will be presented. New understanding of cancer treatment response dynamics will be outlined. Potential for improved patient treatment designs steaming from these novel insights will be discussed.

  11. Modeling vaccination in a heterogeneous metapopulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachiany, Menachem

    2016-09-01

    We present here a multicity SIS epidemic model with vaccination. The model describes the dynamics of heterogeneous metapopulations that contain imperfectly vaccinated individuals. The effect of vaccination on heterogeneous multicity models has not been previously studied. We show that under very generic conditions, the epidemic threshold does not depend on the diffusion coefficient of the vaccinated individuals, but it does depend on the diffusion coefficient of the infected population. We then show, using a novel methodology, that the reproduction number is determined by the homogeneous model parameters and by the maximal number of neighbors a city can have, when the diffusion coefficient of the infected population is low. Finally, we present numerical simulations to support the analytical results.

  12. Heterogeneous Organo-Catalysis: Sustainable Pathways to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Glucose and fructose are among the most abundant plant-derived materials1 and have been converted into useful building units often used in the drug discovery and polymer architecture.2 Unfortunately, most of these conversions require mineral acids and complex heterogeneous catalysis systems which suffer from the diminished activity and recyclability issues.3 Herein, we report a highly reactive and inexpensive heterogeneous sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride (Sg-CN), endowed with strong acidity that readily transforms carbohydrates to furanics. The ready availability and benign nature of the material and its stability over the several reaction cycles renders this catalyst very useful in organic synthesis, polymer industry and in the preparation of drug precursors. Poster presentation at the 253rd American Chemical Society (ACS) National meeting in San Francisco, CA

  13. Heterogeneous concurrent computing with exportable services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderam, Vaidy

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneous concurrent computing, based on the traditional process-oriented model, is approaching its functionality and performance limits. An alternative paradigm, based on the concept of services, supporting data driven computation, and built on a lightweight process infrastructure, is proposed to enhance the functional capabilities and the operational efficiency of heterogeneous network-based concurrent computing. TPVM is an experimental prototype system supporting exportable services, thread-based computation, and remote memory operations that is built as an extension of and an enhancement to the PVM concurrent computing system. TPVM offers a significantly different computing paradigm for network-based computing, while maintaining a close resemblance to the conventional PVM model in the interest of compatibility and ease of transition Preliminary experiences have demonstrated that the TPVM framework presents a natural yet powerful concurrent programming interface, while being capable of delivering performance improvements of upto thirty percent.

  14. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, R. L.

    2011-10-01

    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  15. Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.

  16. Multiparametric imaging with heterogeneous radiofrequency fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloos, Martijn A.; Knoll, Florian; Zhao, Tiejun; Block, Kai T.; Bruno, Mary; Wiggins, Graham C.; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an unrivalled medical diagnostic technique able to map tissue anatomy and physiology non-invasively. MRI measurements are meticulously engineered to control experimental conditions across the sample. However, residual radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneities are often unavoidable, leading to artefacts that degrade the diagnostic and scientific value of the images. Here we show that, paradoxically, these artefacts can be eliminated by deliberately interweaving freely varying heterogeneous RF fields into a magnetic resonance fingerprinting data-acquisition process. Observations made based on simulations are experimentally confirmed at 7 Tesla (T), and the clinical implications of this new paradigm are illustrated with in vivo measurements near an orthopaedic implant at 3T. These results show that it is possible to perform quantitative multiparametric imaging with heterogeneous RF fields, and to liberate MRI from the traditional struggle for control over the RF field uniformity.

  17. Sparse covariance estimation in heterogeneous samples*

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Abel; Lenkoski, Alex; Dobra, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Standard Gaussian graphical models implicitly assume that the conditional independence among variables is common to all observations in the sample. However, in practice, observations are usually collected from heterogeneous populations where such an assumption is not satisfied, leading in turn to nonlinear relationships among variables. To address such situations we explore mixtures of Gaussian graphical models; in particular, we consider both infinite mixtures and infinite hidden Markov models where the emission distributions correspond to Gaussian graphical models. Such models allow us to divide a heterogeneous population into homogenous groups, with each cluster having its own conditional independence structure. As an illustration, we study the trends in foreign exchange rate fluctuations in the pre-Euro era. PMID:26925189

  18. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R [Livermore, CA; Eckert, Philip D [Livermore, CA; Hommes, Gregg [Pleasanton, CA

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  19. Micromechanics Based Failure Analysis of Heterogeneous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertse, Hamsasew M.

    In recent decades, heterogeneous materials are extensively used in various industries such as aerospace, defense, automotive and others due to their desirable specific properties and excellent capability of accumulating damage. Despite their wide use, there are numerous challenges associated with the application of these materials. One of the main challenges is lack of accurate tools to predict the initiation, progression and final failure of these materials under various thermomechanical loading conditions. Although failure is usually treated at the macro and meso-scale level, the initiation and growth of failure is a complex phenomena across multiple scales. The objective of this work is to enable the mechanics of structure genome (MSG) and its companion code SwiftComp to analyze the initial failure (also called static failure), progressive failure, and fatigue failure of heterogeneous materials using micromechanics approach. The initial failure is evaluated at each numerical integration point using pointwise and nonlocal approach for each constituent of the heterogeneous materials. The effects of imperfect interfaces among constituents of heterogeneous materials are also investigated using a linear traction-displacement model. Moreover, the progressive and fatigue damage analyses are conducted using continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach. The various failure criteria are also applied at a material point to analyze progressive damage in each constituent. The constitutive equation of a damaged material is formulated based on a consistent irreversible thermodynamics approach. The overall tangent modulus of uncoupled elastoplastic damage for negligible back stress effect is derived. The initiation of plasticity and damage in each constituent is evaluated at each numerical integration point using a nonlocal approach. The accumulated plastic strain and anisotropic damage evolution variables are iteratively solved using an incremental algorithm. The damage analyses

  20. Beyond relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, David A.; Katz, Alexander; Arslan, Ilke

    2014-08-13

    Scientists who regard catalysis as a coherent field have been striving for decades to articulate the fundamental unifying principles. But because these principles seem to be broader than chemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science combined, catalytic scientists commonly interact within the sub-domains of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and bio-catalysis, and increasingly within even narrower domains such as organocatalysis, phase-transfer catalysis, acid-base catalysis, zeolite catalysis, etc. Attempts to unify catalysis have motivated researchers to find relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and to mimic enzymes. These themes have inspired vibrant international meetings and workshops, and we have benefited from the idea exchanges andmore » have some thoughts about a path forward.« less

  1. Heterogeneous distribution of metabolites across plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Arita, Masanori

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the distribution of flavonoids, a major category of plant secondary metabolites, across species. Flavonoids are known to show high species specificity, and were once considered as chemical markers for understanding adaptive evolution and characterization of living organisms. We investigate the distribution among species using bipartite networks, and find that two heterogeneous distributions are conserved among several families: the power-law distributions of the number of flavonoids in a species and the number of shared species of a particular flavonoid. In order to explain the possible origin of the heterogeneity, we propose a simple model with, essentially, a single parameter. As a result, we show that two respective power-law statistics emerge from simple evolutionary mechanisms based on a multiplicative process. These findings provide insights into the evolution of metabolite diversity and characterization of living organisms that defy genome sequence analysis for different reasons.

  2. Heterogeneous Initiators for Sustainable Polymerization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew D.

    One of the main challenges facing the twenty-first century is the need to produce chemicals from renewable resources. The dwindling supplies of fossil fuels coupled with instability in supply mean that technologies that were once deemed too expensive are now becoming more economically viable options. The majority of man-made polymers are derived from crude oil based monomers. However, in recent years a tremendous effort has been channeled into the preparation of polymers from sustainable chemicals. Two classic examples are polylactide (derived from corn starch) and polycarbonates (prepared directly from CO2). This chapter serves as an introduction into these two polymers and reviews the literature associated with heterogeneous catalyst for the polymerizations, concentrating on approaches describing the heterogenization of homogeneous catalysts.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime measurements in heterogeneous scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Goro; Awasthi, Kamlesh; Furukawa, Daisuke

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescence lifetime in heterogeneous multiple light scattering systems is analyzed by an algorithm without solving the diffusion or radiative transfer equations. The algorithm assumes that the optical properties of medium are constant in the excitation and emission wavelength regions. If the assumption is correct and the fluorophore is a single species, the fluorescence lifetime can be determined by a set of measurements of temporal point-spread function of the excitation light and fluorescence at two different concentrations of the fluorophore. This method is not dependent on the heterogeneity of the optical properties of the medium as well as the geometry of the excitation-detection on an arbitrary shape of the sample. The algorithm was validated by an indocyanine green fluorescence in phantom measurements and demonstrated by an in vivo measurement.

  4. Epidemic outbreaks in complex heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Y.; Pastor-Satorras, R.; Vespignani, A.

    2002-04-01

    We present a detailed analytical and numerical study for the spreading of infections with acquired immunity in complex population networks. We show that the large connectivity fluctuations usually found in these networks strengthen considerably the incidence of epidemic outbreaks. Scale-free networks, which are characterized by diverging connectivity fluctuations in the limit of a very large number of nodes, exhibit the lack of an epidemic threshold and always show a finite fraction of infected individuals. This particular weakness, observed also in models without immunity, defines a new epidemiological framework characterized by a highly heterogeneous response of the system to the introduction of infected individuals with different connectivity. The understanding of epidemics in complex networks might deliver new insights in the spread of information and diseases in biological and technological networks that often appear to be characterized by complex heterogeneous architectures.

  5. Heterogeneous data fusion for brain tumor classification.

    PubMed

    Metsis, Vangelis; Huang, Heng; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Makedon, Fillia; Tzika, Aria

    2012-10-01

    Current research in biomedical informatics involves analysis of multiple heterogeneous data sets. This includes patient demographics, clinical and pathology data, treatment history, patient outcomes as well as gene expression, DNA sequences and other information sources such as gene ontology. Analysis of these data sets could lead to better disease diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and drug discovery. In this report, we present a novel machine learning framework for brain tumor classification based on heterogeneous data fusion of metabolic and molecular datasets, including state-of-the-art high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gene transcriptome profiling, obtained from intact brain tumor biopsies. Our experimental results show that our novel framework outperforms any analysis using individual dataset.

  6. Integrating CLIPS applications into heterogeneous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    SOCIAL is an advanced, object-oriented development tool for integrating intelligent and conventional applications across heterogeneous hardware and software platforms. SOCIAL defines a family of 'wrapper' objects called agents, which incorporate predefined capabilities for distributed communication and control. Developers embed applications within agents and establish interactions between distributed agents via non-intrusive message-based interfaces. This paper describes a predefined SOCIAL agent that is specialized for integrating C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS)-based applications. The agent's high-level Application Programming Interface supports bidirectional flow of data, knowledge, and commands to other agents, enabling CLIPS applications to initiate interactions autonomously, and respond to requests and results from heterogeneous remote systems. The design and operation of CLIPS agents are illustrated with two distributed applications that integrate CLIPS-based expert systems with other intelligent systems for isolating and mapping problems in the Space Shuttle Launch Processing System at the NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  7. Population dynamics on heterogeneous bacterial substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobius, Wolfram; Murray, Andrew W.; Nelson, David R.

    2012-02-01

    How species invade new territories and how these range expansions influence the population's genotypes are important questions in the field of population genetics. The majority of work addressing these questions focuses on homogeneous environments. Much less is known about the population dynamics and population genetics when the environmental conditions are heterogeneous in space. To better understand range expansions in two-dimensional heterogeneous environments, we employ a system of bacteria and bacteriophage, the viruses of bacteria. Thereby, the bacteria constitute the environment in which a population of bacteriophages expands. The spread of phage constitutes itself in lysis of bacteria and thus formation of clear regions on bacterial lawns, called plaques. We study the population dynamics and genetics of the expanding page for various patterns of environments.

  8. Cooperation and heterogeneity of the autistic mind.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wako; Dziobek, Isabel; Kliemann, Dorit; Heekeren, Hauke R; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Ray J

    2010-06-30

    Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) have a core difficulty in recursively inferring the intentions of others. The precise cognitive dysfunctions that determine the heterogeneity at the heart of this spectrum, however, remains unclear. Furthermore, it remains possible that impairment in social interaction is not a fundamental deficit but a reflection of deficits in distinct cognitive processes. To better understand heterogeneity within ASCs, we employed a game-theoretic approach to characterize unobservable computational processes implicit in social interactions. Using a social hunting game with autistic adults, we found that a selective difficulty representing the level of strategic sophistication of others, namely inferring others' mindreading strategy, specifically predicts symptom severity. In contrast, a reduced ability in iterative planning was predicted by overall intellectual level. Our findings provide the first quantitative approach that can reveal the underlying computational dysfunctions that generate the autistic "spectrum."

  9. The biogeochemical heterogeneity of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Alan R; Asner, Gregory P; Cleveland, Cory C

    2008-08-01

    Tropical forests are renowned for their biological diversity, but also harbor variable combinations of soil age, chemistry and susceptibility to erosion or tectonic uplift. Here we contend that the combined effects of this biotic and abiotic diversity promote exceptional biogeochemical heterogeneity at multiple scales. At local levels, high plant diversity creates variation in chemical and structural traits that affect plant production, decomposition and nutrient cycling. At regional levels, myriad combinations of soil age, soil chemistry and landscape dynamics create variation and uncertainty in limiting nutrients that do not exist at higher latitudes. The effects of such heterogeneity are not well captured in large-scale estimates of tropical ecosystem function, but we suggest new developments in remote sensing can help bridge the gap.

  10. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean

    2016-06-08

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a fewmore » results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as “bet hedging” of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms

  11. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as "bet hedging" of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  12. Method of assessing heterogeneity in images

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Richard E.; Carson, James P.

    2016-08-23

    A method of assessing heterogeneity in images is disclosed. 3D images of an object are acquired. The acquired images may be filtered and masked. Iterative decomposition is performed on the masked images to obtain image subdivisions that are relatively homogeneous. Comparative analysis, such as variogram analysis or correlogram analysis, is performed of the decomposed images to determine spatial relationships between regions of the images that are relatively homogeneous.

  13. Dynamical Systems Approach to Endothelial Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Aird, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Objective Here we reexamine our current understanding of the molecular basis of endothelial heterogeneity. We introduce multistability as a new explanatory framework in vascular biology. Methods We draw on the field of non-linear dynamics to propose a dynamical systems framework for modeling multistability and its derivative properties, including robustness, memory, and plasticity. Conclusions Our perspective allows for both a conceptual and quantitative description of system-level features of endothelial regulation. PMID:22723222

  14. Heterogeneous processes: Laboratory, field, and modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Lamont R.; Kurylo, Michael J.; Jones, Rod L.; Wahner, Andreas; Calvert, Jack G.; Leu, M.-T.; Fried, A.; Molina, Mario J.; Hampson, Robert F.; Pitts, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiencies of chemical families such as ClO(x) and NO(x) for altering the total abundance and distribution of stratospheric ozone are controlled by a partitioning between reactive (active) and nonreactive (reservoir) compounds within each family. Gas phase thermodynamics, photochemistry, and kinetics would dictate, for example, that only about 1 percent of the chlorine resident in the lower stratosphere would be in the form of active Cl or ClO, the remainder existing in the reservoir compounds HCl and ClONO2. The consistency of this picture was recently challenged by the recognition that important chemical transformations take place on polar regions: the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASA). Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, Solomon et al. suggested that the heterogeneous chemical reaction: ClONO2(g)+HCl(s) yields Cl2(g)+HNO3(s) could play a key role in converting chlorine from inactive forms into a species (Cl2) that would rapidly dissociate in sunlight to liberate atomic chlorine and initiate ozone depletion. The symbols (s) and (g) denote solid phase, or adsorbed onto a solid surface, and gas phase, respectively, and represent the approach by which such a reaction is modeled rather than the microscopic details of the reaction. The reaction was expected to be most important at altitudes where PSC's were most prevalent (10 to 25 km), thereby extending the altitude range over which chlorine compounds can efficiently destroy ozone from the 35 to 45 km region (where concentrations of active chlorine are usually highest) to lower altitudes where the ozone concentration is at its peak. This chapter will briefly review the current state of knowledge of heterogeneous processes in the stratosphere, emphasizing those results obtained since the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) conference. Sections are included on laboratory investigations of heterogeneous reactions, the

  15. Constructing Scientific Applications from Heterogeneous Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schichting, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A new model for high-performance scientific applications in which such applications are implemented as heterogeneous distributed programs or, equivalently, meta-computations, is investigated. The specific focus of this grant was a collaborative effort with researchers at NASA and the University of Toledo to test and improve Schooner, a software interconnection system, and to explore the benefits of increased user interaction with existing scientific applications.

  16. Groundwater withdrawal in randomly heterogeneous coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siena, Martina; Riva, Monica

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the combined effects of aquifer heterogeneity and pumping operations on seawater intrusion (SWI), a phenomenon which is threatening coastal aquifers worldwide. Our investigation is set within a probabilistic framework and relies on a numerical Monte Carlo approach targeting transient variable-density flow and solute transport in a three-dimensional randomly heterogeneous porous domain. The geological setting is patterned after the Argentona river basin, in the Maresme region of Catalonia (Spain). Our numerical study is concerned with exploring the effects of (a) random heterogeneity of the domain on SWI in combination with (b) a variety of groundwater withdrawal schemes. The latter have been designed by varying the screen location along the vertical direction and the distance of the wellbore from the coastline and from the location of the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone which is in place prior to pumping. For each random realization of the aquifer permeability field and for each pumping scheme, a quantitative depiction of SWI phenomena is inferred from an original set of metrics characterizing (a) the inland penetration of the saltwater wedge and (b) the width of the mixing zone across the whole three-dimensional system. Our results indicate that the stochastic nature of the system heterogeneity significantly affects the statistical description of the main features of the seawater wedge either in the presence or in the absence of pumping, yielding a general reduction of toe penetration and an increase of the width of the mixing zone. Simultaneous extraction of fresh and saltwater from two screens along the same wellbore located, prior to pumping, within the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone is effective in limiting SWI in the context of groundwater resources exploitation.

  17. Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of atmospheric trace contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollis, David F.; Peral, Jose

    1992-01-01

    A two year study to examine the feasibility of using heterogeneous photocatalysis for spacecraft air purification was begun at North Carolina State University on November 1, 1990. The original grant proposal included examination of the rates of destruction of anticipated spacecraft-generated air contaminants, including alcohols, aldehydes, chlorinated compounds, as well as trace levels of volatile compounds containing nitrogen, sulfur, and silicon. The progress made in the second six month period of 5/1/91-11/1/91 is discussed.

  18. Intratumour Heterogeneity: Evolution through Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    Swanton, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances have permitted higher resolution and more rapid analysis of individual cancer genomes at the single nucleotide level. Such advances have demonstrated bewildering inter-tumour heterogeneity with limited somatic alterations shared between tumours of the same histopathological subtype. Exacerbating such complexity, increasing evidence of intratumour genetic heterogeneity (ITH) is emerging, both within individual tumour biopsies and spatially separated between biopsies of the same tumour. Sequential analysis of tumours has also revealed evidence that ITH temporally evolves during the disease course. ITH has implications for predictive or prognostic biomarker strategies, where the tumour subclone that may ultimately influence therapeutic outcome may evade detection due to its absence or presence at low frequency at diagnosis or due to its regional separation from the tumour biopsy site. In this review the implications of “trunk and branch” tumour evolution for drug discovery approaches and emerging evidence that low frequency somatic events may drive tumour growth through paracrine signalling fostering a tumour ecological niche, are discussed. The concept of an “actionable mutation” is considered within a model of clonal dominance and heterogeneous tumour cell dependencies. Evidence that cancer therapeutics may augment ITH and the need to track the tumour subclonal architecture through treatment are defined as key research areas. Finally, if combination therapeutic approaches to limit the consequences of ITH prove challenging, identification of drivers or suppressors of ITH may provide attractive therapeutic targets to limit tumour evolutionary rates and adaptation. PMID:23002210

  19. Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Deba, Tahria; Calafell, Francesc; Benhamamouch, Soraya; Comas, David

    2015-01-01

    The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region. PMID:26402429

  20. Cancer heterogeneity and multilayer spatial evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    Świerniak, Andrzej; Krześlak, Michał

    2016-10-13

    Evolutionary game theory (EGT) has been widely used to simulate tumour processes. In almost all studies on EGT models analysis is limited to two or three phenotypes. Our model contains four main phenotypes. Moreover, in a standard approach only heterogeneity of populations is studied, while cancer cells remain homogeneous. A multilayer approach proposed in this paper enables to study heterogeneity of single cells. In the extended model presented in this paper we consider four strategies (phenotypes) that can arise by mutations. We propose multilayer spatial evolutionary games (MSEG) played on multiple 2D lattices corresponding to the possible phenotypes. It enables simulation and investigation of heterogeneity on the player-level in addition to the population-level. Moreover, it allows to model interactions between arbitrary many phenotypes resulting from the mixture of basic traits. Different equilibrium points and scenarios (monomorphic and polymorphic populations) have been achieved depending on model parameters and the type of played game. However, there is a possibility of stable quadromorphic population in MSEG games for the same set of parameters like for the mean-field game. The model assumes an existence of four possible phenotypes (strategies) in the population of cells that make up tumour. Various parameters and relations between cells lead to complex analysis of this model and give diverse results. One of them is a possibility of stable coexistence of different tumour cells within the population, representing almost arbitrary mixture of the basic phenotypes. This article was reviewed by Tomasz Lipniacki, Urszula Ledzewicz and Jacek Banasiak.

  1. Statistical methods for studying disease subtype heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Molin; Spiegelman, Donna; Kuchiba, Aya; Lochhead, Paul; Kim, Sehee; Chan, Andrew T; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tamimi, Rulla; Tworoger, Shelley S; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-02-28

    A fundamental goal of epidemiologic research is to investigate the relationship between exposures and disease risk. Cases of the disease are often considered a single outcome and assumed to share a common etiology. However, evidence indicates that many human diseases arise and evolve through a range of heterogeneous molecular pathologic processes, influenced by diverse exposures. Pathogenic heterogeneity has been considered in various neoplasms such as colorectal, lung, prostate, and breast cancers, leukemia and lymphoma, and non-neoplastic diseases, including obesity, type II diabetes, glaucoma, stroke, cardiovascular disease, autism, and autoimmune disease. In this article, we discuss analytic options for studying disease subtype heterogeneity, emphasizing methods for evaluating whether the association of a potential risk factor with disease varies by disease subtype. Methods are described for scenarios where disease subtypes are categorical and ordinal and for cohort studies, matched and unmatched case-control studies, and case-case study designs. For illustration, we apply the methods to a molecular pathological epidemiology study of alcohol intake and colon cancer risk by tumor LINE-1 methylation subtypes. User-friendly software to implement the methods is publicly available. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Li, Jiang; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-06-01

    Emulsions-liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid-are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum fuels. The stability of emulsions plays a crucial role in their applications, but controlling the stability without external driving forces has been proven to be difficult. Here we show how heterogeneous surface wettability can alter the stability and dynamics of oil-in-water emulsions, generated by a co-flow microfluidic device. We designed a useful methodology that can modify a micro-capillary of desired heterogeneous wettability (e.g., alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) without changing the hydraulic diameter. We subsequently investigated the effects of flow rates and heterogeneous wettability on the emulsion morphology and motion. The experimental data revealed a universal critical timescale of advective emulsions, above which the microfluidic emulsions remain stable and intact, whereas below they become adhesive or inverse. A simple theoretical model based on a force balance can be used to explain this critical transition of emulsion dynamics, depending on the droplet size and the Capillary number-the ratio of viscous to surface effects. These results give insight into how to control the stability and dynamics of emulsions in microfluidics with flow velocity and different wettability.

  3. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account the thermal conductivity, viscosity versus nanofluids type and concentration and the spatial heterogeneous concentration induced by the Soret effect is presented. The obtained results, by solving numerically the full governing equations, are found to be in good agreement with the developed solution based on the scale analysis approach. The resulting convective flows are found to be dependent on the local particle concentration φ and the corresponding solutal to thermal buoyancy ratio N. The induced nanofluid heterogeneity showed a significant heat transfer modification. The heat transfer in natural convection increases with nanoparticle concentration but remains less than the enhancement previously underlined in forced convection case. PMID:21711755

  4. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Fakhreddine Segni; Bennacer, Rachid

    2011-12-01

    Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account the thermal conductivity, viscosity versus nanofluids type and concentration and the spatial heterogeneous concentration induced by the Soret effect is presented. The obtained results, by solving numerically the full governing equations, are found to be in good agreement with the developed solution based on the scale analysis approach. The resulting convective flows are found to be dependent on the local particle concentration φ and the corresponding solutal to thermal buoyancy ratio N. The induced nanofluid heterogeneity showed a significant heat transfer modification. The heat transfer in natural convection increases with nanoparticle concentration but remains less than the enhancement previously underlined in forced convection case.

  5. Dynamics of epidemics outbreaks in heterogeneous populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, Dirk; Morales-Gallardo, Alejandro; Geisel, Theo

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of epidemic outbreaks have been investigated in recent years within two alternative theoretical paradigms. The key parameter of mean field type of models such as the SIR model is the basic reproduction number R0, the average number of secondary infections caused by one infected individual. Recently, scale free network models have received much attention as they account for the high variability in the number of social contacts involved. These models predict an infinite basic reproduction number in some cases. We investigate the impact of heterogeneities of contact rates in a generic model for epidemic outbreaks. We present a system in which both the time periods of being infectious and the time periods between transmissions are Poissonian processes. The heterogeneities are introduced by means of strongly variable contact rates. In contrast to scale free network models we observe a finite basic reproduction number and, counterintuitively a smaller overall epidemic outbreak as compared to the homogeneous system. Our study thus reveals that heterogeneities in contact rates do not necessarily facilitate the spread to infectious disease but may well attenuate it.

  6. Heterogeneity of Loss Aversion in Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kawada, Ryosaku; Tsurumi, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Naoto; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Murao, Takuro; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is characterized by continual repeated gambling behavior despite negative consequences. PG is considered to be a disorder of altered decision-making under risk, and behavioral economics tools were utilized by studies on decision-making under risk. At the same time, PG was suggested to be a heterogeneous disorder in terms of personality traits as well as risk attitude. We aimed to examine the heterogeneity of PG in terms of loss aversion, which means that a loss is subjectively felt to be larger than the same amount of gain. Thirty-one male PG subjects and 26 male healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a behavioral economics task for estimation of loss aversion and personality traits assessment. Although loss aversion in PG subjects was not significantly different from that in HC subjects, distributions of loss aversion differed between PG and HC subjects. HC subjects were uniformly classified into three levels (low, middle, high) of loss aversion, whereas PG subjects were mostly classified into the two extremes, and few PG subjects were classified into the middle range. PG subjects with low and high loss aversion showed a significant difference in anxiety, excitement-seeking and craving intensity. Our study suggested that PG was a heterogeneous disorder in terms of loss aversion. This result might be useful for understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms and the establishment of treatment strategies for PG.

  7. Heterogeneous porous media: Fronts and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouchel, M.; Rakotomalala, N.; Salin, D.; Xu, B.; Yortsos, Y. C.

    Capillary effects can be important in immiscible flows in heterogeneous media, particularly at low capillary numbers (Ca). We present experiments and simulations of slow drainage in 3-D porous media, either homogeneous and in the presence of buoyancy or heterogeneous and in its absence. An acoustic technique allows for an accurate study of the 3-D fronts and the cross-over region. Our results suggest that both cases can be described by invasion percolation in a gradient. Both front tails scale with the corresponding Bond numbers as σft≈B-47 in agreement with the theory. An analogous scaling for viscous effects is also given. The noise of these fronts are found correlated in the form of a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) of a Hurst exponent H≈.5. At higher Ca, experiments performed in 3-D porous media with sharp changes in permeability, exhibit a saturation profile response closely linked to the permeability variations. This viscous response to heterogeneity provides an opportunity to investigate and determine correlated (even at all scales, i.e. fBm), permeability fields.

  8. Site occupancy models with heterogeneous detection probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Models for estimating the probability of occurrence of a species in the presence of imperfect detection are important in many ecological disciplines. In these ?site occupancy? models, the possibility of heterogeneity in detection probabilities among sites must be considered because variation in abundance (and other factors) among sampled sites induces variation in detection probability (p). In this article, I develop occurrence probability models that allow for heterogeneous detection probabilities by considering several common classes of mixture distributions for p. For any mixing distribution, the likelihood has the general form of a zero-inflated binomial mixture for which inference based upon integrated likelihood is straightforward. A recent paper by Link (2003, Biometrics 59, 1123?1130) demonstrates that in closed population models used for estimating population size, different classes of mixture distributions are indistinguishable from data, yet can produce very different inferences about population size. I demonstrate that this problem can also arise in models for estimating site occupancy in the presence of heterogeneous detection probabilities. The implications of this are discussed in the context of an application to avian survey data and the development of animal monitoring programs.

  9. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  10. Communicating why land surface heterogeneity matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tague, C.; Burke, W.; Bart, R. R.; Turpin, E.; Wood, T.; Gordon, D.

    2017-12-01

    As hydrologic scientists, we know that land surface heterogeneity can have nuanced and sometimes dramatic impacts on the water cycle. Land surface characteristics, including the structure and composition of vegetation and soil storage and drainage properties, alter how incoming precipitation is translated into streamflow and evapotranspiration. Land surface heterogeneity can explain why this partitioning of incoming precipitation cannot always be computed by a simple water budget calculation. We also know that land surface characteristics are dynamic - vegetation grows and changes with fire, disease and human actions and these changes will alter the partitioning of water - how much so, however depends itself on other site characteristics - soil water storage and the timing and magnitude of precipitation. This complex impact of space-time dynamics on the water cycle is something we need to effectively communicate to non-experts. For example, we may want to explain why sometimes forest management practices increase water availability but sometimes they don't - or why the impacts of urbanization or fire are location specific. If we do not communicate these dependencies we risk over-simplifying and eroding scientific credibility when observed effects don't match simple generalizations. On the other hand excessive detail can overwhelm and disengage audiences. So how do we help different communities public, private landowners, other scientists, NGOs, governments to better understand the role of space-time heterogeneity. To address this issue, we present some results from ongoing work that looks at the impact of fuel treatment of forest ecohydrology. This work stem from a collaboration between an ecohydrologic modeling team, social-scientists, a visual artist and compute graphics students. We use a coupled model, validated with field measurements, to show why spatial heterogeneity matters for understanding the impact of fuel treatments on the water cycle for the Sierra

  11. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  12. Electron-Nuclear Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-13

    quantum information processing that exploits the anisotropic hyperfine coupling. This scheme enables universal control over a 1-electron, N-nuclear spin...exploits the anisotropic hyperfine coupling. This scheme enables universal control over a 1-electron, N-nuclear spin system, addressing only a...sample of irradiated malonic acid. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Universal control of nuclear spins via anisotropic

  13. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of chronic care management for diabetes: investigating heterogeneity in outcomes.

    PubMed

    Elissen, Arianne M J; Steuten, Lotte M G; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Drewes, Hanneke W; Lemmens, Karin M M; Meeuwissen, Jolanda A C; Baan, Caroline A; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2013-10-01

    The study aims to support decision making on how best to redesign diabetes care by investigating three potential sources of heterogeneity in effectiveness across trials of diabetes care management. Medline, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched for systematic reviews and empirical studies focusing on: (1) diabetes mellitus; (2) adult patients; and (3) interventions consisting of at least two components of the chronic care model (CCM). Systematic reviews were analysed descriptively; empirical studies were meta-analysed. Pooled effect measures were estimated using a meta-regression model that incorporated study quality, length of follow-up and number of intervention components as potential predictors of heterogeneity in effects. Overall, reviews (n = 15) of diabetes care programmes report modest improvements in glycaemic control. Empirical studies (n = 61) show wide-ranging results on HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and guideline adherence. Differences between studies in methodological quality cannot explain this heterogeneity in effects. Variety in length of follow-up can explain (part of) the variability, yet not across all outcomes. Diversity in the number of included intervention components can explain 8-12% of the heterogeneity in effects on HbA1c and systolic blood pressure. The outcomes of chronic care management for diabetes are generally positive, yet differ considerably across trials. The most promising results are attained in studies with limited follow-up (<1 year) and by programmes including more than two CCM components. These factors can, however, explain only part of the heterogeneity in effectiveness between studies. Other potential sources of heterogeneity should be investigated to ensure implementation of evidence-based improvements in diabetes care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Heterogeneous Catalysis: A Central Science for a Sustainable Future.

    PubMed

    Friend, Cynthia M; Xu, Bingjun

    2017-03-21

    Developing active, selective, and energy efficient heterogeneous catalytic processes is key to a sustainable future because heterogeneous catalysis is at the center of the chemicals and energy industries. The design, testing, and implementation of robust and selective heterogeneous catalytic processes based on insights from fundamental studies could have a tremendous positive impact on the world.

  15. Coordinating the Design and Management of Heterogeneous Datacenter Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Marisabel

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous design presents an opportunity to improve energy efficiency but raises a challenge in management. Whereas prior work separates the two, we coordinate heterogeneous design and management. We present a market-based resource allocation mechanism that navigates the performance and power trade-offs of heterogeneous architectures. Given…

  16. Efficient Numeric and Geometric Computations using Heterogeneous Shared Memory Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-04

    Report: Efficient Numeric and Geometric Computations using Heterogeneous Shared Memory Architectures The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...Chapel Hill Title: Efficient Numeric and Geometric Computations using Heterogeneous Shared Memory Architectures Report Term: 0-Other Email: dm...algorithms for scientific and geometric computing by exploiting the power and performance efficiency of heterogeneous shared memory architectures . These

  17. Modeling Heterogeneity of Latent Growth Depending on Initial Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Andreas G.; Muthen, Bengt O.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a heterogeneous latent growth curve model for modeling heterogeneity of growth rates is proposed. The suggested model is an extension of a conventional growth curve model and a complementary tool to mixed growth modeling. It allows the modeling of heterogeneity of growth rates as a continuous function of latent initial status and…

  18. Norovirus Genome Circularization and Efficient Replication Are Facilitated by Binding of PCBP2 and hnRNP A1

    PubMed Central

    López-Manríquez, Eduardo; Vashist, Surender; Ureña, Luis; Goodfellow, Ian; Chavez, Pedro; Mora-Heredia, José Eduardo; Cancio-Lonches, Clotilde; Garrido, Efraín

    2013-01-01

    Sequences and structures within the terminal genomic regions of plus-strand RNA viruses are targets for the binding of host proteins that modulate functions such as translation, RNA replication, and encapsidation. Using murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), we describe the presence of long-range RNA-RNA interactions that were stabilized by cellular proteins. The proteins potentially responsible for the stabilization were selected based on their ability to bind the MNV-1 genome and/or having been reported to be involved in the stabilization of RNA-RNA interactions. Cell extracts were preincubated with antibodies against the selected proteins and used for coprecipitation reactions. Extracts treated with antibodies to poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 significantly reduced the 5′-3′ interaction. Both PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 recombinant proteins stabilized the 5′-3′ interactions and formed ribonucleoprotein complexes with the 5′ and 3′ ends of the MNV-1 genomic RNA. Mutations within the 3′ complementary sequences (CS) that disrupt the 5′-3′-end interactions resulted in a significant reduction of the viral titer, suggesting that the integrity of the 3′-end sequence and/or the lack of complementarity with the 5′ end is important for efficient virus replication. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PCBP2 or hnRNP A1 resulted in a reduction in virus yield, confirming a role for the observed interactions in efficient viral replication. PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 induced the circularization of MNV-1 RNA, as revealed by electron microscopy. This study provides evidence that PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 bind to the 5′ and 3′ ends of the MNV-1 viral RNA and contribute to RNA circularization, playing a role in the virus life cycle. PMID:23946460

  19. Identifying and Quantifying Heterogeneity in High Content Analysis: Application of Heterogeneity Indices to Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Albert H.; Chen, Ning; Shun, Tong Ying; Lezon, Timothy R.; Boltz, Robert C.; Reese, Celeste E.; Wagner, Jacob; Vernetti, Lawrence A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Lee, Adrian V.; Stern, Andrew M.; Schurdak, Mark E.; Taylor, D. Lansing

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology. PMID:25036749

  20. Identifying and quantifying heterogeneity in high content analysis: application of heterogeneity indices to drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Gough, Albert H; Chen, Ning; Shun, Tong Ying; Lezon, Timothy R; Boltz, Robert C; Reese, Celeste E; Wagner, Jacob; Vernetti, Lawrence A; Grandis, Jennifer R; Lee, Adrian V; Stern, Andrew M; Schurdak, Mark E; Taylor, D Lansing

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology.

  1. A continuous time random walk model for Darcy-scale anomalous transport in heterogeneous porous media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comolli, Alessandro; Hakoun, Vivien; Dentz, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Achieving the understanding of the process of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media is of crucial importance for several environmental and social purposes, ranging from aquifers contamination and remediation, to risk assessment in nuclear waste repositories. The complexity of this aim is mainly ascribable to the heterogeneity of natural media, which can be observed at all the scales of interest, from pore scale to catchment scale. In fact, the intrinsic heterogeneity of porous media is responsible for the arising of the well-known non-Fickian footprints of transport, including heavy-tailed breakthrough curves, non-Gaussian spatial density profiles and the non-linear growth of the mean squared displacement. Several studies investigated the processes through which heterogeneity impacts the transport properties, which include local modifications to the advective-dispersive motion of solutes, mass exchanges between some mobile and immobile phases (e.g. sorption/desorption reactions or diffusion into solid matrix) and spatial correlation of the flow field. In the last decades, the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model has often been used to describe solute transport in heterogenous conditions and to quantify the impact of point heterogeneity, spatial correlation and mass transfer on the average transport properties [1]. Open issues regarding this approach are the possibility to relate measurable properties of the medium to the parameters of the model, as well as its capability to provide predictive information. In a recent work [2] the authors have shed new light on understanding the relationship between Lagrangian and Eulerian dynamics as well as on their evolution from arbitrary initial conditions. On the basis of these results, we derive a CTRW model for the description of Darcy-scale transport in d-dimensional media characterized by spatially random permeability fields. The CTRW approach models particle velocities as a spatial Markov process, which is

  2. A-1 Test Stand modifications

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-14

    Team members check the progress of a liquid nitrogen cold shock test on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Sept. 15. The cold shock test is used to confirm the test stand's support system can withstand test conditions, when super-cold rocket engine propellant is piped. The A-1 Test Stand is preparing to conduct tests on the powerpack component of the J-2X rocket engine, beginning in early 2012.

  3. Phenotypic and Functional Heterogeneity of Bovine Blood Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hussen, Jamal; Düvel, Anna; Sandra, Olivier; Smith, David; Sheldon, Iain Martin; Zieger, Peter; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Murine and human peripheral blood monocytes are heterogeneous in size, granularity, nuclear morphology, phenotype and function. Whether and how bovine blood monocytes follow this pattern was analyzed in this study. Flow cytometrically, classical monocytes (cM) CD14+ CD16−, intermediate monocytes (intM) CD14+ CD16+ and nonclassical monocytes (ncM) CD14+ CD16+ were identified, with cM being the predominant subset (89%). cM showed a significant lower expression of CD172a, intM expressed the highest level of MHC class II molecules, and ncM were low positive for CD163. Compared to cM and intM, ncM showed a significantly reduced phagocytosis capacity, a significantly reduced generation of reactive oxygen species, and reduced mRNA expression of CXCL8, CXCL1 and IL-1β after LPS stimulation. Based on IL-1β secretion after LPS/ATP stimulation, the inflammasome could be activated in cM and intM, but not in ncM. IFNγ increased the expression of CD16 selectively on cM and induced a shift from cM into intM in vitro. In summary, bovine CD172a-positive mononuclear cells define three monocyte subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional differences. Bovine cM and intM share homologies with their human counterparts, whereas bovine ncM are not inflammatory monocytes. PMID:23967219

  4. Inverse problems in heterogeneous and fractured media using peridynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, Daniel Z.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Parks, Michael L.

    2015-12-10

    The following work presents an adjoint-based methodology for solving inverse problems in heterogeneous and fractured media using state-based peridynamics. We show that the inner product involving the peridynamic operators is self-adjoint. The proposed method is illustrated for several numerical examples with constant and spatially varying material parameters as well as in the context of fractures. We also present a framework for obtaining material parameters by integrating digital image correlation (DIC) with inverse analysis. This framework is demonstrated by evaluating the bulk and shear moduli for a sample of nuclear graphite using digital photographs taken during the experiment. The resulting measuredmore » values correspond well with other results reported in the literature. Lastly, we show that this framework can be used to determine the load state given observed measurements of a crack opening. Furthermore, this type of analysis has many applications in characterizing subsurface stress-state conditions given fracture patterns in cores of geologic material.« less

  5. Dissecting cancer evolution at the macro-heterogeneity and micro-heterogeneity scale.

    PubMed

    Barber, Louise J; Davies, Matthew N; Gerlinger, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity complicates biomarker discovery and treatment personalization, and pervasive cancer evolution is a key mechanism leading to therapy failure and patient death. Thus, understanding subclonal heterogeneity architectures and cancer evolution processes is critical for the development of effective therapeutic approaches which can control or thwart cancer evolutionary plasticity. Current insights into heterogeneity are mainly limited to the macroheterogeneity level, established by cancer subclones that have undergone significant clonal expansion. Novel single cell sequencing and blood-based subclonal tracking technologies are enabling detailed insights into microheterogeneity and the dynamics of clonal evolution. We assess how this starts to delineate the rules governing cancer evolution and novel angles for more effective therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Bird diversity and environmental heterogeneity in North America: A test of the area-heterogeneity trade-off

    Treesearch

    Rachel Chocron; Curtis H. Flather; Ronen Kadmon

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Deterministic niche theory predicts that increasing environmental heterogeneity increases species richness. In contrast, a recent stochastic model suggests that heterogeneity has a unimodal effect on species richness since high levels of heterogeneity reduce the effective area available per species, thereby increasing the likelihood of stochastic...

  7. Generic evolution of mixing in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing in heterogeneous media results from the competition bewteen flow fluctuations and local scale diffusion. Flow fluctuations quickly create concentration contrasts and thus heterogeneity of the concentration field, which is slowly homogenized by local scale diffusion. Mixing first deviates from Gaussian mixing, which represents the potential mixing induced by spreading before approaching it. This deviation fundamentally expresses the evolution of the interaction between spreading and local scale diffusion. We characterize it by the ratio γ of the non-Gaussian to the Gaussian mixing states. We define the Gaussian mixing state as the integrated squared concentration of the Gaussian plume that has the same longitudinal dispersion as the real plume. The non-Gaussian mixing state is the difference between the overall mixing state defined as the integrated squared concentration and the Gaussian mixing state. The main advantage of this definition is to use the full knowledge previously acquired on dispersion for characterizing mixing even when the solute concentration field is highly non Gaussian. Using high precision numerical simulations, we show that γ quickly increases, peaks and slowly decreases. γ can be derived from two scales characterizing spreading and local mixing, at least for large flux-weighted solute injection conditions into classically log-normal Gaussian correlated permeability fields. The spreading scale is directly related to the longitudinal dispersion. The local mixing scale is the largest scale over which solute concentrations can be considered locally uniform. More generally, beyond the characteristics of its maximum, γ turns out to have a highly generic scaling form. Its fast increase and slow decrease depend neither on the heterogeneity level, nor on the ratio of diffusion to advection, nor on the injection conditions. They might even not depend on the particularities of the flow fields as the same generic features also prevail for

  8. Type-curve estimation of statistical heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Shlomo P.; Guadagnini, Alberto; Riva, Monica

    2004-04-01

    The analysis of pumping tests has traditionally relied on analytical solutions of groundwater flow equations in relatively simple domains, consisting of one or at most a few units having uniform hydraulic properties. Recently, attention has been shifting toward methods and solutions that would allow one to characterize subsurface heterogeneities in greater detail. On one hand, geostatistical inverse methods are being used to assess the spatial variability of parameters, such as permeability and porosity, on the basis of multiple cross-hole pressure interference tests. On the other hand, analytical solutions are being developed to describe the mean and variance (first and second statistical moments) of flow to a well in a randomly heterogeneous medium. We explore numerically the feasibility of using a simple graphical approach (without numerical inversion) to estimate the geometric mean, integral scale, and variance of local log transmissivity on the basis of quasi steady state head data when a randomly heterogeneous confined aquifer is pumped at a constant rate. By local log transmissivity we mean a function varying randomly over horizontal distances that are small in comparison with a characteristic spacing between pumping and observation wells during a test. Experimental evidence and hydrogeologic scaling theory suggest that such a function would tend to exhibit an integral scale well below the maximum well spacing. This is in contrast to equivalent transmissivities derived from pumping tests by treating the aquifer as being locally uniform (on the scale of each test), which tend to exhibit regional-scale spatial correlations. We show that whereas the mean and integral scale of local log transmissivity can be estimated reasonably well based on theoretical ensemble mean variations of head and drawdown with radial distance from a pumping well, estimating the log transmissivity variance is more difficult. We obtain reasonable estimates of the latter based on

  9. Quantum Heterogeneous Computing for Satellite Positioning Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Kumar, V.; Dulny, J., III

    2016-12-01

    Hard optimization problems occur in many fields of academic study and practical situations. We present results in which quantum heterogeneous computing is used to solve a real-world optimization problem: satellite positioning. Optimization problems like this can scale very rapidly with problem size, and become unsolvable with traditional brute-force methods. Typically, such problems have been approximately solved with heuristic approaches; however, these methods can take a long time to calculate and are not guaranteed to find optimal solutions. Quantum computing offers the possibility of producing significant speed-up and improved solution quality. There are now commercially available quantum annealing (QA) devices that are designed to solve difficult optimization problems. These devices have 1000+ quantum bits, but they have significant hardware size and connectivity limitations. We present a novel heterogeneous computing stack that combines QA and classical machine learning and allows the use of QA on problems larger than the quantum hardware could solve in isolation. We begin by analyzing the satellite positioning problem with a heuristic solver, the genetic algorithm. The classical computer's comparatively large available memory can explore the full problem space and converge to a solution relatively close to the true optimum. The QA device can then evolve directly to the optimal solution within this more limited space. Preliminary experiments, using the Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithm to simulate QA hardware, have produced promising results. Working with problem instances with known global minima, we find a solution within 8% in a matter of seconds, and within 5% in a few minutes. Future studies include replacing QMC with commercially available quantum hardware and exploring more problem sets and model parameters. Our results have important implications for how heterogeneous quantum computing can be used to solve difficult optimization problems in any

  10. Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Pediatric ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Irwin, Lauren N; Soto, Elia F; Groves, Nicole B; Harmon, Sherelle L; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-04-28

    Neurocognitive heterogeneity is increasingly recognized as a valid phenomenon in ADHD, with most estimates suggesting that executive dysfunction is present in only about 33%-50% of these children. However, recent critiques question the veracity of these estimates because our understanding of executive functioning in ADHD is based, in large part, on data from single tasks developed to detect gross neurological impairment rather than the specific executive processes hypothesized to underlie the ADHD phenotype. The current study is the first to comprehensively assess heterogeneity in all three primary executive functions in ADHD using a criterion battery that includes multiple tests per construct (working memory, inhibitory control, set shifting). Children ages 8-13 (M = 10.37, SD = 1.39) with and without ADHD (N = 136; 64 girls; 62% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) completed a counterbalanced series of executive function tests. Accounting for task unreliability, results indicated significantly improved sensitivity and specificity relative to prior estimates, with 89% of children with ADHD demonstrating objectively-defined impairment on at least one executive function (62% impaired working memory, 27% impaired inhibitory control, 38% impaired set shifting; 54% impaired on one executive function, 35% impaired on two or all three executive functions). Children with working memory deficits showed higher parent- and teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (BF 10  = 5.23 × 10 4 ), and were slightly younger (BF 10  = 11.35) than children without working memory deficits. Children with vs. without set shifting or inhibitory control deficits did not differ on ADHD symptoms, age, gender, IQ, SES, or medication status. Taken together, these findings confirm that ADHD is characterized by neurocognitive heterogeneity, while suggesting that contemporary, cognitively-informed criteria may provide improved precision for identifying a

  11. Macrophage heterogeneity in liver injury and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Zimmermann, Henning W

    2014-05-01

    Hepatic macrophages are central in the pathogenesis of chronic liver injury and have been proposed as potential targets in combatting fibrosis. Recent experimental studies in animal models revealed that hepatic macrophages are a remarkably heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill diverse functions in homeostasis, disease progression, and regression from injury. These range from clearance of pathogens or cellular debris and maintenance of immunological tolerance in steady state conditions; central roles in initiating and perpetuating inflammation in response to injury; promoting liver fibrosis via activating hepatic stellate cells in chronic liver damage; and, finally, resolution of inflammation and fibrosis by degradation of extracellular matrix and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cellular heterogeneity in the liver is partly explained by the origin of macrophages. Hepatic macrophages can either arise from circulating monocytes, which are recruited to the injured liver via chemokine signals, or from self-renewing embryo-derived local macrophages, termed Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells appear essential for sensing tissue injury and initiating inflammatory responses, while infiltrating Ly-6C(+) monocyte-derived macrophages are linked to chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis. In addition, proliferation of local or recruited macrophages may possibly further contribute to their accumulation in injured liver. During fibrosis regression, monocyte-derived cells differentiate into Ly-6C (Ly6C, Gr1) low expressing 'restorative' macrophages and promote resolution from injury. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate hepatic macrophage heterogeneity, either by monocyte subset recruitment, by promoting restorative macrophage polarization or by impacting distinctive macrophage effector functions, may help to develop novel macrophage subset-targeted therapies for liver injury and fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver

  12. High-throughput heterogeneous catalyst research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Howard W.; Volpe, Anthony F., Jr.; Weinberg, W. H.

    2009-06-01

    With the discovery of abundant and low cost crude oil in the early 1900's came the need to create efficient conversion processes to produce low cost fuels and basic chemicals. Enormous investment over the last century has led to the development of a set of highly efficient catalytic processes which define the modern oil refinery and which produce most of the raw materials and fuels used in modern society. Process evolution and development has led to a refining infrastructure that is both dominated and enabled by modern heterogeneous catalyst technologies. Refineries and chemical manufacturers are currently under intense pressure to improve efficiency, adapt to increasingly disadvantaged feedstocks including biomass, lower their environmental footprint, and continue to deliver their products at low cost. This pressure creates a demand for new and more robust catalyst systems and processes that can accommodate them. Traditional methods of catalyst synthesis and testing are slow and inefficient, particularly in heterogeneous systems where the structure of the active sites is typically complex and the reaction mechanism is at best ill-defined. While theoretical modeling and a growing understanding of fundamental surface science help guide the chemist in designing and synthesizing targets, even in the most well understood areas of catalysis, the parameter space that one needs to explore experimentally is vast. The result is that the chemist using traditional methods must navigate a complex and unpredictable diversity space with a limited data set to make discoveries or to optimize known systems. We describe here a mature set of synthesis and screening technologies that together form a workflow that breaks this traditional paradigm and allows for rapid and efficient heterogeneous catalyst discovery and optimization. We exemplify the power of these new technologies by describing their use in the development and commercialization of a novel catalyst for the

  13. Mathematical analysis of epidemiological models with heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ark, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    For many diseases in human populations the disease shows dissimilar characteristics in separate subgroups of the population; for example, the probability of disease transmission for gonorrhea or AIDS is much higher from male to female than from female to male. There is reason to construct and analyze epidemiological models which allow this heterogeneity of population, and to use these models to run computer simulations of the disease to predict the incidence and prevalence of the disease. In the models considered here the heterogeneous population is separated into subpopulations whose internal and external interactions are homogeneous in the sense that eachmore » person in the population can be assumed to have all average actions for the people of that subpopulation. The first model considered is an SIRS models; i.e., the Susceptible can become Infected, and if so he eventually Recovers with temporary immunity, and after a period of time becomes Susceptible again. Special cases allow for permanent immunity or other variations. This model is analyzed and threshold conditions are given which determine whether the disease dies out or persists. A deterministic model is presented; this model is constructed using difference equations, and it has been used in computer simulations for the AIDS epidemic in the homosexual population in San Francisco. The homogeneous version and the heterogeneous version of the differential-equations and difference-equations versions of the deterministic model are analyzed mathematically. In the analysis, equilibria are identified and threshold conditions are set forth for the disease to die out if the disease is below the threshold so that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Above the threshold the disease persists so that the disease-free equilibrium is unstable and there is a unique endemic equilibrium.« less

  14. Features and heterogeneities in growing network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Luca; Cortelezzi, Michele; Yang, Bin; Marmorini, Giacomo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-06-01

    Many complex networks from the World Wide Web to biological networks grow taking into account the heterogeneous features of the nodes. The feature of a node might be a discrete quantity such as a classification of a URL document such as personal page, thematic website, news, blog, search engine, social network, etc., or the classification of a gene in a functional module. Moreover the feature of a node can be a continuous variable such as the position of a node in the embedding space. In order to account for these properties, in this paper we provide a generalization of growing network models with preferential attachment that includes the effect of heterogeneous features of the nodes. The main effect of heterogeneity is the emergence of an “effective fitness” for each class of nodes, determining the rate at which nodes acquire new links. The degree distribution exhibits a multiscaling behavior analogous to the the fitness model. This property is robust with respect to variations in the model, as long as links are assigned through effective preferential attachment. Beyond the degree distribution, in this paper we give a full characterization of the other relevant properties of the model. We evaluate the clustering coefficient and show that it disappears for large network size, a property shared with the Barabási-Albert model. Negative degree correlations are also present in this class of models, along with nontrivial mixing patterns among features. We therefore conclude that both small clustering coefficients and disassortative mixing are outcomes of the preferential attachment mechanism in general growing networks.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of familial hemiplegic migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Joutel, A.; Ducros, A.; Delrieu, O.

    1994-12-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is an autosomal dominant variety of migraine with aura. We previously mapped a gene for this disorder to the short arm of chromosome 19, within a 30-cM interval bracketed by D19S216 and D19S215. Linkage analysis conducted on two large pedigrees did not show any evidence of heterogeneity, despite their clinical differences due to the presence, in one family, of cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus. Herein we report linkage data on seven additional FHM families including another one with cerebellar ataxia. Analysis was conducted with a set of seven markers spanning the D19S216-D19S215 interval. Two-point and multipoint strongmore » evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Strong evidence of linkage was obtained in two families and of absence of linkage in four families. The posterior probability of being of the linked type was >.95 in the first two families and <.01 in four other ones. It was not possible to draw any firm conclusion for the last family. Thus, within the nine families so far tested, four were linked, including those with associated cerebellar ataxia. We could not find any clinical difference between the pure FHM families regardless of whether they were linked. In addition to the demonstration of genetic heterogeneity of FHM, this study also allowed us to establish that the most likely location of the gene was within an interval of 12 cM between D19S413 and D19S226.« less

  16. Modeling Endovascular Coils as Heterogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadollahi Farsani, H.; Herrmann, M.; Chong, B.; Frakes, D.

    2016-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgeries are the stat-of-the-art treatments for many pathologies. Treating brain aneurysms is no exception; invasive neurovascular clipping is no longer the only option and endovascular coiling has introduced itself as the most common treatment. Coiling isolates the aneurysm from blood circulation by promoting thrombosis within the aneurysm. One approach to studying intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics consists of virtually deploying finite element coil models and then performing computational fluid dynamics. However, this approach is often computationally expensive and requires extensive resources to perform. The porous medium approach has been considered as an alternative to the conventional coil modeling approach because it lessens the complexities of computational fluid dynamics simulations by reducing the number of mesh elements needed to discretize the domain. There have been a limited number of attempts at treating the endovascular coils as homogeneous porous media. However, the heterogeneity associated with coil configurations requires a more accurately defined porous medium in which the porosity and permeability change throughout the domain. We implemented this approach by introducing a lattice of sample volumes and utilizing techniques available in the field of interactive computer graphics. We observed that the introduction of the heterogeneity assumption was associated with significant changes in simulated aneurysmal flow velocities as compared to the homogeneous assumption case. Moreover, as the sample volume size was decreased, the flow velocities approached an asymptotical value, showing the importance of the sample volume size selection. These results demonstrate that the homogeneous assumption for porous media that are inherently heterogeneous can lead to considerable errors. Additionally, this modeling approach allowed us to simulate post-treatment flows without considering the explicit geometry of a deployed endovascular coil mass

  17. Symmetric wetting heterogeneity suppresses fluid displacement hysteresis in granular piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi, R.; Schröter, M.; Herminghaus, S.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate experimentally the impact of heterogeneity on the capillary pressure hysteresis in fluid invasion of model porous media. We focus on symmetric heterogeneity, where the contact angles the fluid interface makes with the oil-wet (θ1) and the water-wet (θ2) beads add up to π . While enhanced heterogeneity is usually known to increase hysteresis phenomena, we find that hysteresis is greatly reduced when heterogeneities in wettability are introduced. On the contrary, geometric heterogeneity (like bidisperse particle size) does not lead to such an effect. We provide a qualitative explanation of this surprising result, resting on rather general geometric arguments.

  18. Heterogeneity of link weight and the evolution of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Manabu; Akiyama, Eizo

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of heterogeneity of link weight, heterogeneity of the frequency or amount of interactions among individuals, on the evolution of cooperation. Based on an analysis of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game on a weighted one-dimensional lattice network with intra-individual heterogeneity, we confirm that moderate level of link-weight heterogeneity can facilitate cooperation. Furthermore, we identify two key mechanisms by which link-weight heterogeneity promotes the evolution of cooperation: mechanisms for spread and maintenance of cooperation. We also derive the corresponding conditions under which the mechanisms can work through evolutionary dynamics.

  19. Dual compile strategy for parallel heterogeneous execution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tyler Barratt; Perry, James Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the Dual Compile Strategy is to increase our trust in the Compute Engine during its execution of instructions. This is accomplished by introducing a heterogeneous Monitor Engine that checks the execution of the Compute Engine. This leads to the production of a second and custom set of instructions designed for monitoring the execution of the Compute Engine at runtime. This use of multiple engines differs from redundancy in that one engine is working on the application while the other engine is monitoring and checking in parallel instead of both applications (and engines) performing the same work atmore » the same time.« less

  20. Wind resource assessment in heterogeneous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwel, C.; Placidi, M.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution particle image velocimetry data obtained in rough-wall boundary layer experiments are re-analysed to examine the influence of surface roughness heterogeneities on wind resource. Two different types of heterogeneities are examined: (i) surfaces with repeating roughness units of the order of the boundary layer thickness (Placidi & Ganapathisubramani. 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 782, 541-566. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.552)) and (ii) surfaces with streamwise-aligned elevated strips that mimic adjacent hills and valleys (Vanderwel & Ganapathisubramani. 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 774, 1-12. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.228)). For the first case, the data show that the power extraction potential is highly dependent on the surface morphology with a variation of up to 20% in the available wind resource across the different surfaces examined. A strong correlation is shown to exist between the frontal and plan solidities of the rough surfaces and the equivalent wind speed, and hence the wind resource potential. These differences are also found in profiles of and (where U is the streamwise velocity), which act as proxies for thrust and power output. For the second case, the secondary flows that cause low- and high-momentum pathways when the spacing between adjacent hills is beyond a critical value result in significant variations in wind resource availability. Contour maps of and show a large difference in thrust and power potential (over 50%) between hills and valleys (at a fixed vertical height). These variations do not seem to be present when adjacent hills are close to each other (i.e. when the spacing is much less than the

  1. [Neuromyelitis optica: problems of heterogeneity and systematization].

    PubMed

    Totolian, N A; Prakhova, L N; Sofienko, L Iu; Kataeva, G V; Il'ves, A G; Stoliarov, I D; Skoromets, A A

    2009-01-01

    Prospective-retrospective data on 10 cases of neuromyelitis optica (NO) have been analyzed. Demographic and clinical features of patients with primary NO as well as NO comorbid with other organospecific disorders are discussed. Magnetic-resonance imaging data of the brain and spinal cord are summarized and discussed in the context of its heterogeneity. Positron emission tomography with the functional imaging of the brain performed in 3 patients revealed changes in glucose metabolism in the brain regions corresponding to deficits in motor and sensory functional systems. The issues of additional laboratory analyses, including those of cerebrospinal fluid, are reviewed.

  2. Cancer stem cells: impact, heterogeneity, and uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Jeffrey A.; Piskounova, Elena; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of tumorigenic cancer stem cells into non-tumorigenic cancer cells confers heterogeneity to some cancers beyond that explained by clonal evolution or environmental differences. In such cancers, functional differences between tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells influence response to therapy and prognosis. However, it remains uncertain whether the model applies to many, or few, cancers due to questions about the robustness of cancer stem cell markers and the extent to which existing assays underestimate the frequency of tumorigenic cells. In cancers with rapid genetic change, reversible changes in cell states, or biological variability among patients the stem cell model may not be readily testable. PMID:22439924

  3. Large-scale Heterogeneous Network Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-31

    Mining (KDD’09), 527-535, 2009. [20] B. Long, Z. M. Zhang, X. Wu, and P. S. Yu . Spectral Clustering for Multi-type Relational Data. In Proceedings of...and Data Mining (KDD’06), 374-383, 2006. [33] Y. Sun, Y. Yu , and J. Han. Ranking-Based Clustering of Heterogeneous Information Networks with Star...publications in 2012 so far:  Yi-Kuang Ko, Jing- Kai Lou, Cheng-Te Li, Shou-de Lin, and Shyh-Kang Jeng. “A Social Network Evolution Model Based on

  4. Heterogeneously integrated microsystem-on-a-chip

    DOEpatents

    Chanchani, Rajen [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-02-26

    A microsystem-on-a-chip comprises a bottom wafer of normal thickness and a series of thinned wafers can be stacked on the bottom wafer, glued and electrically interconnected. The interconnection layer comprises a compliant dielectric material, an interconnect structure, and can include embedded passives. The stacked wafer technology provides a heterogeneously integrated, ultra-miniaturized, higher performing, robust and cost-effective microsystem package. The highly integrated microsystem package, comprising electronics, sensors, optics, and MEMS, can be miniaturized both in volume and footprint to the size of a bottle-cap or less.

  5. Understanding as Integration of Heterogeneous Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Sergio F.

    2014-03-01

    The search for understanding is a major aim of science. Traditionally, understanding has been undervalued in the philosophy of science because of its psychological underpinnings; nowadays, however, it is widely recognized that epistemology cannot be divorced from psychology as sharp as traditional epistemology required. This eliminates the main obstacle to give scientific understanding due attention in philosophy of science. My aim in this paper is to describe an account of scientific understanding as an emergent feature of our mastering of different (causal) explanatory frameworks that takes place through the mastering of scientific practices. Different practices lead to different kinds of representations. Such representations are often heterogeneous. The integration of such representations constitute understanding.

  6. Heterogeneous distributed query processing: The DAVID system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) project is the development of an easy to use computer system with which NASA scientists, engineers and administrators can uniformly access distributed heterogeneous databases. Basically, DAVID will be a database management system that sits alongside already existing database and file management systems. Its function is to enable users to access the data in other languages and file systems without having to learn the data manipulation languages. Given here is an outline of a talk on the DAVID project and several charts.

  7. Nuclear cardiology

    SciTech Connect

    Willerson, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear Cardiology is a well-written, concise compendium of chapters that covers a wide range of topics in nuclear cardiology. Each chapter has been contributed by one or more recognized experts in the field, and the work is thoroughly referened. The physics and physiology of nuclear cardiology, myocardial imaging with /sup 201/Tl and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate, left ventricular and right ventricular function, measurement of coronary blood flow with /sup 133/Xe, and microspheres are discussed, and there are chapters on metabolic imaging with positron emitters and on transmission computerized tomography of the heart.

  8. Nuclear Systems Kilopower Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Don; Gibson, Marc; Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael; McClure, Patrick; Robinson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project was initiated by NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program in fiscal year 2015 to demonstrate subsystem-level technology readiness of small space fission power in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level 5) for space science and human exploration power needs. The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project consists of two elements. The primary element is the Kilopower Prototype Test, also called the Kilopower Reactor Using Stirling Technology(KRUSTY) Test. This element consists of the development and testing of a fission ground technology demonstrator of a 1 kWe fission power system. A 1 kWe system matches requirements for some robotic precursor exploration systems and future potential deep space science missions, and also allows a nuclear ground technology demonstration in existing nuclear test facilities at low cost. The second element, the Mars Kilopower Scalability Study, consists of the analysis and design of a scaled-up version of the 1 kWe reference concept to 10 kWe for Mars surface power projected requirements, and validation of the applicability of the KRUSTY experiment to key technology challenges for a 10 kWe system. If successful, these two elements will lead to initiation of planning for a technology demonstration of a 10 kWe fission power capability for Mars surface outpost power.

  9. Nuclear option

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, P.S.

    The energy demand complexion of this country is always changing and promises to change in the future. The nuclear industry is responding to changing energy demands through standards writing activities. Since the oil embargo of 1973, there has been a change in the mix of fuels contributing to energy growth in this country; virtually all of the energy growth has come from coal and nuclear power. The predicted expansion of coal use by 1985, over 1977 level, is 37%, while the use of oil is expected to decline by 17%. Use of nuclear power is expected to increase 62% frommore » the 1977 level. The feasibility of using nuclear energy to meet the needs of the USA for electric power is discussed.« less

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  11. Nuclear Disarmament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  12. Structure and characteristics of heterogeneous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, J. A.; Sichel, M.; Kauffman, C. W.

    1983-09-01

    The emphasis of this research program centered around the structure of heterogeneous detonation waves, inasmuch as this had been found to be very important to the detonation characteristics of heterogeneous mixtures. On the experimental side, a vertical detonation tube was used wherein liquid fuel drops, all of one size, were generated at the top of the tube and allowed to fall vertically into the desired gaseous mixture. A strong blast wave was transmitted into the mixture through use of an auxiliary shock tube. The propagation of the resultant wave was monitored by pressure switches, pressure transducers, and photography. The low vapor pressure liquid fuel, decane (400 micrometer drop size) was used for most of the experiments. Attention was given to wave structure, wave velocity, and initiation energy. Three atmospheres (100% O2; 40% O2/60% N2; and air) and a number of equivalence ratios were investigated. Holographic pictures and streak photography were employed to study the drop shattering process and the structure of the front. Other experiments investigated the addition of the sensitizer, normal propyl nitrate (NPN), to the decane. The important aspect of vapor pressure was studied by heating the entire tube to various elevated temperatures and then noting the effect on detonability.

  13. Capturing Structural Heterogeneity in Chromatin Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ekundayo, Babatunde; Richmond, Timothy J; Schalch, Thomas

    2017-10-13

    Chromatin fiber organization is implicated in processes such as transcription, DNA repair and chromosome segregation, but how nucleosomes interact to form higher-order structure remains poorly understood. We solved two crystal structures of tetranucleosomes with approximately 11-bp DNA linker length at 5.8 and 6.7 Å resolution. Minimal intramolecular nucleosome-nucleosome interactions result in a fiber model resembling a flat ribbon that is compatible with a two-start helical architecture, and that exposes histone and DNA surfaces to the environment. The differences in the two structures combined with electron microscopy reveal heterogeneous structural states, and we used site-specific chemical crosslinking to assess the diversity of nucleosome-nucleosome interactions through identification of structure-sensitive crosslink sites that provide a means to characterize fibers in solution. The chromatin fiber architectures observed here provide a basis for understanding heterogeneous chromatin higher-order structures as they occur in a genomic context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PDF-based heterogeneous multiscale filtration model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J

    2015-04-21

    Motivated by modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a probability density function (PDF) based heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is developed to calculate filtration efficiency of clean particulate filters. A new methodology based on statistical theory and classic filtration theory is developed in the HMF model. Based on the analysis of experimental porosimetry data, a pore size probability density function is introduced to represent heterogeneity and multiscale characteristics of the porous wall. The filtration efficiency of a filter can be calculated as the sum of the contributions of individual collectors. The resulting HMF model overcomes the limitations of classic mean filtration models which rely on tuning of the mean collector size. Sensitivity analysis shows that the HMF model recovers the classical mean model when the pore size variance is very small. The HMF model is validated by fundamental filtration experimental data from different scales of filter samples. The model shows a good agreement with experimental data at various operating conditions. The effects of the microstructure of filters on filtration efficiency as well as the most penetrating particle size are correctly predicted by the model.

  15. Collective action problem in heterogeneous groups

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilets, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    I review the theoretical and experimental literature on the collective action problem in groups whose members differ in various characteristics affecting individual costs, benefits and preferences in collective actions. I focus on evolutionary models that predict how individual efforts and fitnesses, group efforts and the amount of produced collective goods depend on the group's size and heterogeneity, as well as on the benefit and cost functions and parameters. I consider collective actions that aim to overcome the challenges from nature or win competition with neighbouring groups of co-specifics. I show that the largest contributors towards production of collective goods will typically be group members with the highest stake in it or for whom the effort is least costly, or those who have the largest capability or initial endowment. Under some conditions, such group members end up with smaller net pay-offs than the rest of the group. That is, they effectively behave as altruists. With weak nonlinearity in benefit and cost functions, the group effort typically decreases with group size and increases with within-group heterogeneity. With strong nonlinearity in benefit and cost functions, these patterns are reversed. I discuss the implications of theoretical results for animal behaviour, human origins and psychology. PMID:26503689

  16. Shock interactions with heterogeneous energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarrington, Cole D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Damm, David L.

    2018-03-01

    The complex physical phenomenon of shock wave interaction with material heterogeneities has significant importance and nevertheless remains little understood. In many materials, the observed macroscale response to shock loading is governed by characteristics of the microstructure. Yet, the majority of computational studies aimed at predicting phenomena affected by these processes, such as the initiation and propagation of detonation waves in explosives or shock propagation in geological materials, employ continuum material and reactive burn model treatment. In an effort to highlight the grain-scale processes that underlie the observable effects in an energetic system, a grain-scale model for hexanitrostilbene (HNS) has been developed. The measured microstructures were used to produce synthetic computational representations of the pore structure, and a density functional theory molecular dynamics derived equation of state (EOS) was used for the fully dense HNS matrix. The explicit inclusion of the microstructure along with a fully dense EOS resulted in close agreement with historical shock compression experiments. More recent experiments on the dynamic reaction threshold were also reproduced by inclusion of a global kinetics model. The complete model was shown to reproduce accurately the expected response of this heterogeneous material to shock loading. Mesoscale simulations were shown to provide a clear insight into the nature of threshold behavior and are a way to understand complex physical phenomena.

  17. Reducing the Diagnostic Heterogeneity of Schizoaffective Disorder.

    PubMed

    Seldin, Katherine; Armstrong, Kristan; Schiff, Max L; Heckers, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Clinical outcome studies of schizoaffective disorder patients have yielded conflicting results. One reason is the heterogeneity of samples drawn from the schizoaffective disorder population. Here, we studied schizoaffective disorder patients who showed marked functional impairment and continuous signs of illness for at least 6 months (i.e., DSM criteria B and C for schizophrenia). We assessed 176 chronic psychosis patients with a structured interview (SCID-IV-TR) and the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies schizoaffective disorder module. We diagnosed 114 patients with schizophrenia and 62 with schizoaffective disorder. The two groups were similar with regard to age, gender, and race. We tested for group differences in antecedent risk factors, clinical features, and functional outcome. The schizoaffective disorder group differed from the schizophrenia group on two measures only: they showed higher rates of suicidality (more suicide attempts, p  < 0.01; more hospitalizations to prevent suicide, p  < 0.01) and higher anxiety disorder comorbidity ( p  < 0.01). When schizoaffective disorder patients meet DSM criteria B and C for schizophrenia, they resemble schizophrenia patients on several measures used to assess validity. The increased rate of anxiety disorders and suicidality warrants clinical attention. Our data suggest that a more explicit definition of schizoaffective disorder reduces heterogeneity and may increase validity.

  18. Semiclassical approach to heterogeneous vacuum decay

    DOE PAGES

    Grinstein, Benjamin; Murphy, Christopher W.

    2015-12-10

    We derive the decay rate of an unstable phase of a quantum field theory in the presence of an impurity in the thin-wall approximation. This derivation is based on the how the impurity changes the (flat spacetime) geometry relative to case of pure false vacuum. Two examples are given that show how to estimate some of the additional parameters that enter into this heterogeneous decay rate. This formalism is then applied to the Higgs vacuum of the Standard Model (SM), where baryonic matter acts as an impurity in the electroweak Higgs vacuum. We find that the probability for heterogeneous vacuummore » decay to occur is suppressed with respect to the homogeneous case. That is to say, the conclusions drawn from the homogeneous case are not modified by the inclusion of baryonic matter in the calculation. On the other hand, we show that Beyond the Standard Model physics with a characteristic scale comparable to the scale that governs the homogeneous decay rate in the SM, can in principle lead to an enhanced decay rate.« less

  19. Deformation field heterogeneity in punch indentation

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Tejas G.; Saldana, Christopher; Hudspeth, Matthew; M'Saoubi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Plastic heterogeneity in indentation is fundamental for understanding mechanics of hardness testing and impression-based deformation processing methods. The heterogeneous deformation underlying plane-strain indentation was investigated in plastic loading of copper by a flat punch. Deformation parameters were measured, in situ, by tracking the motion of asperities in high-speed optical imaging. These measurements were coupled with multi-scale analyses of strength, microstructure and crystallographic texture in the vicinity of the indentation. Self-consistency is demonstrated in description of the deformation field using the in situ mechanics-based measurements and post-mortem materials characterization. Salient features of the punch indentation process elucidated include, among others, the presence of a dead-metal zone underneath the indenter, regions of intense strain rate (e.g. slip lines) and extent of the plastic flow field. Perhaps more intriguing are the transitions between shear-type and compression-type deformation modes over the indentation region that were quantified by the high-resolution crystallographic texture measurements. The evolution of the field concomitant to the progress of indentation is discussed and primary differences between the mechanics of indentation for a rigid perfectly plastic material and a strain-hardening material are described. PMID:24910521

  20. Population turnover and adaptation in heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Paulo R. A.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.

    2012-02-01

    We study adaptive dynamics in a structured population model of asexual individuals which takes into account environmental heterogeneity among the subpopulations. The key purpose of the present work is to address how population turnovers, i.e. extinction events followed by recolonization, affect the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations. This model is a generalization of our previous model to address the interplay between environmental correlation and evolutionary forces on the adaptive process. The incorporation of population turnovers into the model enables us to make a direct correspondence between the model and host-parasite dynamics (epidemiological models). Strikingly, contrary to the intuitive and usual deleterious effect associated to extinction events, it is observed that population turnovers can in fact speed up adaptation as heterogeneity rises. On the other side, in nearly homogeneous population turnovers have a neutral effect on fixation rates, but a detrimental outcome is also achieved when extinction events become very common. In resume, population turnover outcomes on fixation rates of advantageous mutations are strongly influenced by the selective correlation among the subpopulations (demes).

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of familial hemiplegic migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ophoff, R.A.; Van Eijk, R.; Sandkuijl, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a distinctive form of migraine with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The migraine-like attacks are associated with transient hemiparesis. A locus for FHM has recently been assigned to chromosome 19 by linkage mapping. In the present study, five unrelated pedigrees with multiple members suffering from hemiplegic migraine were investigated. In two of the pedigrees additional symptoms, cerebellar ataxia and benign neonatal convulsions, respectively, were observed in affected members. Three pedigrees showed linkage to loci D19S391, D19S221, and D19S226 at chromosome 19p13. Haplotyping suggested a location of a FHM gene between D19S391 and D19S221. Inmore » the two remaining families, evidence against linkage was found. These results confirm the localization of a gene for familial hemiplegic migraine to the short arm of chromosome 19, but locus heterogeneity not corresponding to the observed clinical heterogeneity is likely to exist. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  2. Heterogeneous nucleation of aspartame from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Noriaki; Kinno, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kenji

    1990-03-01

    Waiting times, the time from the instant of quenching needed for a first nucleus to appear, were measured at constant supercoolings for primary nucleation of aspartame (α-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) from aqueous solutions, which were sealed into glass ampoules (solution volume = 3.16 cm 3). Since the waiting time became shorter by filtering the solution prior to quenching, the nucleation was concluded to be heterogeneously induced. The measured waiting time consisted of two parts: time needed for the nucleus to grow to a detactable size (growth time) and stochastic time needed for nucleation (true waiting time). The distribution of the true waiting time, is well explained by a stochastic model, in which nucleation is regarded to occur heterogeneously and in a stochastic manner by two kinds of active sites. The active sites are estimated to be located on foreign particles in which such elements as Si, Al and Mg were contained. The amount of each element is very small in the order of magnitude of ppb (mass basis) of the whole solution. The growth time was correlated with the degree of supercooling.

  3. Spreading of persistent infections in heterogeneous populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, J.; Floría, L. M.; Moreno, Y.

    2010-05-01

    Up to now, the effects of having heterogeneous networks of contacts have been studied mostly for diseases which are not persistent in time, i.e., for diseases where the infectious period can be considered very small compared to the lifetime of an individual. Moreover, all these previous results have been obtained for closed populations, where the number of individuals does not change during the whole duration of the epidemics. Here, we go one step further and analyze, both analytically and numerically, a radically different kind of diseases: those that are persistent and can last for an individual’s lifetime. To be more specific, we particularize to the case of tuberculosis’ (TB) infection dynamics, where the infection remains latent for a period of time before showing up and spreading to other individuals. We introduce an epidemiological model for TB-like persistent infections taking into account the heterogeneity inherent to the population structure. This sort of dynamics introduces new analytical and numerical challenges that we are able to sort out. Our results show that also for persistent diseases the epidemic threshold depends on the ratio of the first two moments of the degree distribution so that it goes to zero in a class of scale-free networks when the system approaches the thermodynamic limit.

  4. Heterogeneous information-based artificial stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, S.; Ponta, L.; Cincotti, S.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, an information-based artificial stock market is considered. The market is populated by heterogeneous agents that are seen as nodes of a sparsely connected graph. Agents trade a risky asset in exchange for cash. Besides the amount of cash and assets owned, each agent is characterized by a sentiment. Moreover, agents share their sentiments by means of interactions that are identified by the graph. Interactions are unidirectional and are supplied with heterogeneous weights. The agent's trading decision is based on sentiment and, consequently, the stock price process depends on the propagation of information among the interacting agents, on budget constraints and on market feedback. A central market maker (clearing house mechanism) determines the price process at the intersection of the demand and supply curves. Both closed- and open-market conditions are considered. The results point out the validity of the proposed model of information exchange among agents and are helpful for understanding the role of information in real markets. Under closed market conditions, the interaction among agents' sentiments yields a price process that reproduces the main stylized facts of real markets, e.g. the fat tails of the returns distributions and the clustering of volatility. Within open-market conditions, i.e. with an external cash inflow that results in asset price inflation, also the unitary root stylized fact is reproduced by the artificial stock market. Finally, the effects of model parameters on the properties of the artificial stock market are also addressed.

  5. Shock interactions with heterogeneous energetic materials

    DOE PAGES

    Yarrington, Cole D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Damm, David L.

    2018-03-14

    The complex physical phenomenon of shock wave interaction with material heterogeneities has significant importance and nevertheless remains little understood. In many materials, the observed macroscale response to shock loading is governed by characteristics of the microstructure. Yet the majority of computational studies aimed at predicting phenomena affected by these processes, such as initiation and propagation of detonation waves in explosives, or shock propagation in geological materials, employ continuum material and reactive burn model treatment. In an effort to highlight the grain-scale processes that underlie the observable effects in an energetic system, a grain-scale model for hexanitrostilbene (HNS) has been developed.more » Measured microstructures were used to produce synthetic computational representations of the pore structure, and a density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) derived equation of state (EOS) was used for the fully dense HNS matrix. The explicit inclusion of microstructure along with a fully-dense EOS resulted in close agreement with historical shock compression experiments. More recent experiments on dynamic reaction threshold were also reproduced by inclusion of a global kinetics model. The complete model was shown to reproduce accurately the expected response of this heterogeneous material to shock loading. Mesoscale simulations were shown to provide clear insight into the nature of threshold behavior, and are a way to understand complex physical phenomena.« less

  6. Temperature Dependence in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw R. L.; Winkler, P. M.; Wagner, P. E.

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation on stable (sub-2 nm) nuclei aids the formation of atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by circumventing or reducing vapor pressure barriers that would otherwise limit condensation and new particle growth. Aerosol and cloud formation depend largely on the interaction between a condensing liquid and the nucleating site. A new paper published this year reports the first direct experimental determination of contact angles as well as contact line curvature and other geometric properties of a spherical cap nucleus at nanometer scale using measurements from the Vienna Size Analyzing Nucleus Counter (SANC) (Winkler et al., 2016). For water nucleating heterogeneouslymore » on silver oxide nanoparticles we find contact angles around 15 degrees compared to around 90 degrees for the macroscopically measured equilibrium angle for water on bulk silver. The small microscopic contact angles can be attributed via the generalized Young equation to a negative line tension that becomes increasingly dominant with increasing curvature of the contact line. These results enable a consistent theoretical description of heterogeneous nucleation and provide firm insight to the wetting of nanosized objects.« less

  7. [Phenotypic heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Agustí, Alvar; Barberà, Joan A; Belda, José; Farrero, Eva; Ferrer, Antoni; Ferrer, Jaume; Gáldiz, Juan B; Gea, Joaquim; Gómez, Federico P; Monsó, Eduard; Morera, Josep; Roca, Josep; Sauleda, Jaume; Antó, Josep M

    2009-03-01

    A functional definition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on airflow limitation has largely dominated the field. However, a view has emerged that COPD involves a complex array of cellular, organic, functional, and clinical events, with a growing interest in disentangling the phenotypic heterogeneity of COPD. The present review is based on the opinion of the authors, who have extensive research experience in several aspects of COPD. The starting assumption of the review is that current knowledge on the pathophysiology and clinical features of COPD allows us to classify phenotypic information in terms of the following dimensions: respiratory symptoms and health status, acute exacerbations, lung function, structural changes, local and systemic inflammation, and systemic effects. Twenty-six phenotypic traits were identified and assigned to one of the 6 dimensions. For each dimension, a summary is provided of the best evidence on the relationships among phenotypic traits, in particular among those corresponding to different dimensions, and on the relationship between these traits and relevant events in the natural history of COPD. The information has been organized graphically into a phenotypic matrix where each cell representing a pair of phenotypic traits is linked to relevant references. The information provided has the potential to increase our understanding of the heterogeneity of COPD phenotypes and help us plan future studies on aspects that are as yet unexplored.

  8. Autistic Heterogeneity: Linking Uncertainties and Indeterminacies

    PubMed Central

    Hollin, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autism is a highly uncertain entity and little is said about it with any degree of certainty. Scientists must, and do, work through these uncertainties in the course of their work. Scientists explain uncertainty in autism research through discussion of epistemological uncertainties which suggest that diverse methods and techniques make results hard to reconcile, ontological uncertainties which suggest doubt over taxonomic coherence, but also through reference to autism’s indeterminacy which suggests that the condition is inherently heterogeneous. Indeed, indeterminacy takes two forms—an inter-personal form which suggests that there are fundamental differences between individuals with autism and an intra-personal form which suggests that no one factor is able to explain all features of autism within a given individual. What is apparent in the case of autism is that scientists put uncertainty and indeterminacy into discussion with one another and, rather than a well-policed epistemic-ontic boundary, there is a movement between, and an entwinement of, the two. Understanding scientists’ dialogue concerning uncertainty and indeterminacy is of importance for understanding autism and autistic heterogeneity but also for understanding uncertainty and ‘uncertainty work’ within science more generally. PMID:28515574

  9. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pieke Dahl, S; Kimberling, W J; Gorin, M B; Weston, M D; Furman, J M; Pikus, A; Möller, C

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been localised to chromosome 1q32-q41. DNA from a family with four of seven sibs affected with clinical characteristics of Usher syndrome type II was genotyped using markers spanning the 1q32-1q41 region. These included D1S70 and D1S81, which are believed to flank USH2. Genotypic results and subsequent linkage analysis indicated non-linkage of this family to these markers. The A test analysis for heterogeneity with this family and 32 other Usher type II families was statistically significant at p < 0.05. Further clinical evaluation of this family was done in light of the linkage results to determine if any phenotypic characteristics would allow for clinical identification of the unlinked type. No clear phenotypic differences were observed; however, this unlinked family may represent a previously unreported subtype of Usher type II characterised by a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa and mild vestibular abnormalities. Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II complicates efforts to isolate and clone Usher syndrome genes using linkage analysis and limits the use of DNA markers in early detection of Usher type II. Images PMID:7901420

  11. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  12. Heterogeneous Roles and Heterogeneous Practices: Understanding the Adoption and Uses of Nonprofit Performance Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerd, Adam; Moulton, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of nonprofit organizations has been of growing importance for the last several decades. Although there is much good that can come out of self-improvement, there is substantial heterogeneity within the sector that calls into question the usefulness of "across the board" evaluation tools. In this article, the authors…

  13. Genetic heterogeneity in patients with Bartter syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingran; Ning, Jing; Xu, Weihong; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Kaishu; Li, Wenfu; Li, Guiying; Li, Shibo

    2017-02-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) type 1 is an autosomal recessive kidney disorder caused by loss‑of‑function mutations in the solute carrier family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene. To date, 72 BS type 1 patients harboring SLC12A1 mutations have been documented. Of these 144 alleles studied, 68 different disease‑causing mutations have been detected in 129 alleles, and no mutation was detected in the remaining 15 alleles. The mutation types included missense/nonsense mutations, splicing mutations and small insertions and deletions ranging from 1 to 4 nucleotides. A large deletion encompassing a whole exon in the SLC12A1 gene has not yet been reported. The current study initially identified an undocumented homozygous frameshift mutation (c.1833delT) by Sanger sequencing analysis of a single infant with BS type 1. However, in a subsequent analysis, the mutation was detected only in the father's DNA. Upon further investigation using a next‑generation sequencing approach, a deletion in exons 14 and 15 in both the patient and patient's mother was detected. The deletion was subsequently confirmed by use of a long‑range polymerase chain reaction and was determined to be 3.16 kb in size based on sequencing of the junction fragment. The results of the present study demonstrated that pathogenic variants of SLC12A1 are heterogeneous. Large deletions appear to serve an etiological role in BS type 1, and may be more prevalent than previously thought.

  14. Lipid-sensors, enigmatic-orphan and orphan nuclear receptors as therapeutic targets in breast-cancer.

    PubMed

    Garattini, Enrico; Bolis, Marco; Gianni', Maurizio; Paroni, Gabriela; Fratelli, Maddalena; Terao, Mineko

    2016-07-05

    Breast-cancer is heterogeneous and consists of various groups with different biological characteristics. Innovative pharmacological approaches accounting for this heterogeneity are needed. The forty eight human Nuclear-Hormone-Receptors are ligand-dependent transcription-factors and are classified into Endocrine-Receptors, Adopted-Orphan-Receptors (Lipid-sensors and Enigmatic-Orphans) and Orphan-receptors. Nuclear-Receptors represent ideal targets for the design/synthesis of pharmacological ligands. We provide an overview of the literature available on the expression and potential role played by Lipid-sensors, Enigmatic-Orphans and Orphan-Receptors in breast-cancer. The data are complemented by an analysis of the expression levels of each selected Nuclear-Receptor in the PAM50 breast-cancer groups, following re-elaboration of the data publicly available. The major aim is to support the idea that some of the Nuclear-Receptors represent largely unexploited therapeutic-targets in breast-cancer treatment/chemo-prevention. On the basis of our analysis, we conclude that the Lipid-Sensors, NR1C3, NR1H2 and NR1H3 are likely to be onco-suppressors in breast-cancer. The Enigmatic-Orphans, NR1F1 NR2A1 and NR3B3 as well as the Orphan-Receptors, NR0B1, NR0B2, NR1D1, NR2F1, NR2F2 and NR4A3 exert a similar action. These Nuclear-Receptors represent candidates for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing their expression or activating them in tumor cells. The group of Nuclear-Receptors endowed with potential oncogenic properties consists of the Lipid-Sensors, NR1C2 and NR1I2, the Enigmatic-Orphans, NR1F3, NR3B1 and NR5A2, as well as the Orphan-Receptors, NR2E1, NR2E3 and NR6A1. These oncogenic Nuclear-Receptors should be targeted with selective antagonists, reverse-agonists or agents/strategies capable of reducing their expression in breast-cancer cells.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of the hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Bukh, J; Miller, R H; Purcell, R H

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important etiological agent in the development of chronic liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The virus, identified only recently, contains a single-stranded RNA genome of positive polarity, is distantly related to pestiviruses and flaviviruses, and has been classified as the first member of a third genus within the family Flaviviridae. Extensive analysis of HCV genomic sequences demonstrated that this virus possesses significant genetic heterogeneity. Different regions of the viral genome demonstrate a varying degree of heterogeneity; the regions coding for the putative envelope proteins are the most variable sites between different isolates. Furthermore, HCV circulates as a quasispecies in the host. During the course of acute and chronic infection, the sequence composition of the HCV population in one patient has been found to change sequentially with an extremely high rate of nonconserved nucleotide changes in the hypervariable region I (HVR1) of HCV. Such sequence changes alter the antigenicity of the epitopes coded within HVR1 so that these are not always recognized by preexisting antibodies. It has been suggested that this could represent one mechanism by which HCV evades host immune surveillance and may account for the high rate of chronicity observed in such infections. Continuous viral replication may, in turn, lead to the development of chronic liver disease, including HCC, in infected individuals. To date, at least nine major genetic groups (genotypes 1-9) and more than 30 subgroups of HCV have been recognized based on genetic differences. A distinct difference has been observed in the genotype distribution in Africa compared with other continents. Recent data have suggested a difference in pathogenesis and in the outcome of interferon therapy in individuals infected with HCV of certain genotypes. For example, genotype 1b (II) seems to be associated with more severe liver

  16. Heterogeneity: The key to forecasting material failure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, J.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Lavallée, Y.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Empirical mechanistic models have been applied to the description of the stress and strain rate upon failure for heterogeneous materials. The behaviour of porous rocks and their analogous two-phase viscoelastic suspensions are particularly well-described by such models. Nevertheless, failure cannot yet be predicted forcing a reliance on other empirical prediction tools such as the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). Measurable, accelerating rates of physical signals (e.g., seismicity and deformation) preceding failure are often used as proxies for damage accumulation in the FFM. Previous studies have already statistically assessed the applicability and performance of the FFM, but none (to the best of our knowledge) has done so in terms of intrinsic material properties. Here we use a rheological standard glass, which has been powdered and then sintered for different times (up to 32 hours) at high temperature (675°C) in order to achieve a sample suite with porosities in the range of 0.10-0.45 gas volume fraction. This sample suite was then subjected to mechanical tests in a uniaxial press at a constant strain rate of 10-3 s-1 and a temperature in the region of the glass transition. A dual acoustic emission (AE) rig has been employed to test the success of the FFM in these materials of systematically varying porosity. The pore-emanating crack model describes well the peak stress at failure in the elastic regime for these materials. We show that the FFM predicts failure within 0-15% error at porosities >0.2. However, when porosities are <0.2, the forecast error associated with predicting the failure time increases to >100%. We interpret these results as a function of the low efficiency with which strain energy can be released in the scenario where there are few or no heterogeneities from which cracks can propagate. These observations shed light on questions surrounding the variable efficacy of the FFM applied to active volcanoes. In particular, they provide a systematic

  17. Harvesting geographic features from heterogeneous raster maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Raster maps offer a great deal of geospatial information and are easily accessible compared to other geospatial data. However, harvesting geographic features locked in heterogeneous raster maps to obtain the geospatial information is challenging. This is because of the varying image quality of raster maps (e.g., scanned maps with poor image quality and computer-generated maps with good image quality), the overlapping geographic features in maps, and the typical lack of metadata (e.g., map geocoordinates, map source, and original vector data). Previous work on map processing is typically limited to a specific type of map and often relies on intensive manual work. In contrast, this thesis investigates a general approach that does not rely on any prior knowledge and requires minimal user effort to process heterogeneous raster maps. This approach includes automatic and supervised techniques to process raster maps for separating individual layers of geographic features from the maps and recognizing geographic features in the separated layers (i.e., detecting road intersections, generating and vectorizing road geometry, and recognizing text labels). The automatic technique eliminates user intervention by exploiting common map properties of how road lines and text labels are drawn in raster maps. For example, the road lines are elongated linear objects and the characters are small connected-objects. The supervised technique utilizes labels of road and text areas to handle complex raster maps, or maps with poor image quality, and can process a variety of raster maps with minimal user input. The results show that the general approach can handle raster maps with varying map complexity, color usage, and image quality. By matching extracted road intersections to another geospatial dataset, we can identify the geocoordinates of a raster map and further align the raster map, separated feature layers from the map, and recognized features from the layers with the geospatial

  18. Irreversible adsorption of particles on heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Jaszczółt, Katarzyna; Michna, Aneta; Siwek, Barbara; Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Zembala, Maria

    2005-12-30

    Methods of theoretical and experimental evaluation of irreversible adsorption of particles, e.g., colloids and globular proteins at heterogeneous surfaces were reviewed. The theoretical models were based on the generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach. Within the scope of these models, localized adsorption of particles occurring as a result of short-ranged attractive interactions with discrete adsorption sites was analyzed. Monte-Carlo type simulations performed according to this model enabled one to determine the initial flux, adsorption kinetics, jamming coverage and the structure of the particle monolayer as a function of the site coverage and the particle/site size ratio, denoted by lambda. It was revealed that the initial flux increased significantly with the site coverage theta(s) and the lambda parameter. This behavior was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the scaled particle theory. It also was demonstrated that particle adsorption kinetics and the jamming coverage increased significantly, at fixed site coverage, when the lambda parameter increased. Practically, for alpha = lambda2theta(s) > 1 the jamming coverage at the heterogeneous surfaces attained the value pertinent to continuous surfaces. The results obtained prove unequivocally that spherically shaped sites were more efficient in binding particles in comparison with disk-shaped sites. It also was predicted that for particle size ratio lambda < 4 the site multiplicity effect plays a dominant role, affecting significantly the structure of particle monolayers and the jamming coverage. Experimental results validating main aspects of these theoretical predictions also have been reviewed. These results were derived by using monodisperse latex particles adsorbing on substrates produced by covering uniform surface by adsorption sites of a desired size, coverage and surface charge. Particle deposition occurred under diffusion-controlled transport conditions and their coverage was

  19. AXAF user interfaces for heterogeneous analysis environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric; Roll, John; Ackerman, Mark S.

    1992-01-01

    The AXAF Science Center (ASC) will develop software to support all facets of data center activities and user research for the AXAF X-ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1999. The goal is to provide astronomers with the ability to utilize heterogeneous data analysis packages, that is, to allow astronomers to pick the best packages for doing their scientific analysis. For example, ASC software will be based on IRAF, but non-IRAF programs will be incorporated into the data system where appropriate. Additionally, it is desired to allow AXAF users to mix ASC software with their own local software. The need to support heterogeneous analysis environments is not special to the AXAF project, and therefore finding mechanisms for coordinating heterogeneous programs is an important problem for astronomical software today. The approach to solving this problem has been to develop two interfaces that allow the scientific user to run heterogeneous programs together. The first is an IRAF-compatible parameter interface that provides non-IRAF programs with IRAF's parameter handling capabilities. Included in the interface is an application programming interface to manipulate parameters from within programs, and also a set of host programs to manipulate parameters at the command line or from within scripts. The parameter interface has been implemented to support parameter storage formats other than IRAF parameter files, allowing one, for example, to access parameters that are stored in data bases. An X Windows graphical user interface called 'agcl' has been developed, layered on top of the IRAF-compatible parameter interface, that provides a standard graphical mechanism for interacting with IRAF and non-IRAF programs. Users can edit parameters and run programs for both non-IRAF programs and IRAF tasks. The agcl interface allows one to communicate with any command line environment in a transparent manner and without any changes to the original environment. For example, the authors

  20. Collegial Activity Learning between Heterogeneous Sensors.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Kyle D; Cook, Diane J

    2017-11-01

    Activity recognition algorithms have matured and become more ubiquitous in recent years. However, these algorithms are typically customized for a particular sensor platform. In this paper we introduce PECO, a Personalized activity ECOsystem, that transfers learned activity information seamlessly between sensor platforms in real time so that any available sensor can continue to track activities without requiring its own extensive labeled training data. We introduce a multi-view transfer learning algorithm that facilitates this information handoff between sensor platforms and provide theoretical performance bounds for the algorithm. In addition, we empirically evaluate PECO using datasets that utilize heterogeneous sensor platforms to perform activity recognition. These results indicate that not only can activity recognition algorithms transfer important information to new sensor platforms, but any number of platforms can work together as colleagues to boost performance.

  1. Heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Oleg V.; Mamedov, A. Kh

    1995-09-01

    The most important classes of heterogeneous catalytic reactions involving CO2 are examined: the incorporation of CO2 in the C-C, C-H, and C-N bonds with formation of carbonyl- and carboxyl-containing compounds and oxidation of other compounds by CO2. Reactions of the second class are more promising from the standpoint of the utilisation of carbon dioxide as a chemical raw material and from the standpoint of the solution of the ecological problems involving its utilisation from the gaseous waste discharged into the atmosphere. The reactions involving the oxidation of C1-C7 hydrocarbons and C1-C2 alcohols by carbon dioxide, which have been investigated by the authors of this review, are examined in detail. Catalysts based on manganese oxides are most effective in these reactions. The bibliography includes 231 references.

  2. Glutamine Metabolism in Cancer: Understanding the Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Cluntun, Ahmad A; Lukey, Michael J; Cerione, Richard A; Locasale, Jason W

    2017-01-01

    Reliance on glutamine has long been considered a hallmark of cancer cell metabolism. However, some recent studies have challenged this notion in vivo, prompting a need for further clarifications on the role of glutamine metabolism in cancer. We find that there is ample evidence of an essential role for glutamine in tumors and that a variety of factors, including tissue type, the underlying cancer genetics, the tumor microenvironment and other variables such as diet and host physiology collectively influence the role of glutamine in cancer. Thus the requirements for glutamine in cancer are overall highly heterogeneous. In this review, we discuss the implications both for basic science and for targeting glutamine metabolism in cancer therapy. PMID:28393116

  3. Metabolic heterogeneity in clonal microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Takhaveev, Vakil; Heinemann, Matthias

    2018-02-21

    In the past decades, numerous instances of phenotypic diversity were observed in clonal microbial populations, particularly, on the gene expression level. Much less is, however, known about phenotypic differences that occur on the level of metabolism. This is likely explained by the fact that experimental tools probing metabolism of single cells are still at an early stage of development. Here, we review recent exciting discoveries that point out different causes for metabolic heterogeneity within clonal microbial populations. These causes range from ecological factors and cell-inherent dynamics in constant environments to molecular noise in gene expression that propagates into metabolism. Furthermore, we provide an overview of current methods to quantify the levels of metabolites and biomass components in single cells. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Resolution of structural heterogeneity in dynamic crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhong; Chan, Peter W. Y.; Moffat, Keith; Pai, Emil F.; Royer, William E.; Šrajer, Vukica; Yang, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic behavior of proteins is critical to their function. X-­ray crystallography, a powerful yet mostly static technique, faces inherent challenges in acquiring dynamic information despite decades of effort. Dynamic ‘structural changes’ are often indirectly inferred from ‘structural differences’ by comparing related static structures. In contrast, the direct observation of dynamic structural changes requires the initiation of a biochemical reaction or process in a crystal. Both the direct and the indirect approaches share a common challenge in analysis: how to interpret the structural heterogeneity intrinsic to all dynamic processes. This paper presents a real-space approach to this challenge, in which a suite of analytical methods and tools to identify and refine the mixed structural species present in multiple crystallographic data sets have been developed. These methods have been applied to representative scenarios in dynamic crystallography, and reveal structural information that is otherwise difficult to interpret or inaccessible using conventional methods. PMID:23695239

  5. Seismic signal processing on heterogeneous supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Ermert, Laura; Fichtner, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The processing of seismic signals - including the correlation of massive ambient noise data sets - represents an important part of a wide range of seismological applications. It is characterized by large data volumes as well as high computational input/output intensity. Development of efficient approaches towards seismic signal processing on emerging high performance computing systems is therefore essential. Heterogeneous supercomputing systems introduced in the recent years provide numerous computing nodes interconnected via high throughput networks, every node containing a mix of processing elements of different architectures, like several sequential processor cores and one or a few graphical processing units (GPU) serving as accelerators. A typical representative of such computing systems is "Piz Daint", a supercomputer of the Cray XC 30 family operated by the Swiss National Supercomputing Center (CSCS), which we used in this research. Heterogeneous supercomputers provide an opportunity for manifold application performance increase and are more energy-efficient, however they have much higher hardware complexity and are therefore much more difficult to program. The programming effort may be substantially reduced by the introduction of modular libraries of software components that can be reused for a wide class of seismology applications. The ultimate goal of this research is design of a prototype for such library suitable for implementing various seismic signal processing applications on heterogeneous systems. As a representative use case we have chosen an ambient noise correlation application. Ambient noise interferometry has developed into one of the most powerful tools to image and monitor the Earth's interior. Future applications will require the extraction of increasingly small details from noise recordings. To meet this demand, more advanced correlation techniques combined with very large data volumes are needed. This poses new computational problems that

  6. Tit for tat in heterogeneous populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Sigmund, Karl

    1992-01-01

    THE 'iterated prisoner's dilemma' is now the orthodox paradigm for the evolution of cooperation among selfish individuals. This viewpoint is strongly supported by Axelrod's computer tournaments, where 'tit for tat' (TFT) finished first1. This has stimulated interest in the role of reciprocity in biological societies1-8. Most theoretical investigations, however, assumed homogeneous populations (the setting for evolutionary stable strategies9,10) and programs immune to errors. Here we try to come closer to the biological situation by following a program6 that takes stochasticities into account and investigates representative samples. We find that a small fraction of TFT players is essential for the emergence of reciprocation in a heterogeneous population, but only paves the way for a more generous strategy. TFT is the pivot, rather than the aim, of an evolution towards cooperation.

  7. Comprehensive monitoring for heterogeneous geographically distributed storage

    DOE PAGES

    Ratnikova, Natalia; Karavakis, E.; Lammel, S.; ...

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then.more » In this study, we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.« less

  8. An Advice Mechanism for Heterogeneous Robot Teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniluk, Steven

    The use of reinforcement learning for robot teams has enabled complex tasks to be performed, but at the cost of requiring a large amount of exploration. Exchanging information between robots in the form of advice is one method to accelerate performance improvements. This thesis presents an advice mechanism for robot teams that utilizes advice from heterogeneous advisers via a method guaranteeing convergence to an optimal policy. The presented mechanism has the capability to use multiple advisers at each time step, and decide when advice should be requested and accepted, such that the use of advice decreases over time. Additionally, collective collaborative, and cooperative behavioural algorithms are integrated into a robot team architecture, to create a new framework that provides fault tolerance and modularity for robot teams.

  9. Job Scheduling in a Heterogeneous Grid Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hong-Zhang; Smith, Warren; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2004-01-01

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  10. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  11. Kinetic limit of heterogeneous melting in metals.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Dmitriy S; Zhigilei, Leonid V

    2007-05-11

    The velocity and nanoscale shape of the melting front are investigated in a model that combines the molecular dynamics method with a continuum description of the electron heat conduction and electron-phonon coupling. The velocity of the melting front is strongly affected by the local drop of the lattice temperature, defined by the kinetic balance between the transfer of thermal energy to the latent heat of melting, the electron heat conduction from the overheated solid, and the electron-phonon coupling. The maximum velocity of the melting front is found to be below 3% of the room temperature speed of sound in the crystal, suggesting a limited contribution of heterogeneous melting under conditions of fast heating.

  12. Heterogeneity in spending change at retirement

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Michael D.; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The simple one-good model of life-cycle consumption requires that consumption be continuous over retirement; yet prior research based on partial measures of consumption or on synthetic panels indicates that spending drops at retirement, a result that has been called the retirement-consumption puzzle. Using panel data on total spending, nondurable spending and food spending, we find that spending declines at small rates at retirement, rates that could be explained by mechanisms such as the cessation of work-related expenses, unexpected retirement due to a health shock or by the substitution of time for spending. We find substantial heterogeneity in spending change at retirement: in the upper half of the wealth distribution spending increased. In the low-wealth population where spending did decline at higher rates, the main explanation for the decline appears to be early retirement due to poor health, possibly augmented by a short planning horizon by a minority of the population. PMID:24524026

  13. Resolution of structural heterogeneity in dynamic crystallography.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhong; Chan, Peter W Y; Moffat, Keith; Pai, Emil F; Royer, William E; Šrajer, Vukica; Yang, Xiaojing

    2013-06-01

    Dynamic behavior of proteins is critical to their function. X-ray crystallography, a powerful yet mostly static technique, faces inherent challenges in acquiring dynamic information despite decades of effort. Dynamic `structural changes' are often indirectly inferred from `structural differences' by comparing related static structures. In contrast, the direct observation of dynamic structural changes requires the initiation of a biochemical reaction or process in a crystal. Both the direct and the indirect approaches share a common challenge in analysis: how to interpret the structural heterogeneity intrinsic to all dynamic processes. This paper presents a real-space approach to this challenge, in which a suite of analytical methods and tools to identify and refine the mixed structural species present in multiple crystallographic data sets have been developed. These methods have been applied to representative scenarios in dynamic crystallography, and reveal structural information that is otherwise difficult to interpret or inaccessible using conventional methods.

  14. Markovian Search Games in Heterogeneous Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Christopher H

    2009-01-01

    We consider how to search for a mobile evader in a large heterogeneous region when sensors are used for detection. Sensors are modeled using probability of detection. Due to environmental effects, this probability will not be constant over the entire region. We map this problem to a graph search problem and, even though deterministic graph search is NP-complete, we derive a tractable, optimal, probabilistic search strategy. We do this by defining the problem as a differential game played on a Markov chain. We prove that this strategy is optimal in the sense of Nash. Simulations of an example problem illustratemore » our approach and verify our claims.« less

  15. Heterogeneous distributed databases: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Tracy R.; Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Alternatives are reviewed for accessing distributed heterogeneous databases and a recommended solution is proposed. The current study is limited to the Automated Information Systems Center at the Naval Sea Combat Systems Engineering Station at Norfolk, VA. This center maintains two databases located on Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX computers running under the VMS operating system. The first data base, ICMS, resides on a VAX11/780 and has been implemented using VAX DBMS, a CODASYL based system. The second database, CSA, resides on a VAX 6460 and has been implemented using the ORACLE relational database management system (RDBMS). Both databases are used for configuration management within the U.S. Navy. Different customer bases are supported by each database. ICMS tracks U.S. Navy ships and major systems (anti-sub, sonar, etc.). Even though the major systems on ships and submarines have totally different functions, some of the equipment within the major systems are common to both ships and submarines.

  16. Vibrations At Surfaces During Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragno, A.; Basini, Luca; Marchionna, M.; Raffaelli, A.

    1989-12-01

    FTIR spectroscopies can be used in a wide range of temperature and pressure conditions to investigate on the chemistry and the physics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. In this paper we have shortly discussed the spectroscopic results obtained during the study of two different reactions; the skeletal isomerization of 1-butene to obtain 2-methylpropene and the surface aggregation and fragmentation of rhodium carbonyl complexes during thermal treatments in N2, H2, CO, CH4 atmospheres. In the first case high temperature proton tran-sfer reactions are proposed to be responsible for the skeletal isomerization reaction. In the second case our experiments have shown a partial reversibility of the nucleation processes at the surfaces and revealed a low temperature reactivity of methane on rhodium car-bonyl surface complexes.

  17. Nanohole optical tweezers in heterogeneous mixture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacohen, Noa; Ip, Candice J. X.; Laxminarayana, Gurunatha K.; DeWolf, Timothy S.; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    Nanohole optical trapping is a tool that has been shown to analyze proteins at the single molecule level using pure samples. The next step is to detect and study single molecules with dirty samples. We demonstrate that using our double nanohole optical tweezing configuration, single particles in an egg white solution can be classified when trapped. Different sized molecules provide different signal variations in their trapped state, allowing the proteins to be statistically characterized. Root mean squared variation and trap stiffness are methods used on trapped signals to distinguish between the different proteins. This method to isolate and determine single molecules in heterogeneous samples provides huge potential to become a reliable tool for use within biomedical and scientific communities.

  18. Percolation and permeability of heterogeneous fracture networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Pierre; Mourzenko, Valeri; Thovert, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    Natural fracture fields are almost necessarily heterogeneous with a fracture density varying with space. Two classes of variations are quite frequent. In the first one, the fracture density is decreasing from a given surface; the fracture density is usually (but not always see [1]) an exponential function of depth as it has been shown by many measurements. Another important example of such an exponential decrease consists of the Excavated Damaged Zone (EDZ) which is created by the excavation process of a gallery [2,3]. In the second one, the fracture density undergoes some local random variations around an average value. This presentation is mostly focused on the first class and numerical samples are generated with an exponentially decreasing density from a given plane surface. Their percolation status and hydraulic transmissivity can be calculated by the numerical codes which are detailed in [4]. Percolation is determined by a pseudo diffusion algorithm. Flow determination necessitates the meshing of the fracture networks and the discretisation of the Darcy equation by a finite volume technique; the resulting linear system is solved by a conjugate gradient algorithm. Only the flow properties of the EDZ along the directions which are parallel to the wall are of interest when a pressure gradient parallel to the wall is applied. The transmissivity T which relates the total flow rate per unit width Q along the wall through the whole fractured medium to the pressure gradient grad p, is defined by Q = - T grad p/mu where mu is the fluid viscosity. The percolation status and hydraulic transmissivity are systematically determined for a wide range of decay lengths and anisotropy parameters. They can be modeled by comparison with anisotropic fracture networks with a constant density. A heuristic power-law model is proposed which accurately describes the results for the percolation threshold over the whole investigated range of heterogeneity and anisotropy. Then, the data

  19. Heterogeneous metasurface for high temperature selective emission

    SciTech Connect

    Woolf, D., E-mail: dwoolf@psicorp.com; Hensley, J.; Cederberg, J. G.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate selective emission from a heterogeneous metasurface that can survive repeated temperature cycling at 1300 K. Simulations, fabrication, and characterization were performed for a cross-over-a-backplane metasurface consisting of platinum and alumina layers on a sapphire substrate. The structure was stabilized for high temperature operation by an encapsulating alumina layer. The geometry was optimized for integration into a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system, and was designed to have its emissivity matched to the external quantum efficiency spectrum of 0.6 eV InGaAs TPV material. We present spectral measurements of the metasurface that result in a predicted 22% optical-to-electrical power conversion efficiency in a simplified modelmore » at 1300 K. Furthermore, this broadly adaptable selective emitter design can be easily integrated into full-scale TPV systems.« less

  20. Heterogeneous Interactions of Acetaldehyde and Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L. T.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] by aqueous sulfuric acid has been studied via Knudsen cell experiments over ranges of temperature (210-250 K) and acid concentration (40-80 wt. %) representative of the upper troposphere. The Henry's law constants for acetaldehyde calculated from these data range from 6 x 10(exp 2) M/atm for 40 wt. % H2SO4 at 228 K to 2 x 10(exp 5) M/atm for 80 wt. % H2SO4 at 212 K. In some instances, acetaldehyde uptake exhibits apparent steady-state loss. The possible sources of this behavior, including polymerization, will be explored. Furthermore, the implications for heterogeneous reactions of aldehydes in sulfate aerosols in the upper troposphere will be discussed.

  1. The impacts of pore-scale physical and chemical heterogeneities on the transport of radionuclide-carrying colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ning

    Independent of the methods of nuclear waste disposal, the degradation of packaging materials could lead to mobilization and transport of radionuclides into the geosphere. This process can be significantly accelerated due to the association of radionuclides with the backfill materials or mobile colloids in groundwater. The transport of these colloids is complicated by the inherent coupling of physical and chemical heterogeneities (e.g., pore space geometry, grain size, charge heterogeneity, and surface hydrophobicity) in natural porous media that can exist on the length scale of a few grains. In addition, natural colloids themselves are often heterogeneous in their surface properties (e.g.,more » clay platelets possess opposite charges on the surface and along the rim). Both physical and chemical heterogeneities influence the transport and retention of radionuclides under various groundwater conditions. However, the precise mechanisms how these coupled heterogeneities influence colloidal transport are largely elusive. This knowledge gap is a major source of uncertainty in developing accurate models to represent the transport process and to predict distribution of radionuclides in the geosphere.« less

  2. Evolving geometrical heterogeneities of fault trace data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsler, Neta; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Christofferson, Shari

    2010-08-01

    We perform a systematic comparative analysis of geometrical fault zone heterogeneities using derived measures from digitized fault maps that are not very sensitive to mapping resolution. We employ the digital GIS map of California faults (version 2.0) and analyse the surface traces of active strike-slip fault zones with evidence of Quaternary and historic movements. Each fault zone is broken into segments that are defined as a continuous length of fault bounded by changes of angle larger than 1°. Measurements of the orientations and lengths of fault zone segments are used to calculate the mean direction and misalignment of each fault zone from the local plate motion direction, and to define several quantities that represent the fault zone disorder. These include circular standard deviation and circular standard error of segments, orientation of long and short segments with respect to the mean direction, and normal separation distances of fault segments. We examine the correlations between various calculated parameters of fault zone disorder and the following three potential controlling variables: cumulative slip, slip rate and fault zone misalignment from the plate motion direction. The analysis indicates that the circular standard deviation and circular standard error of segments decrease overall with increasing cumulative slip and increasing slip rate of the fault zones. The results imply that the circular standard deviation and error, quantifying the range or dispersion in the data, provide effective measures of the fault zone disorder, and that the cumulative slip and slip rate (or more generally slip rate normalized by healing rate) represent the fault zone maturity. The fault zone misalignment from plate motion direction does not seem to play a major role in controlling the fault trace heterogeneities. The frequency-size statistics of fault segment lengths can be fitted well by an exponential function over the entire range of observations.

  3. Accelerating Subsurface Transport Simulation on Heterogeneous Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Oreste; Gawande, Nitin A.; Tumeo, Antonino

    Reactive transport numerical models simulate chemical and microbiological reactions that occur along a flowpath. These models have to compute reactions for a large number of locations. They solve the set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describes the reaction for each location through the Newton-Raphson technique. This technique involves computing a Jacobian matrix and a residual vector for each set of equation, and then solving iteratively the linearized system by performing Gaussian Elimination and LU decomposition until convergence. STOMP, a well known subsurface flow simulation tool, employs matrices with sizes in the order of 100x100 elements and, for numerical accuracy,more » LU factorization with full pivoting instead of the faster partial pivoting. Modern high performance computing systems are heterogeneous machines whose nodes integrate both CPUs and GPUs, exposing unprecedented amounts of parallelism. To exploit all their computational power, applications must use both the types of processing elements. For the case of subsurface flow simulation, this mainly requires implementing efficient batched LU-based solvers and identifying efficient solutions for enabling load balancing among the different processors of the system. In this paper we discuss two approaches that allows scaling STOMP's performance on heterogeneous clusters. We initially identify the challenges in implementing batched LU-based solvers for small matrices on GPUs, and propose an implementation that fulfills STOMP's requirements. We compare this implementation to other existing solutions. Then, we combine the batched GPU solver with an OpenMP-based CPU solver, and present an adaptive load balancer that dynamically distributes the linear systems to solve between the two components inside a node. We show how these approaches, integrated into the full application, provide speed ups from 6 to 7 times on large problems, executed on up to 16 nodes of a cluster with two AMD Opteron

  4. Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Oxidation of Atmospheric Trace Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollis, David F.

    1996-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis involves the use of a light-activated catalyst at room temperature in order to carry out a desired reaction. In the presence of molecular oxygen, illumination of the n-type semiconductor oxide titanium dioxide (TiO2) provides for production of highly active forms of oxygen, such as hydroxyl radicals, which are able to carry out the complete oxidative destruction of simple hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, ethylene, propylene, and carbon monoxide. This broad oxidation potential, coupled with the ability with sufficient residence time to achieve complete oxidation of simple hydrocarbon contaminants to carbon dioxide and water, indicated that heterogeneous photocatalysis should be examined for its potential for purification of spacecraft air. If a successful catalyst and photoreactor could be demonstrated at the laboratory level, such results would allow consideration of photocatalysts as a partial or complete replacement of adsorption systems, thereby allowing for reduction in lift-off weight of a portion of the life support system for the spacecraft, or other related application such as a space station or a conventional commercial aircraft. The present research was undertaken to explore this potential through achievement of the following plan of work: (a) ascertain the intrinsic kinetics of conversion of pollutants of interest in spacecraft, (b) ascertain the expected lifetime of catalysts through examination of most likely routes of catalyst deactivation and regeneration, (c) model and explore experimentally the low pressure drop catalytic monolith, a commercial configuration for automotive exhaust control, and (d) examine the kinetics of multicomponent conversions. In the recent course of this work, we have also discovered how to increase catalyst activity via halide promotion which has allowed us to achieve approximately 100% conversion of an aromatic contaminant (toluene) in a very short residence time of 5-6 milliseconds.

  5. Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Oxidation of Atmospheric Trace Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollis, David F.

    1996-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis involves the use of a light-activated catalyst at room temperature in order to carry out a desired reaction. In the presence of molecular oxygen, illumination of the n-type semiconductor oxide titanium dioxide (TiO2) provides for production of highly active forms of oxygen, such as hydroxyl radicals, which are able to carry out the complete oxidative destruction of simple hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, ethylene, propylene, and carbon monoxide. This broad oxidation potential, coupled with the ability with sufficient residence time to achieve complete oxidation of simple hydrocarbon contaminants to carbon dioxide and water, indicated that heterogeneous photocatalysis should be examined for its potential for purification of spacecraft air. If a successful catalyst and photoreactor could be demonstrated at the laboratory level, such results would allow consideration of photocatalysts as a partial or complete replacement of adsorption systems, thereby allowing for reduction in lift-off weight of a portion of the life support system for the spacecraft, or other related application such as a space station or a conventional commercial aircraft. The present research was undertaken to explore this potential through achievement of the following plan of work: (a) ascertain the intrinsic kinetics of conversion of pollutants of interest in spacecraft, (b) ascertain the expected lifetime of catalysts through examination of most likely routes of catalyst deactivation and regeneration (c) model and explore experimentally the low pressure drop catalytic monolith, a commercial configuration for automotive exhaust control (d) examine the kinetics of multicomponent conversions. In the recent course of this work, we have also discovered how to increase catalyst activity via halide promotion which has allowed us to achieve approximately 100% conversion of an aromatic contaminant (toluene) in a very short residence time of 5-6 milliseconds.

  6. The Heterogeneous Dynamics of Economic Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    What will be the growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the competitiveness of China, United States, and Vietnam in the next 3, 5 or 10 years? Despite this kind of questions has a large societal impact and an extreme value for economic policy making, providing a scientific basis for economic predictability is still a very challenging problem. Recent results of a new branch—Economic Complexity—have set the basis for a framework to approach such a challenge and to provide new perspectives to cast economic prediction into the conceptual scheme of forecasting the evolution of a dynamical system as in the case of weather dynamics. We argue that a recently introduced non-monetary metrics for country competitiveness (fitness) allows for quantifying the hidden growth potential of countries by the means of the comparison of this measure for intangible assets with monetary figures, such as GDP per capita. This comparison defines the fitness-income plane where we observe that country dynamics presents strongly heterogeneous patterns of evolution. The flow in some zones is found to be laminar while in others a chaotic behavior is instead observed. These two regimes correspond to very different predictability features for the evolution of countries: in the former regime, we find strong predictable pattern while the latter scenario exhibits a very low predictability. In such a framework, regressions, the usual tool used in economics, are no more the appropriate strategy to deal with such a heterogeneous scenario and new concepts, borrowed from dynamical systems theory, are mandatory. We therefore propose a data-driven method—the selective predictability scheme—in which we adopt a strategy similar to the methods of analogues, firstly introduced by Lorenz, to assess future evolution of countries. PMID:25671312

  7. Array heterogeneity prevents catastrophic forgetting in infants

    PubMed Central

    Zosh, Jennifer M.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is limited in adults and infants. But unlike adults, infants whose working memory capacity is exceeded often fail in a particularly striking way: they do not represent any of the presented objects, rather than simply remembering as many objects as they can and ignoring anything further (Feigenson & Carey 2003, 2005). Here we explored the nature of this “catastrophic forgetting,” asking whether stimuli themselves modulate the way in which infants’ memory fails. We showed 13-month old infants object arrays that either were within or that exceeded working memory capacity—but, unlike previous experiments, presented objects with contrasting features. Although previous studies have repeatedly documented infants’ failure to represent four identical hidden objects, in Experiments 1 and 2 we found that infants who saw four contrasting objects hidden, and then retrieved just two of the four, successfully continued searching for the missing objects. Perceptual contrast between objects sufficed to drive this success; infants succeeded regardless of whether the different objects were contrastively labeled, and regardless of whether the objects were semantically familiar or completely novel. In Experiment 3 we explored the nature of this surprising success, asking whether array heterogeneity actually expanded infants’ working memory capacity or rather prevented catastrophic forgetting. We found that infants successfully continued searching after seeing four contrasting objects hidden and retrieving two of them, but not after retrieving three of them. This suggests that, like adults, infants were able to remember up to, but not beyond, the limits of their working memory capacity when representing heterogeneous arrays. PMID:25543889

  8. Root Induced Heterogeneity In Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, C.; Gabai, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Furman, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we investigate the role of plant induced heterogeneity on water dynamics in agricultural soils. We conducted three experiments in two sites (one still ongoing) in which a trench was excavated in the root zone of an orchard and the subsurface, to a depth of over 1 m, was instrumented in high resolution with water content, water potential and temperature sensors. High temporal resolution monitoring of soil state was carried for over a year, period that included natural (Mediterranean) climate boundary forcing. In addition, sprinkler, flood, and spray irrigation boundary conditions were forced for short time periods to explore the infiltration process under these conditions. One site was an Avocado orchard planted in red sandy soil while the other, still on-going, is in a grape vineyards irrigated by tap and treated wastewater, planted over alluvial clayey soil. In the vineyard, we are comparing soil irrigated with fresh water to soil irrigated with treated waste water for more than 10 years. Our preliminary results indicate several interesting phenomena. First, the role of plant roots is clearly seen as the major roots act as a conduit for water (and solute), providing a fast bypass of the upper soil. Further, we identified different regions of the subsurface that apparently were of the same texture, but in practice presented very different hydraulic properties. Second, the role of these roots depends on the boundary conditions. That is, the root bypass acts differently when soil is flooded than when flow is strictly unsaturated. As expected, simulation of the experimental results show good fit only if the domain heterogeneity of soil properties was incorporated. Results for the clayey soils were not available at time of abstract submission.

  9. The heterogeneity of systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Aarash D; Chalmers, James D; De Soyza, Anthony; Fardon, Thomas C; Koustas, Spiro O; Scott, Jonathan; Simpson, A John; Brown, Jeremy S; Hurst, John R

    2017-06-01

    Systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis is poorly studied in relation to aetiology and severity. We hypothesized that molecular patterns of inflammation may define particular aetiology and severity groups in bronchiectasis. We assayed blood concentrations of 31 proteins from 90 bronchiectasis patients (derivation cohort) and conducted PCA to examine relationships between these markers, disease aetiology and severity. Key results were validated in two separate cohorts of 97 and 79 patients from other centres. There was significant heterogeneity in protein concentrations across the derivation population. Increasing severity of bronchiectasis (BSI) was associated with increasing fibrinogen (rho = 0.34, p = 0.001 -validated in a second cohort), and higher fibrinogen was associated with worse lung function, Pseudomonas colonisation and impaired health-status. There were generally similar patterns of inflammation in patients with idiopathic and post-infectious disease. However, patients with primary immunodeficiency had exaggerated IL-17 responses, validated in a second cohort (n = 79, immunodeficient 12.82 pg/ml versus idiopathic/post-infectious 4.95 pg/ml, p = 0.001), and thus IL-17 discriminated primary immunodeficiency from other aetiologies (AUC 0.769 (95%CI 0.661-0.877)). Bronchiectasis is associated with heterogeneity of systemic inflammatory proteins not adequately explained by differences in disease aetiology or severity. More severe disease is associated with enhanced acute-phase responses. Plasma fibrinogen was associated with bronchiectasis severity in two cohorts, Pseudomonas colonisation and health status, and offers potential as a useful biomarker. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Homogeneous and heterogenized iridium water oxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchioni, Alceo

    2014-10-01

    The development of an efficient catalyst for the oxidative splitting of water into molecular oxygen, protons and electrons is of key importance for producing solar fuels through artificial photosynthesis. We are facing the problem by means of a rational approach aimed at understanding how catalytic performance may be optimized by the knowledge of the reaction mechanism of water oxidation and the fate of the catalytic site under the inevitably harsh oxidative conditions. For the purposes of our study we selected iridium water oxidation catalysts, exhibiting remarkable performance (TOF > 5 s-1 and TON > 20000). In particular, we recently focused our attention on [Cp*Ir(N,O)X] (N,O = 2-pyridincarboxylate; X = Cl or NO3) and [IrCl(Hedta)]Na water oxidation catalysts. The former exhibited a remarkable TOF whereas the latter showed a very high TON. Furthermore, [IrCl(Hedta)]Na was heterogenized onto TiO2 taking advantage of the presence of a dandling -COOH functionality. The heterogenized catalyst maintained approximately the same catalytic activity of the homogeneous analogous with the advantage that could be reused many times. Mechanistic studies were performed in order to shed some light on the rate-determining step and the transformation of catalysts when exposed to "oxidative stress". It was found that the last oxidative step, preceding oxygen liberation, is the rate-determining step when a small excess of sacrificial oxidant is used. In addition, several intermediates of the oxidative transformation of the catalyst were intercepted and characterized by NMR, X-Ray diffractometry and ESI-MS.

  11. Heterogeneous Superconducting Low-Noise Sensing Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Penanen, Konstantin I.; Ho Eom, Byeong

    2008-01-01

    A heterogeneous material construction has been devised for sensing coils of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers that are subject to a combination of requirements peculiar to some advanced applications, notably including low-field magnetic resonance imaging for medical diagnosis. The requirements in question are the following: The sensing coils must be large enough (in some cases having dimensions of as much as tens of centimeters) to afford adequate sensitivity; The sensing coils must be made electrically superconductive to eliminate Johnson noise (thermally induced noise proportional to electrical resistance); and Although the sensing coils must be cooled to below their superconducting- transition temperatures with sufficient cooling power to overcome moderate ambient radiative heat leakage, they must not be immersed in cryogenic liquid baths. For a given superconducting sensing coil, this combination of requirements can be satisfied by providing a sufficiently thermally conductive link between the coil and a cold source. However, the superconducting coil material is not suitable as such a link because electrically superconductive materials are typically poor thermal conductors. The heterogeneous material construction makes it possible to solve both the electrical- and thermal-conductivity problems. The basic idea is to construct the coil as a skeleton made of a highly thermally conductive material (typically, annealed copper), then coat the skeleton with an electrically superconductive alloy (typically, a lead-tin solder) [see figure]. In operation, the copper skeleton provides the required thermally conductive connection to the cold source, while the electrically superconductive coating material shields against Johnson noise that originates in the copper skeleton.

  12. Genetic heterogeneity of familial hemiplegic migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Joutel, A.; Ducros, A.; Vahedi, K.

    1994-09-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is an autosomal dominant subtype of migraine with aura, characterized by the occurrence of a transient hemiplegia during the aura. We previously mapped the affected gene to the short arm of chromosome 19, within a 30 cM interval bracketed by D19S216 and D19S215. Linkage analysis conducted on 2 large FHM pedigrees did not show evidence of heterogeneity, despite their clinical differences due to the presence in one family of a cerebellar ataxia and a nystagmus. Herein we report linkage data on 9 additional FHM families including 2 other ones with cerebellar ataxia. Analysis was conducted withmore » a set of 7 markers spanning the D19S216-D19S215 interval. Two point and multipoint lodscores analysis as well as HOMOG testing provided significant evidence for genetic heterogenity. Strong evidence of linkage was obtained in 3 families and absence of linkage in 6 families. Thus within the 11 families so far tested, 5 were linked, including those with an associated cerebellar ataxia. We could not find any clinical difference between the {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} FHM families whether or not they were linked. This study also allowed us to establish that the most likely location of the gene is a 12 cM interval bracketed by D19S413 and D19S226. One of the unlinked family was large enough to conduct genetic mapping of the affected gene. Data will be presented at the meeting.« less

  13. Testing spatial heterogeneity with stock assessment models

    PubMed Central

    Eero, Margit; Silva, Alexandra; Ulrich, Clara; Pawlowski, Lionel; Holmes, Steven J.; Ibaibarriaga, Leire; De Oliveira, José A. A.; Riveiro, Isabel; Alzorriz, Nekane; Citores, Leire; Scott, Finlay; Uriarte, Andres; Carrera, Pablo; Duhamel, Erwan; Mosqueira, Iago

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology that combines meta-population theory and stock assessment models to gain insights about spatial heterogeneity of the meta-population in an operational time frame. The methodology was tested with stochastic simulations for different degrees of connectivity between sub-populations and applied to two case studies, North Sea cod (Gadus morua) and Northeast Atlantic sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Considering that the biological components of a population can be partitioned into discrete spatial units, we extended this idea into a property of additivity of sub-population abundances. If the additivity results hold true for putative sub-populations, then assessment results based on sub-populations will provide information to develop and monitor the implementation of finer scale/local management. The simulation study confirmed that when sub-populations are independent and not too heterogeneous with regards to productivity, the sum of stock assessment model estimates of sub-populations’ SSB is similar to the SSB estimates of the meta-population. It also showed that a strong diffusion process can be detected and that the stronger the connection between SSB and recruitment, the better the diffusion process will be detected. On the other hand it showed that weak to moderate diffusion processes are not easy to identify and large differences between sub-populations productivities may be confounded with weak diffusion processes. The application to North Sea cod and Atlantic sardine exemplified how much insight can be gained. In both cases the results obtained were sufficiently robust to support the regional analysis. PMID:29364901

  14. The heterogeneous dynamics of economic complexity.

    PubMed

    Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    What will be the growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the competitiveness of China, United States, and Vietnam in the next 3, 5 or 10 years? Despite this kind of questions has a large societal impact and an extreme value for economic policy making, providing a scientific basis for economic predictability is still a very challenging problem. Recent results of a new branch--Economic Complexity--have set the basis for a framework to approach such a challenge and to provide new perspectives to cast economic prediction into the conceptual scheme of forecasting the evolution of a dynamical system as in the case of weather dynamics. We argue that a recently introduced non-monetary metrics for country competitiveness (fitness) allows for quantifying the hidden growth potential of countries by the means of the comparison of this measure for intangible assets with monetary figures, such as GDP per capita. This comparison defines the fitness-income plane where we observe that country dynamics presents strongly heterogeneous patterns of evolution. The flow in some zones is found to be laminar while in others a chaotic behavior is instead observed. These two regimes correspond to very different predictability features for the evolution of countries: in the former regime, we find strong predictable pattern while the latter scenario exhibits a very low predictability. In such a framework, regressions, the usual tool used in economics, are no more the appropriate strategy to deal with such a heterogeneous scenario and new concepts, borrowed from dynamical systems theory, are mandatory. We therefore propose a data-driven method--the selective predictability scheme--in which we adopt a strategy similar to the methods of analogues, firstly introduced by Lorenz, to assess future evolution of countries.

  15. Heterogeneous recombination among Hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, Nadine; Araujo, Natalia M; Arenas, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rapid evolution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) through both evolutionary forces, mutation and recombination, allows this virus to generate a large variety of adapted variants at both intra and inter-host levels. It can, for instance, generate drug resistance or the diverse viral genotypes that currently exist in the HBV epidemics. Concerning the latter, it is known that recombination played a major role in the emergence and genetic diversification of novel genotypes. In this regard, the quantification of viral recombination in each genotype can provide relevant information to devise expectations about the evolutionary trends of the epidemic. Here we measured the amount of this evolutionary force by estimating global and local recombination rates in >4700 HBV complete genome sequences corresponding to nine (A to I) HBV genotypes. Counterintuitively, we found that genotype E presents extremely high levels of recombination, followed by genotypes B and C. On the other hand, genotype G presents the lowest level, where recombination is almost negligible. We discuss these findings in the light of known characteristics of these genotypes. Additionally, we present a phylogenetic network to depict the evolutionary history of the studied HBV genotypes. This network clearly classified all genotypes into specific groups and indicated that diverse pairs of genotypes are derived from a common ancestor (i.e., C-I, D-E and, F-H) although still the origin of this virus presented large uncertainty. Altogether we conclude that the amount of observed recombination is heterogeneous among HBV genotypes and that this heterogeneity can influence on the future expansion of the epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Evaluation of three-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype heterogeneity in non-small cell carcinoma and its significance].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Liu, Jinkang; Chen, Shengxi; Xiong, Zeng; Zhou, Jianhua; Tong, Shiyu; Chen, Hao; Zhou, Moling

    2012-06-01

    To explore the degree, mechanism and clinical significance of three-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype heterogeneity (3D-TMAPH) in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC). Twenty-one samples of solitary pulmonary nodules were collected integrally. To establish two-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype (2D-TMAP) and three-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype (3D-TMAP), five layers of each nodule were selected and embedded in paraffin. Test indices included the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), EphB4, ephfinB2 and microvascular density marked by anti-CD34 (CD34-MVD). The degrees of 3D-TMAPH were evaluated by the coefficient of variation and extend of heterogeneity. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between 2D-TMAP, 3D-TMAP and clinicopathological features. 3D-TMAPH showed that 2D-TMAP heterogeneity was expressed in the tissues of NSCLC. The heterogeneities in the malignant nodules were significantly higher than those in the active inflammatory nodules and tubercular nodules. In addition, different degrees of heterogeneity of CD34-MVD and PCNA were found in NSCLC tissues. The coefficients of variation of CD34- MVD and PCNA were positively related to the degree of differentiation (all P<0.05), but not related to the P-TNM stages, histological type or lymphatic metastasis (all P>0.05). The level of heterogeneity of various expression indexes (ephrinB2, EphB4, VEGF) in NSCLC tissues were inconsistent, but there were no significant differences in heterogeneity in NSCLC tissues with different histological types (P>0.05). 3D-TMAPH exists widely in the microenvironment during the genesis and development of NSCLC and has a significant impact on its biological complexity.

  17. Intratumor Heterogeneity in Evolutionary Models of Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Durrett, Rick; Foo, Jasmine; Leder, Kevin; Mayberry, John; Michor, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    With rare exceptions, human tumors arise from single cells that have accumulated the necessary number and types of heritable alterations. Each such cell leads to dysregulated growth and eventually the formation of a tumor. Despite their monoclonal origin, at the time of diagnosis most tumors show a striking amount of intratumor heterogeneity in all measurable phenotypes; such heterogeneity has implications for diagnosis, treatment efficacy, and the identification of drug targets. An understanding of the extent and evolution of intratumor heterogeneity is therefore of direct clinical importance. In this article, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of heterogeneity arising during exponential expansion of a tumor cell population, in which heritable alterations confer random fitness changes to cells. We obtain analytical estimates for the extent of heterogeneity and quantify the effects of system parameters on this tumor trait. Our work contributes to a mathematical understanding of intratumor heterogeneity and is also applicable to organisms like bacteria, agricultural pests, and other microbes. PMID:21406679

  18. Bifurcation analysis of a heterogeneous traffic flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Qing; Yan, Bo-Wen; Zhou, Chao-Fan; Li, Wei-Kang; Jia, Bin

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a heterogeneous traffic flow model coupled with the periodic boundary condition is proposed. Based on the previous models, a heterogeneous system composed of more than one kind of vehicles is considered. By bifurcation analysis, bifurcation patterns of the heterogeneous system are discussed in three situations in detail and illustrated by diagrams of bifurcation patterns. Besides, the stability analysis of the heterogeneous system is performed to test its anti-interference ability. The relationship between the number of vehicles and the stability is obtained. Furthermore, the attractor analysis is applied to investigate the nature of the heterogeneous system near its steady-state neighborhood. Phase diagrams of the process of the heterogeneous system from initial state to equilibrium state are intuitively presented.

  19. Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  1. Magnesite Dissolution Rates Across Scales: Role of Spatial Heterogeneity, Equilibrium Lengths, and Reactive Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.; Li, L.

    2017-12-01

    This work develops a general rate law for magnesite dissolution in heterogeneous media under variable flow and length conditions, expanding the previous work under one particular flow and length conditions (Wen and Li, 2017). We aim to answer: 1) How does spatial heterogeneity influence the time and length scales to reach equilibrium? 2) How do relative timescales of advection, diffusion/dispersion, and reactions influence dissolution rates under variable flow and length conditions? We carried out 640 Monte-Carlo numerical experiments of magnesite dissolution within quartz matrix with heterogeneity characterized by permeability variance and correlation length under a range of length and flow velocity. A rate law Rhete = kAT(1-exp(τeq,m/τa))(1-exp(- Lβ))^α was developed. The former part is rates in equivalent homogeneous media kAT(1-exp(τeq,m/τa)), depending on rate constant k, magnesite surface area AT, and relative timescales of reactions τeq,m and advection τa. The latter term (1-exp(- Lβ))^α is the heterogeneity factor χ that quantifies the deviation of heterogeneous media from its homogeneous counterpart. The term has a scaling factor, called reactive transport number β=τa/(τad,r+τeq,m), for domain length L, and the geostatistical characteristics of heterogeneity α. The β quantifies the relative timescales of advection at the domain scale τa versus the advective-diffusive-dispersive transport time out of reactive zones τad,r and reaction time τeq,m. The χ is close to 1 and is insignificant under long residence time conditions (low flow velocity and / or long length) where the residence time is longer than the time needed for Mg to dissolve and transport out of reactive zones (τad,r+τeq,m) so that equilibrium is reached and homogenization occurs. In contrast, χ deviates from 1 and is significant only when β is small, which occurs at short length or fast flow where timescales of reactive transport in reactive zones are much longer than

  2. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  3. Simple heterogeneity parametrization for sea surface temperature and chlorophyll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skákala, Jozef; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-06-01

    Using satellite maps this paper offers a complex analysis of chlorophyll & SST heterogeneity in the shelf seas around the southwest of the UK. The heterogeneity scaling follows a simple power law and is consequently parametrized by two parameters. It is shown that in most cases these two parameters vary only relatively little with time. The paper offers a detailed comparison of field heterogeneity between different regions. How much heterogeneity is in each region preserved in the annual median data is also determined. The paper explicitly demonstrates how one can use these results to calculate representative measurement area for in situ networks.

  4. Tumour Heterogeneity: The Key Advantages of Single-Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Ory, Benjamin; Lamoureux, Francois; Heymann, Marie-Francoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tumour heterogeneity refers to the fact that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation and metastatic potential. This phenomenon occurs both between tumours (inter-tumour heterogeneity) and within tumours (intra-tumour heterogeneity), and it is caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. The heterogeneity of cancer cells introduces significant challenges in using molecular prognostic markers as well as for classifying patients that might benefit from specific therapies. Thus, research efforts for characterizing heterogeneity would be useful for a better understanding of the causes and progression of disease. It has been suggested that the study of heterogeneity within Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) could also reflect the full spectrum of mutations of the disease more accurately than a single biopsy of a primary or metastatic tumour. In previous years, many high throughput methodologies have raised for the study of heterogeneity at different levels (i.e., RNA, DNA, protein and epigenetic events). The aim of the current review is to stress clinical implications of tumour heterogeneity, as well as current available methodologies for their study, paying specific attention to those able to assess heterogeneity at the single cell level. PMID:27999407

  5. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A structural steel beam to support the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center is lifted to waiting employees for installation. The beam is part of the thrust takeout structure needed to support the new measurement system. Four such beams have been installed at the stand in preparation for installation of the system in upcoming weeks. Operators are preparing the stand for testing the next generation of rocket engines for the U.S. space program.

  6. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  7. Heterogeneous iris image hallucination using sparse representation on a learned heterogeneous patch dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yung-Hui; Zheng, Bo-Ren; Ji, Dai-Yan; Tien, Chung-Hao; Liu, Po-Tsun

    2014-09-01

    Cross sensor iris matching may seriously degrade the recognition performance because of the sensor mis-match problem of iris images between the enrollment and test stage. In this paper, we propose two novel patch-based heterogeneous dictionary learning method to attack this problem. The first method applies the latest sparse representation theory while the second method tries to learn the correspondence relationship through PCA in heterogeneous patch space. Both methods learn the basic atoms in iris textures across different image sensors and build connections between them. After such connections are built, at test stage, it is possible to hallucinate (synthesize) iris images across different sensors. By matching training images with hallucinated images, the recognition rate can be successfully enhanced. The experimental results showed the satisfied results both visually and in terms of recognition rate. Experimenting with an iris database consisting of 3015 images, we show that the EER is decreased 39.4% relatively by the proposed method.

  8. Biodiesel forming reactions using heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yijun

    Biodiesel synthesis from biomass provides a means for utilizing effectively renewable resources, a way to convert waste vegetable oils and animal fats to a useful product, a way to recycle carbon dioxide for a combustion fuel, and production of a fuel that is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has a lower emission profile than petroleum-diesel. Free fatty acid (FFA) esterification and triglyceride (TG) transesterification with low molecular weight alcohols constitute the synthetic routes to prepare biodiesel from lipid feedstocks. This project was aimed at developing a better understanding of important fundamental issues involved in heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel forming reactions using mainly model compounds, representing part of on-going efforts to build up a rational base for assay, design, and performance optimization of solid acids/bases in biodiesel synthesis. As FFA esterification proceeds, water is continuously formed as a byproduct and affects reaction rates in a negative manner. Using sulfuric acid (as a catalyst) and acetic acid (as a model compound for FFA), the impact of increasing concentrations of water on acid catalysis was investigated. The order of the water effect on reaction rate was determined to be -0.83. Sulfuric acid lost up to 90% activity as the amount of water present increased. The nature of the negative effect of water on esterification was found to go beyond the scope of reverse hydrolysis and was associated with the diminished acid strength of sulfuric acid as a result of the preferential solvation by water molecules of its catalytic protons. The results indicate that as esterification progresses and byproduct water is produced, deactivation of a Bronsted acid catalyst like H2SO4 occurs. Using a solid composite acid (SAC-13) as an example of heterogeneous catalysts and sulfuric acid as a homogeneous reference, similar reaction inhibition by water was demonstrated for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. This similarity together with

  9. Nuclear rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G.F.; Janssens, R.V.

    1997-07-01

    An analysis of the gamma-ray spectra produced using the quantum mechanical rotational energy formula is presented for nuclei with large angular momentum. This analysis is suitable for quantum mechanics, modern physics, or nuclear physics courses. (AIP) {copyright}{ital 1997 American Institute of Physics}

  10. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Starr, C.

    1963-01-01

    This patent relates to a combination useful in a nuclear reactor and is comprised of a casing, a mass of graphite irapregnated with U compounds in the casing, and at least one coolant tube extending through the casing. The coolant tube is spaced from the mass, and He is irtroduced irto the space between the mass and the coolant tube. (AEC)

  13. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  14. Quantitative characterization and modeling of lithologic heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Anil

    The fundamental goal of this thesis is to gain a better understanding of the vertical and lateral stratigraphic heterogeneities in sedimentary deposits. Two approaches are taken: Statistical characterization of lithologic variation recorded by geophysical data such as reflection seismic and wireline logs, and stochastic forward modeling of sediment accumulation in basins. Analysis of reflection seismic and wireline log data from Pleistocene fluvial and deltaic deposits in the Eugene Island 330 field, offshore Gulf of Mexico reveal scale-invariant statistics and strong anisotropy in rock properties. Systematic quantification of lateral lithologic heterogeneity within a stratigraphic framework, using reflection seismic data, indicates that fluvial and deltaic depositional systems exhibit statistical behavior related to stratigraphic fabric. Well log and seismic data profiles show a decay in power spectra with wavenumber, k, according to ksp{-beta} with beta between 1 and 2.3. The question of how surface processes are recorded in bed thickness distributions as a function of basin accommodation space is addressed with stochastic sedimentation model. In zones of high accommodation, random, uncorrelated, driving events produce a range of spatially correlated lithology fields. In zones of low accommodation, bed thickness distributions deviate from the random forcing imposed (an exponential thickness distribution). Model results are similar to that of a shallowing upward parasequence recorded in 15 meters of offshore Gulf of Mexico Pleistocene core. These data record a deviation from exponentially distributed bed thicknesses from the deeper water part of the cycle to the shallow part of the cycle where bed amalgamation dominates. Finally, a stochastic basin-fill model is used to explore the primary controls on stratigraphic architecture of turbidite channel-fill in the South Timbalier 295 field, offshore Louisiana Gulf Coast. Spatial and temporal changes in topography and

  15. The survival of geochemical mantle heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.

    2004-12-01

    The last decade witnessed major changes in our perception of the geochemical dynamics of the mantle. Data bases such as PETDB and GEOROC now provide highly constrained estimates of the geochemical properties of dominant rock types and of their statistics, while the new generation of ICP mass spectrometers triggered a quantum leap in the production of high-precision isotopic and elemental data. Such new advances offer a fresh view of mantle heterogeneities and their survival through convective mixing. A vivid example is provided by the new high-density coverage of the Mid-Atlantic ridge by nearly 500 Pb, Nd, and Hf isotopic data. This new data set demonstrates a rich harmonic structure which illustrates the continuing stretching and refolding of subducted plates by mantle convection. Just as for oceanic chemical variability, the survival of mantle geochemical heterogeneities though mantle circulation can be seen as a competition between stirring and renewal. The modern residence (renewal) times of the incompatible lithophile elements in the mantle calculated using data bases vary within a rather narrow range (4-9 Gy). The mantle is therefore not currently at geochemical steady-state and the effect of its primordial layering on modern mantle geochemistry is still strong. Up to 50 percent of incompatible lithophile elements may never have been extracted into the oceanic crust, which generalizes a conclusion reached previously for 40Ar. A balance between the buoyancy flux and viscous dissipation provides frame-independent estimates of the rates of mixing by mantle convection: primordial geochemical anomalies with initial length scales comparable to mantle depths of plate lengths are only marginally visible at the scale of mantle melting underneath mid-ocean ridges (≈~50~km). They may show up, however, in hot spot basalts and even more in melt inclusions. Up to 50 percent primordial material may be present in the mantle, but scattered throughout as small (<~10~km

  16. Ophiolite Perspectives on Oceanic Mantle Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; O'Driscoll, B.; Day, J. M.; Ash, R. D.; Daly, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The mantle sections of ophiolites offer a useful approach to studying compositional heterogeneities in the oceanic mantle. A potential caveat is that the tectonic provenance of ophiolites is often not easy to decipher, although many have undergone at least supra-subduction zone (SSZ) processing. Significant outstanding questions include the degree to which ophiolite peridotites preserve evidence of pre-SSZ events and the way that SSZ melt extraction modifies the character of these peridotites. A suite of Caledonian ophiolites associated with the closure of the Iapetus Ocean offers an opportunity to shed light on these issues, in particular to assess the degree to which long (regional) wavelength compositional heterogeneities survive SSZ melting. Observations on the combined highly-siderophile element (HSE) and 187Os/188Os systematics of the broadly coetaneous (490-500 Ma) Shetland Ophiolite Complex (Scotland) and Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC; Norway) are presented here. Generally, the lithological composition of each locality is harzburgitic, and hosts lenses and layers of dunite, chromitite and pyroxenite that are interpreted as representing SSZ-related (channelised) melt migration and melt-rock interaction. Although the bulk of the harzburgitic rocks have approximately chondritic initial 187Os/188Os and HSE abundances, ancient (Proterozoic) melt depletion (TRD =1.4 to 1 Ga) is recorded in ~10% of samples from each locality. This is also commonly observed in abyssal peridotites. One important implication of the data is that SSZ melt generation/migration has had no discernible impact on the bulk Os isotopic composition of the Iapetus oceanic mantle. By contrast, non-harzburgitic lithologies consistently exhibit more radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os and more variable HSE abundances. The dunites, chromitites and pyroxenites of the LOC can be separated into two groups on the basis of isochrons that they define; yielding ages of 481±22 Ma and 589±15 Ma, respectively

  17. Integrating mean and variance heterogeneities to identify differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Weiwei; An, Qiang; Zhao, Jinying; Qin, Huaizhen

    2016-12-06

    In functional genomics studies, tests on mean heterogeneity have been widely employed to identify differentially expressed genes with distinct mean expression levels under different experimental conditions. Variance heterogeneity (aka, the difference between condition-specific variances) of gene expression levels is simply neglected or calibrated for as an impediment. The mean heterogeneity in the expression level of a gene reflects one aspect of its distribution alteration; and variance heterogeneity induced by condition change may reflect another aspect. Change in condition may alter both mean and some higher-order characteristics of the distributions of expression levels of susceptible genes. In this report, we put forth a conception of mean-variance differentially expressed (MVDE) genes, whose expression means and variances are sensitive to the change in experimental condition. We mathematically proved the null independence of existent mean heterogeneity tests and variance heterogeneity tests. Based on the independence, we proposed an integrative mean-variance test (IMVT) to combine gene-wise mean heterogeneity and variance heterogeneity induced by condition change. The IMVT outperformed its competitors under comprehensive simulations of normality and Laplace settings. For moderate samples, the IMVT well controlled type I error rates, and so did existent mean heterogeneity test (i.e., the Welch t test (WT), the moderated Welch t test (MWT)) and the procedure of separate tests on mean and variance heterogeneities (SMVT), but the likelihood ratio test (LRT) severely inflated type I error rates. In presence of variance heterogeneity, the IMVT appeared noticeably more powerful than all the valid mean heterogeneity tests. Application to the gene profiles of peripheral circulating B raised solid evidence of informative variance heterogeneity. After adjusting for background data structure, the IMVT replicated previous discoveries and identified novel experiment

  18. Acknowledging patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation : a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Grutters, Janneke P C; Sculpher, Mark; Briggs, Andrew H; Severens, Johan L; Candel, Math J; Stahl, James E; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Boer, Albert; Ramaekers, Bram L T; Joore, Manuela A

    2013-02-01

    Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic evaluations pay only limited attention to patient heterogeneity. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluation of healthcare programmes. A systematic literature review was performed to identify methodological papers on the topic of patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation. Data were obtained using a keyword search of the PubMed database and manual searches. Handbooks were also included. Relevant data were extracted regarding potential sources of patient heterogeneity, in which of the input parameters of an economic evaluation these occur, methods to acknowledge patient heterogeneity and specific concerns associated with this acknowledgement. A total of 20 articles and five handbooks were included. The relevant sources of patient heterogeneity (demographics, preferences and clinical characteristics) and the input parameters where they occurred (baseline risk, treatment effect, health state utility and resource utilization) were combined in a framework. Methods were derived for the design, analysis and presentation phases of an economic evaluation. Concerns related mainly to the danger of false-positive results and equity issues. By systematically reviewing current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluations of healthcare programmes, we provide guidance for future economic evaluations. Guidance is provided on which sources of patient heterogeneity to consider, how to acknowledge them in economic evaluation and potential concerns. The improved acknowledgement of patient heterogeneity in future economic evaluations may well improve the

  19. Green's Function and Stress Fields in Stochastic Heterogeneous Continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, Vineet

    Many engineering materials used today are heterogenous in composition e.g. Composites - Polymer Matrix Composites, Metal Matrix Composites. Even, conventional engineering materials - metals, plastics, alloys etc. - may develop heterogeneities, like inclusions and residual stresses, during the manufacturing process. Moreover, these materials may also have intrinsic heterogeneities at a nanoscale in the form of grain boundaries in metals, crystallinity in amorphous polymers etc. While, the homogenized constitutive models for these materials may be satisfactory at a macroscale, recent studies of phenomena like fatigue failure, void nucleation, size-dependent brittle-ductile transition in polymeric nanofibers reveal a major play of micro/nanoscale physics in these phenomena. At this scale, heterogeneities in a material may no longer be ignored. Thus, this demands a study into the effects of various material heterogeneities. In this work, spatial heterogeneities in two material properties - elastic modulus and yield stress - have been investigated separately. The heterogeneity in the elastic modulus is studied in the context of Green's function. The Stochastic Finite Element method is adopted to get the mean statistics of the Green's function defined on a stochastic heterogeneous 2D infinite space. A study of the elastic-plastic transition in a domain having stochastic heterogenous yield stress was done using Mont-Carlo methods. The statistics for various stress and strain fields during the transition were obtained. Further, the effects of size of the domain and the strain-hardening rate on the stress fields during the heterogeneous elastic-plastic transition were investigated. Finally, a case is made for the role of the heterogenous elastic-plastic transition in damage nucleation and growth.

  20. Experimental protocol for manipulating plant-induced soil heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Angela J; del Pino, Gaston A; Burns, Jean H

    2014-03-13

    Coexistence theory has often treated environmental heterogeneity as being independent of the community composition; however biotic feedbacks such as plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) have large effects on plant performance, and create environmental heterogeneity that depends on the community composition. Understanding the importance of PSF for plant community assembly necessitates understanding of the role of heterogeneity in PSF, in addition to mean PSF effects. Here, we describe a protocol for manipulating plant-induced soil heterogeneity. Two example experiments are presented: (1) a field experiment with a 6-patch grid of soils to measure plant population responses and (2) a greenhouse experiment with 2-patch soils to measure individual plant responses. Soils can be collected from the zone of root influence (soils from the rhizosphere and directly adjacent to the rhizosphere) of plants in the field from conspecific and heterospecific plant species. Replicate collections are used to avoid pseudoreplicating soil samples. These soils are then placed into separate patches for heterogeneous treatments or mixed for a homogenized treatment. Care should be taken to ensure that heterogeneous and homogenized treatments experience the same degree of soil disturbance. Plants can then be placed in these soil treatments to determine the effect of plant-induced soil heterogeneity on plant performance. We demonstrate that plant-induced heterogeneity results in different outcomes than predicted by traditional coexistence models, perhaps because of the dynamic nature of these feedbacks. Theory that incorporates environmental heterogeneity influenced by the assembling community and additional empirical work is needed to determine when heterogeneity intrinsic to the assembling community will result in different assembly outcomes compared with heterogeneity extrinsic to the community composition.

  1. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation of hnRNP A1 Protein Controls Translational Repression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yingbiao; Tulin, Alexei V

    2016-10-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) regulates the posttranscriptional fate of RNA during development. Drosophila hnRNP A1, Hrp38, is required for germ line stem cell maintenance and oocyte localization. The mRNA targets regulated by Hrp38 are mostly unknown. We identified 428 Hrp38-associated gene transcripts in the fly ovary, including mRNA of the translational repressor Nanos. We found that Hrp38 binds to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Nanos mRNA, which contains a translation control element. We have demonstrated that translation of the luciferase reporter bearing the Nanos 3' UTR is enhanced by dsRNA-mediated Hrp38 knockdown as well as by mutating potential Hrp38-binding sites. Our data show that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation inhibits Hrp38 binding to the Nanos 3' UTR, increasing the translation in vivo and in vitro hrp38 and Parg null mutants showed an increased ectopic Nanos translation early in the embryo. We conclude that Hrp38 represses Nanos translation, whereas its poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation relieves the repression effect, allowing restricted Nanos expression in the posterior germ plasm during oogenesis and early embryogenesis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation of hnRNP A1 Protein Controls Translational Repression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yingbiao

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) regulates the posttranscriptional fate of RNA during development. Drosophila hnRNP A1, Hrp38, is required for germ line stem cell maintenance and oocyte localization. The mRNA targets regulated by Hrp38 are mostly unknown. We identified 428 Hrp38-associated gene transcripts in the fly ovary, including mRNA of the translational repressor Nanos. We found that Hrp38 binds to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Nanos mRNA, which contains a translation control element. We have demonstrated that translation of the luciferase reporter bearing the Nanos 3′ UTR is enhanced by dsRNA-mediated Hrp38 knockdown as well as by mutating potential Hrp38-binding sites. Our data show that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation inhibits Hrp38 binding to the Nanos 3′ UTR, increasing the translation in vivo and in vitro. hrp38 and Parg null mutants showed an increased ectopic Nanos translation early in the embryo. We conclude that Hrp38 represses Nanos translation, whereas its poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation relieves the repression effect, allowing restricted Nanos expression in the posterior germ plasm during oogenesis and early embryogenesis. PMID:27402862

  3. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center work to maneuver a structural steam beam into place on the A-1 Test Stand on Jan. 13. The beam was one of several needed to form the thrust takeout structure that will support a new thrust measurement system being installed on the stand for future rocket engine testing. Once lifted onto the stand, the beams had to be hoisted into place through the center of the test stand, with only two inches of clearance on each side. The new thrust measurement system represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment installed more than 40 years ago when the test stand was first constructed.

  4. Diffusion radiomics analysis of intratumoral heterogeneity in a murine prostate cancer model following radiotherapy: Pixelwise correlation with histology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Gigin; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lin, Yi-Ping; Chen, Fang-Hsin; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the biological meaning of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in tumors following radiotherapy. Five mice bearing TRAMP-C1 tumor were half-irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy. Diffusion-weighted images, using multiple b-values from 0 to 3000 s/mm 2 , were acquired at 7T on day 6. ADC values calculated by a two-point estimate and monoexponential fitting of signal decay were compared between the irradiated and nonirradiated regions of the tumor. Pixelwise ADC maps were correlated with histological metrics including nuclear counts, nuclear sizes, nuclear spaces, cytoplasmic spaces, and extracellular spaces. As compared with the nonirradiated region, the irradiated region exhibited significant increases in ADC, extracellular space, and nuclear size, and a significant decrease in nuclear counts (P < 0.001 for all). Optimal ADC to differentiate the irradiated from nonirradiated regions was achieved at a b-value of 800 s/mm 2 by the two-point method and monoexponential curve fitting. ADC positively correlated with extracellular spaces (r = 0.74) and nuclear sizes (r = 0.72), and negatively correlated with nuclear counts (r = -0.82, P < 0.001 for all). As a radiomic biomarker, ADC maps correlating with histological metrics pixelwise could be a means of evaluating tumor heterogeneity and responses to radiotherapy. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:483-489. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. A method distinguishing expressed vs. null mutations of the Col1A1 gene in osteogenesis imperfecta

    SciTech Connect

    Redford-Badwal, D.A.; Stover, M.L.; McKinstry, M.

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders of bone characterized by increased susceptibility to fracture. Most of the causative mutations were identified in patients with the lethal form of the disease. Attention is now shifting to the milder forms of OI where glycine substitutions and null producing mutations have been found. Single amino acid substitutions can be identified by RT/PCR of total cellular RNA, but this approach does not work well for null mutations since the defective transcript does not accumulate in the cytoplasm. We have altered our RNA extraction method to separate RNA from the nuclearmore » and cytoplasmic compartments of cultured fibroblasts. Standard methods of mutation identification (RT/PCR followed by SSCP) is applied to each RNA fraction. DNA from an abnormal band on the SSCP gel is eluted and amplified by PCR for cloning and sequencing. Using this approach we have identified an Asp to Asn change in exon 50 (type II OI) and a Gly to Arg in exon 11 (type I OI) of the COL1A1 gene. These changes were found in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. These putative mutations are currently being confirmed by protein studies. In contrast, three patients with mild OI associated with reduced {proportional_to}(I)mRNA, had distinguishing SSCP bands present in the nuclear but not the cytoplasmic compartment. In one case a frame shift mutation was observed, while the other two revealed polymorphisms. The compartmentalization of the mutant allele has directed us to look elsewhere in the transcript for the causative mutation. This approach to mutation identification is capable of distinguishing these fundamentally different types of mutations and allows for preferential cloning and sequencing of the abnormal allele.« less

  6. Internal fracture heterogeneity in discrete fracture network modelling: Effect of correlation length and textures with connected and disconnected permeability field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, A.; Hyman, J.; Zou, L.

    2017-12-01

    Analysing flow and transport in sparsely fractured media is important for understanding how crystalline bedrock environments function as barriers to transport of contaminants, with important applications towards subsurface repositories for storage of spent nuclear fuel. Crystalline bedrocks are particularly favourable due to their geological stability, low advective flow and strong hydrogeochemical retention properties, which can delay transport of radionuclides, allowing decay to limit release to the biosphere. There are however many challenges involved in quantifying and modelling subsurface flow and transport in fractured media, largely due to geological complexity and heterogeneity, where the interplay between advective and dispersive flow strongly impacts both inert and reactive transport. A key to modelling transport in a Lagrangian framework involves quantifying pathway travel times and the hydrodynamic control of retention, and both these quantities strongly depend on heterogeneity of the fracture network at different scales. In this contribution, we present recent analysis of flow and transport considering fracture networks with single-fracture heterogeneity described by different multivariate normal distributions. A coherent triad of fields with identical correlation length and variance are created but which greatly differ in structure, corresponding to textures with well-connected low, medium and high permeability structures. Through numerical modelling of multiple scales in a stochastic setting we quantify the relative impact of texture type and correlation length against network topological measures, and identify key thresholds for cases where flow dispersion is controlled by single-fracture heterogeneity versus network-scale heterogeneity. This is achieved by using a recently developed novel numerical discrete fracture network model. Furthermore, we highlight enhanced flow channelling for cases where correlation structure continues across

  7. Clonal evolution models of tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Shlush, Liran I; Hershkovitz, Dov

    2015-01-01

    Somatic/clonal evolution is the process of sequential acquisition of vertically transmittable genetic/epigenetic elements in multicellular organisms. Cancer is the result of somatic evolution. Understanding the processes that shape the evolution of individual tumors might help us to treat cancer more efficiently. The initiating genetic/epigenetic events occur in functional cells and provide the cell of origin a selective advantage under a changing environment. The initiating genetic events tend to be enriched in specific tissues (and are sometimes specific for those tissues), as different tissues undergo different changes in the environment that will activate selective forces on different cells of origin. For the initial clonal expansion to occur premalignant clones need to have a relative fitness advantage over their competitors. It is estimated that the premalignant phase can take several years. Once the premalignant clonal expansion is established, the premalignant cells will contribute to the changing environment and will start competing among themselves. In late stages of cancer evolution the environmental changes might be similar across different tissues, including a lack of physical space, a shortage of energy, and activation of the immune system, and more and more of the hallmarks of cancer will evolve. In this review we will explore the possible clinical relevance of the heterogeneity that evolves during this long somatic evolution. Above all, it should be stressed that the earlier the clonal expansion is recognized, the less diverse and less fit for survival the cells in the population are.

  8. Mechanistic insights into heterogeneous methane activation

    DOE PAGES

    Latimer, Allegra A.; Aljama, Hassan; Kakekhani, Arvin; ...

    2017-01-11

    While natural gas is an abundant chemical fuel, its low volumetric energy density has prompted a search for catalysts able to transform methane into more useful chemicals. This search has often been aided through the use of transition state (TS) scaling relationships, which estimate methane activation TS energies as a linear function of a more easily calculated descriptor, such as final state energy, thus avoiding tedious TS energy calculations. It has been shown that methane can be activated via a radical or surface-stabilized pathway, both of which possess a unique TS scaling relationship. Herein, we present a simple model tomore » aid in the prediction of methane activation barriers on heterogeneous catalysts. Analogous to the universal radical TS scaling relationship introduced in a previous publication, we show that a universal TS scaling relationship that transcends catalysts classes also seems to exist for surface-stabilized methane activation if the relevant final state energy is used. We demonstrate that this scaling relationship holds for several reducible and irreducible oxides, promoted metals, and sulfides. By combining the universal scaling relationships for both radical and surface-stabilized methane activation pathways, we show that catalyst reactivity must be considered in addition to catalyst geometry to obtain an accurate estimation for the TS energy. Here, this model can yield fast and accurate predictions of methane activation barriers on a wide range of catalysts, thus accelerating the discovery of more active catalysts for methane conversion.« less

  9. Sousse: extreme genetic heterogeneity in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Zemni, Ramzi; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Herrera, Rene J

    2015-01-01

    The male genetic landscape of the territory currently known as Tunisia is hampered by the scarcity of data, especially from cosmopolitan areas such as the coastal city of Sousse. In order to alleviate this lacuna, 220 males from Sousse were examined, for the first time, for more than 50 Y-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) markers and compared with 3099 individuals from key geographically targeted locations in North Africa, Europe and the Near East. The paternal lineages observed belong to a common set of Y haplogroups previously described in North Africa. In addition to the prominent autochthonous North African E-M81 haplogroup which is exclusively represented by its subclade E-M183 (44.55% of Y-chromosomes), a number of Near Eastern Neolithic lineages including E-M78, J-M267 and J-M172 account for 39% of the Y-chromosomes detected. Principal component analysis based on haplogroup frequencies, multidimensional scaling based on Rst genetic distances and analyses of molecular variance using both Y-chromosome short tandem repeat haplotypes and Y-SNP haplogroup data revealed that the Tunisian and North African groups, as a whole, are intra- and inter-specific diverse with Sousse being highly heterogeneous.

  10. Functionally heterogenous ryanodine receptors in avian cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, J; Fill, M; Suárez-Isla, B A

    1996-07-19

    The functional heterogeneity of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels in avian cerebellum was defined. Heavy endoplasmic reticulum microsomes had significant levels of ryanodine and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding. Scatchard analysis and kinetic studies indicated the existence of at least two distinct ryanodine binding sites. Ryanodine binding was calcium-dependent but was not significantly enhanced by caffeine. Incorporation of microsomes into planar lipid bilayers revealed ion channels with pharmacological features (calcium, magnesium, ATP, and caffeine sensitivity) similar to the RyR channels found in mammalian striated muscle. Despite a wide range of unitary conductances (220-500 picosiemens, symmetrical cesium methanesulfonate), ryanodine locked both channels into a characteristic slow gating subconductance state, positively identifying them as RyR channels. Two populations of avian RyR channels were functionally distinguished by single channel calcium sensitivity. One population was defined by a bell-shaped calcium sensitivity analogous to the skeletal muscle RyR isoform (type I). The calcium sensitivity of the second RyR population was sigmoidal and analogous to the cardiac muscle RyR isoform (type II). These data show that there are at least two functionally distinct RyR channel populations in avian cerebellum. This leads to the possibility that these functionally distinct RyR channels are involved in different intracellular calcium signaling pathways.

  11. Spatial control of rabies on heterogeneous landscapes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin A; Real, Leslie A; Smith, David L

    2006-12-20

    Rabies control in terrestrial wildlife reservoirs relies heavily on an oral rabies vaccine (ORV). In addition to direct ORV delivery to protect wildlife in natural habitats, vaccine corridors have been constructed to control the spread; these corridors are often developed around natural barriers, such as rivers, to enhance the effectiveness of vaccine deployment. However, the question of how to optimally deploy ORV around a river (or other natural barrier) to best exploit the barrier for rabies control has not been addressed using mathematical models. Given an advancing epidemic wave, should the vaccine be distributed on both sides of barrier, behind the barrier, or in front of it? Here, we introduce a new mathematical model for the dynamics of raccoon rabies on a spatially heterogeneous landscape that is both simple and realistic. We demonstrate that the vaccine should always be deployed behind a barrier to minimize the recurrence of subsequent epidemics. Although the oral rabies vaccine is sufficient to induce herd immunity inside the vaccinated area, it simultaneously creates a demographic refuge. When that refuge is in front of a natural barrier, seasonal dispersal from the vaccine corridor into an endemic region sustains epidemic oscillations of raccoon rabies. When the vaccine barrier creates a refuge behind the river, the low permeability of the barrier to host movement limits dispersal of the host population from the protected populations into the rabies endemic area and limits subsequent rabies epidemics.

  12. Heterogeneous Diagnoses Underlying Radial Ray Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Montoya, Rosalba; Aguinaga, Mónica; Martínez, Alejandro; Razo, Guadalupe; Molina, Bertha; Frías, Sara; Grether, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    To review perinatal Radial Ray Anomaly (RRA) cases born at the National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico, and to reveal the heterogeneous diagnoses of these patients. All patients with RRA over a 18 mo period were included; 4/15 were detected prenatally and 11/15 postnatally. Karyotype was performed for all patients with bilateral RRA; and chromosomal breakage analysis, when the karyotype was normal. Fifteen RRA patients were identified: one with trisomy 18, three with an isolated defect, six with monogenic disease, four with a genetic association and one with diabetic embryopathy. Five were stillborn and two died during the early neonatal period; all of whom presented with multiple defects. Three of the live born patients and one stillborn with multiple defects had Fanconi anemia. RRAs carry a high perinatal mortality rate (47%) when they occur in association with other defects. The assessment of these patients needs to involve the combined use of ultrasound, clinical, genetic, cytogenetic and molecular testing. The present results indicate that the chromosome breakage test should always be performed to rule out Fanconi anemia in this group.

  13. Genetic Heterogeneity in Streptococcus mutans1

    PubMed Central

    Coykendall, Alan L.

    1971-01-01

    The genetic homogeneity among eight cariogenic strains of Streptococcus mutans was assessed by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA reassociation experiments. DNA species were extracted from strains GS5, Ingbritt, 10449, FAl, BHT, E49, SLl, and KlR. Labeled DNA (14C-DNA) was extracted from strains 10449, FAl, and SLl. Denatured 14C-DNA fragments were allowed to reassociate, i.e., form hybrid duplexes, with denatured DNA immobilized on membrane filters incubated in 0.45 m NaCl-0.045 m sodium citrate at 67 or 75 C. At 67 C, 10449 14C-DNA reassociated extensively only with GS5 and Ingbritt DNA. FAl 14C-DNA hybridized extensively only with BHT DNA, and SLl 14C-DNA reassociated with KlR and E49 DNA. DNA which hybridized extensively at 67 C also reassociated to a high degree at 75 C. Thermal elution of 14C-FAl-BHT duplexes showed that the hybrid duplexes were thermostable. The results indicate that S. mutans is a genetically heterogeneous species. The strains studied can be divided into three (possibly four) genetic groups, and these groups closely parallel antigenic groups. PMID:5551636

  14. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity of hypochondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, F; Bonaventure, J; Legeai-Mallet, L; Schmidt, H; Weissenbach, J; Maroteaux, P; Munnich, A; Le Merrer, M

    1996-01-01

    Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by short stature, micromelia, and lumbar lordosis. In a series of 29 HCH probands (13 sporadic cases, 16 familial cases), we tested their DNA for the N540K recurrent mutation previously described in the proximal tyrosine kinase domain of the FGFR3 gene on chromosome 4p16.3, and we detected this mutation in 21/29 HCH patients. Interestingly, three familial cases were clearly unlinked to chromosome 4p16.3. Reviewing the clinical and radiological manifestations of the disease a posteriori, we observed that the N540K mutation was associated with relative macrocrania with a high and large forehead and short hands. By contrast, in the three pedigrees inconsistent with linkage to chromosome 4p16.3, the clinical phenotype was milder, macrocephaly and shortening of the long bones was less obvious, the hands were normal, and no metaphyseal flaring was noted. This study supports the view that HCH is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition. Images PMID:8880574

  15. Inferring Molecular Processes Heterogeneity from Transcriptional Data

    PubMed Central

    Wronowska, Weronika; Lesyng, Bogdan; Gambin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    RNA microarrays and RNA-seq are nowadays standard technologies to study the transcriptional activity of cells. Most studies focus on tracking transcriptional changes caused by specific experimental conditions. Information referring to genes up- and downregulation is evaluated analyzing the behaviour of relatively large population of cells by averaging its properties. However, even assuming perfect sample homogeneity, different subpopulations of cells can exhibit diverse transcriptomic profiles, as they may follow different regulatory/signaling pathways. The purpose of this study is to provide a novel methodological scheme to account for possible internal, functional heterogeneity in homogeneous cell lines, including cancer ones. We propose a novel computational method to infer the proportion between subpopulations of cells that manifest various functional behaviour in a given sample. Our method was validated using two datasets from RNA microarray experiments. Both experiments aimed to examine cell viability in specific experimental conditions. The presented methodology can be easily extended to RNA-seq data as well as other molecular processes. Moreover, it complements standard tools to indicate most important networks from transcriptomic data and in particular could be useful in the analysis of cancer cell lines affected by biologically active compounds or drugs. PMID:29362714

  16. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    DOE PAGES

    Abdollahy, Shahin; Lavrova, Olga; Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building.more » Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.« less

  17. Heterogeneous scalable framework for multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Karla Vanessa

    2013-09-01

    Two categories of challenges confront the developer of computational spray models: those related to the computation and those related to the physics. Regarding the computation, the trend towards heterogeneous, multi- and many-core platforms will require considerable re-engineering of codes written for the current supercomputing platforms. Regarding the physics, accurate methods for transferring mass, momentum and energy from the dispersed phase onto the carrier fluid grid have so far eluded modelers. Significant challenges also lie at the intersection between these two categories. To be competitive, any physics model must be expressible in a parallel algorithm that performs well on evolving computermore » platforms. This work created an application based on a software architecture where the physics and software concerns are separated in a way that adds flexibility to both. The develop spray-tracking package includes an application programming interface (API) that abstracts away the platform-dependent parallelization concerns, enabling the scientific programmer to write serial code that the API resolves into parallel processes and threads of execution. The project also developed the infrastructure required to provide similar APIs to other application. The API allow object-oriented Fortran applications direct interaction with Trilinos to support memory management of distributed objects in central processing units (CPU) and graphic processing units (GPU) nodes for applications using C++.« less

  18. Mechanistic insights into heterogeneous methane activation

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, Allegra A.; Aljama, Hassan; Kakekhani, Arvin

    While natural gas is an abundant chemical fuel, its low volumetric energy density has prompted a search for catalysts able to transform methane into more useful chemicals. This search has often been aided through the use of transition state (TS) scaling relationships, which estimate methane activation TS energies as a linear function of a more easily calculated descriptor, such as final state energy, thus avoiding tedious TS energy calculations. It has been shown that methane can be activated via a radical or surface-stabilized pathway, both of which possess a unique TS scaling relationship. Herein, we present a simple model tomore » aid in the prediction of methane activation barriers on heterogeneous catalysts. Analogous to the universal radical TS scaling relationship introduced in a previous publication, we show that a universal TS scaling relationship that transcends catalysts classes also seems to exist for surface-stabilized methane activation if the relevant final state energy is used. We demonstrate that this scaling relationship holds for several reducible and irreducible oxides, promoted metals, and sulfides. By combining the universal scaling relationships for both radical and surface-stabilized methane activation pathways, we show that catalyst reactivity must be considered in addition to catalyst geometry to obtain an accurate estimation for the TS energy. Here, this model can yield fast and accurate predictions of methane activation barriers on a wide range of catalysts, thus accelerating the discovery of more active catalysts for methane conversion.« less

  19. Heterogeneous coupling along Makran subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Z.; Raeesi, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone, located in the southeast of Iran and southern Pakistan, extends for almost 900 km along the Eurasian-Arabian plate boundary. The seismic activities in the eastern and western Makran exhibit very different patterns. The eastern Makran characterized by infrequent large earthquakes and low level of seismicity. The only large instrumentally recorded earthquake in the eastern Makran, the 27 Nov. 1945 (Mw=8.1) earthquake, was followed by tsunami waves with the maximum run-up height of 13 m and disastrous effects in Pakistan, India, Iran and Oman. The western Makran, however, is apparently quiescent without strong evidence on occurrence of large earthquakes in historical times, which makes it difficult to ascertain whether the slab subducts aseismically or experiences large earthquakes separated by long periods exceeding the historical records. We used seismicity and Trench Parallel Free air and Bouguer Anomalies (TPGA and TPBA) to study the variation in coupling in the slab interface. Using a 3D mechanical Finite Element (FE) model, we show how heterogeneous coupling can influence the rate of deformation in the overriding lithosphere and the state of stress in the outer rise, overriding, and subducting plates within the shortest expected cycle of earthquake. We test the results of FE model against the observed focal mechanism of earthquakes and available GPS measurements in Makran subduction zone.

  20. Inferring Molecular Processes Heterogeneity from Transcriptional Data.

    PubMed

    Gogolewski, Krzysztof; Wronowska, Weronika; Lech, Agnieszka; Lesyng, Bogdan; Gambin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    RNA microarrays and RNA-seq are nowadays standard technologies to study the transcriptional activity of cells. Most studies focus on tracking transcriptional changes caused by specific experimental conditions. Information referring to genes up- and downregulation is evaluated analyzing the behaviour of relatively large population of cells by averaging its properties. However, even assuming perfect sample homogeneity, different subpopulations of cells can exhibit diverse transcriptomic profiles, as they may follow different regulatory/signaling pathways. The purpose of this study is to provide a novel methodological scheme to account for possible internal, functional heterogeneity in homogeneous cell lines, including cancer ones. We propose a novel computational method to infer the proportion between subpopulations of cells that manifest various functional behaviour in a given sample. Our method was validated using two datasets from RNA microarray experiments. Both experiments aimed to examine cell viability in specific experimental conditions. The presented methodology can be easily extended to RNA-seq data as well as other molecular processes. Moreover, it complements standard tools to indicate most important networks from transcriptomic data and in particular could be useful in the analysis of cancer cell lines affected by biologically active compounds or drugs.

  1. How snowpack heterogeneity affects diurnal streamflow timing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Diurnal cycles of streamflow in snow-fed rivers can be used to infer the average time a water parcel spends in transit from the top of the snowpack to a stream gauge in the river channel. This travel time, which is measured as the difference between the hour of peak snowmelt in the afternoon and the hour of maximum discharge each day, ranges from a few hours to almost a full day later. Travel times increase with longer percolation times through deeper snowpacks, and prior studies of small basins have related the timing of a stream's diurnal peak to the amount of snow stored in a basin. However, in many larger basins the time of peak flow is nearly constant during the first half of the melt season, with little or no variation between years. This apparent self-organization at larger scales can be reproduced by employing heterogeneous observations of snow depths and melt rates in a model that couples porous medium flow through an evolving snowpack with free surface flow in a channel. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Genetic heterogeneity in familial renal magnesium wasting.

    PubMed

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Adams, John S; Gaines, Jade E; Guo, Xiuqing; Pandian, Murugan R; Cohn, Daniel H; Rude, Robert K

    2002-02-01

    Isolated hereditary renal magnesium (Mg) wasting may result from mutations in the renal tubular epithelial cell tight junction protein paracellin-1 gene or the tubular Na(+),K(+)-ATPase gamma-subunit gene FXYD2. The FXYD2 gene mutation was discovered in two Dutch families as an autosomal dominant disorder. It is characterized by isolated renal Mg wasting with resultant symptomatic hypomagnesemia. The defective FXYD2 gene in these families mapped to chromosome 11q23. Here, we describe an American family with a similar phenotype but without linkage to the 11q23 locus; in testing 22 individuals in the pedigree multipoint LOD scores for five different loci from the 11q23 region were equal to -2.97. Compared with unaffected family members and normal controls, affected family members harbored significant reductions in the serum and lymphocyte Mg concentrations and in the serum immunoreactive PTH level with a 4-fold increase in the mean fractional urinary Mg excretion rate during a normomagnesemic clamp. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and proximal femur was significantly reduced in affected family members. In conclusion, our data demonstrate locus heterogeneity for the phenotype of isolated renal Mg wasting with hypomagnesemia and suggest that hypomagnesemia, at least in this pedigree, may be associated with low bone mass.

  3. Nonlinear Poisson Equation for Heterogeneous Media

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Langhua; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The Poisson equation is a widely accepted model for electrostatic analysis. However, the Poisson equation is derived based on electric polarizations in a linear, isotropic, and homogeneous dielectric medium. This article introduces a nonlinear Poisson equation to take into consideration of hyperpolarization effects due to intensive charges and possible nonlinear, anisotropic, and heterogeneous media. Variational principle is utilized to derive the nonlinear Poisson model from an electrostatic energy functional. To apply the proposed nonlinear Poisson equation for the solvation analysis, we also construct a nonpolar solvation energy functional based on the nonlinear Poisson equation by using the geometric measure theory. At a fixed temperature, the proposed nonlinear Poisson theory is extensively validated by the electrostatic analysis of the Kirkwood model and a set of 20 proteins, and the solvation analysis of a set of 17 small molecules whose experimental measurements are also available for a comparison. Moreover, the nonlinear Poisson equation is further applied to the solvation analysis of 21 compounds at different temperatures. Numerical results are compared to theoretical prediction, experimental measurements, and those obtained from other theoretical methods in the literature. A good agreement between our results and experimental data as well as theoretical results suggests that the proposed nonlinear Poisson model is a potentially useful model for electrostatic analysis involving hyperpolarization effects. PMID:22947937

  4. Nonlinear Poisson equation for heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Hu, Langhua; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-08-22

    The Poisson equation is a widely accepted model for electrostatic analysis. However, the Poisson equation is derived based on electric polarizations in a linear, isotropic, and homogeneous dielectric medium. This article introduces a nonlinear Poisson equation to take into consideration of hyperpolarization effects due to intensive charges and possible nonlinear, anisotropic, and heterogeneous media. Variational principle is utilized to derive the nonlinear Poisson model from an electrostatic energy functional. To apply the proposed nonlinear Poisson equation for the solvation analysis, we also construct a nonpolar solvation energy functional based on the nonlinear Poisson equation by using the geometric measure theory. At a fixed temperature, the proposed nonlinear Poisson theory is extensively validated by the electrostatic analysis of the Kirkwood model and a set of 20 proteins, and the solvation analysis of a set of 17 small molecules whose experimental measurements are also available for a comparison. Moreover, the nonlinear Poisson equation is further applied to the solvation analysis of 21 compounds at different temperatures. Numerical results are compared to theoretical prediction, experimental measurements, and those obtained from other theoretical methods in the literature. A good agreement between our results and experimental data as well as theoretical results suggests that the proposed nonlinear Poisson model is a potentially useful model for electrostatic analysis involving hyperpolarization effects. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lizard locomotion in heterogeneous granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Locomotion strategies in heterogeneous granular environments (common substrates in deserts), are relatively unexplored. The zebra-tailed lizard (C. draconoides) is a useful model organism for such studies owing to its exceptional ability to navigate a variety of desert habitats at impressive speed (up to 50 body-lengths per second) using both quadrapedal and bidepal gaits. In laboratory experiments, we challenge the lizards to run across a field of boulders (2.54 cm diameter glass spheres or 3.8 cm 3D printed spheres) placed in a lattice pattern and embedded in a loosely packed granular medium of 0.3 mm diameter glass particles. Locomotion kinematics of the lizard are recorded using high speed cameras, with and without the scatterers. The data reveals that unlike the lizard's typical quadrupedal locomotion using a diagonal gait, when scatterers are present the lizard is most successful when using a bipedal gait, with a raised center of mass (CoM). We propose that the kinematics of bipedal running in conjunction with the lizard's long toes and compliant hind foot are the keys to this lizard's successful locomotion in the presence of such obstacles. NSF PoLS

  6. Landscape heterogeneity-biodiversity relationship: effect of range size.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Naoki; Amano, Tatsuya; Naoe, Shoji; Yamakita, Takehisa; Komatsu, Isamu; Takagawa, Shin-ichi; Sato, Naoto; Ueta, Mutsuyuki; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    The importance of landscape heterogeneity to biodiversity may depend on the size of the geographic range of species, which in turn can reflect species traits (such as habitat generalization) and the effects of historical and contemporary land covers. We used nationwide bird survey data from Japan, where heterogeneous landscapes predominate, to test the hypothesis that wide-ranging species are positively associated with landscape heterogeneity in terms of species richness and abundance, whereas narrow-ranging species are positively associated with landscape homogeneity in the form of either open or forest habitats. We used simultaneous autoregressive models to explore the effects of climate, evapotranspiration, and landscape heterogeneity on the richness and abundance of breeding land-bird species. The richness of wide-ranging species and the total species richness were highest in heterogeneous landscapes, where many wide-ranging species showed the highest abundance. In contrast, the richness of narrow-ranging species was not highest in heterogeneous landscapes; most of those species were abundant in either open or forest landscapes. Moreover, in open landscapes, narrow-ranging species increased their species richness with decreasing temperature. These results indicate that heterogeneous landscapes are associated with rich bird diversity but that most narrow-ranging species prefer homogeneous landscapes--particularly open habitats in colder regions, where grasslands have historically predominated. There is a need to reassess the generality of the heterogeneity-biodiversity relationship, with attention to the characteristics of species assemblages determined by environments at large spatiotemporal scales.

  7. Real-Time Monitoring of Heterogeneous Catalysis with Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous, gas-solid processes constitute an important class of catalytic reactions that play a key role in a variety of applications, such as industrial processing and environmental controls. Heterogeneous catalytic chemistry can be demonstrated in a simple heated flow reactor containing a fragment of the catalytic converter from a vehicular…

  8. Heterogeneous Catalysis: On Bathroom Mirrors and Boiling Stones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philipse, Albert P.

    2011-01-01

    Though heterogeneous nucleation of liquid droplets on a smooth surface (such as a bathroom mirror) is a classical topic in nucleation theory, it is not well-known that this topic is actually a pedagogical example of heterogeneous catalysis: the one and only effect of the surface is to lower the activation Gibbs energy of droplet formation. In…

  9. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  10. Heterogeneous Systems for Information-Variable Environments (HIVE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    ARL-TR-8027 ● May 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Heterogeneous Systems for Information - Variable Environments (HIVE) by Amar...not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8027 ● May 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Heterogeneous Systems for Information ...Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT

  11. Geomagnetic Secular Variation Prediction with Thermal Heterogeneous Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, W.; Tangborn, A.; Jiang, W.

    2011-12-01

    It has long been conjectured that thermal heterogeneity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) affects the geodynamo substantially. The observed two pairs of steady and strong magnetic flux lobes near the Polar Regions and the low secular variation in the Pacific over the past 400 years (and perhaps longer) are likely the consequences of this CMB thermal heterogeneity. There are several studies on the impact of the thermal heterogeneity with numerical geodynamo simulations. However, direct correlation between the numerical results and the observations is found very difficult, except qualitative comparisons of certain features in the radial component of the magnetic field at the CMB. This makes it difficult to assess accurately the impact of thermal heterogeneity on the geodynamo and the geomagnetic secular variation. We revisit this problem with our MoSST_DAS system in which geomagnetic data are assimilated with our geodynamo model to predict geomagnetic secular variations. In this study, we implement a heterogeneous heat flux across the CMB that is chosen based on the seismic tomography of the lowermost mantle. The amplitude of the heat flux (relative to the mean heat flux across the CMB) varies in the simulation. With these assimilation studies, we will examine the influences of the heterogeneity on the forecast accuracies, e.g. the accuracies as functions of the heterogeneity amplitude. With these, we could be able to assess the model errors to the true core state, and thus the thermal heterogeneity in geodynamo modeling.

  12. INITIAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT POWER TIME LAG DUE TO HETEROGENEITY WITHIN THE TREAT FUEL MATRIX.

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Wachs; A.X. Zabriskie, W.R. Marcum

    2014-06-01

    The topic Nuclear Safety encompasses a broad spectrum of focal areas within the nuclear industry; one specific aspect centers on the performance and integrity of nuclear fuel during a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). This specific accident has proven to be fundamentally difficult to theoretically characterize due to the numerous empirically driven characteristics that quantify the fuel and reactor performance. The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility was designed and operated to better understand fuel behavior under extreme (i.e. accident) conditions; it was shutdown in 1994. Recently, efforts have been underway to commission the TREAT facility to continue testing of advanced accidentmore » tolerant fuels (i.e. recently developed fuel concepts). To aid in the restart effort, new simulation tools are being used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuels during facility’s transient events. This study focuses specifically on the characterizing modeled effects of fuel particles within the fuel matrix of the TREAT. The objective of this study was to (1) identify the impact of modeled heterogeneity within the fuel matrix during a transient event, and (2) demonstrate acceptable modeling processes for the purpose of TREAT safety analyses, specific to fuel matrix and particle size. Hypothetically, a fuel that is dominantly heterogeneous will demonstrate a clearly different temporal heating response to that of a modeled homogeneous fuel. This time difference is a result of the uniqueness of the thermal diffusivity within the fuel particle and fuel matrix. Using MOOSE/BISON to simulate the temperature time-lag effect of fuel particle diameter during a transient event, a comparison of the average graphite moderator temperature surrounding a spherical particle of fuel was made for both types of fuel simulations. This comparison showed that at a given time and with a specific fuel particle diameter, the fuel particle (heterogeneous) simulation and the homogeneous

  13. Genetically heterogeneous glioblastoma recurring with disappearance of 1p/19q losses: case report.

    PubMed

    Ito, Motokazu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Natsume, Atsushi; Hatano, Hisashi; Fujii, Masazumi; Yoshida, Jun

    2007-07-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity is of great importance in many clinical aspects of glioma biology, including tumor grading, therapeutic response, and recurrence. Modifications in the genetic features of a specific primary tumor recurring after chemo- and radiotherapy are poorly understood. We report a recurrent glioblastoma case exhibiting loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 10q, while the primary tumor exhibited heterogeneity in the LOH status of 1p, 19q, and 10q. To determine the relationship between such modifications and heterogeneous chemosensitivity, primary cultured cells heterogeneously showing 1p/19q/10q losses were established from a surgical specimen of oligoastrocytoma and were treated with chemotherapeutic agents. A 46-year-old woman with a 1-month history of headache and visual disturbances presented to our institution. A right temporoparietal craniotomy and gross total resection were performed. The pathological diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme with oligodendroglial components. Whereas LOH on 10q was identified at all tumor sites, only the oligodendroglial components exhibited LOH on 1p and 19q. The tumor recurred 6 months after postoperative chemotherapy using interferon-beta and ranimustine, as well as a course of fractionated external-beam radiotherapy (total dose, 60 Gy). Gene analysis revealed no 1p/19q allelic losses but only 10q LOH. Intratumor heterogeneity might be explained by the presence of more than one subclone in the primary tumor. Here, the tumor cells exhibiting 1p/19q LOH with high chemosensitivity might have been killed by the adjuvant therapy and those exhibiting 10q LOH with chemoresistance recurred. This study and our preliminary laboratory findings might suggest an approach to brain tumor physiology, diagnosis, and therapy.

  14. Dynamical heterogeneities of cold 2D Yukawa liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang; Huang, Dong; Feng, Yan

    2018-06-01

    Dynamical heterogeneities of 2D liquid dusty plasmas at different temperatures are investigated systematically using Langevin dynamical simulations. From the simulated trajectories, various heterogeneity measures have been calculated, such as the distance matrix, the averaged squared displacement, the non-Gaussian parameter, and the four-point susceptibility. It is found that, for 2D Yukawa liquids, both spatial and temporal heterogeneities in dynamics are more severe at a lower temperature near the melting point. For various temperatures, the calculated non-Gaussian parameter of 2D Yukawa liquids contains two peaks at different times, indicating the most heterogeneous dynamics, which are attributed to the transition of different motions and the α relaxation time, respectively. In the diffusive motion, the most heterogeneous dynamics for a colder Yukawa liquid happen more slowly, as indicated by both the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point susceptibility.

  15. Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips

    PubMed Central

    Lavanchy, Guillaume; Strehler, Marie; Llanos Roman, Maria Noemi; Lessard‐Therrien, Malie; Humbert, Jean‐Yves; Dumas, Zoé; Jalvingh, Kirsten; Ghali, Karim; Fontcuberta García‐Cuenca, Amaranta; Zijlstra, Bart; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of hostplants available to these herbivorous insects. Asexual lineages rapidly replaced the sexual ones, independently of the level of habitat heterogeneity in mesocosms. In natural populations, the success of sexual thrips decreased with increasing habitat heterogeneity, with sexual thrips apparently only persisting in certain types of hostplant communities. Our results illustrate how genetic diversity‐based mechanisms can favor asexuality instead of sex when sexual lineages co‐occur with genetically variable asexual lineages. PMID:27346066

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of social dilemmas in structured heterogeneous populations.

    PubMed

    Santos, F C; Pacheco, J M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-02-28

    Real populations have been shown to be heterogeneous, in which some individuals have many more contacts than others. This fact contrasts with the traditional homogeneous setting used in studies of evolutionary game dynamics. We incorporate heterogeneity in the population by studying games on graphs, in which the variability in connectivity ranges from single-scale graphs, for which heterogeneity is small and associated degree distributions exhibit a Gaussian tale, to scale-free graphs, for which heterogeneity is large with degree distributions exhibiting a power-law behavior. We study the evolution of cooperation, modeled in terms of the most popular dilemmas of cooperation. We show that, for all dilemmas, increasing heterogeneity favors the emergence of cooperation, such that long-term cooperative behavior easily resists short-term noncooperative behavior. Moreover, we show how cooperation depends on the intricate ties between individuals in scale-free populations.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  18. National Nuclear Data Center

    Science.gov Websites

    reaction data Sigma Retrieval & Plotting Nuclear structure & decay Data Nuclear Science References Experimental Unevaluated Nuclear Data List Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File NNDC databases Ground and isomeric states properties Nuclear structure & decay data journal Nuclear reaction model code Tools and

  19. Nuclear Wallet Cards

    Science.gov Websites

    Index Nuclear Wallet Cards Contents Current Version Radioactive Nuclides (Homeland Security) Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System 8th Edition 2011 Nuclear Wallet Cards Resources Search Nuclear Wallet Cards 8th Edition PDF Format 8thEdition, Android Market Download Nuclear Wallet Cards Nuclear

  20. Quantifying site-specific physical heterogeneity within an estuarine seascape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Cristina G.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying physical heterogeneity is essential for meaningful ecological research and effective resource management. Spatial patterns of multiple, co-occurring physical features are rarely quantified across a seascape because of methodological challenges. Here, we identified approaches that measured total site-specific heterogeneity, an often overlooked aspect of estuarine ecosystems. Specifically, we examined 23 metrics that quantified four types of common physical features: (1) river and creek confluences, (2) bathymetric variation including underwater drop-offs, (3) land features such as islands/sandbars, and (4) major underwater channel networks. Our research at 40 sites throughout Plum Island Estuary (PIE) provided solutions to two problems. The first problem was that individual metrics that measured heterogeneity of a single physical feature showed different regional patterns. We solved this first problem by combining multiple metrics for a single feature using a within-physical feature cluster analysis. With this approach, we identified sites with four different types of confluences and three different types of underwater drop-offs. The second problem was that when multiple physical features co-occurred, new patterns of total site-specific heterogeneity were created across the seascape. This pattern of total heterogeneity has potential ecological relevance to structure-oriented predators. To address this second problem, we identified sites with similar types of total physical heterogeneity using an across-physical feature cluster analysis. Then, we calculated an additive heterogeneity index, which integrated all physical features at a site. Finally, we tested if site-specific additive heterogeneity index values differed for across-physical feature clusters. In PIE, the sites with the highest additive heterogeneity index values were clustered together and corresponded to sites where a fish predator, adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis), aggregated in a

  1. Measuring habitat heterogeneity reveals new insights into bird community composition.

    PubMed

    Stirnemann, Ingrid A; Ikin, Karen; Gibbons, Philip; Blanchard, Wade; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-03-01

    Fine-scale vegetation cover is a common variable used to explain animal occurrence, but we know less about the effects of fine-scale vegetation heterogeneity. Theoretically, fine-scale vegetation heterogeneity is an important driver of biodiversity because it captures the range of resources available in a given area. In this study we investigated how bird species richness and birds grouped by various ecological traits responded to vegetation cover and heterogeneity. We found that both fine-scale vegetation cover (of tall trees, medium-sized trees and shrubs) and heterogeneity (of tall trees, and shrubs) were important predictors of bird richness, but the direction of the response of bird richness to shrub heterogeneity differed between sites with different proportions of tall tree cover. For example, bird richness increased with shrub heterogeneity in sites with high levels of tall tree cover, but declined in sites with low levels of tall tree cover. Our findings indicated that an increase in vegetation heterogeneity will not always result in an increase in resources and niches, and associated higher species richness. We also found birds grouped by traits responded in a predictable way to vegetation heterogeneity. For example, we found small birds benefited from increased shrub heterogeneity supporting the textual discontinuity hypothesis and non-arboreal (ground or shrub) nesting species were associated with high vegetation cover (low heterogeneity). Our results indicated that focusing solely on increasing vegetation cover (e.g. through restoration) may be detrimental to particular animal groups. Findings from this investigation can help guide habitat management for different functional groups of birds.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  4. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review themore » alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.« less

  5. Nuclear fuel in a reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Burns, Peter C; Ewing, Rodney C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-03-09

    Nuclear accidents that lead to melting of a reactor core create heterogeneous materials containing hundreds of radionuclides, many with short half-lives. The long-lived fission products and transuranium elements within damaged fuel remain a concern for millennia. Currently, accurate fundamental models for the prediction of release rates of radionuclides from fuel, especially in contact with water, after an accident remain limited. Relatively little is known about fuel corrosion and radionuclide release under the extreme chemical, radiation, and thermal conditions during and subsequent to a nuclear accident. We review the current understanding of nuclear fuel interactions with the environment, including studies over the relatively narrow range of geochemical, hydrological, and radiation environments relevant to geological repository performance, and discuss priorities for research needed to develop future predictive models.

  6. Characterization of the COL2A1 VNTR polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, E.S.; Olaisen, B.

    1993-05-01

    The variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region 3{prime} to the collagen type II gene (COL2A1) was amplified in vitro by the polymerase chain reaction. Subsequent high-resolution gel electrophoresis showed that the five earlier reported alleles could be further subtyped. A total of 17 allelic variants with a heterozygosity of 73.0% were found in 202 unrelated Norwegians. DNA sequencing of 19 COL2A1 alleles has been performed. The internal organization of the VNTR was common for all alleles, as previously shown for a few alleles. Moreover, the polymorphism in the COL2A1 locus is mainly due to variation in the numbers ofmore » copies of two repeat units, containing 34 and 31 bp, respectively, and/or to small deletions in either of the two units. DNA sequencing of alleles with the same electrophoretic size revealed no heterogeneity such as an alternating order of the different units, a feature that might have been expected to be the result of unequal crossing-over events. The observed ordered structure of the VNTR and the possibility of single-stranded DNA from the cores in the VNTR forming hairpins and loops suggest that the COL2A1 polymorphism may have evolved mainly by replication slippage mechanisms. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  7. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  8. Cell plasticity and heterogeneity in cancer.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Nemanja D; Weinberg, Robert A; Chaffer, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity within a given cancer arises from diverse cell types recruited to the tumor and from genetic and/or epigenetic differences amongst the cancer cells themselves. These factors conspire to create a disease with various phenotypes. There are 2 established models of cancer development and progression to metastatic disease. These are the clonal evolution and cancer stem cell models. The clonal evolution theory suggests that successive mutations accumulating in a given cell generate clonal outgrowths that thrive in response to microenvironmental selection pressures, dictating the phenotype of the tumor. The alternative cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that cancer cells with similar genetic backgrounds can be hierarchically organized according to their tumorigenic potential. Accordingly, CSCs reside at the apex of the hierarchy and are thought to possess the majority of a cancer's tumor-initiating and metastatic ability. A defining feature of this model is its apparent unidirectional nature, whereby CSCs undergo symmetric division to replenish the CSC pool and irreversible asymmetric division to generate daughter cells (non-CSCs) with low tumorigenic potential. However, evolving evidence supports a new model of tumorigenicity, in which considerable plasticity exists between the non-CSC and CSC compartments, such that non-CSCs can reacquire a CSC phenotype. These findings suggest that some tumors may adhere to a plastic CSC model, in which bidirectional conversions are common and essential components of tumorigenicity. Accumulating evidence surrounding the plasticity of cancer cells, in particular, suggests that aggressive CSCs can be created de novo within a tumor. Given the current focus on therapeutic targeting of CSCs, we discuss the implications of non-CSC-to-CSC conversions on the development of future therapies. © 2012 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  9. Community heterogeneity of Early Pennsylvanian peat mires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gastaldo, Robert A.; Stevanovic-Walls, I. M.; Ware, W.N.; Greb, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    Reconstructions of Pennsylvanian coal swamps are some of the most common images of late Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems. All reconstructions to date are based on data from either time-averaged permineralized peats or single-site collections. An erect, in situ Early Pennsylvanian forest preserved above the Blue Creek Coal, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, was sampled in 17 localities over an area of >0.5 km2, resulting in the first temporally and spatially constrained Pennsylvanian mire data set. This three-tiered forest was heterogeneous. Lycopsid and calamitean trees composed the canopy, and lepidodendrids, Lepidophloios, and sigillarians grew together at most sites. More juvenile than mature lycopsid biomass occurs in the forest-floor litter, indicating a mixed-age, multicohort canopy. Pteridophytes (tree fern) and pteridosperms (seed fern) dominated as understory shrubs, whereas sphenophyllaleans, pteridophytes, and pteridosperms composed the ground-cover and liana tier. The proportion of canopy, understory, and ground-cover biomass varied across the forest. Low proportions of ground-cover and liana taxa existed where canopy fossils accounted for >60% of the litter. There is a distinct spatial clustering of sites with more or less understory (or ground cover) where canopy contribution was <60%. Where canopy biomass was low (<50%), understory shrubs contributed more biomass, indicative of light interception and/or competition strategies. Sphenopteris pottsvillea, a ubiquitous ground-cover plant, is abundant in all sites except one, where pteridosperm creepers and lianas dominate the litter, interpreted to indicate total suppression of other ground-cover growth. Ecological wet-dry gradients identified in other Pennsylvanian swamps do not exist in the Blue Creek mire, with the interpreted wettest (Lepidophloios), driest (Sigillaria), and intermediate (Lepidodendron sensu latu) taxa coexisting in most assemblages. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  10. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  11. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Nie, Feiping; Huang, Heng; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Lei, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  12. Recycling Seamounts: Implications for Mantle Source Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal, P.; Gazel, E.

    2016-12-01

    Isolated seamounts formed away from plate boundaries and/or known hotspot tracks are widely distributed in the Earth's oceanic plates. Despite their pervasiveness, the origin and composition of the magmatic sources that create these seamounts are still unknown. Moreover, as the seamount provinces travel along with the oceanic plate towards subduction trenches these volcanic edifices become subducted materials that are later recycled into the mantle. Using radiogenic isotopes (Sr-Nd-Pb) from present-day non-plume ocean island basalts (OIB) sampled by drilling and dredging as well as by normal processes of accretion to subduction margins, we modeled the isotopic evolution of these enriched reservoirs to assess their role as discrete components contributing to upper mantle heterogeneity. Our evidence suggests that a highly enriched mantle reservoir can originate from OIB-type subducted material that gets incorporated and stirred throughout the upper mantle in a shorter time period ( 200 Ma-500 Ma) than other highly enriched components like ancient subducted oceanic crust (>1 Ga), thought to be the forming agent of the HIMU mantle reservoir endmember. Enriched signatures from intraplate volcanism can be described by mixing of a depleted component like DMM and an enriched reservoir like non-plume related seamounts. Our data suggests that the isotopic evolution in time of a seamount-province type of reservoir can acquire sufficiently enriched compositions to resemble some of the most enriched magmas on Earth. This "fast-forming" (between 200 and 500 Ma) enriched reservoir could also explain some of the enriched signatures commonly present in intraplate and EMORB magmas unrelated to deep mantle plume upwellings.

  13. The genetic validation of heterogeneity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Glatt, Stephen J; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Kawashige, Seiya; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Hokyo, Akira; Kaneko, Takao; Moritani, Makiko; Kikuyama, Hiroki; Koh, Jun; Matsumura, Hitoshi; Yoneda, Hiroshi

    2011-10-07

    Schizophrenia is a heritable disorder, however clear genetic architecture has not been detected. To overcome this state of uncertainty, the SZGene database has been established by including all published case-control genetic association studies appearing in peer-reviewed journals. In the current study, we aimed to determine if genetic variants strongly suggested by SZGene are associated with risk of schizophrenia in our case-control samples of Japanese ancestry. In addition, by employing the additive model for aggregating the effect of seven variants, we aimed to verify the genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia diagnosed by an operative diagnostic manual, the DSM-IV. Each positively suggested genetic polymorphism was ranked according to its p-value, then the seven top-ranked variants (p < 0.0005) were selected from DRD2, DRD4, GRIN2B, TPH1, MTHFR, and DTNBP1 (February, 2007). 407 Schizophrenia cases and 384 controls participated in this study. To aggregate the vulnerability of the disorder based on the participants' genetic information, we calculated the "risk-index" by adding the number of genetic risk factors. No statistically significant deviation between cases and controls was observed in the genetic risk-index derived from all seven variants on the top-ranked polymorphisms. In fact, the average risk-index score in the schizophrenia group (6.5+/-1.57) was slightly lower than among controls (6.6+/-1.39). The current work illustrates the difficulty in identifying universal and definitive risk-conferring polymorphisms for schizophrenia. Our employed number of samples was small, so we can not preclude the possibility that some or all of these variants are minor risk factors for schizophrenia in the Japanese population. It is also important to aggregate the updated positive variants in the SZGene database when the replication work is conducted.

  14. Time to Revisit the Heterogeneous Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.

    The "Heterogeneous Telescope Network" (HTN) was founded in 2005 as a loose collaboration of people somehow associated with robotic telescopes and/or projects interested in the transient universe. Other than being a very interesting forum for the exchange of ideas, the only lasting contribution of the HTN was a proposed protocol for the operation of a loose e-market for the exchange of telescope time (Allan et al. 2006; White & Allan 2007). Since the last formal meeting in 2007, the HTN has gone into a "Dornröschenschlaf" (a better word than "hibernation") : the players and interest are there, but the public visibility and activity is not. Although the participants knew and know that global networking is the way of the future for many types of science, various things have kept the HTN from taking the idea and actually implementing it: work on simply getting one's own system to work (e.g. myself), career paths of major players (e.g. Allan), dealing with the complexity of ones' own network (TALONS, RoboNet, LCO), and - most importantly - no common science driver big enough to push the participants to try it in earnest. Things have changed, however: robotic telescopes have become easier to create and operate, private networks have matured, large-scale consortia have become more common, event reporting using VOEvent has become the global standard and has a well-defined infrastructure, and large-scale sources of new objects and events are operating or will soon be operating (OGLE, CSS, Pan-STARRs, GAIA). I will review the scientific and sociological prospects for re-invigorating the HTN idea and invite discussion.

  15. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Leskelä, Susanna; Cristóbal-Lana, Eva; Santón, Almudena; López-García, Ma Ángeles; Muñoz, Gloria; Pérez-Mies, Belen; Biscuola, Michele; Prat, Jaime; Esther, Oliva E; Soslow, Robert A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Palacios, Jose

    2016-11-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumors, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components, as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: (a) hypermutated tumors with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); (b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); (c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumors group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%); and (d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumors with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group, whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumors. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumors, which may have prognostic value.

  16. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Rosa, J.M.; Leskelä, S.; Cristóbal-Lana, E.; Santón, A.; López-García, M.A.; Muñoz, G.; Pérez-Mies, B.; Biscuola, M; Prat, J.; Oliva, E.; Soslow, R.A.; Matias-Guiu, X.; Palacios, J.

    2017-01-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumours, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: a) hypermutated tumours with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumours group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%) ; and d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumours with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumours. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumours, which may have prognostic value. PMID:27491810

  17. Plant responses to soil heterogeneity and global environmental change

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; de Kroon, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence suggests that soil nutrient heterogeneity, a ubiquitous feature of terrestrial ecosystems, modulates plant responses to ongoing global change (GC). However, we know little about the overall trends of such responses, the GC drivers involved, and the plant attributes affected. We synthesized literature to answer the question: Does soil heterogeneity significantly affect plant responses to main GC drivers, such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), nitrogen (N) enrichment and changes in rainfall regime? Overall, most studies have addressed short-term effects of N enrichment on the performance of model plant communities using experiments conducted under controlled conditions. The role of soil heterogeneity as a modulator of plant responses to elevated CO2 may depend on the plasticity in nutrient uptake patterns. Soil heterogeneity does interact with N enrichment to determine plant growth and nutrient status, but the outcome of this interaction has been found to be both synergistic and inhibitory. The very few studies published on interactive effects of soil heterogeneity and changes in rainfall regime prevented us from identifying any general pattern. We identify the long-term consequences of soil heterogeneity on plant community dynamics in the field, and the ecosystem level responses of the soil heterogeneity × GC driver interaction, as the main knowledge gaps in this area of research. In order to fill these gaps and take soil heterogeneity and GC research a step forward, we propose the following research guidelines: 1) combining morphological and physiological plant responses to soil heterogeneity with field observations of community composition and predictions from simulation models; and 2) incorporating soil heterogeneity into a trait-based response-effect framework, where plant resource-use traits are used as both response variables to this heterogeneity and GC, and predictors of ecosystem functioning. Synthesis

  18. The Many Faces of Primary Aldosteronism and Cushing Syndrome: A Reflection of Adrenocortical Tumor Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Mete, Ozgur; Duan, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Adrenal cortical tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct clinical, morphological, and molecular features. Recent discoveries of specific genotype-phenotype correlations in adrenal cortical adenomas have transformed our understanding of their respective endocrine syndromes. Indeed, a proportion of patients with primary aldosteronism are now known to harbor adrenal cortical adenomas with heterogeneous molecular alterations ( KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CACNA1D ) involving the calcium/calmodulin kinase signaling pathway. Several lines of evidence suggest that KCNJ5 -mutant aldosterone-producing adenomas have distinct clinicopathological phenotype compared to those harboring ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CACNA1D mutations. Benign adrenal cortical tumors presenting with Cushing syndrome often have diverse mutations ( PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A , and PDE8B ) involving the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. In addition to cortisol-producing adenomas, bilateral micronodular adrenocortical disease and primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) have also expanded the spectrum of benign neoplasms causing adrenal Cushing disease. The recent discovery of inactivating ARMC5 germline mutations in PBMAH has challenged the old belief that this disorder is mainly a sporadic disease. Emerging evidence suggests that PBMAH harbors multiple distinct clonal proliferations, reflecting the heterogeneous genomic landscape of this disease. Although most solitary adrenal cortical tumors are sporadic, there is an increasing recognition that inherited susceptibility syndromes may also play a role in their pathogenesis. This review highlights the molecular and morphological heterogeneity of benign adrenal cortical neoplasms, reflected in the diverse presentations of primary aldosteronism and adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  19. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  20. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    PubMed

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.